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Sample records for activity intervention strategies

  1. Promising School-Based Strategies and Intervention Guidelines to Increase Physical Activity of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Berta Murillo; Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia; Lanaspa, Eduardo Generelo; Bush, Paula L.; Casterad, Javier Zaragoza; Clemente, Jose A. Julian; Gonzalez, Luis Garcia

    2013-01-01

    This narrative review describes the available scientific evidence regarding promising school-based strategies to increase physical activity of adolescents. We conducted a literature search for studies published up to 2011, regarding adolescent physical activity intervention studies that resulted in increased physical activity (regardless of…

  2. Biophysical Intervention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Scott

    1987-01-01

    Biophysical interventions as part of an ecological approach to intervention with handicapped children include psychotropic medications (neuroleptics, antidepressants, stimulants, minor tranquilizers and sedatives, lithium); nutritional agents (sugar, vitamins, food allergies); and physical therapies (patterning, optometric training). (DB)

  3. Health Counseling Strategies and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Len; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Acknowledging the increasing need for professionals trained to provide health counseling, describes number of interventions mental health counselors can incorporate and thereby extend their practice options. Presents three-phase strategy along with interventions for assessment, treatment, follow-up, and relapse prevention. Uses extensive case…

  4. Optimal intervention strategies for tuberculosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowong, Samuel; Aziz Alaoui, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper deals with the problem of optimal control of a deterministic model of tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus). We first present and analyze an uncontrolled tuberculosis model which incorporates the essential biological and epidemiological features of the disease. The model is shown to exhibit the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, where a stable disease-free equilibrium co-exists with one or more stable endemic equilibria when the associated basic reproduction number is less than the unity. Based on this continuous model, the tuberculosis control is formulated and solved as an optimal control problem, indicating how control terms on the chemoprophylaxis and detection should be introduced in the population to reduce the number of individuals with active TB. Results provide a framework for designing the cost-effective strategies for TB with two intervention methods.

  5. Youth Suicide: An Intervention Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests school and university intervention strategies for preventing suicides among youths, proposed following a series of teenage suicides in Minnesota: closer liaison and backup for the school counselor, peer counseling services, in-school support groups, faculty in-service on suicide, curricular introduction to coping skills and identification…

  6. Intervention Strategies for Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rencken, Robert H.

    This book provides a framework for understanding the dimensions (scope, taxonomy, philosophy) and dynamics (individual, familial, and societal) of child sexual abuse. The major focus is on integrated intervention strategies for any professional who must work with incomplete information. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the problem of child sexual…

  7. The Effect of a Multi-Strategy Workplace Physical Activity Intervention Promoting Pedometer Use and Step Count Increase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cocker, Katrien A.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M.; Cardon, Greet M.

    2010-01-01

    Pedometer use and step count goals have become popular in physical activity (PA) interventions in different settings. Previous pedometer-based workplace interventions were short term, uncontrolled and executed outside Europe. This European quasi-experimental study evaluated the effects of a 20-week pedometer-based PA workplace intervention.…

  8. Families, Disability, and Empowerment: Active Coping Skills and Strategies for Family Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, George H. S., Ed.; Powers, Laurie E., Ed.

    This book presents strategies for building strong partnerships between service providers and the families of individuals with disabilities. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Contributing to Resilience in Families: An Overview" (George H. S. Singer and Laurie E. Powers); "Parent to Parent Programs: A Unique Form of Mutual Support for…

  9. Office-Based Physical Activity and Nutrition Intervention: Barriers, Enablers, and Preferred Strategies for Workplace Obesity Prevention, Perth, Western Australia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Jancey, Jonine; Howat, Peter; Ledger, Melissa; Lee, Andy H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Workplace health promotion programs to prevent overweight and obesity in office-based employees should be evidence-based and comprehensive and should consider behavioral, social, organizational, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to and enablers of physical activity and nutrition as well as intervention strategies for health promotion in office-based workplaces in the Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan area in 2012. Methods We conducted an online survey of 111 employees from 55 organizations. The online survey investigated demographics, individual and workplace characteristics, barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. We used χ2 and Mann–Whitney U statistics to test for differences between age and sex groups for barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis determined factors that affect physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Results We identified several factors that affected physical activity and nutrition behaviors, including the most common barriers (“too tired” and “access to unhealthy food”) and enablers (“enjoy physical activity” and “nutrition knowledge”). Intervention-strategy preferences demonstrated employee support for health promotion in the workplace. Conclusion The findings provide useful insights into employees’ preferences for interventions; they can be used to develop comprehensive programs for evidence-based workplace health promotion that consider environmental and policy influences as well as the individual. PMID:24028834

  10. [Bullying: Prevention and intervention strategies].

    PubMed

    Christaki, M

    2007-04-01

    Bullying can be defined as when one (or more) individual engages in aggressive behaviour against another individual who seem to be unable to defend himself. This action is intentional and persistent and creates great distress and fear. There are not specific statistics in Greece but recent researches from EKKE showed that one out of four children in Athens have been bullied physically. Bullying is a multifaceted and complex problem. Modern psychological perspectives emphasize that aggressive and violent behaviours are learned responses to frustration. Learning occurs by observing models of such behaviour in the family, in the neighbourhood, in school. Ignoring the problem gives a bad example. Prevention and intervention strategies should include the family, the school personnel and the children. Bullying has negative effects on the physical and mental health of the child and it can also cost his life, some kids commit suicide. Therefore intervention strategies need to develop in the communities. The aim is to create a -physically and psychologically- safe environment. PMID:22466519

  11. Interventions for promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Charles; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Thorogood, Margaret; Kaur, Asha; Wedatilake, Thamindu

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies to enable people to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote physical activity in adults aged 16 years and older, not living in an institution. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 1 2005), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, BIDS ISI, SPORTDISCUS, SIGLE, SCISEARCH (from earliest dates available to December 2004). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared different interventions to encourage sedentary adults not living in an institution to become physically active. Studies required a minimum of six months follow up from the start of the intervention to the collection of final data and either used an intention-to-treat analysis or, failing that, had no more than 20% loss to follow up. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently assessed each study quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous measures of self-reported physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main results The effect of interventions on self-reported physical activity (19 studies; 7598 participants) was positive and moderate (pooled SMD random effects model 0.28 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41) as was the effect of interventions (11 studies; 2195 participants) on cardio-respiratory fitness (pooled SMD random effects model 0.52 95% CI 0.14 to 0.90). There was significant heterogeneity in the reported effects as well as heterogeneity in characteristics of the interventions. The heterogeneity in reported effects was reduced in higher quality studies, when physical

  12. ADHD in the Classroom: Effective Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.; Janusis, Grace M.

    2011-01-01

    School-related difficulties are commonly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article describes effective school-based intervention strategies including behavioral interventions, modifications to academic instruction, and home-school communication programs. One overlooked aspect of treatment of children with ADHD…

  13. Motivating Intervention Strategies to Increase Homework Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amerine, Melissa; Pender, Lisa; Schuler, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this action research project was to increase homework completion through the use of motivating strategies. There were approximately 75 students, 100 parents, and three teacher researchers involved in this study. The three intervention strategies used were 15 minutes of class time, extrinsic rewards, and assignment notebook checks.…

  14. Intervention strategies for control of foodborne pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juneja, Vijay K.

    2004-03-01

    The increasing numbers of illnesses associated with foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7, has renewed concerns about food safety because of consumer preferences for minimally processed foods that offer convenience in availability and preparation. Accordingly, the need for better control of foodborne pathogens has been paramount in recent years. Mechanical removal of microorganisms from food can be accomplished by centrifugation, filtration, trimming and washing. Cleaning and sanitation strategies can be used for minimizing the access of microorganisms in foods from various sources. Other strategies for control of foodborne pathogens include established physical microbiocidal treatments such as ionizing radiation and heating. Research has continued to demonstrate that food irradiation is a suitable process to control and possibly eliminate foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7, from a number of raw and cooked meat and poultry products. Heat treatment is the most common method in use today for the inactivation of microorganisms. Microorganisms can also be destroyed by nonthermal treatments, such as application of high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, oscillating magnetic fields or a combination of physical processes such as heat-irradiation, or heat-high hydrostatic pressure, etc. Each of the non-thermal technologies has specific applications in terms of the types of food that can be processed. Both conventional and newly developed physical treatments can be used in combination for controlling foodborne pathogens and enhancing the safety and shelf life of foods. Recent research has focused on combining traditional preservation factors with emerging intervention technologies. However, many key issues still need to be addressed for combination preservation factors or technologies to be useful in the food industry to meet public demands for foods with enhanced safety

  15. Strategies of Intervention with Public Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaneles, Sol, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews intervention strategies with public offenders, including learning therapy, education, group assertive training, and the use of volunteers. The l0 articles deal with inmates' rights in terms of health care and psychotherapy, and evaluation of social programs, and a psychodrama program description/model. (JAC)

  16. Senescent Swallowing: Impact, Strategies and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Ney, Denise; Weiss, Jennifer; Kind, Amy; Robbins, JoAnne

    2010-01-01

    The risk for disordered oropharyngeal swallowing (dysphagia) increases with age. Loss of swallowing function can have devastating health implications including dehydration, malnutrition, and pneumonia, as well as reduced quality of life. Age-related changes place older adults at risk for dysphagia for two major reasons: One is that natural, healthy aging takes its toll on head and neck anatomy and physiologic and neural mechanisms underpinning swallowing function. This progression of change contributes to alterations in the swallowing in healthy older adults and is termed presbyphagia, naturally diminishing functional reserve. Second, disease prevalence increases with age and dysphagia is a co-morbidity of many age-related diseases and/or their treatments. Sensory changes, medication, sarcopenia and age-related diseases are discussed herein. Relatively recent findings that health complications are associated with dysphagia are presented. Nutrient requirements, fluid intake and nutritional assessment for older adults are reviewed relative to their relations to dysphagia. Dysphagia screening and the pros and cons of tube feeding as a solution are discussed. Optimal intervention strategies for elders with dysphagia ranging from compensatory interventions to more rigorous exercise approaches are presented. Compelling evidence of improved functional swallowing and eating outcomes resulting from active rehabilitation focusing on increasing strength of head and neck musculature is provided. In summary, while oropharyngeal dysphagia may be life-threatening, so are some of the traditional alternatives, particularly for frail, elderly patients. While the state of the evidence calls for more research, this review indicates the behavioral, dietary and environmental modifications emerging in this past decade are compassionate, promising and in many cases preferred alternatives to the always present option of tube feeding. PMID:19483069

  17. Where to Next for School Playground Interventions to Encourage Active Play? An Exploration of Structured and Unstructured School Playground Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyndman, Brendon

    2015-01-01

    An emerging public health priority is to enhance children's opportunities for active play. Children spend a large proportion of weekdays in schools, making schools an influential and suitable setting to promote children's active play. Rather than continually increasing the burdens placed upon busy teaching staff, the use of school playground…

  18. Physical Activity Interventions in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Ribeiro, Isabela C.; Parra, Diana C.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Azevedo, Mario R.; Hino, Adriano A.; Soares, Jesus; Hallal, Pedro C.; Simões, Eduardo J.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2013-01-01

    Context Systematic reviews of public health interventions are useful for identifying effective strategies for informing policy and practice. The goals of this review were to (1) update a previous systematic review of physical activity interventions in Latin America which found that only school-based physical education had sufficient evidence to recommend widespread adoption; (2) assess the reporting of external validity elements; and (3) develop and apply an evidence typology for classifying interventions. Evidence acquisition In 2010–2011, community-level, physical activity intervention studies from Latin America were identified, categorized, and screened based on the peer-reviewed literature or Brazilian theses published between 2006 and 2010. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were evaluated using U.S. Community Guide methods. External validity reporting was assessed among a subset of articles reviewed to date. An evidence rating typology was developed and applied to classify interventions along a continuum based on evidence about their effectiveness in the U.S. context, reach, adoption, implementation, institutionalization, and benefits and costs. Evidence synthesis Thirteen articles published between 2006 and 2010 met inclusion criteria and were abstracted systematically, yet when combined with evidence from articles from the previous systematic review, no additional interventions could be recommended for practice. Moreover, the reporting of external validity elements was low among a subset of 19 studies published to date (median=21% of elements reported). By applying the expanded evidence rating typology, one intervention was classified as evidence-based, seven as promising, and one as emerging. Conclusions Several physical activity interventions have been identified as promising for future research and implementation in Latin America. Enhanced reporting of external validity elements will inform the translation of research into practice. PMID:23415133

  19. Biobehavioral Intervention for Cancer Stress: Conceptualization, Components, and Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Golden-Kreutz, Deanna M.; Emery, Charles F.; Thiel, Debora L.

    2009-01-01

    Trials testing the efficacy of psychological interventions for cancer patients had their beginnings in the 1970s. Since then, hundreds of trials have found interventions to be generally efficacious. In this article, we describe an intervention grounded in a conceptual model that includes psychological, behavioral, and biological components. It is…

  20. Intervention strategies for children: a research agenda.

    PubMed Central

    Roghmann, K J

    1985-01-01

    This background review has attempted to pinpoint problems and issues of intervention strategies to promote health among children. Some traditional interventions as they are now provided in preventive service packages, for example, are critically assessed; new interventions like neonatal intensive care, prenatal diagnosis, periconceptional vitamin supplementation, and nutritional supplementation during later pregnancy are welcome; supportive outreach services through nurse home visitors to bring proved technologies to those in greatest need, while they may not be new have shown renewed effectiveness. Recently recognized problems like the "new morbidity," and newly recognized prevention potentials like the great prospects for accident prevention, adequate school health programs, and special adolescent care programs are promising areas for preventive services effectiveness. We do not claim that a comprehensive list has been presented. Rather, an attempt has been made to challenge some traditional preventive techniques, e.g., preoperative x-rays, to stimulate thinking about new organizational forms of care delivery, and to keep an open agenda. As a result, the reader will feel a "lack of closure"--challenges without definitive answers. The general assertion is that personal preventive care is only weakly related to health and that preventive care delivery is not a simple technical problem. Let me summarize the main points. First, the lack of evidence and comprehensiveness. Other reviews of preventive care packages could have been discussed. The presentation by Fielding [164] in the Institute of Medicine's background papers to Healthy People also includes service listings for pregnant women, normal infants, preschool children, schoolchildren, and adolescents. The Lifetime Health-Monitoring program by Breslow and Somers [165] set goals and services that have already become practice patterns for large parts of the country. Many more cost-effectiveness studies of

  1. Cultural relevance of physical activity intervention research with underrepresented populations

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Chan, Keith; Banks, JoAnne; Ruppar, Todd M.; Scharff, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes cultural relevance in physical activity intervention research with underrepresented populations. Seventy-one extant studies which tested interventions to increase physical activity among underrepresented adults were included. Verbatim descriptions of efforts to enhance cultural relevance of study designs and interventions were extracted and then content analyzed. We found strategies to enhance cultural relevance of interventions as soliciting input from population members, linking intervention content with values, addressing language and literacy challenges, incorporating population media figures, using culturally relevant forms of physical activity, and addressing specific population linked barriers to activity. Methodological approaches included specialized recruitment and study locations, culturally relevant measures, underrepresented personnel, and cost-awareness study procedures to prevent fiscal barriers to participation. Most reported activities were surface matching. Existing research neither compared the effectiveness of cultural relevance approaches to standardized interventions nor addressed economic, education, geographic, or cultural heterogeneity among groups. PMID:25228486

  2. Effect of a 4-year workplace-based physical activity intervention program on the blood lipid profiles of participating employees: the high-risk and population strategy for occupational health promotion (HIPOP-OHP) study.

    PubMed

    Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Takeo; Okamura, Tomonori; Miura, Katsuyuki; Yanagita, Masahiko; Fujieda, Yoshiharu; Kinoshita, Fujihisa; Naito, Yoshihiko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Tanaka, Taichiro; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2008-04-01

    Individuals who are physically fit or engage in regular physical activity have a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and risk of mortality. We conducted a large-scale controlled trial of interventions to decrease cardiovascular risk factors, during which we assessed the effect of a workplace-based intervention program, which was part of a population strategy for promoting long-term increases in physical activity, on the blood lipid profiles of participating employees. Data were collected from 2929 participants and this report presents the results of a survey conducted in five factories for the intervention group and five factories for the control group at baseline and year 5. The absolute/proportional changes in HDL-cholesterol were 2.7 mg/dL (4.8%) in the intervention group and -0.6 mg/dL (-1.0%) in the control group. The differences between the two groups in the change in serum levels of HDL-cholesterol were highly significant (p<0.001) in each analysis of covariance, in which the number of cigarettes smoked was included or excluded. In the intervention group, the daily walking time increased significantly (p<0.001) when compared between baseline and year 5, whereas no significant difference was observed in daily walking time in the control group over the identical period. Our results show that an intervention program promoting physical activity raises serum HDL-cholesterol levels of middle-aged employees. Increased awareness of the benefits of physical activity, using environmental rearrangement and health promotion campaigns, which especially target walking, may have contributed to a beneficial change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in the participants. PMID:17868680

  3. Marketing and Early Intervention Strategies To Increase Female Enrollment in Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehrlein, Joyce J.

    A series of marketing and early intervention strategies were developed to increase female enrollment in technology education (TE) in a New Jersey township with residents of all social classes/income levels. Among the main project activities were the following: (1) development of a comprehensive curriculum intervention called Technology Education…

  4. Acute behavioral interventions and outpatient treatment strategies with suicidal adolescents

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kimberly H. McManama; Singer, Jonathan B.; LeCloux, Mary; Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents, there is limited knowledge of effective interventions to use with this population. This paper reviews the findings of studies on behavioral interventions for adolescents who are at acute suicide risk, as well as outpatient treatment and risk management strategies with suicidal adolescents. The importance of addressing comorbid behaviors and enhancing protective factors are discussed. Cultural considerations in working with suicidal adolescents and strategies for conducting culturally competent treatment are explored. PMID:26279646

  5. Intervention Strategies with the Homeless Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykeman, Bruce F.

    2011-01-01

    A literature review describing psychological and sociological factors of homelessness. Methods of estimating the frequency of homelessness are described, along with recent point-in-time and period-of-time estimates. Models of service delivery are reviewed. A biopsychosocial model of intervention is proposed that describes stages of intervention…

  6. Strategy of Career Interventions for Battered Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Joshua C.

    2011-01-01

    Female victims of domestic violence--also referred to as "battered women"--face serious career development challenges that necessitate the intervention and aid of human resource development (HRD) practice.The purpose of this article is to identify critical factors having an impact on the career development (CD) of battered women and to offer…

  7. Early Intervention Provider Use of Child Caregiver-Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Philippa H.; Coletti, Catherine Ehret

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which multidiscipline early intervention providers identified and demonstrated caregiver-teaching strategies. A total of 78 providers submitted 205 videotaped segments to illustrate 1 of 5 caregiver-teaching strategies (i.e., demonstration; caregiver practice with feedback; guided practice;…

  8. Specific strategies: interventions for identified problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Reed, S A

    1990-12-01

    Negativism, complaining, underachievement, game playing, passive-aggressive behavior, and workaholism constitute a repertoire of problem employee behaviors that impact on the productivity and morale of the work environment. Responding appropriately to the employee who presents with any of these behaviors is a formidable challenge to the nurse manager. Understanding the etiology of unmet needs, psychosocial dynamics (as discussed in Chapter 1) and variety of interventions can empower the nurse manager to achieve success in these difficult interactions. PMID:2081113

  9. Intervention Strategies for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; White, George P.

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe three types of ADHD behavior that affect from 3 percent to 7 percent of elementary school children, mostly boys. They recommend supplementing stimulant medication with behavior modification strategies, at home and school, to improve ADHD students' social skills and school performance.

  10. Update: intervention strategies for producing safe sprouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are still foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls due to pathogen contaminated sprouts. Contaminated seeds, used for sprouting, are considered the main source of the problem. A review of seed contamination strategies, both chemical and non-thermal, will be presented. The chemical in...

  11. Adolescent Vaccination Strategies: Interventions to Increase Coverage.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Corinne E; Brady, Rebecca C; Battley, Reuben O; Huggins, Jennifer L

    2016-08-01

    While vaccines have decreased the burden of disease, many adolescents still remain under-immunized, particularly for human papillomavirus (HPV) and influenza. We review the most current data regarding adolescent immunizations in the United States and discuss proven strategies that work for increasing vaccination rates. Strategies that have been shown to improve rates include provider feedback, immunization information systems (or registries), and enhanced access outside of provider offices, such as school-based immunization programs. Overall, practices may want to consider multimodal quality improvement approaches to enhance practice vaccination rates. The public health and cost benefits of immunizing adolescents are well known, yet recent measles outbreaks in the United States have highlighted issues with state immunization laws and vaccine refusals. Providers should be clear in their advice regarding vaccines and use effective reminder strategies as parents commonly cite not having enough information or knowledge that a vaccine was needed for their adolescent. Additional research is needed regarding adolescent consent for vaccines, as well as adolescent and parental refusal, in order to design systems that will help inform families and allow for widespread vaccine availability. PMID:27146296

  12. Vascular grafting strategies in coronary intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Darryl; Gillies, Elizabeth; Mequanint, Kibret

    2014-06-01

    With the growing need for coronary revascularizations globally, several strategies to restore blood flow to the heart have been explored. Bypassing the atherosclerotic coronary arteries with autologous grafts, synthetic prostheses and tissue-engineered vascular grafts continue to be evaluated in search of a readily available vascular graft with clinically acceptable outcomes. The development of such a vascular graft including tissue engineering approaches both in situ and in vitro is herein reviewed, facilitating a detailed comparison on the role of seeded cells in vascular graft patency.

  13. Dynamic Simulation of Crime Perpetration and Reporting to Examine Community Intervention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Yonas, Michael A.; Burke, Jessica G.; Brown, Shawn T.; Borrebach, Jeffrey D.; Garland, Richard; Burke, Donald S.; Grefenstette, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Develop a conceptual computational agent-based model (ABM) to explore community-wide versus spatially focused crime reporting interventions to reduce community crime perpetrated by youth. Methods Agents within the model represent individual residents and interact on a two-dimensional grid representing an abstract community. Juvenile agents are assigned initial random probabilities of perpetrating a crime and adults are assigned random probabilities of witnessing and reporting crimes. The agents’ behavioral probabilities modify depending upon the individual’s experience with criminal behavior and punishment, and exposure community crime interventions. Cost-effectiveness analyses assessed the impact of activating different percentages of adults to increase reporting and reduce community crime activity. Community-wide interventions were compared with spatially focused interventions, in which activated adults were focused in areas of highest crime prevalence. Results The ABM suggests that both community-wide and spatially focused interventions can be effective in reducing overall offenses, but their relative effectiveness may depend on the intensity and cost of the interventions. While spatially focused intervention yielded localized reductions in crimes, such interventions were shown to move crime to nearby communities. Community-wide interventions can achieve larger reductions in overall community crime offenses than spatially focused interventions, as long as sufficient resources are available. Conclusion The ABM demonstrates that community-wide and spatially focused crime strategies produce unique intervention dynamics influencing juvenile crime behaviors through the decisions and actions of community adults. It shows how such models might be used to investigate community-supported crime intervention programs by integrating community input and expertise and provides a simulated setting for assessing dimensions of cost comparison and intervention

  14. Intervention strategies for students with ADHD: creating a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Damico, S K; Armstrong, M B

    1996-02-01

    An overview of therapy approaches commonly used by speech-language pathologists with students having ADHD and their primary intervention responsibilities with these students is presented. Several strategies for establishing the kinds of learning contexts necessary for success are described, which emphasize the importance of empowering students in meaningful and relevant contexts. Five major intervention strategies for working with ADHD students are reviewed briefly--modifying learning environments, pharmacological therapy, behavioral management, cognitive-behavior modification, and classroom academic management--and detailed references for each are provided. PMID:8857363

  15. Strategy as active waiting.

    PubMed

    Sull, Donald N

    2005-09-01

    Successful executives who cut their teeth in stable industries or in developed countries often stumble when they face more volatile markets. They falter, in part, because they assume they can gaze deep into the future and develop a long-term strategy that will confer a sustainable competitive advantage. But visibility into the future of volatile markets is sharply limited because so many different variables are in play. Factors such as technological innovation, customers' evolving needs, government policy, and changes in the capital markets interact with one another to create unexpected outcomes. Over the past six years, Donald Sull, an associate professor at London Business School, has led a research project examining some of the world's most volatile markets, from national markets like China and Brazil to industries like enterprise software, telecommunications, and airlines. One of the most striking findings from this research is the importance of taking action during comparative lulls in the storm. Huge business opportunities are relatively rare; they come along only once or twice in a decade. And, for the most part, companies can't manufacture those opportunities; changes in the external environment converge to make them happen. What managers can do is prepare for these golden opportunities by managing smart during the comparative calm of business as usual. During these periods of active waiting, leaders must probe the future and remain alert to anomalies that signal potential threats or opportunities; exercise restraint to preserve their war chests; and maintain discipline to keep the troops battle ready. When a golden opportunity or"sudden death"threat emerges, managers must have the courage to declare the main effort and concentrate resources to seize the moment. PMID:16171216

  16. Self-Regulated Assignment Attack Strategy: Evaluating the Effects of a Classroom-Level Intervention on Student Management of Curricular Activities in a Resource Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Bryan M.; Sohlberg, McKay Moore

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a classroom-based strategy instruction package grounded in self-regulated learning. The Self-Regulated Assignment Attack Strategy (SAAS) targeted self-regulation of assignment management and related academic-behavioral variables for 6th grade students in resource support classrooms. SAAS was…

  17. Group Play Interventions for Children: Strategies for Teaching Prosocial Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Group play interventions are used to meet a broad range of developmental needs in children from various backgrounds. This book is for mental health practitioners working with children aged 5 through 12 to help them learn important social skills and self-control strategies such as making friends, asking for and offering help, controlling hands and…

  18. Prereferral Intervention Strategies to Reduce Referrals to Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajayi, Eniola D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the impact of specific prereferral intervention strategies on the reduction of referrals to special education among identified 39 second-grade students from an elementary school in one public school district in New Jersey. A mixed research methodology incorporating quantitative and…

  19. Effects of Preschool Intervention Strategies on School Readiness in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Nelson, Regena F.; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2015-01-01

    Using hierarchical linear modeling, the present study aimed to examine whether targeted intervention strategies implemented individually during a preschool program exhibited any short-term and long-term effects on children's school readiness in kindergarten, utilizing data gathered through the Supporting Partnerships to Assure Ready Kids…

  20. Food Sensitivities: Education and Intervention Strategies for the Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, David M.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the etiology of food sensitivities and their relationship to the counseling profession and presents practical counseling strategies for intervention and remediation. Includes sections on the client predicament, stimulatory and withdrawal symptoms, identifying food addiction, psychosocial factors, a case study, and a conclusion.…

  1. Intervention Strategies for Pre-School Students with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Gloria H.

    2010-01-01

    Students with special needs require unique intervention strategies as they enter infant care and preschool environments. The techniques and materials discussed in this paper are designed especially for the child's unique abilities and disabilities. This paper will also focus on the skills needed for infants who have been identified as requiring…

  2. Constructing the effect of alternative intervention strategies on historic epidemics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from historical epidemics provide a vital and sometimes under-used resource from which to devise strategies for future control of disease. Previous methods for retrospective analysis of epidemics, in which alternative interventions are compared, do not make full use of the information; by using...

