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Sample records for activity interactive recall

  1. Extraversion, activation and the recall of prose.

    PubMed

    Eysenck, M W

    1976-02-01

    Subjects were divided into four groups on the basis of their scores on the extraversion scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory and the general activation scale of Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List. A prose passage was presented to subjects who then attempted to recall it under strict instructions to avoid errors. There were significant interactions between activation and extraversion for the error data, and the phrase-correct data, with moderate levels of arousal (high activation extraverts and low activation introverts) being associated with the fewest errors and the most phrases correctly recalled. It was concluded that the study showed the importance of arousal to recall performance, possibly due to the effects of arousal on retrieval processes.

  2. Does Active Rehearsal Improve Young Children's Recall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, Richard

    This study investigates different methods of increasing children's use of active rehearsal in recall, and the extent to which this active rehearsal improves their recall. Seven groups of second grade children and one group of adults were asked to memorize a list of everyday words in four study-test trials. Two of the groups of children were given…

  3. Pre-test metyrapone impairs memory recall in fear conditioning tasks: lack of interaction with β-adrenergic activity

    PubMed Central

    Careaga, Mariella B. L.; Tiba, Paula A.; Ota, Simone M.; Suchecki, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive processes, such as learning and memory, are essential for our adaptation to environmental changes and consequently for survival. Numerous studies indicate that hormones secreted during stressful situations, such as glucocorticoids (GCs), adrenaline and noradrenaline, regulate memory functions, modulating aversive memory consolidation and retrieval, in an interactive and complementary way. Thus, the facilitatory effects of GCs on memory consolidation as well as their suppressive effects on retrieval are substantially explained by this interaction. On the other hand, low levels of GCs are also associated with negative effects on memory consolidation and retrieval and the mechanisms involved are not well understood. The present study sought to investigate the consequences of blocking the rise of GCs on fear memory retrieval in multiple tests, assessing the participation of β-adrenergic signaling on this effect. Metyrapone (GCs synthesis inhibitor; 75 mg/kg), administered 90 min before the first test of contextual or tone fear conditioning (TFC), negatively affected animals’ performances, but this effect did not persist on a subsequent test, when the conditioned response was again expressed. This result suggested that the treatment impaired fear memory retrieval during the first evaluation. The administration immediately after the first test did not affect the animals’ performances in contextual fear conditioning (CFC), suggesting that the drug did not interfere with processes triggered by memory reactivation. Moreover, metyrapone effects were independent of β-adrenergic signaling, since concurrent administration with propranolol (2 mg/kg), a β-adrenergic antagonist, did not modify the effects induced by metyrapone alone. These results demonstrate that pre-test metyrapone administration led to negative effects on fear memory retrieval and this action was independent of a β-adrenergic signaling. PMID:25784866

  4. The Impact of Interactive Storybook on Elementary School Students' Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyit, Ertem Ihsan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of animated interactive storybook on elementary school students' recall. This experiment utilized 77 fourth grade students in three groups. Each student was randomly assigned with one of the three conditions: (1) computer presentation of interactive storybooks with animation; (2) computer presentation of…

  5. Physical activity information seeking and advertising recall.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion.

  6. Age effects on spectral electroencephalogram activity prior to dream recall.

    PubMed

    Chellappa, Sarah L; Münch, Mirjam; Knoblauch, Vera; Cajochen, Christian

    2012-06-01

    Ageing is associated with marked changes in sleep timing, structure and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. Older people exhibit less slow-wave and spindle activity during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, together with attenuated levels of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep as compared to young individuals. However, the extent to which these age-related changes in sleep impact on dream processing remains largely unknown. Here we investigated NREM and REM sleep EEG activity prior to dream recall and no recall in 17 young (20-31 years) and 15 older volunteers (57-74 years) during a 40 h multiple nap protocol. Dream recall was assessed immediately after each nap. During NREM sleep prior to dream recall, older participants displayed higher frontal EEG delta activity (1-3 Hz) and higher centro-parietal sigma activity (12-15 Hz) than the young volunteers. Conversely, before no recall, older participants had less frontal-central delta activity and less sigma activity in frontal, central and parietal derivations than the young participants. REM sleep was associated to age-related changes, such that older participants had less frontal-central alpha (10-12 Hz) and beta (16-19 Hz) activity, irrespective of dream recall and no recall. Our data indicate that age-related differences in dream recall seem to be directly coupled to specific frequency and topography EEG patterns, particularly during NREM sleep. Thus, the spectral correlates of dreaming can help to understand the cortical pathways of dreaming.

  7. Inviting Witnesses to Speculate: Effects of Age and Interaction on Children's Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Nadja; Parker, Janat F.

    2004-01-01

    Inviting speculation has been found to increase children's false recall. In this study, kindergartners and third graders saw a clown perform actions alone or in interaction with a child. Two weeks later, the speculation group recalled all actions and was asked to speculate on half the actions. The control group recalled all actions without…

  8. Resting Brain Activity Varies with Dream Recall Frequency Between Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Nicolas, Alain; Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Redouté, Jérôme; Costes, Nicolas; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-01-01

    Dreaming is still poorly understood. Notably, its cerebral underpinning remains unclear. Neuropsychological studies have shown that lesions in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and/or the white matter of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) lead to the global cessation of dream reports, suggesting that these regions of the default mode network have key roles in the dreaming process (forebrain ‘dream-on' hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using [15O]H2O positron emission tomography in healthy subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies (DRFs) during wakefulness (rest) and sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N2, and N3). Compared with Low recallers (0.5±0.3 dream recall per week in average), High recallers (5.2±1.4) showed higher rCBF in the TPJ during REM sleep, N3, and wakefulness, and in the MPFC during REM sleep and wakefulness. We demonstrate that the resting states of High recallers and Low recallers differ during sleep and wakefulness. It coheres with previous ERP results and confirms that a high/low DRF is associated with a specific functional organization of the brain. These results support the forebrain ‘dream-on' hypothesis and suggest that TPJ and MPFC are not only involved in dream recall during wakefulness but also have a role in dreaming during sleep (production and/or encoding). Increased activity in the TPJ and MPFC might promote the mental imagery and/or memory encoding of dreams. Notably, increased activity in TPJ might facilitate attention orienting toward external stimuli and promote intrasleep wakefulness, facilitating the encoding of the dreams in memory. PMID:24549103

  9. Resting brain activity varies with dream recall frequency between subjects.

    PubMed

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Nicolas, Alain; Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Redouté, Jérôme; Costes, Nicolas; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-06-01

    Dreaming is still poorly understood. Notably, its cerebral underpinning remains unclear. Neuropsychological studies have shown that lesions in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and/or the white matter of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) lead to the global cessation of dream reports, suggesting that these regions of the default mode network have key roles in the dreaming process (forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography in healthy subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies (DRFs) during wakefulness (rest) and sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N2, and N3). Compared with Low recallers (0.5 ± 0.3 dream recall per week in average), High recallers (5.2 ± 1.4) showed higher rCBF in the TPJ during REM sleep, N3, and wakefulness, and in the MPFC during REM sleep and wakefulness. We demonstrate that the resting states of High recallers and Low recallers differ during sleep and wakefulness. It coheres with previous ERP results and confirms that a high/low DRF is associated with a specific functional organization of the brain. These results support the forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis and suggest that TPJ and MPFC are not only involved in dream recall during wakefulness but also have a role in dreaming during sleep (production and/or encoding). Increased activity in the TPJ and MPFC might promote the mental imagery and/or memory encoding of dreams. Notably, increased activity in TPJ might facilitate attention orienting toward external stimuli and promote intrasleep wakefulness, facilitating the encoding of the dreams in memory.

  10. Validity of a Self-Administered 3-Day Physical Activity Recall in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jennifer L.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most physical activity recall questionnaires assess activity over a 7-day period. However, questionnaires have been validated in adolescents and adults using shorter recall timeframes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a self-administered 3-day physical activity recall instrument (3DR) in young adults.…

  11. The Effect of Interactivity with a Music Video Game on Second Language Vocabulary Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deHaan, Jonathan; Reed, W. Michael; Kuwada, Katsuko

    2010-01-01

    Video games are potential sources of second language input; however, the medium's fundamental characteristic, interactivity, has not been thoroughly examined in terms of its effect on learning outcomes. This experimental study investigated to what degree, if at all, video game interactivity would help or hinder the noticing and recall of second…

  12. Level of Interactivity of Videodisc Instruction on College Students' Recall of AIDS Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kritch, Kale M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments confirmed the greater effectiveness of constructed-response interactive videodisc instruction when compared to a click-to-continue or passive viewing formats on posttest recall of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) information by 101 college students. The necessity of constructing answers appears to be an important factor…

  13. Relation of Everyday Activities of Adults to Their Prose Recall Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, G. Elizabeth; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored connection between everyday activities of different aged adults (N=54) and their performance on prose recall task. Regression analyses showed that demographic variables of age, education, and verbal ability were best predictors of prose recall. Total time spent reading and other reading variables were also significantly correlated with…

  14. 76 FR 38184 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; FDA Recall...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; FDA Recall Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... remove or correct foods and drugs (human or animal), cosmetics, medical devices, biologics, and...

  15. Cortical activation patterns herald successful dream recall after NREM and REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi; Frey, Sylvia; Knoblauch, Vera; Cajochen, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Dreaming pertains to both REM and NREM sleep. However, frequency and regional specific differences in EEG activity remains controversial. We investigated NREM and REM sleep EEG power density associated with and without dream recall in 17 young subjects during a 40-h multiple nap protocol under constant routine conditions. NREM sleep was associated with lower EEG power density for dream recall in the delta range, particularly in frontal derivations, and in the spindle range in centro-parietal derivations. REM sleep was associated with low frontal alpha activity and with high alpha and beta activity in occipital derivations. Our data indicate that specific EEG frequency- and topography changes underlie differences between dream recall and no recall after both NREM and REM sleep awakening. This dual NREM-REM sleep modulation holds strong implications for the mechanistic understanding of this complex ongoing cognitive process.

  16. Theta and High-Frequency Activity Mark Spontaneous Recall of Episodic Memories

    PubMed Central

    Burke, John F.; Sharan, Ashwini D.; Sperling, Michael R.; Ramayya, Ashwin G.; Evans, James J.; Healey, M. Karl; Beck, Erin N.; Davis, Kathryn A.; Lucas, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Humans possess the remarkable ability to search their memory, allowing specific past episodes to be re-experienced spontaneously. Here, we administered a free recall test to 114 neurosurgical patients and used intracranial theta and high-frequency activity (HFA) to identify the spatiotemporal pattern of neural activity underlying spontaneous episodic retrieval. We found that retrieval evolved in three electrophysiological stages composed of: (1) early theta oscillations in the right temporal cortex, (2) increased HFA in the left hemisphere including the medial temporal lobe (MTL), left inferior frontal gyrus, as well as the ventrolateral temporal cortex, and (3) motor/language activation during vocalization of the retrieved item. Of these responses, increased HFA in the left MTL predicted recall performance. These results suggest that spontaneous recall of verbal episodic memories involves a spatiotemporal pattern of spectral changes across the brain; however, high-frequency activity in the left MTL represents a final common pathway of episodic retrieval. PMID:25143616

  17. Subclinical negative symptoms and the anticipation, experience and recall of emotions related to social interactions: An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Engel, Maike; Fritzsche, Anja; Lincoln, Tania Marie

    2015-12-15

    Healthy individuals use anticipated and recalled emotions to guide their decisions to seek out social interactions. It is unknown whether individuals with negative symptoms of schizophrenia, who are commonly observed to socially withdraw, show a bias in anticipation and recall of emotions related to a social interaction. To close this knowledge gap, this study examines whether higher levels of subclinical negative symptoms are associated with less positive and more negative anticipated and recalled emotions related to a social interaction. In a mixed model design participants were instructed to either predict or to experience and then recall emotions related to a simulated social inclusion- or exclusion-interaction. Disregarding the type of situation, participants with higher levels of subclinical negative symptoms anticipated more intense fear than participants with lower levels of subclinical negative symptoms. Divided by type of situation, however, participants with higher levels of negative symptoms experienced and recalled more sadness related to being socially included and even recalled more positive emotions after being excluded. These specific associations are likely to reflect negative expectations about potentially rewarding social situations in people with negative symptoms. A replication in populations with clinically relevant negative symptoms and inclusion of measures to assess memory is warranted.

  18. The Effect of Prior Knowledge Activation on Text Recall: An Investigation of Two Conflicting Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machiels-Bongaerts, Maureen; And Others

    Two hypotheses, the cognitive capacity hypothesis and the selective attention hypothesis, try to account for the facilitation effects of prior knowledge activation. They appear to be mutually exclusive since they predict different recall patterns as a result of prior knowledge activation. This study was designed to determine whether the two…

  19. Cannabinoid modulation of prefrontal-limbic activation during fear extinction learning and recall in humans.

    PubMed

    Rabinak, Christine A; Angstadt, Mike; Lyons, Maryssa; Mori, Shoko; Milad, Mohammed R; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K Luan

    2014-09-01

    Pre-extinction administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) facilitates recall of extinction in healthy humans, and evidence from animal studies suggest that this likely occurs via enhancement of the cannabinoid system within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (HIPP), brain structures critical to fear extinction. However, the effect of cannabinoids on the underlying neural circuitry of extinction memory recall in humans has not been demonstrated. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design (N=14/group) coupled with a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) in healthy adult volunteers. We examined the effects of THC on vmPFC and HIPP activation when tested for recall of extinction learning 24 h after extinction learning. Compared to subjects who received placebo, participants who received THC showed increased vmPFC and HIPP activation to a previously extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS+E) during extinction memory recall. This study provides the first evidence that pre-extinction administration of THC modulates prefrontal-limbic circuits during fear extinction in humans and prompts future investigation to test if cannabinoid agonists can rescue or correct the impaired behavioral and neural function during extinction recall in patients with PTSD. Ultimately, the cannabinoid system may serve as a promising target for innovative intervention strategies (e.g. pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based therapy) in PTSD and other fear learning-related disorders.

  20. The Effects of Prior Knowledge Activation on Free Recall and Study Time Allocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machiels-Bongaerts, Maureen; And Others

    The effects of mobilizing prior knowledge on information processing were studied. Two hypotheses, the cognitive set-point hypothesis and the selective attention hypothesis, try to account for the facilitation effects of prior knowledge activation. These hypotheses predict different recall patterns as a result of mobilizing prior knowledge. In…

  1. Effects of Activation of Prior Knowledge on the Recall of a Clinical Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Henk G.; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    A study investigated the known phenomenon of "intermediate effect" in which medical students with an intermediate amount of knowledge and experience demonstrate higher amounts of recall of the text of a medical case than either experienced clinicians or novices. In this study the amount of activation of prior knowledge was controlled by…

  2. Cannabinoid modulation of prefrontal-limbic activation during fear extinction learning and recall in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rabinak, Christine A.; Angstadt, Mike; Lyons, Maryssa; Mori, Shoko; Milad, Mohammed R.; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K. Luan

    2013-01-01

    Pre-extinction administration of ∆9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) facilitates recall of extinction in healthy humans, and evidence from animal studies suggest that this likely involves via enhancement of the cannabinoid system within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (HIPP), brain structures critical to fear extinction. However, the effect of cannabinoids on the underlying neural circuitry of extinction memory recall in humans has not been demonstrated. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design (N=14/group) coupled with a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) in healthy adult volunteers. We examined the effects of THC on vmPFC and HIPP activation when tested for recall of extinction learning 24 hours after extinction learning. Compared to subjects who received placebo, participants who received THC showed increased vmPFC and HIPP activation to a previously extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS+E) during extinction memory recall. This study provides the first evidence that pre-extinction administration of THC modulates prefrontal-limbic circuits during fear extinction in humans and prompts future investigation to test if cannabinoid agonists can rescue or correct the impaired behavioral and neural function during extinction recall in patients with PTSD. Ultimately, the cannabinoid system may serve as a promising target for innovative intervention strategies (e.g. pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based therapy) in PTSD and other fear learning-related disorders. PMID:24055595

  3. Primary Pupils Recall of Interactive Storybooks on CD-ROM: Inconsiderate Interactive Features and Forgetting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trushell, John; Maitland, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The use of interactive storybooks in the primary classroom has the potential to facilitate pupils reading, in small groups or individually. However, critics have expressed concern at the exposure of pupils to interactive storybooks. In particular, concern has been expressed that the interactive animations and sound effects in such storybooks may…

  4. Natural Phonology or Natural Memory? The Interaction between Phonological Processes and Recall Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitchison, Jean; Chiat, Schulamuth

    1981-01-01

    Presents study in which attempts by children to learn a number of new words revealed that their recall errors were similar to phonological deformations found in speech of young children in early stages of language development. Suggests role of memory needs to be taken into consideration. (Author/BK)

  5. Correlates of Initial Recall of a Multimedia Communication Campaign to Promote Physical Activity among Tweens: the WIXX Campaign.

    PubMed

    Bélanger-Gravel, Ariane; Cutumisu, Nicoleta; Gauvin, Lise; Lagarde, François; Laferté, Marilie

    2017-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with children's and parents' recall of a communication campaign aimed at promoting children's physical activity. A cross-sectional population-based telephone survey was conducted among 1001 children and their parents. Respondents were recruited through a random digit dialing procedure. Respondents' recall of the campaign, beliefs, sociodemographics as well as levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviors were self-reported. Logistic regression analyses were conducted for tweens and their parents separately. Girls (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1; 95%confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 3.5) were more likely to have unaided recall when compared to boys. Tweens in primary school (OR = 1.9; 95%CI: 1.0, 3.4 and OR = 2.1; 95%CI: 1.4, 3.0) and those speaking French (OR = 3.3; 95%CI: 1.4, 8.1 and OR = 2.9; 95%CI: 1.8, 4.7) were more likely to have unaided and aided recall, respectively. Among parents, tweens' unaided (OR = 12.0; 95%CI: 5.2, 28.1) and aided (OR = 3.3; 95%CI: 1.5, 7.3) recall, obesity status (OR = 2.6; 95%CI: 1.3, 5.3), and low income (OR = 5.2; 95%CI: 1.9, 14.3) were positively associated with recall. Additional beliefs were associated with tweens' and parents' recall of the campaign. The association between sex, language, and recall is in line with the branding strategy adopted and no clear evidence for communication inequalities was observed.

  6. Encoding-related brain activity dissociates between the recollective processes underlying successful recall and recognition: a subsequent-memory study.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Talya; Maril, Anat; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan

    2012-07-01

    The subsequent-memory (SM) paradigm uncovers brain mechanisms that are associated with mnemonic activity during encoding by measuring participants' neural activity during encoding and classifying the encoding trials according to performance in the subsequent retrieval phase. The majority of these studies have converged on the notion that the mechanism supporting recognition is mediated by familiarity and recollection. The process of recollection is often assumed to be a recall-like process, implying that the active search for the memory trace is similar, if not identical, for recall and recognition. Here we challenge this assumption and hypothesize - based on previous findings obtained in our lab - that the recollective processes underlying recall and recognition might show dissociative patterns of encoding-related brain activity. To this end, our design controlled for familiarity, thereby focusing on contextual, recollective processes. We found evidence for dissociative neurocognitive encoding mechanisms supporting subsequent-recall and subsequent-recognition. Specifically, the contrast of subsequent-recognition versus subsequent-recall revealed activation in the Parahippocampal cortex (PHc) and the posterior hippocampus--regions associated with contextual processing. Implications of our findings and their relation to current cognitive models of recollection are discussed.

  7. Psychometric properties of the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall questionnaire in individuals with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Soundy, Andy; Taylor, Adrian; Faulkner, Guy; Rowlands, Ann

    2007-12-01

    Few self-report measures of physical activity have been validated in individuals with severe mental illness. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of a 7-day recall measure (7DR: [Blair, S. N. (1984). How to assess exercise habits and physical fitness. In J. D. Matarazzo, N. E. Miller, & S. M. Weiss, (Eds.), Behavioural health: A handbook of health enhancement and disease prevention (pp. 424-447). New York: Wiley.]) through comparison with RT3 triaxial accelerometry data. Fourteen individuals took part in the study. Validity was considered by Kendall's tau correlation and (Bland, J. M., & Altman, D. G. (1986). Statistical-methods for assessing agreement between 2 methods of clinical measurement. Lancet, 1(8476), 307-310) limits of agreement and test-retest reliability was measured by ICC. The only significant correlation between measures was total energy expenditure (tau = 0.43). The 7-DR over reported moderate physical activity by 16.9 +/- 52.3 min/day, but under reported vigorous physical activity by -10.4 +/- 24.3 min/day. Test retest ICC was significant for all outcome measures. Overall, the 7-DR was reliable but exhibited questionable validity. The use of self-report questionnaires such as the 7-DR may inaccurately estimate the levels of physical activity in this population, and may not be sensitive to monitoring intervention-related changes in physical activity.

  8. Right hemisphere neural activations in the recall of waking fantasies and of dreams.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Francesco; Poletti, Sara; Radaelli, Daniele; Ranieri, Rebecca; Genduso, Valeria; Cavallotti, Simone; Castelnovo, Anna; Smeraldi, Enrico; Scarone, Silvio; D'Agostino, Armando

    2015-10-01

    The story-like organization of dreams is characterized by a pervasive bizarreness of events and actions that resembles psychotic thought, and largely exceeds that observed in normal waking fantasies. Little is known about the neural correlates of the confabulatory narrative construction of dreams. In this study, dreams, fantasies elicited by ambiguous pictorial stimuli, and non-imaginative first- and third-person narratives from healthy participants were recorded, and were then studied for brain blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging on a 3.0-Tesla scanner while listening to their own narrative reports and attempting a retrieval of the corresponding experience. In respect to non-bizarre reports of daytime activities, the script-driven recall of dreams and fantasies differentially activated a right hemisphere network including areas in the inferior frontal gyrus, and superior and middle temporal gyrus. Neural responses were significantly greater for fantasies than for dreams in all regions, and inversely proportional to the degree of bizarreness observed in narrative reports. The inferior frontal gyrus, superior and middle temporal gyrus have been implicated in the semantic activation, integration and selection needed to build a coherent story representation and to resolve semantic ambiguities; in deductive and inferential reasoning; in self- and other-perspective taking, theory of mind, moral and autobiographical reasoning. Their degree of activation could parallel the level of logical robustness or inconsistency experienced when integrating information and mental representations in the process of building fantasy and dream narratives.

  9. Compound Cuing in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity…

  10. Recall Listing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Community Outreach Resource Center Toy Recall Statistics CO Poster Contest Pool Safely Business & Manufacturing Business & Manufacturing Business ... Laws & Standards Statutes Voluntary Standards Rulemaking Federal Register Notices Advisory Opinions Regulations, Mandatory Standards and Bans Report ...

  11. BDNFval66met affects neural activation pattern during fear conditioning and 24 h delayed fear recall

    PubMed Central

    Golkar, Armita; Lindström, Kara M.; Haaker, Jan; Öhman, Arne; Schalling, Martin; Ingvar, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the most abundant neutrophin in the mammalian central nervous system, is critically involved in synaptic plasticity. In both rodents and humans, BDNF has been implicated in hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent learning and memory and has more recently been linked to fear extinction processes. Fifty-nine healthy participants, genotyped for the functional BDNFval66met polymorphism, underwent a fear conditioning and 24h-delayed extinction protocol while skin conductance and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses (functional magnetic resonance imaging) were acquired. We present the first report of neural activation pattern during fear acquisition ‘and’ extinction for the BDNFval66met polymorphism using a differential conditioned stimulus (CS)+ > CS− comparison. During conditioning, we observed heightened allele dose-dependent responses in the amygdala and reduced responses in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in BDNFval66met met-carriers. During early extinction, 24h later, we again observed heightened responses in several regions ascribed to the fear network in met-carriers as opposed to val-carriers (insula, amygdala, hippocampus), which likely reflects fear memory recall. No differences were observed during late extinction, which likely reflects learned extinction. Our data thus support previous associations of the BDNFval66met polymorphism with neural activation in the fear and extinction network, but speak against a specific association with fear extinction processes. PMID:25103087

  12. The accuracy of the 24-h activity recall method for assessing sedentary behaviour: the physical activity measurement survey (PAMS) project.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngwon; Welk, Gregory J

    2017-02-01

    Sedentary behaviour (SB) has emerged as a modifiable risk factor, but little is known about measurement errors of SB. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 24-h Physical Activity Recall (24PAR) relative to SenseWear Armband (SWA) for assessing SB. Each participant (n = 1485) undertook a series of data collection procedures on two randomly selected days: wearing a SWA for full 24-h, and then completing the telephone-administered 24PAR the following day to recall the past 24-h activities. Estimates of total sedentary time (TST) were computed without the inclusion of reported or recorded sleep time. Equivalence testing was used to compare estimates of TST. Analyses from equivalence testing showed no significant equivalence of 24PAR for TST (90% CI: 443.0 and 457.6 min · day(-1)) relative to SWA (equivalence zone: 580.7 and 709.8 min · day(-1)). Bland-Altman plots indicated individuals that were extremely or minimally sedentary provided relatively comparable sedentary time between 24PAR and SWA. Overweight/obese and/or older individuals were more likely to under-estimate sedentary time than normal weight and/or younger individuals. Measurement errors of 24PAR varied by the level of sedentary time and demographic indicators. This evidence informs future work to develop measurement error models to correct for errors of self-reports.

  13. ABC relaxation theory and the factor structure of relaxation states, recalled relaxation activities, dispositions, and motivations.

    PubMed

    Smith, J C; Wedell, A B; Kolotylo, C J; Lewis, J E; Byers, K Y; Segin, C M

    2000-06-01

    ABC Relaxation Theory proposes 15 psychological relaxation-related states (R-States): Sleepiness, Disengagement, Physical Relaxation, Mental Quiet, Rested/Refreshed, At Ease/At Peace, Energized, Aware, Joy, Thankfulness and Love, Prayerfulness, Childlike Innocence, Awe and Wonder, Mystery, and Timeless/Boundless/Infinite. The present study summarizes the results of 13 separate factor analyses of immediate relaxation-related states, states associated with recalled relaxation activities, relaxation dispositions, and relaxation motivations on a combined sample of 1,904 individuals (group average ages ranged from 28-40 yr.). Four exploratory factor analyses of Smith Relaxation Inventories yielded 15 items that most consistently and exclusively load (generally at least .70) on six replicated factors. These items included happy, joyful, energized, rested, at peace, warm, limp, silent, quiet, dozing, drowsy, prayerful, mystery, distant, and indifferent. Subsequent factor analyses restricted to these items and specifying six factors were performed on 13 different data sets. Each yielded the same six-factor solution: Factor 1: Centered Positive Affect, Factor 2: Sleepiness, Factor 3: Disengagement, Factor 4: Physical Relaxation, Factor 5: Mental Quiet, and Factor 6: Spiritual. Implications for ABC Relaxation Theory are discussed.

  14. [Validity of the 24-h previous day physical activity recall (PDPAR-24) in Spanish adolescents].

    PubMed

    Cancela, José María; Lago, Joaquín; Ouviña, Lara; Ayán, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: El control del nivel de práctica de actividad física que realizan los adolescentes, de sus factores determinantes y susceptibilidad al cambio resulta indispensable para intervenir sobre la epidemia de obesidad que afecta a la sociedad española. Sin embargo, el número de cuestionarios validados para valorar la actividad física en adolescentes españoles es escaso. Objetivos: Evaluar la validez del cuestionario24hPrevious Day Physical Activity Recall (PDPAR-24) cuando es aplicado a la población de adolescentes españoles. Método: Participaron en este estudio estudiantes de 14-15 años de dos centros de educación secundaria del norte de Galicia. Como criterio objetivo de la actividad física realizada se utilizó el registro proporcionado por el acelerómetro Actigraph GT3X.Se monitorizó a los sujetos durante un día por medio del acelerómetro y al día siguiente se administró el cuestionario de auto-informe. Resultados: Un total de 79 alumnos (15.16 ± 0.81 años, 39% mujeres) finalizaron el estudio. Se observan correlaciones positivas estadísticamente significativas de tamaño medio a grande en ambos sexos (r=0.50-0.98), para la actividad física ligera y moderada. Las correlaciones observadas son más elevadas a medida que aumenta la intensidad de la actividad física realizada. Conclusiones: El cuestionario de auto-informe PDPAR-24 puede ser considerado como una herramienta válida a la hora de valorar el nivel de actividad física en adolescentes españoles.

  15. Using Stimulated Recall to Investigate Native Speaker Perceptions in Native-Nonnative Speaker Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polio, Charlene; Gass, Susan; Chapin, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Implicit negative feedback has been shown to facilitate SLA, and the extent to which such feedback is given is related to a variety of task and interlocutor variables. The background of a native speaker (NS), in terms of amount of experience in interactions with nonnative speakers (NNSs), has been shown to affect the quantity of implicit negative…

  16. Microcomputer Interactive vs. Traditional Associative Learning in a Paired-Associative Recall Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhouse, Barbara S.

    Differences between interactive microcomputer and traditional verbal learning groups in a paired-associate learning task were examined in this study. The 88 subjects, who were undergraduate education students, were randomly assigned to four groups. Each group was given one of two lists of ten high frequency words matched with either high or low…

  17. Individual differences in oscillatory brain activity in response to varying attentional demands during a word recall and oculomotor dual task

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Gusang; Lim, Sanghyun; Kim, Min-Young; Kwon, Hyukchan; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Eun-Ju; Suh, Minah

    2015-01-01

    Every day, we face situations that involve multi-tasking. How our brain utilizes cortical resources during multi-tasking is one of many interesting research topics. In this study, we tested whether a dual-task can be differentiated in the neural and behavioral responses of healthy subjects with varying degree of working memory capacity (WMC). We combined word recall and oculomotor tasks because they incorporate common neural networks including the fronto-parietal (FP) network. Three different types of oculomotor tasks (eye fixation, Fix-EM; predictive and random smooth pursuit eye movement, P-SPEM and R-SPEM) were combined with two memory load levels (low-load: five words, high-load: 10 words) for a word recall task. Each of those dual-task combinations was supposed to create varying cognitive loads on the FP network. We hypothesize that each dual-task requires different cognitive strategies for allocating the brain’s limited cortical resources and affects brain oscillation of the FP network. In addition, we hypothesized that groups with different WMC will show differential neural and behavioral responses. We measured oscillatory brain activity with simultaneous MEG and EEG recordings and behavioral performance by word recall. Prominent frontal midline (FM) theta (4–6 Hz) synchronization emerged in the EEG of the high-WMC group experiencing R-SPEM with high-load conditions during the early phase of the word maintenance period. Conversely, significant parietal upper alpha (10–12 Hz) desynchronization was observed in the EEG and MEG of the low-WMC group experiencing P-SPEM under high-load conditions during the same period. Different brain oscillatory patterns seem to depend on each individual’s WMC and varying attentional demands from different dual-task combinations. These findings suggest that specific brain oscillations may reflect different strategies for allocating cortical resources during combined word recall and oculomotor dual-tasks. PMID:26175681

  18. Interactive Design Activism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulev, Petar; Farrer, Joan

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Computers and Human Well-being * To Fuzzy or Yes (No)! * Interactive Design Activism * Sensing the Sun * Personalised Public Health Advice * Modifying Human Behaviour * Transdisciplinarity, Knowledge Transfer and Multi-domain

  19. Memory and the operational witness: Police officer recall of firearms encounters as a function of active response role.

    PubMed

    Hope, Lorraine; Blocksidge, David; Gabbert, Fiona; Sauer, James D; Lewinski, William; Mirashi, Arta; Atuk, Emel

    2016-02-01

    Investigations after critical events often depend on accurate and detailed recall accounts from operational witnesses (e.g., law enforcement officers, military personnel, and emergency responders). However, the challenging, and often stressful, nature of such events, together with the cognitive demands imposed on operational witnesses as a function of their active role, may impair subsequent recall. We compared the recall performance of operational active witnesses with that of nonoperational observer witnesses for a challenging simulated scenario involving an armed perpetrator. Seventy-six police officers participated in pairs. In each pair, 1 officer (active witness) was armed and instructed to respond to the scenario as they would in an operational setting, while the other (observer witness) was instructed to simply observe the scenario. All officers then completed free reports and responded to closed questions. Active witnesses showed a pattern of heart rate activity consistent with an increased stress response during the event, and subsequently reported significantly fewer correct details about the critical phase of the scenario. The level of stress experienced during the scenario mediated the effect of officer role on memory performance. Across the sample, almost one-fifth of officers reported that the perpetrator had pointed a weapon at them although the weapon had remained in the waistband of the perpetrator's trousers throughout the critical phase of the encounter. These findings highlight the need for investigator awareness of both the impact of operational involvement and stress-related effects on memory for ostensibly salient details, and reflect the importance of careful and ethical information elicitation techniques.

  20. The 24-h recall instrument for home nursing to measure the activity profile of home nurses: development and psychometric testing.

    PubMed

    De Vliegher, Kristel; Aertgeerts, Bert; Declercq, Anja; Gosset, Christiane; Heyden, Isabelle; Van Geert, Michel; Moons, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Home health care today is challenged by a shift from an acute to a chronic health-care model, moving the focus of care from the hospital to home-care setting. This increased focus on care at home emphasizes the need for an efficient, effective, and transparent management of home health care. However, it is not precisely known what home-care nurses do; what kind of care is received by patients; what the performance of home nurses is; and what the impact of the increasing need for home nursing is on the current and future role of home nurses. In this respect, it is necessary to gain a clear insight into the activity profile of home nurses, but there is no gold standard to measure their activities. This study reports on the development and psychometric testing of the '24-hour recall instrument for home nursing' to measure the activity profile of home nurses. Five home nurses in Belgium, simultaneously with the researcher, registered the performed activities in a total of 69 patients, using the 24-h recall instrument for home nursing. The validity and the interrater reliability of this instrument were high: the proportions that observed agreement were very high; the strength of kappa agreement was substantial to almost perfect; the prevalence index showed great variety; and the bias index was low. The findings in this study support the validity evidence based on test content and the interrater reliability of the 24-h recall instrument. This instrument can help to shape practice and policy by making the home nursing profession more transparent: a clear insight into the kind of care that is provided by home nurses and is received by the patients in primary care contributes to the development of a clear definition of the role of home nurses in health care.

  1. Compound cueing in free recall

    PubMed Central

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cueing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the two most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cueing in both conditional response probabilities and inter-response times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cueing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cueing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors. PMID:23957364

  2. Mindfulness Training Alters Emotional Memory Recall Compared to Active Controls: Support for an Emotional Information Processing Model of Mindfulness

    PubMed Central

    Roberts-Wolfe, Douglas; Sacchet, Matthew D.; Hastings, Elizabeth; Roth, Harold; Britton, Willoughby

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e., memory) biases in relation to both clinical symptomatology and well-being in comparison to active control conditions. Methods: Fifty-eight university students (28 female, age = 20.1 ± 2.7 years) participated in either a 12-week course containing a “meditation laboratory” or an active control course with similar content or experiential practice laboratory format (music). Participants completed an emotional word recall task and self-report questionnaires of well-being and clinical symptoms before and after the 12-week course. Results: Meditators showed greater increases in positive word recall compared to controls [F(1, 56) = 6.6, p = 0.02]. The meditation group increased significantly more on measures of well-being [F(1, 56) = 6.6, p = 0.01], with a marginal decrease in depression and anxiety [F(1, 56) = 3.0, p = 0.09] compared to controls. Increased positive word recall was associated with increased psychological well-being (r = 0.31, p = 0.02) and decreased clinical symptoms (r = −0.29, p = 0.03). Conclusion: Mindfulness training was associated with greater improvements in processing efficiency for positively valenced stimuli than active control conditions. This change in emotional information processing was associated with improvements in psychological well-being and less depression and anxiety. These data suggest that mindfulness training may improve well-being via changes in emotional information processing. Future

  3. Effects on a Later Recall by Delaying Initial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modigliani, Vito

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to define the relationships between four measures of recall in a two-recall task, namely (a) initial short-term recall (STR), (b) unconditional final free recall (FFR), (c) final free recall conditionalized on an initial successful recall (FFR/STR), and (d) final free recall conditionalized on an unsuccessful recall (FFR/STR). (Author/RK)

  4. Interaction of recalled parental ADHD symptoms and rearing behavior with current attachment and emotional dysfunction in adult offspring with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Edel, Marc-Andreas; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2010-06-30

    Research into attachment and emotion regulation has shown that children with ADHD are at risk of developing attachment disorders and emotion regulation disturbances, which in part may be due to the rearing style of their parents. No such data exists for adults with persistent ADHD. We hypothesized that current attachment style and emotion processing of adult patients with ADHD may be influenced by the presence of parental ADHD symptoms when the now adult patients were children, assuming that ADHD symptoms of parents have an impact on their parenting style. We examined recalled parental ADHD symptoms and rearing style as well as current attachment and emotion regulation abilities in a sample of 73 adults with ADHD using several self-rating instruments. Recalled prevalence of ADHD symptoms in the mother, and less so in the father, of adult patients with ADHD was significantly associated with partly adverse parental rearing styles, current attachment problems in romantic partnerships and emotion regulation disturbances compared with adult ADHD patients without possibly affected parent. ADHD symptoms in parents of children with ADHD may present a risk factor for attachment problems and poor emotion regulation when ADHD children are grown.

  5. From Monty Python to Total Recall: A Feature Film Activity for the Cognitive Psychology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, David B.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a college psychology course activity designed to help students define the parameters of cognitive psychology. Students selected a feature film and a journal article that represented some aspect of cognitive psychology. They then wrote a paper discussing the theoretical and empirical connections between the sources and the topic. (MJP)

  6. Neural activity patterns evoked by a spouse's incongruent emotional reactions when recalling marriage-relevant experiences.

    PubMed

    Petrican, Raluca; Rosenbaum, Rachel Shayna; Grady, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Resonance with the inner states of another social actor is regarded as a hallmark of emotional closeness. Nevertheless, sensitivity to potential incongruities between one's own and an intimate partner's subjective experience is reportedly also important for close relationship quality. Here, we tested whether perceivers show greater neurobehavioral responsiveness to a spouse's positive (rather than negative) context-incongruent emotions, and whether this effect is influenced by the perceiver's satisfaction with the relationship. Thus, we used fMRI to scan older long-term married female perceivers while they judged either their spouse's or a stranger's affect, based on incongruent nonverbal and verbal cues. The verbal cues were selected to evoke strongly polarized affective responses. Higher perceiver marital satisfaction predicted greater neural processing of the spouse's (rather than the strangers) nonverbal cues. Nevertheless, across all perceivers, greater neural processing of a spouse's (rather than a stranger's) nonverbal behavior was reliably observed only when the behavior was positive and the context was negative. The spouse's positive (rather than negative) nonverbal behavior evoked greater activity in putative mirror neuron areas, such as the bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL). This effect was related to a stronger inhibitory influence of cognitive control areas on mirror system activity in response to a spouse's negative nonverbal cues, an effect that strengthened with increasing perceiver marital satisfaction. Our valence-asymmetric findings imply that neurobehavioral responsiveness to a close other's emotions may depend, at least partly, on cognitive control resources, which are used to support the perceiver's interpersonal goals (here, goals that are relevant to relationship stability).

  7. Using Video-Stimulated Recall to Investigate Teacher Awareness of Explicit and Implicit Gendered Thoughts on Classroom Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consuegra, Els; Engels, Nadine; Willegems, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Teachers believe they don't interact any differently with boys than with girls. However, an examination of the evidence base on gendered student-teacher interactions shows--at times contradicting--unequal interaction patterns for boys and girls. In this study, the videotaped lessons of 13 secondary school teachers in three schools are analysed by…

  8. Adding delayed recall to the ADAS-cog improves measurement precision in mild Alzheimer's disease: Implications for predicting instrumental activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Deborah A; Balsis, Steve; Benge, Jared F; Doody, Rachelle S

    2015-12-01

    As research increasingly focuses on preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), instruments must be retooled to identify early cognitive markers of AD. A supplemental delayed recall subtest for the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive (ADAS-cog; Mohs, Rosen, & Davis, 1983; Rosen, Mohs, & Davis, 1984) is commonly implemented, but it is not known precisely where along the spectrum of cognitive dysfunction this subtest yields incremental information beyond what is gained from the standard ADAS-cog, or whether it can improve prediction of functional outcomes. An item response theory approach can analyze this in a psychometrically rigorous way. Seven hundred eighty-eight patients with AD or amnestic complaints or impairment completed a battery including the ADAS-cog and 2 activities of daily living measures. The delayed recall subtest slightly improved the ADAS-cog's measurement precision in the mild range of cognitive dysfunction and increased prediction of instrumental activities of daily living for individuals with subjective memory impairment.

  9. Serial position curves in free recall.

    PubMed

    Laming, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The scenario for free recall set out in Laming (2009) is developed to provide models for the serial position curves from 5 selected sets of data, for final free recall, and for multitrial free recall. The 5 sets of data reflect the effects of rate of presentation, length of list, delay of recall, and suppression of rehearsal. Each model accommodates the serial position curve for first recalls (where those data are available) as well as that for total recalls. Both curves are fit with the same parameter values, as also (with 1 exception) are all of the conditions compared within each experiment. The distributions of numbers of recalls are also examined and shown to have variances increased above what would be expected if successive recalls were independent. This is taken to signify that, in those experiments in which rehearsals were not recorded, the retrieval of words for possible recall follows the same pattern that is observed following overt rehearsal, namely, that retrieval consists of runs of consecutive elements from memory. Finally, 2 sets of data are examined that the present approach cannot accommodate. It is argued that the problem with these data derives from an interaction between the patterns of (covert) rehearsal and the parameters of list presentation.

  10. An Exploration of the Interaction between Speech Rate, Gender, and Cognitive Style in Their Effect on Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimley, Mick

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores how the interaction between cognitive style, gender, and type of task predicts task outcome, particularly when presentation speed is varied. A sample of 91 11-year-old pupils completed the Cognitive Style Analysis. Pupils were assigned to one of two groups balanced for gender and cognitive style. Group 1 listened to a recording…

  11. Hippocampal activation of immediate early genes Zenk and c-Fos in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) during learning and recall of a spatial memory task.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Uwe; Watanabe, Shigeru; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2010-03-01

    Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are able to learn the position of food by orienting on spatial cues in a 'dry water maze'. In the course of spatial learning, the hippocampus shows high expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs) Zenk and c-Fos, indicating high activation of this area during learning. In contrast, the IEG activity is nearly absent if the birds do not have to rely on spatial cues. In the present experiment it was investigated whether hippocampal activation can also be observed if the learned spatial task is recalled. For this purpose, the hippocampal Zenk and c-Fos activation of birds in an early learning stage was compared with that of others having well reached their maximal performance. The results show that the avian hippocampus is also active during recall of a learned spatial task, but the activation is significantly lower than in animals learning actually. As in previous experiments, hippocampal IEG expression showed strong variation not only in the position of the active patches of neurons, but also in size and cell density. The observed difference contributes to the view that immediate early genes may not be indicators of activation alone, but may be due to a combination of activation and plastic changes.

  12. Recollective and Nonrecollective Recall

    PubMed Central

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.

    2010-01-01

    The study of recollective and nonrecollective retrieval has become controversial, owing to several critiques of traditional recognition-based measurement (e.g., remember/know, ROC, process dissociation). We present a new methodology in which subjects merely study and recall lists, using any standard paradigm (associative, cued, free, or serial recall), the data are analyzed with a Markov model whose parameters measure recollective and nonrecollective retrieval, and the model’s fit is compared to that of one-process models. The power of this approach is illustrated in some experiments that dealt with two classic questions: (a) What are the process-level differences between associative and free recall, and (b) why does taxonomic organization improve free recall but impair associative recall? Fit results showed that a dual-retrieval model is both necessary and sufficient to account for associative and free recall data, in contrast to the sufficient-but-not-necessary pattern that prevails in the recognition literature. Key substantive findings were that associative recall is more reliant on recollective retrieval and less reliant on nonrecollective retrieval than free recall, that taxonomic organization impairs recollective retrieval in both paradigms, and that taxonomic organization enhances the reconstruction component of nonrecollective retrieval in free recall. PMID:22279248

  13. Failure to recall.

    PubMed

    Laming, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical analysis shows that if the pattern of rehearsal in free-recall experiments (of necessity, the pattern observed when participants rehearse aloud) be continued without any further interruption by stimuli (as happens during recall), it terminates with the retrieval of the same 1 word over and over again. Such a terminal state is commonly reached before some of the words in the list have been retrieved even once; those words are not recalled. The 1 minute frequently allowed for recall in free-recall experiments is ample time for retrieval to seize up in this way. The author proposes a model that represents the essential features of the pattern of rehearsal; validates that model by reference to the overt rehearsal data from B. B. Murdock, Jr., and J. Metcalfe (1978) and the recall data from B. B. Murdock, Jr., and R. Okada (1970); demonstrates the long-term properties of continued sequences of retrievals and, also, a fundamental relation linking recall to the total time of presentation; and, finally, compares failure to recall in free-recall experiments with forgetting in general.

  14. Failure to Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical analysis shows that if the pattern of rehearsal in free-recall experiments (of necessity, the pattern observed when participants rehearse aloud) be continued without any further interruption by stimuli (as happens during recall), it terminates with the retrieval of the same 1 word over and over again. Such a terminal state is commonly…

  15. Predicting Free Recalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2006-01-01

    This article reports some calculations on free-recall data from B. Murdock and J. Metcalfe (1978), with vocal rehearsal during the presentation of a list. Given the sequence of vocalizations, with the stimuli inserted in their proper places, it is possible to predict the subsequent sequence of recalls--the predictions taking the form of a…

  16. Induced arousal and orienting tasks as determinants of intentional recall.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, C B

    1992-07-01

    In this study, the author examined the effects of intention to learn, noise, and different types of orienting tasks on short-term and long-term recall for 15 Hindi paired-associates. Intention to learn improved recall, as did encoding of semantic features, and noise impaired both short-term and long-term recall. The analysis of short-term recall scores indicated that there were no significant interactions between these factors, but the analysis of long-term recall scores indicated that there were significant interactions between noise and orienting tasks and between intentionality and orienting tasks.

  17. Activities for an Interactive Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Jeffrey N.

    Focusing particularly on student writing, this book describes the principles of an interactive classroom and presents specific activities which adhere to those principles. Acknowledging that such classrooms require that the students feel comfortable with each other, the book details several activities that help to build a positive classroom…

  18. Recalling academic tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Franklin Gno

    This study was focused on what students remembered about five middle school science tasks when they were juniors and seniors in high school. Descriptions of the five tasks were reconstructed from available artifacts and teachers' records, notes and recollections. Three of the five tasks were "authentic" in the sense that students were asked to duplicate the decisions practitioners make in the adult world. The other two tasks were more typical school tasks involving note taking and preparation for a quiz. All five tasks, however, involved use of computers. Students were interviewed to examine what and how well they recalled the tasks and what forms or patterns of recall existed. Analysis of their responses indicated that different kinds of tasks produced different levels of recall. Authentically situated tasks were remembered much better than routine school tasks. Further, authentic tasks centered on design elements were recalled better than those for which design was not as pivotal. Patterns of recall indicated that participants most often recalled the decisions they made, the scenarios of the authentically situated tasks, the consequences of their tasks and the social contexts of the classroom. Task events, in other words, appeared to form a framework upon which students constructed stories of the tasks. The more salient the events, the richer the story, the deeper and more detailed the recall of the task. Thus, authentic tasks appeared to lend themselves to creating stories better than regular school tasks and therefore such tasks were recalled better. Implications of these patterns of recall are discussed with respect to issues of school learning and assessment.

  19. The Interaction-Activity Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borne, Kirk D.

    1996-01-01

    A review is presented of the numerous studies that have been undertaken to investigate the likely interaction-activity connection among galaxies. Both observational evidence and theoretical supporting models are reviewed. Some specific examples of "interactive" galaxies from the author's own research are presented: (a) the collision-induced AGN (Active Galactic Nuclei) activity in the radio jet source 3C278; and (b) the collision-induced starburst activity in the spectacular "Cartwheel" ring galaxy. Some comments are offered concerning some of the more promising theoretical investigations that are now taking place. A few words of warning are also offered about the possible misinterpretation of putative collision-induced morphologies among some galaxy samples.

  20. Adaptive Memory: Animacy Enhances Free Recall but Impairs Cued Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Earl Y.; Serra, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of…

  1. Televised Self-Confrontation and Recalled Affect: A New Look at Videotape Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, David; Resnikoff, Arthur

    1977-01-01

    The extent to which individuals can recall feelings they experienced during a dyadic interaction, when shown a televised replay of that interaction, was investigated. Pairs of subjects (N=10) were trained rate their degree of comfort or discomfort during the actual ("live") interaction and, subsequently, as they watched a video-taped replay of…

  2. Recalling and forgetting dreams: theta and alpha oscillations during sleep predict subsequent dream recall.

    PubMed

    Marzano, Cristina; Ferrara, Michele; Mauro, Federica; Moroni, Fabio; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Tempesta, Daniela; Cipolli, Carlo; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2011-05-04

    Under the assumption that dream recall is a peculiar form of declarative memory, we have hypothesized that (1) the encoding of dream contents during sleep should share some electrophysiological mechanisms with the encoding of episodic memories of the awake brain and (2) recalling a dream(s) after awakening from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep should be associated with different brain oscillations. Here, we report that cortical brain oscillations of human sleep are predictive of successful dream recall. In particular, after morning awakening from REM sleep, a higher frontal 5-7 Hz (theta) activity was associated with successful dream recall. This finding mirrors the increase in frontal theta activity during successful encoding of episodic memories in wakefulness. Moreover, in keeping with the different EEG background, a different predictive relationship was found after awakening from stage 2 NREM sleep. Specifically, a lower 8-12 Hz (alpha) oscillatory activity of the right temporal area was associated with a successful dream recall. These findings provide the first evidence of univocal cortical electroencephalographic correlates of dream recall, suggesting that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and recall of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness.

  3. Autogenic training and dream recall.

    PubMed

    Schredl, M; Doll, E

    1997-06-01

    The present study has investigated the relationship between Autogenic Training and dream recall for 112 participants in 16 beginning courses of 10 wk. Analyses confirmed the hypothesis that learning and practicing this relaxation technique enhanced dream recall.

  4. Task Context and Organization in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polyn, Sean M.; Norman, Kenneth A.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work on organization in free recall has focused on the ways in which semantic and temporal information determine the order in which material is retrieved from memory. Tulving's theory of ecphory suggests that these organizational effects arise from the interaction of a retrieval cue with the contents of memory. Using the…

  5. Moderate Physical Activity Mediates the Association between White Matter Lesion Volume and Memory Recall in Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Gillian E.; Wetter, Nathan C.; Banducci, Sarah E.; Mackenzie, Michael J.; Zuniga, Krystle E.; Awick, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Sarah A.; Sutton, Brad P.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2016-01-01

    Increased survival rates among breast cancer patients have drawn significant attention to consequences of both the presence of cancer, and the subsequent treatment-related impact on the brain. The incidence of breast cancer and the effects of treatment often result in alterations in the microstructure of white matter and impaired cognitive functioning. However, physical activity is proving to be a successful modifiable lifestyle factor in many studies that could prove beneficial to breast cancer survivors. This study investigates the link between white matter lesion volume, moderate physical activity, and cognition in breast cancer survivors following treatment compared to non-cancer age-matched controls. Results revealed that brain structure significantly predicted cognitive function via mediation of physical activity in breast cancer survivors. Overall, the study provided preliminary evidence suggesting moderate physical activity may help reduce the treatment related risks associated with breast cancer, including changes to WM integrity and cognitive impairment. PMID:26915025

  6. Moderate Physical Activity Mediates the Association between White Matter Lesion Volume and Memory Recall in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Gillian E; Wetter, Nathan C; Banducci, Sarah E; Mackenzie, Michael J; Zuniga, Krystle E; Awick, Elizabeth A; Roberts, Sarah A; Sutton, Brad P; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-01-01

    Increased survival rates among breast cancer patients have drawn significant attention to consequences of both the presence of cancer, and the subsequent treatment-related impact on the brain. The incidence of breast cancer and the effects of treatment often result in alterations in the microstructure of white matter and impaired cognitive functioning. However, physical activity is proving to be a successful modifiable lifestyle factor in many studies that could prove beneficial to breast cancer survivors. This study investigates the link between white matter lesion volume, moderate physical activity, and cognition in breast cancer survivors following treatment compared to non-cancer age-matched controls. Results revealed that brain structure significantly predicted cognitive function via mediation of physical activity in breast cancer survivors. Overall, the study provided preliminary evidence suggesting moderate physical activity may help reduce the treatment related risks associated with breast cancer, including changes to WM integrity and cognitive impairment.

  7. Bilateral inferior frontal language-related activation correlates with verbal recall in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy and typical language distribution.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Ana; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; García-Porcar, María; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Forn, Cristina; Martínez, Juan Carlos; Campos, Anabel; Palau, Juan; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Villanueva, Vicente; Avila, César

    2013-03-01

    Language fMRI has been used in the presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy patients. Previous studies have demonstrated that left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) patients with atypical language lateralization are at lower risk of postsurgical verbal memory decline, hypothesizing co-occurrence of verbal memory and language reorganization presurgically. Furthermore, it has been proposed that the recruitment of right frontal language-related areas is associated with the preservation of verbal memory performance in these patients. However, less is known about the correlation between these functions specifically in LTLE patients with left language dominance, although they are more prone to postsurgical verbal memory decline. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the relationship between verbal memory scores and frontal language activation is also observed in LTLE patients with typical language dominance. Eighteen healthy controls, 12 right temporal lobe epilepsy patients and 12 LTLE patients with typical language distribution as assessed by an fMRI verbal fluency task were selected. Verbal memory scores were obtained from the patients' neuropsychological presurgical evaluation. Our results showed a positive correlation between verbal recall and activation of bilateral inferior frontal areas in LTLE patients. These results support the hypothesis of a link between language representation in inferior frontal areas and hippocampal functioning, and indicate that both hemispheres are related to the preservation of verbal memory in patients with hippocampal damage and typical language dominance.

  8. Validation of a previous day recall for measuring the location and purpose of active and sedentary behaviors compared to direct observation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Gathering contextual information (i.e., location and purpose) about active and sedentary behaviors is an advantage of self-report tools such as previous day recalls (PDR). However, the validity of PDR’s for measuring context has not been empirically tested. The purpose of this paper was to compare PDR estimates of location and purpose to direct observation (DO). Methods Fifteen adult (18–75 y) and 15 adolescent (12–17 y) participants were directly observed during at least one segment of the day (i.e., morning, afternoon or evening). Participants completed their normal daily routine while trained observers recorded the location (i.e., home, community, work/school), purpose (e.g., leisure, transportation) and whether the behavior was sedentary or active. The day following the observation, participants completed an unannounced PDR. Estimates of time in each context were compared between PDR and DO. Intra-class correlations (ICC), percent agreement and Kappa statistics were calculated. Results For adults, percent agreement was 85% or greater for each location and ICC values ranged from 0.71 to 0.96. The PDR-reported purpose of adults’ behaviors were highly correlated with DO for household activities and work (ICCs of 0.84 and 0.88, respectively). Transportation was not significantly correlated with DO (ICC = -0.08). For adolescents, reported classification of activity location was 80.8% or greater. The ICCs for purpose of adolescents’ behaviors ranged from 0.46 to 0.78. Participants were most accurate in classifying the location and purpose of the behaviors in which they spent the most time. Conclusions This study suggests that adults and adolescents can accurately report where and why they spend time in behaviors using a PDR. This information on behavioral context is essential for translating the evidence for specific behavior-disease associations to health interventions and public policy. PMID:24490619

  9. Neural activity patterns evoked by a spouse’s incongruent emotional reactions when recalling marriage-relevant experiences

    PubMed Central

    Petrican, Raluca; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna; Grady, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Resonance with the inner states of another social actor is regarded as a hallmark of emotional closeness. Nevertheless, sensitivity to potential incongruities between one’s own and an intimate partner’s subjective experience is reportedly also important for close relationship quality. Here, we tested whether perceivers show greater neurobehavioural responsiveness to a spouse’s positive (rather than negative) context-incongruent emotions, and whether this effect is influenced by the perceiver’s satisfaction with the relationship. Thus, we used fMRI to scan older long-term married female perceivers while they judged either their spouse’s or a stranger’s affect, based on incongruent nonverbal and verbal cues. The verbal cues were selected to evoke strongly polarized affective responses. Higher perceiver marital satisfaction predicted greater neural processing of the spouse’s (rather than the strangers) nonverbal cues. Nevertheless, across all perceivers, greater neural processing of a spouse’s (rather than a stranger’s) nonverbal behavior was reliably observed only when the behavior was positive and the context was negative. The spouse’s positive (rather than negative) nonverbal behaviour evoked greater activity in putative mirror neuron areas, such as the bilateral IPL. This effect was related to a stronger inhibitory influence of cognitive control areas on mirror system activity in response to a spouse’s negative nonverbal cues, an effect that strengthened with increasing perceiver marital satisfaction. Our valence-asymmetric findings imply that neurobehavioral responsiveness to a close other’s emotions may depend, at least partly, on cognitive control resources, which are used to support the perceiver’s interpersonal goals (here, goals that are relevant to relationship stability). PMID:26219536

  10. Iterative Development of an Online Dietary Recall Tool: INTAKE24.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Emma; Bradley, Jennifer; Poliakov, Ivan; Jackson, Dan; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2017-02-09

    Collecting large-scale population data on dietary intake is challenging, particularly when resources and funding are constrained. Technology offers the potential to develop novel ways of collecting large amounts of dietary information while making it easier, more convenient, intuitive, and engaging for users. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24 h dietary recall tool developed for use in national food and nutrition surveys. The development of INTAKE24 was a four-stage iterative process of user interaction and evaluation with the intended end users, 11-24 years old. A total of 80 11-24 years old took part in the evaluation, 20 at each stage. Several methods were used to elicit feedback from the users including, 'think aloud', 'eye tracking', semi-structured interviews, and a system usability scale. Each participant completed an interviewer led recall post system completion. Key system developments generated from the user feedback included a 'flat' interface, which uses only a single interface screen shared between all of the various activities (e.g., free text entry, looking up foods in the database, portion size estimation). Improvements to the text entry, search functionality, and navigation around the system were also influenced through feedback from users at each stage. The time to complete a recall using INTAKE24 almost halved from the initial prototype to the end system, while the agreement with an interviewer led recall improved. Further developments include testing the use of INTAKE24 with older adults and translation into other languages for international use. Our future aim is to validate the system with recovery biomarkers.

  11. Iterative Development of an Online Dietary Recall Tool: INTAKE24

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Emma; Bradley, Jennifer; Poliakov, Ivan; Jackson, Dan; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J.; Foster, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Collecting large-scale population data on dietary intake is challenging, particularly when resources and funding are constrained. Technology offers the potential to develop novel ways of collecting large amounts of dietary information while making it easier, more convenient, intuitive, and engaging for users. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24 h dietary recall tool developed for use in national food and nutrition surveys. The development of INTAKE24 was a four-stage iterative process of user interaction and evaluation with the intended end users, 11–24 years old. A total of 80 11–24 years old took part in the evaluation, 20 at each stage. Several methods were used to elicit feedback from the users including, ‘think aloud’, ‘eye tracking’, semi-structured interviews, and a system usability scale. Each participant completed an interviewer led recall post system completion. Key system developments generated from the user feedback included a ‘flat’ interface, which uses only a single interface screen shared between all of the various activities (e.g., free text entry, looking up foods in the database, portion size estimation). Improvements to the text entry, search functionality, and navigation around the system were also influenced through feedback from users at each stage. The time to complete a recall using INTAKE24 almost halved from the initial prototype to the end system, while the agreement with an interviewer led recall improved. Further developments include testing the use of INTAKE24 with older adults and translation into other languages for international use. Our future aim is to validate the system with recovery biomarkers. PMID:28208763

  12. Relationships between Study Behavior, Object Knowledge, and Recall-Memory Proficiency in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Garret; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examined two hypotheses that might account for episodic-recall differences in preschool children: (1) young children's differential tendencies to attend to and interact with presented stimuli account for verbal free-recall differences, and (2) improvements in episodic-recall memory are knowledge-dependent among preschool children. (Author/DB)

  13. Different propagation speeds of recalled sequences in plastic spiking neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuhui; Zheng, Zhigang; Hu, Gang; Wu, Si; Rasch, Malte J.

    2015-03-01

    Neural networks can generate spatiotemporal patterns of spike activity. Sequential activity learning and retrieval have been observed in many brain areas, and e.g. is crucial for coding of episodic memory in the hippocampus or generating temporal patterns during song production in birds. In a recent study, a sequential activity pattern was directly entrained onto the neural activity of the primary visual cortex (V1) of rats and subsequently successfully recalled by a local and transient trigger. It was observed that the speed of activity propagation in coordinates of the retinotopically organized neural tissue was constant during retrieval regardless how the speed of light stimulation sweeping across the visual field during training was varied. It is well known that spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is a potential mechanism for embedding temporal sequences into neural network activity. How training and retrieval speeds relate to each other and how network and learning parameters influence retrieval speeds, however, is not well described. We here theoretically analyze sequential activity learning and retrieval in a recurrent neural network with realistic synaptic short-term dynamics and STDP. Testing multiple STDP rules, we confirm that sequence learning can be achieved by STDP. However, we found that a multiplicative nearest-neighbor (NN) weight update rule generated weight distributions and recall activities that best matched the experiments in V1. Using network simulations and mean-field analysis, we further investigated the learning mechanisms and the influence of network parameters on recall speeds. Our analysis suggests that a multiplicative STDP rule with dominant NN spike interaction might be implemented in V1 since recall speed was almost constant in an NMDA-dominant regime. Interestingly, in an AMPA-dominant regime, neural circuits might exhibit recall speeds that instead follow the change in stimulus speeds. This prediction could be tested in

  14. Interpersonal Process Recall. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashwell, Craig S.

    This digest focuses on Information Process Recall (IPR), a supervision strategy developed to increase counselor awareness of covert thoughts and feelings and to deepen the therapeutic relationship between the counselor and the client. Steps in conducting IPR are given as a guideline for conducting IPR recall sessions using audio or video tapes. To…

  15. Agreement between prospective interactive voice response telephone reporting and structured recall reports of risk behaviors in rural substance users living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Cathy A; Xie, Lili; Blum, Elizabeth R; Tucker, Jalie A

    2011-03-01

    Sound measurement of risk behaviors is essential to guide tailored risk reduction strategies as HIV infection patterns shift toward rural minorities, particularly in the southeastern United States where HIV disease remains highly stigmatized. Interactive Voice Response (IVR) systems appear to enhance reports of sensitive behaviors and can support telehealth applications to extend the reach of care in rural, underserved areas. This study evaluated the feasibility and data quality of an IVR telephone reporting system with rural substance users living with HIV/AIDS. Community-dwelling patients were recruited from a nonprofit HIV medical clinic in rural Alabama (N = 35 men, 19 women). Participants engaged in daily IVR reporting of substance use and sexual practices for up to 10 weeks. IVR reports were compared with retrospective Timeline Followback (TLFB) interview reports for the same period. IVR and TLFB reports showed good to excellent agreement for summary measures of alcohol consumption and sexual activity. Agreements for illicit drug use reports were less satisfactory. Reports of monetary spending on alcohol and drugs were significantly higher on the IVR. Most individuals showed good agreements for reports of day-to-day alcohol and drug use and sexual practices. The study established the utility of IVR assessment with rural, disadvantaged adults living with HIV/AIDS who are priority targets for risk reduction interventions.

  16. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... changes as appropriate. A recalling firm should conduct the recall in accordance with an approved recall... request from the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers...

  17. Conditional recall and the frequency effect in the serial recall task: an examination of item-to-item associativity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Leonie M; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-11-01

    The frequency effect in short-term serial recall is influenced by the composition of lists. In pure lists, a robust advantage in the recall of high-frequency (HF) words is observed, yet in alternating mixed lists, HF and low-frequency (LF) words are recalled equally well. It has been argued that the preexisting associations between all list items determine a single, global level of supportive activation that assists item recall. Preexisting associations between items are assumed to be a function of language co-occurrence; HF-HF associations are high, LF-LF associations are low, and mixed associations are intermediate in activation strength. This account, however, is based on results when alternating lists with equal numbers of HF and LF words were used. It is possible that directional association between adjacent list items is responsible for the recall patterns reported. In the present experiment, the recall of three forms of mixed lists-those with equal numbers of HF and LF items and pure lists-was examined to test the extent to which item-to-item associations are present in serial recall. Furthermore, conditional probabilities were used to examine more closely the evidence for a contribution, since correct-in-position scoring may mask recall that is dependent on the recall of prior items. The results suggest that an item-to-item effect is clearly present for early but not late list items, and they implicate an additional factor, perhaps the availability of resources at output, in the recall of late list items.

  18. The Effects of Interactive Graphics Analogies on Recall of Concepts in Science. Technical Report No. 79, 1 January 1976- 1 December 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigney, Joseph W.; Lutz, Kathy A.

    To study the effects of learner generated imagery on the learning of science material a series of three experiments were conducted. Interactive graphics using the plasma panel, a touch panel interface of the PLATO system, were used to simulate the topography and functions of a battery to teach elementary concepts in electrochemistry. Following a…

  19. The impact of chewing gum resistance on immediate free recall.

    PubMed

    Rickman, Sarah; Johnson, Andrew; Miles, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    Although the facilitative effects of chewing gum on free recall have proved contentious (e.g., Tucha, Mecklinger, Maier, Hammerl, & Lange, 2004; Wilkinson, Scholey, & Wesnes, 2002), there are strong physiological grounds, for example, increased cerebral activity and blood flow following the act of mastication, to suppose facilitation. The present study manipulated resistance to mastication, that is, chewing four pellets versus one pellet of gum, with the assumption that increased resistance will accentuate cerebral activity and blood flow. Additionally, chewing rate was recorded for all participants. In a within-participants design, participants performed a series of immediate free recall tasks while chewing gum at learning (one or four pellets) and recall (one or four pellets). Increased chewing resistance was not associated with increased memory performance, despite consistent chewing rates for both the one and four pellet conditions at both learning and recall. However, a pattern of recall consistent with context-dependent memory was observed. Here, participants who chewed the equivalent number of gum pellets at both learning and recall experienced significantly superior word recall compared to those conditions where the number of gum pellets differed.

  20. Serial Position Curves in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The scenario for free recall set out in Laming (2009) is developed to provide models for the serial position curves from 5 selected sets of data, for final free recall, and for multitrial free recall. The 5 sets of data reflect the effects of rate of presentation, length of list, delay of recall, and suppression of rehearsal. Each model…

  1. Aging and the Picture Superiority Effect in Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winograd, Eugene; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compared verbal and visual encoding using the picture superiority effect. One experiment found an interaction between age and type of material. In other experiments, the picture superiority effect was found in both age groups with no interaction. Performing a semantic-orienting task had no effect on recall. (Author/RC)

  2. Free recall behaviour in children with and without spelling impairment: the impact of working memory subcapacities.

    PubMed

    Malstädt, Nadine; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Lehmann, Martin

    2012-11-01

    This study examined supraspan free recall in children with and without spelling impairment. A repeated free recall task involving overt rehearsal and three computer-based adaptive working memory tasks were administered to 54 eight-year-old children. Children without spelling impairments tended to recall more items than did those children with spelling deficits. Video analyses revealed that recall behaviour was similar in impaired and unimpaired children, indicating that both groups applied similar learning activities. Group differences in number of recalled items were attributed to differences in working memory subcapacities between children with and without spelling impairment, especially with regard to central executive and phonological loop functioning.

  3. Study modality and false recall.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebekah E; Engle, Randall W

    2011-01-01

    False memories occur when individuals mistakenly report an event as having taken place when that event did not in fact occur. The DRM (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) paradigm provides an effective technique for creating and investigating false memories. In this paradigm participants study a list of words (e.g., SOUR, CANDY,…) that are highly associated to a non-presented critical item (e.g., SWEET). The study phase is followed by a test of memory for the study list words. Researchers typically find very high levels of false recall of the critical non-presented item. However, the likelihood of falsely remembering the non-presented critical items can be reduced by presenting studied associates visually rather than auditorally (e.g., Smith & Hunt, 1998). This is referred to as the modality effect in false memory. The current study investigated the role of resource availability in the expression of this modality effect in false recall. In Experiment 1 false recall was reduced in the visual study presentation condition relative to the auditory condition for participants with higher working memory capacity, but not for participants with lower working memory capacity. In Experiment 2 the effect of study modality on false recall was eliminated by the addition of a divided attention task at encoding. Both studies support the proposal that resource availability plays a role in the expression of the modality effect in the DRM paradigm (Smith, Lozito, & Bayen, 2005).

  4. Dynamics of two interacting active Janus particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayati, Parvin; Najafi, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Starting from a microscopic model for a spherically symmetric active Janus particle, we study the interactions between two such active motors. The ambient fluid mediates a long range hydrodynamic interaction between two motors. This interaction has both direct and indirect hydrodynamic contributions. The direct contribution is due to the propagation of fluid flow that originated from a moving motor and affects the motion of the other motor. The indirect contribution emerges from the re-distribution of the ionic concentrations in the presence of both motors. Electric force exerted on the fluid from this ionic solution enhances the flow pattern and subsequently changes the motion of both motors. By formulating a perturbation method for very far separated motors, we derive analytic results for the translation and rotational dynamics of the motors. We show that the overall interaction at the leading order modifies the translational and rotational speeds of motors which scale as O (" separators=" [ 1 / D ] 3 ) and O (" separators=" [ 1 / D ] 4 ) with their separation, respectively. Our findings open up the way for studying the collective dynamics of synthetic micro-motors.

  5. The benefits of peer collaboration on strategy use, metacognitive casual attribution, and recall.

    PubMed

    Manion, V; Alexander, J M

    1997-11-01

    This study examined the benefits of a peer collaborative activity on cognitive strategy use and effectiveness, and on metacognitive understanding of strategy use. Children's knowledge about the effectiveness of the sorting strategy grouped them into lower and higher metacognitive understanding. Treatment group triads, consisting of children with lower and higher levels of metacognitive understanding, were given a collaborative recall task. Results indicated that interaction with children working at a higher level of metacognitive knowledge, in conjunction with directions to explicitly discuss strategies, increased strategy use and induced higher levels of metacognitive thinking in children who had been operating at lower levels of metacognitive thinking. overall, children's use of the sorting strategy and recall performance improved as a function of treatment group membership. Implications for future research are discussed.

  6. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... action that takes place because manufacturers and distributors carry out their responsibility to protect... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7... providing guidance so that responsible firms may effectively discharge their recall responsibilities....

  7. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... action that takes place because manufacturers and distributors carry out their responsibility to protect... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7... providing guidance so that responsible firms may effectively discharge their recall responsibilities....

  8. Isolation Effect in Immediate and Delayed Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellezza, Francis S.; Cheney, Terry L.

    1973-01-01

    If the hypothesis of selective rehearsal is used to account for the isolation effect, then the recall of isolated items will depend both on the serial position of the isolated item and on whether recall is immediate or delayed. (Author)

  9. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  10. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall

    PubMed Central

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits. PMID:26441560

  11. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... class letters conspicuously marked, preferably in bold red type, on the letter and the envelope: “drug recall ”. The letter and the envelope should be also marked: “urgent” for class I and class II recalls and, when appropriate, for class III recalls. Telephone calls or other personal contacts...

  12. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... class letters conspicuously marked, preferably in bold red type, on the letter and the envelope: “drug recall ”. The letter and the envelope should be also marked: “urgent” for class I and class II recalls and, when appropriate, for class III recalls. Telephone calls or other personal contacts...

  13. An Improved Algorithm for Predicting Free Recalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Laming [Laming, D. (2006). "Predicting free recalls." "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 32, 1146-1163] has shown that, in a free-recall experiment in which the participants rehearsed out loud, entire sequences of recalls could be predicted, to a useful degree of precision, from the prior sequences of stimuli…

  14. Does illness experience influence the recall of medical information?

    PubMed

    Krishnan, B; Glazebrook, C; Smyth, A

    1998-12-01

    Recall of a storyboard description of an unfamiliar illness was assessed in 66 healthy children and 40 children with chronic illness (cystic fibrosis or asthma). A significant interaction between verbal intelligence quotient and illness experience (p < 0.001) suggested that more able sick children may be resistant to learning new medical information.

  15. Scaling laws of human interaction activity.

    PubMed

    Rybski, Diego; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Havlin, Shlomo; Liljeros, Fredrik; Makse, Hernán A

    2009-08-04

    Even though people in our contemporary technological society are depending on communication, our understanding of the underlying laws of human communicational behavior continues to be poorly understood. Here we investigate the communication patterns in 2 social Internet communities in search of statistical laws in human interaction activity. This research reveals that human communication networks dynamically follow scaling laws that may also explain the observed trends in economic growth. Specifically, we identify a generalized version of Gibrat's law of social activity expressed as a scaling law between the fluctuations in the number of messages sent by members and their level of activity. Gibrat's law has been essential in understanding economic growth patterns, yet without an underlying general principle for its origin. We attribute this scaling law to long-term correlation patterns in human activity, which surprisingly span from days to the entire period of the available data of more than 1 year. Further, we provide a mathematical framework that relates the generalized version of Gibrat's law to the long-term correlated dynamics, which suggests that the same underlying mechanism could be the source of Gibrat's law in economics, ranging from large firms, research and development expenditures, gross domestic product of countries, to city population growth. These findings are also of importance for designing communication networks and for the understanding of the dynamics of social systems in which communication plays a role, such as economic markets and political systems.

  16. Comparison of the neural correlates of retrieval success in tests of cued recall and recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kayoko; Vilberg, Kaia L; Rugg, Michael D

    2012-03-01

    The neural correlates of successful retrieval on tests of word stem recall and recognition memory were compared. In the recall test, subjects viewed word stems, half of which were associated with studied items and half with unstudied items, and for each stem attempted to recall a corresponding study word. In the recognition test, old/new judgments were made on old and new words. The neural correlates of successful retrieval were identified by contrasting activity elicited by correctly endorsed test items. Old > new effects common to the two tasks were found in medial and lateral parietal and right entorhinal cortex. Common new > old effects were identified in medial and left frontal cortex, and left anterior intra-parietal sulcus. Greater old > new effects were evident for cued recall in inferior parietal regions abutting those demonstrating common effects, whereas larger new > old effects were found for recall in left frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate. New > old effects were also found for the recall task in right lateral anterior prefrontal cortex, where they were accompanied by old > new effects during recognition. It is concluded that successful recall and recognition are associated with enhanced activity in a common set of recollection-sensitive parietal regions, and that the greater activation in these regions during recall reflects the greater dependence of that task on recollection. Larger new > old effects during recall are interpreted as reflections of the greater opportunity for iterative retrieval attempts when retrieval cues are partial rather than copy cues.

  17. Recalling the origins of DLTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, David V.

    2007-12-01

    This paper recalls the events leading up to the author's 1973 discovery of Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS). It discusses the status of junction capacitance techniques in the late 1960s and points out why the typical capacitance instrumentation of that era would not have lead the author to the DLTS discovery. This discovery is discussed in the context of the novel NMR-inspired instrumentation used by the author to study fast capacitance transients of the ZnO center in GaP LEDs. Finally, the author makes some general comments about the innovation process.

  18. Memory recall and spike-frequency adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, James P.; Sander, Leonard M.; Zochowski, Michal R.

    2016-05-01

    The brain can reproduce memories from partial data; this ability is critical for memory recall. The process of memory recall has been studied using autoassociative networks such as the Hopfield model. This kind of model reliably converges to stored patterns that contain the memory. However, it is unclear how the behavior is controlled by the brain so that after convergence to one configuration, it can proceed with recognition of another one. In the Hopfield model, this happens only through unrealistic changes of an effective global temperature that destabilizes all stored configurations. Here we show that spike-frequency adaptation (SFA), a common mechanism affecting neuron activation in the brain, can provide state-dependent control of pattern retrieval. We demonstrate this in a Hopfield network modified to include SFA, and also in a model network of biophysical neurons. In both cases, SFA allows for selective stabilization of attractors with different basins of attraction, and also for temporal dynamics of attractor switching that is not possible in standard autoassociative schemes. The dynamics of our models give a plausible account of different sorts of memory retrieval.

  19. Recall Latencies, Confidence, and Output Positions of True and False Memories: Implications for Recall and Metamemory Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jou, Jerwen

    2008-01-01

    Recall latency, recall accuracy rate, and recall confidence were examined in free recall as a function of recall output serial position using a modified Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm to test a strength-based theory against the dual-retrieval process theory of recall output sequence. The strength theory predicts the item output sequence to be…

  20. Cognitive performance of young and elderly subjects on the free word recall memory test: effect of presentation order on recall order.

    PubMed

    Santos-Galduróz, R F; Oliveira, F G; Galduróz, J C F; Bueno, O F A

    2009-10-01

    The influence of aging on memory has been extensively studied, but the importance of short-term memory and recall sequence has not. The objective of the current study was to examine the recall order of words presented on lists and to determine if age affects recall sequence. Physically and psychologically healthy male subjects were divided into two groups according to age, i.e., 23 young subjects (20 to 30 years) and 50 elderly subjects (60 to 70 years) submitted to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the free word recall test. The order of word presentation significantly affected the 3rd and 4th words recalled (P < 0.01; F = 14.6). In addition, there was interaction between the presentation order and the type of list presented (P < 0.05; F = 9.7). Also, both groups recalled the last words presented from each list (words 13-15) significantly more times 3rd and 4th than words presented in all remaining positions (P < 0.01). The order of word presentation also significantly affected the 5th and 6th words recalled (P = 0.05; F = 7.5) and there was a significant interaction between the order of presentation and the type of list presented (P < 0.01; F = 20.8). The more developed the cognitive functions, resulting mainly from formal education, the greater the cognitive reserve, helping to minimize the effects of aging on the long-term memory (episodic declarative).

  1. Medical Device Recalls: Examination of Selected Cases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    accelerator Device class: 2 Medical specialty: Radiology Brand: Therac - 25 Linear Accelerator Use: Used in clinical (cancer) radiotherapy Premarketing...design recalls.- As wouldl Ne exp~ected, becaulse all (lass 8 (high-risk) dev.ices require prenmarket ap)1O1lmtSt PNMA-dCSigfl r-ecalls ( 25 , or 89...Table 11.4 PMA-Design Recalls by Device Class, Fiscal Years 1983-88 No. oi Device class recalls Percent 2 (medium risk) 3 1 100 3 (high risk) 25 89

  2. Background instrumental music and serial recall.

    PubMed

    Nittono, H

    1997-06-01

    Although speech and vocal music are consistently shown to impair serial recall for visually presented items, instrumental music does not always produce a significant disruption. This study investigated the features of instrumental music that would modulate the disruption in serial recall. 24 students were presented sequences of nine digits and required to recall the digits in order of presentation. Instrumental music as played either forward or backward during the task. Forward music caused significantly more disruption than did silence, whereas the reversed music did not. Some higher-order factor may be at work in the effect of background music on serial recall.

  3. Differential Effects of General Metacognition and Task-Specific Beliefs on Strategy Use and Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weed, Keri; And Others

    A self-paced free recall task was employed to assess the effects of motivational and metacognitive influences on active processing and recall. A total of 81 fourth-graders were randomly assigned to one of four instructional conditions: strategy instructions plus process monitoring instructions; strategy instructions only; process monitoring…

  4. The Effect of Outlines and Headings on Readers' Recall of Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krug, Damon; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of outlines prefacing text and headings inserted in the text on the recall of prose by 178 undergraduates. Results indicate that a combination of outlines and headings best benefit readers' recall. Results are discussed from a schema activation perspective. (SLD)

  5. Entropic Ratchet transport of interacting active Brownian particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ai, Bao-Quan; He, Ya-Feng; Zhong, Wei-Rong

    2014-11-21

    Directed transport of interacting active (self-propelled) Brownian particles is numerically investigated in confined geometries (entropic barriers). The self-propelled velocity can break thermodynamical equilibrium and induce the directed transport. It is found that the interaction between active particles can greatly affect the ratchet transport. For attractive particles, on increasing the interaction strength, the average velocity first decreases to its minima, then increases, and finally decreases to zero. For repulsive particles, when the interaction is very weak, there exists a critical interaction at which the average velocity is minimal, nearly tends to zero, however, for the strong interaction, the average velocity is independent of the interaction.

  6. Galaxy interactions and the stimulation of nuclear activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, Timothy M.

    1990-01-01

    The author discusses the idea that interactions between galaxies can lead to enhanced galactic activity. He discusses whether, apart from the observational evidence, there is a strong theoretical or heuristic motivation for investigating galaxy interactions as stimulators of nuclear activity in galaxies. Galactic interactions as mechanisms for triggering nuclear starbursts are covered.

  7. Quantum Bounce and Cosmic Recall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Singh, Parampreet

    2008-04-01

    Loop quantum cosmology predicts that, in simple models, the big bang is replaced by a quantum bounce. A natural question is whether the universe retains, after the bounce, its memory about the previous epoch. More precisely, does the Universe retain various properties of the state after evolving unitarily through the bounce, or does it suffer from recently suggested cosmic amnesia? We show that this issue can be answered unambiguously at least within an exactly solvable model. A semiclassical state at late times on one side of the bounce, peaked on a pair of canonically conjugate variables, strongly bounds the fluctuations on the other side, implying semiclassicality. For a model universe growing to 1 megaparsec, the change in relative fluctuation across the bounce is less than 10-56 (becoming smaller for larger universes). The universe maintains (an almost) total recall.

  8. Beginning at the Beginning: Recall Order and the Number of Words to Be Recalled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Lydia; Ward, Geoff; Paulauskaite, Laura; Markou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    When participants are asked to recall a short list of words in any order that they like, they tend to initiate recall with the first list item and proceed in forward order, even when this is not a task requirement. The current research examined whether this tendency might be influenced by varying the number of items that are to be recalled. In 3…

  9. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Effect of Concurrent Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    In 3 experiments, participants saw lists of 16 words for free recall with or without a 6-digit immediate serial recall (ISR) task after each word. Free recall was performed under standard visual silent and spoken-aloud conditions (Experiment 1), overt rehearsal conditions (Experiment 2), and fixed rehearsal conditions (Experiment 3). The authors…

  10. Respondents' recall of injury events: an investigation of recall bias in cross-sectional injury data from the Sudan Household Health Survey 2010.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Safa; Abdelgadir, Nahid; Shahraz, Saeid; Bhalla, Kavi

    2015-01-01

    Recall bias is a well-documented limitation of population-based cross-sectional injury surveys. To fill some gaps in this area, we investigated the extent and nature of recall bias in Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS 2010) injury data. The extent of incomplete recall was measured by comparing the total reported injuries over 12 months with the annualised number of injuries in the four weeks preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of socio-demographic variables, injury attributes and interviewee characteristics with differential recall. Relevant interactions were tested. Overall, reported injuries were 33% of the expected. Injuries among children 1-4 years had lower odds of being reported to have occurred earlier than the four weeks preceding the survey than people aged 65 years and over (OR = 0.24, 95% CI 0.12-0.47). Injuries that received inpatient care in the first week were more likely to be recalled than those that did not receive care (OR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.14-3.75). Respondent's age was associated with differential recall. Differential injury recall should be considered when using SHHS 2010 to compare injury occurrence between children under five and older groups or at the level of health care received.

  11. Color preference and familiarity in performance on brand logo recall.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Chin-Chiuan; Chiang, Shu-Ying

    2008-10-01

    Two experiments assessed effects of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on recall performance. Exp. 1 explored the color preferences, using a forced-choice technique, of 189 women and 63 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.4, SD = 1.5). The sequence of the three most preferred colors was white, light blue, and black and of the three least preferred colors was light orange, dark violet, and dark brown. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of color preference based on the results of Exp. 1 and brand-logo familiarity on recall. A total of 27 women and 21 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.2, SD = 1.2) participated. They memorized a list of 24 logos (four logos shown in six colors) and then performed sequential recall. Analyses showed color preference significantly affected recall accuracy. Accuracy for high color preference was significantly greater than that for low preferences. Results showed no significant effects of brand-logo familiarity or sex on accuracy. In addition, the interactive effect of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on accuracy was significant. These results have implications for the design of brand logos to create and sustain memory of brand images.

  12. Aging and the picture superiority effect in recall.

    PubMed

    Winograd, E; Smith, A D; Simon, E W

    1982-01-01

    One recurrent theme in the literature on aging and memory is that the decline of memory for nonverbal information is steeper than for verbal information. This research compares verbal and visual encoding using the picture superiority effect, the finding that pictures are remembered better than words. In the first experiment, an interaction was found between age and type of material; younger subjects recalled more pictures than words while older subjects did not. However, the overall effect was small and two further experiments were conducted. In both of these experiments, the picture superiority effect was found in both age groups with no interaction. In addition, performing a semantic orienting task had no effect on recall. The finding of a picture superiority effect in older subjects indicates that nonverbal codes can be effectively used by subjects in all age groups to facilitate memory performance.

  13. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  14. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  15. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  16. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  17. Directed Forgetting of Recently Recalled Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnier, Amanda J.; Conway, Martin A.; Mayoh, Lyndel; Speyer, Joanne; Avizmil, Orit; Harris, Celia B.

    2007-01-01

    In 6 experiments, the authors investigated list-method directed forgetting of recently recalled autobiographical memories. Reliable directed forgetting effects were observed across all experiments. In 4 experiments, the authors examined the impact of memory valence on directed forgetting. The forget instruction impaired recall of negative,…

  18. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall communications. 7.49 Section 7.49 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities §...

  19. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall policy. 7.40 Section 7.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities §...

  20. Organization of Free Recall Using Specialized Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprafka, Sarah; Zacks, Rose

    The organizational factors in memory relevant to learning medical diagnosis terms are discussed in this paper. Two hypotheses are tested: that the type of list organization will affect total recall; and that the type of curriculum and year in school will affect the organization of recall. Ninety-six second and third year medical students from two…

  1. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS Canning and Canned... recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  2. 9 CFR 381.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered...

  3. Drug recall: An incubus for pharmaceutical companies and most serious drug recall of history.

    PubMed

    Nagaich, Upendra; Sadhna, Divya

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the number of prescribed and over-the-counter drug recall over the last few years. The recall is usually due to company's discovery, customer's complaint or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) observation. The process of recall involves a planned specific course of action, which addresses the depth of recall, need for public warning, and the extent of effectiveness checks for the recall. The FDA review and/or recommend changes to the firm's recall strategy, as appropriate. The critical recall information list includes the identity of the product; summary of the failure; amount of product produced in the distribution chain and direct account. Product recalls clashes thousands of companies every year affecting: sales, testing customer relationships and disrupting supply chains. Drug recall is incubus for pharmaceutical companies. It effects the reputation of the company. The reason for the recall can be divided into two categories: manufacturing affined and safety/efficacy affined. It is essential to follow all the guidelines related to drug development and manufacturing procedure so as to minimize drug recall.

  4. Drug recall: An incubus for pharmaceutical companies and most serious drug recall of history

    PubMed Central

    Nagaich, Upendra; Sadhna, Divya

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the number of prescribed and over-the-counter drug recall over the last few years. The recall is usually due to company's discovery, customer's complaint or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) observation. The process of recall involves a planned specific course of action, which addresses the depth of recall, need for public warning, and the extent of effectiveness checks for the recall. The FDA review and/or recommend changes to the firm's recall strategy, as appropriate. The critical recall information list includes the identity of the product; summary of the failure; amount of product produced in the distribution chain and direct account. Product recalls clashes thousands of companies every year affecting: sales, testing customer relationships and disrupting supply chains. Drug recall is incubus for pharmaceutical companies. It effects the reputation of the company. The reason for the recall can be divided into two categories: manufacturing affined and safety/efficacy affined. It is essential to follow all the guidelines related to drug development and manufacturing procedure so as to minimize drug recall. PMID:25599028

  5. Erroneous and Veridical Recall Are Not Two Sides of the Same Coin: Evidence from Semantic Distraction in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Sörqvist, Patrik; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which erroneous recall blocks veridical recall using, as a vehicle for study, the disruptive impact of distractors that are semantically similar to a list of words presented for free recall. Instructing participants to avoid erroneous recall of to-be-ignored spoken distractors attenuated their recall but this…

  6. Impact of interspecific interactions on antimicrobial activity among soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tyc, Olaf; van den Berg, Marlies; Gerards, Saskia; van Veen, Johannes A; Raaijmakers, Jos M; de Boer, Wietse; Garbeva, Paolina

    2014-01-01

    Certain bacterial species produce antimicrobial compounds only in the presence of a competing species. However, little is known on the frequency of interaction-mediated induction of antibiotic compound production in natural communities of soil bacteria. Here we developed a high-throughput method to screen for the production of antimicrobial activity by monocultures and pair-wise combinations of 146 phylogenetically different bacteria isolated from similar soil habitats. Growth responses of two human pathogenic model organisms, Escherichia coli WA321 and Staphylococcus aureus 533R4, were used to monitor antimicrobial activity. From all isolates, 33% showed antimicrobial activity only in monoculture and 42% showed activity only when tested in interactions. More bacterial isolates were active against S. aureus than against E. coli. The frequency of interaction-mediated induction of antimicrobial activity was 6% (154 interactions out of 2798) indicating that only a limited set of species combinations showed such activity. The screening revealed also interaction-mediated suppression of antimicrobial activity for 22% of all combinations tested. Whereas all patterns of antimicrobial activity (non-induced production, induced production and suppression) were seen for various bacterial classes, interaction-mediated induction of antimicrobial activity was more frequent for combinations of Flavobacteria and alpha- Proteobacteria. The results of our study give a first indication on the frequency of interference competitive interactions in natural soil bacterial communities which may forms a basis for selection of bacterial groups that are promising for the discovery of novel, cryptic antibiotics.

  7. Recalling what was where when seeing nothing there.

    PubMed

    Staudte, Maria; Altmann, Gerry T M

    2016-07-18

    So-called "looks-at-nothing" have previously been used to show that recalling what also elicits the recall of where this was. Here, we present evidence from an eye-tracking study which shows that disrupting looks to "there" does not disrupt recalling what was there, nor do (anticipatory) looks to "there" facilitate recalling what was there. Therefore, our results suggest that recalling where does not recall what.

  8. Interactional Competence and the Development of Alignment Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dings, Abby

    2014-01-01

    Based on qualitative analysis of conversational interactions collected over the course of a Spanish language learner's academic year abroad, this article explores the development of interactional resources related to alignment activity in the learner's conversational participation. Alignment activity refers to the means interlocutors use…

  9. Characterizing Interactive Engagement Activities in a Flipped Introductory Physics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Donnelly, Robyn; Hardy, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Interactive engagement activities are increasingly common in undergraduate physics teaching. As research efforts move beyond simply showing that interactive engagement pedagogies work towards developing an understanding of "how" they lead to improved learning outcomes, a detailed analysis of the way in which these activities are used in…

  10. Interactive activation and mutual constraint satisfaction in perception and cognition.

    PubMed

    McClelland, James L; Mirman, Daniel; Bolger, Donald J; Khaitan, Pranav

    2014-08-01

    In a seminal 1977 article, Rumelhart argued that perception required the simultaneous use of multiple sources of information, allowing perceivers to optimally interpret sensory information at many levels of representation in real time as information arrives. Building on Rumelhart's arguments, we present the Interactive Activation hypothesis-the idea that the mechanism used in perception and comprehension to achieve these feats exploits an interactive activation process implemented through the bidirectional propagation of activation among simple processing units. We then examine the interactive activation model of letter and word perception and the TRACE model of speech perception, as early attempts to explore this hypothesis, and review the experimental evidence relevant to their assumptions and predictions. We consider how well these models address the computational challenge posed by the problem of perception, and we consider how consistent they are with evidence from behavioral experiments. We examine empirical and theoretical controversies surrounding the idea of interactive processing, including a controversy that swirls around the relationship between interactive computation and optimal Bayesian inference. Some of the implementation details of early versions of interactive activation models caused deviation from optimality and from aspects of human performance data. More recent versions of these models, however, overcome these deficiencies. Among these is a model called the multinomial interactive activation model, which explicitly links interactive activation and Bayesian computations. We also review evidence from neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies supporting the view that interactive processing is a characteristic of the perceptual processing machinery in the brain. In sum, we argue that a computational analysis, as well as behavioral and neuroscience evidence, all support the Interactive Activation hypothesis. The evidence suggests that

  11. Interactive Activation Model of Speech Perception.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    contract. 0 Elar, .l... & .McC’lelland .1.1. Speech perception a, a cognitive proces,: The interactive act ia- %e., tion model of speech perception. In...attempts to provide a machine solution to the problem of speech perception. A second kind of model, growing out of Cognitive Psychology, attempts to...architectures to cognitive and perceptual problems. We also owe a debt to what we might call the computational connectionists -- those who have applied highly

  12. Docetaxel-induced photo-recall phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Droitcourt, Catherine; Le Hô, Hélêne; Adamski, Henri; Le Gall, François; Dupuy, Alain

    2012-08-01

    Photo-recall phenomenon is a phototoxic eruption occurring on areas of previous ultraviolet-induced solar erythema following a systemic administration of a drug. It has been mostly described with methotrexate but remains rare with other antineoplastic drugs. We describe a case of docetaxel-induced photo-recall skin rash in a woman treated for a non-small-cell lung cancer. Although the patient has refused to receive a second infusion, chemotherapy can be carried on with photoprotection and the use of topical and/or systemic corticosteroids. In contrast, radiation recall is a well-known reaction by oncologists, most of them may not be aware of a similar phenomenon called photo-recall phenomenon. Recognizing this entity may avoid misdiagnosing a drug allergy and should avoid inappropriate decisions of drug discontinuation.