  3. Novel Interventional Strategies for the Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Siontis, Konstantinos C; Oral, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The landscape of the invasive management of atrial fibrillation, the most common sustained arrhythmia in humans, has changed dramatically in the last decade owing to numerous advances in arrhythmia mapping and ablation technologies. The current review critically appraises novel interventional strategies for the treatment of atrial fibrillation with a focus on clinical effectiveness and safety. PMID:27403294

  4. Partnership as an Intervention Strategy in Self-Managing Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timperley, Helen S.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes strategy used by New Zealand Ministry of Education to intervene in 26 self-managing schools by developing a partnership with the schools and their communities. Documents difficulties encountered in the first phase (year one) of the intervention and the successes of the second phase (year two). (Contains 1 figure, 3 tables, and 27…

  5. Immune Activation and HIV Persistence: Considerations for Novel Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Hiroyu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review One of the potential barriers to current HIV cure strategies is the persistence of elevated levels of immune activation despite otherwise effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). The purpose of this review is to examine the relationship between immune activation and HIV persistence, and to review novel therapeutic interventions that are currently being pursued to target immune activation in treated HIV disease. Recent findings Multiple groups have consistently observed that elevated levels of inflammation, immune activation, and immune dysfunction persist in ART-treated individuals, despite successful suppression of plasma viremia. Increased immune activation may lead to viral persistence through multiple mechanisms. Several novel interventions aimed at decreasing persistent immune activation are being pursued and include studies aimed at decreasing low-level viral replication, approaches aimed at decreasing microbial translocation, interventions to treat co-infections, and therapies that directly target immune activation. Summary There appears to be a clear and consistent relationship between immune activation and viral persistence in treated HIV disease. Whether this relationship is causal or mediated through other mechanisms is still unknown. Small-scale, pathogenesis-oriented interventional studies are necessary to further evaluate this relationship and the effect of potential interventions. PMID:23454864

  6. Behavioral economics strategies for promoting adherence to sleep interventions.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jack

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia and continuous positive airway pressure therapy for obstructive sleep apnea are among the most efficacious sleep interventions. Unfortunately, adherence levels are disappointingly low for these interventions. Behavioral economics offers a promising framework for promoting adherence, often through relatively brief and straightforward strategies. The assumptions, goals, and key strategies of behavioral economics will be introduced. These strategies include providing social norms information, changing defaults, using the compromise effect, utilizing commitment devices, and establishing lottery-based systems. Then, this review will highlight specific behavioral economic approaches to promote patient adherence for three major sleep interventions: 1) behavioral treatment for pediatric insomnia, 2) cognitive-behavioral treatment for adult insomnia, and 3) continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnea. Next, behavioral economic strategies will be discussed as ways to improve health care provider adherence to clinical practice guidelines regarding appropriate prescribing of hypnotics and ordering sleep-promoting practices for hospitalized inpatients. Finally, possible concerns that readers may have about behavioral economics strategies, including their efficacy, feasibility, and sustainability, will be addressed. PMID:25645127

  7. Exploring Effective Strategies for Increasing the Amount of Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity Children Accumulate during Recess: A Quasi-Experimental Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efrat, Merav W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Less than half of elementary children meet the physical activity recommendations of 30 to 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on a daily basis. Recess provides the single biggest opportunity for children to accumulate MVPA. This study explored whether a teacher's social prompting to be active during recess…

  8. Spatial Analysis in Support of Community Health Intervention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Eric S.; South, Andrew P.; Jones, David E.; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Huo, Shuyan; Liu, Lin; Greenberg, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Using vital records and census data representing 165,136 singleton births from 2003–2006, geospatial filtering and density estimates enabled the calculation of preterm birth rates at each geographical point within three urban Ohio counties. Adjusted attributable risk calculations were used to identify risk factors associated with regions of high and low rates of preterm birth. Among the three counties, affected populations varied in size as well as in demographic composition. Variation in the risk factors from one region to another suggests that a single one size fits all intervention strategy would be unlikely to efficiently or effectively impact the complex preterm birth problem. Although more useful in areas with a heterogeneous distribution of preterm birth, application of the presented approach supports the development of efficient community-level health intervention strategies by identifying communities with the highest potential impact and allowing for the prioritization of efforts on specific risk factors within those communities. PMID:23304301

  9. Intervention strategies for reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood: a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Li, Min; Li, Yanbin

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaeomolyticus, a natural inhabitant in estuarine marine water, has been frequently isolated from seafood. It has been recognized as the leading causative agent for seafoodborne illness all over the world. Numerous physical, chemical, and biological intervention methods for reducing V. parahaeomolyticus in seafood products have been investigated and practiced. Each intervention method has distinct advantages and disadvantages depending on the processing needs and consumer preference. This review provides a comprehensive overview of various intervention strategies for reducing V. parahaeomolyticus in seafood with an emphasis on the efficiency of bacterial inactivation treatments and the changes in sensory qualities of seafood. In the meantime, reported researches on alternative technologies which have shown effectiveness to inactivate V. parahaemolyticus in seawater and other food products, but not directly in seafood are also included. The successful applications of appropriate intervention strategies could effectively reduce or eliminate the contamination of V. parahaeomolyticus in seafood, and consequently contribute to the improvement of seafood safety and the reduction of public health risk. PMID:25472618

  10. Integrative Review of Nurse-Delivered Physical Activity Interventions in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Richards, Elizabeth A; Cai, Yun

    2016-04-01

    Promotion of physical activity has been a public health priority for decades. The purpose of this integrative review is to examine the effectiveness of nurse-delivered physical activity interventions conducted in primary care settings. Computerized database and ancestry search strategies located distinct intervention trials between 1990 and 2014. Nineteen national and international studies with 7,350 participants were reviewed. The most common intervention was physical activity counseling with supportive or motivational contacts. Few studies utilized exercise training, device-based exercise monitoring, or exercise prescriptions. The most common follow-up durations were 3 to 12 months. Half the studies integrated health behavior theoretical frameworks into the intervention. Almost 80% of the studies reported significant increases in walking, moderate or vigorous physical activity, or overall physical activity in the intervention groups. Interventions successful in increasing physical activity most often utilized tailored techniques such as providing "stage of change"-specific strategies or helping patients set individualized goals. PMID:25903812

  11. Strategies to address weight-based victimization: youths' preferred support interventions from classmates, teachers, and parents.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Luedicke, Joerg

    2013-03-01

    Weight-Based Victimization is a frequent experience for adolescents who are overweight or obese, and is associated with numerous psychosocial and physical consequences for those who are targets of victimization. Assessing targets` preferences for different types of support and intervention has been absent in the context of weight-based victimization, but is needed to help inform potential interventions, motivate action, and identify strategies to help adolescents cope with experiences of weight-related teasing or bullying. Adolescents (14-18 years, N = 361, 40 % female, 71 % Caucasian) enrolled in national weight-loss camps completed an on-line survey. Participants who reported previous experiences of weight-based victimization were surveyed about their preferred interventions from peers, friends, teachers, Physical Education (PE) teachers/coaches, and parents. Participants indicated their preferences for specific strategies pertaining to target support, bullying intervention and prevention (e.g., inclusion in peer activities, confronting the bully, telling an adult, and improving anti-bullying policies). Friends (66 %) and peers (58 %) were the most highly preferred intervention agents followed by teachers (55 %), PE teachers/coaches (44 %), and parents (43 %). Participants who experienced more weight-based victimization expressed increased desire for intervention. The frequency of victimization, social support from friends and family, and perceived likelihood and helpfulness of intervention significantly influenced participant preferences for certain types of intervention, although preferences were generally consistent across participants' characteristics. The current study is the first to document youth's preferences for interventions in response to weight-based victimization. The findings have important implications for encouraging appropriate intervention and informing bystanders, which may help to reduce the prevalence, recurrence, and consequences for youth

  12. Effectiveness of intervention strategies exclusively targeting reductions in children's sedentary time: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Altenburg, Teatske M; Kist-van Holthe, Joana; Chinapaw, Mai J M

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of interventions targeting sedentary behaviour in children have emerged in recent years. Recently published reviews included sedentary behaviour and physical activity interventions. This review critically summarizes evidence on the effectiveness of intervention strategies that exclusively targeted reducing sedentary time in children and adolescents. We performed a systematic literature search in Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library through November 2015. Two independent reviewers selected eligible studies, extracted relevant data and rated the methodological quality using the assessment tool for quantitative studies. We included 21 intervention studies, of which 8 studies scored moderate on methodological quality and 13 studies scored weak. Four out of eight moderate quality studies reported significant beneficial intervention effects.Although descriptions of intervention strategies were not always clearly reported, we identified encouragement of a TV turnoff week and implementing standing desks in classrooms as promising strategies. Due to a lack of high quality studies and inconsistent findings, we found no convincing evidence for the effectiveness of existing interventions targeting solely sedentary behaviour. We recommend that future studies apply mediation analyses to explore which strategies are most effective. Furthermore, to increase the effectiveness of interventions, knowledge of children's motives to engage in sedentary behavior is required, as well as their opinion on potentially effective intervention strategies. PMID:27276873

  13. Health Care Provider Physical Activity Prescription Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josyula, Lakshmi; Lyle, Roseann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the feasibility and impact of a health care provider’s (HCP) physical activity (PA) prescription on the PA of patients on preventive care visits. Methods: Consenting adult patients completed health and PA questionnaires and were sequentially assigned to intervention groups. HCPs prescribed PA using a written prescription only…

  14. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  15. The Positive Effect on Determinants of Physical Activity of a Tailored, General Practice-Based Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Sluijs, E. M. F.; Van Poppel, M. N. M.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Brug, J.; Van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    PACE (Physician-based Assessment and Counseling for Exercise) is an individualized theory-based minimal intervention strategy aimed at the enhancement of regular physical activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a PACE intervention applied by general practitioners (GPs) on potential determinants of physical activity. A…

  16. Determining Disease Intervention Strategies Using Spatially Resolved Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Read, Mark; Andrews, Paul S.; Timmis, Jon; Williams, Richard A.; Greaves, Richard B.; Sheng, Huiming; Coles, Mark; Kumar, Vipin

    2013-01-01

    Predicting efficacy and optimal drug delivery strategies for small molecule and biological therapeutics is challenging due to the complex interactions between diverse cell types in different tissues that determine disease outcome. Here we present a new methodology to simulate inflammatory disease manifestation and test potential intervention strategies in silico using agent-based computational models. Simulations created using this methodology have explicit spatial and temporal representations, and capture the heterogeneous and stochastic cellular behaviours that lead to emergence of pathology or disease resolution. To demonstrate this methodology we have simulated the prototypic murine T cell-mediated autoimmune disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. In the simulation immune cell dynamics, neuronal damage and tissue specific pathology emerge, closely resembling behaviour found in the murine model. Using the calibrated simulation we have analysed how changes in the timing and efficacy of T cell receptor signalling inhibition leads to either disease exacerbation or resolution. The technology described is a powerful new method to understand cellular behaviours in complex inflammatory disease, permits rational design of drug interventional strategies and has provided new insights into the role of TCR signalling in autoimmune disease progression. PMID:24244694

  17. Essential interventions: implementation strategies and proposed packages of care.

    PubMed

    Lassi, Zohra S; Kumar, Rohail; Mansoor, Tarab; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to accelerate progress towards achieving Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 and 5, provision of essential reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) interventions is being considered. Not only should a state-of-the-art approach be taken for services delivered to the mother, neonate and to the child, but services must also be deployed across the household to hospital continuum of care approach and in the form of packages. The paper proposed several packages for improved maternal, newborn and child health that can be delivered across RMNCH continuum of care. These packages include: supportive care package for women to promote awareness related to healthy pre-pregnancy and pregnancy interventions; nutritional support package for mother to improve supplementation of essential nutrients and micronutrients; antenatal care package to detect, treat and manage infectious and noninfectious diseases and promote immunization; high risk care package to manage preeclampsia and eclampsia in pregnancy; childbirth package to promote support during labor and importance of skilled birth attendance during labor; essential newborn care package to support healthy newborn care practices; and child health care package to prevent and manage infections. This paper further discussed the implementation strategies for employing these interventions at scale. PMID:25178110

  18. Essential interventions: implementation strategies and proposed packages of care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to accelerate progress towards achieving Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 and 5, provision of essential reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) interventions is being considered. Not only should a state-of-the-art approach be taken for services delivered to the mother, neonate and to the child, but services must also be deployed across the household to hospital continuum of care approach and in the form of packages. The paper proposed several packages for improved maternal, newborn and child health that can be delivered across RMNCH continuum of care. These packages include: supportive care package for women to promote awareness related to healthy pre-pregnancy and pregnancy interventions; nutritional support package for mother to improve supplementation of essential nutrients and micronutrients; antenatal care package to detect, treat and manage infectious and noninfectious diseases and promote immunization; high risk care package to manage preeclampsia and eclampsia in pregnancy; childbirth package to promote support during labor and importance of skilled birth attendance during labor; essential newborn care package to support healthy newborn care practices; and child health care package to prevent and manage infections. This paper further discussed the implementation strategies for employing these interventions at scale. PMID:25178110

  19. Identifying and Evaluating the Therapeutic Strategies Used During a Manualized Self- Advocacy Intervention for Transition-Age Youth.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Jessica M

    2015-01-01

    Prior to undertaking randomized control trials, pilot research should ensure that an intervention's active ingredients are operationalized in manuals or protocols. This study identified the strategies facilitators reported to use during the implementation of a problem-solving self-advocacy intervention, Project "Teens making Environment and Activity Modifications" (TEAM), with transition-age youth with developmental disabilities, and evaluated the alignment of strategies with the intervention's hypothesized mechanisms of change. An iterative process was used to conduct a content analysis of 106 field notes completed by six facilitators. Facilitators used 19 strategies. Findings suggest that facilitators used strategies simultaneously to ensure universal design for learning, maximize relevance for individual trainees, and maintain a safe and encouraging environment. Facilitators can individualize Project TEAM in a way that operationalizes the mechanisms of change underlying Project TEAM. The quality of the intervention may improve by explicitly incorporating these strategies into the intervention protocol. The strategies may also be applicable to therapists implementing interventions informed, by similar theoretical propositions. PMID:26069464

  20. Strategy for accurate liver intervention by an optical tracking system

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qinyong; Yang, Rongqian; Cai, Ken; Guan, Peifeng; Xiao, Weihu; Wu, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Image-guided navigation for radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors requires the accurate guidance of needle insertion into a tumor target. The main challenge of image-guided navigation for radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors is the occurrence of liver deformations caused by respiratory motion. This study reports a strategy of real-time automatic registration to track custom fiducial markers glued onto the surface of a patient’s abdomen to find the respiratory phase, in which the static preoperative CT is performed. Custom fiducial markers are designed. Real-time automatic registration method consists of the automatic localization of custom fiducial markers in the patient and image spaces. The fiducial registration error is calculated in real time and indicates if the current respiratory phase corresponds to the phase of the static preoperative CT. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed strategy, a liver simulator is constructed and two volunteers are involved in the preliminary experiments. An ex-vivo porcine liver model is employed to further verify the strategy for liver intervention. Experimental results demonstrate that real-time automatic registration method is rapid, accurate, and feasible for capturing the respiratory phase from which the static preoperative CT anatomical model is generated by tracking the movement of the skin-adhered custom fiducial markers. PMID:26417501

  1. Classroom acoustics and intervention strategies to enhance the learning environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Christal

    The classroom environment can be an acoustically difficult atmosphere for students to learn effectively, sometimes due in part to poor acoustical properties. Noise and reverberation have a substantial influence on room acoustics and subsequently intelligibility of speech. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA, 1995) developed minimal standards for noise and reverberation in a classroom for the purpose of providing an adequate listening environment. A lack of adherence to these standards may have undesirable consequences, which may lead to poor academic performance. The purpose of this capstone project is to develop a protocol to measure the acoustical properties of reverberation time and noise levels in elementary classrooms and present the educators with strategies to improve the learning environment. Noise level and reverberation will be measured and recorded in seven, unoccupied third grade classrooms in Lincoln Parish in North Louisiana. The recordings will occur at six specific distances in the classroom to simulate teacher and student positions. The recordings will be compared to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association standards for noise and reverberation. If discrepancies are observed, the primary investigator will serve as an auditory consultant for the school and educators to recommend remediation and intervention strategies to improve these acoustical properties. The hypothesis of the study is that the classroom acoustical properties of noise and reverberation will exceed the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association standards; therefore, the auditory consultant will provide strategies to improve those acoustical properties.

  2. Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies" (PALS) is a peer-tutoring instructional program that supplements the primary reading curriculum. Pairs of students work together on reading activities intended to improve reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Students in the pairs--who alternately take on the roles of tutor and tutee--read aloud, listen…

  3. Governance strategies for conducting text messaging interventions in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nicholas; Morrison, Caitlin; Griffin, Jonathan; Reiter, William; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Edwards, Kelly

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing interest in medical text messaging interventions being used to achieve positive patient outcomes across a range of clinical research and health practice environments. Short messaging service (SMS) is a low-cost tool that provides an easy communication route to engage potentially broad populations through text messaging, and is part of the growing social trend toward increased adoption of personal communication technologies by patient populations. Testing the effectiveness and impact of various communication strategies requires navigation of a complex web of clinical and research regulations and oversight mechanisms. We describe a case study of the implementation of SMS to provide bidirectional communications between physicians and patients involved in routine care reminders to illustrate the review processes and governance structures needed. By mapping the regulatory and approval processes required to manage and steward a research study across clinical and community boundaries, we provide a guide for other translational health researchers who may utilize similar kinds of personally owned technology interventions as research tools. PMID:24774328

  4. Epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease: occurrence, determinants, and strategies toward intervention

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Chengxuan; Kivipelto, Miia; von Strauss, Eva

    2009-01-01

    More than 25 million people in the world today are affected by dementia, most suffering from Alzheimer's disease. In both developed and developing nations, Alzheimer's disease has had tremendous impact on the affected individuals, caregivers, and society. The etiological factors, other than older age and genetic susceptibility, remain to be determined. Nevertheless, increasing evidence strongly points to the potential risk roles of vascular risk factors and disorders (eg, cigarette smoking, midlife high blood pressure and obesity, diabetes, and cerebrovascular lesions) and the possible beneficial roles of psychosocial factors (eg, high education, active social engagement, physical exercise, and mentally stimulating activity) in the pathogenetic process and clinical manifestation of the dementing disorders. The long-term multidomain interventions toward the optimal control of multiple vascular risk factors and the maintenance of socially integrated lifestyles and mentally stimulating activities are expected to reduce the risk or postpone the clinical onset of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19585947

  5. Communicative Alternatives to Challenging Behavior: Integrating Functional Assessment and Intervention Strategies. Volume 3. Communication and Language Intervention Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichle, Joe, Ed.; Wacker, David P., Ed.

    Emphasizing the use of communication training as the foundation for effective behavioral programming, this book explains how challenging behavior can be redirected into socially acceptable behavior through functional communication intervention. The book offers hands-on assessment and intervention strategies that can be used in school, home, work,…

  6. Targeted intervention strategies to optimise diversion of BMW in the Dublin, Ireland region

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, M.; Magette, W.L.

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Previous research indicates that targeted strategies designed for specific areas should lead to improved diversion. > Survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting. > Then logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific management intervention strategies. > Waste management initiatives can be tailored to specific needs of areas rather than one size fits all means currently used. - Abstract: Urgent transformation is required in Ireland to divert biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill and prevent increases in overall waste generation. When BMW is optimally managed, it becomes a resource with value instead of an unwanted by-product requiring disposal. An analysis of survey responses from commercial and residential sectors for the Dublin region in previous research by the authors proved that attitudes towards and behaviour regarding municipal solid waste is spatially variable. This finding indicates that targeted intervention strategies designed for specific geographic areas should lead to improved diversion rates of BMW from landfill, a requirement of the Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC. In the research described in this paper, survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting, after which logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific waste management intervention strategies. The main strategies devised include (a) roll out of the Brown Bin (Organics) Collection and Community Workshops in Dun Laoghaire Rathdown, (b) initiation of a Community Composting Project in Dublin City (c) implementation of a Waste Promotion and Motivation Scheme in South Dublin (d) development and distribution of a Waste Booklet to promote waste reduction activities in Fingal (e) region wide distribution of a Waste Booklet to the commercial sector and (f) Greening Irish Pubs Initiative. Each of these

  7. Motivating People To Be Physically Active. Physical Activity Intervention Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.

    This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…

  8. The effects of workplace physical activity interventions in men: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jason Y L; Gilson, Nicholas D; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Brown, Wendy J

    2012-07-01

    The workplace is cited as a promising setting for physical activity (PA) promotion, but workplace PA interventions tend not to specifically target men. The aim of this article was to review the literature on workplace PA interventions for men and to identify key issues for future intervention development. Articles targeting PA at the workplace were located through a structured database search. Information on intervention strategies and PA outcomes were extracted. Only 13 studies (10.5%) reviewed focused on men, of which 5 showed significant increases in PA. These studies used generic, multicomponent, health promotion strategies with a variety of timeframes, self-report PA measures, and PA outcomes. The systematic review identified that evidence on the effectiveness of workplace PA interventions for men is equivocal and highlighted methodological concerns. Future research should use reliable and valid measures of PA and interventions that focus specifically on men's needs and PA preferences. PMID:22442206

  9. The use of group dynamics strategies to enhance cohesion in a lifestyle intervention program for obese children

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Luc J; Burke, Shauna M; Shapiro, Sheree; Carron, Albert V; Irwin, Jennifer D; Petrella, Robert; Prapavessis, Harry; Shoemaker, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Background Most research pertaining to childhood obesity has assessed the effectiveness of preventative interventions, while relatively little has been done to advance knowledge in the treatment of obesity. Thus, a 4-week family- and group-based intervention utilizing group dynamics strategies designed to increase cohesion was implemented to influence the lifestyles and physical activity levels of obese children. Methods/Design This paper provides an overview of the rationale for and implementation of the intervention for obese children and their families. Objectives of the intervention included the modification of health behaviors and cohesion levels through the use of group dynamics strategies. To date, a total of 15 children (7 boys and 8 girls, mean age = 10.5) and their families have completed the intervention (during the month of August 2008). Physiological and psychological outcomes were assessed throughout the 4-week intervention and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up periods. Discussion It is believed that the information provided will help researchers and health professionals develop similar obesity treatment interventions through the use of evidence-based group dynamics strategies. There is also a need for continued research in this area, and it is our hope that the Children's Health and Activity Modification Program (C.H.A.M.P.) will provide a strong base from which others may build. PMID:19646259

  10. Understanding consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for healthy food choices: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity poses a major threat to public health. Intervention strategies for healthy food choices potentially reduce obesity rates. Reviews of the effectiveness of interventions, however, show mixed results. To maximise effectiveness, interventions need to be accepted by consumers. The aim of the present study is to explore consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie food choices. Beliefs that are associated with consumer acceptance are identified. Methods Data was collected in the Netherlands in 8 semi-structured interviews and 4 focus group discussions (N = 39). Nine archetypical strategies representing educational, marketing and legal interventions served as reference points. Verbatim transcriptions were coded both inductively and deductively with the framework approach. Results We found that three beliefs are related to consumer acceptance: 1) general beliefs regarding obesity, such as who is responsible for food choice; 2) the perceived effectiveness of interventions; and 3) the perceived fairness of interventions. Furthermore, the different aspects underlying these general and intervention-specific beliefs were identified. Conclusions General and intervention-specific beliefs are associated with consumer acceptance of interventions for low-calorie food choices. Policymakers in the food domain can use the findings to negotiate the development of interventions and to assess the feasibility of interventions. With respect to future research, we recommend that segments of consumers based on perceptions of intervention strategies are identified. PMID:24225034

  11. A systematic review of interventions for promoting active transportation to school

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Active transportation to school is an important contributor to the total physical activity of children and adolescents. However, active school travel has declined over time, and interventions are needed to reverse this trend. The purpose of this paper is to review intervention studies related to active school transportation to guide future intervention research. Methods A systematic review was conducted to identify intervention studies of active transportation to school published in the scientific literature through January 2010. Five electronic databases and a manual search were conducted. Detailed information was extracted, including a quantitative assessment comparing the effect sizes, and a qualitative assessment using an established evaluation tool. Results We identified 14 interventions that focused on active transportation to school. These interventions mainly focused on primary school children in the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom. Almost all the interventions used quasi-experimental designs (10/14), and most of the interventions reported a small effect size on active transportation (6/14). Conclusion More research with higher quality study designs and measures should be conducted to further evaluate interventions and to determine the most successful strategies for increasing active transportation to school. PMID:21320322

  12. Making Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Policy Practice: Process Evaluation of a Group Randomized Controlled Intervention in Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Hutto, Brent; Saunders, Ruth P.; Moore, Justin B.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Ward, Dianne S.; Pate, Russell R.; Beighle, Aaron; Freedman, Darcy

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the link between level of implementation and outcomes from an intervention to increase afterschool programs' (ASPs) achievement of healthy eating and physical activity (HE-PA) Standards. Ten intervention ASPs implemented the Strategies-To-Enhance-Practice (STEPs), a multi-component, adaptive intervention framework identifying…

  13. Comparison of Selected Outcomes Based on Teaching Strategies that Promote Active Learning in Nursing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Anita Christine

    2010-01-01

    This study examined differences in the effects of three active-learning teaching strategies (case-based learning, simulation, and simulation with narrative pedagogy) on the outcomes of nursing student performance of intervention activities, performance retention of intervention activities, student satisfaction, self-confidence, and educational…

  14. Intervention with Underachieving Gifted Children: Rationale and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Marvin J.; Pitts, Roger

    1980-01-01

    Some important dynamics of underachievement are explored, and eight guidelines for intervention are suggested, including spelling out the issues, expectations, and intervention plan concretely; and expecting, confronting, and heading off sabotages if possible. (DLS)

  15. Teaching High-Expectation Strategies to Teachers through an Intervention Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Lyn; Flint, Annaline; Rubie-Davies, Christine M.; Peterson, Elizabeth R.; Watson, Penny; Garrett, Lynda

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the outcomes of an intervention focused on the strategies and practices of high-expectation teachers. Specifically, the intervention involved 84 teachers who were randomly assigned to control and intervention groups. The research methodology was primarily qualitative, grounded in the interpretive tradition. Data collected from…

  16. Teaching Strategies for Effective Fifth Grade Math Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zank, Alicia A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine what effects explicit and systematic math intervention instruction will have on student's performance on math assessments. The study will focus on a small group of fifth grade students that have been identified as needing targeted intervention (tier 2) and intensive interventions (tier 1) through the…

  17. Public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Khalesi, Zahra Bostani; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azin, Seyed Ali; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexual health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their sexual health that should be based on people’s needs and abilities. The aim of this study was to explore public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies. Methods This study was a qualitative content analysis approach. This qualitative study was a qualitative part of an exploratory sequential qualitative-quantitative study that took place between November 2014 and May 2015 and was conducted in Rasht, Iran. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 38 engaged and married men and women as well as nine key informants. The data were analyzed by the content analysis method and by using qualitative data analysis software MAXqda 2011. Results Analyzing participants’ perspectives and experiences revealed two main categories, i.e., 1) General actions to promote sexual health (with three sub-categories: public policies promoting sexual health, development of sexual health supporting environments, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and 2) Specific actions in the current health system (with three sub-categories: economic policy, empowering individuals and the society, and reviewing the current health system). Conclusions General actions (public policies, supporting environments developed, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and integration of specific actions in the health system, such as empowering individuals’ needs for promoting sexual health. Achieving these goals necessitates the review of the current health system in Iran. PMID:27504163

  18. Current intervention strategies for the microbial safety of sprouts.

    PubMed

    Sikin, Adi Md; Zoellner, Claire; Rizvi, Syed S H

    2013-12-01

    Sprouts have gained popularity worldwide due to their nutritional values and health benefits. The fact that their consumption has been associated with numerous outbreaks of foodborne illness threatens the $250 million market that this industry has established in the United States. Therefore, sprout manufacturers have utilized the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommended application of 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite solution to seeds before germination as a preventative method. Concentrations of up to 200 ppm of chlorine wash are also commonly used on sprouts. However, chlorine-based treatment achieves on average only 1- to 3-log reductions in bacteria and is associated with negative health and environmental issues. The search for alternative strategies has been widespread, involving chemical, biological, physical, and hurdle processes that can achieve up to 7-log reductions in bacteria in some cases. The compilation here of the current scientific data related to these techniques is used to compare their efficacy for ensuring the microbial safety of sprouts and their practicality for commercial producers. Of specific importance for alternative seed and sprout treatments is maintaining the industry-accepted germination rate of 95% and the sensorial attributes of the final product. This review provides an evaluation of suggested decontamination technologies for seeds and sprouts before, during, and after germination and concludes that thermal inactivation of seeds and irradiation of sprouts are the most practical stand-alone microbial safety interventions for sprout production. PMID:24290689

  19. Developing Primary Intervention Strategies to Prevent Allergic Disease.

    PubMed

    Rueter, Kristina; Haynes, Aveni; Prescott, Susan L

    2015-07-01

    Allergic diseases are a major cause of morbidity in the developed world, now affecting up to 40 % of the population with no evidence that this is abating. If anything, the prevalence of early onset allergic diseases such as eczema and food allergy appears to be still increasing. This is almost certainly due to the changing modern environment and lifestyle factors, acting to promote immune dysfunction through early perturbations in immune maturation, immune tolerance and regulation. This early propensity to inflammation may also have implications for the rising risk of other inflammatory non-communicable diseases (NCDs) later in life. Identifying risk factors and pathways for preventing early onset immune disease like allergy is likely to have benefits for many aspects of human health, particularly as many NCDs share similar risk factors. This review focuses on recent advances in primary intervention strategies for promoting early immune health and preventing allergic disease, highlighting the current evidence-based guidelines where applicable and areas requiring further investigation. PMID:26143389

  20. Intervention strategies for the management of human error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.

    1993-01-01

    This report examines the management of human error in the cockpit. The principles probably apply as well to other applications in the aviation realm (e.g. air traffic control, dispatch, weather, etc.) as well as other high-risk systems outside of aviation (e.g. shipping, high-technology medical procedures, military operations, nuclear power production). Management of human error is distinguished from error prevention. It is a more encompassing term, which includes not only the prevention of error, but also a means of disallowing an error, once made, from adversely affecting system output. Such techniques include: traditional human factors engineering, improvement of feedback and feedforward of information from system to crew, 'error-evident' displays which make erroneous input more obvious to the crew, trapping of errors within a system, goal-sharing between humans and machines (also called 'intent-driven' systems), paperwork management, and behaviorally based approaches, including procedures, standardization, checklist design, training, cockpit resource management, etc. Fifteen guidelines for the design and implementation of intervention strategies are included.