  13. Adiabatic quantum optimization for associative memory recall

    DOE PAGES

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis S.

    2014-12-22

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are storedmore » in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.« less

  14. Adiabatic quantum optimization for associative memory recall

    SciTech Connect

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis S.

    2014-12-22

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  15. Jim Lovell Recalls Apollo 8 Launch Day

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronaut Jim Lovell, veteran of two Gemini flights as well as the legendary missions of Apollo 8 and Apollo 13, recalls his thoughts on launch day of Apollo 8 in 1968, when humans first left the E...

  16. The Structure and Recall of Narrative Prose

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    reactors and parakeets into a hierarchy of "idea units" and found that idea units higher in the hierarchy were more frequently recalled than idea...responses for recall of descriptive i prose involving set relations. I I" I i i i I I I Monk and Kintsch (1974) measured reaction times to...repeated exposures. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1975, 14, 158-169. Monk , D., & Kintsch, W. Memory search I: Paragraph memory

  17. Speech Perception as a Cognitive Process: The Interactive Activation Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    one another in COHORT, the nodes for sell, your, light, and cellulite , wil all bc in active competition with one another. The system will have no way...7 AD-AI28 787 SPEECH PERCEPTION AS A COGNITIVE PROCESS: THE INTERACTIVE ACTIVATION MODE..(U) CALIFORNIA UNIV SAN D IEGO LA dOLLA INST FOR COGNITIVE...TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Speech Perception as a Cognitive Process: Technical Report The Interactive Activation Model S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT

  18. Recalled Aspects of Original Encoding Strategies Influence Episodic Feeling of Knowing

    PubMed Central

    Hertzog, Christopher; Fulton, Erika K.; Sinclair, Starlette M.; Dunlosky, John

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that feeling of knowing (FOK) after a failed recall attempt is influenced by recalling aspects of the original encoding strategy. Individuals were instructed to use interactive imagery to encode unrelated word pairs. We manipulated item concreteness (abstract versus concrete) and item repetition at study (1 versus 3). Participants orally described the mediator produced immediately after studying each item, if any. After a delay they were given cued recall, made FOK ratings, and attempted to recall their original mediator. Concreteness and item repetition enhanced strategy recall, which had a large effect on FOKs. Controlling on strategy recall reduced the predictive validity of FOKs for recognition memory, indicating that access to original aspects of encoding influenced FOK accuracy. Confidence judgments (CJs) for correctly recognized items covaried with FOKs, but FOKs did not fully track strategy recall associations with CJs, suggesting emergent effects of strategy cues elicited by recognition tests not accessed at the time of the FOK judgment. In summary, cue-generated access to aspects of the original encoding strategy strongly influenced episodic FOK, although other influences are also implicated. PMID:23835601

  19. Validation of the OMNI RPE Seven Day Exertional Recall Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Mark A.; Robertson, Robert J.; Thekkada, Savitha J.; Gallagher, Michael, Jr.; Hunt, Sarah E.; Goss, Fredric L.; Aaron, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the validity of the Seven Day Recall Questionnaire among recreationally active men and women. Method: Initially, participants completed a level walk (2.5 mph [4.0 kph]), hill walk (3.5 mph [5.6 kph], 5% grade), and run (5.0 mph [8.0 kph], 2.5% grade). Seven days later, participants were given the Seven Day…

  20. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Deborah A.; Wright, Janine L.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. PMID:25984743

  1. Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.

  2. Characterizing interactive engagement activities in a flipped introductory physics class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Donnelly, Robyn; Hardy, Judy

    2016-06-01

    Interactive engagement activities are increasingly common in undergraduate physics teaching. As research efforts move beyond simply showing that interactive engagement pedagogies work towards developing an understanding of how they lead to improved learning outcomes, a detailed analysis of the way in which these activities are used in practice is needed. Our aim in this paper is to present a characterization of the type and duration of interactions, as experienced by students, that took place during two introductory physics courses (1A and 1B) at a university in the United Kingdom. Through this work, a simple framework for analyzing lectures—the framework for interactive learning in lectures (FILL), which focuses on student interactions (with the lecturer, with each other, and with the material) is proposed. The pedagogical approach is based on Peer Instruction (PI) and both courses are taught by the same lecturer. We find lecture activities can be categorized into three types: interactive (25%), vicarious interactive (20%) (involving questions to and from the lecturer), and noninteractive (55%). As expected, the majority of both interactive and vicarious interactive activities took place during PI. However, the way that interactive activities were used during non-PI sections of the lecture varied significantly between the two courses. Differences were also found in the average time spent on lecturer-student interactions (28% for 1A and 12% for 1B), although not on student-student interactions (12% and 12%) or on individual learning (10% and 7%). These results are explored in detail and the implications for future research are discussed.

  3. Associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults.

    PubMed

    Ganzer, Christine A; Insel, Kathleen C; Ritter, Leslie S

    2012-10-01

    Stroke remains a major cause of mortality and disability among older adults. Although early treatment after stroke is known to reduce both mortality and disability, the first step in seeking early treatment is dependent on the rapid recognition of the signs of stroke. Recall of the signs of stroke may be dependent on factors that exist before the stroke itself. Although it is known that both working memory and health literacy decline with advancing age, these factors have not been thoroughly examined with respect to recall of the signs of stroke. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults. Community dwelling older adults (≥65 years of age) were recruited from two senior centers. Fifty-six participants meeting inclusion criteria provided demographic and health information and were asked to read a public service brochure listing the five warning signs of stroke. Working memory was then assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition Working Memory Index. Health literacy was assessed by the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Participants' recall of the five warning signs of stroke was evaluated. The mean age was 80.4 years. The mean number of the signs of stroke recalled was 2.9 ± 1.33. Working memory and health literacy were positively correlated with recall of the signs of stroke (r = .38, p < 0.01; r = .44, p < 0.01). In a simultaneous regression, only health literacy remained a significant predictor of recall. There was no statistically significant interaction between working memory and health literacy. Findings from this study indicate that working memory and health literacy were associated with successful recall of the warning signs of stroke in older adults. Further studies are needed to determine if programs that include cognitive and literacy assessments could identify older adults who need

  4. Transcription Activator Interactions with Multiple SWI/SNF Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Kristen E.; Hassan, Ahmed H.; Brown, Christine E.; Howe, LeAnn; Workman, Jerry L.

    2002-01-01

    We have previously shown that the yeast SWI/SNF complex stimulates in vitro transcription from chromatin templates in an ATP-dependent manner. SWI/SNF function in this regard requires the presence of an activator with which it can interact directly, linking activator recruitment of SWI/SNF to transcriptional stimulation. In this study, we determine the SWI/SNF subunits that mediate its interaction with activators. Using a photo-cross-linking label transfer strategy, we show that the Snf5, Swi1, and Swi2/Snf2 subunits are contacted by the yeast acidic activators, Gcn4 and Hap4, in the context of the intact native SWI/SNF complex. In addition, we show that the same three subunits can interact individually with acidic activation domains, indicating that each subunit contributes to binding activators. Furthermore, mutations that reduce the activation potential of these activators also diminish its interaction with each of these SWI/SNF subunits. Thus, three distinct subunits of the SWI/SNF complex contribute to its interactions with activation domains. PMID:11865042

  5. Galaxy interactions and strength of nuclear activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simkin, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of data in the literature for differential velocities and projected separations of nearby Seyfert galaxies with possible companions shows a clear difference in projected separations between type 1's and type 2's. This kinematic difference between the two activity classes reinforces other independent evidence that their different nuclear characteristics are related to a non-nuclear physical distinction between the two classes. The differential velocities and projected separations of the galaxy pairs in this sample yield mean galaxy masses, sizes, and mass to light ratios which are consistent with those found by the statistical methods of Karachentsev. Although the galaxy sample discussed here is too small and too poorly defined to provide robust support for these conclusions, the results strongly suggest that nuclear activity in Seyfert galaxies is associated with gravitational perturbations from companion galaxies, and that there are physical distinctions between the host companions of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 nuclei which may depend both on the environment and the structure of the host galaxy itself.

  6. Interaction of activated leukocytes with polymeric microspheres.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, H; Pişkin, E

    1997-12-01

    Three types of polymeric particles with different surface wettabilities, i.e., poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), poly(methylmethacrylate-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (P(MMA/HEMA)) and poly(methylmethacrylate)/poly(vinyl alcohol) PMMA/PVAL with a diameter of 1.5 microm were produced in this study These particles were incubated with blood samples obtained both from three patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. In the blood samples taken before the bypass operations, there was considerable phagocytosis and/or adhesion of the PMMA particles, i.e., 14+/-4 particles per monocyte and 11+/-3 particles per neutrophil. While there was almost no phagocytosis and/or adhesion of the P(MMA/HEMA) and PMMA/PVAL particles. In the blood samples which were taken during bypass operations, phagocytosis and/or adhesion of PMMA microspheres increased significantly. The P(MMA/HEMA) and/or PMMA/PVAL particles adhered, or were even phagocytosed by the activated leukocytes in this case. Leukocytes activated during the bypass operations gradually returned to normal in about 24 h.

  7. Differential recall of derived and inflected word forms in working memory: examining the role of morphological information in simple and complex working memory tasks

    PubMed Central

    Service, Elisabet; Maury, Sini

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) has been described as an interface between cognition and action, or a system for access to a limited amount of information needed in complex cognition. Access to morphological information is needed for comprehending and producing sentences. The present study probed WM for morphologically complex word forms in Finnish, a morphologically rich language. We studied monomorphemic (boy), inflected (boy+’s), and derived (boy+hood) words in three tasks. Simple span, immediate serial recall of words, in Experiment 1, is assumed to mainly rely on information in the focus of attention. Sentence span, a dual task combining sentence reading with recall of the last word (Experiment 2) or of a word not included in the sentence (Experiment 3) is assumed to involve establishment of a search set in long-term memory for fast activation into the focus of attention. Recall was best for monomorphemic and worst for inflected word forms with performance on derived words in between. However, there was an interaction between word type and experiment, suggesting that complex span is more sensitive to morphological complexity in derivations than simple span. This was explored in a within-subjects Experiment 4 combining all three tasks. An interaction between morphological complexity and task was replicated. Both inflected and derived forms increased load in WM. In simple span, recall of inflectional forms resulted in form errors. Complex span tasks were more sensitive to morphological load in derived words, possibly resulting from interference from morphological neighbors in the mental lexicon. The results are best understood as involving competition among inflectional forms when binding words from input into an output structure, and competition from morphological neighbors in secondary memory during cumulative retrieval-encoding cycles. Models of verbal recall need to be able to represent morphological as well as phonological and semantic information. PMID:25642181

  8. Understanding the dynamics of correct and error responses in free recall: evidence from externalized free recall.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A; Spillers, Gregory J

    2010-06-01

    The dynamics of correct and error responses in a variant of delayed free recall were examined in the present study. In the externalized free recall paradigm, participants were presented with lists of words and were instructed to subsequently recall not only the words that they could remember from the most recently presented list, but also any other words that came to mind during the recall period. Externalized free recall is useful for elucidating both sampling and postretrieval editing processes, thereby yielding more accurate estimates of the total number of error responses, which are typically sampled and subsequently edited during free recall. The results indicated that the participants generally sampled correct items early in the recall period and then transitioned to sampling more erroneous responses. Furthermore, the participants generally terminated their search after sampling too many errors. An examination of editing processes suggested that the participants were quite good at identifying errors, but this varied systematically on the basis of a number of factors. The results from the present study are framed in terms of generate-edit models of free recall.

  9. Effects of Recognition on Subsequent Recall: Comments on "Determinants of Recognition and Recall: Accessibility and Generation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Donald E.; Broadbent, Margaret H. P.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts have been made by Rabinowitz, Mandler, and Patterson (AA 527 084) to show that both recall and recognition involve the accessibility of individual words. Their recall tests preceded recognition tests, or vice versa, thus contaminating each other; a fresh experiment is presented to confirm that this is so. (Editor)

  10. Erroneous and Veridical Recall Are Not Two Sides of the Same Coin: Evidence From Semantic Distraction in Free Recall

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which erroneous recall blocks veridical recall using, as a vehicle for study, the disruptive impact of distractors that are semantically similar to a list of words presented for free recall. Instructing participants to avoid erroneous recall of to-be-ignored spoken distractors attenuated their recall but this did not influence the disruptive effect of those distractors on veridical recall (Experiment 1). Using an externalized output-editing procedure—whereby participants recalled all items that came to mind and identified those that were erroneous—the usual between-sequences semantic similarity effect on erroneous and veridical recall was replicated but the relationship between the rate of erroneous and veridical recall was weak (Experiment 2). The results suggest that forgetting is not due to veridical recall being blocked by similar events. PMID:25938326

  11. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and retrieval of task-relevant information. In 6 experiments, we tested the inhibitory account of the effect of negative priming in free recall against alternative accounts. We found that ignoring auditory distracters is neither sufficient nor necessary to produce the effect of negative priming in free recall. Instead, the effect is more readily accounted for by a buildup of proactive interference occurring whenever 2 successively presented lists of words are drawn from the same semantic category. PMID:26595066

  12. Lingering representations of stimuli influence recall organization.

    PubMed

    Chan, Stephanie C Y; Applegate, Marissa C; Morton, Neal W; Polyn, Sean M; Norman, Kenneth A

    2017-03-01

    Several prominent theories posit that information about recent experiences lingers in the brain and organizes memories for current experiences, by forming a temporal context that is linked to those memories at encoding. According to these theories, if the thoughts preceding an experience X resemble the thoughts preceding an experience Y, then X and Y should show an elevated probability of being recalled together. We tested this prediction by using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data to measure neural evidence for lingering processing of preceding stimuli. As predicted, memories encoded with similar lingering thoughts about the category of preceding stimuli were more likely to be recalled together. Our results demonstrate that the "fading embers" of previous stimuli help to organize recall, confirming a key prediction of computational models of episodic memory.

  13. Symbolic forms can be mnemonics for recall.

    PubMed

    Liu, C H; Kennedy, J M

    1994-12-01

    Form symbolism using squares and circles can aid recall. In Experiment 1, subjects saw 20 words, each presented in a circle or a square. Words like SOFT and MOTHER were presented in circles in the "congruent" condition, whereas the same words were presented in squares in the "incongruent" condition. Two experiments revealed that words in the congruent condition were more likely to be recalled. A comparison of the conditions with a baseline condition, in which 20 listed words were not closely related to either of the shapes, suggests that the effect was more likely due to facilitation produced by the congruent condition than to inhibition from the incongruent condition.

  14. The emotional eyewitness: the effects of emotion on specific aspects of eyewitness recall and recognition performance.

    PubMed

    Houston, Kate A; Clifford, Brian R; Phillips, Louise H; Memon, Amina

    2013-02-01

    The present set of experiments aimed to investigate the effects of negative emotion on specific aspects of eyewitness recall and recognition performance. The experience of emotion was manipulated between subjects, with participants either viewing a crime scenario (a mugging) or a neutral scenario (a conversation). Eyewitness recall was categorized into descriptions of the perpetrator, critical incident, victim, and environmental details. The completeness and accuracy of eyewitness recall across categories of detail were measured in Experiment 1. A significant main effect of negative emotion was found for the completeness of recall. Furthermore, a significant main effect of the completeness of eyewitness statements was found, but not for their accuracy. However, these main effects were qualified by a significant interaction between emotion and category of detail recalled. Specifically, emotional participants provided a more complete description of the perpetrator than neutral participants; however, they were less able than their neutral counterparts to describe what the perpetrator did to the victim. In light of these findings, Experiment 2 investigated whether enhanced completeness of perpetrator descriptions during recall translated into an enhanced ability to recognize the perpetrator from a photographic lineup by emotional compared with neutral participants. Results from Experiment 2 suggest that while emotional participants again provide a more complete description of the perpetrator, they are less able than their neutral counterparts to recognize the perpetrator from a photographic lineup. Results are discussed in terms of a retrieval motivation hypothesis of negative emotional experience and the possible consequences for eyewitness testimony.

  15. Overlap between the neural correlates of cued recall and source memory: evidence for a generic recollection network?

    PubMed

    Hayama, Hiroki R; Vilberg, Kaia L; Rugg, Michael D

    2012-05-01

    Recall of a studied item and retrieval of its encoding context (source memory) both depend on recollection of qualitative information about the study episode. This study investigated whether recall and source memory engage overlapping neural regions. Participants (n = 18) studied a series of words, which were presented either to the left or right of fixation. fMRI data were collected during a subsequent test phase in which three-letter word-stems were presented, two thirds of which could be completed by a study item. Instructions were to use each stem as a cue to recall a studied word and, when recall was successful, to indicate the word's study location. When recall failed, the stem was to be completed with the first word to come to mind. Relative to stems for which recall failed, word-stems eliciting successful recall were associated with enhanced activity in a variety of cortical regions, including bilateral parietal, posterior midline, and parahippocampal cortex. Activity in these regions was enhanced when recall was accompanied by successful rather than unsuccessful source retrieval. It is proposed that the regions form part of a "recollection network" in which activity is graded according to the amount of information retrieved about a study episode.

  16. Active aerodynamic control of wake-airfoil interaction noise - Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Lavrich, P. L.; Sofrin, T. G.; Topol, D. A.

    A proof of concept experiment is conducted that shows the potential for active aerodynamic control of rotor wake/stator interaction noise in a simplified manner. A single airfoil model representing the stator was fitted with a moveable trailing edge flap controlled by a servo motor. The control system moves the motor driven flap in the correct angular displacement phase and rate to reduce the unsteady load on the airfoil during the wake interaction.

  17. Enhancing the Recall of Presented Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    Many educators distribute either complete or incomplete handouts so students can follow along with their lectures. This research examines a teaching system that combines computer-generated graphics presentations and detailed outline handouts with blanks added. An experiment found that this system produced significantly higher short-term recall of…

  18. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  19. Young Children's Scripted-Story Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doiron, Renee; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    A study investigated the effects of presentation mode and type of content on young children's recall of nouns in a scripted narrative. Forty-nine children in the second month of first grade were presented a fictional narrative in which were embedded 18 target nouns classified as high-scripted, medium-scripted, or low-scripted. Subjects then viewed…

  20. Precision and Recall in Title Keyword Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McJunkin, Monica Cahill

    This study examines precision and recall for title and keyword searches performed in the "FirstSearch" WorldCat database when keywords are used with and without adjacency of terms specified. A random sample of 68 titles in economics were searched in the OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) Online Union Catalog in order to obtain their…

  1. Genetic Counselling: Information Given, Recall and Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Susan; McDonald, Valerie; Marteau, Theresa M.

    1997-01-01

    A questionnaire was sent to counselors (N=32) to categorize the key points given in genetic counseling; to assess the amount and type of information recalled; and to examine the relationships between counselees' knowledge, satisfaction with information received, the meeting of expectations, concern, and anxiety. Results emphasize the importance of…

  2. Dreaming and recall during sedation for colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Stait, M L; Leslie, K; Bailey, R

    2008-09-01

    Dreaming is reported by one in five patients who are interviewed on emergence from general anaesthesia, but the incidence, predictors and consequences of dreaming during procedural sedation are not known. In this prospective observational study, 200 patients presenting for elective colonoscopy under intravenous sedation were interviewed on emergence to determine the incidences of dreaming and recall. Sedation technique was left to the discretion of the anaesthetist. The incidence of dreaming was 25.5%. Patients reporting dreaming were younger than those who did not report dreaming. Doses of midazolam and fentanyl were similar between dreamers and non-dreamers, however propofol doses were higher in patients who reported dreams than those who did not. Patients reported short, simple dreams about everyday life--no dream suggested near-miss recall of the procedure. Frank recall of the procedure was reported by 4% of the patients, which was consistent with propofol doses commensurate with light general anaesthesia. The only significant predictor of recall was lower propofol dose. Satisfaction with care was generally high, however dreamers were more satisfied with their care than non-dreamers.

  3. Fading Memories: Retrospective Recall Inaccuracies in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This longitudinal study examines the recall accuracy of childhood ADHD symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood by youth and their parents, compared with reports obtained during childhood. Method: Participants (N = 94) are initially evaluated when they are aged between 7 and 11 and reassessed when they are aged between 16 and 22…

  4. Interactions Increase Forager Availability and Activity in Harvester Ants.

    PubMed

    Pless, Evlyn; Queirolo, Jovel; Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Crow, Sam; Allen, Kelsey; Mathur, Maya B; Gordon, Deborah M

    2015-01-01

    Social insect colonies use interactions among workers to regulate collective behavior. Harvester ant foragers interact in a chamber just inside the nest entrance, here called the 'entrance chamber'. Previous studies of the activation of foragers in red harvester ants show that an outgoing forager inside the nest experiences an increase in brief antennal contacts before it leaves the nest to forage. Here we compare the interaction rate experienced by foragers that left the nest and ants that did not. We found that ants in the entrance chamber that leave the nest to forage experienced more interactions than ants that descend to the deeper nest without foraging. Additionally, we found that the availability of foragers in the entrance chamber is associated with the rate of forager return. An increase in the rate of forager return leads to an increase in the rate at which ants descend to the deeper nest, which then stimulates more ants to ascend into the entrance chamber. Thus a higher rate of forager return leads to more available foragers in the entrance chamber. The highest density of interactions occurs near the nest entrance and the entrances of the tunnels from the entrance chamber to the deeper nest. Local interactions with returning foragers regulate both the activation of waiting foragers and the number of foragers available to be activated.

  5. Androgen receptor serine 81 mediates Pin1 interaction and activity

    PubMed Central

    La Montagna, Raffaele; Caligiuri, Isabella; Maranta, Pasquale; Lucchetti, Chiara; Esposito, Luca; Paggi, Marco G.; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Rizzolio, Flavio; Giordano, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Hormone-dependent tumors are characterized by deregulated activity of specific steroid receptors, allowing aberrant expression of many genes involved in cancer initiation, progression and metastasis. In prostate cancer, the androgen receptor (AR) protein has pivotal functions, and over the years it has been the target of different drugs. AR is a nuclear receptor whose activity is regulated by a phosphorylation mechanism controlled by hormone and growth factors. Following phosphorylation, AR interacts with many cofactors that closely control its function. Among such cofactors, Pin1 is a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that is involved in the control of protein phosphorylation and has a prognostic value in prostate cancer. In the present study, we demonstrate that ARSer81 is involved in the interaction with Pin1, and that this interaction is important for the transcriptional activity of AR. Since Pin1 expression positively correlates with tumor grade, our results suggest that Pin1 can participate in this process by modulating AR function. PMID:22894932

  6. The effect of encoding condition on free recall in Parkinson's disease: incidental and intentional memory are equally affected.

    PubMed

    Ellfolk, Ulla; Huurinainen, Salla; Joutsa, Juho; Karrasch, Mira

    2012-01-01

    Free recall memory deficits are common at early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). As most studies have used intentional memory tasks, there is little information on how non-intentional, incidental encoding conditions affect memory performance in PD. We studied possible differences between PD patients and controls on free recall using incidental and intentional visual memory tasks. Free recall was examined in relation to attentive/executive functioning and subjective memory complaints. A total of 29 non-demented, medicated PD patients (age 60, disease duration 19 months) and 29 healthy controls (age 61) participated in the study. Incidental free recall was studied using a memory-modification of the Boston naming test (Memo-BNT) and intentional free recall with the 20 Objects test. There was a significant main effect for group due to worse free recall performances in the PD group. No statistically significant interaction between group and encoding condition was observed. The free recall deficit in the PD group was related to cognitive/psychomotor slowing, but not to attentive/executive task demands, or to subjective memory complaints. The results indicate that PD patients are impaired on free recall irrespective of encoding condition.

  7. Emerging activity in bilayered dispersions with wake-mediated interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartnick, Jörg; Kaiser, Andreas; Löwen, Hartmut; Ivlev, Alexei V.

    2016-06-01

    In a bilayered system of particles with wake-mediated interactions, the action-reaction symmetry for the effective forces between particles of different layers is broken. Under quite general conditions we show that, if the interaction nonreciprocity exceeds a certain threshold, this creates an active dispersion of self-propelled clusters of Brownian particles. The emerging activity promotes unusual melting scenarios and an enormous diffusivity in the dense fluid. Our results are obtained by computer simulation and analytical theory and can be verified in experiments with colloidal dispersions and complex plasmas.

  8. Recall of Dental Pain and Anxiety in a Cohort of Oral Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Kyle, B N; McNeil, D W; Weaver, B; Wilson, T

    2016-06-01

    Dental patients generally recall more pain than they originally report, with ratings of pain related to state anxiety and dental fear, but the role of depression in recall of dental pain remains uncertain. This study examined the relative contributions of different variables in explaining dental pain recalled after tooth extraction. Patients presenting for tooth extraction, prior to extraction, rated their current dental pain and state anxiety, prediction of pain and state anxiety during extraction, depression, and dental fear. Immediately postprocedure and then 1 mo later, patients rated their pain and state anxiety during extraction. Hierarchical linear regression equations were used to explain variance in recalled pain and state anxiety. In addition, patients were divided into high and low dental fear and depression groups and compared on ratings of pain and state anxiety across time. In a final sample of 157 patients, the most important predictors of recalled pain were pain reported during extraction (β = .53) and recalled state anxiety (β = .52). Dental fear and depression had a significant interaction: only when patients reported less depression did those patients who reported more dental fear also report more pain than patients who reported less dental fear (P < 0.05, ω(2) = .07). Patients who reported more depression entered the dental operatory reporting more pain, but all patients generally reported less pain during extraction than they predicted or recalled. Memory of state anxiety and pain reported during tooth extraction, not depression or state anxiety at the time of extraction, were critical factors in memory of the pain associated with the procedure. At higher levels of depression, patients higher and lower in dental fear did not differ in report of pain. Future studies are needed to further clarify interactions of depression and dental fear over time.

  9. Dynamics of brain electric field during recall of Salpuri dance performance.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Ran; Yagyu, Takami; Saito, Naomi; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Hirai, Takane

    2002-12-01

    The brain wave activity of a professional Salpuri dancer was observed while the subject recalled her performance of the Salpuri dance when sitting in a chair with closed eyes. As she recalled the feeling of the ecstatic trance state induced by the dance, an increase in alpha brain activity was observed together with marked frontal midline theta activity. Compared to a resting state, the dynamics of the electrical activity in the brain showed an increase in the global field power integral and a decrease in generalized frequency and spatial complexity.

  10. BAX Activation is Initiated at a Novel Interaction Site

    PubMed Central

    Gavathiotis, Evripidis; Suzuki, Motoshi; Davis, Marguerite L.; Pitter, Kenneth; Bird, Gregory H.; Katz, Samuel G.; Tu, Ho-Chou; Kim, Hyungjin; Cheng, Emily H.-Y.; Tjandra, Nico; Walensky, Loren D.

    2008-01-01

    BAX is a pro-apoptotic protein of the BCL-2 family stationed in the cytosol until activated by a diversity of stress stimuli to induce cell death. Anti-apoptotic proteins such as BCL-2 counteract BAX-mediated cell death. Although an interaction site that confers survival functionality has been defined for anti-apoptotic proteins, an activation site has not been identified for BAX, rendering its explicit trigger mechanism unknown. We previously developed Stabilized Alpha-Helix of BCL-2 domains (SAHBs) that directly initiate BAX-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis. Here we demonstrate by NMR analysis that BIM SAHB binds BAX at an interaction site that is distinct from the canonical binding groove characterized for anti-apoptotic proteins. The specificity of the BIM SAHB-BAX interaction is highlighted by point mutagenesis that abrogates functional activity, confirming that BAX activation is initiated at this novel structural location. Thus, we have now defined a BAX interaction site for direct activation, establishing a new target for therapeutic modulation of apoptosis. PMID:18948948

  11. On the Nature of Talker Variability Effects on Recall of Spoken Word Lists

    PubMed Central

    Goldinger, Stephen D.; Pisoni, David B.; Logan, John S.

    2012-01-01

    In a recent study, Martin, Mullennix, Pisoni, and Summers (1989) reported that subjects’ accuracy in recalling lists of spoken words was better for words in early list positions when the words were spoken by a single talker than when they were spoken by multiple talkers. The present study was conducted to examine the nature of these effects in further detail. Accuracy of serial-ordered recall was examined for lists of words spoken by either a single talker or by multiple talkers. Half the lists contained easily recognizable words, and half contained more difficult words, according to a combined metric of word frequency, lexical neighborhood density, and neighborhood frequency. Rate of presentation was manipulated to assess the effects of both variables on rehearsal and perceptual encoding. A strong interaction was obtained between talker variability and rate of presentation. Recall of multiple-talker lists was affected much more than single-talker lists by changes in presentation rate. At slow presentation rates, words in early serial positions produced by multiple talkers were actually recalled more accurately than words produced by a single talker. No interaction was observed for word confusability and rate of presentation. The data provide support for the proposal that talker variability affects the accuracy of recall of spoken words not only by increasing the processing demands for early perceptual encoding of the words, but also by affecting the efficiency of the rehearsal process itself. PMID:1826729

  12. Effects of Motivation on Young Children's Object Recall and Strategy Use.

    PubMed

    Nida, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to examine the effects of motivation on young children's recall for object names and early-emerging mnemonic activities. Seventy-two 4-year-old children were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 instructional conditions: incidental, intentional, or motivational. Each child was shown 10 small toy objects and provided a 90 s study period prior to recall. The children's mnemonic behaviors were videotaped for subsequent coding. The children in the incidental condition were instructed to simply look at the toys while children in the intentional and motivational condition were given explicit instructions to remember. The motivational group was also told that they could keep whichever toys they remembered. A recognition memory task was employed to examine the extent to which the stimuli were encoded during the study period. The children's recall memory did not vary as a function of instructional condition. Children's use of singular versus multiple strategies was calculated, along with a weighted summary score giving most weight to the participant's use of mature mnemonic strategies. Significant differences in strategy use were found, favoring the motivational condition. Significant positive correlations were found between the weighted summary scores and object recall, and the teacher ratings of mastery motivation and object recall. Mastery motivation was found to be unrelated to the strategic summary scores, failing to mediate strategic behaviors. The results suggest that when providing incentives to remember, children apparently engaged in more effortful mnemonic processing in order to remember the items, even though a greater number of items were not recalled.

  13. The Difference between Right and Wrong: Accuracy of Older and Younger Adults’ Story Recall

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Danielle K.; Alea, Nicole; Bluck, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Sharing stories is an important social activity in everyday life. This study used fine-grained content analysis to investigate the accuracy of recall of two central story elements: the gist and detail of socially-relevant stories. Younger (M age = 28.06) and older (M age = 75.03) American men and women (N = 63) recalled fictional stories that were coded for (i) accuracy of overall gist and specific gist categories and (ii) accuracy of overall detail and specific detail categories. Findings showed no age group differences in accuracy of overall gist or detail, but differences emerged for specific categories. Older adults more accurately recalled the gist of when the event occurred whereas younger adults more accurately recalled the gist of why the event occurred. These differences were related to episodic memory ability and education. For accuracy in recalling details, there were some age differences, but gender differences were more robust. Overall, women remembered details of these social stories more accurately than men, particularly time and perceptual details. Women were also more likely to accurately remember the gist of when the event occurred. The discussion focuses on how accurate recall of socially-relevant stories is not clearly age-dependent but is related to person characteristics such as gender and episodic memory ability/education. PMID:26404344

  14. Glucocorticoids interact with noradrenergic activation at encoding to enhance long-term memory for emotional material in women.

    PubMed

    Segal, S K; Simon, R; McFarlin, S; Alkire, M; Desai, A; Cahill, L F

    2014-09-26

    Evidence from the animal literature suggests that post-training glucocorticoids (GCs) interact with noradrenergic activation at acquisition to enhance memory consolidation for emotional stimuli. While there is evidence that GCs enhance memory for emotional material in humans, the extent to which this depends on noradrenergic activation at encoding has not been explored. In this study, 20-mg hydrocortisone was administered to healthy young women (18-35 yrs old) in a double-blind fashion 10 min prior to viewing a series of emotional and neutral images. Saliva samples were taken at baseline, 10 min after drug or placebo administration, immediately after viewing the images, 10, 20, and 30 min after viewing the images. Participants returned 1 week later for a surprise recall test. Results suggest that, hydrocortisone administration resulted in emotional memory enhancement only in participants who displayed an increase in endogenous noradrenergic activation, measured via salivary alpha-amylase at encoding. These results support findings in the animal literature, and suggest that GC-induced memory enhancement relies on noradrenergic activation at encoding in women.

  15. Emergent ultra-long-range interactions between active particles in hybrid active-inactive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steimel, Joshua P.; Aragones, Juan L.; Hu, Helen; Qureshi, Naser

    2016-04-01

    Particle-particle interactions determine the state of a system. Control over the range of such interactions as well as their magnitude has been an active area of research for decades due to the fundamental challenges it poses in science and technology. Very recently, effective interactions between active particles have gathered much attention as they can lead to out-of-equilibrium cooperative states such as flocking. Inspired by nature, where active living cells coexist with lifeless objects and structures, here we study the effective interactions that appear in systems composed of active and passive mixtures of colloids. Our systems are 2D colloidal monolayers composed primarily of passive (inactive) colloids, and a very small fraction of active (spinning) ferromagnetic colloids. We find an emergent ultra-long-range attractive interaction induced by the activity of the spinning particles and mediated by the elasticity of the passive medium. Interestingly, the appearance of such interaction depends on the spinning protocol and has a minimum actuation timescale below which no attraction is observed. Overall, these results clearly show that, in the presence of elastic components, active particles can interact across very long distances without any chemical modification of the environment. Such a mechanism might potentially be important for some biological systems and can be harnessed for newer developments in synthetic active soft materials.

  16. Remembering the News: What the Picture Adds to Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Elihu; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Reports on two studies, conducted in Jerusalem, that indicated that those who saw and heard news recalled slightly more than those who only heard; difference in recall was greater among the best educated subjects. (KS)

  17. 78 FR 34156 - Hazardous Materials: Emergency Recall Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Hazardous Materials: Emergency Recall Order AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Emergency Recall Order... on May 24, 2013 to The Lite Cylinder Company, Inc. The Office of Hazardous Materials Safety...

  18. Infant Smiling during Social Interaction: Arousal Modulation or Activation Indicator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewy, Richard

    In a study of infant smiling, 20 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in normal face-to-face interaction when the infants were 9 and 14 weeks of age. Videotapes were used to determine which of two classes of smiling behavior models, either arousal modulation or activation indicator, was most supported by empirical data. Arousal modulation models…

  19. Learner-Interface Interaction for Technology-Enhanced Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Neelu; Khreisat, Laila; Sharma, Kiron

    2009-01-01

    Neelu Sinha, Laila Khreisat, and Kiron Sharma describe how learner-interface interaction promotes active learning in computer science education. In a pilot study using technology that combines DyKnow software with a hardware platform of pen-enabled HP Tablet notebook computers, Sinha, Khreisat, and Sharma created dynamic learning environments by…

  20. Galaxy interactions and active galactic nuclei in the local universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Christopher J.

    2009-06-01

    It has been suggested that galaxy interactions may be the principal mechanism responsible for triggering non-thermal activity in galactic nuclei. This thesis investigates the possible role of interactions in the local Universe by searching for evidence of a causal relationship between major interactions and the initiation of activity in Seyfert galaxies using high-quality, multiwavelength imaging data. The connection between interacting galaxies and Seyferts is explored by comparing the clustering properties of their environments, as quantified by the spatial cross-correlation function amplitude. If a direct evolutionary relationship exists, the objects should be located in environments that are statistically similar. It was previously demonstrated that Seyferts are found in fields comparable to isolated galaxies. The analysis presented in this work reveals that interacting galaxies are preferentially situated in regions consistent with Abell Richness Classes of 0 to 1. The apparent dissimilarity of their environments provides a strong argument against a link between major interactions and Seyfert galaxies. An examination of the photometric and morphological properties of the interacting systems does not uncover any trends that could be associated with the initiation of nuclear activity. The role of major interactions in triggering low-redshift AGNs is then assessed using near-infrared imagery of a sample of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies. It has been postulated that these objects are evolutionarily young AGNs, powered by accretion onto supermassive black holes that are considerably lower in mass than those found in typical broad-line Seyferts. By employing the correlation between black hole mass and host galaxy bulge luminosity, the mean black hole mass, [Special characters omitted.] BH , in solar units for the sample is found to be [left angle bracket]log [Special characters omitted.] ( BH )[right angle bracket] = 7.7 ± 0.1, consistent with typical broad

  1. Cross-modal versus within-modal recall: differences in behavioral and brain responses.

    PubMed

    Butler, Andrew J; James, Karin H

    2011-10-31

    Although human experience is multisensory in nature, previous research has focused predominantly on memory for unisensory as opposed to multisensory information. In this work, we sought to investigate behavioral and neural differences between the cued recall of cross-modal audiovisual associations versus within-modal visual or auditory associations. Participants were presented with cue-target associations comprised of pairs of nonsense objects, pairs of nonsense sounds, objects paired with sounds, and sounds paired with objects. Subsequently, they were required to recall the modality of the target given the cue while behavioral accuracy, reaction time, and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation were measured. Successful within-modal recall was associated with modality-specific reactivation in primary perceptual regions, and was more accurate than cross-modal retrieval. When auditory targets were correctly or incorrectly recalled using a cross-modal visual cue, there was re-activation in auditory association cortex, and recall of information from cross-modal associations activated the hippocampus to a greater degree than within-modal associations. Findings support theories that propose an overlap between regions active during perception and memory, and show that behavioral and neural differences exist between within- and cross-modal associations. Overall the current study highlights the importance of the role of multisensory information in memory.

  2. Glycyl radical activating enzymes: structure, mechanism, and substrate interactions.

    PubMed

    Shisler, Krista A; Broderick, Joan B

    2014-03-15

    The glycyl radical enzyme activating enzymes (GRE-AEs) are a group of enzymes that belong to the radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) superfamily and utilize a [4Fe-4S] cluster and SAM to catalyze H-atom abstraction from their substrate proteins. GRE-AEs activate homodimeric proteins known as glycyl radical enzymes (GREs) through the production of a glycyl radical. After activation, these GREs catalyze diverse reactions through the production of their own substrate radicals. The GRE-AE pyruvate formate lyase activating enzyme (PFL-AE) is extensively characterized and has provided insights into the active site structure of radical SAM enzymes including GRE-AEs, illustrating the nature of the interactions with their corresponding substrate GREs and external electron donors. This review will highlight research on PFL-AE and will also discuss a few GREs and their respective activating enzymes.

  3. Interactive Whiteboards and All That Jazz: Analysing Classroom Activity with Interactive Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Howard; Beauchamp, Gary; Jones, Sonia; Kennewell, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The term "orchestration", has been used to describe the teacher's role in activity settings incorporating interactive technologies. This musical analogy suggests pre-planned manipulation of events to generate "performance" leading to learning. However, in two recent projects we have observed how effective teaching and learning…

  4. The Effects of Presentation Order in Multitrial Free Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland, Anthony J.

    The experiment tested the effects of presentation word orders in a multitrial free-recall task. Three types of presentation were used: (1) randomized; (2) constant order; and (3) maintained order (maintenance of subjects order of recall on the subsequent presentation). In addition, the effects of number of recalls per presentation (1 or 3) were…

  5. Bender Test Recall in Children: An Unreliable Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Dan L.

    1980-01-01

    To assess the utility and reliability of Bender test recall in children, 304 children (ages 5 through 14) were individually administered the copy and recall phases using Koppitz's directions. The recall phase was judged to be of doubtful utility in assessing intellectual functioning in children. (Author/SJL)

  6. Interpersonal Process Recall (IPR): Uses in Training Trauma Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Geoffrey G.

    As an approach to mental health skills training, Interpersonal Process Recall (IPR) emphasizes a learning by discovery method. There are seven basic units in the IPR training package: (1) presentation, on the skills of facilitating communication; (2) affect simulation; (3) counselor recall; (4) inquirer training; (5) client recall; (6) mutual…

  7. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory... § 810.12, FDA determines that the order should be amended to require a recall of the device with...

  8. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory... § 810.12, FDA determines that the order should be amended to require a recall of the device with...

  9. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory... § 810.12, FDA determines that the order should be amended to require a recall of the device with...

  10. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory... § 810.12, FDA determines that the order should be amended to require a recall of the device with...

  11. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory... § 810.12, FDA determines that the order should be amended to require a recall of the device with...

  12. Encoding Specificity: Relation Between Recall Superiority and Recognition Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Sandor; Tulving, Endel

    1976-01-01

    The results of four experiments show that (a) recall superiority over recognition is reversed by the use of unrelated word pairs in the study list, and (b) the reversal of recall superiority leaves intact the phenomenon of recognition failure of recallable words. (Editor)

  13. Effect of Within-Category Spacing on Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Marilyn A.; Mandler, George

    1972-01-01

    Contrary to previous experiments which found recall with blocked spacing always superior to recall with random" spacings, these experiments found that total recall was a function of two independent factors: (a) category representation, and (b) items per category represented (IPC). Both factors are dependent upon within-category spacing.…

  14. 19 CFR 141.67 - Recall of documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall of documentation. 141.67 Section 141.67... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Presentation of Entry Papers § 141.67 Recall of documentation. The importer may recall the entry and entry summary documentation at any time before the...

  15. Stimulated recall interviews for describing pragmatic epistemology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubert, Christopher W.; Meredith, Dawn C.

    2015-12-01

    Students' epistemologies affect how and what they learn: do they believe physics is a list of equations, or a coherent and sensible description of the physical world? In order to study these epistemologies as part of curricular assessment, we adopt the resources framework, which posits that students have many productive epistemological resources that can be brought to bear as they learn physics. In previous studies, these epistemologies have been either inferred from behavior in learning contexts or probed through surveys or interviews outside of the learning context. We argue that stimulated recall interviews provide a contextually and interpretively valid method to access students' epistemologies that complement existing methods. We develop a stimulated recall interview methodology to assess a curricular intervention and find evidence that epistemological resources aptly describe student epistemologies.

  16. Interactive lecture demonstrations, active learning, and the ALOP project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2011-05-01

    There is considerable evidence from the physics education literature that traditional approaches are ineffective in teaching physics concepts. A better teaching method is to use the active learning environment, which can be created using interactive lecture demonstrations. Based on the active learning methodology and within the framework of the UNESCO mandate in physics education and introductory physics, the ALOP project (active learning in optics and photonics) was started in 2003, to provide a focus on an experimental area that is adaptable and relevant to research and educational conditions in many developing countries. This project is discussed in this paper.

  17. Metal interactions with voltage- and receptor-activated ion channels.

    PubMed Central

    Vijverberg, H P; Oortgiesen, M; Leinders, T; van Kleef, R G

    1994-01-01

    Effects of Pb and several other metal ions on various distinct types of voltage-, receptor- and Ca-activated ion channels have been investigated in cultured N1E-115 mouse neuroblastoma cells. Experiments were performed using the whole-cell voltage clamp and single-channel patch clamp techniques. External superfusion of nanomolar to submillimolar concentrations of Pb causes multiple effects on ion channels. Barium current through voltage-activated Ca channels is blocked by micromolar concentrations of Pb, whereas voltage-activated Na current appears insensitive. Neuronal type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-activated ion current is blocked by nanomolar concentrations of Pb and this block is reversed at micromolar concentrations. Serotonin 5-HT3 receptor-activated ion current is much less sensitive to Pb. In addition, external superfusion with micromolar concentrations of Pb as well as of Cd and aluminum induces inward current, associated with the direct activation of nonselective cation channels by these metal ions. In excised inside-out membrane patches of neuroblastoma cells, micromolar concentrations of Ca activate small (SK) and big (BK) Ca-activated K channels. Internally applied Pb activates SK and BK channels more potently than Ca, whereas Cd is approximately equipotent to Pb with respect to SK channel activation, but fails to activate BK channels. The results show that metal ions cause distinct, selective effects on the various types of ion channels and that metal ion interaction sites of ion channels may be highly selective for particular metal ions. PMID:7531139

  18. The Effects of Controlled Language Processing on Listening Comprehension and Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jannejad, Mohsen; Shokouhi, Hossein; Haghighi, Somayeh Biparva

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to determine the possible interactions between listening proficiency and the state of strategic self-awareness; second, and more importantly, to investigate the effects of learned strategies on listening comprehension and recall; and finally to describe the most common real-time listening comprehension problems faced by EFL…

  19. Interaction of metallic clusters with biologically active curcumin molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sanjeev K.; He, Haiying; Liu, Chunhui; Dutta, Ranu; Pandey, Ravindra

    2015-09-01

    We have investigated the interaction of subnano metallic Gd and Au clusters with curcumin, an important biomolecule having pharmacological activity. Gd clusters show different site preference to curcumin and much stronger interaction strength, in support of the successful synthesis of highly stable curcumin-coated Gd nanoparticles as reported recently. It can be attributed to significant charge transfer from the Gd cluster to curcumin together with a relatively strong hybridization of the Gd df-orbitals with curcumin p-orbitals. These results suggest that Gd nanoparticles can effectively be used as delivery carriers for curcumin at the cellular level for therapy and medical imaging applications.