  1. Exploring Coaching Strategies in a Parent-Implemented Intervention for Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the triadic relationships between the early interventionist, the parent and the child in a parent-implemented communication intervention for toddlers. Specifically, relationships between coaching strategies used by interventionists, parents' implementation of communication intervention strategies, child…

  2. Improving Inappropriate Social Behavior of Autistic Students Using the LISTEN Intervention Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shammari, Zaid; Daniel, Cathy; Faulkner, Paula; Yawkey, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    A case study was conducted on the development of the LISTEN intervention strategy for use with autistic students to improve inappropriate social behaviors. The study was conducted in a special education classroom in an autism school in Kuwait. Examination of LISTEN Intervention Strategy applications included: duration of targeted behavior; methods…

  3. Identifying and Evaluating the Therapeutic Strategies Used During a Manualized Self-Advocacy Intervention for Transition-Age Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    Prior to undertaking randomized control trials, pilot research should ensure that an intervention’s active ingredients are operationalized in manuals or protocols. This study identified the strategies facilitators reported to use during the implementation of a problem-solving self-advocacy intervention, Project “Teens making Environment and Activity Modifications” (TEAM), with transition-age youth with developmental disabilities, and evaluated the alignment of strategies with the intervention’s hypothesized mechanisms of change. An iterative process was used to conduct a content analysis of 106 field notes completed by six facilitators. Facilitators used 19 strategies. Findings suggest that facilitators used strategies simultaneously to ensure universal design for learning, maximize relevance for individual trainees, and maintain a safe and encouraging environment. Facilitators can individualize Project TEAM in a way that operationalizes the mechanisms of change underlying Project TEAM. The quality of the intervention may improve by explicitly incorporating these strategies into the intervention protocol. The strategies may also be applicable to therapists implementing interventions informed by similar theoretical propositions. PMID:26069464

  4. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour - i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down - is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising' according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed. PMID:26315814

  5. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart JH

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour – i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down – is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as ‘very promising’, ‘quite promising’, or ‘non-promising’ according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed. PMID:26315814

  6. Vision and falls in older people: risk factors and intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Lord, Stephen R; Smith, Stuart T; Menant, Jasmine C

    2010-11-01

    Poor vision impairs balance and increases the risk of falls and fractures in older people. Multifocal glasses can add to this risk by impairing contrast sensitivity, depth perception, and ability to negotiate obstacles. Vision assessment and provision of new spectacles may not reduce, and may even increase, the risk of falls. Restriction of the use of multifocal glasses may reduce falls in active older people. Other effective fall prevention strategies include maximizing vision through cataract surgery and occupational therapy interventions in visually impaired older people. PMID:20934611

  7. Tackling Ebola: new insights into prophylactic and therapeutic intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Emmie; Feldmann, Heinz; Munster, Vincent J

    2011-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1976, Ebolavirus has caused periodic outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever associated with severe and often fatal disease. Ebolavirus is endemic in Central Africa and the Philippines. Although there is currently no approved treatment available, the past 10 years has seen remarkable progress in our understanding of the pathogenicity of Ebolavirus and the development of prophylactic and post-exposure therapies against it. In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that Ebolavirus pathogenicity is multifactorial, including viral and host determinants. Besides their function in the virus replication cycle, the viral glycoprotein, nucleoprotein, minor matrix protein and polymerase cofactor are viral determinants of pathogenicity, with evasion of the host innate and adaptive immune responses as the main mechanism. Although no licensed Ebolavirus vaccines are currently available, vaccine research in non-human primates, the 'gold standard' animal model for Ebolavirus, has produced several promising candidates. A combination of DNA vaccination and a recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 boost resulted in cross-protective immunity in non-human primates. A recombinant vesicular stomatitis vaccine vector protected non-human primates in pre- and post-exposure challenge studies. Several antiviral therapies are currently under investigation, but only a few of these have been tested in non-human primate models. Antisense therapies, in which oligonucleotides inhibit viral replication, have shown promising results in non-human primates following post-exposure treatment. In light of the severity of Ebolavirus disease and the observed increase in Ebolavirus outbreaks over the past decade, the expedited translation of potential candidate therapeutics and vaccines from bench to bedside is currently the most challenging task for the field. Here, we review the current state of Ebolavirus research, with emphasis on prophylactic and therapeutic intervention strategies

  8. Recovery interventions and strategies for improved tennis performance

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Mark S; Baker, Lindsay B

    2014-01-01

    Improving the recovery capabilities of the tennis athlete is receiving more emphasis in the research communities, and also by practitioners (coaches, physical trainers, tennis performance specialists, physical therapists, etc). The purpose of this article was to review areas of recovery to limit the severity of fatigue and/or speed recovery from fatigue. This review will cover four broad recovery techniques commonly used in tennis with the belief that the interventions may improve athlete recovery and therefore improve adaptation and future performance. The four areas covered are: (1) temperature-based interventions, (2) compressive clothing, (3) electronic interventions and (4) nutritional interventions. PMID:24668374

  9. The Effect of an Active Transport to School Intervention at a Suburban Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bungum, Timothy J.; Clark, Sheila; Aguilar, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many children do not meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. One strategy that may enhance PA is to increase active transport to school (ATS) rates. Purpose: To assess the effects of an ATS intervention. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used to compare ATS and vehicle traffic rates at a school that participated in a statewide…

  10. Exploring Animal-Assisted Therapy as a Reading Intervention Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaymen, Maria S.

    2005-01-01

    This study is an examination of animal-assisted therapy in an attempt to explore the ways it may serve as reading intervention program for struggling readers. Due to the low rate of literacy in the U.S., children are often put into reading intervention programs where they are required to read to an adult; potentially creating anxiety that may act…

  11. Systematic review of reviews of intervention components associated with increased effectiveness in dietary and physical activity interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    need for greater consideration of behaviour maintenance strategies. Conclusions This comprehensive review of reviews identifies specific components which are associated with increased effectiveness in interventions to promote change in diet and/or physical activity. To maximise the efficiency of programmes for diabetes prevention, practitioners and commissioning organisations should consider including these components. PMID:21333011

  12. Pharmacological Intervention in Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation and Hepatic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Schon, Hans-Theo; Bartneck, Matthias; Borkham-Kamphorst, Erawan; Nattermann, Jacob; Lammers, Twan; Tacke, Frank; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The activation and transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) into contractile, matrix-producing myofibroblasts (MFBs) are central events in hepatic fibrogenesis. These processes are driven by autocrine- and paracrine-acting soluble factors (i.e., cytokines and chemokines). Proof-of-concept studies of the last decades have shown that both the deactivation and removal of hepatic MFBs as well as antagonizing profibrogenic factors are in principle suitable to attenuate ongoing hepatic fibrosis. Although several drugs show potent antifibrotic activities in experimental models of hepatic fibrosis, there is presently no effective pharmaceutical intervention specifically approved for the treatment of liver fibrosis. Pharmaceutical interventions are generally hampered by insufficient supply of drugs to the diseased liver tissue and/or by adverse effects as a result of affecting non-target cells. Therefore, targeted delivery systems that bind specifically to receptors solely expressed on activated HSCs or transdifferentiated MFBs and delivery systems that can improve drug distribution to the liver in general are urgently needed. In this review, we summarize current strategies for targeted delivery of drugs to the liver and in particular to pro-fibrogenic liver cells. The applicability and efficacy of sequestering molecules, selective protein carriers, lipid-based drug vehicles, viral vectors, transcriptional targeting approaches, therapeutic liver- and HSC-specific nanoparticles, and miRNA-based strategies are discussed. Some of these delivery systems that had already been successfully tested in experimental animal models of ongoing hepatic fibrogenesis are expected to translate into clinically useful therapeutics specifically targeting HSCs. PMID:26941644

  13. Effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity in children and adolescents: systematic review of controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    McMinn, Alison M; Griffin, Simon J

    2007-01-01

    Objective To review the published literature on the effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity in children and adolescents. Design Systematic review. Data sources Literature search using PubMed, SCOPUS, Psychlit, Ovid Medline, Sportdiscus, and Embase up to December 2006. Review methods Two independent reviewers assessed studies against the following inclusion criteria: controlled trial, comparison of intervention to promote physical activity with no intervention control condition, participants younger than 18 years, and reported statistical analyses of a physical activity outcome measure. Levels of evidence, accounting for methodological quality, were assessed for three types of intervention, five settings, and three target populations. Results The literature search identified 57 studies: 33 aimed at children and 24 at adolescents. Twenty four studies were of high methodological quality, including 13 studies in children. Interventions that were found to be effective achieved increases ranging from an additional 2.6 minutes of physical education related physical activity to 283 minutes per week of overall physical activity. Among children, limited evidence for an effect was found for interventions targeting children from low socioeconomic populations, and environmental interventions. Strong evidence was found that school based interventions with involvement of the family or community and multicomponent interventions can increase physical activity in adolescents. Conclusion Some evidence was found for potentially effective strategies to increase children's levels of physical activity. For adolescents, multicomponent interventions and interventions that included both school and family or community involvement have the potential to make important differences to levels of physical activity and should be promoted. A lack of high quality evaluations hampers conclusions concerning effectiveness, especially among children. PMID:17884863

  14. A systematic review of physical activity interventions among African American adults: evidence from 2009 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Whitt-Glover, M C; Keith, N R; Ceaser, T G; Virgil, K; Ledford, L; Hasson, R E

    2014-10-01

    This review extends findings from four previous reviews of physical activity (PA) interventions among African Americans (AA) and includes papers published between January 2009 and August 2013. Eligible papers were retrieved using strategies employed in previous reviews. Overall, 16 relevant papers were identified, including four pilot studies and 12 full trials. Interventions were based on a variety of behavioural sciences theories. The most common setting for interventions was churches. Most interventions lasted >6 months; few interventions included >6 months of post-intervention follow-up. Overall, studies identified within-group differences showing positive improvements in PA, and most studies showed statistically significant between-group differences in at least one measure of PA. A quality score was used to rate various elements of the studies and provide a numerical assessment of each paper; scores ranged from 3 to 10 out of 13 possible points. The current review indicates a continued need for studies that use objective PA measures, assess long-term intervention impact, provide specific PA goals for interventions, include more attention to strategies that can increase retention and adherence among AA study participants, include AA men and determine the independent and synergistic effects of individual and environmental (socio-cultural and built) change strategies. PMID:25196410

  15. The Impact of a Strategy-Based Intervention on the Comprehension and Strategy Use of Struggling Adolescent Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Almasi, Janice F.; Carter, Janis C.; Rintamaa, Margaret; Madden, Angela

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the Learning Strategies Curriculum (LSC), an adolescent reading intervention program, on 6th- and 9th-grade students' reading comprehension and strategy use. Using a randomized treatment-control group design, the study compared student outcomes for these constructs for 365 students who received daily instruction…

  16. Adult Career Education as an Intervention Strategy in Mid-Career Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Valerie I.; And Others

    Based on a review of the literature on mid-career crises and various intervention strategies and on collection of a representative inventory of services currently available, a strategy and role for adult career education was developed and priorities and highlights of a research and development strategy were suggested for the National Institute of…

  17. Activity-Focused Motor Interventions for Children with Neurological Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valvano, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a model to guide activity-focused physical therapy and occupational therapy interventions for children with neurological conditions. Activity-focused interventions involve structured practice and repetition of functional actions and are directed toward the learning of motor tasks that will increase independence and…

  18. Citizen participation in police crisis intervention activities.

    PubMed

    Baumann, D J; Schultz, D F; Brown, C; Paredes, R; Hepworth, J

    1987-08-01

    A naturalistic experiment tested the proposition that police time could be saved in nondangerous crisis intervention calls through the use of citizen participants. Results showed that police officers who used citizen intervention spent less time per call than officers who did not. However, police time was not saved in family disturbance calls. Family disturbance control group calls were rated by police as having a higher degree of physical danger present than other calls. PMID:3673956

  19. The Impact of a Student-Led Pedometer Intervention Incorporating Cognitive-Behavioral Strategies on Step Count and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raedeke, Thomas D.; Focht, Brian C.; King, Jenna S.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a student-led physical activity intervention that incorporated pedometers and cognitive-behavioral strategies. Undergraduate students (N = 117) enrolled in upper division exercise and sport science courses recruited participants. Participants in the cognitive-behavioral intervention condition received…

  20. A systematic review of physical activity interventions in Hispanic adults.

    PubMed

    Ickes, Melinda J; Sharma, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Healthy People 2020 aims to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Regular physical activity (PA) improves overall health and fitness and has the capability to reduce risk for chronic diseases. Identifying barriers which relate to the Hispanic population is important when designing PA interventions. Therefore, the purpose was to review existing PA interventions targeting Hispanic adults published between 1988 and 2011. This paper was limited to interventions which included more than 35% Hispanic adults (n = 20). Most of the interventions were community based (n = 16), although clinical, family-based, and faith-based settings were also represented. Interventions incorporated theory (n = 16), with social cognitive theory and transtheoretical model being used most frequently. Social support was integral, building on the assumption that it is a strong motivator of PA. Each of the interventions reported success related to PA, social support, and/or BMI. Lessons learned should be incorporated into future interventions. PMID:22496702

  1. Minority Student Perspectives on the Use of Intervention Strategies in Writing Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddle, Emilie Vanessa

    A study examined the effects of intervention strategies on the revisions minority students made in narrative essays in a process-oriented classroom. Thirteen African-American and Latino students enrolled in a private boarding school in New England participated in the research. The effect of teacher interventions was explored through two…

  2. Promising Strategies for Collaborating with Hispanic Parents during Family-Centered Speech-Language Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kummerer, Sharon E.

    2012-01-01

    Early intervention programs are developed on the premise that parents or primary caregivers generalize treatment strategies within naturalistic environments. The diverse characteristics of children within early language intervention reinforce the urgency for services that consider the needs of each child within his or her broader social, cultural,…

  3. Planned Variations Study. Volume II: Intervention Strategies for Secondary and Postsecondary Compensatory Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melargano, Ralph J.; And Others

    System Development Corporation conducted an extensive project of conceptualization and planning of models for compensatory educational intervention for older disadvantaged youth. This volume treats the two intervention strategies developed to provide the framework for comprehensive compensatory education projects at the secondary and postsecondary…

  4. What Would You Do? Strategies for Bystander Intervention to Prevent Sexual Violence by College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah; Hoffman, Melanie Lowe; McMahon, Sheila M.; Zucker, Sharon; Koenick, Ruth Anne

    2013-01-01

    Bystander education is an increasingly utilized strategy for addressing sexual assault prevention and intervention on U.S. college campuses. Given the paramount importance of peers among college students, what types of pro-social bystander interventions do students themselves deem feasible in the campus context? Drawing on self-reports from…

  5. Theories of Student Success: Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Intervention Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal, Kenneth D.; Tabor, Alison J.

    2008-01-01

    Institutions of higher education have developed a host of interventions to increase the retention of first-year students whose academic performance is inadequate. This study evaluated the overall effectiveness of an intervention strategy designed for first-year students on academic probation at a mid-western research university. A…

  6. Damage control interventional radiology (DCIR) in prompt and rapid endovascular strategies in trauma occasions (PRESTO): A new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, J; Lohman, B D; Morimoto, K; Ichinose, Y; Hattori, T; Taira, Y

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes an innovative concept of interventional radiology for hemodynamically unstable trauma patients. Damage control interventional radiology (DCIR) is an aggressive and time-conscious algorithm that prioritizes saving life of the hemorrhaging patient in extremis which conventional emergency interventional radiology (CEIR) cannot efficiently do. Briefly, DCIR aims to save life while CEIR aims to control bleeding with a constant concern to time-awareness. This article also presents the concept of "Prompt and Rapid Endovascular Strategies in Traumatic Occasions" (PRESTO) that entirely oversees and manages trauma patients from arrival to the trauma bay until initial completion of hemostasis with endovascular techniques. PRESTO's "Start soon and finish sooner" relies on the earlier activation of interventional radiology team but also emphasizes on a rapid completion of hemostasis in which DCIR has been specifically tailored. Both DCIR and PRESTO expand the role of IR and represent a paradigm shift in the realm of trauma care. PMID:26119866

  7. Increasing intervention implementation in general education following consultation: a comparison of two follow-up strategies.

    PubMed

    Noell, G H; Witt, J C; LaFleur, L H; Mortenson, B P; Ranier, D D; LeVelle, J

    2000-01-01

    This study examined two strategies for increasing the accuracy with which general education teachers implemented a peer tutoring intervention for reading comprehension. The intervention was implemented for 5 elementary school students who had been referred for consultation services. Initial implementation of the intervention by the teachers was variable, and the data exhibited a downward trend. When consultants held brief daily meetings with the teachers to discuss the intervention, implementation improved for 2 of 5 participants. Four of the teachers implemented the intervention at levels substantially above baseline during the performance feedback condition, whereas implementation for 1 teacher increased following discussion of an upcoming follow-up meeting with the principal. Student reading comprehension scores improved markedly during the peer tutoring intervention. Three students maintained these gains 4 weeks after the intervention ended. The implications of these findings for the maintenance of accurate treatment implementation in applied settings are discussed. PMID:11051568

  8. Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies" is a peer-tutoring program for grades K-6 that aims to improve student proficiency in math and other disciplines. This report focuses on "Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies" for math. The math program supplements students' existing math curriculum and is based on peer-mediated instruction, a process whereby…

  9. High School Teachers' Perceptions of Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauffer, Sterling; Heath, Melissa Allen; Coyne, Sarah Marie; Ferrin, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses indicate that bully prevention programs produce minimal change in student behavior. This study examined 66 high school teachers' perceptions regarding the effect of cyberbullying on students, which intervening strategies teachers would use when dealing with cyberbullying, and which prevention strategies would assist in…

  10. Evidence, Theory and Context: Using intervention mapping to develop a worksite physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    McEachan, Rosemary RC; Lawton, Rebecca J; Jackson, Cath; Conner, Mark; Lunt, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. Helping employees to be more physically active can not only improve their physical and mental health, but can also have economic benefits such as reduced sickness absence. The current paper describes the development of a three month theory-based intervention that aims to increase levels of moderate intensity physical activity amongst employees in sedentary occupations. Methods The intervention was developed using an intervention mapping protocol. The intervention was also informed by previous literature, qualitative focus groups, an expert steering group, and feedback from key contacts within a range of organisations. Results The intervention was designed to target awareness (e.g. provision of information), motivation (e.g. goal setting, social support) and environment (e.g. management support) and to address behavioural (e.g. increasing moderate physical activity in work) and interpersonal outcomes (e.g. encourage colleagues to be more physically active). The intervention can be implemented by local facilitators without the requirement for a large investment of resources. A facilitator manual was developed which listed step by step instructions on how to implement each component along with a suggested timetable. Conclusion Although time consuming, intervention mapping was found to be a useful tool for developing a theory based intervention. The length of this process has implications for the way in which funding bodies allow for the development of interventions as part of their funding policy. The intervention will be evaluated in a cluster randomised trial involving 1350 employees from 5 different organisations, results available September 2009. PMID:18808709

  11. Community-based strategies for recruiting older, African Americans into a behavioral intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Ellish, Nancy J.; Scott, Deborah; Royak-Schaler, Renee; Higginbotham, Eve J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To describe community-based strategies that were effective in recruiting older, African-Americans into a behavioral intervention study designed to increase eye examination behavior. Methods Sites were identified that targeted older African-Americans, including senior centers, senior housing, and church groups. We conducted presentations at these sites, networked with community organizations, placed ads on the radio and in newspapers, and attended health fairs. Potential participants also called us in response to flyers and through word of mouth. Results We conducted 147 activities at 118 sites. A total of 688 potential participants were screened, with 330 (48%) enrolling, 33% ineligible, and 19% not interested. Highest enrollment rates were for word of mouth (69%), flyers (67%), and senior centers (66%). Barriers to participation included hesitancy of seniors to leave their apartments to attend presentations and competing health issues taking precedence over eye concerns. Conclusions A multi-faceted recruitment approach, incorporating both direct and indirect activities at a variety of sites, should be used to recruit older African Americans into a behavioral intervention study. Establishing relationships in the community, both prior to initiating recruitment activities and as an ongoing process, was important to the study’s success. PMID:19998638

  12. Systematic review of active workplace interventions to reduce sickness absence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The workplace is used as a setting for interventions to prevent and reduce sickness absence, regardless of the specific medical conditions and diagnoses. Aims To give an overview of the general effectiveness of active workplace interventions aimed at preventing and reducing sickness absence. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Psych-info, and ISI web of knowledge on 27 December 2011. Inclusion criteria were (i) participants over 18 years old with an active role in the intervention, (ii) intervention done partly or fully at the workplace or at the initiative of the workplace and (iii) sickness absence reported. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A narrative synthesis was used. Results We identified 2036 articles of which, 93 were assessed in full text. Seventeen articles were included (2 with low and 15 with medium risk of bias), with a total of 24 comparisons. Five interventions from four articles significantly reduced sickness absence. We found moderate evidence that graded activity reduced sickness absence and limited evidence that the Sheerbrooke model (a comprehensive multidisciplinary intervention) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) reduced sickness absence. There was moderate evidence that workplace education and physical exercise did not reduce sickness absence. For other interventions, the evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions. Conclusions The review found limited evidence that active workplace interventions were not generally effective in reducing sickness absence, but there was moderate evidence of effect for graded activity and limited evidence for the effectiveness of the Sheerbrooke model and CBT. PMID:23223750

  13. Intervention Strategies for Infants with Prenatal Drug Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jean Gardner

    1996-01-01

    The identification of clusters of behavior that are commonly seen in infants with prenatal drug exposure is discussed, as are intervention techniques that have been successful in hospital and home programs. Reading behavioral cues, modifying the environment, and providing support for the infant's attempts at self-regulation are suggested.…

  14. Selective Mutism: Practice and Intervention Strategies for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Shu-Lan; Spencer, Michael S.; Dronamraju, Rani

    2012-01-01

    The onset of selective mutism (SM) is usually between the ages of three and five years, when the children first go to preschool. However, these children are most commonly referred for treatment between the ages of six and 11, when they are entering the elementary school system. Early detection and early intervention is suggested for effective SM…

  15. Response to Intervention: Principles and Strategies for Effective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Chidsey, Rachel; Steege, Mark W.

    2005-01-01

    Meeting a key need, this is the first comprehensive guide to implementing a schoolwide response to intervention (RTI) program. The book is geared to helping practitioners understand and respond to No Child Left Behind and to the new special education eligibility guidelines outlined in IDEIA 2004. Presented are the theoretical and empirical…

  16. Counseling and Intervention Strategies for Adolescent Suicide Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, Dave

    This monograph concerns the the issue of adolescent suicide and discusses counseling and intervention techniques to prevent suicide among teenagers. Fourteen myths and misconceptions about suicide are explained. A profile of a potential suicide attempter is presented, and issues of behavioral indications, verbal cues, motivations and cognitive…

  17. Effective Strategies for Involving Families in Intervention Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Pam

    1986-01-01

    New approaches to families based on principles of the child as part of a system, family subsystems, family member roles, and the family life cycle are applied to families with a handicapped infant/preschooler, a school-aged child, or a young adult. An intervention model based on assessment, goal setting, and implementation is proposed. (DB)

  18. Evidence-based intervention in physical activity: lessons from around the world

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L; Andersen, Lars Bo; Owen, Neville; Goenka, Shifalika; Montes, Felipe; Brownson, Ross C

    2016-01-01

    Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community-wide and mass media campaigns, and short physical activity messages targeting key community sites are recommended. Behavioural and social approaches are effective, introducing social support for physical activity within communities and worksites, and school-based strategies that encompass physical education, classroom activities, after-school sports, and active transport. Recommended environmental and policy approaches include creation and improvement of access to places for physical activity with informational outreach activities, community-scale and street-scale urban design and land use, active transport policy and practices, and community-wide policies and planning. Thus, many approaches lead to acceptable increases in physical activity among people of various ages, and from different social groups, countries, and communities. PMID:22818939

  19. Physical Activity Interventions for Adolescents: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cynthia K.; Garside, Hailey; Morones, Sandra; Hayman, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to the decline in physical activity (PA) observed during adolescence. We used an ecological framework to review 30 publications of PA interventions published between 1977 and 2009 targeting youth aged 12-18 years (19 PA interventions). We included studies that measured a primary outcome of PA and also examined intervening…

  20. Strategies for implementing evidence-based psychosocial interventions for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Eiraldi, Ricardo B; Mautone, Jennifer A; Power, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    An extensive amount of research has demonstrated the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for children with ADHD. Historically, the research has focused on interventions targeting problems in the home or school setting, but more recent research has highlighted the importance of family – school partnerships and conjoint approaches to intervention involving family and school. Effective approaches to psychosocial intervention consist of strategies to address performance deficits, promote adaptive behavior, and improve children’s self-control and academic and social skills. Considerable evidence exists to indicate that combined approaches are more effective in reducing ADHD symptoms and related academic and social impairments than separate treatments. PMID:22137818

  1. Comparing Student Perceptions of Coping Strategies and School Interventions in Managing Bullying and Cyberbullying Incidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K.; Blumberg, Herbert H.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 407 students in a central London secondary school participated in a survey of different approaches to managing traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Student perceptions of individual coping strategies and school interventions for traditional bullying and cyberbullying were measured. Rankings of the strategies for traditional bullying…

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Experimental Treatments and Strategies for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Idrus, Nirelia M.; Thomas, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the known damaging effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, women continue to drink during pregnancy, creating a need for effective interventions and treatments for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Experimental models can be useful in identifying potential treatments, and this article describes the spectrum of experimental therapeutics that currently are being investigated, including pharmacological, nutritional, and environmental/behavioral interventions. Some treatments target the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol-induced damage, protecting against alcohol’s teratogenic effects, whereas other treatments may enhance central nervous system plasticity either during alcohol exposure or long after alcohol exposure has ceased. The insights gained to date from experimental models offer several candidates for attenuating the deficits associated with FASD. PMID:23580044

  3. Systematic Review Shows Only Few Reliable Studies of Physical Activity Intervention in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Nara Michelle Moura; Leão, Arley Santos; Santos, Josivan Rosa; Monteiro, Glauber Rocha; dos Santos, Jorge Rollemberg; Thomazzi, Sara Maria; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Several studies have pointed to the high prevalence of low levels of physical activity in adolescents, suggesting the need for more effective interventions for this group. The aim of this study was to present evidence of intervention programs for efficacy of physical activity for adolescents. Methods. Surveys in PubMed, SportDiscus, LiLacs, and SciELO databases were conducted using keywords to identify population, intervention, and outcome, as well as DeCS and MeSH terms in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, whenever appropriate. The review included observational studies with minimal intervention of six months, minimum sample size of 100 adolescents, written in any language, and those who have reached STROBE score greater than 70%. Results. Only seven studies met all inclusion criteria. Of these, five were pre- and postintervention and two had n > 2000 participants. Interventions were of several types, durations, and strategies for physical activity implementation. Behavior change was assessed in 43% of studies and three reported success in some way. Conclusion. Due to heterogeneity in their contents and methodologies, as well as the lack of jobs that accompany adolescents after the intervention period, one cannot draw conclusions about the actual effects of the intervention programs of physical activity on the behavior of young people. PMID:25152903

  4. Interventional Radiology Strategies in the Treatment of Pseudomyxoma Peritonei

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenberg, Eric van Goodacre, Brian W.; Wittich, Gerhard R.; Ali, Seham; Silverman, Stuart G.; Shankar, Sridhar; Tuncali, Kemal

    2005-05-15

    Purpose. To describe percutaneous maneuvers to treat the unusual entity symptomatic pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP). Methods. Four patients with PMP were treated by interventional radiology techniques that included large catheters (20-30 Fr) alone (n = 3), multiple catheters (n = 4), and dextran sulfate as a catalytic agent through smaller catheters (n = 1). The causes of the PMP were tumors in the ovary (2 patients), appendix (1 patient), and colon (1 patient). Each patient previously had undergone at least two operations to remove the PMP, and all patients had symptomatic recurrence. An in vitro analysis of catalytic agents also was performed. Results. All four patients improved symptomatically. Follow-up CT scans demonstrated marked reduction of PMP material in all cases. One patient underwent another interventional radiology session 5 months after the first; the other three patients had no recurrence of symptoms. One patient had reversible hypotension 2 hr after the procedure. The amount of material removed varied from 3 to 6 L. Conclusion. These interventional radiology techniques were effective and safe for PMP and suggest options for this difficult medical and surgical problem.

  5. Meta-Analysis of Patient Education Interventions to Increase Physical Activity among Chronically Ill Adults

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Hafdahl, Adam R.; Brown, Sharon A.; Brown, Lori M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This meta-analysis integrates primary research testing the effect of patient education to increase physical activity (PA) on behavior outcomes among adults with diverse chronic illnesses. Methods Extensive literature searching strategies located published and unpublished intervention studies that measured PA behavior outcomes. Primary study results were coded. Fixed- and random-effects meta-analytic procedures included moderator analyses. Results Data were synthesized across 22,527 subjects from 213 samples in 163 reports. The overall mean weighted effect size for two-group comparisons was 0.45 (higher mean for treatment than control). This effect size is consistent with a difference of 48 minutes of PA per week or 945 steps per day. Preliminary moderator analyses suggest interventions were most effective when they targeted only PA behavior, used behavioral strategies (vs. cognitive strategies), and encouraged PA self-monitoring. Differences among chronic illnesses were documented. Individual strategies unrelated to PA outcomes included supervised exercise sessions, exercise prescription, fitness testing, goal setting, contracting, problem solving, barriers management, and stimulus/cues. PA outcomes were unrelated to gender, age, ethnicity, or socioeconomic distribution among samples. Conclusion These findings suggest that some patient education interventions to increase PA are effective, despite considerable heterogeneity in the magnitude of intervention effect. Practice Implications Moderator analyses are preliminary and provide suggestive evidence for further testing of interventions to inform practice. PMID:18023128

  6. CINI's approaches to intervention: an innovative strategy to combat malnutrition in India.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, S N

    2002-05-01

    The Child in Need Institute (CINI) has been working toward sustainable health and nutrition development for women and children for the last twenty-six years. During the initial stages, the Institute focused on treatment and prevention of malnutrition in children under five years of age. Over the years, the program strategies have shifted to a more holistic lifecycle approach. This approach targets individuals during crucial periods of their lives--pregnant women, children (0-2 years of age) and adolescents (10-19 years of age)--as well as other vulnerable segments of the population. To reach out to these target groups, the Institute uses a three-pronged strategy that includes case management, behavior change communication, and linkage formation. Programs are either community- or center-based depending upon the need of the populations. CINI's current strategy has shown positive trends in improving the health and nutrition status of women, children, and adolescents in the community. Results include reduction of low birth weight babies, increase in proper antenatal care, reduction of severely malnourished children, decrease in maternal and infant mortality and morbidity rates, and improvement in community involvement in all reproductive and child health programs. CINI is currently monitoring its performance and activities to carry out operations research for providing further evidence for the effectiveness of its interventions. PMID:12035846

  7. Sleep and academic success: mechanisms, empirical evidence, and interventional strategies.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Reut; Wiebe, Sabrina T; Wells, Samantha Ashley; Cassoff, Jamie; Monson, Eva

    2010-12-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that sleep is beneficial for learning, memory, attention, and academic success. However, the importance of sleep in these contexts has rarely been addressed in programs aimed at optimizing academic performance. This review aims to describe the role that sleep plays in processes pertaining to academic achievement. We first describe the basic sleep processes and their role with respect to cognitive and behavioral/emotional systems important for academic performance. We next review studies conducted to assess the association between sleep and academic performance, concluding by describing interventional programs being used to optimize sleep in the context of academic success. PMID:21302859

  8. Classroom Management Strategies and Behavioral Interventions to Support Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpatrick, Robin Sue Holzworth

    2010-01-01

    This mixed method project study identified the need for effective classroom management strategies to dissuade student noncompliant behavior and to ensure academic success for all students. Enhancing classroom management practices is vital to improved student achievement and teacher self-efficacy. Within a constructivist framework, it is critical…

  9. Structure Strategy Interventions: Increasing Reading Comprehension of Expository Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Bonnie J. F.; Ray, Melissa N.

    2011-01-01

    In this review of the literature we examine empirical studies designed to teach the structure strategy to increase reading comprehension of expository texts. First, we review the research that has served as a foundation for many of the studies examining the effects of text structure instruction. Text structures generally can be grouped into six…

  10. Assessment and Intervention for Academic Task Attack Strategy Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, R. T.; Lee, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Many students who underachieve in schools may not be learning as effectively as they could. Direct assessments such as the Academic Competence Evaluation Scales (ACES), School Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory (SMALSI), and the Academic Task Attack Checklist System (ATACS) can be used to evaluate students' knowledge and use of…

  11. Crisis Intervention Strategies for School-Based Helpers. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Thomas N., Ed.

    School-based helpers are helping professionals who work within educational settings and whose training and primary responsibility is to promote the mental health of students. Few resource materials provide these helpers with needed information and practical strategies--this text tries to meet that need. The 12 chapters here cover a wide range of…

  12. Cervical zygapophysial (facet) joint pain: effectiveness of interventional management strategies.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A; Kaye, Alan D; Boswell, Mark V

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic facet joint nerve blocks have been utilized in the diagnosis of cervical facet joint pain in patients without disk herniation or radicular pain due to a lack of reliable noninvasive diagnostic measures. Therapeutic interventions include intra-articular injections, facet joint nerve blocks and radiofrequency neurotomy. The diagnostic accuracy and effectiveness of facet joint interventions have been assessed in multiple diagnostic accuracy studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and systematic reviews in managing chronic neck pain. This assessment shows there is Level II evidence based on a total of 11 controlled diagnostic accuracy studies for diagnosing cervical facet joint pain in patients without disk herniation or radicular pain utilizing controlled diagnostic blocks. Due to significant variability and internal inconsistency regarding prevalence in a heterogenous population; despite 11 studies, evidence is determined as Level II. Prevalence ranged from 36% to 67% with at least 80% pain relief as the criterion standard with a false-positive rate ranging from 27% to 63%. The evidence is Level II for the long-term effectiveness of radiofrequency neurotomy and facet joint nerve blocks in managing cervical facet joint pain. There is Level III evidence for cervical intra-articular injections. PMID:26653406

  13. MHEALTH INTERVENTION DEVELOPMENT TO SUPPORT PATIENTS WITH ACTIVE TUBERCULOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Iribarren, Sarah J.; Beck, Susan L.; Pearce, Patricia F.; Chirico, Cristina; Etchevarria, Mirta; Rubinstein, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile Health (mHealth) based interventions have been increasingly used to improve a broad range of health outcomes. However, few researchers have reported on the process or the application of theory to guide the development of mHealth based interventions, or specifically for tuberculosis (TB) treatment management. Aims To describe the steps, process, and considerations in developing a text messaging-based intervention to promote treatment adherence and provide support to patients with active TB. Methods Traditional qualitative techniques, including semi-structured interviews, field notes, content analysis, iterative coding, and thematic analysis, were used to design and document the intervention development with a multidisciplinary team of researchers, clinicians, administrators, and patients who were in active TB treatment. The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model was used to guide the coding scheme for content analysis of patient-directed TB educational material and intervention development. Results The development steps included: a) establishing intervention components, including justifications, considerations, timing and frequency of components; b) developing educational messages, including cultural adaption, text or short message service (SMS) formatting, and prioritizing message delivery order; and c) determining implementation protocol. A set of 16 IMB-based messages were developed for the educational component. Final intervention development was achieved in 3 months. Conclusion A collaborative approach and application of a theory to guide the intervention design and development is supported. Although a collaborative approach was more time consuming, it resulted in a more responsive, culturally appropriate, and comprehensive intervention. Considerations for developing a text messaging based intervention are provided and may serve as a guide for similar interventions. Further empirical evidence is needed for applying the IMB model

  14. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-03-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using 'bouts' of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252

  15. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-01-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using ‘bouts’ of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252

  16. Correlates of the Intention to Implement a Tailored Physical Activity Intervention: Perceptions of Intermediaries

    PubMed Central

    Peels, Denise; Mudde, Aart; Bolman, Catherine; Golsteijn, Rianne; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    The public health impact of health behaviour interventions is highly dependent on large-scale implementation. Intermediaries—intervention providers—determine to a large extent whether an intervention reaches the target population, and hence its impact on public health. A cross-sectional study was performed to identify the correlates of intermediaries’ intention to implement a computer-tailored physical activity intervention. According to theory, potential correlates are intervention characteristics, organisational characteristics, socio-political characteristics and intermediary characteristics. This study investigated whether intermediary characteristics mediated the association between the intervention, organisational and socio-political characteristics and intention to implement the intervention. Results showed that intervention characteristics (i.e., observability (B = 0.53; p = 0.006); relative advantage (B = 0.79; p = 0.020); complexity (B = 0.80; p < 0.001); compatibility (B = 0.70; p < 0.001)), organisational characteristics (i.e., type of organization (B = 0.38; p = 0.002); perceived task responsibility (B = 0.66; p ≤ 0.001); capacity (B = 0.83; p < 0.001)), and the social support received by intermediary organisations (B = 0.81; p < 0.001) were associated with intention to implement the intervention. These factors should thus be targeted by an implementation strategy. Since self-efficacy and social norms perceived by the intermediary organisations partially mediated the effects of other variables on intention to implement the intervention (varying between 29% and 84%), these factors should be targeted to optimise the effectiveness of the implementation strategy. PMID:24518647

  17. Correlates of the intention to implement a tailored physical activity intervention: perceptions of intermediaries.

    PubMed

    Peels, Denise; Mudde, Aart; Bolman, Catherine; Golsteijn, Rianne; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2014-02-01

    The public health impact of health behaviour interventions is highly dependent on large-scale implementation. Intermediaries-intervention providers-determine to a large extent whether an intervention reaches the target population, and hence its impact on public health. A cross-sectional study was performed to identify the correlates of intermediaries' intention to implement a computer-tailored physical activity intervention. According to theory, potential correlates are intervention characteristics, organisational characteristics, socio-political characteristics and intermediary characteristics. This study investigated whether intermediary characteristics mediated the association between the intervention, organisational and socio-political characteristics and intention to implement the intervention. Results showed that intervention characteristics (i.e., observability (B = 0.53; p = 0.006); relative advantage (B = 0.79; p = 0.020); complexity (B = 0.80; p < 0.001); compatibility (B = 0.70; p < 0.001)), organisational characteristics (i.e., type of organization (B = 0.38; p = 0.002); perceived task responsibility (B = 0.66; p ≤ 0.001); capacity (B = 0.83; p < 0.001)), and the social support received by intermediary organisations (B = 0.81; p < 0.001) were associated with intention to implement the intervention. These factors should thus be targeted by an implementation strategy. Since self-efficacy and social norms perceived by the intermediary organisations partially mediated the effects of other variables on intention to implement the intervention (varying between 29% and 84%), these factors should be targeted to optimise the effectiveness of the implementation strategy. PMID:24518647

  18. Improved marathon performance by in-race nutritional strategy intervention.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Emanuelsen, Anders; Gertsen, Robert Mørkegaard; Sørensen S, S R

    2014-12-01

    It was tested whether a marathon was completed faster by applying a scientifically based rather than a freely chosen nutritional strategy. Furthermore, gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated. Nonelite runners performed a 10 km time trial 7 weeks before Copenhagen Marathon 2013 for estimation of running ability. Based on the time, runners were divided into two similar groups that eventually should perform the marathon by applying the two nutritional strategies. Matched pairs design was applied. Before the marathon, runners were paired based on their prerace running ability. Runners applying the freely chosen nutritional strategy (n = 14; 33.6 ± 9.6 years; 1.83 ± 0.09 m; 77.4 ± 10.6 kg; 45:40 ± 4:32 min for 10 km) could freely choose their in-race intake. Runners applying the scientifically based nutritional strategy (n = 14; 41.9 ± 7.6 years; 1.79 ± 0.11 m; 74.6 ± 14.5 kg; 45:44 ± 4:37 min) were targeting a combined in-race intake of energy gels and water, where the total intake amounted to approximately 0.750 L water, 60 g maltodextrin and glucose, 0.06 g sodium, and 0.09 g caffeine per hr. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed by a self-administered postrace questionnaire. Marathon time was 3:49:26 ± 0:25:05 and 3:38:31 ± 0:24:54 hr for runners applying the freely chosen and the scientifically based strategy, respectively (p = .010, effect size=-0.43). Certain runners experienced diverse serious gastrointestinal symptoms, but overall, symptoms were low and not different between groups (p > .05). In conclusion, nonelite runners completed a marathon on average 10:55 min, corresponding to 4.7%, faster by applying a scientifically based rather than a freely chosen nutritional strategy. Furthermore, average values of gastrointestinal symptoms were low and not different between groups. PMID:24901444

  19. Meta-analysis of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity levels

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Many internet-delivered physical activity behaviour change programs have been developed and evaluated. However, further evidence is required to ascertain the overall effectiveness of such interventions. The objective of the present review was to evaluate the effectiveness of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity, whilst also examining the effect of intervention moderators. A systematic search strategy identified relevant studies published in the English-language from Pubmed, Proquest, Scopus, PsychINFO, CINHAL, and Sport Discuss (January 1990 – June 2011). Eligible studies were required to include an internet-delivered intervention, target an adult population, measure and target physical activity as an outcome variable, and include a comparison group that did not receive internet-delivered materials. Studies were coded independently by two investigators. Overall effect sizes were combined based on the fixed effect model. Homogeneity and subsequent exploratory moderator analysis was undertaken. A total of 34 articles were identified for inclusion. The overall mean effect of internet-delivered interventions on physical activity was d = 0.14 (p = 0.00). Fixed-effect analysis revealed significant heterogeneity across studies (Q = 73.75; p = 0.00). Moderating variables such as larger sample size, screening for baseline physical activity levels and the inclusion of educational components significantly increased intervention effectiveness. Results of the meta-analysis support the delivery of internet-delivered interventions in producing positive changes in physical activity, however effect sizes were small. The ability of internet-delivered interventions to produce meaningful change in long-term physical activity remains unclear. PMID:22546283

  20. Intervention Markers of Physical Activity Maintenance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Floegel, Theresa A.; Giacobbi, Peter R.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T.; Roberts, Beverly; McCrae, Christina S.; Marsiske, Michael; Buman, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify intervention components that may promote long-term changes of physical activity among older adults in a behavioral theory-based physical activity trial. Methods Participants (N = 24; aged 65±8.79 years) shared perceptions of intervention components at the end of the intervention and physical activity was assessed at 18 months. Mixed-methods analyses using a pragmatic content analysis of interview data were conducted. Results Active study participants (25%) cited more specific goals/actions to achieve goals and more social support from family/friends, and had significantly higher self-determined motivation mean scores at 18 months than insufficiently active study participants (75%). Conclusions Specific goal-setting behaviors and social support from family/friends may be key elements of physical activity maintenance in older adults. PMID:26018097

  1. Optimal intervention strategies for cholera outbreak by education and chlorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhtiar, Toni

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the control of infectious diseases in the framework of optimal control approach. A case study on cholera control was studied by considering two control strategies, namely education and chlorination. We distinct the former control into one regarding person-to-person behaviour and another one concerning person-to-environment conduct. Model are divided into two interacted populations: human population which follows an SIR model and pathogen population. Pontryagin maximum principle was applied in deriving a set of differential equations which consists of dynamical and adjoin systems as optimality conditions. Then, the fourth order Runge-Kutta method was exploited to numerically solve the equation system. An illustrative example was provided to assess the effectiveness of the control strategies toward a set of control scenarios.

  2. Whirling disease dynamics: an analysis of intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Turner, Kimbra G; Smith, Matthew J; Ridenhour, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    Whirling disease (WD), a severe and widespread disease of salmonids, is caused by the myxosporean parasite Myxobolus cerebralis. It is further characterized by a unique two-host life cycle, utilizing the oligochaete Tubifex tubifex as an intermediate host. M. cerebralis is an invasive species that has been affecting populations in the United States including epidemics that killed in excess of 90% of populations in Colorado and Montana streams within the past 20 years. Currently, there is no known cure for WD, and the accepted method of control is removal of infected fish from the population. We have created a compartmental model of the WD system in order to assess more efficient means of control and management of the disease. Using data gathered from the literature, we used Bayesian model fitting to estimate model parameters and estimated that R0≈1.51 (95% CI: 1.39, 1.72), a value which implies that WD can be controlled using available strategies. To this end, we posit several parameters that we expect to be most influential to WD propagation, namely: release of triactinomyxons by T. tubifex, release of spores by salmonids, and infectious particle loads in each respective host. Based on currently available control strategies, approaches targeting the infectious particles and the oligochaete host appear the most effective alternative strategies for management and control of WD. PMID:24439792

  3. Intervention activities to improve the reasoning ability of students at risk in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, J.

    2006-12-01

    We describe a number of activities we have begun using in interventions targeting students who are at risk in introductory college physics courses. Some are adaptations of the work of others with pre-high school children, including Philip Adey in Great Britain (Cognitive Acceleration though Science Education), Reuven Feuerstein in Israel (Instrumental Enrichment), and Kurtz and Karplus in the U. S. in the 70’s (Numerical Relationships). We have also added some other activities, including Sudoku strategy development.

  4. Instructional Design, Active Learning, and Student Performance: Using a Trading Room to Teach Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Alice C.; Houghton, Susan M.; Rogers, Patrick R.

    2012-01-01

    This research used a quasi-experimental design with two conditions to test the impact of active learning in the context of integrated instructional design. The control condition was a traditional approach to teaching an undergraduate strategy capstone class. The intervention condition was an undergraduate strategy capstone class that was designed…

  5. Behavioral intervention to reduce AIDS risk activities.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J A; St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T L

    1989-02-01

    Behavior change can curtail the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In this study, 104 gay men with a history of frequent AIDS high-risk behavior completed self-report, self-monitoring, and behavioral measures related to AIDS risk. The sample was randomly divided into experimental and waiting-list control groups. The experimental intervention provided AIDS risk education, cognitive-behavioral self-management training, sexual assertion training, and attention to the development of steady and self-affirming social supports. Experimental group participants greatly reduced their frequency of high-risk sexual practices and increased behavioral skills for refusing sexual coercions, AIDS risk knowledge, and adoption of "safer sex" practices. Change was maintained at the 8-month follow-up. PMID:2925974

  6. [From early detection to early care: intervention strategies based on prospective screening].

    PubMed

    Canal-Bedia, Ricardo; García-Primo, Patricia; Hernández-Fabián, Aránzazu; Magán-Maganto, María; Sánchez, Ana B; Posada-De la Paz, Manuel

    2015-02-25

    INTRODUCTION. The challenge of early detection can be tackled from an evolutionary perspective. Early intervention treatments have shown themselves to be effective provided that they are applied systematically as part of the strategic planning of the treatment. AIMS. The aim of this study is to provide an updated review in response to the criticism targeted towards early detection and to offer some considerations on the intervention strategy. Our research is based on a review of the early care techniques that are commonly used within the field of autism and it intends to reflect the most significant aspects that can be deduced from the experiments and studies carried out to date. CONCLUSIONS. From the findings of the review it can be concluded that early detection may be more efficient if carried out within the framework of developmental surveillance, which also offers the opportunity to provide guidance on the child's development. Early care is an effective resource for attending to the needs of children with autism. Professionals have the duty to assess the work they do on available treatments with a reflexive, judicious attitude, taking into account the values and preferences of the families. Programmes must focus on the core symptoms and apply the active ingredients of the treatment. PMID:25726819

  7. Assessing resources for implementing a community directed intervention (CDI) strategy in delivering multiple health interventions in urban poor communities in Southwestern Nigeria: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    development projects was reported as common practice. The resources available for these activities and which constitute potential resources for the CDI process include community volunteers, CBOs and NGOs. Others are landlords; professional, women and youth associations; social clubs, religious organisations and the available health facilities. Conclusion This study’s findings support the feasibility of using the CDI process in delivering health interventions in urban poor communities and show that potential resources for the strategy abound in the communities. PMID:24156481

  8. A socio-ecological approach to physical activity interventions in childcare: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of physical activity (PA) in young children requires effective interventions. This article reviews the evidence on PA interventions in childcare by applying a socio-ecological approach. A computer-based literature search for intervention studies aimed at increasing children’s PA levels was run across four databases: SPORTDiscus, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO and ERIC. The participants had to be in childcare, aged 2-6-year-old, and their pre- and post- intervention PA levels measured. Selection was restricted to peer-reviewed publications and to studies conducted in childcare settings. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria and their methodological quality was assessed. Seven studies exhibited high methodological quality; twelve were rated as moderate and four low. The effectiveness of the interventions was determined according to the post-intervention behavioral changes reported in children’s PA. Fourteen studies found increases in PA levels or reductions in sedentary time, although the changes were modest. The data remain too limited to allow firm conclusions to be drawn on the effectiveness of the components mediating PA interventions, although PA-specific in-service teacher training seems a potential strategy. The findings of this review indicate that children’s PA remained low and did not approach the 180 min/day criteria. It may be that more intensive multilevel and multicomponent interventions based on a comprehensive model are needed. PMID:24559188

  9. Effect of Recovery Interventions on Cycling Performance and Pacing Strategy in the Heat.

    PubMed

    De Pauw, Kevin; Roelands, Bart; Vanparijs, Jef; Meeusen, Romain

    2013-05-22

    PURPOSE: To determine the effect of active recovery (AR), passive rest (PR) and cold water immersion (CWI) after 90 min intensive cycling on a subsequent 12 min time-trial (TT2) and the applied pacing strategy in TT2. METHODS: After a max test and familiarization trial, 9 trained male subjects (age: 22 ± 3 years; VO2max: 62.1 ± 5.3 ml·min-1·kg-1) performed 3 experimental trials in the heat (30°C). Each trial consisted of two exercise tasks separated by 1h. The first was a 60min constant load trial at 55% of the maximal power output (Wmax) followed by a 30 min time trial (TT1). The second comprised a 12 min simulated time trial (TT2). After TT1 AR, PR or CWI was applied for 15min. RESULTS: No significant TT2 performance differences were observed, but a one sample t test (within each condition) revealed different pacing strategies during TT2. CWI resulted in an even pacing strategy, while AR and PR resulted in a gradual decline of power output after the onset of TT2 (p≤0.046). During recovery AR and CWI showed a trend towards faster blood lactate ([BLa]) removal, but during TT2 significantly higher [BLa] were only observed after CWI compared to PR (p=0.011). CONCLUSION: The pacing strategy during subsequent cycling performance in the heat is influenced by the application of different post-exercise recovery interventions. Although power was not significantly altered between groups, CWI enabled a different shaped power profile, likely due to decreased thermal strain. PMID:23751814

  10. Combined Home and School Obesity Prevention Interventions for Children: What Behavior Change Strategies and Intervention Characteristics Are Associated with Effectiveness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrie, Gilly A.; Brindal, Emily; Corsini, Nadia; Gardner, Claire; Baird, Danielle; Golley, Rebecca K.

    2012-01-01

    This review identifies studies describing interventions delivered across both the home and school/community setting, which target obesity and weight-related nutrition and physical activity behaviors in children. Fifteen studies, published between 1998 and 2010, were included and evaluated for effectiveness, study quality, nutrition/activity…

  11. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who are Minimally Verbal

    PubMed Central

    Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Mucchetti, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468–478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5–8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent–child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84–96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70 % of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement. PMID:25475363

  12. Systematic Review of Physical Activity Outcomes of Rural Lifestyle Interventions.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yun; Richards, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to analyze current lifestyle intervention literature conducted in U.S. rural areas to identify the most effective and impactful interventions on physical activity outcomes. Quality of studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. Exploratory calculations of effect size and 95% confidence intervals were performed to demonstrate trends in clinical importance. Eight trials which included 1,399 adult participants met the inclusion criteria for review. Two trials reported a significant difference in the increase of physical activity between groups with medium to large effect sizes. Interventions which are very personalized or tailored and/or include many intervention contacts appear to be most effective. However, the small number of studies, mixed findings, and the risk of bias limit our ability to draw conclusion. PMID:26728043

  13. Optimizing marketing intervention strategies in the obesogenic environment: REACH FAR, the eight criteria for program planners.