  20. NOX Activation by Subunit Interaction and Underlying Mechanisms in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Radhika; Geng, Xiaokun; Li, Fengwu; Ding, Yuchuan

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAPDH) oxidase (NOX) is an enzyme complex with the sole function of producing superoxide anion and reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the expense of NADPH. Vital to the immune system as well as cellular signaling, NOX is also involved in the pathologies of a wide variety of disease states. Particularly, it is an integral player in many neurological diseases, including stroke, TBI, and neurodegenerative diseases. Pathologically, NOX produces an excessive amount of ROS that exceed the body’s antioxidant ability to neutralize them, leading to oxidative stress and aberrant signaling. This prevalence makes it an attractive therapeutic target and as such, NOX inhibitors have been studied and developed to counter NOX’s deleterious effects. However, recent studies of NOX have created a better understanding of the NOX complex. Comprised of independent cytosolic subunits, p47-phox, p67-phox, p40-phox and Rac, and membrane subunits, gp91-phox and p22-phox, the NOX complex requires a unique activation process through subunit interaction. Of these subunits, p47-phox plays the most important role in activation, binding and translocating the cytosolic subunits to the membrane and anchoring to p22-phox to organize the complex for NOX activation and function. Moreover, these interactions, particularly that between p47-phox and p22-phox, are dependent on phosphorylation initiated by upstream processes involving protein kinase C (PKC). This review will look at these interactions between subunits and with PKC. It will focus on the interaction involving p47-phox with p22-phox, key in bringing the cytosolic subunits to the membrane. Furthermore, the implication of these interactions as a target for NOX inhibitors such as apocynin will be discussed as a potential avenue for further investigation, in order to develop more specific NOX inhibitors based on the inhibition of NOX assembly and activation. PMID:28119569

  1. Active-constructive-interactive: a conceptual framework for differentiating learning activities.

    PubMed

    Chi, Michelene T H

    2009-01-01

    Active, constructive, and interactive are terms that are commonly used in the cognitive and learning sciences. They describe activities that can be undertaken by learners. However, the literature is actually not explicit about how these terms can be defined; whether they are distinct; and whether they refer to overt manifestations, learning processes, or learning outcomes. Thus, a framework is provided here that offers a way to differentiate active, constructive, and interactive in terms of observable overt activities and underlying learning processes. The framework generates a testable hypothesis for learning: that interactive activities are most likely to be better than constructive activities, which in turn might be better than active activities, which are better than being passive. Studies from the literature are cited to provide evidence in support of this hypothesis. Moreover, postulating underlying learning processes allows us to interpret evidence in the literature more accurately. Specifying distinct overt activities for active, constructive, and interactive also offers suggestions for how learning activities can be coded and how each kind of activity might be elicited.

  2. Exploring a novel environment improves motivation and promotes recall of words

    PubMed Central

    Schomaker, Judith; van Bronkhorst, Marthe L. V.; Meeter, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    Active exploration of novel environments is known to increase plasticity in animals, promoting long-term potentiation in the hippocampus and enhancing memory formation. These effects can occur during as well as after exploration. In humans novelty’s effects on memory have been investigated with other methods, but never in an active exploration paradigm. We therefore investigated whether active spatial exploration of a novel compared to a previously familiarized virtual environment promotes performance on an unrelated word learning task. Exploration of the novel environment enhanced recall, generally thought to be hippocampus-dependent, but not recognition, believed to rely less on the hippocampus. Recall was better for participants that gave higher presence ratings for their experience in the virtual environment. These ratings were higher for the novel compared to the familiar virtual environment, suggesting that novelty increased attention for the virtual rather than real environment; however, this did not explain the effect of novelty on recall. PMID:25191297

  3. Robust sequential working memory recall in heterogeneous cognitive networks

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Sokolov, Yury; Kozma, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are often caused by partial heterogeneous disinhibition in cognitive networks, controlling sequential and spatial working memory (SWM). Such dynamic connectivity changes suggest that the normal relationship between the neuronal components within the network deteriorates. As a result, competitive network dynamics is qualitatively altered. This dynamics defines the robust recall of the sequential information from memory and, thus, the SWM capacity. To understand pathological and non-pathological bifurcations of the sequential memory dynamics, here we investigate the model of recurrent inhibitory-excitatory networks with heterogeneous inhibition. We consider the ensemble of units with all-to-all inhibitory connections, in which the connection strengths are monotonically distributed at some interval. Based on computer experiments and studying the Lyapunov exponents, we observed and analyzed the new phenomenon—clustered sequential dynamics. The results are interpreted in the context of the winnerless competition principle. Accordingly, clustered sequential dynamics is represented in the phase space of the model by two weakly interacting quasi-attractors. One of them is similar to the sequential heteroclinic chain—the regular image of SWM, while the other is a quasi-chaotic attractor. Coexistence of these quasi-attractors means that the recall of the normal information sequence is intermittently interrupted by episodes with chaotic dynamics. We indicate potential dynamic ways for augmenting damaged working memory and other cognitive functions. PMID:25452717

  4. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Role of List Length, Strategy Use, and Test Expectancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Ward, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that the immediate free recall (IFR) of short lists is similar to immediate serial recall (ISR). These findings were obtained using a methodology in which participants did not know the list length in advance of each list, and this uncertainty may have encouraged participants to adopt atypical recall strategies. Therefore,…

  5. Using Highly Interactive Virtual Environments for Safeguards Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, Bradley S; Alcala, Benjamin S; Alcala, Scott; Eipeldauer, Mary D; Weil, Logan B

    2010-01-01

    Highly interactive virtual environment (HIVE) is a term that refers to interactive educational simulations, serious games and virtual worlds. Studies indicate that learning with the aid of interactive environments produces better retention and depth of knowledge by promoting improved trainee engagement and understanding. Virtual reality or three dimensional (3D) visualization is often used to promote the understanding of something when personal observation, photographs, drawings, and/or sketches are not possible or available. Subjects and situations, either real or hypothetical, can be developed using a 3D model. Models can be tailored to the audience allowing safeguards and security features to be demonstrated for educational purposes in addition to engineering evaluation and performance analysis. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has begun evaluating the feasibility of HIVEs for improving safeguards activities such as training, mission planning, and evaluating worker task performance. This paper will discuss the development workflow of HIVEs and present some recent examples.

  6. Bender Gestalt recall: memory measure or intelligence estimate.

    PubMed

    Armentrout, J A

    1976-10-01

    WAIS subtest standard scores, IQ scores, and factorial deviation quotients were correlated with Bender Gestalt recall scores for 111 vocational rehabilitation clients. The number of Bender designs recalled was associated significantly with intellectual measures, with the strength of association somewhat stronger with nonverbal than with verbal scores. Bender recall scores were correlated more highly with Perceptual Organization DQs than with Memory-Freedom from Distractibility DQs, but that difference only approached significance. Despite the relationships between Bender recall scores and intelligence scores, the Bender recall task could not classify Ss as to general intelligence level with greater accuracy than could be obtained with the WAIS Vocabulary subtest alone.

  7. Chronic stress and sex differences on the recall of fear conditioning and extinction.

    PubMed

    Baran, Sarah E; Armstrong, Charles E; Niren, Danielle C; Hanna, Jeffery J; Conrad, Cheryl D

    2009-03-01

    Chronic stress effects and sex differences were examined on conditioned fear extinction. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically stressed by restraint (6 h/d/21 d), conditioned to tone and footshock, followed by extinction after 1 h and 24 h delays. Chronic stress impaired the recall of fear extinction in males, as evidenced by high freezing to tone after the 24 h delay despite exposure to the previous 1 h delay extinction trials, and this effect was not due to ceiling effects from overtraining during conditioning. In contrast, chronic stress attenuated the recall of fear conditioning acquisition in females, regardless of exposure to the 1 h extinction exposure. Since freezing to tone was reinstated following unsignalled footshocks, the deficit in the stressed rats reflected impaired recall rather than impaired consolidation. Sex differences in fear conditioning and extinction were observed in nonstressed controls as well, with control females resisting extinction to tone. Analysis of contextual freezing showed that all groups (control, stress, male, female) increased freezing immediately after the first tone extinction trial, demonstrating contextual discrimination. These findings show that chronic stress and sex interact to influence fear conditioning, with chronic stress impairing the recall of delayed fear extinction in males to implicate the medial prefrontal cortex, disrupting the recall of the fear conditioning acquisition in females to implicate the amygdala, and nonstressed controls exhibiting sex differences in fear conditioning and extinction, which may involve the amygdala and/or corticosterone levels.

  8. Pressure and phase equilibria in interacting active brownian spheres.

    PubMed

    Solon, Alexandre P; Stenhammar, Joakim; Wittkowski, Raphael; Kardar, Mehran; Kafri, Yariv; Cates, Michael E; Tailleur, Julien

    2015-05-15

    We derive a microscopic expression for the mechanical pressure P in a system of spherical active Brownian particles at density ρ. Our exact result relates P, defined as the force per unit area on a bounding wall, to bulk correlation functions evaluated far away from the wall. It shows that (i) P(ρ) is a state function, independent of the particle-wall interaction; (ii) interactions contribute two terms to P, one encoding the slow-down that drives motility-induced phase separation, and the other a direct contribution well known for passive systems; and (iii) P is equal in coexisting phases. We discuss the consequences of these results for the motility-induced phase separation of active Brownian particles and show that the densities at coexistence do not satisfy a Maxwell construction on P.

  9. Distinct effects of perceptual quality on auditory word recognition, memory formation and recall in a neural model of sequential memory.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul; Wingfield, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Adults with sensory impairment, such as reduced hearing acuity, have impaired ability to recall identifiable words, even when their memory is otherwise normal. We hypothesize that poorer stimulus quality causes weaker activity in neurons responsive to the stimulus and more time to elapse between stimulus onset and identification. The weaker activity and increased delay to stimulus identification reduce the necessary strengthening of connections between neurons active before stimulus presentation and neurons active at the time of stimulus identification. We test our hypothesis through a biologically motivated computational model, which performs item recognition, memory formation and memory retrieval. In our simulations, spiking neurons are distributed into pools representing either items or context, in two separate, but connected winner-takes-all (WTA) networks. We include associative, Hebbian learning, by comparing multiple forms of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), which strengthen synapses between coactive neurons during stimulus identification. Synaptic strengthening by STDP can be sufficient to reactivate neurons during recall if their activity during a prior stimulus rose strongly and rapidly. We find that a single poor quality stimulus impairs recall of neighboring stimuli as well as the weak stimulus itself. We demonstrate that within the WTA paradigm of word recognition, reactivation of separate, connected sets of non-word, context cells permits reverse recall. Also, only with such coactive context cells, does slowing the rate of stimulus presentation increase recall probability. We conclude that significant temporal overlap of neural activity patterns, absent from individual WTA networks, is necessary to match behavioral data for word recall.

  10. Learning multiple visuomotor transformations: adaptation and context-dependent recall.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Sima; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2004-10-01

    Recent motor control theories suggest that the brain uses internal models to plan and control accurate movements. An internal model is thought to represent how the biomechanics of the arm interacting with the outside world would respond to a motor command; therefore it can be seen as a predictive model of the reafference that helps the system plan ahead. Moreover, adaptation studies show that humans can learn multiple internal models. It is not clear, however, whether and how contextual cues are used to switch among competing internal models, which are required to compensate for altered environments. To investigate this question, we asked healthy participants to perform center-out pointing movements under normal and distorted visual feedback (0 degrees , 30 degrees counterclockwise, and 60 degrees clockwise rotation of hand-screen cursor relationships) conditions. The results suggest that humans can learn multiple environments simultaneously and can use contextual cues to facilitate adaptation and to recall the appropriate internal model of the visuomotor transformation.

  11. Activity and interaction of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole against Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, D; O'Grady, F

    1976-01-01

    The activity of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulphamethoxazole (SMX), alone and in combination, against a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli was investigated in turbidimetric systems. In a static system in which the conditions of exposure of bacteria to drug resembled those of conventional minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) titrations, both TMP and SMX exhibited antibacterial activity at concentrations well below the conventionally determined MIC, but regrowth occured at these concentrations during the overnight incubation period due to the emergence of adaptively resistant bacteria. Tests of combined drug action in the static turbidimetric system revealed even more synergic interaction than was apparent in conventional MIC tests. It is suggested that an important component of overall synergic interaction is the mutual suppression of adaptive "resistance" to the other agent. Studies in an in vitro model which simulates the hydrokinetic features of the urinary bladder showed that concentrations of TMP and SMX below the conventionally determined MIC inhibited the growth even of extremely dense bacterial populations so long as the concentration of drug was maintained. The response of cultures exposed to combinations of TMP and SMX in this system was so dominated by the effect of TMP that no synergic interaction with SMX was noted at concentrations of the drugs which are achievable in urine. PMID:777036

  12. Activity and interaction of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole against Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, D; O'Grady, F

    1976-02-01

    The activity of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulphamethoxazole (SMX), alone and in combination, against a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli was investigated in turbidimetric systems. In a static system in which the conditions of exposure of bacteria to drug resembled those of conventional minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) titrations, both TMP and SMX exhibited antibacterial activity at concentrations well below the conventionally determined MIC, but regrowth occured at these concentrations during the overnight incubation period due to the emergence of adaptively resistant bacteria. Tests of combined drug action in the static turbidimetric system revealed even more synergic interaction than was apparent in conventional MIC tests. It is suggested that an important component of overall synergic interaction is the mutual suppression of adaptive "resistance" to the other agent. Studies in an in vitro model which simulates the hydrokinetic features of the urinary bladder showed that concentrations of TMP and SMX below the conventionally determined MIC inhibited the growth even of extremely dense bacterial populations so long as the concentration of drug was maintained. The response of cultures exposed to combinations of TMP and SMX in this system was so dominated by the effect of TMP that no synergic interaction with SMX was noted at concentrations of the drugs which are achievable in urine.

  13. Active Interaction Mapping Reveals the Hierarchical Organization of Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Michael H; Farré, Jean-Claude; Mitra, Koyel; Yu, Michael Ku; Ono, Keiichiro; Demchak, Barry; Licon, Katherine; Flagg, Mitchell; Balakrishnan, Rama; Cherry, J Michael; Subramani, Suresh; Ideker, Trey

    2017-02-16

    We have developed a general progressive procedure, Active Interaction Mapping, to guide assembly of the hierarchy of functions encoding any biological system. Using this process, we assemble an ontology of functions comprising autophagy, a central recycling process implicated in numerous diseases. A first-generation model, built from existing gene networks in Saccharomyces, captures most known autophagy components in broad relation to vesicle transport, cell cycle, and stress response. Systematic analysis identifies synthetic-lethal interactions as most informative for further experiments; consequently, we saturate the model with 156,364 such measurements across autophagy-activating conditions. These targeted interactions provide more information about autophagy than all previous datasets, producing a second-generation ontology of 220 functions. Approximately half are previously unknown; we confirm roles for Gyp1 at the phagophore-assembly site, Atg24 in cargo engulfment, Atg26 in cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting, and Ssd1, Did4, and others in selective and non-selective autophagy. The procedure and autophagy hierarchy are at http://atgo.ucsd.edu/.

  14. Cognitive strategy use and measured numeric ability in immediate- and long-term recall of everyday numeric information.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Douglas; Hill, Robert D; Woltz, Dan; Gardner, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the primary effects of the use of cognitive strategy and a combined measure of numeric ability on recall of every-day numeric information (i.e. prices). Additionally, numeric ability was assessed as a moderator in the relationship between strategy use and memory for prices. One hundred participants memorized twelve prices that varied from 1 to 6 digits; they recalled these immediately and after 7 days. The use of strategies, assessed through self-report, was associated with better overall recall, but not forgetting. Numeric ability was not associated with either better overall recall or forgetting. A small moderating interaction was found, in which higher levels of numeric ability enhanced the beneficial effects of strategy use on overall recall. Exploratory analyses found two further small moderating interactions: simple strategy use enhanced overall recall at higher levels of numeric ability, compared to complex strategy use; and complex strategy use was associated with lower levels of forgetting, but only at higher levels of numeric ability, compared to the simple strategy use. These results provide support for an objective measure of numeric ability, as well as adding to the literature on memory and the benefits of cognitive strategy use.

  15. Stigma's Effect on Social Interaction and Social Media Activity.

    PubMed

    Boudewyns, Vanessa; Himelboim, Itai; Hansen, Derek L; Southwell, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatized topics, such as HIV/STD, likely constrain related information sharing in ways that should be apparent in social interactions both on and off the Internet. Specifically, the authors predicted that the more people perceive an issue as stigmatized, the less likely they are to talk about the issue both privately (with sexual partners and peers) and publicly (on Twitter). Study 1 tested the effect of stigma on conversations at the individual level: The authors asked a group of participants (N = 138) about perceived STD-testing stigma, interactions with a sexual partner, and conversations with peers about STD testing. Study 2 assessed whether health conditions, in the aggregate, were less likely to generate social media activity as a function of current stigmatization. Using 259,758 archived Twitter posts mentioning 13 medical conditions, the authors tested whether level of stigma predicted the volume of relevant social media conversation, controlling for each condition's amount of advocacy and Google search popularity from a user's perspective. Findings supported our hypotheses. Individuals who reported perceiving a given health conditions in more stigmatic ways also reported interacting less with others about that topic; Twitter results showed a similar pattern. Results also suggest a more complex story of influence, as funding from the National Institutes of Health (i.e., each conditions amount of advocacy) associated with the examined health conditions also predicted Twitter activity. Overall, these results indicated that stigma had a similar, dampening effect on face-to-face and Twitter interactions. Findings hold theoretical and practical implications, which are discussed.

  16. Self-serving confabulation in prose recall.

    PubMed

    Fotopoulou, Aikaterini; Conway, Martin A; Solms, Mark; Tyrer, Stephen; Kopelman, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that the content of confabulation is mainly positive and self-enhancing. In this group study, we aimed to investigate whether this positive bias is specific to self-referent information. Confabulating amnesic patients, amnesic non-confabulating patients and healthy controls were asked to reproduce a series of short stories. We manipulated the emotional valence of the material by including positive, negative and neutral story plots. We also manipulated the self-reference of the material by including self-referent versus other-referent encoding instructions. Confabulating patients were as impaired as a group of amnesic patients in the amount of information they recalled, both groups being worse than healthy controls. Importantly, confabulating patients showed a selective bias in the negative self-referent condition, in that they recalled such information in a manner which portrayed a more positive image of themselves. This positive bias was not present in stories that were not encoded in a self-referent manner and it was not significantly correlated to patients' self-reported mood. We propose that both confabulation and its motivated content result from a deficit in the control and regulation of memory retrieval, which allows motivational factors to acquire a greater role than usual in determining which memories are selected for retrieval. To this extent, the self-enhancing content of confabulation could be explained as a neurogenic exaggeration of normal self-serving memory distortion.

  17. Metamemory appraisals in autobiographical event recall.

    PubMed

    Scoboria, Alan; Talarico, Jennifer M; Pascal, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    Two studies examined whether belief in the occurrence of events, recollecting events, and belief in the accuracy of recollections are distinct aspects of autobiographical remembering. In Study 1, 299 student participants received a cue to recall five childhood events, after which they rated each event on these constructs and other characteristics associated with remembering. Structural equation modelling revealed that variance in ratings was best explained by the three anticipated latent variables. In Study 2, an online sample of 1026 adults recalled and rated a childhood event and an event about which they were somehow uncertain. Confirmatory modelling replicated the three latent variables. The relationship of key predictors (perceptual detail, spatial detail, re-experiencing, and event plausibility) to the latent variables confirmed the distinction. These studies demonstrate that belief in occurrence and belief in accuracy appraisals are distinct, the former indexing the truth status of the event and the latter the degree to which the event representation accurately reflects prior experience. Further, they suggest that belief in accuracy indexes the monitoring of the quality of recollections.

  18. Comparing the Primary and Recall Immune Response Induced by a New EV71 Vaccine Using Systems Biology Approaches.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jie; Zhang, Junnan; Wu, Xing; Mao, Qunying; Chen, Pan; Zhu, Fengcai; Xu, Miao; Kong, Wei; Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-01-01

    Three inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines have completed Phase III clinical trials in mainland China, with high efficacy, satisfactory safety, and sustained immunogenicity. However, the molecular mechanisms how this new vaccine elicit potent immune response remain poorly understood. To characterize the primary and recall responses to EV71 vaccines, PBMC from 19 recipients before and after vaccination with EV71 vaccine are collected and their gene expression signatures after stimulation with EV71 antigen were compared. The results showed that primary and recall response to EV71 antigen have both activated an IRF7 regulating type I interferon and antiviral immune response network. However, up-regulated genes involved in T cell activation regulated by IRF1, inflammatory response, B-cell activation and humoral immune response were only observed in recall response. The specific secretion of IL-10 in primary response and IL-2,IP-10,CCL14a, CCL21 in recall response was consistent with the activation of immune response process found in genes. Furthermore, the expression of MX1 and secretion of IP-10 in recall response were strongly correlated with NTAb level at 180d after vaccination (r = 0.81 and 0.99). In summary, inflammatory response, adaptive immune response and a stronger antiviral response were indentified in recall response.

  19. Influence of emotional balance during a learning and recall test in horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Mengoli, Manuel; Pageat, Patrick; Lafont-Lecuelle, Céline; Monneret, Philippe; Giacalone, Aline; Sighieri, Claudio; Cozzi, Alessandro

    2014-07-01

    Modern day horse-human relationships entail different types of sport and riding activities, which all require learning. In evaluating the interaction between learning and emotions, studying normal coping strategies or adaptive responses to the surroundings is critical. 34 horses were involved in a cognitive test, in the absence of physical effort, to analyze performance, as well as physiological and behavioral responses related to learning, memorization and recall, associated to the capacity to reverse a learned model. Synthetic Equine Appeasing Pheromone (EAP) was used in 17 horses in order to modulate their emotional state and evaluate differences in cognitive-emotional response during cognitive effort in comparison to the control group (placebo group). Both groups showed statistically significant changes in heart rate during the test, indicating emotional and physio-cognitive activation. The EAP group produced fewer errors and made more correct choices, showing behaviors related to increased attention, with less influence from environmental stimuli. The capacity to learn to learn, as shown in the bibliography, allows animals to establish conceptual learning, when a normal or positive emotional state (in this case modulated by semiochemicals) is used to control limbic system activation and, consequently, decrease stressful/fearful reactions, resulting in better learning capacities during the cognitive test.

  20. The effect of semantic categorisation on recall memory in amnesia.

    PubMed

    Channon, S; Daum, I

    2000-01-01

    Amnesic patients were compared to a healthy control group on recall of word lists containing semantically-related or unrelated words. As expected on the basis of previous literature, the amnesic group performed below the control group on all measures of recall. When total recall scores for each list were used as the index of performance, their scores were not significantly affected by the type of list, unlike those of the control group. Comparison of serial position effects for different parts of the lists revealed that the control group derived greater benefit from semantic relatedness in recall of items from the middle positions. This effect was not shown by the amnesic group, who showed similar U-shaped serial position curves for recall of all three lists, and appeared to use a more passive recall strategy than the control group. The findings are discussed in relation to our current understanding of amnesic deficits.

  1. Conditioned activity and the interaction of amphetamine experience with morphine's activity effects.

    PubMed

    Krank, M D; Bennett, D

    1987-11-01

    This experiment assessed the transfer effect of Pavlovian conditioning with d-amphetamine sulfate (1 mg/kg) on morphine's activity effects. Prior experience with amphetamine resulted in higher levels of activity when challenged with morphine (10 and 20 mg/kg). This interactive effect of amphetamine, however, was present only in those animals who had experienced amphetamine paired with the activity test situation. Animals who had received equivalent doses of amphetamine unpaired with the testing environment did not differ from drug-naive control animals. Analysis of predrug activity levels revealed a conditioned activity response in paired animals compared to the controls. These findings suggest that the response interaction between drug conditioned responses and drug unconditioned responses is an important determinant of cross-drug effects between drugs of different pharmacological classes.

  2. The link between tidal interaction and nuclear activity in galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, D. N. C.; Pringle, J. E.; Rees, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    It is considered how nuclear activity in galaxies may be induced by the tidal perturbation of companion galaxies. It is suggested that if the central regions of the galaxies contain marginally self-gravitating disks of gas, trailing spiral density waves, triggered by nonaxisymmetric gravitational instability, lead to efficient angular momentum transport. If the net effect of the external perturbation is to increase the effect of self-gravity in the gas, then the result is to induce a considerable increase in the mass accretion rate into the central region on a relatively short time scale. With a simple prescription, the evolution of self-gravitating accretion disks is examined in this context. These results are discussed in the context of the frequent occurrence of nuclear activity in interacting galaxies.

  3. Cytoskeletal Modulation of Lipid Interactions Regulates Lck Kinase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Chichili, Gurunadh R.; Cail, Robert C.; Rodgers, William

    2012-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton promotes clustering of proteins associated with cholesterol-dependent rafts, but its effect on lipid interactions that form and maintain rafts is not understood. We addressed this question by determining the effect of disrupting the cytoskeleton on co-clustering of dihexadecyl-(C16)-anchored DiO and DiI, which co-enrich in ordered lipid environments such as rafts. Co-clustering was assayed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in labeled T cells, where rafts function in the phosphoregulation of the Src family kinase Lck. Our results show that probe co-clustering was sensitive to depolymerization of actin filaments with latrunculin B (Lat B), inhibition of myosin II with blebbistatin, and treatment with neomycin to sequester phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Cytoskeletal effects on lipid interactions were not restricted to order-preferring label because co-clustering of C16-anchored DiO with didodecyl (C12)-anchored DiI, which favors disordered lipids, was also reduced by Lat B and blebbistatin. Furthermore, conditions that disrupted probe co-clustering resulted in activation of Lck. These data show that the cytoskeleton globally modulates lipid interactions in the plasma membrane, and this property maintains rafts that function in Lck regulation. PMID:22613726

  4. Cognitive Style Differences in Expository Prose Recall. Technical Report No. 210.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Bruce R.; Gould, Jay E.

    Differences in semantic recall between students hypothesized as having either a high or a low analytic style were investigated. Styles were determined by the amount of bilateral alpha activity measured from the cerebral cortex of the brain during eyes-open baseline recordings. The results indicated that when expository text was tightly structured,…

  5. Software-related recalls: an analysis of records.

    PubMed

    Simone, Lisa K

    2013-01-01

    Public and internal databases were examined to evaluate software-related recalls in the medical device industry sector. In the analysis of recalls reported from 2005 through 2011, 19.4% of medical device recalls are related to software. This paper includes analysis results, challenges faced in determining the causes, and examples and trends in software-related recalls. This information can be useful in enhancing our understanding of why medical devices fail, and it can help to improve medical device safety, and patient and public health.

  6. Two interacting active dimers on a rigid track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayett, David; Das, Moumita; Schwarz, J. M.

    Cell migration in morphogenesis and cancer metastasis typically involves an interplay between different cell types. The rules governing such interplay remain largely unknown; however, a recent experiment studying the interaction between neural crest (NC) cells and placodal cells reveals an example of such rules. The study found that NC cells chase the placodal cells by chemotaxis, while placodal cells run away from NC cells when contacted by them. Motivated by this observation, we construct and study a minimal one-dimensional cell-cell model comprised of two cells with each cell represented by two-beads-connected-by-an-active spring. The active spring for each moving cell models the stress fibers with their myosin-driven Contractility (and alpha-actinin extendability), while the friction coefficients of the beads describe the catch/slip bond behavior of the integrins in focal adhesions. We also include a dynamic contact interaction between the two cells to decipher the chase-and-run dynamics observed in the experiment. We then use our model to construct a ''phase diagram'' consisting of chase-and-run behavior, clumping (of the two cells) with repolarization behavior and clumping with no repolarization behavior that can be qualitatively compared to experiments.

  7. Molecular Dynamics of "Fuzzy" Transcriptional Activator-Coactivator Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Scholes, Natalie S.; Weinzierl, Robert O. J.

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional activation domains (ADs) are generally thought to be intrinsically unstructured, but capable of adopting limited secondary structure upon interaction with a coactivator surface. The indeterminate nature of this interface made it hitherto difficult to study structure/function relationships of such contacts. Here we used atomistic accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) simulations to study the conformational changes of the GCN4 AD and variants thereof, either free in solution, or bound to the GAL11 coactivator surface. We show that the AD-coactivator interactions are highly dynamic while obeying distinct rules. The data provide insights into the constant and variable aspects of orientation of ADs relative to the coactivator, changes in secondary structure and energetic contributions stabilizing the various conformers at different time points. We also demonstrate that a prediction of α-helical propensity correlates directly with the experimentally measured transactivation potential of a large set of mutagenized ADs. The link between α-helical propensity and the stimulatory activity of ADs has fundamental practical and theoretical implications concerning the recruitment of ADs to coactivators. PMID:27175900

  8. Norms for CERAD constructional praxis recall.

    PubMed

    Fillenbaum, Gerda G; Burchett, Bruce M; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Rexroth, Daniel F; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen

    2011-11-01

    Recall of the four-item constructional praxis measure was a later addition to the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery. Norms for this measure, based on cognitively intact African Americans age ≥70 (Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project, N=372), European American participants age ≥66 (Cache County Study of Memory, Health and Aging, N=507), and European American CERAD clinic controls age ≥50 (N = 182), are presented here. Performance varied by site; by sex, education, and age (African Americans in Indianapolis); education and age (Cache County European Americans); and only age (CERAD European American controls). Performance declined with increased age, within age with less education, and was poorer for women. Means, standard deviations, and percentiles are presented separately for each sample.

  9. Recall Latencies, Confidence, and Output Positions of True and False Memories: Implications for Recall and Metamemory Theories

    PubMed Central

    Jou, Jerwen

    2012-01-01

    Recall latency, recall accuracy rate, and recall confidence were examined in free recall as a function of recall output serial position using a modified Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm to test a strength-based theory against the dual-retrieval process theory of recall output sequence. The strength theory predicts the item output sequence to be in the descending order of memory strength. The dual-retrieval process theory postulates two phases in a free recall, a first direct access phase in which items are output verbatim in the weakest-to-strongest order (cognitive triage) and a second reconstructive phase in which reconstructed items are output in the strongest-to-weakest order. In three experiments, all three indicators of memory strength (latency, accuracy, and confidence) consistently showed a descending-strength order of recall both for true and false memories. Additionally, false memory was found to be output in two phases and subjects’ confidence judgment of their own memory to be unaccountable by retrieval fluency (recall latency). PMID:22582008

  10. Recall Latencies, Confidence, and Output Positions of True and False Memories: Implications for Recall and Metamemory Theories.

    PubMed

    Jou, Jerwen

    2008-05-01

    Recall latency, recall accuracy rate, and recall confidence were examined in free recall as a function of recall output serial position using a modified Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm to test a strength-based theory against the dual-retrieval process theory of recall output sequence. The strength theory predicts the item output sequence to be in the descending order of memory strength. The dual-retrieval process theory postulates two phases in a free recall, a first direct access phase in which items are output verbatim in the weakest-to-strongest order (cognitive triage) and a second reconstructive phase in which reconstructed items are output in the strongest-to-weakest order. In three experiments, all three indicators of memory strength (latency, accuracy, and confidence) consistently showed a descending-strength order of recall both for true and false memories. Additionally, false memory was found to be output in two phases and subjects' confidence judgment of their own memory to be unaccountable by retrieval fluency (recall latency).

  11. Cerebellar Contribution to Context Processing in Extinction Learning and Recall.

    PubMed

    Chang, D-I; Lissek, S; Ernst, T M; Thürling, M; Uengoer, M; Tegenthoff, M; Ladd, M E; Timmann, D

    2015-12-01

    Whereas acquisition of new associations is considered largely independent of the context, context dependency is a hallmark of extinction of the learned associations. The hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex are known to be involved in context processing during extinction learning and recall. Although the cerebellum has known functional and anatomic connections to the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, cerebellar contributions to context processing of extinction have rarely been studied. In the present study, we reanalyzed functional brain imaging data (fMRI) of previous work investigating context effects during extinction in a cognitive associative learning paradigm in 28 young and healthy subjects (Lissek et al. Neuroimage. 81:131-3, 2013). In that study, event-related fMRI analysis did not include the cerebellum. The 3 T fMRI dataset was reanalyzed using a spatial normalization method optimized for the cerebellum. Data of seven participants had to be excluded because the cerebellum had not been scanned in full. Cerebellar activation related to context change during extinction learning was most prominent in lobule Crus II bilaterally (p < 0.01, t > 2.53; partially corrected by predetermined cluster size). No significant cerebellar activations were observed related to context change during extinction retrieval. The posterolateral cerebellum appears to contribute to context-related processes during extinction learning, but not (or less) during extinction retrieval. The cerebellum may support context learning during extinction via its connections to the hippocampus. Alternatively, the cerebellum may support the shifting of attention to the context via its known connections to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Because the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is critically involved in context-related processes during extinction retrieval, and there are no known connections between the cerebellum and the vmPFC, the cerebellum may be less important

  12. Interactions between occlusion and human brain function activities.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, C; Morokuma, M; Yoneyama, Y; Matsuda, R; Lee, J S

    2013-02-01

    There are few review articles in the area of human research that focus on the interactions between occlusion and brain function. This systematic review discusses the effect of occlusion on the health of the entire body with a focus on brain function. Available relevant articles in English from 1999 to 2011 were assessed in an online database and as hard copies in libraries. The selected 19 articles were classified into the following five categories: chewing and tongue movements, clenching and grinding, occlusal splints and occlusal interference, prosthetic rehabilitation, and pain and stimulation. The relationships between the brain activity observed in the motor and sensory cortices and movements of the oral and maxillofacial area, such as those produced by gum chewing, tapping and clenching, were investigated. It was found that the sensorimotor cortex was also affected by the placement of the occlusal interference devices, splints and implant prostheses. Brain activity may change depending on the strength of the movements in the oral and maxillofacial area. Therefore, mastication and other movements stimulate the activity in the cerebral cortex and may be helpful in preventing degradation of a brain function. However, these findings must be verified by evidence gathered from more subjects.

  13. Children’s Recall of Words Spoken in Their First and Second Language: Effects of Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Reverberation Time

    PubMed Central

    Hurtig, Anders; Keus van de Poll, Marijke; Pekkola, Elina P.; Hygge, Staffan; Ljung, Robert; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Speech perception runs smoothly and automatically when there is silence in the background, but when the speech signal is degraded by background noise or by reverberation, effortful cognitive processing is needed to compensate for the signal distortion. Previous research has typically investigated the effects of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reverberation time in isolation, whilst few have looked at their interaction. In this study, we probed how reverberation time and SNR influence recall of words presented in participants’ first- (L1) and second-language (L2). A total of 72 children (10 years old) participated in this study. The to-be-recalled wordlists were played back with two different reverberation times (0.3 and 1.2 s) crossed with two different SNRs (+3 dBA and +12 dBA). Children recalled fewer words when the spoken words were presented in L2 in comparison with recall of spoken words presented in L1. Words that were presented with a high SNR (+12 dBA) improved recall compared to a low SNR (+3 dBA). Reverberation time interacted with SNR to the effect that at +12 dB the shorter reverberation time improved recall, but at +3 dB it impaired recall. The effects of the physical sound variables (SNR and reverberation time) did not interact with language. PMID:26834665

  14. Stress-related biomarkers of dream recall and implicit memory under anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Aceto, P; Lai, C; Perilli, V; Dello Russo, C; Federico, B; Navarra, P; Proietti, R; Sollazzi, L

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether auditory presentation of a story during general anaesthesia might influence stress hormone changes and thus affecting dream recall and/or implicit memory. One hundred and ten patients were randomly assigned either to hear a recording of a story through headphones or to have routine care with no auditory recording while undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Anaesthesia was standardised. Blood samples for cortisol and prolactin assays were collected 20 min before anaesthesia and 5 min after pneumoperitoneum. Dream recall and explicit/implicit memory were investigated upon awakening from anaesthesia and approximately 24 h after the end of the operation. Auditory presentation was associated with lower intra-operative serum prolactin concentration compared with control (p = 0.0006). Twenty-seven patients with recall of dreaming showed higher intra-operative prolactin (p = 0.004) and lower cortisol (p = 0.03) concentrations compared with those without dream recall. The knowledge of this interaction might be useful in the quest to ensure postoperative amnesia.

  15. Self-generation enhances verbal recall in individuals infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Weber, Erica; Woods, Steven Paul; Kellogg, Emily; Grant, Igor; Basso, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of HIV-associated episodic memory impairment and its adverse functional impact, there are no empirically validated cognitive rehabilitation strategies for HIV-infected persons. The present study examined the self-generation approach, which is theorized to enhance new learning by elaborating and deepening encoding. Participants included 54 HIV-infected and 46 seronegative individuals, who learned paired word associates in both self-generated and didactic encoding experimental conditions. Results revealed main effects of HIV serostatus and encoding condition, but no interaction. Planned comparisons showed that both groups recalled significantly more words learned in the self-generation condition, and that HIV+ individuals recalled fewer words overall compared to their seronegative counterparts at delayed recall. Importantly, HIV+ participants with clinical memory impairment evidenced similar benefits of self-generation compared to unimpaired HIV+ subjects. Self-generation strategies may improve verbal recall in individuals with HIV infection and may, therefore, be an appropriate and potentially effective cognitive rehabilitation tool in this population.

  16. Interference from mere thinking: mental rehearsal temporarily disrupts recall of motor memory.

    PubMed

    Yin, Cong; Wei, Kunlin

    2014-08-01

    Interference between successively learned tasks is widely investigated to study motor memory. However, how simultaneously learned motor memories interact with each other has been rarely studied despite its prevalence in daily life. Assuming that motor memory shares common neural mechanisms with declarative memory system, we made unintuitive predictions that mental rehearsal, as opposed to further practice, of one motor memory will temporarily impair the recall of another simultaneously learned memory. Subjects simultaneously learned two sensorimotor tasks, i.e., visuomotor rotation and gain. They retrieved one memory by either practice or mental rehearsal and then had their memory evaluated. We found that mental rehearsal, instead of execution, impaired the recall of unretrieved memory. This impairment was content-independent, i.e., retrieving either gain or rotation impaired the other memory. Hence, conscious recollection of one motor memory interferes with the recall of another memory. This is analogous to retrieval-induced forgetting in declarative memory, suggesting a common neural process across memory systems. Our findings indicate that motor imagery is sufficient to induce interference between motor memories. Mental rehearsal, currently widely regarded as beneficial for motor performance, negatively affects memory recall when it is exercised for a subset of memorized items.

  17. Interactions and Collective Behaviour of Chemotactic Active Colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Suropriya; Hablani, Surbhi; Golestanian, Ramin; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2015-03-01

    Artificial realizations of motility point in the direction of a new paradigm in engineering, through the design of emergent behavior by manipulating properties at the scale of the individual components. Catalytic colloidal swimmers are a particularly promising example of such systems. Here we present a comprehensive theoretical description of gradient-sensing of an individual swimmer, leading controllably to chemotactic or anti-chemotactic behavior. We use it to study the scattering of such a swimmer off a reactant source and construct a framework for studying their two body interactions and finally their collective behavior. We find that both the positional and the orientational degrees of freedom of the active colloids can exhibit condensation, signalling formation of clusters and asters. We present prescriptions for how to tune the surface properties of the colloids during fabrication to achieve each type of behavior. We further study the athermal fluctuations of a pointed tracer particle in a bath of such swimmers.

  18. Immunoglobulin octanucleotide: independent activity and selective interaction with enhancers

    SciTech Connect

    Parslow, T.G.; Jones, S.D.; Bond, B.; Yamamoto, K.R.

    1987-03-20

    The thymidine kinase (tk) promoter of herpes simplex virus includes an octanucleotide sequence motif (ATTTGCAT) that is also an essential component of immunoglobulin kappa gene promoters. In the absence of an enhancer, tk promoter derivatives that contain this element support a higher rate of transcription than those that lack it. The action of the kappa enhancer augments that of the octanucleotide in B lymphoid cells; when both elements are present, tk promoter activity is increased by more than an order of magnitude. In contrast, the presence of the octanucleotide in this promoter markedly reduces its response to a nonimmunoglobulin enhancer. These results suggest that the octanucleotide may mediate a selective interaction among promoters and enhancers.

  19. Prior-List Intrusions in Serial Recall Are Positional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osth, Adam F.; Dennis, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Henson (1996) provided a number of demonstrations of error patterns in serial recall that contradict chaining models. One such error pattern concerned when participants make intrusions from prior lists: Rather than originating from random positions in the prior list, intrusions tend to be recalled in the same position as their position in the…

  20. Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a…

  1. Accuracy of caregivers’ recall of hospital admissions: implications for research

    PubMed Central

    Burakevych, Nataliia; McKinlay, Christopher Joel Dorman; Alsweiler, Jane Marie; Harding, Jane Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine the accuracy of caregivers’ recall of hospital admissions in early childhood. Methods Prospective cohort study of babies born at risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia at Waikato Hospital, New Zealand, a regional public hospital and sole provider of acute inpatient care to over 100,000 children. Caregivers’ recall of children’s hospital admissions up to 4.5 years were compared with medical records. Accuracy of recall was related to neonatal and socio-demographic characteristics. Results Out of 267 children, 179 (67%) visited hospital and 106 (40%) were admitted at least once. The most frequent reasons for admission were for respiratory (29%) and gastrointestinal (18%) problems. Of 106 children admitted to hospital, 27 (25%) caregivers did not recall the admission and only 37 (35%) accurately recalled the number of admissions. The accuracy of recall was lower for gastrointestinal (38%) and surgical (40%) problems, while recall of respiratory (64%) and ear, nose and throat (60%) admissions was more accurate. Low socio-economic status and multiple admissions were associated with less accurate recall of number of admissions. Conclusion Caregivers do not accurately report hospital admissions. Questionnaire data about use of hospital facilities should be interpreted cautiously, and may not be sufficiently accurate for use in research studies. PMID:26355393

  2. The fSAM Model of False Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Daniel R.; Smith, Troy A.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors report a new theory of false memory building upon existing associative memory models and implemented in fSAM, the first fully specified quantitative model of false recall. Participants frequently intrude unstudied critical words while recalling lists comprising their strongest semantic associates but infrequently produce other…

  3. Accuracy in Recalling Interest Inventory Information at Three Time Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jane L.; Gore, Paul A., Jr.; Leuwerke, Wade; D'Achiardi, Catalina; Edwards, Jorie Hitch; Edwards, Jared

    2006-01-01

    Rates of accurate recall of the Strong Interest Inventory (SII; L. W. Harmon, J. C. Hansen, F. H. Borgen, & A. L. Hammer, 1994) profile information varied with the amount of time elapsed since the interpretation, the type of SII scale, and whether immediate recall was elicited, but rates did not vary with the strategy used to provide the…

  4. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of a recall. 7.55 Section 7.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and...

  5. 21 CFR 7.46 - Firm-initiated recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firm-initiated recall. 7.46 Section 7.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities §...

  6. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and...

  7. 21 CFR 7.53 - Recall status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall status reports. 7.53 Section 7.53 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities §...

  8. Bender Gestalt Recall: Memory Measure or Intelligence Estimate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armentrout, James A.

    1976-01-01

    WAIS subtset standard scores, IQ scores, and factorial deviation quotients were correlated with Bender Gestalt recall scores for 111 vocational rehabilitation clients. Results found that the Bender recall task could not classify Ss as to general intelligence level with greater accuracy than could be obtained with the WAIS Vocabulary subtest alone.…

  9. Using Recall to Reduce False Recognition: Diagnostic and Disqualifying Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Whether recall of studied words (e.g., parsley, rosemary, thyme) could reduce false recognition of related lures (e.g., basil) was investigated. Subjects studied words from several categories for a final recognition memory test. Half of the subjects were given standard test instructions, and half were instructed to use recall to reduce false…

  10. Veridical and False Recall in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Sheng, Li; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Gkalitsiou, Zoi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study used a false memory paradigm to explore the veridical and false recall of adults who stutter. Method: Twelve adults who stutter and 12 age-matched typically fluent peers listened to and then verbally recalled lists of words that consisted of either semantic or phonological associates or an equal number of semantic and…

  11. Mixed-List Phonological Similarity Effects in Delayed Serial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…

  12. 75 FR 3355 - Guidelines and Requirements for Mandatory Recall Notices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ...The Consumer Product Safety Commission (``Commission,'' ``CPSC,'' ``we'') is issuing a final rule establishing guidelines and requirements for mandatory recall notices as required by section 214 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (``CPSIA''). The rule contains the Commission's interpretation of information which must appear on mandatory recall notices ordered by the......

  13. Lawfulness of preventive recall from a community treatment order.

    PubMed

    Dawson, John

    2015-04-01

    Preventive recall to hospital of a patient on a community treatment order can be lawful when it is based on a convincing prediction that relapse in illness would otherwise occur. The legislation for England and Wales provides several indications that authorising preventive recall in those circumstances is a purpose of the community treatment order regime.

  14. 40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... inspection or be denied vehicle registration if the required recall repairs have not been completed. (2) In... vehicle inspection or registration record shall be modified to include (or be supplemented with other VIN... of recalled vehicles still in non-compliance that have either failed inspection or been...

  15. 40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... inspection or be denied vehicle registration if the required recall repairs have not been completed. (2) In... vehicle inspection or registration record shall be modified to include (or be supplemented with other VIN... of recalled vehicles still in non-compliance that have either failed inspection or been...

  16. 40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... inspection or be denied vehicle registration if the required recall repairs have not been completed. (2) In... vehicle inspection or registration record shall be modified to include (or be supplemented with other VIN... of recalled vehicles still in non-compliance that have either failed inspection or been...

  17. 40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... inspection or be denied vehicle registration if the required recall repairs have not been completed. (2) In... vehicle inspection or registration record shall be modified to include (or be supplemented with other VIN... of recalled vehicles still in non-compliance that have either failed inspection or been...

  18. 40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... inspection or be denied vehicle registration if the required recall repairs have not been completed. (2) In... vehicle inspection or registration record shall be modified to include (or be supplemented with other VIN... of recalled vehicles still in non-compliance that have either failed inspection or been...

  19. Parent-Child Relationships and Quality of Children's Episodic Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddis, Lynn E.; Howieson, Noel D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the ability of five- to six-year-old children to remember past experiences. A set of stimuli cards modelled on adaptations of the Separation Anxiety Test was generated. Interview transcripts are scored for the child's ability to recall past experience in episodic form. The quality of episodic recall is compared with attachment…

  20. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and the former annuity will be resumed at the previous rate adjusted by any cost-of-living increases.... (b) Survivor benefit for death during recall service. (1) If an annuitant entitled to a reduced... computed as if the recall service had otherwise terminated on the day of death and the annuity of...

  1. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and the former annuity will be resumed at the previous rate adjusted by any cost-of-living increases.... (b) Survivor benefit for death during recall service. (1) If an annuitant entitled to a reduced... computed as if the recall service had otherwise terminated on the day of death and the annuity of...

  2. Signal Detection Analysis of Recall and Recognition Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Wayne; Glathe, Herta

    Three paired-associate learning studies were run to compare signal detection analysis of recall and recognition memory performance. Experiment I showed that (a) rates of recall and recognition discriminability are substantially different in later trials and (b) a previously suggested correction for guessing does not transform the data to…

  3. Food Recall Attitudes and Behaviors of School Nutrition Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisamore, Amber; Roberts, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore school nutrition directors' attitudes and behaviors about food recalls. Specific objectives included: 1) Determine current food recall attitudes and the relationship between demographics and these attitudes; 2) Determine current practices of school nutrition directors related to…

  4. Stimulated Recall: A Report on Its Use in Naturalistic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, John

    2003-01-01

    Stimulated recall (SR) is a family of introspective research procedures through which cognitive processes can be investigated by inviting subjects to recall, when prompted by a video sequence, their concurrent thinking during that event. Variations of the generic approach are widely used and many of the studies treat SR as non-problematic. The…

  5. Parent Implementation of RECALL: A Systematic Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalon, Kelly; Hanline, Mary Frances; Davis, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    This systematic case study utilized a repeated acquisition design to investigate the impact of a caregiver-implemented RECALL (Reading to Engage Children with Autism in Language and Learning) on the correct, unprompted responses of a young child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). RECALL is an adapted shared reading intervention that includes a…

  6. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recall of noncomplying vehicles. 205... of noncomplying vehicles. (a) Pursuant to section 11(d)(1) of the Act, the Administrator may issue an order to the manufacturer to recall and repair or modify any vehicle distributed in commerce not...

  7. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recall of noncomplying vehicles. 205... of noncomplying vehicles. (a) Pursuant to section 11(d)(1) of the Act, the Administrator may issue an order to the manufacturer to recall and repair or modify any vehicle distributed in commerce not...

  8. ON MAGNETIC ACTIVITY BAND OVERLAP, INTERACTION, AND THE FORMATION OF COMPLEX SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Scott W.; Leamon, Robert J.

    2014-11-20

    Recent work has revealed a phenomenological picture of the how the ∼11 yr sunspot cycle of the Sun arises. The production and destruction of sunspots is a consequence of the latitudinal-temporal overlap and interaction of the toroidal magnetic flux systems that belong to the 22 yr magnetic activity cycle and are rooted deep in the Sun's convective interior. We present a conceptually simple extension of this work, presenting a hypothesis on how complex active regions can form as a direct consequence of the intra- and extra-hemispheric interaction taking place in the solar interior. Furthermore, during specific portions of the sunspot cycle, we anticipate that those complex active regions may be particularly susceptible to profoundly catastrophic breakdown, producing flares and coronal mass ejections of the most severe magnitude.

  9. Building Active Online Interaction via a Collaborative Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Chih-Hsiung; Corry, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Online interaction creates a desirable learning situation. Transferring traditional instruction to an online environment usually does not generate effective interaction for learning. This paper discusses theories and practices for an interactive collaborative learning community in an online environment. Three theoretical constructs--interactivity,…

  10. Assessing the effect of lexical variables in backward recall.

    PubMed

    Guérard, Katherine; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2012-03-01

    In a recent study, Bireta et al. (2010) suggested that when participants are required to recall lists of items in the reverse order, more attention is devoted to the recall of order at the expense of item information, leading to the abolition of item-based phenomena (the item and order trade-off hypothesis). In order to test the item and order trade-off hypothesis, we manipulated 4 lexical factors that are well known to influence item retention. The effects of word frequency, of lexicality, of semantic similarity, and of imageability were tested in forward and backward recall. All 4 phenomena were maintained in backward recall, which contradicts the item and order trade-off hypothesis. Instead, we suggest that backward recall might rely on semantic retrieval strategies.

  11. Does displayed enthusiasm favour recall, intrinsic motivation and time estimation?

    PubMed

    Moè, Angelica

    2016-11-01

    Displayed enthusiasm has been shown to relate to intrinsic motivation, vitality, and positive affect, but its effects on recall performance and time estimation have not yet been explored. This research aimed at studying the effects of a delivery style characterised by High Enthusiasm (HE) on recall, time estimation, and intrinsic motivation. In line with previous studies, effects on intrinsic motivation were expected. In addition, higher recall and lower time estimations were hypothesised. In two experiments, participants assigned to a HE condition or to a normal reading control condition listened to a narrative and to a descriptive passage. Then, they were asked to rate perceived time, enthusiasm, pleasure, interest, enjoyment and curiosity, before writing a free recall. Experiment 1 showed that in the HE condition, participants recalled more, were more intrinsically motivated, and expressed lower time estimations compared to the control condition. Experiment 2 confirmed the positive effects of HE reading compared to normal reading, using different passages and a larger sample.

  12. Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans.

    PubMed

    Rabinak, Christine A; Angstadt, Mike; Sripada, Chandra S; Abelson, James L; Liberzon, Israel; Milad, Mohammed R; Phan, K Luan

    2013-01-01

    A first-line approach to treat anxiety disorders is exposure-based therapy, which relies on extinction processes such as repeatedly exposing the patient to stimuli (conditioned stimuli; CS) associated with the traumatic, fear-related memory. However, a significant number of patients fail to maintain their gains, partly attributed to the fact that this inhibitory learning and its maintenance is temporary and conditioned fear responses can return. Animal studies have shown that activation of the cannabinoid system during extinction learning enhances fear extinction and its retention. Specifically, CB1 receptor agonists, such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC), can facilitate extinction recall by preventing recovery of extinguished fear in rats. However, this phenomenon has not been investigated in humans. We conducted a study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design, coupling a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and simultaneous skin conductance response (SCR) recording with an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) or placebo (PBO) 2 h prior to extinction learning in 29 healthy adult volunteers (THC = 14; PBO = 15) and tested extinction retention 24 h after extinction learning. Compared to subjects that received PBO, subjects that received THC showed low SCR to a previously extinguished CS when extinction memory recall was tested 24 h after extinction learning, suggesting that THC prevented the recovery of fear. These results provide the first evidence that pharmacological enhancement of extinction learning is feasible in humans using cannabinoid system modulators, which may thus warrant further development and clinical testing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.

  13. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  14. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  15. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  16. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  17. Maternal recall of infant feeding events is accurate.

    PubMed Central

    Launer, L J; Forman, M R; Hundt, G L; Sarov, B; Chang, D; Berendes, H W; Naggan, L

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--Retrospective infant feeding data are important to the study of child and adult health patterns. The accuracy of maternal recall of past infant feeding events was examined and specifically the infant's age when breast feeding was stopped and formula feeding and solid foods were introduced. DESIGN AND SETTING--The sample consisted of Bedouin Arab women (n = 318) living in the Negev in Israel who were a part of a larger cohort participating in a prospective study of infant health and who were delivered of their infants between July 1 and December 15, 1981. Data from interviews conducted 12 and 18 months postpartum were compared to the standard data collected six months postpartum. MAIN RESULTS--As length of recall increased there was a small increase in the mean difference, and its standard deviation, between the standard and recalled age when breast feeding was stopped and formula feeding and solid foods were started. Recall on formula feeding was less accurate than recall on solid foods and breast feeding. In particular, among those 61% reporting formula use at the six month interview, 51% did not recall introducing formula when interviewed at 18 months. The odds ratio (95% CI) of stunting versus normal length for age for formula fed versus breast fed infants based on recall data (OR = 2.07; 95% CI 0.82-5.22) differed only slightly from those based on the standard data (OR = 2.21; 95% CI 0.77-6.37). The accuracy of a mother's recall varied with her child's nutritional status at the time of the interview, but not with other sociodemographic, infant, or interviewer characteristics. CONCLUSIONS--Retrospective infant feeding data based on maternal recall of events up to 18 months in the past can be used with confidence in epidemiological studies. However, data on formula feeding may not be as accurate as data on breast feeding and solid food feeding, and accuracy may decrease as length of recall increases. PMID:1645071

  18. Hypothalamic stimulation and baroceptor reflex interaction on renal nerve activity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, M. F.; Ninomiya, I.; Franz, G. N.; Judy, W. V.

    1971-01-01

    The basal level of mean renal nerve activity (MRNA-0) measured in anesthetized cats was found to be modified by the additive interaction of hypothalamic and baroceptor reflex influences. Data were collected with the four major baroceptor nerves either intact or cut, and with mean aortic pressure (MAP) either clamped with a reservoir or raised with l-epinephrine. With intact baroceptor nerves, MRNA stayed essentially constant at level MRNA-0 for MAP below an initial pressure P1, and fell approximately linearly to zero as MAP was raised to P2. Cutting the baroceptor nerves kept MRNA at MRNA-0 (assumed to represent basal central neural output) independent of MAP. The addition of hypothalamic stimulation produced nearly constant increments in MRNA for all pressure levels up to P2, with complete inhibition at some level above P2. The increments in MRNA depended on frequency and location of the stimulus. A piecewise linear model describes MRNA as a linear combination of hypothalamic, basal central neural, and baroceptor reflex activity.

  19. M-cadherin-mediated intercellular interactions activate satellite cell division.

    PubMed

    Marti, Merce; Montserrat, Núria; Pardo, Cristina; Mulero, Lola; Miquel-Serra, Laia; Rodrigues, Alexandre Miguel Cavaco; Andrés Vaquero, José; Kuebler, Bernd; Morera, Cristina; Barrero, María José; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2013-11-15

    Adult muscle stem cells and their committed myogenic precursors, commonly referred to as the satellite cell population, are involved in both muscle growth after birth and regeneration after damage. It has been previously proposed that, under these circumstances, satellite cells first become activated, divide and differentiate, and only later fuse to the existing myofiber through M-cadherin-mediated intercellular interactions. Our data show that satellite cells fuse with the myofiber concomitantly to cell division, and only when the nuclei of the daughter cells are inside the myofiber, do they complete the process of differentiation. Here we demonstrate that M-cadherin plays an important role in cell-to-cell recognition and fusion, and is crucial for cell division activation. Treatment of satellite cells with M-cadherin in vitro stimulates cell division, whereas addition of anti-M-cadherin antibodies reduces the cell division rate. Our results suggest an alternative model for the contribution of satellite cells to muscle development, which might be useful in understanding muscle regeneration, as well as muscle-related dystrophies.

  20. The race to learn: spike timing and STDP can coordinate learning and recall in CA3.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Christopher R; Wyeth, Gordon; Milford, Michael; Wiles, Janet

    2011-06-01

    The CA3 region of the hippocampus has long been proposed as an autoassociative network performing pattern completion on known inputs. The dentate gyrus (DG) region is often proposed as a network performing the complementary function of pattern separation. Neural models of pattern completion and separation generally designate explicit learning phases to encode new information and assume an ideal fixed threshold at which to stop learning new patterns and begin recalling known patterns. Memory systems are significantly more complex in practice, with the degree of memory recall depending on context-specific goals. Here, we present our spike-timing separation and completion (STSC) model of the entorhinal cortex (EC), DG, and CA3 network, ascribing to each region a role similar to that in existing models but adding a temporal dimension by using a spiking neural network. Simulation results demonstrate that (a) spike-timing dependent plasticity in the EC-CA3 synapses provides a pattern completion ability without recurrent CA3 connections, (b) the race between activation of CA3 cells via EC-CA3 synapses and activation of the same cells via DG-CA3 synapses distinguishes novel from known inputs, and (c) modulation of the EC-CA3 synapses adjusts the learned versus test input similarity required to evoke a direct CA3 response prior to any DG activity, thereby adjusting the pattern completion threshold. These mechanisms suggest that spike timing can arbitrate between learning and recall based on the novelty of each individual input, ensuring control of the learn-recall decision resides in the same subsystem as the learned memories themselves. The proposed modulatory signal does not override this decision but biases the system toward either learning or recall. The model provides an explanation for empirical observations that a reduction in novelty produces a corresponding reduction in the latency of responses in CA3 and CA1.

  1. Asbestos modulates thioredoxin-thioredoxin interacting protein interaction to regulate inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Asbestos exposure is related to various diseases including asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma (MM). Among the pathogenic mechanisms proposed by which asbestos can cause diseases involving epithelial and mesothelial cells, the most widely accepted one is the generation of reactive oxygen species and/or depletion of antioxidants like glutathione. It has also been demonstrated that asbestos can induce inflammation, perhaps due to activation of inflammasomes. Methods The oxidation state of thioredoxin was analyzed by redox Western blot analysis and ROS generation was assessed spectrophotometrically as a read-out of solubilized formazan produced by the reduction of nitrotetrazolium blue (NTB) by superoxide. Quantitative real time PCR was used to assess changes in gene transcription. Results Here we demonstrate that crocidolite asbestos fibers oxidize the pool of the antioxidant, Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1), which results in release of Thioredoxin Interacting Protein (TXNIP) and subsequent activation of inflammasomes in human mesothelial cells. Exposure to crocidolite asbestos resulted in the depletion of reduced Trx1 in human peritoneal mesothelial (LP9/hTERT) cells. Pretreatment with the antioxidant dehydroascorbic acid (a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger) reduced the level of crocidolite asbestos-induced Trx1 oxidation as well as the depletion of reduced Trx1. Increasing Trx1 expression levels using a Trx1 over-expression vector, reduced the extent of Trx1 oxidation and generation of ROS by crocidolite asbestos, and increased cell survival. In addition, knockdown of TXNIP expression by siRNA attenuated crocidolite asbestos-induced activation of the inflammasome. Conclusion Our novel findings suggest that extensive Trx1 oxidation and TXNIP dissociation may be one of the mechanisms by which crocidolite asbestos activates the inflammasome and helps in development of MM. PMID:24885895

  2. Context Retrieval and Context Change in Free Recall: Recalling from Long-Term Memory Drives List Isolation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Yoonhee; Huber, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments used the "list-before-the-last" free recall paradigm (Shiffrin, 1970) to investigate retrieval for context and the manner in which context changes. This paradigm manipulates target and intervening list lengths to measure the interference from each list, providing a measure of list isolation. Correct target list recall was only…

  3. Emotions promote social interaction by synchronizing brain activity across individuals

    PubMed Central

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Viinikainen, Mikko; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Sharing others’ emotional states may facilitate understanding their intentions and actions. Here we show that networks of brain areas “tick together” in participants who are viewing similar emotional events in a movie. Participants’ brain activity was measured with functional MRI while they watched movies depicting unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant emotions. After scanning, participants watched the movies again and continuously rated their experience of pleasantness–unpleasantness (i.e., valence) and of arousal–calmness. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to derive multisubject voxelwise similarity measures [intersubject correlations (ISCs)] of functional MRI data. Valence and arousal time series were used to predict the moment-to-moment ISCs computed using a 17-s moving average. During movie viewing, participants' brain activity was synchronized in lower- and higher-order sensory areas and in corticolimbic emotion circuits. Negative valence was associated with increased ISC in the emotion-processing network (thalamus, ventral striatum, insula) and in the default-mode network (precuneus, temporoparietal junction, medial prefrontal cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus). High arousal was associated with increased ISC in the somatosensory cortices and visual and dorsal attention networks comprising the visual cortex, bilateral intraparietal sulci, and frontal eye fields. Seed-voxel–based correlation analysis confirmed that these sets of regions constitute dissociable, functional networks. We propose that negative valence synchronizes individuals’ brain areas supporting emotional sensations and understanding of another’s actions, whereas high arousal directs individuals’ attention to similar features of the environment. By enhancing the synchrony of brain activity across individuals, emotions may promote social interaction and facilitate interpersonal understanding. PMID:22623534

  4. Recall and recognition hypermnesia for Socratic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kazén, Miguel; Solís-Macías, Víctor M

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigate hypermnesia, net memory improvements with repeated testing of the same material after a single study trial. In the first experiment, we found hypermnesia across three trials for the recall of word solutions to Socratic stimuli (dictionary-like definitions of concepts) replicating Erdelyi, Buschke, and Finkelstein and, for the first time using these materials, for their recognition. In the second experiment, we had two "yes/no" recognition groups, a Socratic stimuli group presented with concrete and abstract verbal materials and a word-only control group. Using signal detection measures, we found hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli-and stable performance for abstract stimuli across three recognition tests. The control group showed memory decrements across tests. We interpret these findings with the alternative retrieval pathways (ARP) hypothesis, contrasting it with alternative theories of hypermnesia, such as depth of processing, generation and retrieve-recognise. We conclude that recognition hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli is a reliable phenomenon, which we found in two experiments involving both forced-choice and yes/no recognition procedures.

  5. Design and Implementation of a Patient Tracking and Recall System for Branch Dental Clinic Monterey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    properties of the MEMBER object. They associate each member with the properties of a specific activity and/or curriculum. PTARS Object Diagrams MEMBE...compound CURRICULUM object was transformed into the two relations MEMBER and CURRICULUM. 15 PTARS Relational Diagram ACTIVITY CURRICULUM =Iu Acronym...comprehensive graphics of application menus, reports, forms, recall letters, and screens. PTARS Menu Hierarchy MAIN IIELECT MENU L ATASASEI

  6. Alpha reactivity to first names differs in subjects with high and low dream recall frequency.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Perrine; Blochet, Camille; Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand, Olivier; Morlet, Dominique; Bidet-Caulet, Aurélie

    2013-01-01

    Studies in cognitive psychology showed that personality (openness to experience, thin boundaries, absorption), creativity, nocturnal awakenings, and attitude toward dreams are significantly related to dream recall frequency (DRF). These results suggest the possibility of neurophysiological trait differences between subjects with high and low DRF. To test this hypothesis we compared sleep characteristics and alpha reactivity to sounds in subjects with high and low DRF using polysomnographic recordings and electroencephalography (EEG). We acquired EEG from 21 channels in 36 healthy subjects while they were presented with a passive auditory oddball paradigm (frequent standard tones, rare deviant tones and very rare first names) during wakefulness and sleep (intensity, 50 dB above the subject's hearing level). Subjects were selected as High-recallers (HR, DRF = 4.42 ± 0.25 SEM, dream recalls per week) and Low-recallers (LR, DRF = 0.25 ± 0.02) using a questionnaire and an interview on sleep and dream habits. Despite the disturbing setup, the subjects' quality of sleep was generally preserved. First names induced a more sustained decrease in alpha activity in HR than in LR at Pz (1000-1200 ms) during wakefulness, but no group difference was found in REM sleep. The current dominant hypothesis proposes that alpha rhythms would be involved in the active inhibition of the brain regions not involved in the ongoing brain operation. According to this hypothesis, a more sustained alpha decrease in HR would reflect a longer release of inhibition, suggesting a deeper processing of complex sounds than in LR during wakefulness. A possibility to explain the absence of group difference during sleep is that increase in alpha power in HR may have resulted in awakenings. Our results support this hypothesis since HR experienced more intra sleep wakefulness than LR (30 ± 4 vs. 14 ± 4 min). As a whole our results support the hypothesis of neurophysiological trait differences in high and

  7. Alpha reactivity to first names differs in subjects with high and low dream recall frequency

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, Perrine; Blochet, Camille; Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand, Olivier; Morlet, Dominique; Bidet-Caulet, Aurélie

    2013-01-01

    Studies in cognitive psychology showed that personality (openness to experience, thin boundaries, absorption), creativity, nocturnal awakenings, and attitude toward dreams are significantly related to dream recall frequency (DRF). These results suggest the possibility of neurophysiological trait differences between subjects with high and low DRF. To test this hypothesis we compared sleep characteristics and alpha reactivity to sounds in subjects with high and low DRF using polysomnographic recordings and electroencephalography (EEG). We acquired EEG from 21 channels in 36 healthy subjects while they were presented with a passive auditory oddball paradigm (frequent standard tones, rare deviant tones and very rare first names) during wakefulness and sleep (intensity, 50 dB above the subject's hearing level). Subjects were selected as High-recallers (HR, DRF = 4.42 ± 0.25 SEM, dream recalls per week) and Low-recallers (LR, DRF = 0.25 ± 0.02) using a questionnaire and an interview on sleep and dream habits. Despite the disturbing setup, the subjects' quality of sleep was generally preserved. First names induced a more sustained decrease in alpha activity in HR than in LR at Pz (1000–1200 ms) during wakefulness, but no group difference was found in REM sleep. The current dominant hypothesis proposes that alpha rhythms would be involved in the active inhibition of the brain regions not involved in the ongoing brain operation. According to this hypothesis, a more sustained alpha decrease in HR would reflect a longer release of inhibition, suggesting a deeper processing of complex sounds than in LR during wakefulness. A possibility to explain the absence of group difference during sleep is that increase in alpha power in HR may have resulted in awakenings. Our results support this hypothesis since HR experienced more intra sleep wakefulness than LR (30 ± 4 vs. 14 ± 4 min). As a whole our results support the hypothesis of neurophysiological trait differences in high

  8. Collaborative recall of details of an emotional film.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Ineke; Zandstra, Anna Roos E; Hengeveld, Hester M E; Moulds, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative inhibition refers to the phenomenon that when several people work together to produce a single memory report, they typically produce fewer items than when the unique items in the individual reports of the same number of participants are combined (i.e., nominal recall). Yet, apart from this negative effect, collaboration may be beneficial in that group members remove errors from a collaborative report. Collaborative inhibition studies on memory for emotional stimuli are scarce. Therefore, the present study examined both collaborative inhibition and collaborative error reduction in the recall of the details of emotional material in a laboratory setting. Female undergraduates (n = 111) viewed a film clip of a fatal accident and subsequently engaged in either collaborative (n = 57) or individual recall (n = 54) in groups of three. The results show that, across several detail categories, collaborating groups recalled fewer details than nominal groups. However, overall, nominal recall produced more errors than collaborative recall. The present results extend earlier findings on both collaborative inhibition and error reduction to the recall of affectively laden material. These findings may have implications for the applied fields of forensic and clinical psychology.

  9. Chunk Limits and Length Limits in Immediate Recall: A Reconciliation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhijian; Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Whereas some research on immediate recall of verbal lists has suggested that it is limited by the number of chunks that can be recalled (e.g., Tulving & Patkau, 1962; Cowan, Chen, & Rouder, 2004), other research has suggested that it is limited by the length of the material to be recalled (e.g., Baddeley, Thomson, & Buchanan, 1975). We investigated this question by teaching new paired associations between words to create two-word chunks. The results suggest that both chunk capacity limits and length limits come into play. For the free recall of 12-word lists, 6 pre-learned pairs could be recalled about as well as 6 pre-exposed singletons, suggesting a chunk limit. However, for the serially-ordered recall of 8-word lists, 4 pre-learned pairs could be recalled about as well as 8 pre-exposed singletons, suggesting a length limit. Other conditions yielded intermediate results suggesting that sometimes both limits may operate together. PMID:16393043

  10. Recall is not necessary for verbal sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Kalm, Kristjan; Norris, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether overt recall of to-be-remembered material accelerates learning is important in a wide range of real-world learning settings. In the case of verbal sequence learning, previous research has proposed that recall either is necessary for verbal sequence learning (Cohen & Johansson Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 6, 139-143, 1967; Cunningham, Healy, & Williams Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 10, 575-597, 1984), or at least contributes significantly to it (Glass, Krejci, & Goldman Journal of Memory and Language, 28, 189-199, 1989; Oberauer & Meyer Memory, 17, 774-781, 2009). In contrast, here we show that the amount of previous spoken recall does not predict learning and is not necessary for it. We suggest that previous research may have underestimated participants' learning by using suboptimal performance measures, or by using manual or written recall. However, we show that the amount of spoken recall predicted how much interference from other to-be-remembered sequences would be observed. In fact, spoken recall mediated most of the error learning observed in the task. Our data support the view that the learning of overlapping auditory-verbal sequences is driven by learning the phonological representations and not the articulatory motor responses. However, spoken recall seems to reinforce already learned representations, whether they are correct or incorrect, thus contributing to a participant identifying a specific stimulus as either "learned" or "new" during the presentation phase.

  11. Test Takers' Writing Activities during the "TOEFL iBT"® Writing Tasks: A Stimulated Recall Study. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-25. ETS Research Report No. RR-15-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the writing activities that test takers engage in when responding to the writing tasks in the "TOEFL iBT"[superscript R] test and to examine the effects of task type and test-taker English language proficiency (ELP) and keyboarding skills on the frequency and distribution of these activities. Each of 22 test…

  12. ASC directs NF-kappaB activation by regulating receptor interacting protein-2 (RIP2) caspase-1 interactions.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Anasuya; Duncan, Michelle; Hart, Judy; Hertlein, Erin; Guttridge, Denis C; Wewers, Mark D

    2006-04-15

    Receptor interacting protein-2 (RIP2) is a caspase recruitment domain (CARD)-containing kinase that interacts with caspase-1 and plays an important role in NF-kappaB activation. Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) is a PYRIN and CARD-containing molecule, important in the induction of apoptosis and caspase-1 activation. Although RIP2 has also been linked to caspase-1 activation, RIP2 knockout animals fail to show a defect in caspase-1-mediated processing of proIL-1beta to its active form. Therefore, RIP2 function in binding to caspase-1 remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that caspase-1 may serve as a scaffolding molecule that promotes RIP2 interaction with IkappaB kinase-gamma thus inducing NF-kappaB activation. We further hypothesized that ASC, which also interacts with caspase-1 via its CARD, may interfere with the caspase-1 RIP2 interaction. In HEK293 cells, ASC induced prominent activation of caspase-1 and proIL-1beta processing. RIP2 transient transfection induced transcription of an NF-kappaB reporter gene. This RIP2-induced NF-kappaB activity and caspase-1 binding was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by ASC. Consistent with a role for caspase-1 as a scaffold for RIP2, caspase-1 knockout macrophages were suppressed in their ability to activate NF-kappaB, and septic caspase-1 knockout animals produced less IL-6, a functional marker of NF-kappaB activity. Lastly, THP-1 cells treated with small interfering RNA for ASC decreased their caspase-1 activity while enhancing their NF-kappaB signal. These data suggest that ASC may direct caspase-1 away from RIP2-mediated NF-kappaB activation, toward caspase-1-mediated processing of proIL-1beta by interfering with the RIP2 caspase-1 interaction.

  13. Altered states of consciousness, dissociation, and dream recall.

    PubMed

    Suszek, Hubert; Kopera, Maciej

    2005-02-01

    In a sample of 71 medical students, dream recall frequency was positively correlated with proneness to altered states of consciousness (r = .26) measured by the State of Mind and Consciousness Questionnaire and dissociation (r = .29) measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale II. A regression analysis, however, yielded neither altered states of consciousness nor dissociation, sex, or age to be significant predictors of dream recall frequency. Among women dream recall frequency was associated with proneness to dissociation; among men it was correlated with proneness to altered states of consciousness.

  14. Effects of Immediate Recall Trial on One-Year Delayed Recall Performance in Rey Complex Figure Test.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hikari

    2016-04-18

    This study aimed to examine the effects of the presence or absence of an immediate recall trial on university students' (n = 39) performance on the one-year delayed recall test in the Rey complex figure test (RCFT). Participants were divided into two groups that took either one or two tests, respectively. In the first year, the participants in the two-test condition completed a copy trial and an immediate recall trial, whereas those in the one-test condition underwent the copy trial only. In the second year, all participants completed a delayed recall test. Those in the two-test condition showed significantly higher scores than those in the one-test condition on the one-year delayed recall test. Thus, we found that omitting the immediate recall trial caused a decline in performance on the one-year delayed recall test. The relevance of these findings to the relationship with testing effects (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006 ) was considered.

  15. Effects of Working Memory Capacity and Domain Knowledge on Recall for Grocery Prices.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Douglas; Gardner, Michael K; Woltz, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Hambrick and Engle (2002) proposed 3 models of how domain knowledge and working memory capacity may work together to influence episodic memory: a "rich-get-richer" model, a "building blocks" model, and a "compensatory" model. Their results supported the rich-get-richer model, although later work by Hambrick and Oswald (2005) found support for a building blocks model. We investigated the effects of domain knowledge and working memory on recall of studied grocery prices. Working memory was measured with 3 simple span tasks. A contrast of realistic versus fictitious foods in the episodic memory task served as our manipulation of domain knowledge, because participants could not have domain knowledge of fictitious food prices. There was a strong effect for domain knowledge (realistic food-price pairs were easier to remember) and a moderate effect for working memory capacity (higher working memory capacity produced better recall). Furthermore, the interaction between domain knowledge and working memory produced a small but significant interaction in 1 measure of price recall. This supported the compensatory model and stands in contrast to previous research.

  16. Detecting re-infection in patients after an initial diagnosis of gonorrhoea: is routine recall for re-screening useful?

    PubMed

    Fernando, K A; Fowler, T; Harding, J; Flew, S; Caley, M; Phattey, J; Ross, Jdc

    2015-08-01

    To assess the outcome of routine sexually transmitted infection re-screening after a three-month interval in unselected patients diagnosed with gonorrhoea, we sought to assess whether this active approach would result in an increase in the number of people attending clinic and subsequently diagnosed with gonorrhoea re-infection, compared with normal re-presentation rates. A recall group of patients were invited for re-screening three months after their initial diagnosis of gonorrhoea. Permission was sought to send a reminder two weeks prior to their scheduled recall appointment. Comparisons were made with a historical control group of patients with gonorrhoea in the absence of any formal recall. Of the 242 patients in the intervention arm, 96 (40%) re-attended within six months, and 15 (6%) tested gonorrhoea positive. Two hundred and two patients were assessed in the control group, of whom 45 (22%) re-attended within six months, and 13 (6%) tested gonorrhoea positive. Women were more likely than men to re-attend following active recall, but they were not at higher risk of re-attending while re-infected with gonorrhoea. Active recall following a gonorrhoea diagnosis significantly increases re-attendance rates for repeat screening but did not result in an increased number of subsequent gonorrhoea diagnoses.

  17. MOLECULAR INTERACTION POTENTIALS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    One reasonable approach to the analysis of the relationships between molecular structure and toxic activity is through the investigation of the forces and intermolecular interactions responsible for chemical toxicity. The interaction between the xenobiotic and the bio...

  18. Rural children active trachoma risk factors and their interactions

    PubMed Central

    Muluneh, Essey Kebede; Zewotir, Temesgen; Bekele, Zerihun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Trachoma is a serious public health problem in rural Ethiopia. The aim of this investigation was to provide in-depth statistical analysis of the risk factors associated with active trachoma among children of age 1-9 years of Kedida Gamela district, in Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional survey of trachoma was conducted in six selected rural kebeles of Kedida Gamela district, in Ethiopia from June 10-25, 2014. A total of 377 children (ages 1-9 years) were included in the study using two stage cluster sampling. All children were examined for trachoma by nurse data collectors supervised by ophthalmic supervisors using the WHO simplified clinical grading system. Ordinal survey logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors. Data analysis was done using SAS version 9.3. Results The best fit proportional odds model was identified to be the main effects and two-way and three-way interactios. Keeping cattle in the house was found to have a protective effect (OR=0.138, p-value=0.0003). The household wealth will have a more protective effect if the child attends school. Washing face with soap and water once a day has equivalent protective effect as washing face three-or-more times a day with water only. Conclusion The 2-way and 3-way significant interactions effects unfolded some of the controversies derived from similar studies on trachoma risk factors. The findings would suggest integrated effort to address two or three factors simultaneously is more fruitful than any novel intervention targeted to address a single risk factor. PMID:27642466

  19. Improving Recall Using Database Management Systems: A Learning Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of microcomputer database management systems to facilitate the instructional uses of learning strategies relating to information processing skills, especially recall. Two learning strategies, cross-classification matrixing and node acquisition and integration, are highlighted. (Author/LRW)

  20. Presentation modality and mode of recall in verbal false memory.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, R T

    2001-07-01

    False memories were investigated for aurally and visually presented lists of semantically associated words. In Experiment 1, false written recall of critical intrusions was reliably lower following visual presentation compared with aural presentation. This presentation modality effect was attributed to the use of orthographic features during written recall to edit critical intrusions from visually presented lists. As predicted by this hypothesis, the modality effect was eliminated when the mode of recall was spoken rather than written. In Experiment 2, the modality effect in written recall was again replicated and then eliminated with an orienting task that ensured orthographic encoding even of aurally presented words. Thus, the modality effect appears to depend on using orthographic information to distinguish true from false verbal memories.

  1. Joe Engle Recalls Legacy Of X-15 Testing at Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    Retired Air Force test pilot and NASA astronaut Joe Engle recalled the legacy of the famed X-15 rocket plane recently during a colloquium at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. Engle, the only pe...

  2. Category Cued Recall Evokes a Generate-Recognize Retrieval Process

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Toth, Jeffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    The experiments reported here were designed to replicate and extend McCabe, Roediger, and Karpicke’s (2011) finding that retrieval in category cued recall involves both controlled and automatic processes. The extension entailed identifying whether distinctive encoding affected one or both of these two processes. The first experiment successfully replicated McCabe et al., but the second, which added a critical baseline condition, produced data inconsistent with a two independent process model of recall. The third experiment provided evidence that retrieval in category cued recall reflects a generate-recognize strategy, with the effect of distinctive processing being localized to recognition. Overall, the data suggest that category cued recall evokes a generate-recognize retrieval strategy and that the sub-processes underlying this strategy can be dissociated as a function of distinctive versus relational encoding processes. PMID:26280355

  3. Supporting Learning with Interactive Multimedia through Active Integration of Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodemer, Daniel; Ploetzner, Rolf; Bruchmuller, Katrin; Hacker, Sonja

    2005-01-01

    When learners explore dynamic and interactive visualisations they are often not able to interact with them in a systematic and goal-oriented way. Frequently, even supporting learners in processes of discovery learning does not lead to better learning outcomes. This can be due to missing pre-requisite knowledge such as the coherent mental…

  4. Considering the Activity in Interactivity: A Multimodal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Ruth N.

    2010-01-01

    What factors contribute to effective multimedia learning? Increasingly, interactivity is considered a critical component that can foster learning in multimedia environments, including simulations and games. Although a number of recent studies investigate interactivity as a factor in the effective design of multimedia instruction, most examine only…

  5. ECRI Institute offers recommendations on Cardiac Science AED recall.

    PubMed

    2010-07-01

    In late 2009, Cardiac Science voluntarily recalled certain automated external defibrillator (AED) models because of rare component failures that could cause the units to fail to deliver therapy. These failures were not being detected by the units' automated self-tests. More recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued recommendations about the recall that differ from those of Cardiac Science. ECRI Institute is presenting its own recommendations to help clarify the situation.

  6. Prose recall and amnesia: more implications for the episodic buffer.

    PubMed

    Gooding, P A; Isaac, C L; Mayes, A R

    2005-01-01

    Baddeley and Wilson [Baddeley, A. D., & Wilson, F. B. (2002). Prose recall and amnesia: implications for the structure of working memory. Neuropsychologia 40, 1737-1743.] have argued that their finding of a positive association between amnesics' immediate prose recall scores and their scores on measures of executive function and fluid intelligence supports the view that an episodic buffer exists. However, the pattern of data from amnesics tested in our laboratory presented some problems for this conceptualisation of the episodic buffer.

  7. Cognitive style and order of recall effects in dichotic listening.

    PubMed

    Mohr, E

    1987-06-01

    Dichotic listening performance (ear preference and accuracy) was examined as a function of cognitive style and order of recall. In replication of earlier work, a right ear preference was found for free and right ear first recall and a left preference for left ear first recall, thus validating the dichotic instrument used. Cognitive style (field dependence, independence) did not show any systematic differential association with ear preference. Accuracy in contrast varied significantly as a function of cognitive style. Field independent subjects were more accurate than their field dependent counterparts; variability appeared to be due to their greater accuracy in left and right ear first recall conditions, with no apparent group differences under free recall. The order of recall factor was without effect here. No differences emerged between males and females in terms of ear preference, accuracy or cognitive style. In addition, no correlation between handedness and ear preference could be ascertained. The observed lack of influence of the cognitive style variable on lateralization patterns is discussed with respect to earlier assertions to the contrary. Current models of dichotic listening are evaluated in terms of all of the above findings.

  8. Blending technology and teamwork for successful management of product recalls.

    PubMed

    Frush, Karen; Pleasants, Jane; Shulby, Gail; Hendrix, Barbara; Berson, Brooke; Gordon, Cynthia; Cuffe, Michael S

    2009-12-01

    Patient safety programs have been developed in many hospitals to reduce the risk of harm to patients. Proactive, real-time, and retrospective risk-reduction strategies should be implemented in hospitals, but patient safety leaders should also be cognizant of the risks associated with thousands of products that enter the hospital through the supply chain. A growing number of recalls and alerts related to these products are received by health care facilities each year, through a recall process that is fraught with challenges. Despite the best efforts of health care providers, weaknesses and gaps in the process lead to delays, fragmentation, and disruptions, thus extending the number of days patients may be at risk from potentially faulty or misused products. To address these concerns, Duke Medicine, which comprises an academic medical center, two community hospitals, outlying clinics, physicians' offices, and home health and hospice, implemented a Web-based recall management system. Within three months, the time required to receive, deliver, and close alerts decreased from 43 days to 2.74 days. To maximize the effectiveness of the recall management process, a team of senior Duke Medicine leaders was established to evaluate the impact of product recalls and alerts on patient safety, to evaluate response action plans, and to provide oversight of patient and provider communication strategies. Alerts are now communicated more effectively and responded to in a more consistent and global manner. This comprehensive approach to product recalls is a critical component of a broader Duke Medicine strategy to improve patient safety.

  9. A computational language approach to modeling prose recall in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Mark; Diaz-Asper, Catherine; Foltz, Peter W; Elvevåg, Brita

    2014-06-01

    Many cortical disorders are associated with memory problems. In schizophrenia, verbal memory deficits are a hallmark feature. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains elusive. Modeling aspects of language features used in memory recall have the potential to provide means for measuring these verbal processes. We employ computational language approaches to assess time-varying semantic and sequential properties of prose recall at various retrieval intervals (immediate, 30 min and 24 h later) in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected siblings and healthy unrelated control participants. First, we model the recall data to quantify the degradation of performance with increasing retrieval interval and the effect of diagnosis (i.e., group membership) on performance. Next we model the human scoring of recall performance using an n-gram language sequence technique, and then with a semantic feature based on Latent Semantic Analysis. These models show that automated analyses of the recalls can produce scores that accurately mimic human scoring. The final analysis addresses the validity of this approach by ascertaining the ability to predict group membership from models built on the two classes of language features. Taken individually, the semantic feature is most predictive, while a model combining the features improves accuracy of group membership prediction slightly above the semantic feature alone as well as over the human rating approach. We discuss the implications for cognitive neuroscience of such a computational approach in exploring the mechanisms of prose recall.

  10. An fMRI Study Exploring the Overlap and Differences between Neural Representations of Physical and Recalled Pain

    PubMed Central

    Fairhurst, Merle; Fairhurst, Katherine; Berna, Chantal; Tracey, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Implementing a recall paradigm without hypnosis, we use functional MRI (fMRI) to explore and compare nociceptive and centrally-driven pain experiences. We posit that a trace of a recent nociceptive event can be used to create sensory-re-experiencing of pain that can be qualified in terms of intensity and vividness. Fifteen healthy volunteers received three levels of thermal stimuli (warm, low pain and high pain) and subsequently were asked to recall and then rate this experience. Neuroimaging results reveal that recalling a previous sensory experience activates an extensive network of classical pain processing structures except the contralateral posterior insular cortex. Nociceptive-specific activation of this structure and the rated intensity difference between physical and recalled pain events allow us to investigate the link between the quality of the original nociceptive stimulus and the mental trace, as well as the differences between the accompanying neural responses. Additionally, by incorporating the behavioural ratings, we explored which brain regions were separately responsible for generating either an accurate or vivid recall of the physical experience. Together, these observations further our understanding of centrally-mediated pain experiences and pain memory as well as the potential relevance of these factors in the maintenance of chronic pain. PMID:23119093

  11. Aromatic-Aromatic Interactions in Biological System: Structure Activity Relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Rajagopal, Appavu; Deepa, Mohan; Govindaraju, Munisamy

    2016-02-26

    While, intramolecular hydrogen bonds have attracted the greatest attention in studies of peptide conformations, the recognition that several other weakly polar interactions may be important determinants of folded structure has been growing. Burley and Petsko provided a comprehensive overview of the importance of weakly polar interactions, in shaping protein structures. The interactions between aromatic rings, which are spatially approximate, have attracted special attention. A survey of the proximal aromatic residue pairs in proteins, allowed Burley and Petsko to suggest that, “phenyl ring centroids are separated by a preferential distance of between 4.5 and 7 Å, and dihedral angles approximately 90° are most common”.

  12. Is Peer Interaction Necessary for Optimal Active Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Debra L.; Farmer, Jan Keith; Peterson, Ernie

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analyses of active-learning research consistently show that active-learning techniques result in greater student performance than traditional lecture-based courses. However, some individual studies show no effect of active-learning interventions. This may be due to inexperienced implementation of active learning. To minimize the effect of…

  13. Effects of language dominance on item and order memory in free recall, serial recall and order reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Francis, Wendy S; Baca, Yuzeth

    2014-01-01

    Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 144) performed free recall, serial recall and order reconstruction tasks in both English and Spanish. Long-term memory for both item and order information was worse in the less fluent language (L2) than in the more fluent language (L1). Item scores exhibited a stronger disadvantage for the L2 in serial recall than in free recall. Relative order scores were lower in the L2 for all three tasks, but adjusted scores for free and serial recall were equivalent across languages. Performance of English-speaking monolinguals (N = 72) was comparable to bilingual performance in the L1, except that monolinguals had higher adjusted order scores in free recall. Bilingual performance patterns in the L2 were consistent with the established effects of concurrent task performance on these memory tests, suggesting that the cognitive resources required for processing words in the L2 encroach on resources needed to commit item and order information to memory. These findings are also consistent with a model in which item memory is connected to the language system, order information is processed by separate mechanisms and attention can be allocated differentially to these two systems.

  14. Recall of the ASR XL Head and Hip Resurfacing Systems.

    PubMed

    Maurer-Ertl, Werner; Friesenbichler, Joerg; Holzer, Lukas A; Leitner, Lukas; Ogris, Kathrin; Maier, Michael; Leithner, Andreas

    2016-12-19

    At the beginning of the 21st century, use of large-diameter, metal-on-metal devices was a popular procedure for hip replacement in young and physically active patients; however, within a few years, the number of revisions increased, resulting in a worldwide recall for the articular surface replacement (ASR) system. Complication rates for the ASR devices implanted at the authors' department are reported, with revision rates of 32% and 30% in the ASR XL Head and ASR Resurfacing groups, respectively. Reasons for revision surgery were serum metal ion elevation, luxation or subluxation, aseptic loosening, soft tissue compromise (adverse reactions to metal debris [ARMD]), and infection. The calculated implant survival for the ASR XL Head system and the ASR Resurfacing device (DePuy Orthopaedics Inc, Warsaw, Indiana) in the current series was 79% and 90%, respectively, at 60 months. Symptomatic patients with metal-on-metal devices, with or without elevated metal ion concentrations, should undergo cross sectional imaging to exclude ARMD. In cases of increased metal ion concentrations, local pain, or ARMD, revision surgery has to be evaluated. In the future, closer monitoring of new implants is needed to prevent high failure rates, as seen with the ASR design. Furthermore, the withdrawal of the device highlights the importance of national implant registries. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.].

  15. Role of anxiety and brooding in specificity of autobiographical recall.

    PubMed

    Ricarte, Jorge Javier; Ros, Laura; Latorre, Jose Miguel; Muñoz, Maria Dolores; Aguilar, Maria Jose; Hernandez, Jose Vicente

    2016-12-01

    Overgeneral schemas and lack of autobiographical memory (AM) specificity about our past experiences can predict mood disturbance. Rumination, functional avoidance and executive processes are the main explanatory variables of such overgenerality. However, in non-clinical samples, rumination predicts overgenerality most consistently after the induction of dysphoric mood. Anxiety also activates rumination. Furthermore, anxiety predicts memory performance and has effects on mood which are independent of the effects of rumination. So, what might be the role of anxiety in autobiographical memory performance? A sample of 210 voluntary participants reported measures of autobiographical memory, anxiety, rumination (brooding and reflection), functional avoidance and executive functions (semantic and phonetic verbal fluency task). Autobiographical performance (specificity) was negatively associated with brooding and age and positively with phonetic verbal fluency but not with functional avoidance and anxiety. However, anxiety and brooding were positively correlated even after controlling for depression scores. Moreover, using structural equation modeling, anxiety showed a significant indirect effect on autobiographical specificity through brooding rumination. These results suggest a possible association of anxiety with autobiographical recall through brooding rumination.

  16. Newest generic OC manufacturer issues recall after packaging snafu.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    Due to a packaging error that left white placebo pills in place of active pills, Gynex Inc. has had to recall 325,000 packages of generic oral contraceptives (OC), a mistake that the company insists has not affected consumers. Company vice president Stephen M. Simes says that although the majority of the defective packages remain in the possession of wholesalers and chain store warehouses, some had been shipped to pharmacies. But presently, it seems that none have reached consumers. Recently entering the generic OC market, the company's packaging error involved its first shipment of Gynex 1/35E and Gynex 0.5/35 in 28-day packs. These two generics are copy products on ON 1/35, made by Ortho Pharmaceutical, Modicon/Brevicon, made by Ortho Pharmaceutical and Syntex Laboratories--two widely used OCs. While the company is still investigating the incident, Simes explains that the company is enacting changes in the packaging procedures and is considering alterations in machinery and in quality control. The error will probably represent a financial loss for the company, and it will delay Gynex's entry into the contraceptive market. But the California-based company plans to press ahead, having already filed marketing applications for 5 additional low-dose OC formulations.