    PubMed

    Harker, Michael; Harker, Debra; Burns, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is a significant problem for most industrialised nations and an emerging one for developing nations (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2005). Childhood obesity is of particular concern. This paper, using systematic review procedures, has analysed the intervention strategies used to fight the obesity battle over the past twenty years. For a number of reasons the effectiveness of many intervention strategies was found wanting whilst a minority of cases studied were sound. These cases were analysed and a set of principles developed that could deliver improved processes and outcomes to the problems encountered by planners in the complex obesogenic environment. PMID:19064475

  14. Development of a universal approach to increase physical activity among adolescents: the GoActive intervention

    PubMed Central

    Corder, Kirsten; Schiff, Annie; Kesten, Joanna M; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop a physical activity (PA) promotion intervention for adolescents using a process addressing gaps in the literature while considering participant engagement. We describe the initial development stages; (1) existing evidence, (2) large scale opinion gathering and (3) developmental qualitative work, aiming (A) to gain insight into how to increase PA among the whole of year 9 (13–14 years-old) by identifying elements for intervention inclusion (B) to improve participant engagement and (C) to develop and refine programme design. Methods Relevant systematic reviews and longitudinal analyses of change were examined. An intervention was developed iteratively with older adolescents (17.3±0.5 years) and teachers, using the following process: (1) focus groups with (A) adolescents (n=26) and (B) teachers (n=4); (2) individual interviews (n=5) with inactive and shy adolescents focusing on engagement and programme acceptability. Qualitative data were analysed thematically. Results Limitations of the existing literature include lack of evidence on whole population approaches, limited adolescent involvement in intervention development, and poor participant engagement. Qualitative work suggested six themes which may encourage adolescents to do more PA; choice, novelty, mentorship, competition, rewards and flexibility. Teachers discussed time pressures as a barrier to encouraging adolescent PA and suggested between-class competition as a strategy. GoActive aims to increase PA through increased peer support, self-efficacy, group cohesion, self-esteem and friendship quality, and is implemented in tutor groups using a student-led tiered-leadership system. Conclusions We have followed an evidence-based iterative approach to translate existing evidence into an adolescent PA promotion intervention. Qualitative work with adolescents and teachers supported intervention design and addressed lack of engagement with health promotion programmes within this age group

  15. Novel device-based interventional strategies for advanced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Toth, Gabor G; Vanderheyden, Marc; Bartunek, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    While heart failure is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity, our tools to provide ultimate treatment solutions are still limited. Recent developments in new devices are designed to fill this therapeutic gap. The scope of this review is to focus on two particular targets, namely (1) left ventricular geometric restoration and (2) atrial depressurization. (1) Reduction of the wall stress by shrinking the ventricular cavity has been traditionally attempted surgically. Recently, the Parachute device (CardioKinetix Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA) has been introduced to restore ventricular geometry and cardiac mechanics. The intervention aims to partition distal dysfunctional segments that are non-contributory to the ventricular mechanics and forward cardiac output. (2) Diastolic heart failure is characterized by abnormal relaxation and chamber stiffness. The main therapeutic goal achieved should be the reduction of afterload and diastolic pressure load. Recently, new catheter-based approaches were proposed to reduce left atrial pressure and ventricular decompression: the InterAtrial Shunt Device (IASD™) (Corvia Medical Inc., Tewksbury, MA, USA) and the V-Wave Shunt (V-Wave Ltd, Or Akiva, Israel). Both are designed to create a controlled atrial septal defect in symptomatic patients with heart failure. While the assist devices are aimed at end-stage heart failure, emerging device-based percutaneous or minimal invasive techniques comprise a wide spectrum of innovative concepts that target ventricular remodeling, cardiac contractility or neuro-humoral modulation. The clinical adoption is in the early stages of the initial feasibility and safety studies, and clinical evidence needs to be gathered in appropriately designed clinical trials. PMID:26966444

  16. Novel device-based interventional strategies for advanced heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Vanderheyden, Marc; Bartunek, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    While heart failure is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity, our tools to provide ultimate treatment solutions are still limited. Recent developments in new devices are designed to fill this therapeutic gap. The scope of this review is to focus on two particular targets, namely (1) left ventricular geometric restoration and (2) atrial depressurization. (1) Reduction of the wall stress by shrinking the ventricular cavity has been traditionally attempted surgically. Recently, the Parachute device (CardioKinetix Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA) has been introduced to restore ventricular geometry and cardiac mechanics. The intervention aims to partition distal dysfunctional segments that are non-contributory to the ventricular mechanics and forward cardiac output. (2) Diastolic heart failure is characterized by abnormal relaxation and chamber stiffness. The main therapeutic goal achieved should be the reduction of afterload and diastolic pressure load. Recently, new catheter-based approaches were proposed to reduce left atrial pressure and ventricular decompression: the InterAtrial Shunt Device (IASD™) (Corvia Medical Inc., Tewksbury, MA, USA) and the V-Wave Shunt (V-Wave Ltd, Or Akiva, Israel). Both are designed to create a controlled atrial septal defect in symptomatic patients with heart failure. While the assist devices are aimed at end-stage heart failure, emerging device-based percutaneous or minimal invasive techniques comprise a wide spectrum of innovative concepts that target ventricular remodeling, cardiac contractility or neuro-humoral modulation. The clinical adoption is in the early stages of the initial feasibility and safety studies, and clinical evidence needs to be gathered in appropriately designed clinical trials. PMID:26966444

  17. Intervention fidelity and effectiveness of a UK worksite physical activity intervention funded by the BUPA Foundation, UK.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Rebecca; Mceachan, Rosie; Jackson, Cath; West, Robert; Conner, Mark

    2015-03-01

    The main aim of this study was to test whether the effectiveness of a worksite physical activity intervention delivered in five work organizations varied as a function of intervention fidelity. We conducted a fidelity analysis as part of a large matched-pair cluster randomized controlled trial of a worksite physical activity intervention (AME for Activity). Participants (N = 1260) were employees from five organizations in the UK. The primary trial outcome was physical activity at 9 months post intervention. Adherence, exposure, quality of delivery and participant responsiveness/engagement were measured to assess fidelity. Qualitative data about the context in which the intervention was delivered were collected via focus groups, interviews and field notes. Multi-level modelling was used to provide a comparison of the effect of the intervention on increases in physical activity for worksites where intervention fidelity was good, compared with those where intervention fidelity was poor or moderate. Intervention fidelity was poor in two organizations, moderate in two organizations and good in one organization (local council). Re-analysis of the trial data comparing employees in the local council (N = 443) with employees in all other worksites (N = 611) revealed a significant effect of the intervention on physical activity levels among council employees only. These findings suggest that the measurement of fidelity and the testing of the effects of intervention fidelity on outcomes, as part of the evaluation of complex interventions, are essential to understand the context and conditions in which interventions are most effective. PMID:25296727

  18. Active Learning Strategies to Promote Critical Thinking

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To provide a brief introduction to the definition and disposition to think critically along with active learning strategies to promote critical thinking. Data Sources: I searched MEDLINE and Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) from 1933 to 2002 for literature related to critical thinking, the disposition to think critically, questioning, and various critical-thinking pedagogic techniques. Data Synthesis: The development of critical thinking has been the topic of many educational articles recently. Numerous instructional methods exist to promote thought and active learning in the classroom, including case studies, discussion methods, written exercises, questioning techniques, and debates. Three methods—questioning, written exercises, and discussion and debates—are highlighted. Conclusions/Recommendations: The definition of critical thinking, the disposition to think critically, and different teaching strategies are featured. Although not appropriate for all subject matter and classes, these learning strategies can be used and adapted to facilitate critical thinking and active participation. PMID:16558680

  19. [DGRW-update: neurology--from empirical strategies towards evidence based interventions].

    PubMed

    Schupp, W

    2011-12-01

    communicative disorders; the therapists use communicative and/or linguistics-oriented strategies. SLT must begin early after disease onset and with high frequency to elicit good results. PC-assisted (self-)training, possibly telemedically applied, can increase training frequency and time and, hence, improve outcome in aphasia. High-frequency and task-specific training, often PC-assisted, were found to be relevant for improving cognitive functions in all dimensions. Several strategies seem to be efficient in neglect. Visual field deficits can be treated restitutively and compensatingly by PC-assisted training. Attention, memory and executive dysfunctions each require multimodal specific treatment strategies, performed in single and group therapy and in PC-assisted training. Also, education of patients to cope with their impairments and disabilities is another important part. Combined medically and vocationally oriented rehabilitation settings are necessary for raising the rate of return-to-work, especially in patients with motor hand impairments or cognitive disorders. Education of patients and relatives to cope with the chronic neurological diseases and disablements highly improve the sustainability of rehab results and can, in the long run, also reduce mortality and admission to nursing homes. Appropriate physical activity and sports are relevant in the phase of aftercare, by stabilizing both motor coordination and cognitive factors; in MS patients fatigue can be diminished effectively.The main mental comorbidities are anxiety and depression. Pharmacological and psychological treatments have been found to be equally important in this context. Frequently, these mental disorders appear in the phase of aftercare and long-term course only, then worsening outcome sustainability. Efficient concepts to deal with this aspect are still missing. The ambulatory health care system can not cope with it until now.The multitude of evidence-based interventions have over the last 20 years

  20. A Systematic Review of Strategies for Implementing Empirically Supported Mental Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Byron J.; Proctor, Enola K.; Glass, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This systematic review examines experimental studies that test the effectiveness of strategies intended to integrate empirically supported mental health interventions into routine care settings. Our goal was to characterize the state of the literature and to provide direction for future implementation studies. Methods A literature search was conducted using electronic databases and a manual search. Results Eleven studies were identified that tested implementation strategies with a randomized (n = 10) or controlled clinical trial design (n = 1). The wide range of clinical interventions, implementation strategies, and outcomes evaluated precluded meta-analysis. However, the majority of studies (n = 7; 64%) found a statistically significant effect in the hypothesized direction for at least one implementation or clinical outcome. Conclusions There is a clear need for more rigorous research on the effectiveness of implementation strategies, and we provide several suggestions that could improve this research area. PMID:24791131

  1. Identifying quality improvement intervention publications - A comparison of electronic search strategies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The evidence base for quality improvement (QI) interventions is expanding rapidly. The diversity of the initiatives and the inconsistency in labeling these as QI interventions makes it challenging for researchers, policymakers, and QI practitioners to access the literature systematically and to identify relevant publications. Methods We evaluated search strategies developed for MEDLINE (Ovid) and PubMed based on free text words, Medical subject headings (MeSH), QI intervention components, continuous quality improvement (CQI) methods, and combinations of the strategies. Three sets of pertinent QI intervention publications were used for validation. Two independent expert reviewers screened publications for relevance. We compared the yield, recall rate, and precision of the search strategies for the identification of QI publications and for a subset of empirical studies on effects of QI interventions. Results The search yields ranged from 2,221 to 216,167 publications. Mean recall rates for reference publications ranged from 5% to 53% for strategies with yields of 50,000 publications or fewer. The 'best case' strategy, a simple text word search with high face validity ('quality' AND 'improv*' AND 'intervention*') identified 44%, 24%, and 62% of influential intervention articles selected by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) experts, a set of exemplar articles provided by members of the Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE) group, and a sample from the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group (EPOC) register of studies, respectively. We applied the search strategy to a PubMed search for articles published in 10 pertinent journals in a three-year period which retrieved 183 publications. Among these, 67% were deemed relevant to QI by at least one of two independent raters. Forty percent were classified as empirical studies reporting on a QI intervention. Conclusions The presented search terms and

  2. Activity-Based Intervention Practices in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozen, Arzu; Ergenekon, Yasemin

    2011-01-01

    Teaching practices in natural settings such as activity-based intervention (ABI) are suggested as alternatives to be used in effective early childhood education. As a multidisciplinary model, ABI consists of four components, which are choosing activities according to the child's interests; teaching generalizable goals embedded in routines and…

  3. Teachers' Collaborative Activity in School-Wide Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertesvåg, Sigrun K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the strong interest in research about collaboration among teachers, there are few longitudinal studies that have investigated improvements in collaborative activity among teachers through school-wide interventions. Drawing on data from a larger study, this article describes improvements in collaborative activity among 900 teachers at 28…

  4. Trainer Interventions as Instructional Strategies in Air Traffic Control Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskela, Inka; Palukka, Hannele

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify methods of guidance and supervision used in air traffic control training. It also aims to show how these methods facilitate trainee participation in core work activities. Design/methodology/approach: The paper applies the tools of conversation analysis and ethnomethodology to explore the ways in which trainers…

  5. mHealth Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Pilot Study in Physically Inactive Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Choi, JiWon; Lee, Ji Hyeon; Vittinghoff, Eric; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity is prevalent in pregnant women, and innovative strategies to promote physical activity are strongly needed. The purpose of the study was to test a 12-week mobile health (mHealth) physical activity intervention for feasibility and potential efficacy. Methods Participants were recruited between December 2012 and February 2014 using diverse recruitment methods. Thirty pregnant women between 10 and 20 weeks of gestation were randomized to an intervention (mobile phone app plus Fitbit) or a control (Fitbit) group. Both conditions targeted gradual increases in physical activity. The mHealth intervention included daily messages and a mobile phone activity diary with automated feedback and self-monitoring systems. Results On monthly average, 4 women were screened for initial eligibility by telephone and 2.5 were randomized. Intervention participants had a 1096 ± 1898 step increase in daily steps compared to an increase of 259 ± 1604 steps in control participants at 12 weeks. The change between groups in weekly mean steps per day during the 12-week study period was not statistically significant (p = 0.38). The intervention group reported lower perceived barrier to being active, lack of energy, than the control group at 12-week visit (p = 0.02). The rates of responding to daily messages and using the daily diary through the mobile app declined during the 12 week study period. Discussion It was difficult to recruit and randomize inactive women who wanted to increase physical activity during pregnancy. Pregnant women who were motivated to increase physical activity might find using mobile technologies in assessing and promoting PA acceptable. Possible reasons for the non-significant treatment effect of the mHealth intervention on physical activity are discussed. Public awareness of safety and benefits of physical activity during pregnancy should be promoted. Clinicaltrials.Gov Identifier NCT01461707. PMID:26649879

  6. Mediators of change following a senior school physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Lubans, David R; Sylva, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that the low level of effectiveness of youth interventions is due to a lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms responsible for behaviour change. The identification of behaviour mediators is necessary for the progression of physical activity research, as it allows researchers to determine which components of an intervention are responsible for mediating behaviour change. The purpose of this study was to identify mediators of behaviour change in a physical activity intervention for senior school students. Participants (n=78) were randomly allocated to control or intervention conditions for a period of 10 weeks. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and potential mediators were assessed at baseline and post-intervention (10 weeks). Hypothesized mediators were derived from Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory and included: peer support, exercise self-efficacy and outcome expectancy. Mediation was assessed using the product-of-coefficients test described by MacKinnon and colleagues, based on the criteria for mediation identified by Baron and Kenny. While none of the variables satisfied all four criteria for mediation among males or females, self-efficacy was able to satisfy the first three criteria among females in the study. Exercise self-efficacy may be a mediator of physical activity behaviour in adolescent girls. PMID:18069061

  7. Motivation for physical activity and exercise in severe mental illness: A systematic review of intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit

    2016-06-01

    There has been increasing interest for research on motivation for physical activity (PA) and exercise among individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). The aim of this systematic review is to summarize findings from all intervention studies on PA or exercise that either include empirical data on motivational constructs or apply motivational techniques/theories in their intervention. Systematic searches of seven databases were conducted from database inception to February 2015. Studies were eligible if they: (i) included participants with SMI, (ii) had PA as part of the intervention, and (iii) reported empirical data on motivational constructs related to PA or incorporated motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Of the 79 studies that met the inclusion criteria only one had motivation for PA as its main outcome. Nine additional interventions reported empirical data on motivational constructs. Altogether these studies yielded mixed results with respect to change in motivational constructs. Only one of those examined the association between motivation and PA, but found none. Sixty-four studies reported using motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Motivational interviewing and goal-setting were the most popular techniques. Due to the exploratory nature of most of these studies, findings from intervention studies do not so far give very clear directions for motivational work with the patients. There is an urgent need for a more systematic theory based approach when developing strategies that target to increase engagement in PA among people with SMI. PMID:26916699

  8. Mobile Phone Interventions to Increase Physical Activity and Reduce Weight

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Janna; Allen, Jerilyn

    2013-01-01

    Objective This systematic review was conducted to determine user satisfaction and effectiveness of smartphone applications and text messaging interventions to promote weight reduction and physical activity. Methods Studies of smartphone applications and text messaging interventions related to the cardiovascular risk factors of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity published between January 2005 and August 2010 were eligible. Studies related to disease management were excluded. Study characteristics and results were gathered and synthesized. Results A total of 36 citations from CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsyclNFO, and PubMed were identified; 7 articles were eligible for inclusion. The most frequent outcome measured in the studies was change in the weight of participants (57%). More than half of the studies (71%) reported statistically significant results in at least 1 outcome of weight loss, physical activity, dietary intake, decreased body mass index, decreased waist circumference, sugar-sweetened beverage intake, screen time, and satisfaction or acceptability outcomes. Conclusions All of the technology interventions that were supported by education or an additional intervention demonstrated a beneficial impact of text messaging or smartphone application for reduction of physical inactivity and/or overweight/obesity. More rigorous trials that determine what parts of the technology or intervention are effective as well as establishment of cost-effectiveness are necessary for further evaluation of smartphone and text messaging interventions. PMID:22635061

  9. Effects of a Community-Based, Professionally Supervised Intervention on Physical Activity Levels Among Residents of Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hallal, Pedro; Pratt, Michael; Ramos, Luiz; Munk, Marcia; Damascena, Wilson; Parra Perez, Diana; Hoehner, Christine M.; Gilbertz, David; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Brownson, Ross C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effects of a community-based intervention, the Academia da Cidade program (ACP), on increasing leisure-time physical activity among residents of Recife, Brazil. Methods. We used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess leisure-time physical activity and transport physical activity (i.e., activities involved in traveling from place to place) levels in a random sample of 2047 Recife residents surveyed in 2007. We also examined factors related to exposure to ACP (participation in the intervention, residing near an intervention site, hearing about or seeing intervention activities). We estimated prevalence odds ratios (ORs) of moderate to high leisure-time and transport physical activity levels via intervention exposures adjusted for sociodemographic, health, and environmental variables. Results. Prevalence ORs for moderate to high levels of leisure-time physical activity were higher among former (prevalence OR = 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 3.9) and current (prevalence OR = 11.3; 95% CI = 3.5, 35.9) intervention participants and those who had heard about or seen an intervention activity (prevalence OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.5). Transport physical activity levels were inversely associated with residing near an ACP site. Conclusions. The ACP program appears to be an effective public health strategy to increase population-level physical activity in urban developing settings. PMID:19008499

  10. A Social-Behavioral Learning Strategy Intervention for a Child with Asperger Syndrome: Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Marjorie A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a social-behavioral learning strategy intervention (Stop-Observe-Deliberate-Act; SODA) on the social interaction skills of one middle school student with Asperger syndrome (AS). More specifically, the study investigated the effect of SODA training on the ability of one student with AS to participate in cooperative…

  11. Video Self-Modeling as an Intervention Strategy for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelbar, Nicholas W.; Anderson, Candace; McCarthy, Scott; Buggey, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Video self-modeling demonstrates promise as an intervention strategy to improve outcomes in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. This article summarizes the empirical evidence supporting the use of video self-modeling with individuals with autism spectrum disorders to increase language and communication, increase social skills, modify…

  12. When Do I Go Home? Intervention Strategies for Foster Parents and Helping Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyle, Sally G.

    Noting that meeting foster children's needs with sensitivity and compassion creates challenges for foster parents and helping professionals, this booklet narrates the experiences of two foster children to launch a discussion of challenges faced by foster children and appropriate child welfare intervention strategies. Part 1 tells the story of…

  13. Evaluation of a Resilience Intervention to Enhance Coping Strategies and Protective Factors and Decrease Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhardt, Mary; Dolbier, Christyn

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In this pilot study, the authors examined the effectiveness of a 4-week resilience intervention to enhance resilience, coping strategies, and protective factors, as well as decrease symptomatology during a period of increased academic stress. Participants and Methods: College students were randomly assigned to experimental (n = 30) and…

  14. An Evaluation of the SPIES Video Series (Strategies for Preschool Intervention in Everyday Settings).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utley, Ginger; Qian, April; Eastmond, Nick

    The Strategies for Preschool Intervention in Everyday Settings (SPIES), funded by the State of Utah in conjunction with the Center for Persons with Disabilities at Utah State University, is an attempt to orient parents and teachers of preschool children to ways of dealing with children with disabilities. The primary vehicle for providing this…

  15. A Systematic Review of Strategies for Implementing Empirically Supported Mental Health Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Byron J.; Proctor, Enola K.; Glass, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This systematic review examines experimental studies that test the effectiveness of strategies intended to integrate empirically supported mental health interventions into routine care settings. Our goal was to characterize the state of the literature and to provide direction for future implementation studies. Method: A literature…

  16. A Strategy Intervention to Increase the Reading Comprehension of Junior High School Students with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mothus, Trudy G.; Lapadat, Judith C.

    2006-01-01

    A challenge facing educators is to find ways to arrest and reverse the cumulative deficit in reading experienced by many students with learning disabilities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of a strategy intervention to increase the reading comprehension of eighth grade students with reading disabilities in intact junior high school classes…

  17. A Model for Developing Pre-Service Teacher Reflection: An Interactive Intervention Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciminelli, Michelle R.

    2011-01-01

    The author describes an interactive intervention strategy to assist pre-service teachers in developing reflective practices in an undergraduate literacy course. The goal of the study was to encourage deeper analysis rather than purely descriptive summaries of field placements in teacher candidates' written reflections, so pre-service teachers may…

  18. Writing Instructional Intervention Supplement (Benchmarks, Informal Assessments, Strategies), Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson.

    This Writing Instructional Intervention Supplement from the Mississippi Department of Education contains benchmarks, informal assessments, and suggested teaching strategies for the fourth through eighth grades. Benchmarks outline what students should know and be able to do to meet mandated competencies. Informal and observational assessments…

  19. Active Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quantitative method of data collection, this research explored the question: Do active learning strategies used in grades 5 and 6 affect student vocabulary achievement in a positive or negative direction? In their research, Wolfe (2001), Headley, et al., (1995), Freiberg, et al., (1992), and Brunner (2009) emphasize the importance of…

  20. Biased and unbiased strategies to identify biologically active small molecules.

    PubMed

    Abet, Valentina; Mariani, Angelica; Truscott, Fiona R; Britton, Sébastien; Rodriguez, Raphaël

    2014-08-15

    Small molecules are central players in chemical biology studies. They promote the perturbation of cellular processes underlying diseases and enable the identification of biological targets that can be validated for therapeutic intervention. Small molecules have been shown to accurately tune a single function of pluripotent proteins in a reversible manner with exceptional temporal resolution. The identification of molecular probes and drugs remains a worthy challenge that can be addressed by the use of biased and unbiased strategies. Hypothesis-driven methodologies employs a known biological target to synthesize complementary hits while discovery-driven strategies offer the additional means of identifying previously unanticipated biological targets. This review article provides a general overview of recent synthetic frameworks that gave rise to an impressive arsenal of biologically active small molecules with unprecedented cellular mechanisms. PMID:24811300

  1. The Effects of an Intervention Strategy on Children's Heart Rates and Skill Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ignico, Arlene; Corson, Arleen; Vidoni, Carla

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine the effectiveness of a fitness infusion instructional strategy (FI) on children's activity levels and skill performance scores. This strategy included aerobic activity within the skill practice tasks and game play. In other words, students performed short bouts of activity between the practice and…

  2. From intervention to innovation: applying a formal implementation strategy in community primary care.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Andrea S; Sussman, Andrew L; Anthoney, Mark; Parker, Edith A

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe a comprehensive strategy for implementing an effective diabetes self-management support intervention incorporating goal-setting and followup support in community health clinics (CHCs) serving vulnerable patients. Methods. The Replicating Effective Programs (REP) framework was applied to develop an intervention strategy. In order to create a strategy consistent with the REP framework, four CHCs engaged in an iterative process involving key-informant interviews with clinic staff, ongoing involvement of clinic staff facilitating translational efforts, feedback from national experts, and an instructional designer. Results. Moving through the REP process resulted in an implementation strategy that aims to facilitate commitment, communication, and change at the clinic level, as well as means of providing interactive, time-limited education about patient behavior change and support to health care providers. Conclusion. The REP offered a useful framework for providing guidance toward the development of a strategy to implement a diabetes self-management intervention in CHCs serving medically underserved and underrepresented patient populations. PMID:23606957

  3. Increasing physical activity through mobile device interventions: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Adrià; Vidal-Conti, Josep; Palou, Pere

    2016-09-01

    Physical inactivity is a health problem that affects people worldwide and has been identified as the fourth largest risk factor for overall mortality (contributing to 6% of deaths globally). Many researchers have tried to increase physical activity levels through traditional methods without much success. Thus, many researchers are turning to mobile technology as an emerging method for changing health behaviours. This systematic review sought to summarise and update the existing scientific literature on increasing physical activity through mobile device interventions, taking into account the methodological quality of the studies. The articles were identified by searching the PubMed, SCOPUS and SPORTDiscus databases for studies published between January 2003 and December 2013. Studies investigating efforts to increase physical activity through mobile phone or even personal digital assistant interventions were included. The search results allowed the inclusion of 11 studies that gave rise to 12 publications. Six of the articles included in this review reported significant increases in physical activity levels. The number of studies using mobile devices for interventions has increased exponentially in the last few years, but future investigations with better methodological quality are needed to draw stronger conclusions regarding how to increase physical activity through mobile device interventions. PMID:25649783

  4. A review of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions in adult males – a guide for intervention strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy excess, low fruit and vegetable intake and other suboptimal dietary habits contribute to an increased poor health and the burden of disease in males. However the best way to engage males into nutrition programs remains unclear. This review provides a critical evaluation of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions that target the adult male population. Methods A search for full-text publications was conducted using The Cochrane Library; Web of Science; SCOPUS; MEDLINE and CINAHL. Studies were included if 1) published from January 1990 to August 2011 and 2) male only studies (≥18 years) or 3) where males contributed to >90% of the active cohort. A study must have described, (i) a significant change (p<0.05) over time in an objective measure of body weight, expressed in kilograms (kg) OR Body Mass Index (BMI) OR (ii) at least one significant change (p<0.05) in a dietary intake measure to qualify as effective. To identify emerging patterns within the research a descriptive process was used. Results Nine studies were included. Sample sizes ranged from 53 to 5042 male participants, with study durations ranging from 12 weeks to 24 months. Overlap was seen with eight of the nine studies including a weight management component whilst six studies focused on achieving changes in dietary intake patterns relating to modifications of fruit, vegetable, dairy and total fat intakes and three studies primarily focused on achieving weight loss through caloric restriction. Intervention effectiveness was identified for seven of the nine studies. Five studies reported significant positive changes in weight (kg) and/or BMI (kg/m2) changes (p≤0.05). Four studies had effective interventions (p<0.05) targeting determinants of dietary intake and dietary behaviours and/or nutritional intake. Intervention features, which appeared to be associated with better outcomes, include the delivery of quantitative information on diet and the use of self

  5. A multidisciplinary consensus document on follow-up strategies for patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Roberta; Oltrona Visconti, Luigi; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Filippi, Alessandro; Pedretti, Roberto; Lettieri, Corrado; Buffoli, Francesca; Campana, Marco; Capodanno, Davide; Castiglioni, Battistina; Cattaneo, Maria Grazia; Colombo, Paola; De Luca, Leonardo; De Servi, Stefano; Ferlini, Marco; Limbruno, Ugo; Nassiacos, Daniele; Piccaluga, Emanuela; Raisaro, Arturo; Ravizza, PierFranco; Senni, Michele; Tabaglio, Erminio; Tarantini, Giuseppe; Trabattoni, Daniela; Zadra, Alessandro; Riccio, Carmine; Bedogni, Francesco; Febo, Oreste; Brignoli, Ovidio; Ceravolo, Roberto; Sardella, Gennaro; Bongo, Sante; Faggiano, Pompilio; Cricelli, Claudio; Greco, Cesare; Gulizia, Michele Massimo; Berti, Sergio; Bovenzi, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The number of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) is increasing worldwide. Follow-up strategies after PCI are extremely heterogeneous and can greatly affect the cost of medical care. Of note, clinical evaluations and non-invasive exams are often performed to low risk patients. In the present consensus document, practical advises are provided with respect to a tailored follow-up strategy on the basis of patients' risk profile. Three strategies follow-up have been defined and types and timing of clinical and instrumental evaluations are reported. Clinical and interventional cardiologists, cardiac rehabilitators, and general practitioners, who are in charge to manage post-PCI patients, equally contributed to the creation of the present document. PMID:25380511

  6. Worksite Physical Activity Intervention for Ambulatory Clinic Nursing Staff.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Sharon; Farrington, Michele; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M; Clark, M Kathleen; Dawson, Cindy; Quinn, Geralyn J; Laffoon, Trudy; Perkhounkova, Yelena

    2016-07-01

    Health behaviors, including physical activity (PA), of registered nurses (RNs) and medical assistants (MAs) are suboptimal but may improve with worksite programs. Using a repeated-measures crossover design, the authors explored if integrating a 6-month worksite non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) intervention, with and without personalized health coaching via text messaging into workflow could positively affect sedentary time, PA, and body composition of nursing staff without jeopardizing work productivity. Two ambulatory clinics were randomly assigned to an environmental NEAT intervention plus a mobile text message coaching for either the first 3 months (early texting group, n = 27) or the last 3 months (delayed texting group, n = 13), with baseline 3-month and 6-month measurements. Sedentary and PA levels, fat mass, and weight improved for both groups, significantly only for the early text group. Productivity did not decline for either group. This worksite intervention is feasible and may benefit nursing staff. PMID:27143144

  7. PHARMACOLOGICAL ANTIOXIDANT STRATEGIES AS THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTIONS FOR COPD

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette/tobacco smoke/biomass fuel-induced oxidative and aldehyde/carbonyl stress are intimately associated with the progression and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, targeting systemic and local oxidative stress with antioxidants/redox modulating agents, or boosting the endogenous levels of antioxidants are likely to have beneficial effects in the treatment/management of COPD. Various antioxidant agents, such as thiol molecules (glutathione and mucolytic drugs, such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine and N-acystelyn, erdosteine, fudosteine, ergothioneine, and carbocysteine), all have been reported to modulate various cellular and biochemical aspects of COPD. These antioxidants have been found to scavenge and detoxify free radicals and oxidants, regulate of glutathione biosynthesis, control nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation, and hence inhibiting inflammatory gene expression. Synthetic molecules, such as specific spin traps like α-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone, a catalytic antioxidant (ECSOD mimetic), porphyrins (AEOL 10150 and AEOL 10113), and a superoxide dismutase mimetic M40419, iNOS inhibitors, lipid peroxidation inhibitors/blockers edaravone, and lazaroids/tirilazad have also been shown to have beneficial effects by inhibiting the cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory responses and other carbonyl/oxidative stress-induced cellular alterations. A variety of oxidants, free radicals, and carbonyls/aldehydes are implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD, it is therefore, possible that therapeutic administration or supplementation of multiple antioxidants and/or boosting the endogenous levels of antioxidants will be beneficial in the treatment of COPD. This review discusses various novel pharmacological approaches adopted to enhance lung antioxidant levels, and various emerging beneficial and/or prophylactic effects of antioxidant therapeutics in halting or intervening the progression of COPD. PMID:22101076

  8. ELSa interventional Portuguese health program to promote physical activity.

    PubMed

    Mourão Carvalhal, Maria Isabel Martins; Fonseca, Sandra; de Castro Coelho, Eduarda Maria Rocha Teles

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the communication was to present the baseline data from incidence of obesity, eating habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, before ELSa, interventional Portuguese health program. The sample was composed of 496 children (238 girls and 258 boys) with an average 7.7 (± 2.5) years of age. Thinness, overweight and obesity were calculated by using the BMI and the cut off of Cole et al., 24 h dietary recalls and a general questionnaire was completed by the parents to provide information about eating habits, sedentary behaviour and physical activity. The results indicated high incidence of overweight and obesity, many hours in screen activities and low level of physical activity. The eating habits seemed healthy, but our children's lifestyles were sedentary. To combat the high incidence of obesity it is very urgent to design a multi-level intervention aimed to modify key behaviours: physical activity, screen time and nutrition. PMID:21923295

  9. Intervention in Overweight Children Improves BMI and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Siwik, Violet; Kutob, Randa; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Cruz, Luis; Senf, Janet; Aickin, Mikel; Going, Scott; Shatte, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a growing epidemic in family medicine with few clinical treatment options. We implemented and evaluated a group office-visit intervention by family physicians emphasizing nutrition and physical activity within a resiliency psychosocial model, for overweight children and their parents. Methods The intervention lasted for 3 months, with half of the children crossing over to intervention after 6 months on study. Participants included 35 children who met eligibility criteria of being in third through fifth grades and having a body mass index above the 85th percentile. The 3-month twelve-session intervention, “Choices”, included topics on nutrition, physical activity, and resiliency. The sessions were developed for delivery by a family physician, and a nutritionist, who all received training in positive psychology and resilience skills. Main outcome measures were body mass index (BMI) z-scores for age-and-gender, and weight-for-age-and-gender z-scores, as well as qualitative interviews to understand individual and family processes. Results The intervention resulted in a significant effect on one primary outcome, BMI z-score (-0.138 per 9 months (p =0.017) and a trend toward significance on the other, weight for age z-score (-0.87 per 9 months (p=0.09). The net shift of activity from the low METS to the high METS had an intervention effect of 2.84 METS (p = 0.037). Families reported lasting changes in behaviors and attitudes. Discussion The innovative approach used in this study demonstrated modest efficacy in reducing BMI z-score, changing physical activity levels, and possibly shifting family dynamics. PMID:23471926

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Program To Teach Naturalistic Early Intervention Strategies in Inclusive Environments. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Sarah

    This final report describes the development and evaluation of a project that was funded by the U.S. Department of Education to develop, evaluate, revise, and disseminate a video-assisted, competency-referenced curriculum to teach naturalistic intervention strategies in inclusive, early intervention settings. The project, called Strategies for…

  11. A diet and physical activity intervention for rural African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PURPOSE Epidemic levels of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease are rampant in the largely rural Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of Mississippi. We assessed the effectiveness of a six-month, church-based, diet and physical activity (PA) intervention for improving diet quality (as ...

  12. Developing an intervention strategy to reduce phthalate exposure in Taiwanese girls.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Chou, Yen-Yin; Lin, Shio-Jean; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2015-06-01

    Children in Taiwan seem to be exposed to higher concentrations of phthalates than do children in Western countries. We developed intervention strategies to reduce the exposure of phthalates in Taiwanese girls. Thirty girls 4-13 years old who had been exposed to high levels of phthalates were selected from prior studies. To reduce their phthalate-exposure sources, we developed seven intervention strategies: handwashing, not using plastic containers, not eating food with a plastic bag/plastic-wrap cover, not microwaving food, not taking nutrition supplements, and reducing use of cosmetics/personal care products. Pre- and post-intervention urine samples were collected during a one-week study. HPLC-MS/MS was used to analyze urinary phthalate metabolites. The dominant urinary phthalate metabolite was mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), followed by mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP). Post-intervention concentrations of eight urinary phthalate metabolites were significantly lower. Girls in the high-frequency handwashing group had significantly lower urinary MBP (p=0.009) and mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) (p=0.07) than did girls in the low-frequency handwashing group. Girls who drank fewer beverages from plastic cups had significantly lower urinary MBP (p=0.016), MEHHP (p=0.038), and MECPP (p=0.012). Girls who used less shampoo and shower gel also had marginally significantly lower urinary MBP (p=0.06) and mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) (p=0.06). The intervention strategies that we set up in this study were effective for reducing exposure to phthalates in children. Handwashing and drinking fewer beverages from plastic cups were the most effective strategies for reducing phthalate metabolites in urine, especially MBP and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. Education and voluntary self-restraint were useful for reducing the body burden of phthalates. PMID:25725197

  13. Meta-Analysis of Workplace Physical Activity Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Hafdahl, Adam R.; Cooper, Pamela S.; Brown, Lori M.; Lusk, Sally L.

    2009-01-01

    Context Most adults do not achieve adequate physical activity. Despite the potential benefits of worksite health promotion, no previous comprehensive meta-analysis has summarized health and physical activity behavior outcomes from these programs. This comprehensive meta-analysis integrated the extant wide range of worksite physical activity intervention research. Evidence acquisition Extensive searching located published and unpublished intervention studies reported from 1969 through 2007. Results were coded from primary studies. Random-effects meta-analytic procedures, including moderator analyses, were completed in 2008. Evidence synthesis Effects on most variables were substantially heterogeneous because diverse studies were included. Standardized mean difference (d) effect sizes were synthesized across approximately 38,231 subjects. Significantly positive effects were observed for physical activity behavior (0.21), fitness (0.57), lipids (0.13), anthropometric measures (0.08), work attendance (0.19), and job stress (0.33). The significant effect size for diabetes risk (0.98) is more tentative given small sample sizes. Significant heterogeneity documents intervention effects varied across studies. The mean effect size for fitness corresponds to a difference between treatment minus control subjects' means on V02max of 3.5 mL/kg/min; for lipids, −0.2 on total cholesterol:HDL; and for diabetes risk, −12.6 mg/dL on fasting glucose. Conclusions These findings document that some workplace physical activity interventions can improve both health and important worksite outcomes. Effects were variable for most outcomes, reflecting the diversity of primary studies. Future primary research should compare interventions to confirm causal relationships and further explore heterogeneity. PMID:19765506

  14. HEALTHY Intervention: Fitness, Physical Activity, and Metabolic Syndrome Results

    PubMed Central

    Jago, Russell; McMurray, Robert G.; Drews, Kimberly L.; Moe, Esther L.; Murray, Tinker; Pham, Trang H.; Venditti, Elizabeth M.; Volpe, Stella L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the effect of the HEALTHY intervention on the metabolic syndrome (Met-S), fitness, and physical activity levels of US middle-school students. Methods Cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 (21 intervention) US middle schools. Participants were recruited at the start of sixth grade (2006) when baseline assessments were made, with post-assessments made 2.5 yr later at the end of eighth grade (2009). The HEALTHY intervention had four components: 1) improved school food environment, 2) physical activity and eating educational sessions, 3) social marketing, and 4) revised physical education curriculum. Met-S risk factors, 20-m shuttle run (fitness), and self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were assessed at each time point. Ethnicity and gender were self-reported. Obesity status (normal weight, overweight, or obese) was also assessed. Results At baseline, 5% of the participants were classified with Met-S, with two-thirds of the males and one-third of the females recording below average baseline fitness levels. Control group participants reported 96 min of MVPA at baseline with 103 min reported by the intervention group. There were no statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences in Met-S, fitness, or MVPA levels at the end of the study after adjustment for baseline values and confounders. There were no differences in any ethnic, obesity, or ethnic × obesity subgroups for either gender. Conclusions The HEALTHY intervention had no effect on the Met-S, fitness, or physical activity levels. Approaches that focus on how to change physical activity, fitness, and Met-S using nonschool or perhaps in addition to school based components need to be developed. PMID:21233778

  15. Effectiveness of Interventions, Programs and Strategies for Gender-based Violence Prevention in Refugee Populations: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Tappis, Hannah; Freeman, Jeffrey; Glass, Nancy; Doocy, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gender based violence (GBV) remains one of the most serious threats to the health and safety of women and girls worldwide. The problem is even more pronounced in refugee populations where women and girls are at increased risk of violence. In 2015, UNHCR reported the highest number of forcibly displaced people in recorded history. Despite growing need, there have been few rigorous evaluations of interventions aimed at primary GBV prevention and no systematic reviews of GBV prevention efforts specifically focused on refugee populations; reviews to date have primarily examined prevention of conflict related sexual violence, with very limited focus on other forms of GBV such as intimate partner violence Methods: This study reviewed the scientific literature addressing strategies for primary prevention of GBV and their effectiveness among refugee populations over the past ten years (2006 to 2015). Narrative content analysis methods were used to extract findings related to prevention activities/programs recommended by the global humanitarian community, such as sociocultural norms change, rebuilding family and community support structures, improving accountability systems, designing effective services and facilities, working with formal and traditional legal systems, monitoring and documenting GBV, and/or engaging men and boys in GBV prevention and response. Results: Study findings indicate that a range of GBV prevention activities recommended by the global humanitarian community are currently being applied in a variety of settings. However, there remains a limited body of evidence on the effectiveness of GBV prevention programs, interventions, and strategies, especially among refugee populations. Conclusion: Commonly agreed upon standards or guidelines for evaluation of GBV prevention programming, and publication of evaluations conducted using these guidelines, could assist humanitarian stakeholders to build and disseminate an evidence base of effective GBV

  16. The fight against stigma: an overview of stigma-reduction strategies and interventions.

    PubMed

    Heijnders, Miriam; Van Der Meij, Suzanne

    2006-08-01

    In many health conditions, people are severely affected by health-related stigma and discrimination. A literature review was conducted to identify stigma-reduction strategies and interventions in the field of HIV/AIDS, mental illness, leprosy, TB and epilepsy. The review identified several levels at which interventions and strategies are being implemented. These are the intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational/institutional, community and governmental/structural level. Although a lot of work has been carried out on stigma and stigma reduction, far less work has been done on assessing the effectiveness of stigma-reduction strategies. The effective strategies identified mainly concentrated on the individual and the community level. In order to reduce health-related stigma and discrimination significantly, single-level and single-target group approaches are not enough. What is required is a patient-centred approach, which starts with interventions targeting the intrapersonal level, to empower affected persons to assist in the development and implementation of stigma-reduction programmes at other levels. PMID:17130071

  17. Managing temptation in obesity treatment: A neurobehavioral model of intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Appelhans, Bradley M; French, Simone A; Pagoto, Sherry L; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2016-01-01

    Weight loss outcomes in lifestyle interventions for obesity are primarily a function of sustained adherence to a reduced-energy diet, and most lapses in diet adherence are precipitated by temptation from palatable food. The high nonresponse and relapse rates of lifestyle interventions suggest that current temptation management approaches may be insufficient for most participants. In this conceptual review, we discuss three neurobehavioral processes (attentional bias, temporal discounting, and the cold-hot empathy gap) that emerge during temptation and contribute to lapses in diet adherence. Characterizing the neurobehavioral profile of temptation highlights an important distinction between temptation resistance strategies aimed at overcoming temptation while it is experienced, and temptation prevention strategies that seek to avoid or minimize exposure to tempting stimuli. Many temptation resistance and temptation prevention strategies heavily rely on executive functions mediated by prefrontal systems that are prone to disruption by common occurrences such as stress, insufficient sleep, and even exposure to tempting stimuli. In contrast, commitment strategies are a set of devices that enable individuals to manage temptation by constraining their future choices, without placing heavy demands on executive functions. These concepts are synthesized in a conceptual model that categorizes temptation management approaches based on their intended effects on reward processing and degree of reliance on executive functions. We conclude by discussing the implications of our model for strengthening temptation management approaches in future lifestyle interventions, tailoring these approaches based on key individual difference variables, and suggesting high-priority topics for future research. PMID:26431681

  18. Impact of a brief intervention on physical activity and social cognitive determinants among working mothers: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Mailey, Emily L; McAuley, Edward

    2014-04-01

    Working mothers exhibit high levels of inactivity, and theory-based interventions to bolster physical activity within this population are needed. This study examined the effectiveness of a brief social cognitive theory-based intervention designed to increase physical activity among working mothers. Participants (N = 141) were randomly assigned to an intervention only, intervention plus follow-up support, or waitlist control condition. The intervention consisted of two group-based workshop sessions designed to teach behavior modification strategies using social cognitive theory. Data were collected at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up. Results showed intervention participants exhibited short-term increases in physical activity, which were partially maintained 6 months later. Improvements in physical activity were mediated by increases in self-regulation and self-efficacy. This study provides some support for the effectiveness of a brief intervention to increase physical activity among working mothers. Future programs should explore alternative support mechanisms which may lead to more effective maintenance of initial behavior changes. PMID:23338616

  19. What Works for Early Language and Literacy Development: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations of Programs and Intervention Strategies. Fact Sheet. Publication #2011-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrisler, Alison; Ling, Thomson

    2011-01-01

    Given the importance of the early childhood period as a time when the foundation is laid for later language and literacy, it is important to determine what activities and experiences lead to positive language and literacy outcomes in early childhood. This Fact Sheet reviews fifteen experimentally-evaluated programs and intervention strategies that…

  20. A National Strategy for Promoting Physical Activity in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Mabry, Ruth; Owen, Neville; Eakin, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of chronic disease in Oman is a public health challenge. Available evidence in Oman on physical inactivity, the fourth leading risk factor for chronic disease, calls for urgent action to reduce physical inactivity as part of a key strategy to address chronic disease in Oman. The public health implications of this evidence for Oman are considered in light of recommendations outlined in the Toronto Charter for Physical Activity. The charter provides a systematic approach of physical activity and outlines an action plan that could be adapted to the Omani context. Urgent intersectoral action focusing on a shared goal and a more deliberate public health response addressing physical inactivity is required. Further research is needed on the determinants of physical inactivity and culturally appropriate interventions in order to guide future public health actions. PMID:24790738

  1. Fatherhood and Intimate Partner Violence: Bringing the Parenting Role into Intervention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Stover, Carla Smith; Morgos, Dorothy

    2013-01-01

    A large percentage of men who perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV) are fathers who continue to live with or have visitation with their children. Yet, providers rarely consider that fathers who perpetrate IPV may benefit from a parent-child focused intervention. Therapeutic work with men, who perpetrate IPV, especially with their children, is complex with issues of child safety taking precedence. This article is meant to provide: 1) a rationale for considering father-child intervention in the context of IPV; 2) specific strategies for assessment; 3) guidelines for determining if a father is appropriate for such intervention; and 4) a review of treatment approaches that have been developed that may assist clinicians in work with this population. PMID:23956491

  2. Systematic Review of Economic Evaluations of Preparedness Strategies and Interventions against Influenza Pandemics

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Velasco, Román; Praditsitthikorn, Naiyana; Wichmann, Kamonthip; Mohara, Adun; Kotirum, Surachai; Tantivess, Sripen; Vallenas, Constanza; Harmanci, Hande; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2012-01-01

    Background Although public health guidelines have implications for resource allocation, these issues were not explicitly considered in previous WHO pandemic preparedness and response guidance. In order to ensure a thorough and informed revision of this guidance following the H1N1 2009 pandemic, a systematic review of published and unpublished economic evaluations of preparedness strategies and interventions against influenza pandemics was conducted. Methods The search was performed in September 2011 using 10 electronic databases, 2 internet search engines, reference list screening, cited reference searching, and direct communication with relevant authors. Full and partial economic evaluations considering both costs and outcomes were included. Conversely, reviews, editorials, and studies on economic impact or complications were excluded. Studies were selected by 2 independent reviewers. Results 44 studies were included. Although most complied with the cost effectiveness guidelines, the quality of evidence was limited. However, the data sources used were of higher quality in economic evaluations conducted after the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Vaccination and drug regimens were varied. Pharmaceutical plus non-pharmaceutical interventions are relatively cost effective in comparison to vaccines and/or antivirals alone. Pharmaceutical interventions vary from cost saving to high cost effectiveness ratios. According to ceiling thresholds (Gross National Income per capita), the reduction of non-essential contacts and the use of pharmaceutical prophylaxis plus the closure of schools are amongst the cost effective strategies for all countries. However, quarantine for household contacts is not cost effective even for low and middle income countries. Conclusion The available evidence is generally inconclusive regarding the cost effectiveness of preparedness strategies and interventions against influenza pandemics. Studies on their effectiveness and cost effectiveness should be readily

  3. The Theory of Active Involvement: Processes Underlying Interventions that Engage Adolescents in Message Planning and/or Production

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased risk-taking and recent intervention strategies have included adolescents planning or producing anti-risk messages for their peers. Although these projects may generate enthusiasm, we know little about message planning or production as a strategy for changing adolescent decision-making and behavior. The paper articulates the Theory of Active Involvement (TAI) to describe and explain the processes through which these active involvement interventions influence adolescents. TAI is based on social cognitive theory’s notion of self-regulation and examines multiple perspective-taking and activating the self-reflection processes. The theory specifically describes the process of cognitive changes experienced by participants in active involvement interventions. The sequence is conceptualized as starting when engagement with the intervention (arousal and involvement) produces skill and knowledge gains (immediate outcomes) that lead to reflection (perceived discrepancy) and then other cognitions (expectancies, norms, intentions), with the ultimate outcome being behavior change. Engaging the target audience in a process of self-reflection is conceptualized as the crucial ingredient for meaningful and sustainable change in cognitions and behavior. This paper provides valuable insight into how active involvement strategies function and how to best design these interventions, particularly those targeting adolescents. PMID:23980581

  4. Therapeutic issues and intervention strategies with young adult lesbian clients: a developmental approach.

    PubMed

    Browning, C

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the coming out process within an adult developmental context. Therapeutic issues which surface for the young adult lesbian client include separation from parents, development of social support, exploration of career/vocational goals, and the establishment of intimate relationships. Intervention strategies are suggested which facilitate the coming out process and help the client integrate her sexual orientation within her emerging adult identity. PMID:3655351

  5. Recruitment to a physical activity intervention study in women at increased risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical activity is being studied as a breast cancer prevention strategy. Women at risk of breast cancer report interest in lifestyle modification, but recruitment to randomized physical activity intervention studies is challenging. Methods We conducted an analysis of recruitment techniques used for a prospective, randomized pilot study of physical activity in women at risk of breast cancer. We evaluated differences in proportion of eligible patients, enrolled patients, and successful patients identified by each individual recruitment method. The Fisher-Freeman-Halton test (an extension of Fisher's exact test from 2 × 2 tables to general row by column tables) was used to compare the success of different recruitment strategies. Results We received 352 inquiries from women interested in participating, of whom 171 (54%) were eligible. Ninety-nine women completed a baseline activity evaluation, and 58 (34% of eligible; 16% of total inquiries) were randomized. Recruitment methods fell into three broad categories: media techniques, direct contact with potential participants, and contacts with health care providers. Recruitment strategies differed significantly in their ability to identify eligible women (p = 0.01), and women who subsequently enrolled in the study (p = 0.02). Conclusion Recruitment techniques had varying success. Our data illustrate the challenges in recruiting to behavior modification studies, and provide useful information for tailoring future recruitment efforts for lifestyle intervention trials. Trial Registration No(s) CDR0000393790, NCI-04-C-0276, NCI-NAVY-B05-001 PMID:19397816

  6. Designing an evaluation for a multiple-strategy community intervention: the North Coast Stay on Your Feet program.

    PubMed

    van Beurden, E; Kempton, A; Sladden, T; Garner, E

    1998-02-01

    Evaluation of the North Coast Stay on Your Feet falls prevention program is described as a case study of a comprehensive evaluation design for multi-strategic community interventions. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to evaluate the program at formative, process and outcome levels. Formative evaluation used literature review, focus groups, mail-out and telephone survey methods to gather evidence from publications, older people, health workers, local business, media and government bodies. It included an analysis of demographic and hospital databases and identified incidence, causal pathways, knowledge, attitudes, behaviour, consequences and effectiveness of potential strategies. Process evaluation employed auditing, monitoring and telephone surveys to maintain an inventory of intervention activities and to track the reach of the program. Outcome evaluation involved a longitudinal study of intervention and control cohorts, surveyed before, during and after the intervention by telephone to monitor changes in knowledge, attitudes, risk and falls incidence. The survey instrument was designed for both formative and outcome evaluation, and analysis reflected the research design by incorporating repeat measures and adjusting for bias and confounding. Outcome validity was cross-checked via hospital admission rates. A novel, integrated framework for presenting inputs, activities and outcomes from all stages of the program is described. This framework facilitated feedback to stakeholders and enabled subsequent rapid adjustment of the intervention. Rigorous evaluation combined with clear presentation of findings helped to engender intersectoral support and obtain funding grants for extended implementation and evaluation. It also helped Stay on Your Feet to become a model for other falls prevention programs within Australia and internationally. PMID:9599862

  7. Development and Feasibility of a COPD Self-Management Intervention Delivered with Motivational Interviewing Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Benzo, Roberto; Vickers, Kristin; Ernst, Denise; Tucker, Sharon; McEvoy, Charlene; Lorig, Kate

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Self-management (SM) is proposed as the standard of care in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but details of the process and training required to deliver effective SM are not widely available. In addition, recent data suggest that patient engagement and motivation are critical ingredients for effective self-management. This manuscript carefully describes a self-management intervention using Motivational Interviewing skills, aimed to increase engagement and commitment in severe COPD patients. METHODS The intervention was developed and pilot tested for fidelity to protocol, for patient and interventionist feedback (qualitative) and effect on quality of life. Engagement between patient and interventionists was measured by the Working Alliance Inventory. The intervention was refined based in the results of the pilot study and delivered in the active arm of a prospective randomized study. RESULTS The pilot study suggested improvements in quality of life, fidelity to theory and patient acceptability. The refined self-management intervention was delivered 540 times in the active arm of a randomized study. We observed a retention rate of 86% (patients missing or not available for only 14% the scheduled encounters). CONCLUSIONS A self-management intervention, that includes motivational interviewing as the way if guiding patient into behavior change, is feasible in severe COPD and may increase patient engagement and commitment to self-management. This provides a very detailed description of the SM process for (the specifics of training and delivering the intervention) that facilitates replicability in other settings and could be translated to cardiac rehabilitation. PMID:23434613

  8. Clinical Strategies for Integrating Medication Interventions Into Behavioral Treatment for Adolescent ADHD: The Medication Integration Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hogue, Aaron; Bobek, Molly; Tau, Gregory Z.; Levin, Frances R.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent among adolescents enrolled in behavioral health services but remains undertreated in this age group. Also the first-line treatment for adolescent ADHD, stimulant medication, is underutilized in routine practice. This article briefly describes three behavioral interventions designed to promote stronger integration of medication interventions into treatment planning for adolescent ADHD: family ADHD psychoeducation, family-based medication decision-making, and behavior therapist leadership in coordinating medication integration. It then introduces the Medication Integration Protocol (MIP), which incorporates all three interventions into a five-task protocol: ADHD Assessment and Medication Consult; ADHD Psychoeducation and Client Acceptance; ADHD Symptoms and Family Relations; ADHD Medication and Family Decision-Making; and Medication Management and Integration Planning. The article concludes by highlighting what behavior therapists should know about best practices for medication integration across diverse settings and populations: integrating medication interventions into primary care, managing medication priorities and polypharmacy issues for adolescents with multiple diagnoses, providing ADHD medications to adolescent substance users, and the compatibility of MIP intervention strategies with everyday practice conditions. PMID:25505817

  9. Review of spiritual health: definition, role, and intervention strategies in health promotion.

    PubMed

    Hawks, S R; Hull, M L; Thalman, R L; Richins, P M

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW. Recognition of the spiritual dimension as a vital component of human wellness has led to an increased interest in spirituality education, yet very little progress has been made in identifying possible intervention methods for enhancing spirituality. The purpose of this article is to review current definitions of spiritual health; provide an overview of several successful intervention methods that may enhance spiritual health; and outline potential relationships between spiritual health interventions and behavioral, emotional, and physical health outcomes. SEARCH METHOD USED. Research and review articles were identified through a CD-ROM computer search of ERIC (1966 to 1994), PSYCHLIT (1974 to 1994), and MEDLINE (1991 to 1994) databases using appropriate key words. Cumulative indexes from Advances (1984 to 1993) were manually searched, and reference lists from identified studies and literature reviews were analyzed. A total of 71 articles were identified and considered. Model interventions were chosen for presentation on the basis of soundness of research design, peer-review publication, clear description of intervention method, and relationship to spiritual health components. SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT FINDINGS. Imagery, meditation, and group support activities may address various components of spiritual health such as meaning and purpose in life; self-awareness; and connectedness with self, others, and a larger reality. In turn, positive changes in health behaviors such as communication, diet activity, and treatment compliance were noted, and a variety of beneficial physical and emotional health outcomes such as heart disease reversal, decreased cancer mortality, reduced anxiety, and improved mood states were reported. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS. Health educators are in a position to develop, implement, and evaluate spiritual health interventions within the context of comprehensive programs. There is a need for training in the theoretical and methodologic

  10. Using intervention mapping to develop a culturally appropriate intervention to prevent childhood obesity: the HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Interventions that make extensive use of theory tend to have larger effects on behaviour. The Intervention Mapping (IM) framework incorporates theory into intervention design, implementation and evaluation, and was applied to the development of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for a multi-ethnic population. Methods IM was applied as follows: 1) Needs assessment of the community and culture; consideration of evidence-base, policy and practice; 2) Identification of desired outcomes and change objectives following identification of barriers to behaviour change mapped alongside psychological determinants (e.g. knowledge, self-efficacy, intention); 3) Selection of theory-based methods and practical applications to address barriers to behaviour change (e.g., strategies for responsive feeding); 4) Design of the intervention by developing evidence-based interactive activities and resources (e.g., visual aids to show babies stomach size). The activities were integrated into an existing parenting programme; 5) Adoption and implementation: parenting practitioners were trained by healthcare professionals to deliver the programme within Children Centres. Results HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) is aimed at overweight and obese pregnant women (BMI > 25); consists of 12 × 2.5 hr. sessions (6 ante-natal from 24 weeks; 6 postnatal up to 9 months); it addresses mother’s diet and physical activity, breast or bottle feeding, infant diet and parental feeding practices, and infant physical activity. Conclusion We have demonstrated that IM is a feasible and helpful method for providing an evidence based and theoretical structure to a complex health behaviour change intervention. The next stage will be to assess the impact of the intervention on behaviour change and clinical factors associated with childhood obesity. The HAPPY programme is currently being tested as part of a randomised controlled feasibility

  11. Using Indices of Fidelity to Intervention Core Components to Identify Program Active Ingredients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abry, Tashia; Hulleman, Chris S.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the active ingredients of an intervention--intervention-specific components serving as key levers of change--is crucial for unpacking the intervention black box. Measures of intervention fidelity can be used to identify specific active ingredients, yet such applications are rare. We illustrate how fidelity measures can be used to…

  12. An adaptive strategy for active debris removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Adam E.; Lewis, Hugh G.