  17. Pyrethroid Activity-Based Probes for Profiling Cytochrome P450 Activities Associated with Insecticide Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Hanafy M.; O'Neill, Paul M.; Hong, David; Finn, Robert; Henderson, Colin; Wright, Aaron T.; Cravatt, Benjamin; Hemingway, Janet; Paine, Mark J.

    2014-01-18

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used to control a diverse spectrum of diseases spread by arthropods. We have developed a suite of pyrethroid mimetic activity based probes (PyABPs) to selectively label and identify P450s associated with pyrethroid metabolism. The probes were screened against pyrethroid metabolizing and non-metabolizing mosquito P450s, as well as rodent microsomes to measure labeling specificity, plus CPR and b5 knockout mouse livers to validate P450 activation and establish the role for b5 in probe activation. Using a deltamethrin mimetic PyABP we were able to profile active enzymes in rat liver microsomes and identify pyrethroid metabolizing enzymes in the target tissue. The most reactive enzyme was a P450, CYP2C11, which is known to metabolize deltamethrin. Furthermore, several other pyrethroid metabolizers were identified (CYPs 2C6, 3A4, 2C13 and 2D1) along with related detoxification enzymes, notably UDP-g’s 2B1 - 5, suggesting a network of associated pyrethroid metabolizing enzymes, or ‘pyrethrome’. Considering the central role that P450s play in metabolizing insecticides, we anticipate that PyABPs will aid the identification and profiling of P450s associated with insecticide pharmacology in a wide range of species, improving understanding of P450-insecticide interactions and aiding the development of new tools for disease control.

  18. The impact of epistemological beliefs and cognitive ability on recall and critical evaluation of scientific information.

    PubMed

    Feinkohl, Insa; Flemming, Danny; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    Scientific research findings are frequently picked up by the mainstream media, but it is largely unclear which factors have an impact on laypeople's processing of the presented scientific information. In this study, we investigated the influence of cognitive and metacognitive inter-individual differences on recall and on critical evaluation of new scientific information that was presented in a journalistic article. Sixty-three participants (80 % female; mean age 24.1 ± 3.3 years) read a newspaper article reporting research findings on a recently developed and yet unproven treatment for depression. We found that more sophisticated, domain-specific epistemological beliefs and a higher cognitive ability were independently associated with better recall of content from the article. Additionally, participants with more sophisticated epistemological beliefs displayed a more critical evaluation of the article. Cognitive ability was unrelated to critical evaluation and to epistemological beliefs. There were also no interaction effects of cognitive ability and epistemological beliefs on recall or on critical evaluation. Based on our preliminary findings and previous evidence of epistemological beliefs as a modifiable feature, we discuss this inter-individual characteristic as a potential target for the promotion of better understanding of scientific topics by the general public.

  19. Is Peer Interaction Necessary for Optimal Active Learning?

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Jan Keith; Peterson, Ernie

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analyses of active-learning research consistently show that active-learning techniques result in greater student performance than traditional lecture-based courses. However, some individual studies show no effect of active-learning interventions. This may be due to inexperienced implementation of active learning. To minimize the effect of inexperience, we should try to provide more explicit implementation recommendations based on research into the key components of effective active learning. We investigated the optimal implementation of active-learning exercises within a “lecture” course. Two sections of nonmajors biology were taught by the same instructor, in the same semester, using the same instructional materials and assessments. Students in one section completed in-class active-learning exercises in cooperative groups, while students in the other section completed the same activities individually. Performance on low-level, multiple-choice assessments was not significantly different between sections. However, students who worked in cooperative groups on the in-class activities significantly outperformed students who completed the activities individually on the higher-level, extended-response questions. Our results provide additional evidence that group processing of activities should be the recommended mode of implementation for in-class active-learning exercises. PMID:26086656

  20. Is Peer Interaction Necessary for Optimal Active Learning?

    PubMed

    Linton, Debra L; Farmer, Jan Keith; Peterson, Ernie

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analyses of active-learning research consistently show that active-learning techniques result in greater student performance than traditional lecture-based courses. However, some individual studies show no effect of active-learning interventions. This may be due to inexperienced implementation of active learning. To minimize the effect of inexperience, we should try to provide more explicit implementation recommendations based on research into the key components of effective active learning. We investigated the optimal implementation of active-learning exercises within a "lecture" course. Two sections of nonmajors biology were taught by the same instructor, in the same semester, using the same instructional materials and assessments. Students in one section completed in-class active-learning exercises in cooperative groups, while students in the other section completed the same activities individually. Performance on low-level, multiple-choice assessments was not significantly different between sections. However, students who worked in cooperative groups on the in-class activities significantly outperformed students who completed the activities individually on the higher-level, extended-response questions. Our results provide additional evidence that group processing of activities should be the recommended mode of implementation for in-class active-learning exercises.

  1. Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall

    PubMed Central

    Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a source memory/free-recall procedure. For each word that was recalled, participants were asked to (a) make a confidence rating on a 5-point scale, (b) make a Remember/Know judgment, and (c) recollect a source detail. The large majority of both Remember judgments and Know judgments were made with high confidence and high accuracy, but source memory was nevertheless higher for Remember judgments than for Know judgments. These source memory results correspond to what is found using recognition, and they raise the possibility that Know judgments in free recall identify the cue-dependent retrieval of item-only information from an episodic memory search set. In agreement with this idea, we also found that the temporal dynamics of free recall were similar for high-confidence Remember and high-confidence Know judgments (as if both judgments reflected retrieval from the same search set). If Know judgments in free recall do in fact reflect the episodic retrieval of item-only information, it seems reasonable to suppose that the same might be true of high-confidence Know judgments in recognition. If so, then a longstanding debate about the role of the hippocampus in recollection and familiarity may have a natural resolution. PMID:23637470

  2. Serial Recall, Word Frequency, and Mixed Lists: The Influence of Item Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leonie M.; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the effect of word frequency in the serial recall task show that lists of high-frequency words are better recalled than lists of low-frequency words; however, when high- and low-frequency words are alternated within a list, there is no difference in the level of recall for the two types of words, and recall is intermediate between lists…

  3. Birth order and recalled childhood gender nonconformity in Samoan men and fa'afafine.

    PubMed

    Semenyna, Scott W; VanderLaan, Doug P; Vasey, Paul L

    2017-04-01

    Having a greater than average number of older biological brothers is a robust correlate of male androphilia (i.e., sexual attraction and arousal to adult males). Previous investigations have sought to understand whether this fraternal birth order (FBO) effect is also systematically related to recalled indicators of childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). However, these investigations have relied on data from low-fertility Western populations in which expressions of femininity in male children are routinely stigmatized and consequently, suppressed. The present study examined the FBO effect (among other sibship characteristics) and recalled indicators of CGN in Samoa, a high-fertility population, whose members are relatively tolerant of male femininity. Indeed, Samoans identify feminine androphilic males as belonging to an alternative gender category, known locally as fa'afafine. The present study compared the sibship characteristics of 231 fa'afafine and 231 opposite-sex attracted men from Samoa, as well as how these characteristics related to recalled CGN. Results replicated the well-established FBO effect for predicting male sexual orientation, with each older brother increasing the odds of being androphilic by 21%. However, no relationship was found between the number of older brothers (or other siblings) a participant had and their recalled CGN. Although fa'afafine reported significantly more CGN than Samoan men, CGN did not mediate the FBO effect, nor did the FBO effect and CGN interact to predict male sexual orientation. These findings are consistent with previous studies suggesting that the FBO effect is associated with male sexual orientation, but not childhood female-typical gender expression among androphilic males.

  4. Human memory retention and recall processes. A review of EEG and fMRI studies.

    PubMed

    Amin, Hafeezullah; Malik, Aamir S

    2013-10-01

    Human memory is an important concept in cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Our brain is actively engaged in functions of learning and memorization. Generally, human memory has been classified into 2 groups: short-term/working memory, and long-term memory. Using different memory paradigms and brain mapping techniques, psychologists and neuroscientists have identified 3 memory processes: encoding, retention, and recall. These processes have been studied using EEG and functional MRI (fMRI) in cognitive and neuroscience research. This study reviews previous research reported for human memory processes, particularly brain behavior in memory retention and recall processes with the use of EEG and fMRI. We discuss issues and challenges related to memory research with EEG and fMRI techniques.

  5. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years) and older (64-85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  6. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  7. Order recall in verbal short-term memory: The role of semantic networks.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Marie; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Mair, Ali; Tehan, Gerry; Tolan, Anne

    2015-04-01

    In their recent article, Acheson, MacDonald, and Postle (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 37:44-59, 2011) made an important but controversial suggestion: They hypothesized that (a) semantic information has an effect on order information in short-term memory (STM) and (b) order recall in STM is based on the level of activation of items within the relevant lexico-semantic long-term memory (LTM) network. However, verbal STM research has typically led to the conclusion that factors such as semantic category have a large effect on the number of correctly recalled items, but little or no impact on order recall (Poirier & Saint-Aubin, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 48A:384-404, 1995; Saint-Aubin, Ouellette, & Poirier, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 12:171-177, 2005; Tse, Memory 17:874-891, 2009). Moreover, most formal models of short-term order memory currently suggest a separate mechanism for order coding-that is, one that is separate from item representation and not associated with LTM lexico-semantic networks. Both of the experiments reported here tested the predictions that we derived from Acheson et al. The findings show that, as predicted, manipulations aiming to affect the activation of item representations significantly impacted order memory.

  8. Using Animation and Interactivity To Enrich Reading and Writing Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladhart, Marsha A.

    In the hands of inspired teachers, computers can provide opportunities for creativity and interaction that add new excitement to learning. PowerPoint and HyperStudio are just two examples of computer software that are frequently used by students to share knowledge and develop communication skills using multimedia. Publishing their work with the…

  9. Beginning Learners' Development of Interactional Competence: Alignment Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tecedor, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the development of interactional competence (Hall, 1993; He & Young, 1998) by beginning learners of Spanish as indexed by their use of alignment moves. Discourse analysis techniques and quantitative data analysis were used to explore how 52 learners expressed alignment and changes in participation patterns in two sets of…

  10. Interactive Activation and Mutual Constraint Satisfaction in Perception and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, James L.; Mirman, Daniel; Bolger, Donald J.; Khaitan, Pranav

    2014-01-01

    In a seminal 1977 article, Rumelhart argued that perception required the simultaneous use of multiple sources of information, allowing perceivers to optimally interpret sensory information at many levels of representation in real time as information arrives. Building on Rumelhart's arguments, we present the Interactive Activation…

  11. What Does Metalinguistic Activity in Learners' Interaction during a Collaborative L2 Writing Task Look Like?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the metalinguistic activity that arose in the interaction of 7 groups of bilingual learners writing collaboratively in their second language (L2), English. A microanalysis of this interaction reveals that metalinguistic activity comprises 3 types of oral production: comments, speech actions, and text reformulations. Text…

  12. Studying Activities That Take Place in Speech Interactions: A Theoretical and Methodological Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Dizier de Almeida, Valérie; Colletta, Jean-Marc; Auriac-Slusarczyk, Emmanuelle; Specogna, Antonietta; Simon, Jean-Pascal; Fiema, Gabriela; Luxembourger, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes a theoretical and methodological framework based on a pluralistic, concerted approach to the study of activities that take place in and through speech interactions. The framework has a general scope, applying to any collective activity taking form through language interactions. It contributes to a fuller understanding of the…

  13. What Ever Happened to Crayons? How Interactive Activities such as NetConferenceing Enlist Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon-Cook, Ruth; Crawford, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    Interactive activities offer innumerable possibilities within eLearning environments. As such, one possibility within the interactive activity realm is netconferencing, so as to support the learning objectives. Enhancements within the eLearning environment support the learner?s focus upon knowledge and conceptual framework of understanding.…

  14. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Hiemke K.; Rothgangel, Martin; Grube, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After 1 week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments 1 week (r = 0.350) and 12 weeks (r = 0.316) later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments 1 week later (correlations between r = 0.194 and 0.394). Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics. PMID:26441702

  15. The fSAM Model of False Recall

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, Daniel R.; Smith, Troy A.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report a new theory of false memory building upon existing associative memory models and implemented in fSAM, the first fully specified quantitative model of false recall. Participants frequently intrude unstudied critical words while recalling lists comprising their strongest semantic associates but infrequently produce other extralist and prior-list intrusions. The authors developed the theory by simulating recall of such lists, using factorial combinations of semantic mechanisms operating at encoding, retrieval, or both stages. During encoding, unstudied words' associations to list context were strengthened in proportion to their strength of semantic association either to each studied word or to all co-rehearsed words. During retrieval, words received preference in proportion to their strength of semantic association to the most recently recalled single word or multiple words. The authors simulated all intrusion types and veridical recall for lists varying in semantic association strength among studied and critical words from the same and different lists. Multiplicative semantic encoding and retrieval mechanisms performed well in combination. Using such combined mechanisms, the authors also simulated several core findings from the Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm literature, including developmental patterns, specific list effects, association strength effects, and true–false correlations. These results challenge existing false-memory theories. PMID:17907869

  16. Human Figure Drawings and Children’s Recall of Touching

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children’s poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions. PMID:20025421

  17. Appropriate Recall Interval for Periodontal Maintenance: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Farooqi, Owais A.; Wehler, Carolyn J.; Gibson, Gretchen; Jurasic, M. Marianne; Jones, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to assess the evidence to support a specific time interval between periodontal maintenance (PM) visits. Methods Relevant articles were identified through searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed using specific search terms, until April, 2014, resulting in 1095 abstracts and/or titles with possible relevance. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) guidelines were used to evaluate the strength of studies and synthesize findings. If mean recall interval was not reported for study groups, authors were contacted to attempt to retrieve this information. Results Eight cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. No randomized control trials were found. All included studies assessed the effect of PM recall intervals in terms of compliance with a recommended regimen (3–6 months) as a primary outcome. Shorter PM intervals (3–6 months) favored more teeth retention but also statistically insignificant differences between RC and IC/EC, or converse findings are also found. In the 2 studies reporting mean recall interval in groups, significant tooth loss differences were noted as the interval neared the 12 month limit. Conclusions Evidence for a specific recall interval (e.g. every 3 months) for all patients following periodontal therapy is weak. Further studies, such as RCTs or large electronic database evaluations would be appropriate. The merits of risk-based recommendations over fixed recall interval regimens should be explored. PMID:26698003

  18. Diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias in chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Serbic, Danijela; Pincus, Tamar

    2014-08-01

    Patients' beliefs about the origin of their pain and their cognitive processing of pain-related information have both been shown to be associated with poorer prognosis in low back pain (LBP), but the relationship between specific beliefs and specific cognitive processes is not known. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias in 2 groups of chronic LBP patients, those who were certain about their diagnosis and those who believed that their pain was due to an undiagnosed problem. Patients (N=68) endorsed and subsequently recalled pain, illness, depression, and neutral stimuli. They also provided measures of pain, diagnostic status, mood, and disability. Both groups exhibited a recall bias for pain stimuli, but only the group with diagnostic uncertainty also displayed a recall bias for illness-related stimuli. This bias remained after controlling for depression and disability. Sensitivity analyses using grouping by diagnosis/explanation received supported these findings. Higher levels of depression and disability were found in the group with diagnostic uncertainty, but levels of pain intensity did not differ between the groups. Although the methodology does not provide information on causality, the results provide evidence for a relationship between diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias for negative health-related stimuli in chronic LBP patients.

  19. Antiproliferative activity of aroylacrylic acids. Structure-activity study based on molecular interaction fields.

    PubMed

    Drakulić, Branko J; Stanojković, Tatjana P; Zižak, Zeljko S; Dabović, Milan M

    2011-08-01

    Antiproliferative activity of 27 phenyl-substituted 4-aryl-4-oxo-2-butenoic acids (aroylacrylic acids) toward Human cervix carcinoma (HeLa), Human chronic myelogenous leukemia (K562) and Human colon tumor (LS174) cell lines in vitro are reported. Compounds are active toward all examined cell lines. The most active compounds bear two or three branched alkyl or cycloalkyl substituents on phenyl moiety having potencies in low micromolar ranges. One of most potent derivatives arrests the cell cycle at S phase in HeLa cells. The 3D QSAR study, using molecular interaction fields (MIF) and derived alignment independent descriptors (GRIND-2), rationalize the structural characteristics correlated with potency of compounds. Covalent chemistry, most possibly involved in the mode of action of reported compounds, was quantitatively accounted using frontier molecular orbitals. Pharmacophoric pattern of most potent compounds are used as a template for virtual screening, to find similar ones in database of compounds screened against DTP-NCI 60 tumor cell lines. Potency of obtained hits is well predicted.

  20. Individual differences in working memory capacity determine the effects of oculomotor task load on concurrent word recall performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Ju; Kwon, Gusang; Lee, Aekyoung; Ghajar, Jamshid; Suh, Minah

    2011-07-05

    In this study, the interaction between individual differences in working memory capacity, which were assessed by the Korean version of the California Verbal Learning Test (K-CVLT), and the effects of oculomotor task load on word recall performance are examined in a dual-task experiment. We hypothesized that varying levels of oculomotor task load should result in different demands on cognitive resources. The verbal working memory task used in this study involved a brief exposure to seven words to be remembered, followed by a 30-second delay during which the subject carried out an oculomotor task. Then, memory performance was assessed by having the subjects recall as many words as possible. Forty healthy normal subjects with no vision-related problems carried out four separate dual-tasks over four consecutive days of participation, wherein word recall performances were tested under unpredictable random SPEM (smooth pursuit eye movement), predictive SPEM, fixation, and eyes-closed conditions. The word recall performance of subjects with low K-CVLT scores was significantly enhanced under predictive SPEM conditions as opposed to the fixation and eyes-closed conditions, but performance was reduced under the random SPEM condition, thus reflecting an inverted-U relationship between the oculomotor task load and word recall performance. Subjects with high K-CVLT scores evidenced steady word recall performances, regardless of the type of oculomotor task performed. The concurrent oculomotor performance measured by velocity error did not differ significantly among the K-CVLT groups. However, the high-scoring subjects evidenced smaller phase errors under predictive SPEM conditions than did the low-scoring subjects; this suggests that different resource allocation strategies may be adopted, depending on individuals' working memory capacity.

  1. Recognition during recall failure: Semantic feature matching as a mechanism for recognition of semantic cues when recall fails.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Anne M; Ryals, Anthony J; Wagner, Samantha R

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that a feature-matching process underlies cue familiarity-detection when cued recall with graphemic cues fails. When a test cue (e.g., potchbork) overlaps in graphemic features with multiple unrecalled studied items (e.g., patchwork, pitchfork, pocketbook, pullcork), higher cue familiarity ratings are given during recall failure of all of the targets than when the cue overlaps in graphemic features with only one studied target and that target fails to be recalled (e.g., patchwork). The present study used semantic feature production norms (McRae et al., Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 37, 547-559, 2005) to examine whether the same holds true when the cues are semantic in nature (e.g., jaguar is used to cue cheetah). Indeed, test cues (e.g., cedar) that overlapped in semantic features (e.g., a_tree, has_bark, etc.) with four unretrieved studied items (e.g., birch, oak, pine, willow) received higher cue familiarity ratings during recall failure than test cues that overlapped in semantic features with only two (also unretrieved) studied items (e.g., birch, oak), which in turn received higher familiarity ratings during recall failure than cues that did not overlap in semantic features with any studied items. These findings suggest that the feature-matching theory of recognition during recall failure can accommodate recognition of semantic cues during recall failure, providing a potential mechanism for conceptually-based forms of cue recognition during target retrieval failure. They also provide converging evidence for the existence of the semantic features envisaged in feature-based models of semantic knowledge representation and for those more concretely specified by the production norms of McRae et al. (Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 37, 547-559, 2005).

  2. Distant Interactions and Their Effects on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Background: It has been observed that physical activity patterns of health-related behavior are established in childhood and may continue into adulthood. Recent findings showing a relationship between the onset of chronic diseases and sedentary lifestyles support the importance of examining Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA). One…

  3. Deserts: Information and Hands-On Activities. Interactive Geography Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Robin

    This book is designed to introduce students to a variety of fascinating desert ecosystems through a series of learning activities including games, graphs, experiments, and crafts. Each section contains an information section along with student activities and worksheets. The section topics are sand, scorpions, and snow; scenic sculpture; desert…

  4. Total recall in distributive associative memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danforth, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    Iterative error correction of asymptotically large associative memories is equivalent to a one-step learning rule. This rule is the inverse of the activation function of the memory. Spectral representations of nonlinear activation functions are used to obtain the inverse in closed form for Sparse Distributed Memory, Selected-Coordinate Design, and Radial Basis Functions.

  5. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-Term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alduais, Ahmed Mohammed Saleh; Almukhaizeem, Yasir Saad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first…

  6. Examining the relationship between immediate serial recall and immediate free recall: common effects of phonological loop variables but only limited evidence for the phonological loop.

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, Jessica; Ward, Geoff; Matthews, William J

    2014-07-01

    We examined the contribution of the phonological loop to immediate free recall (IFR) and immediate serial recall (ISR) of lists of between one and 15 words. Following Baddeley (1986, 2000, 2007, 2012), we assumed that visual words could be recoded into the phonological store when presented silently but that recoding would be prevented by concurrent articulation (CA; Experiment 1). We further assumed that the use of the phonological loop would be evidenced by greater serial recall for lists of phonologically dissimilar words relative to lists of phonologically similar words (Experiments 2A and 2B). We found that in both tasks, (a) CA reduced recall; (b) participants recalled short lists from the start of the list, leading to enhanced forward-ordered recall; (c) participants were increasingly likely to recall longer lists from the end of the list, leading to extended recency effects; (d) there were significant phonological similarity effects in ISR and IFR when both were analyzed using serial recall scoring; (e) these were reduced by free recall scoring and eliminated by CA; and (f) CA but not phonological similarity affected the tendency to initiate recall with the first list item. We conclude that similar mechanisms underpin ISR and IFR. Critically, the phonological loop is not strictly necessary for the forward-ordered recall of short lists on both tasks but may augment recall by increasing the accessibility of the list items (relative to CA), and in so doing, the order of later items is preserved better in phonologically dissimilar than in phonologically similar lists.

  7. Dissociation between recognition and recall in developmental amnesia.

    PubMed

    Adlam, Anna-Lynne R; Malloy, Megan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2009-09-01

    Developmental amnesia (DA) is a memory disorder due to hypoxia/ischaemia-induced damage to the hippocampus early in life. To test the hypothesis that this disorder is associated with a disproportionate impairment in recall vis-à-vis recognition, we examined a group of 10 patients with DA on the Doors and People test, which affords a quantitative comparison between measures of the two memory processes. The results supported the hypothesis in that the patients showed a sharp, though not complete, recall-recognition dissociation, exhibiting impairment on both measures relative to their matched controls, but with a far greater loss in recall than in recognition. Whether their relatively spared recognition ability is due to restriction of their medial temporal lobe damage to the hippocampus or whether it is due instead to their early age at injury is still uncertain.

  8. Extent of hippocampal atrophy predicts degree of deficit in recall

    PubMed Central

    Patai, Eva Zita; Gadian, David G.; Cooper, Janine M.; Dzieciol, Anna M.; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-01-01

    Which specific memory functions are dependent on the hippocampus is still debated. The availability of a large cohort of patients who had sustained relatively selective hippocampal damage early in life enabled us to determine which type of mnemonic deficit showed a correlation with extent of hippocampal injury. We assessed our patient cohort on a test that provides measures of recognition and recall that are equated for difficulty and found that the patients' performance on the recall tests correlated significantly with their hippocampal volumes, whereas their performance on the equally difficult recognition tests did not and, indeed, was largely unaffected regardless of extent of hippocampal atrophy. The results provide new evidence in favor of the view that the hippocampus is essential for recall but not for recognition. PMID:26417089

  9. Extent of hippocampal atrophy predicts degree of deficit in recall.

    PubMed

    Patai, Eva Zita; Gadian, David G; Cooper, Janine M; Dzieciol, Anna M; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-10-13

    Which specific memory functions are dependent on the hippocampus is still debated. The availability of a large cohort of patients who had sustained relatively selective hippocampal damage early in life enabled us to determine which type of mnemonic deficit showed a correlation with extent of hippocampal injury. We assessed our patient cohort on a test that provides measures of recognition and recall that are equated for difficulty and found that the patients' performance on the recall tests correlated significantly with their hippocampal volumes, whereas their performance on the equally difficult recognition tests did not and, indeed, was largely unaffected regardless of extent of hippocampal atrophy. The results provide new evidence in favor of the view that the hippocampus is essential for recall but not for recognition.

  10. Age differences in learning, immediate and one week delayed recall.

    PubMed

    Schneider, N G; Gritz, E R; Jarvik, M E

    1975-01-01

    In an initial study, differences in learning and immediate recall were observed for groups of young and aged subjects on several measures. Retest date showed some differential loss for aged subjects after 1 week. Conclusions regarding long-term retention per se were not possible due to the nature of the design. In a second study, additional aged and young groups of subjects were run under delayed recall conditions. The data from these two groups were combined with data from the first study, with care taken to match subjects on a number of variables (health, education, intelligence). The results showed age-related differences for measures of learning and immediate recall but not for delayed 1 week retention.

  11. An active site rearrangement within the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme releases nonproductive interactions and allows formation of catalytic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Raghuvir N.; Van Schie, Sabine N.S.; Giambaşu, George; Dai, Qing; Yesselman, Joseph D.; York, Darrin; Piccirilli, Joseph A.; Herschlag, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Biological catalysis hinges on the precise structural integrity of an active site that binds and transforms its substrates and meeting this requirement presents a unique challenge for RNA enzymes. Functional RNAs, including ribozymes, fold into their active conformations within rugged energy landscapes that often contain misfolded conformers. Here we uncover and characterize one such “off-pathway” species within an active site after overall folding of the ribozyme is complete. The Tetrahymena group I ribozyme (E) catalyzes cleavage of an oligonucleotide substrate (S) by an exogenous guanosine (G) cofactor. We tested whether specific catalytic interactions with G are present in the preceding E•S•G and E•G ground-state complexes. We monitored interactions with G via the effects of 2′- and 3′-deoxy (–H) and −amino (–NH2) substitutions on G binding. These and prior results reveal that G is bound in an inactive configuration within E•G, with the nucleophilic 3′-OH making a nonproductive interaction with an active site metal ion termed MA and with the adjacent 2′-OH making no interaction. Upon S binding, a rearrangement occurs that allows both –OH groups to contact a different active site metal ion, termed MC, to make what are likely to be their catalytic interactions. The reactive phosphoryl group on S promotes this change, presumably by repositioning the metal ions with respect to G. This conformational transition demonstrates local rearrangements within an otherwise folded RNA, underscoring RNA's difficulty in specifying a unique conformation and highlighting Nature's potential to use local transitions of RNA in complex function. PMID:26567314

  12. The influence of interactions among phenolic compounds on the antiradical activity of chokeberries (Aronia melanocarpa).

    PubMed

    Jakobek, Lidija; Seruga, Marijan; Krivak, Petra

    2011-06-01

    In the present work, interactions between phenolic compounds from chokeberries and their influence on the antiradical activity was studied. Three fractions were isolated from chokeberries containing different classes of phenolic compounds. The first fraction contained a major part of phenolic acids and flavonols, the second anthocyanins, and the third insoluble phenols and proanthocyanidins. The phenolic compound content was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography, and the antiradical activity using the DPPH test. In order to evaluate the effects of interactions between phenolic compounds on the antiradical activity, the antiradical activity of individual phenolic fractions was compared with that obtained by mixing phenolic fractions. Phenolic mixtures showed the decrease in the antiradical activity in comparison with the individual phenolic fractions. These results suggest the existence of complex interactions among phenolic compounds that caused the decrease of the antiradical activity. Interactions among chokeberry phenols promoted a negative synergism.

  13. Can simple interactions capture complex features of neural activity underlying behavior in a virtual reality environment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshulam, Leenoy; Gauthier, Jeffrey; Brody, Carlos; Tank, David; Bialek, William

    The complex neural interactions which are abundant in most recordings of neural activity are relatively poorly understood. A prime example of such interactions can be found in the in vivo neural activity which underlies complex behaviors of mice, imaged in brain regions such as hippocampus and parietal cortex. Experimental techniques now allow us to accurately follow these neural interactions in the simultaneous activity of large neuronal populations of awake behaving animals. Here, we demonstrate that pairwise maximum entropy models can predict a surprising number of properties of the neural activity. The models, that are constrained with activity rates and interactions between pairs of neurons, are well fit to the activity `states' in the hippocampus and cortex of mice performing cognitive tasks while navigating in a virtual reality environment.

  14. Emergent ultra–long-range interactions between active particles in hybrid active–inactive systems

    PubMed Central

    Steimel, Joshua P.; Aragones, Juan L.; Hu, Helen; Qureshi, Naser; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Particle–particle interactions determine the state of a system. Control over the range of such interactions as well as their magnitude has been an active area of research for decades due to the fundamental challenges it poses in science and technology. Very recently, effective interactions between active particles have gathered much attention as they can lead to out-of-equilibrium cooperative states such as flocking. Inspired by nature, where active living cells coexist with lifeless objects and structures, here we study the effective interactions that appear in systems composed of active and passive mixtures of colloids. Our systems are 2D colloidal monolayers composed primarily of passive (inactive) colloids, and a very small fraction of active (spinning) ferromagnetic colloids. We find an emergent ultra–long-range attractive interaction induced by the activity of the spinning particles and mediated by the elasticity of the passive medium. Interestingly, the appearance of such interaction depends on the spinning protocol and has a minimum actuation timescale below which no attraction is observed. Overall, these results clearly show that, in the presence of elastic components, active particles can interact across very long distances without any chemical modification of the environment. Such a mechanism might potentially be important for some biological systems and can be harnessed for newer developments in synthetic active soft materials. PMID:27071096

  15. Inorganic lead and calcium interact positively in activation of calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Kern, M; Wisniewski, M; Cabell, L; Audesirk, G

    2000-06-01

    Calmodulin is a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein that mediates many of the intracellular actions of Ca2+ ions. The calcium-binding sites of calmodulin consist of four EF-hand motifs; full activation of calmodulin normally occurs when all four sites are occupied by Ca2+. Inorganic lead (PY2+) has been shown to activate calmodulin at total lead concentrations similar to the concentrations of Ca2+ required for activation (Goldstein and Ar, 1983; Habermann et al., 1983), but the free Pb2+ concentrations required for calmodulin activation have not been determined. In addition, it is possible that activation may occur with different sites occupied by different divalent cations, for example Ca2+ and Pb2+. We investigated the ability of free Pb2+, alone or in combination with Ca2+, to activate calmodulin. In aqueous media, N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) show increased fluorescence when bound to hydrophobic regions of proteins. This increased fluorescence has been used to monitor the conformational change that occurs during calmodulin activation (LaPorte et al., 1980). In the presence of calmodulin, both Ca2+ and Pb2+ stimulated increased fluorescence of NPN and ANS. Threshold and EC50 free metal concentrations were approximately 100 nM and 450-500 nM, respectively, for Ca2+ and 100 pM and 400-550 pM, respectively, for Pb2+. Fluorescence was enhanced by combinations of low concentrations of free Ca2+ and Pb2+; for example, as little as 20 pM free Pb2+ enhanced fluorescence in combination with 200 nM free Ca2+. The activity of the PDE1 isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase is stimulated by Ca2+/calmodulin (Wang et al., 1990). In the presence of calmodulin, we found that Ca2+ and Pb2+ activated calmodulin-stimulated PDE activity, with threshold and EC50 free metal concentrations of approximately 200 nM and 1200 nM, respectively, for Ca2+ and 300 pM and 430 pM, respectively, for Pb2+. PDE activity was stimulated by

  16. Perceptual-cognitive expertise, practice history profiles and recall performance in soccer.

    PubMed

    Williams, A M; Ward, P; Bell-Walker, J; Ford, P R

    2012-08-01

    We examined whether high- or low-performing soccer players, classified based on established measures of perceptual-cognitive expertise, differed in regard to their practice history profiles and ability to recall elements of match performance. In Study 1, we measured perceptual-cognitive expertise in elite (n= 48) and non-elite (n= 12) youth soccer players using empirical tests of perceptual-cognitive skill. We then used a quartile split to stratify elite players into either high-performing (n= 12) or low-performing (n= 12) groups based on their test scores. A group of non-elite soccer players (n= 12) acted as controls. In Study 2, we used an established questionnaire to examine retrospectively the participation history profiles of the three groups. The high-performing group had accumulated more hours in soccer-specific play activity over the last 6 years of engagement in the sport compared to their low-performing counterparts and the non-elite controls. No differences were reported for hours accumulated in soccer-specific practice or competition between the high- and low-performing groups. In Study 3, a novel test was developed to examine episodic memory recall in soccer. Although this test successfully differentiated elite from non-elite players, no differences were evident between high- and low-performing groups, implying that episodic memory recall may not be a crucial component of perceptual-cognitive expertise in soccer.

  17. Not all memories are the same: Situational context influences spatial recall within one's city of residency.

    PubMed

    Meilinger, Tobias; Frankenstein, Julia; Simon, Nadine; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Reference frames in spatial memory encoding have been examined intensively in recent years. However, their importance for recall has received considerably less attention. In the present study, passersby used tags to arrange a configuration map of prominent city center landmarks. It has been shown that such configurational knowledge is memorized within a north-up reference frame. However, participants adjusted their maps according to their body orientations. For example, when participants faced south, the maps were likely to face south-up. Participants also constructed maps along their location perspective-that is, the self-target direction. If, for instance, they were east of the represented area, their maps were oriented west-up. If the location perspective and body orientation were in opposite directions (i.e., if participants faced away from the city center), participants relied on location perspective. The results indicate that reference frames in spatial recall depend on the current situation rather than on the organization in long-term memory. These results cannot be explained by activation spread within a view graph, which had been used to explain similar results in the recall of city plazas. However, the results are consistent with forming and transforming a spatial image of nonvisible city locations from the current location. Furthermore, prior research has almost exclusively focused on body- and environment-based reference frames. The strong influence of location perspective in an everyday navigational context indicates that such a reference frame should be considered more often when examining human spatial cognition.

  18. Acoustic masking disrupts time-dependent mechanisms of memory encoding in word-list recall.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Katheryn A Q; Dar, Hayim; Wingfield, Arthur; Miller, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Recall of recently heard words is affected by the clarity of presentation: Even if all words are presented with sufficient clarity for successful recognition, those that are more difficult to hear are less likely to be recalled. Such a result demonstrates that memory processing depends on more than whether a word is simply "recognized" versus "not recognized." More surprising is that, when a single item in a list of spoken words is acoustically masked, prior words that were heard with full clarity are also less likely to be recalled. To account for such a phenomenon, we developed the linking-by-active-maintenance model (LAMM). This computational model of perception and encoding predicts that these effects will be time dependent. Here we challenged our model by investigating whether and how the impact of acoustic masking on memory depends on presentation rate. We found that a slower presentation rate causes a more disruptive impact of stimulus degradation on prior, clearly heard words than does a fast rate. These results are unexpected according to prior theories of effortful listening, but we demonstrated that they can be accounted for by LAMM.

  19. The production effect: costs and benefits in free recall.

    PubMed

    Jones, Angela C; Pyc, Mary A

    2014-01-01

    The production effect, the memorial benefit for information read aloud versus silently, has been touted as a simple memory improvement tool. The current experiments were designed to evaluate the relative costs and benefits of production using a free recall paradigm. Results extend beyond prior work showing a production effect only when production is manipulated within subject, not between, using a free recall paradigm. Furthermore, the results also indicate that the production effect is primarily driven by decreased memory for items read silently, not increased memory for items read aloud.

  20. Compliance to recall visits by patients with periodontitis — Is the practitioner responsible?

    PubMed Central

    Fenol, Angel; Mathew, Simi

    2010-01-01

    Context: Compliance to recall visit is directly related to the medium and long-term success of active periodontal therapy. Aims: To determine the percentage of patients who were compliant to recall visits by the practitioner and to find out the reasons for noncompliance by noncompliant patients. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Periodontology, Amrita School of Dentistry. The study participants were former patients of the Department of Periodontology. Patients and Methods: A total of 216 patients were selected for the study — 116 males and 100 females. They were divided according to their socioeconomic status — professionals and nonprofessionals. Nonprofessionals were divided into those who had completed high school education and those who had not. They were followed up to find out how many were compliant to recall visits and the reasons for noncompliance by noncompliant patients. Statistical Analysis: The data was entered into SPSS version 11.5. Descriptive statistics were used. The frequencies of responses were calculated. Result: Of the total study population, 48.1% was compliant, of which 58.6% and 37.6% of males and females were compliant, respectively. In terms of percentage, 60.6% of professionals, 52.4% of those who had completed high school education and 31.3% of those who had not completed high school education were compliant. Conclusion: Compliance to recall visits by the periodontitis patients depends largely on the practitioner. Inadequate motivation by the practitioner and inadequate education in general are responsible for noncompliance to periodontal treatment. PMID:21691547

  1. Interactive protein network of FXIII-A1 in lipid rafts of activated and non-activated platelets.

    PubMed

    Rabani, Vahideh; Montange, Damien; Davani, Siamak

    2016-09-01

    Lipid-rafts are defined as membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids within platelet plasma membrane. Lipid raft-mediated clot retraction requires factor XIII and other interacting proteins. The aim of this study was to investigate the proteins that interact with factor XIII in raft and non-raft domains of activated and non-activated platelet plasma membrane. By lipidomics analysis, we identified cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched areas as lipid rafts. Platelets were activated by thrombin. Proteomics analysis provided an overview of the pathways in which proteins of rafts and non-rafts participated in the interaction network of FXIII-A1, a catalytic subunit of FXIII. "Platelet activation" was the principal pathway among KEGG pathways for proteins of rafts, both before and after activation. Network analysis showed four types of interactions (activation, binding, reaction, and catalysis) in raft and non-raft domains in interactive network of FXIII-A1. FXIII-A1 interactions with other proteins in raft domains and their role in homeostasis highlight the specialization of the raft domain in clot retraction via the Factor XIII protein network.

  2. Interactions between cardiac, respiratory, and brain activity in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musizza, Bojan; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2005-05-01

    The electrical activity of the heart (ECG), respiratory function and electric activity of the brain (EEG) were simultaneously recorded in conscious, healthy humans. Instantaneous frequencies of the heart beat, respiration and α-waves were then determined from 30-minutes recordings. The instantaneous cardiac frequency was defined as the inverse value of the time interval between two consecutive R-peaks. The instantaneous respiratory frequency was obtained from recordings of the excursions of thorax by application of the Hilbert transform. To obtain the instantaneous frequency of α-waves, the EEG signal recorded from the forehead was first analysed using the wavelet transform. Then the frequency band corresponding to α-waves was extracted and the Hilbert transform applied. Synchronization analysis was performed and the direction of coupling was ascertained, using pairs of instantaneous frequencies in each case. It is shown that the systems are weakly bidirectionally coupled. It was confirmed that, in conscious healthy humans, respiration drives cardiac activity. We also demonstrate from these analyses that α-activity drives both respiration and cardiac activity.

  3. Synthetic Physical Interactions Map Kinetochore-Checkpoint Activation Regions

    PubMed Central

    Ólafsson, Guðjón; Thorpe, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a key mechanism to regulate the timing of mitosis and ensure that chromosomes are correctly segregated to daughter cells. The recruitment of the Mad1 and Mad2 proteins to the kinetochore is normally necessary for SAC activation. This recruitment is coordinated by the SAC kinase Mps1, which phosphorylates residues at the kinetochore to facilitate binding of Bub1, Bub3, Mad1, and Mad2. There is evidence that the essential function of Mps1 is to direct recruitment of Mad1/2. To test this model, we have systematically recruited Mad1, Mad2, and Mps1 to most proteins in the yeast kinetochore, and find that, while Mps1 is sufficient for checkpoint activation, recruitment of either Mad1 or Mad2 is not. These data indicate an important role for Mps1 phosphorylation in SAC activation, beyond the direct recruitment of Mad1 and Mad2. PMID:27280788

  4. Prestimulus theta in the human hippocampus predicts subsequent recognition but not recall.

    PubMed

    Merkow, Maxwell B; Burke, John F; Stein, Joel M; Kahana, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Human theta (4-8 Hz) activity in the medial temporal lobe correlates with memory formation; however, the precise role that theta plays in the memory system remains elusive (Hanslmayr and Staudigl, ). Recently, prestimulus theta activity has been associated with successful memory formation, although its specific cognitive role remains unknown (e.g., Fell et al., 2011). In this report, we demonstrate that prestimulus theta in the hippocampus indexes encoding that supports old-new recognition memory but not recall. These findings suggest that human hippocampal prestimulus theta may preferentially participate in the encoding of item information, as opposed to associative information.

  5. Prestimulus theta in the human hippocampus predicts subsequent recognition but not recall

    PubMed Central

    Merkow, Maxwell B.; Burke, John F.; Stein, Joel M.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Human theta (4−8 Hz) activity in the medial temporal lobe correlates with memory formation; however, the precise role that theta plays in the memory system remains elusive (Hanslmayr and Staudigl, 2013). Recently, prestimulus theta activity has been associated with successful memory formation, although its specific cognitive role remains unknown (e.g. Fell et al., 2011). In this report, we demonstrate that prestimulus theta in the hippocampus indexes encoding that supports old–new recognition memory but not recall. These findings suggest that human hippocampal prestimulus theta may preferentially participate in the encoding of item information, as opposed to associative information. PMID:25074395

  6. Impact of the Introduction of Digital Mammography in an Organized Screening Program on the Recall and Detection Rate.

    PubMed

    Campari, Cinzia; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Mori, Carlo Alberto; Ravaioli, Sara; Nitrosi, Andrea; Vacondio, Rita; Mancuso, Pamela; Cattani, Antonella; Pattacini, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    In 2012, the Reggio Emilia Breast Cancer Screening Program introduced digital mammography in all its facilities at the same time. The aim of this work is to analyze the impact of digital mammography introduction on the recall rate, detection rate, and positive predictive value. The program actively invites women aged 45-74 years. We included women screened in 2011, all of whom underwent film-screen mammography, and all women screened in 2012, all of whom underwent digital mammography. Double reading was used for all mammograms, with arbitration in the event of disagreement. A total of 42,240 women underwent screen-film mammography and 45,196 underwent digital mammography. The recall rate increased from 3.3 to 4.4% in the first year of digital mammography (relative recall adjusted by age and round 1.46, 95% CI = 1.37-1.56); the positivity rate for each individual reading, before arbitration, rose from 3 to 5.7%. The digital mammography recall rate decreased during 2012: after 12 months, it was similar to the recall rate with screen-film mammography. The detection rate was similar: 5.9/1000 and 5.2/1000 with screen-film and digital mammography, respectively (adjusted relative detection rate 0.95, 95% CI = 0.79-1.13). The relative detection rate for ductal carcinoma in situ remained the same. The introduction of digital mammography to our organized screening program had a negative impact on specificity, thereby increasing the recall rate. The effect was limited to the first 12 months after introduction and was attenuated by the double reading with arbitration. We did not observe any relevant effects on the detection rate.

  7. Mid-level Features Improve Recognition of Interactive Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-14

    Recognizing action as clouds of space-time interest points. In CVPR, 2009. [5] W. Brendel, A. Fern , and S. Todorovic. Probabilistic event logic for interval...context. In CVPR, 2009. [27] R. Messing, C. Pal, and H. Kautz. Activity recognition using the velocity histories of tracked keypoints. In ICCV, 2009

  8. Knowledge Integration While Interacting with an Online Troubleshooting Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerushalmi, Edit; Puterkovsky, Menashe; Bagno, Esther

    2013-01-01

    A troubleshooting activity was carried out by an e-tutor in two steps. First, students diagnosed a mistaken statement and then compared their diagnosis to a teacher's diagnosis provided by the e-tutor. The mistaken statement involved a widespread tendency to over-generalize Ohm's law. We studied the discourse between pairs of students…

  9. The Interaction of Diet and Physical Activity on Obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the growing problem of obesity, and little understanding of why it is occurring, some research has focused on whether the lack of physical activity leads to poorer diet and increased adiposity, or the reverse. In a literature review, no consistent relationship was found between level of physica...

  10. Interactive medical image segmentation using PDE control of active contours.

    PubMed

    Karasev, Peter; Kolesov, Ivan; Fritscher, Karl; Vela, Patricio; Mitchell, Phillip; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2013-11-01

    Segmentation of injured or unusual anatomic structures in medical imagery is a problem that has continued to elude fully automated solutions. In this paper, the goal of easy-to-use and consistent interactive segmentation is transformed into a control synthesis problem. A nominal level set partial differential equation (PDE) is assumed to be given; this open-loop system achieves correct segmentation under ideal conditions, but does not agree with a human expert's ideal boundary for real image data. Perturbing the state and dynamics of a level set PDE via the accumulated user input and an observer-like system leads to desirable closed-loop behavior. The input structure is designed such that a user can stabilize the boundary in some desired state without needing to understand any mathematical parameters. Effectiveness of the technique is illustrated with applications to the challenging segmentations of a patellar tendon in magnetic resonance and a shattered femur in computed tomography.

  11. Interactive Medical Image Segmentation using PDE Control of Active Contours

    PubMed Central

    Karasev, Peter; Kolesov, Ivan; Fritscher, Karl; Vela, Patricio; Mitchell, Phillip; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of injured or unusual anatomic structures in medical imagery is a problem that has continued to elude fully automated solutions. In this paper, the goal of easy-to-use and consistent interactive segmentation is transformed into a control synthesis problem. A nominal level set PDE is assumed to be given; this open-loop system achieves correct segmentation under ideal conditions, but does not agree with a human expert's ideal boundary for real image data. Perturbing the state and dynamics of a level set PDE via the accumulated user input and an observer-like system leads to desirable closed-loop behavior. The input structure is designed such that a user can stabilize the boundary in some desired state without needing to understand any mathematical parameters. Effectiveness of the technique is illustrated with applications to the challenging segmentations of a patellar tendon in MR and a shattered femur in CT. PMID:23893712

  12. On EMDR: eye movements during retrieval reduce subjective vividness and objective memory accessibility during future recall.