    2014-04-01

    Many parameters influence the evolution of the near-Earth debris population, including launch, solar, explosion and mitigation activities, as well as other future uncertainties such as advances in space technology or changes in social and economic drivers that effect the utilisation of space activities. These factors lead to uncertainty in the long-term debris population. This uncertainty makes it difficult to identify potential remediation strategies, involving active debris removal (ADR), that will perform effectively in all possible future cases. Strategies that cannot perform effectively, because of this uncertainty, risk either not achieving their intended purpose, or becoming a hindrance to the efforts of spacecraft manufactures and operators to address the challenges posed by space debris. One method to tackle this uncertainty is to create a strategy that can adapt and respond to the space debris population. This work explores the concept of an adaptive strategy, in terms of the number of objects required to be removed by ADR, to prevent the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris population from growing in size. This was demonstrated by utilising the University of Southampton’s Debris Analysis and Monitoring Architecture to the Geosynchronous Environment (DAMAGE) tool to investigate ADR rates (number of removals per year) that change over time in response to the current space environment, with the requirement of achieving zero growth of the LEO population. DAMAGE was used to generate multiple Monte Carlo projections of the future LEO debris environment. Within each future projection, the debris removal rate was derived at five-year intervals, by a new statistical debris evolutionary model called the Computational Adaptive Strategy to Control Accurately the Debris Environment (CASCADE) model. CASCADE predicted the long-term evolution of the current DAMAGE population with a variety of different ADR rates in order to identify a removal rate that produced a zero net

  13. A Controlled Trial of Active versus Passive Learning Strategies in a Large Group Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haidet, Paul; Morgan, Robert O.; O'Malley, Kimberly; Moran, Betty Jeanne; Richards, Boyd F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of active and didactic teaching strategies on learning- and process-oriented outcomes. Design: Controlled trial. Setting: After-hours residents' teaching session. Participants: Family and Community Medicine, Internal Medicine, and Pediatrics residents at two academic medical institutions. Interventions: We…

  14. Physical Activity Levels in Normal Weight and Overweight Portuguese Children: An Intervention Study during an Elementary School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Luis; Lopes, Vitor; Pereira, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of an intervention strategy during the school recess on physical activity (PA) levels, by gender, age and body mass index (BMI). The sample comprises 158 Portuguese children aged 6 to 12 years. Weight and height were objectively measured. PA was assessed by accelerometry during the recess in pre-intervention…

  15. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS) for interventional tool guidance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M

    2014-01-01

    Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking. PMID:25337784

  16. Active Ultrasound Pattern Injection System (AUSPIS) for Interventional Tool Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking. PMID:25337784

  17. Energy Expenditure of the Physical Activity across the Curriculum Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Greene, Jerry L.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is frequently a component of interventions designed to diminish weight gain in children. It is essential to determine whether the energy expenditure (EE) elicited by these interventions is sufficient to reduce the rate of weight gain. Purpose To quantify the EE of the Physical Activity across the Curriculum (PAAC) intervention. This intervention involved two 10-min physically active academic lessons per day, taught by classroom teachers. Methods We assessed EE of PAAC in 19 males and 19 females using both an indirect calorimeter (IC) (COSMED K4b2) and an accelerometer (ActiGraph) (AC). Independent t-tests were used to evaluate gender differences. Dependent t-tests were used to examine the difference between EE assessed by IC and AC. The agreement between EE measured by IC and estimated by AC was evaluated using a Bland-Altman plot. A Pearson correlation between EE measured by IC and estimated by AC was calculated. Results There were no significant gender differences for age, BMI, or EE; therefore, analyses by gender were not performed. The mean EE measured by IC was 3.1 ± 1.0 kcal/min(3.4 METs). Mean EE estimated by AC (1.8 ± 0.9 kcal/min) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than EE measured by IC (mean underestimation = 1.3 kcal/min). The Bland-Altman plot suggested increased underestimation with increased levels of EE. The 95% limits of agreement were large (-2.8 to +0.3 kcal/min). The correlation between EE measured by IC and estimated by AC was r = 0.68 (P < 0.001). Conclusion PAAC elicited a level of EE that may prevent excessive weight gain in children. AC significantly underestimated the EE of PAAC lessons and may not provide useful EE estimates in this context. PMID:18614939

  18. A self-regulation-based intervention to increase physical activity in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Nadine; Sieverding, Monika; Weidner, Gerdi; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Wiskemann, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The study examined whether a behavior-change intervention focusing on self-regulatory strategies and emphasizing role model support increases physical activity (PA) among insufficiently active (not meeting PA guidelines of 150 min/week) cancer patients. Ambulatory cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION-study, a 4-week intervention (1-hr counseling, followed by weekly phone calls), with pretest (T1), posttest (T2) and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise or to a stress management intervention (active control). The exercise intervention emphasized self-regulatory strategies (e.g. action- and coping planning and self-monitoring); patients were also encouraged to contact a physically active same-sex role model as a potential exercise partner. The active control condition consisted of coping and relaxation techniques. Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA and a measure of perceived stress. PA was validated by Actigraph accelerometry. At T2, 46% of the patients in the exercise group and 19% of stress management patients increased their activity levels to meet PA guidelines (>150 min/week; χ(2)(1) = 5.51, p = .019). At T3, participants in the exercise intervention maintained their exercise level (46%), but also 31% of the stress management patients met the guidelines. All patients reported reductions in perceived stress. Additional analyses comparing patients in the exercise group by role model contact (63% realized contact) revealed that those who had contact with their role model were significantly more likely to adhere to the recommended guidelines (T2:50%; T3:64%) compared to those who did not have contact with a role model (T2:39%; T3:15%), suggesting the potential of mobilizing role model support to facilitate PA. In sum, cancer patients may not only benefit from an exercise

  19. Constructivist Strategies in Phonological Intervention: Facilitating Self-Regulation for Carryover.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, David J.; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist strategies for children who have difficulty achieving phonological carryover. The advantages of constructivist strategies are pointed out and a model of self-regulated learning is applied to constructivist carryover activities which help these children achieve metacognitive abilities similar to…

  20. Using formative research to develop CHANGE!: a curriculum-based physical activity promoting intervention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Low childhood physical activity levels are currently one of the most pressing public health concerns. Numerous school-based physical activity interventions have been conducted with varied success. Identifying effective child-based physical activity interventions are warranted. The purpose of this formative study was to elicit subjective views of children, their parents, and teachers about physical activity to inform the design of the CHANGE! (Children's Health, Activity, and Nutrition: Get Educated!) intervention programme. Methods Semi-structured mixed-gender interviews (group and individual) were conducted in 11 primary schools, stratified by socioeconomic status, with 60 children aged 9-10 years (24 boys, 36 girls), 33 parents (4 male, 29 female) and 10 teachers (4 male, 6 female). Questions for interviews were structured around the PRECEDE stage of the PRECEDE-PROCEDE model and addressed knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards physical activity, as well as views on barriers to participation. All data were transcribed verbatim. Pen profiles were constructed from the transcripts in a deductive manner using the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model framework. The profiles represented analysis outcomes via a diagram of key emergent themes. Results Analyses revealed an understanding of the relationship between physical activity and health, although some children had limited understanding of what constitutes physical activity. Views elicited by children and parents were generally consistent. Fun, enjoyment and social support were important predictors of physical activity participation, though several barriers such as lack of parental support were identified across all group interviews. The perception of family invested time was positively linked to physical activity engagement. Conclusions Families have a powerful and important role in promoting health-enhancing behaviours. Involvement of parents and the whole family is a strategy that could be

  1. Developing community-based intervention strategies and package to save newborns in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kc, A; Thapa, K; Pradhan, Y V; Kc, N P; Upreti, S R; Adhikari, R K; Khadka, N; Acharya, B; Dhakwa, J R; Aryal, D R; Aryal, S; Starbuck, E; Paudel, D; Khanal, S; Devkota, M D

    2011-10-01

    In Nepal, the proportion of under 5 deaths that are neonatal (0-28 days) has been increasing in the last decade, due to faster declines in infant and child mortality than in neonatal mortality. This trend is likely due to a focus on maternal and child survival programs that did not adequately address newborn health needs. Policy and actions to save newborn lives resulted from increased attention to newborn deaths in 2001, culminating in the endorsement of the National Neonatal Health Strategy in 2004, a milestone that established newborn health and survival as a national priority. Operationalization of the National Neonatal Health Strategy took place in 2007 with the development of the Community-Based Newborn Care Package (CB-NCP). This paper describes how national stakeholders used global, regional and in-country research and policies to develop the CB-NCP, thus outlining key ingredients to make newborn health programming a reality in Nepal. A technical working group was constituted to review existing evidence on interventions to improve newborn survival, develop a tool to prioritize neonatal interventions, and conduct program learning visits to identify key components appropriate to the Nepal context that should be included in the Community Based Integrated Newborn Care Package. The group identified interventions based on the evidence of impact on newborn survival, potential mechanisms within the existing health system to deliver the interventions, and linkages with existing programs and different tiers of the health system. Not only was Nepal one of the first countries in south-east Asia where government adopted a national strategy to reduce neonatal deaths, but it was also one of the first to endorse a package of neonatal interventions for pilot testing and scaling up through existing community-based health systems that provide basic health services throughout the country. CB-NCP was designed to be gradually scaled up throughout the country by integration with

  2. Resonant activation: a strategy against bacterial persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yan; Zhu, Meng; Xing, Jianhua

    2010-03-01

    A bacterial colony may develop a small number of cells genetically identical to, but phenotypically different from, other normally growing bacteria. These so-called persister cells keep themselves in a dormant state and thus are insensitive to antibiotic treatment, resulting in serious problems of drug resistance. In this paper, we proposed a novel strategy to 'kill' persister cells by triggering them to switch, in a fast and synchronized way, into normally growing cells that are susceptible to antibiotics. The strategy is based on resonant activation (RA), a well-studied phenomenon in physics where the internal noise of a system can constructively facilitate fast and synchronized barrier crossings. Through stochastic Gilliespie simulation with a generic toggle switch model, we demonstrated that RA exists in the phenotypic switching of a single bacterium. Further, by coupling single cell level and population level simulations, we showed that with RA, one can greatly reduce the time and total amount of antibiotics needed to sterilize a bacterial population. We suggest that resonant activation is a general phenomenon in phenotypic transition, and can find other applications such as cancer therapy.

  3. Treadmill Intervention Attenuates the Cafeteria Diet-Induced Impairment of Stress-Coping Strategies in Young Adult Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cigarroa, Igor; Lalanza, Jaume F.; Caimari, Antoni; del Bas, Josep M.; Capdevila, Lluís; Arola, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    The current prevalence of diet-induced overweight and obesity in adolescents and adults is continuously growing. Although the detrimental biochemical and metabolic consequences of obesity are widely studied, its impact on stress-coping behavior and its interaction with specific exercise doses (in terms of intensity, duration and frequency) need further investigation. To this aim, we fed adolescent rats either an obesogenic diet (cafeteria diet, CAF) or standard chow (ST). Each group was subdivided into four subgroups according to the type of treadmill intervention as follows: a sedentary group receiving no manipulation; a control group exposed to a stationary treadmill; a low-intensity treadmill group trained at 12 m/min; and a higher intensity treadmill group trained at 17 m/min. Both the diet and treadmill interventions started at weaning and lasted for 8 weeks. Subjects were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and for coping strategies in the two-way active avoidance paradigm at week 7 and were sacrificed at week 8 for biometric and metabolic characterization. CAF feeding increased the weight gain, relative retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RWAT %), and plasma levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin and decreased the insulin sensitivity. Treadmill intervention partially reversed the RWAT% and triglyceride alterations; at higher intensity, it decreased the leptin levels of CAF-fed animals. CAF feeding decreased the motor activity and impaired the performance in a two-way active avoidance assessment. Treadmill intervention reduced defecation in the shuttle box, suggesting diminished anxiety. CAF feeding combined with treadmill training at 17 m/min increased the time spent in the center of the open field and more importantly, partially reversed the two-way active avoidance deficit. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that at doses that decreased anxiety-like behavior, treadmill exercise partially improved the coping strategy

  4. Treadmill Intervention Attenuates the Cafeteria Diet-Induced Impairment of Stress-Coping Strategies in Young Adult Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Cigarroa, Igor; Lalanza, Jaume F; Caimari, Antoni; del Bas, Josep M; Capdevila, Lluís; Arola, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa M

    2016-01-01

    The current prevalence of diet-induced overweight and obesity in adolescents and adults is continuously growing. Although the detrimental biochemical and metabolic consequences of obesity are widely studied, its impact on stress-coping behavior and its interaction with specific exercise doses (in terms of intensity, duration and frequency) need further investigation. To this aim, we fed adolescent rats either an obesogenic diet (cafeteria diet, CAF) or standard chow (ST). Each group was subdivided into four subgroups according to the type of treadmill intervention as follows: a sedentary group receiving no manipulation; a control group exposed to a stationary treadmill; a low-intensity treadmill group trained at 12 m/min; and a higher intensity treadmill group trained at 17 m/min. Both the diet and treadmill interventions started at weaning and lasted for 8 weeks. Subjects were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and for coping strategies in the two-way active avoidance paradigm at week 7 and were sacrificed at week 8 for biometric and metabolic characterization. CAF feeding increased the weight gain, relative retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RWAT %), and plasma levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin and decreased the insulin sensitivity. Treadmill intervention partially reversed the RWAT% and triglyceride alterations; at higher intensity, it decreased the leptin levels of CAF-fed animals. CAF feeding decreased the motor activity and impaired the performance in a two-way active avoidance assessment. Treadmill intervention reduced defecation in the shuttle box, suggesting diminished anxiety. CAF feeding combined with treadmill training at 17 m/min increased the time spent in the center of the open field and more importantly, partially reversed the two-way active avoidance deficit. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that at doses that decreased anxiety-like behavior, treadmill exercise partially improved the coping strategy

  5. Brain Tissue Responses to Neural Implants Impact Signal Sensitivity and Intervention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Implantable biosensors are valuable scientific tools for basic neuroscience research and clinical applications. Neurotechnologies provide direct readouts of neurological signal and neurochemical processes. These tools are generally most valuable when performance capacities extend over months and years to facilitate the study of memory, plasticity, and behavior or to monitor patients’ conditions. These needs have generated a variety of device designs from microelectrodes for fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) and electrophysiology to microdialysis probes for sampling and detecting various neurochemicals. Regardless of the technology used, the breaching of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) to insert devices triggers a cascade of biochemical pathways resulting in complex molecular and cellular responses to implanted devices. Molecular and cellular changes in the microenvironment surrounding an implant include the introduction of mechanical strain, activation of glial cells, loss of perfusion, secondary metabolic injury, and neuronal degeneration. Changes to the tissue microenvironment surrounding the device can dramatically impact electrochemical and electrophysiological signal sensitivity and stability over time. This review summarizes the magnitude, variability, and time course of the dynamic molecular and cellular level neural tissue responses induced by state-of-the-art implantable devices. Studies show that insertion injuries and foreign body response can impact signal quality across all implanted central nervous system (CNS) sensors to varying degrees over both acute (seconds to minutes) and chronic periods (weeks to months). Understanding the underlying biological processes behind the brain tissue response to the devices at the cellular and molecular level leads to a variety of intervention strategies for improving signal sensitivity and longevity. PMID:25546652

  6. Understanding Inequalities of Maternal Smoking—Bridging the Gap with Adapted Intervention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Julie; Konkle, Anne T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Women who are generally part of socially disadvantaged and economically marginalized groups are especially susceptible to smoking during pregnancy but smoking rates are underreported in both research and interventions. While there is evidence to support the short-term efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) use in pregnancy, long-term abstinence rates are modest. Current health strategies and interventions designed to diminish smoking in pregnancy have adopted a simplified approach to maternal smoking—one that suggests that they have a similar degree of choice to non-pregnant smokers regarding the avoidance of risk factors, and overlooks individual predictors of non-adherence. As a result, interventions have been ineffective among this high-risk group. For this reason, this paper addresses the multiple and interacting determinants that must be considered when developing and implementing effective strategies that lead to successful smoking cessation: socioeconomic status (SES), nicotine dependence, social support, culture, mental health, and health services. Based on our review of the literature, we conclude that tailoring cessation programs for pregnant smokers may ultimately optimize NRT efficacy and reduce the prevalence of maternal smoking. PMID:26959037

  7. Physical Activity Programs with Post-Intervention Follow-Up in Children: A Comprehensive Review According to Categories of Intervention.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Sally; Häcker, Anna-Luisa; Henderson, Melanie; Barnett, Tracie; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Pagani, Linda; Bigras, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Only 9% of Canadian children meet the National Guidelines of 60 min of daily moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. The aim of this review is to assess the mid- and long-term effectiveness of physical activity interventions and their impact on cardiovascular risk factors in children. We assessed the success of interventions within three different categories: those using a behavioural and social approach, an informational approach or an environmental approach. The average number of children included in these studies was 860 (range of 30-5106); the age range was from 2 to 18 years; and the mean intervention duration was 1607 min (range of 12-8160 min). The length of follow-up post-intervention averaged 13 months (ranging from 0.25 to 96 months). A positive impact on physical activity was found in 74% and on any measured outcomes in 90% of the studies reviewed. However, the benefits of physical activity interventions decreased with longer follow-up. Regardless of the approaches, physical activity interventions improved cardiovascular risk factors. However, the challenge of any program is to maintain beneficial effects once the intervention is completed. These findings will inform the development of future intervention programs in order to optimize sustained cardiovascular benefits. PMID:27376315

  8. Physical Activity Programs with Post-Intervention Follow-Up in Children: A Comprehensive Review According to Categories of Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Sally; Häcker, Anna-Luisa; Henderson, Melanie; Barnett, Tracie; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Pagani, Linda; Bigras, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Only 9% of Canadian children meet the National Guidelines of 60 min of daily moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. The aim of this review is to assess the mid- and long-term effectiveness of physical activity interventions and their impact on cardiovascular risk factors in children. We assessed the success of interventions within three different categories: those using a behavioural and social approach, an informational approach or an environmental approach. The average number of children included in these studies was 860 (range of 30–5106); the age range was from 2 to 18 years; and the mean intervention duration was 1607 min (range of 12–8160 min). The length of follow-up post-intervention averaged 13 months (ranging from 0.25 to 96 months). A positive impact on physical activity was found in 74% and on any measured outcomes in 90% of the studies reviewed. However, the benefits of physical activity interventions decreased with longer follow-up. Regardless of the approaches, physical activity interventions improved cardiovascular risk factors. However, the challenge of any program is to maintain beneficial effects once the intervention is completed. These findings will inform the development of future intervention programs in order to optimize sustained cardiovascular benefits. PMID:27376315

  9. Early Education for Spanish Speaking Mexican American Children--A Comparison of Three Intervention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedler, Shari

    Three programs of early intervention designed specifically for the Mexican American child are discussed. Three groups, each consisting of 16 three-year-old children, were involved in a nine month program. The first group of children, enrolled in a daily three hour bilingual preschool program, were exposed to sequenced instructional activities.…

  10. What works in community-based interventions promoting physical activity and healthy eating? A review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Brand, Tilman; Pischke, Claudia R; Steenbock, Berit; Schoenbach, Johanna; Poettgen, Saskia; Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-06-01

    Chronic diseases, such as type II diabetes, are on the rise worldwide. There is consistent evidence that physical activity and healthy eating are important lifestyle factors which affect the risk for chronic diseases. Community-based interventions are of particular public health interest as they reach target groups in their natural living environment and may thus achieve high population-level impacts. We conducted a systematic literature search to assess the effectiveness of community-based interventions to promote physical activity and healthy eating. Specifically, we searched for promising intervention strategies in this setting. We narratively summarized the results of 18 systematic reviews. Among children and adolescents, we found moderate evidence for effects on weight change in primary school-aged children for interventions containing a school component. The evidence for interventions aimed at general adult populations was inconclusive. Self-monitoring, group-based components, and motivational signs to encourage stair use were identified as promising strategies to increase physical activity. Among adults at risk for type II diabetes, evidence was found for beneficial effects on weight change and diabetes incidence. However, interventions for this group were not integrated in more comprehensive community-based approaches. PMID:24886756

  11. What Works in Community-Based Interventions Promoting Physical Activity and Healthy Eating? A Review of Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Tilman; Pischke, Claudia R.; Steenbock, Berit; Schoenbach, Johanna; Poettgen, Saskia; Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-01-01

    Chronic diseases, such as type II diabetes, are on the rise worldwide. There is consistent evidence that physical activity and healthy eating are important lifestyle factors which affect the risk for chronic diseases. Community-based interventions are of particular public health interest as they reach target groups in their natural living environment and may thus achieve high population-level impacts. We conducted a systematic literature search to assess the effectiveness of community-based interventions to promote physical activity and healthy eating. Specifically, we searched for promising intervention strategies in this setting. We narratively summarized the results of 18 systematic reviews. Among children and adolescents, we found moderate evidence for effects on weight change in primary school-aged children for interventions containing a school component. The evidence for interventions aimed at general adult populations was inconclusive. Self-monitoring, group-based components, and motivational signs to encourage stair use were identified as promising strategies to increase physical activity. Among adults at risk for type II diabetes, evidence was found for beneficial effects on weight change and diabetes incidence. However, interventions for this group were not integrated in more comprehensive community-based approaches. PMID:24886756

  12. Formative evaluation of a motivational intervention for increasing physical activity in underserved youth.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dawn K; Griffin, Sarah; Saunders, Ruth P; Evans, Alexandra; Mixon, Gary; Wright, Marcie; Beasley, Amelia; Umstattd, M Renee; Lattimore, Diana; Watts, Ashley; Freelove, Julie

    2006-08-01

    The present study was designed to develop an innovative motivational intervention (based on Self-Determination Theory and Social Cognitive Theory) to increase physical activity (PA) in underserved adolescents. Sixty-four adolescents (35 females, 29 males; 50% minority; 65% on reduced lunch program; ages 11-13 yr) participated in either an 8-week motivational intervention after-school (n = 32) or a typical after-school program (n = 32). The conceptual framework for the intervention targeted the social environment (perceived autonomy, perceived social support, participation, fun), cognitive mediators (perceived choice, self-efficacy, and relatedness/belongingness), and motivational orientation (intrinsic motivation, commitment, positive self-concept). Formative evaluation data was collected by staff through daily forms throughout the 8-week program and through observational data completed by independent objective observers during 2 weeks of the program. The major themes that were identified addressed theoretical concepts regarding the intervention and logistical issues in delivering the intervention. The data revealed information regarding the importance of the cognitive appropriateness of the PA and motivational activities, the environmental climate for promoting nurturing relationships, developing specific strategies for increasing intrinsic rather than extrinsic reinforcement, and developing methods for preventing social "cliques" and gender conflicts to maintain an appropriate level of support in the social climate. Themes for training staff included focusing on team building, leadership, and nurturing. This formative evaluation is being used to formalize a randomized trial to test the effects of a student-centered motivational intervention on increasing PA in underserved 6th graders. PMID:21048891

  13. Hyperactivity and Motoric Activity in ADHD: Characterization, Assessment, and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Kühnhausen, Jan; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present literature review is threefold. (1) We will review theories, models, and studies on symptomatic hyperactivity and motoric activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (2) Another focus will be on assessment methods that have been proven to be effective in the detection of hyperactivity and motoric activity in children, adolescents, and adults with and without ADHD and emerging areas of research in the field of ADHD. We will compare subjective methods (i.e., rating scales) and objective methods (i.e., accelerometers). (3) Finally, physical activity intervention studies aiming at a modification of activity and overactive behavior will be summarized that seem to be promising candidates for alleviating hyperactivity symptoms in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD. PMID:25506329

  14. Hyperactivity and Motoric Activity in ADHD: Characterization, Assessment, and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Kühnhausen, Jan; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present literature review is threefold. (1) We will review theories, models, and studies on symptomatic hyperactivity and motoric activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (2) Another focus will be on assessment methods that have been proven to be effective in the detection of hyperactivity and motoric activity in children, adolescents, and adults with and without ADHD and emerging areas of research in the field of ADHD. We will compare subjective methods (i.e., rating scales) and objective methods (i.e., accelerometers). (3) Finally, physical activity intervention studies aiming at a modification of activity and overactive behavior will be summarized that seem to be promising candidates for alleviating hyperactivity symptoms in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD. PMID:25506329

  15. Acquisition of Requests and Apologies in Spanish and French: Impact of Study Abroad and Strategy-Building Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew D.; Shively, Rachel L.