    PubMed

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Bartelski, Nicola; Engelhard, Iris M

    2013-01-01

    In eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), patients make eye movements (EM) during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies found that EM during recall reduces memory vividness during future recalls, and this was taken as laboratory support for the underlying mechanism of EMDR. However, reduced vividness was assessed with self-reports that may be affected by demand characteristics. We tested whether recall+EM also reduces memory vividness on a behavioural reaction time (RT) task. Undergraduates (N=32) encoded two pictures, recalled them, and rated their vividness. In the EM group, one of the pictures was recalled again while making EM. In the no-EM group one of the pictures was recalled without EM. Then fragments from both the recalled and non-recalled pictures, and new fragments were presented and participants rated whether these were (or were not) seen before. Both pictures were rated again for vividness. In the EM group, self-rated vividness of the recalled+EM picture decreased, relative to the non-recalled picture. In the no-EM group there was no difference between the recalled versus non-recalled picture. The RT task showed the same pattern. Reduction of memory vividness due to recall+EM is also evident from non-self-report data.

  13. Exploratory qualitative case study of lab-type activity interactions in an online graduate geoscience course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciavarella, Veronica C.

    This exploratory qualitative case study investigated the use of lab-type activities in an online graduate geoscience course. Constructivism is the theoretical framework used to explain how learning happens in lab-type activity, and provided the goals to which successful learning in lab-type activity is compared. This study focused on the learner-instructor, learner-learner, and perceptions of the learner-content interactions that occurred related to lab-type activities in an online graduate geoscience course to determine: if the instructor appeared as a facilitator of the learning process in the interactions over the activities; if students engaged in discussion and reflection about the activities; if students perceived the activities as meaningful and authentic; and if students perceived using higher order thinking and prior knowledge while interacting with the content. Ten graduate students from three offerings of the course participated in this study, as well as the instructor and designer of the course content and lab-type activities. Data were collected through interviews, and observation and analysis of the lab-type activities, instructor feedback to students in their graded activities, and discussion that occurred between the instructor and students and among students about the lab-type activities in discussion forums. The nature of the instructor's interactions in discussion forums, in feedback to students on graded activities, and reported by students' in interviews supported that, in the learner-instructor interactions, the instructor of this course was a facilitator who guided and scaffolded the students towards successfully completing the activities. Students engaged in discussion and reflected on the activities, but most learner-learner interactions in discussion forums about the lab-type activities appeared to occur for the purpose of comparison of results, support, and empathy. Students' success at higher order thinking type questions in lab

  14. ALG-2 activates the MVB sorting function of ALIX through relieving its intramolecular interaction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Sheng; Zhou, Xi; Corvera, Joe; Gallick, Gary E; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Kuang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The modular adaptor protein ALIX is critically involved in endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-mediated multivesicular body (MVB) sorting of activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR); however, ALIX contains a default intramolecular interaction that renders ALIX unable to perform this ESCRT function. The ALIX partner protein ALG-2 is a calcium-binding protein that belongs to the calmodulin superfamily. Prompted by a defined biological function of calmodulin, we determined the role of ALG-2 in regulating ALIX involvement in MVB sorting of activated EGFR. Our results show that calcium-dependent ALG-2 interaction with ALIX completely relieves the intramolecular interaction of ALIX and promotes CHMP4-dependent ALIX association with the membrane. EGFR activation induces increased ALG-2 interaction with ALIX, and this increased interaction is responsible for increased ALIX association with the membrane. Functionally, inhibition of ALIX activation by ALG-2 inhibits MVB sorting of activated EGFR as effectively as inhibition of ALIX interaction with CHMP4 does; however, inhibition of ALIX activation by ALG-2 does not affect cytokinetic abscission or equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) budding. These findings indicate that calcium-dependent ALG-2 interaction with ALIX is specifically responsible for generating functional ALIX that supports MVB sorting of ubiquitinated membrane receptors.

  15. Activities Contributing a Great Deal to the Students' Interactive Skills in Foreign Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asatryan, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    While teaching speaking it is desired to provide a rich environment in class for meaningful communication to take place. With this aim, various speaking activities can contribute a great deal to students in developing their interactive skills necessary for life. These activities make students active in the learning process and at the same time…

  16. Interaction of digoxin with activated dimethicone and other antacid constituents.

    PubMed

    McElnay, J C; Harron, D W; D'Arcy, P F; Eagle, M R

    1979-01-15

    A study was made of the effect of activated dimethicone on the absorption of digoxin in relation to other commonly used antacid constituents using an in vitro experimental model. Dimethicone was found not to affect the absorption of digoxin in relation to aluminium hydroxide, bismuth carbonate, light magnesium carbonate and magnesium trisilicate whose effects on the absorption of digoxin were in agreement with values reported in the literature.

  17. Forgetting in Immediate Serial Recall: Decay, Temporal Distinctiveness, or Interference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Three hypotheses of forgetting from immediate memory were tested: time-based decay, decreasing temporal distinctiveness, and interference. The hypotheses were represented by 3 models of serial recall: the primacy model, the SIMPLE (scale-independent memory, perception, and learning) model, and the SOB (serial order in a box) model, respectively.…

  18. The Effect of Concurrent Semantic Categorization on Delayed Serial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of semantic processing on the serial ordering of items in short-term memory was explored using a novel dual-task paradigm. Participants engaged in 2 picture-judgment tasks while simultaneously performing delayed serial recall. List material varied in the presence of phonological overlap (Experiments 1 and 2) and in semantic content…

  19. Cognitive Effort Requirements in Recall, Recognition, and Lexical Decision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    ldeoiiy by block nuambor) Coqinitive effort requirement.-; durin7 ;tudiv "or free( recall ( i sa-v’ tes) ,reoontin ( * * nutiie hoi,~t\\’ etest ) , and an...65IS OSSOLIETE ~p ISECU"ITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS P- AGE (When Da$. Entered) %’ * SiCURIT V CL ASSIFICATION Of THISa PAG("- Dodo fP.E.Fn.d) ARI

  20. Does Size Impact Attention and Recall of Graphic Health Warnings?

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Elizabeth G.; Shoben, Abigail B.; Krygowski, Sarah; Ferketich, Amy; Berman, Micah; Peters, Ellen; Rao, Unnava; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the attention paid to larger sizes of graphic health warnings (GHWs) embedded within cigarette advertisements so as to assess their impacts on rural smokers. Methods Daily smokers (N = 298) were randomly assigned to view a cigarette advertisement with 3 conditions: 2 intervention conditions with GHW comprising 20% or 33% of the ad area, or a text-only control. Eye-tracking software measured attention in milliseconds. Binary outcome mediation was conducted. Results Intervention participants spent 24% of their time viewing the GHWs, compared to 10% for control (p < .01). The odds of GHW recall in the combined (20% and 33%) intervention group were 3.3 times higher than controls. Total dwell time mediated 33% of the effect of the graphic condition on any recall. Conclusions GHWs in 20% of cigarette advertisement space attracted significantly more attention than text-only warnings; larger GHWs did not increase attention. Attention was significantly associated with warning recall; total time viewing mediated warning recall. Tobacco ads should include GHWs to attract the attention of smokers. PMID:26550583

  1. Associative Information in Memory: Evidence from Cued Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aue, William R.; Criss, Amy H.; Fischetti, Nicholas W.

    2012-01-01

    The representation of item and associative information in episodic memory was investigated using cued recall and single item recognition. In the first four experiments, participants studied two lists constructed such that some items presented in a pair during List 1 were rearranged to create new pairs in List 2 and were accompanied by pairs…

  2. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... order to the manufacturer to recall and repair or modify any vehicle distributed in commerce not in... in commerce which do not conform to the regulations. Such determination may be based on: (1) A... issued only after notice and an opportunity for a hearing. (e) All costs, including labor and...

  3. The Disfluent Discourse: Effects of Filled Pauses on Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraundorf, Scott H.; Watson, Duane G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms by which fillers, such as "uh" and "um", affect memory for discourse. Participants listened to and attempted to recall recorded passages adapted from "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland". The type and location of interruptions were manipulated through digital splicing. In Experiment 1, we tested a processing time…

  4. The Production Effect: Costs and Benefits in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Angela C.; Pyc, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    The production effect, the memorial benefit for information read aloud versus silently, has been touted as a simple memory improvement tool. The current experiments were designed to evaluate the relative costs and benefits of production using a free recall paradigm. Results extend beyond prior work showing a production effect only when production…

  5. Parietal lesion effects on cued recall following pair associate learning.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zvi, Shir; Soroker, Nachum; Levy, Daniel A

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the involvement of the posterior parietal cortex in episodic memory in a lesion-effects study of cued recall following pair-associate learning. Groups of patients who had experienced first-incident stroke, generally in middle cerebral artery territory, and exhibited damage that included lateral posterior parietal regions, were tested within an early post-stroke time window. In three experiments, patients and matched healthy comparison groups executed repeated study and cued recall test blocks of pairs of words (Experiment 1), pairs of object pictures (Experiment 2), or pairs of object pictures and environmental sounds (Experiment 3). Patients' brain CT scans were subjected to quantitative analysis of lesion volumes. Behavioral and lesion data were used to compute correlations between area lesion extent and memory deficits, and to conduct voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. These analyses implicated lateral ventral parietal cortex, especially the angular gyrus, in cued recall deficits, most pronouncedly in the cross-modal picture-sound pairs task, though significant parietal lesion effects were also found in the unimodal word pairs and picture pairs tasks. In contrast to an earlier study in which comparable parietal lesions did not cause deficits in item recognition, these results indicate that lateral posterior parietal areas make a substantive contribution to demanding forms of recollective retrieval as represented by cued recall, especially for complex associative representations.

  6. Training the Mind's Eye: "Brain Movies" Support Comprehension and Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Explicit instruction on the skill of creating mental imagery from text supports reading comprehension and recall. This article shares a strategy for teaching students how to process what they read by comparing mental imagery to "brain movies." It emphasizes choosing appropriate fiction and nonfiction texts to encourage readers to build the skill…

  7. Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

  8. 27 CFR 1.55 - Recalling permits for correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... correction. 1.55 Section 1.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Miscellaneous § 1.55 Recalling permits for correction. Whenever it shall be discovered that any basic permit has... issuance thereof, the holder of such permit shall forthwith surrender the same for correction or...

  9. 27 CFR 1.55 - Recalling permits for correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... correction. 1.55 Section 1.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Miscellaneous § 1.55 Recalling permits for correction. Whenever it shall be discovered that any basic permit has... issuance thereof, the holder of such permit shall forthwith surrender the same for correction or...

  10. The Influence of Instruction on Verbatim and Content Text Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonpflug, Ute

    2008-01-01

    This investigation focuses on text recall in eight- and nine-year old children. The main focus was on whether two different sets of instructions had a differential influence: one set instructed students to focus on an orally presented text verbatim, and the other instructed students to focus on its content. A differential influence on verbatim and…

  11. Retrieval-Induced Forgetting in Recall: Competitor Interference Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verde, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Participants studied category-exemplar pairs ("FRUIT Cherry," "FRUIT Grape") and then practiced some of the items ("Cherry"). In Experiment 1, practice that involved retrieving the item from memory suppressed recall of related items ("Grape"), a finding known as the retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) effect.…

  12. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... public notification may cause unnecessary and harmful anxiety in patients and that initial...

  13. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... public notification may cause unnecessary and harmful anxiety in patients and that initial...

  14. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... public notification may cause unnecessary and harmful anxiety in patients and that initial...

  15. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... public notification may cause unnecessary and harmful anxiety in patients and that initial...

  16. Recall in Older Cancer Patients: Measuring Memory for Medical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Jesse; van Weert, Julia; van der Meulen, Nienke; van Dulmen, Sandra; Heeren, Thea; Bensing, Jozien

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient education preceding chemotherapy. Design and…

  17. The Impact of Formal Schemata on L3 Reading Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2010-01-01

    Rhetorical structure refers to a complex network of relationships and the way the underlying ideas are organized within a text. This study was conducted to see whether explicit instruction of descriptive and causative text organization positively affected L3 reading recall. 240 Turkish students of EFL who had Persian as their second language were…

  18. 40 CFR 94.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... as computer information storage devices or card files, the names and addresses of engine owners: (1... information as may be required to identify the engines recalled. (2) A description of the specific... which have not previously been submitted. (c) If the manufacturer determines that any of the...

  19. 40 CFR 94.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as computer information storage devices or card files, the names and addresses of engine owners: (1... information as may be required to identify the engines recalled. (2) A description of the specific... which have not previously been submitted. (c) If the manufacturer determines that any of the...

  20. Category Cued Recall Evokes a Generate-Recognize Retrieval Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Toth, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    The experiments reported here were designed to replicate and extend McCabe, Roediger, and Karpicke's (2011) finding that retrieval in category cued recall involves both controlled and automatic processes. The extension entailed identifying whether distinctive encoding affected 1 or both of these 2 processes. The first experiment successfully…

  1. Individual Differences in False Recall: A Latent Variable Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A.

    2010-01-01

    The relation between intrusions in several different recall tasks was examined in the current study. Intrusions from these tasks were moderately correlated and formed a unitary intrusion factor. This factor was related to other cognitive ability measures including working memory capacity, judgments of recency, and general source-monitoring…

  2. Phonological Similarity in Serial Recall: Constraints on Theories of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Farrell, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In short-term serial recall, similar-sounding items are remembered more poorly than items that do not sound alike. When lists mix similar and dissimilar items, performance on the dissimilar items is of considerable theoretical interest. Farrell and Lewandowsky [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological…

  3. The Effect of Humor on Advertising Credibility and Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, John C.

    A study examined the effect of humor on the perceived credibility, character, and authority of an advertisement and on the recall of that advertisement. Two groups of subjects each heard two radio spot announcements, one humorous and one serious. Two different products were advertised, so that the first group of subjects, 117 college advertising…

  4. 16 CFR 1115.27 - Recall notice content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recall notice content requirements. 1115.27... recognize the product; (2) The product's intended or targeted use population (e.g., infants, children, or... information and belief, and in the sole discretion of the Commission for purposes of an order under section...

  5. 16 CFR 1115.27 - Recall notice content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recall notice content requirements. 1115.27... recognize the product; (2) The product's intended or targeted use population (e.g., infants, children, or... information and belief, and in the sole discretion of the Commission for purposes of an order under section...

  6. 16 CFR 1115.27 - Recall notice content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recall notice content requirements. 1115.27... recognize the product; (2) The product's intended or targeted use population (e.g., infants, children, or... information and belief, and in the sole discretion of the Commission for purposes of an order under section...

  7. 16 CFR 1115.27 - Recall notice content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recall notice content requirements. 1115.27... recognize the product; (2) The product's intended or targeted use population (e.g., infants, children, or... information and belief, and in the sole discretion of the Commission for purposes of an order under section...

  8. Recall and Recognition in Industrial Technology Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Andrew E.

    A study determined whether sensate and intuitive learners differed in their capacity to recall and recognize images given two different times of exposure. The 158 subjects--elementary school technology teachers in Southern California--put themselves into 2 groups of 80 and 78 by registering for a first or second session of the Elementary Summer…

  9. Humiliation, Unfairness and Laughter: Students Recall Power Relations with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uitto, Minna

    2011-01-01

    A Finnish magazine published my request that people remember and write about their teachers. Many writers recalled teachers who, for example, had humiliated, favoured or laughed at their students. This article focuses on a study of such negative memories, examining what writers tell about teachers and students in power relationships and how…

  10. Gender Differences in the Recall of Performance Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Sylvia; Langenfeld, Kelly

    This study tested whether gender differences in recall of performance feedback exist. Participants were 88 female and 68 male undergraduate students enrolled in introductory psychology courses at the University of Wisconsin-Parkside. They were presented with eight comments each (evaluative feedback) for both an English paper and a computer…

  11. Readability as a Factor in Magazine Ad Copy Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the relationship between advertising copy readability and advertising effectiveness. Finds that recall is improved when the copy style is either fairly easy or fairly hard to read. Suggests the value of considering copy readability as a potential contributor, though a minor one, to the success of magazine advertising. (RS)

  12. Runx2 Trans-Activation Mediated by the Msx2-Interacting Nuclear Target Requires Homeodomain Interacting Protein Kinase-3

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Oscar L.; Towler, Dwight A.

    2010-01-01

    Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and muscle segment homeobox homolog 2-interacting nuclear target (MINT) (Spen homolog) are transcriptional regulators critical for mammalian development. MINT enhances Runx2 activation of osteocalcin (OC) fibroblast growth factor (FGF) response element in an FGF2-dependent fashion in C3H10T1/2 cells. Although the MINT N-terminal RNA recognition motif domain contributes, the muscle segment homeobox homolog 2-interacting domain is sufficient for Runx2 activation. Intriguingly, Runx1 cannot replace Runx2 in this assay. To better understand this Runx2 signaling cascade, we performed structure-function analysis of the Runx2-MINT trans-activation relationship. Systematic truncation and domain swapping in Runx1:Runx2 chimeras identified that the unique Runx2 activation domain 3 (AD3), encompassed by residues 316–421, conveys MINT+FGF2 trans-activation in transfection assays. Ala mutagenesis of Runx2 Ser/Thr residues identified that S301 and T326 in AD3 are necessary for full MINT+FGF2 trans-activation. Conversely, phosphomimetic Asp substitution of these AD3 Ser/Thr residues enhanced activation by MINT. Adjacent Pro residues implicated regulation by a proline-directed protein kinase (PDPK). Systematic screening with PDPK inhibitors identified that the casein kinase-2/homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (HIPK)/dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation regulated kinase inhibitor 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (DMAT), but not ERK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38MAPK, or other casein kinase-2 inhibitors, abrogated Runx2-, MINT-, and FGF2-activation. Systematic small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of DMAT-inhibited PDPKs revealed that HIPK3 depletion reduced MINT+FGF2-dependent activation of Runx2. HIPK3 and Runx2 coprecipitate after in vitro transcription-translation, and recombinant HIPK3 recognizes Runx2 AD3 as kinase substrate. Furthermore, DMAT treatment and HIPK3 RNAi inhibited MINT+FGF2 activation of

  13. CME planning series: article four of five, promoting interaction within educational activities.

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, Thomas J

    2009-01-01

    Interaction refers to what happens within the minds of individuals participating in a CME activity. While peer-to-peer and peer-to-presenter discussion maybe helpful, internal engagement of the learner with the material is the type of interaction that is necessary for deep learning and change. The choice of which interactive method to use depends on the learning objectives of the specific CME program being planned.

  14. Nonbonded interactions in membrane active cyclic biopolymers. IV - Cation dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, R.; Srinivasan, S.; Prasad, C. V.; Brinda, S. R.; Macelroy, R. D.; Sundaram, K.

    1980-01-01

    Interactions of valinomycin and form of its analogs in several conformations with the central ions Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+) and Cs(+) are investigated as part of a study of the specific preference of valinomycin for potassium and the mechanisms of carrier-mediated ion transport across membranes. Ion binding energies and conformational potential energies are calculated taking into account polarization energy formulas and repulsive energy between the central ion and the ligand atoms for conformations representing various stages in ion capture and release for each of the two ring chiralities of valinomycin and its analogs. Results allow the prediction of the chirality and conformation most likely to be observed for a given analog, and may be used to synthesize analogs with a desired rigidity or flexibility. The binding energies with the alkali metal cations are found to decrease with increasing ion size, and to be smaller than the corresponding ion hydration energies. It is pointed out that the observed potassium preference may be explainable in terms of differences between binding and hydration energies. Binding energies are also noted to depend on ligand conformation.

  15. The solar magnetic activity band interaction and instabilities that shape quasi-periodic variability

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Scott W.; Leamon, Robert J.; Krista, Larisza D.; Title, Alan M.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Riley, Pete; Harder, Jerald W.; Kopp, Greg; Snow, Martin; Woods, Thomas N.; Kasper, Justin C.; Stevens, Michael L.; Ulrich, Roger K.

    2015-01-01

    Solar magnetism displays a host of variational timescales of which the enigmatic 11-year sunspot cycle is most prominent. Recent work has demonstrated that the sunspot cycle can be explained in terms of the intra- and extra-hemispheric interaction between the overlapping activity bands of the 22-year magnetic polarity cycle. Those activity bands appear to be driven by the rotation of the Sun's deep interior. Here we deduce that activity band interaction can qualitatively explain the ‘Gnevyshev Gap'—a well-established feature of flare and sunspot occurrence. Strong quasi-annual variability in the number of flares, coronal mass ejections, the radiative and particulate environment of the heliosphere is also observed. We infer that this secondary variability is driven by surges of magnetism from the activity bands. Understanding the formation, interaction and instability of these activity bands will considerably improve forecast capability in space weather and solar activity over a range of timescales. PMID:25849045

  16. The solar magnetic activity band interaction and instabilities that shape quasi-periodic variability.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Scott W; Leamon, Robert J; Krista, Larisza D; Title, Alan M; Hudson, Hugh S; Riley, Pete; Harder, Jerald W; Kopp, Greg; Snow, Martin; Woods, Thomas N; Kasper, Justin C; Stevens, Michael L; Ulrich, Roger K

    2015-04-07

    Solar magnetism displays a host of variational timescales of which the enigmatic 11-year sunspot cycle is most prominent. Recent work has demonstrated that the sunspot cycle can be explained in terms of the intra- and extra-hemispheric interaction between the overlapping activity bands of the 22-year magnetic polarity cycle. Those activity bands appear to be driven by the rotation of the Sun's deep interior. Here we deduce that activity band interaction can qualitatively explain the 'Gnevyshev Gap'—a well-established feature of flare and sunspot occurrence. Strong quasi-annual variability in the number of flares, coronal mass ejections, the radiative and particulate environment of the heliosphere is also observed. We infer that this secondary variability is driven by surges of magnetism from the activity bands. Understanding the formation, interaction and instability of these activity bands will considerably improve forecast capability in space weather and solar activity over a range of timescales.

  17. Using the Pharmacist Interaction Tracking Tool for Capturing Student-Patient Interactions in Direct and Simulated Patient Care Activities

    PubMed Central

    Schonder, Kristine S.; Pater, Karen S.; McGivney, Melissa S.; Meyer, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To create and implement a standardized data collection tool for capturing student-patient interactions in direct and simulated patient care activities. Design. Faculty members and students determined key elements, design, and an implementation plan for the tool, which was to be used by students across professional years to quantify numbers and types of interactions with patients for tracking student progression toward achievement of curricular outcomes. Assessment. During the 2013-2014 academic year, 27 778 entries were completed, with 17 767 (64%) advanced pharmacy practice experiences, 7272 (26%) introductory pharmacy practice experiences, and 2739 (10%) simulation. Direct patient care interactions occurred with 11 090 patients and 10 983 providers, with 14 252 drug-related problems identified. Data was used by students for their professional portfolios, by administrators for curricular assessment, and to student impact on patient care. Conclusion. The PITT Form enabled the collection of data from actual and simulated patient care activities, allowed for curricular assessment of activities across years, and was used by individual students. PMID:27667842

  18. Using the Pharmacist Interaction Tracking Tool for Capturing Student-Patient Interactions in Direct and Simulated Patient Care Activities.

    PubMed

    Hall, Deanne L; Schonder, Kristine S; Pater, Karen S; McGivney, Melissa S; Meyer, Susan M

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To create and implement a standardized data collection tool for capturing student-patient interactions in direct and simulated patient care activities. Design. Faculty members and students determined key elements, design, and an implementation plan for the tool, which was to be used by students across professional years to quantify numbers and types of interactions with patients for tracking student progression toward achievement of curricular outcomes. Assessment. During the 2013-2014 academic year, 27 778 entries were completed, with 17 767 (64%) advanced pharmacy practice experiences, 7272 (26%) introductory pharmacy practice experiences, and 2739 (10%) simulation. Direct patient care interactions occurred with 11 090 patients and 10 983 providers, with 14 252 drug-related problems identified. Data was used by students for their professional portfolios, by administrators for curricular assessment, and to student impact on patient care. Conclusion. The PITT Form enabled the collection of data from actual and simulated patient care activities, allowed for curricular assessment of activities across years, and was used by individual students.

  19. Creative Multimodal Learning Environments and Blended Interaction for Problem-Based Activity in HCI Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Andri; Vasiliou, Christina; Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Arh, Tanja; Klobucar, Tomaž; Pipan, Matija

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory case study aims to examine how students benefit from a multimodal learning environment while they engage in collaborative problem-based activity in a Human Computer Interaction (HCI) university course. For 12 weeks, 30 students, in groups of 5-7 each, participated in weekly face-to-face meetings and online interactions.…

  20. Evidence for contributions of interactions of constituents to the anti-inflammatory activity of Hypericum perforatum.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Kimberly D P; Birt, Diane F

    2014-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum (Hp) extracts contain many different classes of constituents including flavonoids and biflavonoids, phloroglucinols, naphthodianthrones, caffeic acid derivatives, and unknown and/or unidentified compounds. Many constituents may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of Hp including quercetin and derivatives, hyperforin, pseudohypericin, and amentoflavone. In line with antidepressant data, it appears that the interactions of constituents may be important for the anti-inflammatory activity of Hp. Interactions of constituents, tested in bioavailability models, may explain why synergistic mechanisms have been found to be important for antidepressant and antiproliferative bioactivities. This review highlights the relationship among individual constituents and the anti-inflammatory activity of Hp extracts and proposes that interactions of constituents may be important for the anti-inflammatory activity of botanical extracts, although the exact mechanisms of the interactions are still unclear.

  1. Interaction Activities in the Foreign Classroom, or How to Grow a Tulip-Rose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Christina Bratt; Selekman, Howard R.

    1976-01-01

    A report is made on the use of foreign language for spontaneous communication in an elementary language class. Four correction-free, peer communicative/interaction activities are outlined according to procedures, objectives, and evaluations. (Author/RM)

  2. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Effects of List Length and Output Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia; Grenfell-Essam, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    In 4 experiments, participants were presented with lists of between 1 and 15 words for tests of immediate memory. For all tasks, participants tended to initiate recall with the first word on the list for short lists. As the list length was increased, so there was a decreased tendency to start with the first list item; and, when free to do so,…

  3. A 2D suspension of active agents: the role of fluid mediated interactions.

    PubMed

    Behmadi, Hojjat; Fazli, Zahra; Najafi, Ali

    2017-03-22

    Taking into account both the Vicsek short-range ordering and the far-field hydrodynamic interactions mediated by the ambient fluid, we investigate the role of long-range interactions in the ordering phenomena in a quasi 2-dimensional active suspension. By studying the number fluctuations, the velocity correlation functions and cluster size distribution function, we show that depending on the number density of swimmers and the strength of noise, the hydrodynamic interactions can have significant effects in a suspension. For a fixed value of noise, at larger density of particles, long-range interactions enhance the particle pairing and cluster formation in the system.

  4. A 2D suspension of active agents: the role of fluid mediated interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behmadi, Hojjat; Fazli, Zahra; Najafi, Ali

    2017-03-01

    Taking into account both the Vicsek short-range ordering and the far-field hydrodynamic interactions mediated by the ambient fluid, we investigate the role of long-range interactions in the ordering phenomena in a quasi 2-dimensional active suspension. By studying the number fluctuations, the velocity correlation functions and cluster size distribution function, we show that depending on the number density of swimmers and the strength of noise, the hydrodynamic interactions can have significant effects in a suspension. For a fixed value of noise, at larger density of particles, long-range interactions enhance the particle pairing and cluster formation in the system.

  5. Self-propulsion and interactions of catalytic particles in a chemically active medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banigan, Edward J.; Marko, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Enzymatic "machines," such as catalytic rods or colloids, can self-propel and interact by generating gradients of their substrates. We theoretically investigate the behaviors of such machines in a chemically active environment where their catalytic substrates are continuously synthesized and destroyed, as occurs in living cells. We show how the kinetic properties of the medium modulate self-propulsion and pairwise interactions between machines, with the latter controlled by a tunable characteristic interaction range analogous to the Debye screening length in an electrolytic solution. Finally, we discuss the effective force arising between interacting machines and possible biological applications, such as partitioning of bacterial plasmids.

  6. A conserved patch of hydrophobic amino acids modulates Myb activity by mediating protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Dukare, Sandeep; Klempnauer, Karl-Heinz

    2016-07-01

    The transcription factor c-Myb plays a key role in the control of proliferation and differentiation in hematopoietic progenitor cells and has been implicated in the development of leukemia and certain non-hematopoietic tumors. c-Myb activity is highly dependent on the interaction with the coactivator p300 which is mediated by the transactivation domain of c-Myb and the KIX domain of p300. We have previously observed that conservative valine-to-isoleucine amino acid substitutions in a conserved stretch of hydrophobic amino acids have a profound effect on Myb activity. Here, we have explored the function of the hydrophobic region as a mediator of protein-protein interactions. We show that the hydrophobic region facilitates Myb self-interaction and binding of the histone acetyl transferase Tip60, a previously identified Myb interacting protein. We show that these interactions are affected by the valine-to-isoleucine amino acid substitutions and suppress Myb activity by interfering with the interaction of Myb and the KIX domain of p300. Taken together, our work identifies the hydrophobic region in the Myb transactivation domain as a binding site for homo- and heteromeric protein interactions and leads to a picture of the c-Myb transactivation domain as a composite protein binding region that facilitates interdependent protein-protein interactions of Myb with regulatory proteins.

  7. Interaction of SNF1 Protein Kinase with Its Activating Kinase Sak1▿

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Xu, Xinjing; Carlson, Marian

    2011-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNF1 protein kinase, a member of the SNF1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family, is activated by three kinases, Sak1, Tos3, and Elm1, which phosphorylate the Snf1 catalytic subunit on Thr-210 in response to glucose limitation and other stresses. Sak1 is the primary Snf1-activating kinase and is associated with Snf1 in a complex. Here we examine the interaction of Sak1 with SNF1. We report that Sak1 coimmunopurifies with the Snf1 catalytic subunit from extracts of both glucose-replete and glucose-limited cultures and that interaction occurs independently of the phosphorylation state of Snf1 Thr-210, Snf1 catalytic activity, and other SNF1 subunits. Sak1 interacts with the Snf1 kinase domain, and nonconserved sequences C terminal to the Sak1 kinase domain mediate interaction with Snf1 and augment the phosphorylation and activation of Snf1. The Sak1 C terminus is modified in response to glucose depletion, dependent on SNF1 activity. Replacement of the C terminus of Elm1 (or Tos3) with that of Sak1 enhanced the ability of the Elm1 kinase domain to interact with and phosphorylate Snf1. These findings indicate that the C terminus of Sak1 confers its function as the primary Snf1-activating kinase and suggest that the physical association of Sak1 with SNF1 facilitates responses to environmental change. PMID:21216941

  8. EEG oscillations during sleep and dream recall: state- or trait-like individual differences?

    PubMed Central

    Scarpelli, Serena; D’Atri, Aurora; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Ferrara, Michele; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Dreaming represents a peculiar form of cognitive activity during sleep. On the basis of the well-known relationship between sleep and memory, there has been a growing interest in the predictive role of human brain activity during sleep on dream recall. Neuroimaging studies indicate that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is characterized by limbic activation and prefrontal cortex deactivation. This pattern could explain the presence of emotional contents in dream reports. Furthermore, the morphoanatomical measures of amygdala and hippocampus predict some features of dream contents (bizarreness, vividness, and emotional load). More relevant for a general view of dreaming mechanisms, empirical data from neuropsychological and electroencephalographic (EEG) studies support the hypothesis that there is a sort of continuity between the neurophysiological mechanisms of encoding and retrieval of episodic memories across sleep and wakefulness. A notable overlap between the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying emotional memory formation and some peculiar EEG features of REM sleep has been suggested. In particular, theta (5–8 Hz) EEG oscillations on frontal regions in the pre-awakening sleep are predictive of dream recall, which parallels the predictive relation during wakefulness between theta activity and successful retrieval of episodic memory. Although some observations support an interpretation more in terms of an intraindividual than interindividual mechanism, the existing empirical evidence still precludes from definitely disentangling if this relation is explained by state- or trait-like differences. PMID:25999908

  9. EEG oscillations during sleep and dream recall: state- or trait-like individual differences?

    PubMed

    Scarpelli, Serena; D'Atri, Aurora; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Ferrara, Michele; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Dreaming represents a peculiar form of cognitive activity during sleep. On the basis of the well-known relationship between sleep and memory, there has been a growing interest in the predictive role of human brain activity during sleep on dream recall. Neuroimaging studies indicate that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is characterized by limbic activation and prefrontal cortex deactivation. This pattern could explain the presence of emotional contents in dream reports. Furthermore, the morphoanatomical measures of amygdala and hippocampus predict some features of dream contents (bizarreness, vividness, and emotional load). More relevant for a general view of dreaming mechanisms, empirical data from neuropsychological and electroencephalographic (EEG) studies support the hypothesis that there is a sort of continuity between the neurophysiological mechanisms of encoding and retrieval of episodic memories across sleep and wakefulness. A notable overlap between the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying emotional memory formation and some peculiar EEG features of REM sleep has been suggested. In particular, theta (5-8 Hz) EEG oscillations on frontal regions in the pre-awakening sleep are predictive of dream recall, which parallels the predictive relation during wakefulness between theta activity and successful retrieval of episodic memory. Although some observations support an interpretation more in terms of an intraindividual than interindividual mechanism, the existing empirical evidence still precludes from definitely disentangling if this relation is explained by state- or trait-like differences.

  10. Tools and techniques to study ligand-receptor interactions and receptor activation by TNF superfamily members.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Pascal; Willen, Laure; Smulski, Cristian R

    2014-01-01

    Ligands and receptors of the TNF superfamily are therapeutically relevant targets in a wide range of human diseases. This chapter describes assays based on ELISA, immunoprecipitation, FACS, and reporter cell lines to monitor interactions of tagged receptors and ligands in both soluble and membrane-bound forms using unified detection techniques. A reporter cell assay that is sensitive to ligand oligomerization can identify ligands with high probability of being active on endogenous receptors. Several assays are also suitable to measure the activity of agonist or antagonist antibodies, or to detect interactions with proteoglycans. Finally, self-interaction of membrane-bound receptors can be evidenced using a FRET-based assay. This panel of methods provides a large degree of flexibility to address questions related to the specificity, activation, or inhibition of TNF-TNF receptor interactions in independent assay systems, but does not substitute for further tests in physiologically relevant conditions.

  11. Muscular activity and physical interaction forces during lower limb exoskeleton use.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Matthew; Rathore, Ashish; Morgado Ramirez, Dafne Zuleima; Loureiro, Rui C V; Carlson, Tom

    2016-12-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) typically manifests with a loss of sensorimotor control of the lower limbs. In order to overcome some of the disadvantages of chronic wheelchair use by such patients, robotic exoskeletons are an emerging technology that has the potential to transform the lives of patients. However, there are a number of points of contact between the robot and the user, which lead to interaction forces. In a recent study, the authors have shown that peak interaction forces are particularly prominent at the anterior aspect of the right leg. This study uses a similar experimental protocol with additional electromyography (EMG) analysis to examine whether such interaction forces are due to the muscular activity of the participant or the movement of the exoskeleton itself. Interestingly, the authors found that peak forces preceded peak EMG activity. This study did not find a significant correlation between EMG activity and force data, which would indicate that the interaction forces can largely be attributed to the movement of the exoskeleton itself. However, we also report significantly higher correlation coefficients in muscle/force pairs located at the anterior aspect of the right leg. In their previous research, the authors have shown peak interaction forces at the same locations, which suggests that muscular activity of the participant makes a more significant contribution to the interaction forces at these locations. The findings of this study are of significance for incomplete SCI patients, for whom EMG activity may provide an important input to an intuitive control schema.

  12. Lexicality Effects in Word and Nonword Recall of Semantic Dementia and Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Jamie; Troche, Joshua; Chatel, Alison; Park, Hyejin; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Antonucci, Sharon M.; Martin, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Background Verbal working memory is an essential component of many language functions, including sentence comprehension and word learning. As such, working memory has emerged as a domain of intense research interest both in aphasiology and in the broader field of cognitive neuroscience. The integrity of verbal working memory encoding relies on a fluid interaction between semantic and phonological processes. That is, we encode verbal detail using many cues related to both the sound and meaning of words. Lesion models can provide an effective means of parsing the contributions of phonological or semantic impairment to recall performance. Methods and Procedures We employed the lesion model approach here by contrasting the nature of lexicality errors incurred during recall of word and nonword sequences by 3individuals with progressive nonfluent aphasia (a phonological dominant impairment) compared to that of 2 individuals with semantic dementia (a semantic dominant impairment). We focused on psycholinguistic attributes of correctly recalled stimuli relative to those that elicited a lexicality error (i.e., nonword → word OR word → nonword). Outcomes and results Patients with semantic dementia showed greater sensitivity to phonological attributes (e.g., phoneme length, wordlikeness) of the target items relative to semantic attributes (e.g., familiarity). Patients with PNFA showed the opposite pattern, marked by sensitivity to word frequency, age of acquisition, familiarity, and imageability. Conclusions We interpret these results in favor of a processing strategy such that in the context of a focal phonological impairment patients revert to an over-reliance on preserved semantic processing abilities. In contrast, a focal semantic impairment forces both reliance upon and hypersensitivity to phonological attributes of target words. We relate this interpretation to previous hypotheses about the nature of verbal short-term memory in progressive aphasia. PMID:23486736

  13. Development of a Web-Based 24-h Dietary Recall for a French-Canadian Population

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Simon; Lemieux, Simone; Lamarche, Benoît; Laramée, Catherine; Corneau, Louise; Lapointe, Annie; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Robitaille, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls can provide high-quality dietary intake data, but are considered expensive, as they rely on trained professionals for both their administration and coding. The objective of this study was to develop an automated, self-administered web-based 24-h recall (R24W) for a French-Canadian population. The development of R24W was inspired by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Questions about the context of meals/snacks were included. Toppings, sauces and spices frequently added to each food/dish were suggested systematically. A list of frequently forgotten food was also suggested. An interactive summary allows the respondent to track the progress of the questionnaire and to modify or remove food as needed. The R24W prototype was pre-tested for usability and functionality in a convenience sample of 29 subjects between the ages of 23 and 65 years, who had to complete one recall, as well as a satisfaction questionnaire. R24W includes a list of 2865 food items, distributed into 16 categories and 98 subcategories. A total of 687 recipes were created for mixed dishes, including 336 ethnic recipes. Pictures of food items illustrate up to eight servings per food item. The pre-test demonstrated that R24W is easy to complete and to understand. This new dietary assessment tool is a simple and inexpensive tool that will facilitate diet assessment of individuals in large-scale studies, but validation studies are needed prior to the utilization of the R24W. PMID:27854276

  14. Columnar interactions determine horizontal propagation of recurrent network activity in neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Wester, Jason C.; Contreras, Diego

    2012-01-01

    The cortex is organized in vertical and horizontal circuits that determine the spatiotemporal properties of distributed cortical activity. Despite detailed knowledge of synaptic interactions among individual cells in the neocortex, little is known about the rules governing interactions among local populations. Here we used self-sustained recurrent activity generated in cortex, also known as up-states, in rat thalamocortical slices in vitro to understand interactions among laminar and horizontal circuits. By means of intracellular recordings and fast optical imaging with voltage sensitive dyes, we show that single thalamic inputs activate the cortical column in a preferential L4→L2/3→L5 sequence, followed by horizontal propagation with a leading front in supra and infragranular layers. To understand the laminar and columnar interactions, we used focal injections of TTX to block activity in small local populations, while preserving functional connectivity in the rest of the network. We show that L2/3 alone, without underlying L5, does not generate self-sustained activity and is inefficient propagating activity horizontally. In contrast, L5 sustains activity in the absence of L2/3 and is necessary and sufficient to propagate activity horizontally. However, loss of L2/3 delays horizontal propagation via L5. Finally, L5 amplifies activity in L2/3. Our results show for the first time that columnar interactions between supra and infragranular layers are required for the normal propagation of activity in the neocortex. Our data suggest that supra and infragranular circuits with their specific and complex set of inputs and outputs, work in tandem to determine the patterns of cortical activation observed in vivo. PMID:22514308

  15. An Interactive Classroom Activity Demonstrating Reaction Mechanisms and Rate-Determining Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Laura D.; Keller, Steven W.

    2005-01-01

    An interactive classroom activity that includes two-step reaction of unwrapping and eating chocolate candies is described which brings not only the reaction intermediate, but also the reactants and products into macroscopic view. The qualitative activation barriers of both steps can be adjusted independently.

  16. Oxidative modification of caspase-9 facilitates its activation via disulfide-mediated interaction with Apaf-1.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yong; Xiang, Binggang; Yang, Jie; Sun, Xuxu; Wang, Yumei; Cang, Hui; Yi, Jing

    2009-04-01

    Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to regulate apoptosis. Activation of caspase-9, the initial caspase in the mitochondrial apoptotic cascade, is closely associated with ROS, but it is unclear whether ROS regulate caspase-9 via direct oxidative modification. The present study aims to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which ROS mediate caspase-9 activation. Our results show that the cellular oxidative state facilitates caspase-9 activation. Hydrogen peroxide treatment causes the activation of caspase-9 and apoptosis, and promotes an interaction between caspase-9 and apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1) via disulfide formation. In addition, in an in vitro mitochondria-free system, the thiol-oxidant diamide promotes auto-cleavage of caspase-9 and the caspase-9/Apaf-1 interaction by facilitating the formation of disulfide-linked complexes. Finally, a point mutation at C403 of caspase-9 impairs both H(2)O(2)-promoted caspase-9 activation and interaction with Apaf-1 through the abolition of disulfide formation. The association between cytochrome c and the C403S mutant is significantly weaker than that between cytochrome c and wild-type caspase-9, indicating that oxidative modification of caspase-9 contributes to apoptosome formation under oxidative stress. Taken together, oxidative modification of caspase-9 by ROS can mediate its interaction with Apaf-1, and can thus promote its auto-cleavage and activation. This mechanism may facilitate apoptosome formation and caspase-9 activation under oxidative stress.

  17. Marital Conflict and Children's Externalizing Behavior: Interactions between Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nervous System Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Erath, Stephen; Cummings, E. Mark; Keller, Peggy; Staton, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Toward greater specificity in the prediction of externalizing problems in the context of interparental conflict, interactions between children's parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system (PNS and SNS) activity were examined as moderators. PNS activity was indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA reactivity (RSA-R) to lab…

  18. Interactive Diet and Activity Tracking in AARP (IDATA) Study Data | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Interactive Diet and Activity Tracking in AARP (IDATA) Study is a methodologic study of device-based, internet-based, and conventional self-report instrum | Device-based and intensive self-report physical activity and diet data with biomarkers

  19. The Effects of Teacher Facilitation on the Social Interactions of Young Children during Computer Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Cynthia; Higgins, Kyle; Gelfer, Jeff; Hong, Eunsook; Miller, Susan

    2005-01-01

    This group study investigated the impact of teacher facilitation on the social interactions of young children during computer activities. The study compared 18 dyads comprised of children with and without disabilities who received teacher facilitation during computer activities to a group of children who did not receive teacher facilitation. The…

  20. Process, Goal and Social Interaction Differences in Recreation: What Makes an Activity Substitutable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Robert; Heberlein, Thomas A.

    Two recreational activities, deer hunting and goose hunting, both similar in form, are compared. It was hypothesized that the activity for which participants rated the process, the goal, and the social interaction as most important to the experience and for which participants showed the strongest family ties and social support for participation…

  1. Effects of the immediate recall trial on Delayed Recall performance in the Rey Complex Figure Test in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hikari

    2015-01-01

    This study determines whether the presence or absence of the Immediate Recall trial influences performance among healthy young and older adults on the 30-min Delayed Recall task of the Rey Complex Figure Test. Participants in the 1-test condition (24 young adults and 24 older adults) underwent the Copy trial and 30-min Delayed Recall trial only, while participants in the 2-test condition (24 young adults and 24 older adults) completed the Copy trial, the Immediate Recall trial, and the 30-min Delayed Recall trial. Both older and younger participants in the 2-test condition showed significantly higher scores than those in the 1-test condition on the 30-min Delayed Recall trial. The relevance of these findings to the relationship with testing effects (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006 ) was discussed.

  2. Tamoxifen Dependent Interaction Between the Estrogen Receptor and a Novel P21 Activated Kinase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    AD Award Number: DAMDl7-01-1-0149 TITLE: Tamoxifen Dependent Interaction Between the Estrogen Receptor and a Novel P21 Activated Kinase PRINCIPAL...Tamoxifen Dependent Interaction Between the DAMD17-00-1-0114 Estrogen Receptor and a Novel P21 Activated Kinase 6. AUTHOR(S) Steven P. Balk, M.D., Ph.D. 7...Z, Karas RH, nisms of androgen receptor activation and function. J Mendelsohn ME, Shaul PW 1999 Estrogen receptor a Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 69:307

  3. The Fill-In Effect in Serial Recall Can Be Obscured by Omission Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osth, Adam F.; Dennis, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Henson (1996) provided a number of demonstrations of error patterns in serial recall that contradict chaining models. Chaining models predict that when participants erroneously recall an item too early, recall should proceed from the point of error. In contradiction to such a prediction, Henson found evidence for a fill-in effect: participants…

  4. Free Recall of Mixed Language Lists. Error Patterns in Bilingual Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronsson, Karin; And Others

    Lexical interference in the recall of adult Finnish/Swedish bilinguals with Finnish dominant is studied. The error patterns of short-term recall of words presented by category in either Swedish or Finnish were examined for translations, lexical substitutions, and intrusions or false recalls of non-occurring words. Individual differences in…

  5. 21 CFR 810.17 - Termination of a cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.17 Termination of a cease distribution and notification or... include a description of the disposition of the recalled device. (b) FDA may terminate a...

  6. 21 CFR 810.16 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.16 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order...) The number and type of health professionals, device user facilities, consignees, or...

  7. 21 CFR 810.14 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.14 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall strategy. (a... factors: (1) The nature of the serious, adverse health consequences related to the device; (2) The ease...

  8. 21 CFR 810.17 - Termination of a cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.17 Termination of a cease distribution and notification or... include a description of the disposition of the recalled device. (b) FDA may terminate a...

  9. 21 CFR 810.14 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.14 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall strategy. (a... factors: (1) The nature of the serious, adverse health consequences related to the device; (2) The ease...

  10. 21 CFR 810.17 - Termination of a cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.17 Termination of a cease distribution and notification or... include a description of the disposition of the recalled device. (b) FDA may terminate a...

  11. 21 CFR 810.16 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.16 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order...) The number and type of health professionals, device user facilities, consignees, or...

  12. 21 CFR 810.17 - Termination of a cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.17 Termination of a cease distribution and notification or... include a description of the disposition of the recalled device. (b) FDA may terminate a...

  13. 21 CFR 810.16 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.16 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order...) The number and type of health professionals, device user facilities, consignees, or...

  14. 21 CFR 810.16 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.16 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order...) The number and type of health professionals, device user facilities, consignees, or...

  15. 21 CFR 810.17 - Termination of a cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.17 Termination of a cease distribution and notification or... include a description of the disposition of the recalled device. (b) FDA may terminate a...

  16. 21 CFR 810.16 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.16 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order...) The number and type of health professionals, device user facilities, consignees, or...

  17. 21 CFR 810.14 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.14 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall strategy. (a... factors: (1) The nature of the serious, adverse health consequences related to the device; (2) The ease...

  18. Toward a Systematic Method of Measuring Free Recall from Printed News Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Gigi

    This paper proposes a systematic method of measuring subjects' free recall from printed hard news stories, based on schema theories of cognition. Citing literature that demonstrates the role of text structures and text schemas in the recall of written text, the paper suggests incorporating these processes into the assessment of recall of news. In…

  19. Effects of Long-Term Representations on Free Recall of Unrelated Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katkov, Mikhail; Romani, Sandro; Tsodyks, Misha

    2015-01-01

    Human memory stores vast amounts of information. Yet recalling this information is often challenging when specific cues are lacking. Here we consider an associative model of retrieval where each recalled item triggers the recall of the next item based on the similarity between their long-term neuronal representations. The model predicts that…

  20. The Effect of Implicit and Explicit Motivation on Recall among Old and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, David C.; Scioli, Anthony; Weaver, Suzanne

    1998-01-01

    Sixty-eight elderly subjects and 77 young adults were compared on implicit and explicit motive levels and on recall of introductions and working memory. Significantly fewer of the elderly scored high in the implicit motives. The elderly participants showed major recall deficits on both tasks but the implicit motives studied enhanced recall for the…

  1. Long-Term Knowledge Effects on Serial Recall of Nonwords Are Not Exclusively Lexical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorn, Annabel S. C.; Frankish, Clive R.

    2005-01-01

    S. Roodenrys and M. Hinton (2002) reported superior recall for nonwords with large rather than small lexical neighborhoods when constituent biphone frequency was controlled, but comparable recall of high and low biphone frequency nonwords when neighborhood size was controlled, suggesting that long-term knowledge effects on nonword recall are…

  2. Using Standards to Improve Middle School Students' Accuracy at Evaluating the Quality of Their Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipko, Amanda R.; Dunlosky, John; Hartwig, Marissa K.; Rawson, Katherine A.; Swan, Karen; Cook, Dale

    2009-01-01

    When recalling key term definitions from class materials, students may recall entirely incorrect definitions, yet will often claim that these commission errors are entirely correct; that is, they are overconfident in the quality of their recall responses. We investigated whether this overconfidence could be reduced by providing various standards…

  3. Effects of Multimedia Annotations on Thai EFL Readers' Words and Text Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasigijtamrong, Jenjit

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of using multimedia annotations on EFL readers' word recall and text recall and to explore which type of multimedia annotations--L1 meaning, L2 meaning, sound, and image--would have a better effect on their recall of new words and text comprehension. The participants were 78 students who enrolled in an…

  4. Dynamics of Context-Dependent Recall: An Examination of Internal and External Context Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; Spillers, Gregory J.; Brewer, Gene A.

    2012-01-01

    Retrieval dynamics in context-dependent recall were explored via manipulations of external and internal context in two experiments. Participants were tested in either the same or different context as the material was learned in and correct recalls, errors, and recall latency measures were examined. In both experiments changes in context resulted…

  5. Latent semantic analysis: a new method to measure prose recall.

    PubMed

    Dunn, John C; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Barclay, Lee; Waterreus, Anna; Flicker, Leon

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare traditional methods of scoring the Logical Memory test of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III with a new method based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). LSA represents texts as vectors in a high-dimensional semantic space and the similarity of any two texts is measured by the cosine of the angle between their respective vectors. The Logical Memory test was administered to a sample of 72 elderly individuals, 14 of whom were classified as cognitively impaired by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The results showed that LSA was at least as valid and sensitive as traditional measures. Partial correlations between prose recall measures and measures of cognitive function indicated that LSA explained all the relationship between Logical Memory and general cognitive function. This suggests that LSA may serve as an improved measure of prose recall.

  6. Retrieval-induced forgetting in recall: competitor interference revisited.

    PubMed

    Verde, Michael F

    2013-09-01

    Participants studied category-exemplar pairs (FRUIT Cherry, FRUIT Grape) and then practiced some of the items (Cherry). In Experiment 1, practice that involved retrieving the item from memory suppressed recall of related items (Grape), a finding known as the retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) effect. In Experiment 2, practice that involved studying the item without retrieval produced no RIF effect. Both retrieval and nonretrieval practice facilitated the subsequent recall of practiced items (Cherry). The dissociation between "strengthening" of practiced items and forgetting of related items is thought to be evidence that RIF is the result of inhibition during earlier retrieval attempts rather than interference from competing memories at retrieval. However, simulations of the SAM-REM model show that competitor interference can account for this dissociation. Experiments 3-6 supported the predictions of the model by demonstrating that nonretrieval practice can produce the RIF effect under conditions that emphasize context encoding or increase the number of competitors.

  7. Reduction of Helicopter Blade-Vortex Interaction Noise by Active Rotor Control Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Yung H.; Gmelin, Bernd; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Brooks, Thomas F.; Philippe, Jean J.; Prieur, Jean

    1997-01-01

    Helicopter blade-vortex interaction noise is one of the most severe noise sources and is very important both in community annoyance and military detection. Research over the decades has substantially improved basic physical understanding of the mechanisms generating rotor blade-vortex interaction noise and also of controlling techniques, particularly using active rotor control technology. This paper reviews active rotor control techniques currently available for rotor blade vortex interaction noise reduction, including higher harmonic pitch control, individual blade control, and on-blade control technologies. Basic physical mechanisms of each active control technique are reviewed in terms of noise reduction mechanism and controlling aerodynamic or structural parameters of a blade. Active rotor control techniques using smart structures/materials are discussed, including distributed smart actuators to induce local torsional or flapping deformations, Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  8. Increased frequency of social interaction is associated with enjoyment enhancement and reward system activation.

    PubMed

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K; Hamano, Yuki H; Makita, Kai; Kochiyama, Takanori; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-04-19

    Positive social interactions contribute to the sense that one's life has meaning. Enjoyment of feelings associated through social interaction motivates humans to build social connections according to their personal preferences. Therefore, we hypothesized that social interaction itself activates the reward system in a manner that depends upon individual interaction preferences. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which 38 participants played a virtual ball-toss game in which the number of ball tosses to the participant was either similar to (normal-frequency condition) or higher than (high-frequency condition) the number of tosses to the other players. Participants reported greater-than-anticipated enjoyment during the high-frequency condition, suggesting that receiving a social reward led to unexpected positive feelings. Consistent with this, the high-frequency condition produced stronger activation in the ventral striatum, which is part of the reward system, and the precuneus, representing positive self-image, which might be translated to social reward. Furthermore, ventral striatal activation covaried with individual participants' preference for interactions with others. These findings suggest that an elevated frequency of social interaction is represented as a social reward, which might motivate individuals to promote social interaction in a manner that is modulated by personal preference.

  9. Interaction with Single-stranded DNA-binding Protein Stimulates Escherichia coli Ribonuclease HI Enzymatic Activity.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Christine; Marceau, Aimee H; Miller, Katherine H; Marqusee, Susan; Keck, James L

    2015-06-05

    Single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) bind and protect ssDNA intermediates formed during replication, recombination, and repair reactions. SSBs also directly interact with many different genome maintenance proteins to stimulate their enzymatic activities and/or mediate their proper cellular localization. We have identified an interaction formed between Escherichia coli SSB and ribonuclease HI (RNase HI), an enzyme that hydrolyzes RNA in RNA/DNA hybrids. The RNase HI·SSB complex forms by RNase HI binding the intrinsically disordered C terminus of SSB (SSB-Ct), a mode of interaction that is shared among all SSB interaction partners examined to date. Residues that comprise the SSB-Ct binding site are conserved among bacterial RNase HI enzymes, suggesting that RNase HI·SSB complexes are present in many bacterial species and that retaining the interaction is important for its cellular function. A steady-state kinetic analysis shows that interaction with SSB stimulates RNase HI activity by lowering the reaction Km. SSB or RNase HI protein variants that disrupt complex formation nullify this effect. Collectively our findings identify a direct RNase HI/SSB interaction that could play a role in targeting RNase HI activity to RNA/DNA hybrid substrates within the genome.

  10. Increased frequency of social interaction is associated with enjoyment enhancement and reward system activation

    PubMed Central

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Makita, Kai; Kochiyama, Takanori; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Positive social interactions contribute to the sense that one’s life has meaning. Enjoyment of feelings associated through social interaction motivates humans to build social connections according to their personal preferences. Therefore, we hypothesized that social interaction itself activates the reward system in a manner that depends upon individual interaction preferences. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which 38 participants played a virtual ball-toss game in which the number of ball tosses to the participant was either similar to (normal-frequency condition) or higher than (high-frequency condition) the number of tosses to the other players. Participants reported greater-than-anticipated enjoyment during the high-frequency condition, suggesting that receiving a social reward led to unexpected positive feelings. Consistent with this, the high-frequency condition produced stronger activation in the ventral striatum, which is part of the reward system, and the precuneus, representing positive self-image, which might be translated to social reward. Furthermore, ventral striatal activation covaried with individual participants’ preference for interactions with others. These findings suggest that an elevated frequency of social interaction is represented as a social reward, which might motivate individuals to promote social interaction in a manner that is modulated by personal preference. PMID:27090501

  11. Interaction of Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT (PIAS) Proteins with the TATA-binding Protein, TBP*

    PubMed Central

    Prigge, Justin R.; Schmidt, Edward E.

    2007-01-01

    Transcription activators often recruit promoter-targeted assembly of a pre-initiation complex; many repressors antagonize recruitment. These activities can involve direct interactions with proteins in the pre-initiation complex. We used an optimized yeast two-hybrid system to screen mouse pregnancy-associated libraries for proteins that interact with TATA-binding protein (TBP). Screens revealed an interaction between TBP and a single member of the zinc finger family of transcription factors, ZFP523. Two members of the protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) family, PIAS1 and PIAS3, also interacted with TBP in screens. Endogenous PIAS1 and TBP co-immunoprecipitated from nuclear extracts, suggesting the interaction occurred in vivo. In vitro-translated PIAS1 and TBP coimmunopreciptated, which indicated that other nuclear proteins were not required for the interaction. Deletion analysis mapped the PIAS-interacting domain of TBP to the conserved TBPCORE and the TBP-interacting domain on PIAS1 to a 39-amino acid C-terminal region. Mammals issue seven known PIAS proteins from four pias genes, pias1, pias3, piasx, and piasy, each with different cell type-specific expression patterns; the TBP-interacting domain reported here is the only part of the PIAS C-terminal region shared by all seven PIAS proteins. Direct analyses indicated that PIASx and PIASy also interacted with TBP. Our results suggest that all PIAS proteins might mediate situation-specific regulatory signaling at the TBP interface and that previously unknown levels of complexity could exist in the gene regulatory interplay between TBP, PIAS proteins, ZFP523, and other transcription factors. PMID:16522640

  12. Mojibake – The rehearsal of word fragments in verbal recall

    PubMed Central

    Lange-Küttner, Christiane; Sykorova, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Theories of verbal rehearsal usually assume that whole words are being rehearsed. However, words consist of letter sequences, or syllables, or word onset-vowel-coda, amongst many other conceptualizations of word structure. A more general term is the ‘grain size’ of word units (Ziegler and Goswami, 2005). In the current study, a new method measured the quantitative percentage of correctly remembered word structure. The amount of letters in the correct letter sequence as per cent of word length was calculated, disregarding missing or added letters. A forced rehearsal was tested by repeating each memory list four times. We tested low frequency (LF) English words versus geographical (UK) town names to control for content. We also tested unfamiliar international (INT) non-words and names of international (INT) European towns to control for familiarity. An immediate versus distributed repetition was tested with a between-subject design. Participants responded with word fragments in their written recall especially when they had to remember unfamiliar words. While memory of whole words was sensitive to content, presentation distribution and individual sex and language differences, recall of word fragments was not. There was no trade-off between memory of word fragments with whole word recall during the repetition, instead also word fragments significantly increased. Moreover, while whole word responses correlated with each other during repetition, and word fragment responses correlated with each other during repetition, these two types of word recall responses were not correlated with each other. Thus there may be a lower layer consisting of free, sparse word fragments and an upper layer that consists of language-specific, orthographically and semantically constrained words. PMID:25941500

  13. Mojibake - The rehearsal of word fragments in verbal recall.

    PubMed

    Lange-Küttner, Christiane; Sykorova, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Theories of verbal rehearsal usually assume that whole words are being rehearsed. However, words consist of letter sequences, or syllables, or word onset-vowel-coda, amongst many other conceptualizations of word structure. A more general term is the 'grain size' of word units (Ziegler and Goswami, 2005). In the current study, a new method measured the quantitative percentage of correctly remembered word structure. The amount of letters in the correct letter sequence as per cent of word length was calculated, disregarding missing or added letters. A forced rehearsal was tested by repeating each memory list four times. We tested low frequency (LF) English words versus geographical (UK) town names to control for content. We also tested unfamiliar international (INT) non-words and names of international (INT) European towns to control for familiarity. An immediate versus distributed repetition was tested with a between-subject design. Participants responded with word fragments in their written recall especially when they had to remember unfamiliar words. While memory of whole words was sensitive to content, presentation distribution and individual sex and language differences, recall of word fragments was not. There was no trade-off between memory of word fragments with whole word recall during the repetition, instead also word fragments significantly increased. Moreover, while whole word responses correlated with each other during repetition, and word fragment responses correlated with each other during repetition, these two types of word recall responses were not correlated with each other. Thus there may be a lower layer consisting of free, sparse word fragments and an upper layer that consists of language-specific, orthographically and semantically constrained words.

  14. Rapid Recall Ability of Memory T cells is Encoded in their Epigenome

    PubMed Central

    Barski, Artem; Cuddapah, Suresh; Kartashov, Andrey V.; Liu, Chong; Imamichi, Hiromi; Yang, Wenjing; Peng, Weiqun; Lane, H. Clifford; Zhao, Keji

    2017-01-01

    Even though T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation together with co-stimulation is sufficient for the activation of both naïve and memory T cells, the memory cells are capable of producing lineage specific cytokines much more rapidly than the naïve cells. The mechanisms behind this rapid recall response of the memory cells are still not completely understood. Here, we performed epigenetic profiling of human resting naïve, central and effector memory T cells using ChIP-Seq and found that unlike the naïve cells, the regulatory elements of the cytokine genes in the memory T cells are marked by activating histone modifications even in the resting state. Therefore, the ability to induce expression of rapid recall genes upon activation is associated with the deposition of positive histone modifications during memory T cell differentiation. We propose a model of T cell memory, in which immunological memory state is encoded epigenetically, through poising and transcriptional memory. PMID:28054639

  15. Validity of recall of tobacco use in two prospective cohorts.

    PubMed

    Brigham, Janet; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Javitz, Harold S; Krasnow, Ruth E; Tildesley, Elizabeth; Andrews, Judy; Hops, Hyman; Cornelius, Marie D; Day, Nancy L; McElroy, Mary; Swan, Gary E

    2010-10-01

    This project studied the convergent validity of current recall of tobacco-related health behaviors, compared with prospective self-report collected earlier at two sites. Cohorts were from the Oregon Research Institute at Eugene (N = 346, collected 19.5 years earlier) and the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (N = 294, collected 3.9 years earlier). Current recall was examined through computer-assisted interviews with the Lifetime Tobacco Use Questionnaire from 2005 through 2008. Convergent validity estimates demonstrated variability. Validity estimates of some tobacco use measures were significant for Oregon subjects (age at first cigarette, number of cigarettes/day, quit attempts yes/no and number of attempts, and abstinence symptoms at quitting; all P < 0.03). Validity estimates of Pittsburgh subjects' self-reports of tobacco use and abstinence symptoms were significant (P < 0.001) for all tobacco use and abstinence symptoms and for responses to initial use of tobacco. These findings support the utility of collecting recalled self-report information for reconstructing salient lifetime health behaviors and underscore the need for careful interpretation.

  16. Capecitabine-induced radiation recall phenomenon: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, José

    2013-01-01

    Radiation recall dermatitis is defined as an inflammatory reaction of the skin at the site of previous irradiation. Different drugs have been associated with triggering this phenomenon, and it can also affect other areas and organs where previous radiotherapy has been administered. The time gap between the inflammatory reaction and previous radiation can range from days to several years. We report a case of capecitabine-induced Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 4 (ulcerating dermatitis) recall skin toxicity of skin irradiated 3 years previously. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of capecitabine-induced RTOG grade 4 (ulcerating dermatitis) recall skin toxicity of previously irradiated skin. Clinicians should be aware of this phenomenon, even when considering patients for whom it has been a long time since previous radiation therapy. This unusual and late drug side effect should be borne in mind in the differential diagnosis and management of advanced-disease patients as it may be confused with local relapse or infectious complication of previously operated areas. PMID:24555020

  17. Recall dynamics reveal the retrieval of emotional context.

    PubMed

    Long, Nicole M; Danoff, Michelle S; Kahana, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Memory is often better for emotional rather than neutral stimuli. The benefit for emotional items could be the result of an associative mechanism whereby items are associated to a slowly updating context. Through this process, emotional features are integrated with context during study, and are reactivated during test. The presence of emotion in context would both provide a stronger retrieval cue, enhancing memory of emotional items, as well as lead to emotional clustering, whereby emotionally similar items are recalled consecutively. To measure whether associative mechanisms can explain the enhancement for emotional items, we conducted a free recall study in which most items were emotionally neutral to minimize effects of mood induction and to more closely reflect naturalistic settings. We found that emotional items were significantly more likely to be recalled than neutral items and that participants were more likely to transition between emotional items rather than between emotional and neutral items. Together, these results suggest that contextual encoding and retrieval mechanisms may drive the benefit for emotional items both within and outside the laboratory.

  18. Validity of Recall of Tobacco Use in Two Prospective Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Brigham, Janet; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Javitz, Harold S.; Krasnow, Ruth E.; Tildesley, Elizabeth; Andrews, Judy; Hops, Hyman; Cornelius, Marie D.; Day, Nancy L.; McElroy, Mary; Swan, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    This project studied the convergent validity of current recall of tobacco-related health behaviors, compared with prospective self-report collected earlier at two sites. Cohorts were from the Oregon Research Institute at Eugene (N = 346, collected 19.5 years earlier) and the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (N = 294, collected 3.9 years earlier). Current recall was examined through computer-assisted interviews with the Lifetime Tobacco Use Questionnaire from 2005 through 2008. Convergent validity estimates demonstrated variability. Validity estimates of some tobacco use measures were significant for Oregon subjects (age at first cigarette, number of cigarettes/day, quit attempts yes/no and number of attempts, and abstinence symptoms at quitting; all P < 0.03). Validity estimates of Pittsburgh subjects’ self-reports of tobacco use and abstinence symptoms were significant (P < 0.001) for all tobacco use and abstinence symptoms and for responses to initial use of tobacco. These findings support the utility of collecting recalled self-report information for reconstructing salient lifetime health behaviors and underscore the need for careful interpretation. PMID:20720099

  19. Post-amputation pain is associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams-results from a nation-wide survey on limb amputees.

    PubMed

    Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Schredl, Michael; Diers, Martin; Reinhard, Iris; Foell, Jens; Trojan, Jörg; Fuchs, Xaver; Flor, Herta

    2015-01-01

    The experience of post-amputation pain such as phantom limb pain (PLP) and residual limb pain (RLP), is a common consequence of limb amputation, and its presence has negative effects on a person's well-being. The continuity hypothesis of dreams suggests that the presence of such aversive experiences in the waking state should be reflected in dream content, with the recalled body representation reflecting a cognitive proxy of negative impact. In the present study, we epidemiologically assessed the presence of post-amputation pain and other amputation-related information as well as recalled body representation in dreams in a sample of 3,234 unilateral limb amputees. Data on the site and time of amputation, residual limb length, prosthesis use, lifetime prevalence of mental disorders, presence of post-amputation pain, and presence of non-painful phantom phenomena were included in logistic regression analyses using recalled body representation in dreams (impaired, intact, no memory) as dependent variable. The effects of age, sex, and frequency of dream recall were controlled for. About 22% of the subjects indicated that they were not able to remember their body representation in dreams, another 24% of the amputees recalled themselves as always intact, and only a minority of less than 3% recalled themselves as always impaired. Almost 35% of the amputees dreamed of themselves in a mixed fashion. We found that lower-limb amputation as well as the presence of PLP and RLP was positively associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams. The presence of non-painful phantom phenomena, however, had no influence. These results complement previous findings and indicate complex interactions of physical body appearance and mental body representation, probably modulated by distress in the waking state. The findings are discussed against the background of alterations in cognitive processes after amputation and hypotheses suggesting an innate body model.

  20. Social interaction reward decreases p38 activation in the nucleus accumbens shell of rats.

    PubMed

    Salti, Ahmad; Kummer, Kai K; Sadangi, Chinmaya; Dechant, Georg; Saria, Alois; El Rawas, Rana

    2015-12-01

    We have previously shown that animals acquired robust conditioned place preference (CPP) to either social interaction alone or cocaine alone. Recently it has been reported that drugs of abuse abnormally activated p38, a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase family, in the nucleus accumbens. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of the activated form of p38 (pp38) in the nucleus accumbens shell and core of rats expressing either cocaine CPP or social interaction CPP 1 h, 2 h and 24 h after the CPP test. We hypothesized that cocaine CPP will increase pp38 in the nucleus accumbens shell/core as compared to social interaction CPP. Surprisingly, we found that 24 h after social interaction CPP, pp38 neuronal levels were decreased in the nucleus accumbens shell to the level of naïve rats. Control saline rats that received saline in both compartments of the CPP apparatus and cocaine CPP rats showed similar enhanced p38 activation as compared to naïve and social interaction CPP rats. We also found that the percentage of neurons expressing dopaminergic receptor D2R and pp38 was also decreased in the shell of the nucleus accumbens of social interaction CPP rats as compared to controls. Given the emerging role of p38 in stress/anxiety behaviors, these results suggest that (1) social interaction reward has anti-stress effects; (2) cocaine conditioning per se does not affect p38 activation and that (3) marginal stress is sufficient to induce p38 activation in the shell of the nucleus accumbens.

  1. Social interaction reward decreases p38 activation in the nucleus accumbens shell of rats

    PubMed Central

    Salti, Ahmad; Kummer, Kai K.; Sadangi, Chinmaya; Dechant, Georg; Saria, Alois; El Rawas, Rana

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that animals acquired robust conditioned place preference (CPP) to either social interaction alone or cocaine alone. Recently it has been reported that drugs of abuse abnormally activated p38, a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase family, in the nucleus accumbens. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of the activated form of p38 (pp38) in the nucleus accumbens shell and core of rats expressing either cocaine CPP or social interaction CPP 1 h, 2 h and 24 h after the CPP test. We hypothesized that cocaine CPP will increase pp38 in the nucleus accumbens shell/core as compared to social interaction CPP. Surprisingly, we found that 24 h after social interaction CPP, pp38 neuronal levels were decreased in the nucleus accumbens shell to the level of naïve rats. Control saline rats that received saline in both compartments of the CPP apparatus and cocaine CPP rats showed similar enhanced p38 activation as compared to naïve and social interaction CPP rats. We also found that the percentage of neurons expressing dopaminergic receptor D2R and pp38 was also decreased in the shell of the nucleus accumbens of social interaction CPP rats as compared to controls. Given the emerging role of p38 in stress/anxiety behaviors, these results suggest that (1) social interaction reward has anti-stress effects; (2) cocaine conditioning per se does not affect p38 activation and that (3) marginal stress is sufficient to induce p38 activation in the shell of the nucleus accumbens. PMID:26300300

  2. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11–24 Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N. S.; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J.; Foster, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11–24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11–24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults. PMID:27294952

  3. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11-24 Year-Old.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N S; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2016-06-09

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11-24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11-24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults.

  4. The genetic consequences of ablating helicase activity and the Top3 interaction domain of Sgs1

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Justin; Rothstein, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    Sgs1, the RecQ helicase homolog, and Top3, the type-IA topoisomerase, physically interact and are required for genomic stability in budding yeast. Similarly, topoisomerase III genes physically pair with homologs of SGS1 in humans that are involved in the cancer predisposition and premature aging diseases Bloom, Werner, and Rothmund-Thompson syndromes. In the absence of Top1 activity, sgs1 mutants are severely growth impaired. Here, we investigate the role of Sgs1 helicase activity and its N-terminal Top3 interaction domain by using an allele replacement technique to integrate mutant alleles at the native SGS1 genomic locus. We compare the phenotype of helicase-defective (sgs1-hd) and N-terminal deletion (sgs1-NΔ) strains to wild-type and sgs1 null strains. Like the sgs1 null, sgs1-hd mutations suppress top3 slow growth, cause a growth defect in the absence of Srs2 helicase, and impair meiosis. However, for recombination and the synthetic interaction with top1Δ mutations, loss of helicase activity exhibits a less severe phenotype than the null. Interestingly, deletion of the Top3 interaction domain of Sgs1 causes a top3-like phenotype, and furthermore, this effect is dependent on helicase activity. These results suggest that the protein-protein interaction between these two DNA-metabolism enzymes, even in the absence of helicase activity, is important for their function in catalyzing specific changes in DNA topology. PMID:18272435

  5. The Effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Affective Memory Recall Dynamics in Depression: A Mechanistic Model of Rumination

    PubMed Central

    van Vugt, Marieke Karlijn; Hitchcock, Peter; Shahar, Ben; Britton, Willoughby

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: converging research suggests that mindfulness training exerts its therapeutic effects on depression by reducing rumination. Theoretically, rumination is a multifaceted construct that aggregates multiple neurocognitive aspects of depression, including poor executive control, negative and overgeneral memory bias, and persistence or stickiness of negative mind states. Current measures of rumination, most-often self-reports, do not capture these different aspects of ruminative tendencies, and therefore are limited in providing detailed information about the mechanisms of mindfulness. Methods: we developed new insight into the potential mechanisms of rumination, based on three model-based metrics of free recall dynamics. These three measures reflect the patterns of memory retrieval of valenced information: the probability of first recall (Pstart) which represents initial affective bias, the probability of staying with the same valence category rather than switching, which indicates strength of positive or negative association networks (Pstay), and probability of stopping (Pstop) or ending recall within a given valence, which indicates persistence or stickiness of a mind state. We investigated the effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT; N = 29) vs. wait-list control (N = 23) on these recall dynamics in a randomized controlled trial in individuals with recurrent depression. Participants completed a standard laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test, to induce negative mood and activate ruminative tendencies. Following that, participants completed a free recall task consisting of three word lists. This assessment was conducted both before and after treatment or wait-list. Results: while MBCT participant’s Pstart remained relatively stable, controls showed multiple indications of depression-related deterioration toward more negative and less positive bias. Following the intervention, MBCT participants decreased in their tendency

  6. Criticism or praise? The impact of verbal versus text-only computer feedback on social presence, intrinsic motivation, and recall.

    PubMed

    Bracken, Cheryl Campanella; Jeffres, Leo W; Neuendorf, Kimberly A

    2004-06-01

    The Computers Are Social Actors (CASA) paradigm asserts that human computer users interact socially with computers, and has provided extensive evidence that this is the case. In this experiment (n = 134), participants received either praise or criticism from a computer. Independent variables were the direction feedback (praise or criticism), and voice channel (verbal or text-only). Dependent variables measured via a computer-based questionnaire were recall, perceived ability, intrinsic motivation, and perceptions of the computer as a social entity. Results demonstrate that participants had similar reactions to computers as predicted by interpersonal communication research with participants who received text-only criticism reporting higher levels of intrinsic motivation, perceived ability, and recall. Additionally, the computer was seen as more intelligent. Implications for theory and application are discussed.

  7. Coffee with ginger - interactions of biologically active phytochemicals in the model system.

    PubMed

    Durak, Agata; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Kowlska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the interactions between antiradical and anti-inflammatory compounds from coffee and ginger. Results obtained for whole plant material extracts were compared with those for chlorogenic and caffeic acids (the main hydroxycinnamic acids of plant material). All the tested samples showed the ability to scavenge free radicals and to inhibit lipoxygenase (LOX) activity. Both of these activities increased after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Aromatic additives, such as ginger, are able to change the antioxidant properties of coffee extract and antioxidant interactions may be identified using two methods. Antiradical phytochemicals from coffee and ginger acted synergistically - isoboles adopted a concave form, while after digestion in vitro an additive reaction was observed; in turn, chemical standards acted antagonistically. Water extractable LOX inhibitors acted antagonistically; however, after digestion in vitro synergism was observed. The same kind of interaction was determined for standard compounds. These results were confirmed by IF (interaction factor) analysis.

  8. Prothymosin Alpha Selectively Enhances Estrogen Receptor Transcriptional Activity by Interacting with a Repressor of Estrogen Receptor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Paolo G. V.; Delage-Mourroux, Regis; Kraichely, Dennis M.; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S.

    2000-01-01

    We find that prothymosin alpha (PTα) selectively enhances transcriptional activation by the estrogen receptor (ER) but not transcriptional activity of other nuclear hormone receptors. This selectivity for ER is explained by PTα interaction not with ER, but with a 37-kDa protein denoted REA, for repressor of estrogen receptor activity, a protein that we have previously shown binds to ER, blocking coactivator binding to ER. We isolated PTα, known to be a chromatin-remodeling protein associated with cell proliferation, using REA as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen with a cDNA library from MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. PTα increases the magnitude of ERα transcriptional activity three- to fourfold. It shows lesser enhancement of ERβ transcriptional activity and has no influence on the transcriptional activity of other nuclear hormone receptors (progesterone receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, thyroid hormone receptor, or retinoic acid receptor) or on the basal activity of ERs. In contrast, the steroid receptor coactivator SRC-1 increases transcriptional activity of all of these receptors. Cotransfection of PTα or SRC-1 with increasing amounts of REA, as well as competitive glutathione S-transferase pulldown and mammalian two-hybrid studies, show that REA competes with PTα (or SRC-1) for regulation of ER transcriptional activity and suppresses the ER stimulation by PTα or SRC-1, indicating that REA can function as an anticoactivator in cells. Our data support a model in which PTα, which does not interact with ER, selectively enhances the transcriptional activity of the ER but not that of other nuclear receptors by recruiting the repressive REA protein away from ER, thereby allowing effective coactivation of ER with SRC-1 or other coregulators. The ability of PTα to directly interact in vitro and in vivo with REA, a selective coregulator of the ER, thereby enabling the interaction of ER with coactivators, appears to explain its ability to selectively enhance

  9. The effect of selected "desirable difficulties" on the ability to recall anatomy information.

    PubMed

    Dobson, John L; Linderholm, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    "Desirable difficulties" is a theory from cognitive science used to promote learning in a variety of contexts. The basic premise is that creating a cognitively challenging environment at the learning acquisition phase, by actively engaging learners in the retrieval of to-be-learned materials, promotes long-term retention. In this study, the degree of desirable difficulties was varied to identify how cognitively challenging the learning acquisition phase must be to benefit university-level students' learning of anatomy concepts. This is important to investigate as applied studies of desirable difficulties are less frequent than laboratory-based studies and the implementation of this principle may need to be tailored to the specific field of study, such as anatomy. As such, a read-read-read-read (R-R-R-R) condition was compared to read-generate-read-generate (R-G-R-G) and read-test-read-test (R-T-R-T) conditions. The three conditions varied in terms of how effortful the retrieval task was during the learning acquisition phase. R-R-R-R required little effort because participants passively read the materials four times. R-G-R-G required some effort to generate a response as participants completed a word fragment task during the learning acquisition phase. R-T-R-T was thought to be most demanding as participants performed a free recall task twice during the learning phase. With regard to the absolute amount of anatomy information recalled, the R-T-R-T condition was superior at both immediate and delayed (one week) assessment points. Thus, instructors and learners of anatomy would benefit from embedding more free recall components, or self-testing, into university-level course work or study practices.

  10. Wave-Wave Interactions in the Stratosphere: Observations during Quiet and Active Wintertime Periods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Anne K.; Gille, John C.; Lyjak, Lawrence V.

    1984-02-01

    Using satellite data from the Nimbus 7 LIMS instrument, a previous study by Smith showed that interactions among planetary waves 1, 2 and 3 in the stratosphere were significant during January 1979. That month was characterized by an exceptionally large wave 1 amplitude in the stratosphere. The present study extends the analysis to the period November 1978-March 1979 to determine the conditions under which wave-wave interactions have a significant effect on variations in wave activity and on wave-mean flow interactions. A quantitative measure of how wave-wave interactions affect the wave activity of zonal waves 1 and 2 is obtained from the potential enstrophy budget.The results demonstrate that the relative importance of wave-wave versus wave-mean flow interactions depends on the magnitude of the eddy mean wind and potential vorticity relative to the zonal means. When the zonal mean wind is weak, a relatively small amplitude wave tends to behave nonlinearly, whereas when the mean wind is strong, only large amplitude waves are significantly nonlinear. In the 1978-79 winter, the zonal mean wind was weaker and wave-wave interactions were more important in middle and late winter than during November-December.Further evidence is presented that the vacillation between waves 1 and 2, which has been observed in the winter stratosphere of both hemispheres, is as strongly influenced by wave-wave interactions in the stratosphere as by variations in the forcing from the troposphere.

  11. Mg2+ mediates interaction between the voltage sensor and cytosolic domain to activate BK channels.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huanghe; Hu, Lei; Shi, Jingyi; Delaloye, Kelli; Horrigan, Frank T; Cui, Jianmin

    2007-11-13

    The voltage-sensor domain (VSD) of voltage-dependent ion channels and enzymes is critical for cellular responses to membrane potential. The VSD can also be regulated by interaction with intracellular proteins and ligands, but how this occurs is poorly understood. Here, we show that the VSD of the BK-type K(+) channel is regulated by a state-dependent interaction with its own tethered cytosolic domain that depends on both intracellular Mg(2+) and the open state of the channel pore. Mg(2+) bound to the cytosolic RCK1 domain enhances VSD activation by electrostatic interaction with Arg-213 in transmembrane segment S4. Our results demonstrate that a cytosolic domain can come close enough to the VSD to regulate its activity electrostatically, thereby elucidating a mechanism of Mg(2+)-dependent activation in BK channels and suggesting a general pathway by which intracellular factors can modulate the function of voltage-dependent proteins.

  12. The death of recency: Relationship between end-state comfort and serial position effects in serial recall: Logan and Fischman (2011) revisited.

    PubMed

    Logan, Samuel W; Fischman, Mark G

    2015-12-01

    Two experiments examined the dynamic interaction between cognitive resources in short-term memory and bimanual object manipulation by extending recent research by Logan and Fischman (2011). In Experiment 1, 16 participants completed a bimanual end-state comfort task and a memory task requiring serial recall of 12 words or pictures. The end-state comfort task involved moving two glasses between two shelves. Participants viewed the items, performed the end-state comfort task, and then serially recalled the items. Recall was evaluated by the presence or absence of primacy and recency effects. The end-state comfort effect (ESCE) was assessed by the percentage of initial hand positions that allowed the hands to end comfortably. The main findings indicated that the ESCE was disrupted; the primacy effect remained intact; and the recency effect disappeared regardless of the type of memory item recalled. In Experiment 2, 16 participants viewed six items, performed an end-state comfort task, viewed another six items, and then serially recalled all 12 items. Results were essentially the same as in Experiment 1. Findings suggest that executing a bimanual end-state comfort task, regardless of when it is completed during a memory task, diminishes the recency effect irrespective of the type of memory item.

  13. Brief, cooperative peer-instruction sessions during lectures enhance student recall and comprehension*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Niu; Henderson, Charles N.R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the academic impact of cooperative peer instruction during lecture pauses in an immunology/endocrinology course. Methods: Third-quarter students participated across iterations of the course. Each class offered 20 lectures of 50 minutes each. Classes were divided into a peer-instruction group incorporating cooperative peer instruction and a control group receiving traditional lectures. Peer-instruction group lectures were divided into 2–3 short presentations followed by a multiple-choice question (MCQ). Students recorded an initial answer and then had 1 minute to discuss answers with group peers. Following this, students could submit a revised answer. The control group received the same lecture material, but without MCQs or peer discussions. Final-exam scores were compared across study groups. A mixed-design analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. Results: There was a statistically significant main effect for the peer-instruction activity (F(1, 93) = 6.573, p = .012, r = .257), with recall scores higher for MCQs asked after peer-instruction activities than for those asked before peer instruction. Final-exam scores at the end of term were greater in the peer-instruction group than the control group (F(1, 193) = 9.264, p = .003, r = .214; question type, F(1, 193) = 26.671, p = .000, r = .348). Conclusion: Lectures with peer-instruction pauses increase student recall and comprehension compared with traditional lectures. PMID:26967766

  14. STAT5-Interacting Proteins: A Synopsis of Proteins that Regulate STAT5 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Able, Ashley A.; Burrell, Jasmine A.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2017-01-01

    Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) are key components of the JAK/STAT pathway. Of the seven STATs, STAT5A and STAT5B are of particular interest for their critical roles in cellular differentiation, adipogenesis, oncogenesis, and immune function. The interactions of STAT5A and STAT5B with cytokine/hormone receptors, nuclear receptors, transcriptional regulators, proto-oncogenes, kinases, and phosphatases all contribute to modulating STAT5 activity. Among these STAT5 interacting proteins, some serve as coactivators or corepressors to regulate STAT5 transcriptional activity and some proteins can interact with STAT5 to enhance or repress STAT5 signaling. In addition, a few STAT5 interacting proteins have been identified as positive regulators of STAT5 that alter serine and tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT5 while other proteins have been identified as negative regulators of STAT5 via dephosphorylation. This review article will discuss how STAT5 activity is modulated by proteins that physically interact with STAT5. PMID:28287479

  15. Temporal trends in symptom experience predict the accuracy of recall PROs

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Stefan; Broderick, Joan E.; Junghaenel, Doerte U.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Stone, Arthur A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Patient-reported outcome measures with reporting periods of a week or more are often used to evaluate the change of symptoms over time, but the accuracy of recall in the context of change is not well understood. This study examined whether temporal trends in symptoms that occur during the reporting period impact the accuracy of 7-day recall reports. Methods Women with premenstrual symptoms (n = 95) completed daily reports of anger, depression, fatigue, and pain intensity for 4 weeks, as well as 7-day recall reports at the end of each week. Latent class growth analysis was used to categorize recall periods based on the direction and rate of change in the daily reports. Agreement (level differences and correlations) between 7-day recall and aggregated daily scores was compared for recall periods with different temporal trends. Results Recall periods with positive, negative, and flat temporal trends were identified and they varied in accordance with weeks of the menstrual cycle. Replicating previous research, 7-day recall scores were consistently higher than aggregated daily scores, but this level difference was more pronounced for recall periods involving positive and negative trends compared with flat trends. Moreover, correlations between 7-day recall and aggregated daily scores were lower in the presence of positive and negative trends compared with flat trends. These findings were largely consistent for anger, depression, fatigue, and pain intensity. Conclusion Temporal trends in symptoms can influence the accuracy of recall reports and this should be considered in research designs involving change. PMID:23915773

  16. Children’s Recall of Generic and Specific Labels Regarding Animals and People

    PubMed Central

    Gülgöz, Selin; Gelman, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Although children tend to categorize objects at the basic level, we hypothesized that generic sentences would direct children’s attention to different levels of categorization. We tested children’s and adults’ short-term recall (Study 1) and longer-term recall (Study 2) for labels presented in generic sentences (e.g., Kids like to play jimjam) versus specific sentences (e.g., This kid likes to play jimjam). Label content was either basic level (e.g., cat, boy) or superordinate (e.g., animal, kid). As predicted, participants showed better memory for label content in generic than specific sentences (short-term recall for children; both short and longer-term recall for adults). Errors typically involved recalling specific noun phrases as generic, and recalling superordinate labels as basic. These results demonstrate that language influences children’s representations of new factual information, but that cognitive biases also lead to distortions in recall. PMID:25598575

  17. Interactive modeling activities in the classroom—rotational motion and smartphone gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pörn, Ray; Braskén, Mats

    2016-11-01

    The wide-spread availability of smartphones makes them a valuable addition to the measurement equipment in both the physics classroom and the instructional laboratory, encouraging an active interaction between measurements and modeling activities. In this paper we illustrate this interaction by making use of the internal gyroscope of a smartphone to study and measure the rotational dynamics of objects rotating about a fixed axis. The workflow described in this paper has been tested in a classroom setting and found to encourage an exploratory approach to both data collecting and modeling.

  18. Fibromodulin Interacts with Collagen Cross-linking Sites and Activates Lysyl Oxidase*

    PubMed Central

    Bihan, Dominique; Bonna, Arkadiusz; Rubin, Kristofer; Farndale, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    The hallmark of fibrotic disorders is a highly cross-linked and dense collagen matrix, a property driven by the oxidative action of lysyl oxidase. Other fibrosis-associated proteins also contribute to the final collagen matrix properties, one of which is fibromodulin. Its interactions with collagen affect collagen cross-linking, packing, and fibril diameter. We investigated the possibility that a specific relationship exists between fibromodulin and lysyl oxidase, potentially imparting a specific collagen matrix phenotype. We mapped the fibromodulin-collagen interaction sites using the collagen II and III Toolkit peptide libraries. Fibromodulin interacted with the peptides containing the known collagen cross-linking sites and the MMP-1 cleavage site in collagens I and II. Interestingly, the interaction sites are closely aligned within the quarter-staggered collagen fibril, suggesting a multivalent interaction between fibromodulin and several collagen helices. Furthermore, we detected an interaction between fibromodulin and lysyl oxidase (a major collagen cross-linking enzyme) and mapped the interaction site to 12 N-terminal amino acids on fibromodulin. This interaction also increases the activity of lysyl oxidase. Together, the data suggest a fibromodulin-modulated collagen cross-linking mechanism where fibromodulin binds to a specific part of the collagen domain and also forms a complex with lysyl oxidase, targeting the enzyme toward specific cross-linking sites. PMID:26893379

  19. Fibromodulin Interacts with Collagen Cross-linking Sites and Activates Lysyl Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Kalamajski, Sebastian; Bihan, Dominique; Bonna, Arkadiusz; Rubin, Kristofer; Farndale, Richard W

    2016-04-08

    The hallmark of fibrotic disorders is a highly cross-linked and dense collagen matrix, a property driven by the oxidative action of lysyl oxidase. Other fibrosis-associated proteins also contribute to the final collagen matrix properties, one of which is fibromodulin. Its interactions with collagen affect collagen cross-linking, packing, and fibril diameter. We investigated the possibility that a specific relationship exists between fibromodulin and lysyl oxidase, potentially imparting a specific collagen matrix phenotype. We mapped the fibromodulin-collagen interaction sites using the collagen II and III Toolkit peptide libraries. Fibromodulin interacted with the peptides containing the known collagen cross-linking sites and the MMP-1 cleavage site in collagens I and II. Interestingly, the interaction sites are closely aligned within the quarter-staggered collagen fibril, suggesting a multivalent interaction between fibromodulin and several collagen helices. Furthermore, we detected an interaction between fibromodulin and lysyl oxidase (a major collagen cross-linking enzyme) and mapped the interaction site to 12 N-terminal amino acids on fibromodulin. This interaction also increases the activity of lysyl oxidase. Together, the data suggest a fibromodulin-modulated collagen cross-linking mechanism where fibromodulin binds to a specific part of the collagen domain and also forms a complex with lysyl oxidase, targeting the enzyme toward specific cross-linking sites.

  20. Characterization of the interactions between the active site of a protein tyrosine kinase and a divalent metal activator

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaofeng; Ayrapetov, Marina K; Sun, Gongqin

    2005-01-01

    Background Protein tyrosine kinases are important enzymes for cell signalling and key targets for anticancer drug discovery. The catalytic mechanisms of protein tyrosine kinase-catalysed phosphorylation are not fully understood. Protein tyrosine kinase Csk requires two Mg2+ cations for activity: one (M1) binds to ATP, and the other (M2) acts as an essential activator. Results Experiments in this communication characterize the interaction between M2 and Csk. Csk activity is sensitive to pH in the range of 6 to 7. Kinetic characterization indicates that the sensitivity is not due to altered substrate binding, but caused by the sensitivity of M2 binding to pH. Several residues in the active site with potential of binding M2 are mutated and the effect on metal activation studied. An active mutant of Asn319 is generated, and this mutation does not alter the metal binding characteristics. Mutations of Glu236 or Asp332 abolish the kinase activity, precluding a positive or negative conclusion on their role in M2 coordination. Finally, the ability of divalent metal cations to activate Csk correlates to a combination of ionic radius and the coordination number. Conclusion These studies demonstrate that M2 binding to Csk is sensitive to pH, which is mainly responsible for Csk activity change in the acidic arm of the pH response curve. They also demonstrate critical differences in the metal activator coordination sphere in protein tyrosine kinase Csk and a protein Ser/Thr kinase, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. They shed light on the physical interactions between a protein tyrosine kinase and a divalent metal activator. PMID:16305747