    2007-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the impact of a curricular intervention on study-abroad students' use of language- and culture-learning strategies and on their acquisition of requests and apologies. The intervention consisted of a brief face-to-face orientation to learning speech acts, a self-study guidebook on language and culture…

  16. Why parents value a brief required primary care intervention that teaches discipline strategies.

    PubMed

    Scholer, Seth J; Hudnut-Beumler, Julia; Dietrich, Mary S

    2012-06-01

    English- or Spanish-speaking caregivers of 1- to 5-year-old children were instructed to view a 5- to 10-minute educational intervention in a pediatric clinic as part of the well child visit. Almost all (128/129) parents reported that the program was a valuable component of the well child visit, and of these, all 128 (100%) gave at least one reason. Most parents valued the program at a personal level, reporting that the program was educational (76.6%), reinforced their parenting (8.6%), or facilitated a discussion with their physician (2.3%). A total of 16% valued the program because it might benefit other parents. A brief routine primary care intervention that teaches discipline strategies is valued by English- and Spanish-speaking parents of young children. These findings have implications for how to routinely teach parents about discipline in primary care and the primary prevention of violence. PMID:22496174

  17. Efficacy of traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: interventions of QEEG-guided biofeedback, computers, strategies, and medications.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Kirtley E; Carmody, Dennis P

    2008-06-01

    The onset of cognitive rehabilitation brought with it a hope for an effective treatment for the traumatic brain injured subject. This paper reviews the empirical reports of changes in cognitive functioning after treatment and compares the relative effectiveness of several treatments including computer interventions, cognitive strategies, EEG biofeedback, and medications. The cognitive functions that are reviewed include auditory memory, attention and problem solving. The significance of the change in cognitive function is assessed in two ways that include effect size and longevity of effect. These analyses complement the previously published meta-reviews by adding these two criteria and include reports of EEG biofeedback, which is shown to be an effective intervention for auditory memory. PMID:18551365

  18. Assembly/Disassembly of DNA-Au Nanoparticles: A Strategy of Intervention

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lim, I-Im S.; Wang, Lingyan; Chandrachud, Uma; Gal, Susannah; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the viability of a strategy for manipulating the assembly/disassembly processes of DNA-Au nanoparticles by molecular intervention. Using the temperature-induced assembly and disassembly processes of DNAs and gold nanoparticles as a model system, the introduction of a molecular recognition probe is demonstrated to lead to the intervention of the assembly/disassembly processes depending on its specific biorecognition. This process can be detected by monitoring the change in the optical properties of gold nanoparticles and their DNA assemblies. Implications of the preliminary results to exploration of the resulting nanostructures for fine-tuning of the interfacial reactivities in DNA-based bioassays and biomaterialmore » engineering are also discussed.« less

  19. Strategies used by community-based organizations to evaluate their locally developed HIV prevention interventions: Lessons learned from the CDC's innovative interventions project.

    PubMed

    Painter, Thomas M; Ngalame, Paulyne M; Lucas, Basil; Lauby, Jennifer L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2010-10-01

    Community-based organizations (CBOs) play an important role in health promotion efforts and the delivery of HIV prevention interventions for at-risk minority populations. CBOs may also develop their own interventions but often lack the capacity or funds to rigorously evaluate them. The Innovative Interventions project of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded three CBOs to rigorously evaluate the efficacy of interventions they had developed and were delivering to Black women, Black men who have sex with men (MSM), and adolescent males in juvenile justice settings, respectively. The evaluation results have been reported elsewhere. This article describes operational issues that the CBOs identified as being particularly salient to their evaluations and the strategies they developed to address the issues and successfully complete their evaluations. These issues included the development of organizational capacity to conduct a rigorous outcome evaluation, difficulties with recruitment and retention of evaluation participants, and the use of process monitoring data to improve intervention delivery. The strategies described in this article can be used by CBOs when evaluating their locally developed HIV prevention interventions and may be of interest to funding agencies and researchers that collaborate with CBOs to evaluate their interventions. PMID:20973660

  20. The Dynamics of Avian Influenza: Individual-Based Model with Intervention Strategies in Traditional Trade Networks in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Wilasang, Chaiwat; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Chadsuthi, Sudarat

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 is endemic to Southeast Asia. In Thailand, avian influenza viruses continue to cause large poultry stock losses. The spread of the disease has a serious impact on poultry production especially among rural households with backyard chickens. The movements and activities of chicken traders result in the spread of the disease through traditional trade networks. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of avian influenza in the traditional trade network in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand. We also propose an individual-based model with intervention strategies to control the spread of the disease. We found that the dynamics of the disease mainly depend on the transmission probability and the virus inactivation period. This study also illustrates the appropriate virus disinfection period and the target for intervention strategies on traditional trade network. The results suggest that good hygiene and cleanliness among household traders and trader of trader areas and ensuring that any equipment used is clean can lead to a decrease in transmission and final epidemic size. These results may be useful to epidemiologists, researchers, and relevant authorities in understanding the spread of avian influenza through traditional trade networks. PMID:27110273

  1. The Dynamics of Avian Influenza: Individual-Based Model with Intervention Strategies in Traditional Trade Networks in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wilasang, Chaiwat; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Chadsuthi, Sudarat

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 is endemic to Southeast Asia. In Thailand, avian influenza viruses continue to cause large poultry stock losses. The spread of the disease has a serious impact on poultry production especially among rural households with backyard chickens. The movements and activities of chicken traders result in the spread of the disease through traditional trade networks. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of avian influenza in the traditional trade network in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand. We also propose an individual-based model with intervention strategies to control the spread of the disease. We found that the dynamics of the disease mainly depend on the transmission probability and the virus inactivation period. This study also illustrates the appropriate virus disinfection period and the target for intervention strategies on traditional trade network. The results suggest that good hygiene and cleanliness among household traders and trader of trader areas and ensuring that any equipment used is clean can lead to a decrease in transmission and final epidemic size. These results may be useful to epidemiologists, researchers, and relevant authorities in understanding the spread of avian influenza through traditional trade networks. PMID:27110273

  2. ‘Physical Activity 4 Everyone’ school-based intervention to prevent decline in adolescent physical activity levels: 12 month (mid-intervention) report on a cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Rachel; Campbell, Elizabeth; Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Okely, Anthony D; Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Wiese, Jarrod; Gillham, Karen; Hollis, Jenna; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a recognised period of physical activity decline, particularly among low-income communities. We report the 12-month (midpoint) effects of a 2-year multicomponent physical activity intervention implemented in disadvantaged secondary schools. Methods A cluster randomised trial was undertaken in 10 secondary schools located in disadvantaged areas in New South Wales, Australia. Students in Grade 7 were recruited, with follow-up in Grade 8. The intervention was guided by socioecological theory and included seven physical activity strategies, and six implementation adoption strategies. The primary outcome was mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day assessed using Actigraph GT3X accelerometers. Outcome data were analysed using repeated measures linear mixed models. Results At baseline, 1150 (93%) students participated in the data collection (mean age 12 years, 48% boys) and 1050 (79%) students participated at 12-month follow-up. By the 12-month follow-up, the six implementation adoption strategies had been used to support schools to deliver four of the seven physical activity elements. There was a significant group-by-time interaction for mean minutes of MVPA per day in favour of the intervention group (adjusted difference between groups at follow-up=3.85 min, 95% CI (0.79 to 6.91), p≤0.01), including significantly more vigorous physical activity (2.45 min, p≤0.01), equating to 27 min more MVPA per week. Summary At 12-month follow-up, the intervention had reduced the decline in physical activity among adolescents from disadvantaged schools. The intervention may assist students to meet physical activity guidelines. PMID:26359346

  3. Time-Based Physical Activity Interventions for Weight Loss: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jakicic, John M.; Rickman, Amy D.; Lang, Wei; Davis, Kelliann K.; Gibbs, Bethany Barone; Neiberg, Rebecca; Marcus, Marsha D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether enhancing standard behavior weight loss interventions (SBWP) with additional strategies at the initiation of the intervention (ADOPT) or providing the additional strategies at predetermined times over the intervention period (MAINTAIN) enhances 18 month weight loss. Methods This was a clinical trial with participants (n=195; age= 43.2±8.6 yrs; BMI= 33.0±3.4 kg/m2) randomized to SBWP, ADOPT, or MAINTAIN. All were prescribed an energy restricted diet and physical activity, with group intervention sessions delivered over 18 months. ADOPT received additional phone contact (months 1–3), supervised exercise (months 1–6), and behavior campaigns (months 4–9). MAINTAIN received additional phone contact (months 4–6), supervised exercise (months 7–12), and behavior campaigns (months 13–18). Results There was a significant Group X Time interaction for weight loss (p=0.0032). SBWP lost 9.3±0.9, 7.8±1.1, and 5.9±1.2 kg at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. ADOPT lost 8.9±0.9, 7.6±1.2, and 5.8±1.2 kg, and MAINTAIN lost 9.7±0.9, 11.0±1.2, and 9.0±1.2 kg at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. The Group X Time interaction for SBWP vs. MAINTAIN (p=0.0033) and ADOPT vs. MAINTAIN (p=0.0075) was significant. There was a significant Group X Time interaction for change in fitness (p=0.0060). The Group X Time interaction for MAINTAIN vs. ADOPT (p=0.0018) was significant with a trend for MAINTAIN vs. SBWP (p=0.0525). Conclusions MAINTAIN improved 18-month weight loss compared to SBWP and ADOPT, with statistical trends that MAINTAIN resulted in greater improvements in fitness. These results suggest that time-based strategies emphasizing physical activity conferred greater benefits when delivered later and over the full course of intervention. This provides valuable information for the implementation of time-based strategies to improve long-term weight loss and fitness in overweight and obese adults. PMID:25160843

  4. Active pixel as dosimetric device for interventional radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servoli, L.; Baldaccini, F.; Biasini, M.; Checcucci, B.; Chiocchini, S.; Cicioni, R.; Conti, E.; Di Lorenzo, R.; Dipilato, A. C.; Esposito, A.; Fanó, L.; Paolucci, M.; Passeri, D.; Pentiricci, A.; Placidi, P.

    2013-08-01

    Interventional Radiology (IR) is a subspecialty of radiology comprehensive of all minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed using radiological devices to obtain image guidance. The interventional procedures are potentially harmful for interventional radiologists and medical staff due to the X-ray diffusion by the patient's body. The characteristic energy range of the diffused photons spans few tens of keV. In this work we will present a proposal for a new X-ray sensing element in the energy range of interest for IR procedures. The sensing element will then be assembled in a dosimeter prototype, capable of real-time measurement, packaged in a small form-factor, with wireless communication and no external power supply to be used for individual operators dosimetry for IR procedures. For the sensor, which is the heart of the system, we considered three different Active Pixel Sensors (APS). They have shown a good capability as single X-ray photon detectors, up to several tens keV photon energy. Two dosimetric quantities have been considered, the number of detected photons and the measured energy deposition. Both observables have a linear dependence with the dose, as measured by commercial dosimeters. The uncertainties in the measurement are dominated by statistic and can be pushed at ˜5% for all the sensors under test.

  5. School physical activity interventions: do not forget about obesity bias.

    PubMed

    Rukavina, P B; Li, W

    2008-01-01

    Obesity bias is the tendency to negatively judge an overweight or obese individual based on assumed and/or false character traits, such as being physically unattractive, incompetent, lazy and lacking self-discipline. Obesity biases, such as teasing or weight criticism during physical activity (PA), can be psychologically or emotionally damaging for overweight children and adolescents. Ultimately, the effects students experience over time may create a psychological barrier and students can become resistant to schools' health and PA interventions that promote lifestyle changes. Fortunately, the psychological effects of obesity bias are mediated by social buffers and coping mechanisms. Several PA-related researchers have proposed strategic intervention components, but no studies have been completed in PA settings. The purpose of this review was to discuss the nature and different types of obesity bias in PA settings. Major theoretical frameworks of the aetiology and change mechanisms of obesity biases from the psychological literature were reviewed and direct applications for strategic component interventions were made for PA settings. Because of the pervasiveness and entrenchment of obesity bias, it is obvious that multiple theoretical frameworks need to be considered and even combined to create safe and caring school PA environments for students. PMID:18154603

  6. Using Environmental Stimuli in Physical Activity Intervention for School Teachers: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Peggy PY.; Chow, Bik C.; Parfitt, Gaynor

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of a six-week intervention that aimed to promote teachers' physical activity level during working hours. Thirty-eight teachers from three intervention schools (schools randomly assigned as intervention group) received intervention prompts: SMS messages, leaflets and posters…

  7. Impact of a physical activity intervention program on cognitive predictors of behaviour among adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes (ProActive randomised controlled trial)

    PubMed Central

    Hardeman, Wendy; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Michie, Susan; Sutton, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    not result in more behaviour change. More powerful interventions which induce large changes in TPB cognitions may be needed. Other interventions deserving further evaluation include theory-based brief advice, intensive measurement of physical and psychological factors, and monitoring of physical activity. Future research should consider a wider range of mediators of physical activity change, assess participants' use of self-regulatory strategies taught in the intervention, and conduct experimental studies or statistical modelling prior to trial evaluation. ISRCTN61323766. PMID:19292926

  8. Accelerometer Use in a Physical Activity Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Borradaile, Kelley E.; Lewis, Beth A.; Whiteley, Jessica A.; Longval, Jaime L.; Parisi, Alfred F.; Albrecht, Anna E.; Sciamanna, Christopher N.; Jakicic, John M.; Papandonatos, George D.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the application of best practice recommendations for using accelerometers in a physical activity (PA) intervention trial, and the concordance of different methods for measuring PA. A subsample (n=63; 26%) of the 239 healthy, sedentary adults participating in a PA trial (mean age=47.5; 82% women) wore the ActiGraph monitor at all 3 assessment time points. ActiGraph data were compared with self-report (i.e., PA weekly recall and monthly log) and fitness variables. Correlations between the PA recall and ActiGraph for moderate intensity activity ranged from 0.16–0.48 and from 0.28–0.42 for vigorous intensity activity. ActiGraph and fitness [estimated VO2(ml/kg/min)] had correlations of 0.15–0.45. The ActiGraph and weekly self-report were significantly correlated at all time points (correlations ranged from 0.23–0.44). In terms of detecting intervention effects, intervention groups recorded more minutes of at least moderate-intensity PA on the ActiGraph than the control group at 6 months (min=46.47, 95% CI=14.36–78.58), but not at 12 months. Limitations of the study include a small sample size and only 3 days of ActiGraph monitoring. To obtain optimal results with accelerometers in clinical trials, the authors recommend following best practice recommendations: detailed protocols for monitor use, calibration of monitors and validation of data quality, and use of validated equations for analysis. The ActiGraph has modest concordance with other assessment tools and is sensitive to change over time. However, until more information validating the use of accelerometry in clinical trials becomes available, properly administered self-report measures of PA should remain part of the assessment battery. PMID:20723619

  9. The Work Compatibility Improvement Framework: theory and application of improvement action and intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Magda M; Sequeira, Reynold; A-Rehim, Amal D

    2009-05-01

    Challenges facing management of manufacturing firms can be transformed into asset gains by giving careful consideration to the worker-work environment interface. The benefits of a 'healthy' interface may lead to sizable reductions in rising health care costs and retention of highly qualified workers. This paper presents a novel approach for the 'improve' phase of the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework. The work tasks of this research consisted of: (a) fundamentals of cognitive-based improvement action and intervention; (b) design concepts and process of improvement action/intervention generation; (c) assessment model of estimated gains in company's assets; (d) application demonstration in the manufacturing sector. The process of improvement action/intervention generation is described, preceded by a description of the fundamentals of cognitive-based improvement action and intervention and system architecture. This is followed by a documentation of estimated asset gains as a result of the improvement plan. The results showed that expert workers were, on average, 78% in agreement with the algorithm-identified improvement actions. Their knowledge was used to update the recommended actions as well as to detail the multiple strategies required to address the improvement actions. As a result, an integrated improvement plan was developed resulting in estimated asset gains of $1.6 million, which was validated by the general manager. The research reported herein documented the theory and application of the 'improve' phase of the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework. The economic assessment of the suggested improvement is also reported and this has proved to be an important driver to secure the firm collaboration of manufacturing enterprise management. An integrated improvement solution plan backed by a detailed economic assessment of suggested improvements is essential to demonstrate the full potential of workplace micro- and macro-ergonomic interventions. PMID

  10. Biosecurity-Based Interventions and Strategies To Reduce Campylobacter spp. on Poultry Farms▿

    PubMed Central

    Newell, D. G.; Elvers, K. T.; Dopfer, D.; Hansson, I.; Jones, P.; James, S.; Gittins, J.; Stern, N. J.; Davies, R.; Connerton, I.; Pearson, D.; Salvat, G.; Allen, V. M.

    2011-01-01

    The prevention and control of Campylobacter colonization of poultry flocks are important public health strategies for the control of human campylobacteriosis. A critical review of the literature on interventions to control Campylobacter in poultry on farms was undertaken using a systematic approach. Although the focus of the review was on aspects appropriate to the United Kingdom poultry industry, the research reviewed was gathered from worldwide literature. Multiple electronic databases were employed to search the literature, in any language, from 1980 to September 2008. A primary set of 4,316 references was identified and scanned, using specific agreed-upon criteria, to select relevant references related to biosecurity-based interventions. The final library comprised 173 references. Identification of the sources of Campylobacter in poultry flocks was required to inform the development of targeted interventions to disrupt transmission routes. The approach used generally involved risk factor-based surveys related to culture-positive or -negative flocks, usually combined with a structured questionnaire. In addition, some studies, either in combination or independently, undertook intervention trials. Many of these studies were compromised by poor design, sampling, and statistical analysis. The evidence for each potential source and route of transmission on the poultry farm was reviewed critically, and the options for intervention were considered. The review concluded that, in most instances, biosecurity on conventional broiler farms can be enhanced and this should contribute to the reduction of flock colonization. However, complementary, non-biosecurity-based approaches will also be required in the future to maximize the reduction of Campylobacter-positive flocks at the farm level. PMID:21984249

  11. Strategies for active alignment of lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langehanenberg, Patrik; Heinisch, Josef; Wilde, Chrisitan; Hahne, Felix; Lüerß, Bernd

    2015-10-01

    Today's optical systems require up-to-date assembly and joining technology. The trend of keeping dimensions as small as possible while maintaining or increasing optical imaging performance leaves little to no room for mechanical lens adjustment equipment that may remain in the final product. In this context active alignment of optical elements opens up possibilities for the fast and cost-economic manufacturing of lenses and lens assemblies with highest optical performance. Active alignment for lens manufacturing is the precise alignment of the optical axis of a lens with respect to an optical or mechanical reference axis (e.g. housing) including subsequent fixation by glue. In this contribution we will describe different approaches for active alignment and outline strengths and limitations of the different methods. Using the SmartAlign principle, highest quality cemented lenses can be manufactured without the need for high precision prealignment, while the reduction to a single alignment step greatly reduces the cycle time. The same strategies can also be applied to bonding processes. Lenses and lens groups can be aligned to both mechanical and optical axes to maximize the optical performance of a given assembly. In hybrid assemblies using both mechanical tolerances and active alignment, SmartAlign can be used to align critical lens elements anywhere inside the system for optimized total performance. Since all geometrical parameters are re-measured before each alignment, this process is especially suited for complex and time-consuming production processes where the stability of the reference axis would otherwise be critical. For highest performance, lenses can be actively aligned using up to five degrees of freedom. In this way, SmartAlign enables the production of ultra-precise mounted lenses with an alignment precision below 1 μm.

  12. A stochastic SIRS epidemic model with infectious force under intervention strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yongli; Kang, Yun; Banerjee, Malay; Wang, Weiming

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we extend a classical SIRS epidemic model with the infectious forces under intervention strategies from a deterministic framework to a stochastic differential equation (SDE) one through introducing random fluctuations. The value of our study lies in two aspects. Mathematically, by using the Markov semigroups theory, we prove that the reproduction number R0S can be used to govern the stochastic dynamics of SDE model. If R0S < 1, under mild extra conditions, the SDE system has a disease-free absorbing set which means the extinction of disease with probability one. If R0S > 1, under mild extra conditions, it has an endemic stationary distribution which leads to the stochastical persistence of the disease. Epidemiologically, we find that random fluctuations can suppress disease outbreak, which can provide us some useful control strategies to regulate disease dynamics.

  13. Development and Pilot Study of a Marketing Strategy for Primary Care/Internet–Based Depression Prevention Intervention for Adolescents (The CATCH-IT Intervention)

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Natalie; Bridges, John F. P.; Fogel, Joshua; Galas, Jill; Kramer, Clarke; Connery, Marc; McGill, Ann; Marko, Monika; Cardenas, Alonso; Landsback, Josephine; Dmochowska, Karoline; Kuwabara, Sachiko A.; Ellis, Justin; Prochaska, Micah; Bell, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescent depression is both common and burdensome, and while evidence-based strategies have been developed to prevent adolescent depression, participation in such interventions remains extremely low, with less than 3% of at-risk individuals participating. To promote participation in evidence-based preventive strategies, a rigorous marketing strategy is needed to translate research into practice. Objective: To develop and pilot a rigorous marketing strategy for engaging at-risk individuals with an Internet-based depression prevention intervention in primary care targeting key attitudes and beliefs. Method: A marketing design group was constituted to develop a marketing strategy based on the principles of targeting, positioning/competitor analysis, decision analysis, and promotion/distribution and incorporating contemporary models of behavior change. We evaluated the formative quality of the intervention and observed the fielding experience for prevention using a pilot study (observational) design. Results: The marketing plan focused on “resiliency building” rather than “depression intervention” and was relayed by office staff and the Internet site. Twelve practices successfully implemented the intervention and recruited a diverse sample of adolescents with > 30% of all those with positive screens and > 80% of those eligible after phone assessment enrolling in the study with a cost of $58 per enrollee. Adolescent motivation for depression prevention (1–10 scale) increased from a baseline mean value of 7.45 (SD = 2.05) to 8.07 poststudy (SD = 1.33) (P = .048). Conclusions: Marketing strategies for preventive interventions for mental disorders can be developed and successfully introduced and marketed in primary care. PMID:20944776

  14. Prospects of using community directed intervention strategy in delivering health services among Fulani Nomads in Enugu State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    organizational structure of the nomads in Enugu State and their desire for modern health intervention, it is feasible to test the CDI strategy for equitable healthcare delivery among nomads. They are willing and capable to participate actively in their own health programmes with minimal support from professional health workers. PMID:23566078

  15. The Power Card Strategy: Strength-Based Intervention to Increase Direction Following of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Abbi; Tincani, Matt

    2011-01-01

    The Power Card strategy is a strength-based intervention to promote social skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) by capitalizing on their special interests. Although preliminary studies have shown that the Power Card strategy is a promising approach to teach social skills, additional research is needed. The purpose of this study…

  16. Bari-Active: A randomized controlled trial of a preoperative intervention to increase physical activity in bariatric surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Dale S.; Vithiananthan, Sivamainthan; Thomas, J. Graham; Trautvetter, Jennifer; Unick, Jessica L.; Jakicic, John M.; Pohl, Dieter; Ryder, Beth A.; Roye, G. Dean; Sax, Harry C.; Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Habitual physical activity (PA) may help to optimize bariatric surgery outcomes; however objective PA measures show that most patients have low PA preoperatively and make only modest PA changes postoperatively. Patients require additional support to adopt habitual PA. Objectives: Test the efficacy of a preoperative PA intervention (PAI) versus standard pre-surgical care (SC) for increasing daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in bariatric surgery patients. Setting: University Hospital, United States. Methods: Outcomes analysis included 75 participants (86.7% women; 46.0±8.9 years; Body Mass Index [BMI]=45.0±6.5 kg/m2) who were randomly assigned preoperatively to 6 weeks of PAI (n=40) or SC (n=35). PAI received weekly individual face-to-face sessions with tailored instruction in behavioral strategies (e.g., self-monitoring, goal-setting) to increase home-based walking exercise. The primary outcome, pre- to post-intervention change in daily bout-related (≥10-min bouts) and total (≥1-minute bouts) MVPA minutes, was assessed objectively via a multi-sensor monitor worn for 7 days at baseline- and post-intervention. Results: Retention was 84% at the post-intervention primary end point. In intent-to-treat analyses with baseline value carried forward for missing data and adjusted for baseline MVPA, PAI achieved a mean increase of 16.6±20.6 minutes/day in bout-related MVPA (baseline: 4.4±5.5 to post-intervention: 21.0±21.4 minutes/day) compared to no change (−0.3±12.7 minutes/day; baseline: 7.9±16.6 to post-intervention: 7.6±11.5 minutes/day) for SC (p=0.001). Similarly, PAI achieved a mean increase of 21.0±26.9 minutes/day in total MVPA (baseline: 30.9±21.2 to post-intervention: 51.9±30.0 minutes/day), whereas SC demonstrated no change (− 0.1±16.3 minutes/day; baseline: 33.7±33.2 to post-intervention: 33.6±28.5 minutes/day) (p=0.001). Conclusions: With behavioral intervention, patients can significantly increase MVPA before bariatric

  17. STEADFAST: Psychotherapeutic Intervention Improves Postural Strategy of Somatoform Vertigo and Dizziness

    PubMed Central

    Best, Christoph; Tschan, Regine; Stieber, Nikola; Beutel, Manfred E.; Eckhardt-Henn, Annegret; Dieterich, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Patients with somatoform vertigo and dizziness (SVD) disorders often report instability of stance or gait and fear of falling. Posturographic measurements indeed indicated a pathological postural strategy. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psychotherapeutic and psychoeducational short-term intervention (PTI) using static posturography and psychometric examination. Seventeen SVD patients took part in the study. The effects of PTI on SVD were evaluated with quantitative static posturography. As primary endpoint a quotient characterizing the relation between horizontal and vertical sway was calculated (QH/V), reflecting the individual postural strategy. Results of static posturography were compared to those of age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (n = 28); baseline measurements were compared to results after PTI. The secondary endpoint was the participation-limiting consequences of SVD as measured by the Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire (VHQ). Compared to the healthy volunteers, the patients with SVD showed a postural strategy characterized by stiffening-up that resulted in a significantly reduced body sway quotient before PTI (patients: QH/V = 0.31 versus controls: QH/V = 0.38; p = 0.022). After PTI the postural behavior normalized, and psychological distress was reduced. PTI therefore appears to modify pathological balance behaviour. The postural strategy of patients with SVD possibly results from anxious anticipatory cocontraction of the antigravity muscles. PMID:26843786

  18. STEADFAST: Psychotherapeutic Intervention Improves Postural Strategy of Somatoform Vertigo and Dizziness.

    PubMed

    Best, Christoph; Tschan, Regine; Stieber, Nikola; Beutel, Manfred E; Eckhardt-Henn, Annegret; Dieterich, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Patients with somatoform vertigo and dizziness (SVD) disorders often report instability of stance or gait and fear of falling. Posturographic measurements indeed indicated a pathological postural strategy. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psychotherapeutic and psychoeducational short-term intervention (PTI) using static posturography and psychometric examination. Seventeen SVD patients took part in the study. The effects of PTI on SVD were evaluated with quantitative static posturography. As primary endpoint a quotient characterizing the relation between horizontal and vertical sway was calculated (Q H/V ), reflecting the individual postural strategy. Results of static posturography were compared to those of age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (n = 28); baseline measurements were compared to results after PTI. The secondary endpoint was the participation-limiting consequences of SVD as measured by the Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire (VHQ). Compared to the healthy volunteers, the patients with SVD showed a postural strategy characterized by stiffening-up that resulted in a significantly reduced body sway quotient before PTI (patients: Q H/V = 0.31 versus controls: Q H/V = 0.38; p = 0.022). After PTI the postural behavior normalized, and psychological distress was reduced. PTI therefore appears to modify pathological balance behaviour. The postural strategy of patients with SVD possibly results from anxious anticipatory cocontraction of the antigravity muscles. PMID:26843786

  19. Short-term Intervention to Revert Premalignant Lesions as Strategy to Prevent Gastrointestinal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Han, Young-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Lee, Ho-Jae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2013-01-01

    “Prevention might be better than treatment in cancer treatment” is brief conclusion drawn from war on cancer through National Cancer Act of 1971 by U.S. President Richard Nixon. However, the clinical practice of chemoprevention is still in its infancy in spite of a wealth of data showing its effectiveness in experimental animals as well as in vitro mechanism research. Recent advances in either high throughput analysis including cancer genomes and tailored medicine or molecular targeted therapeutics, preventive strategies also should be changes as previous preventive strategies including phytoceuticals, life-style modification, and some empirical agents. Furthermore, molecular targeted therapeutics achieved high goal of effectiveness under the concept of therapeutic or preventive “synthetic lethality”, of which extended application can be included within the scope of chemoprevention. Here, we will summarize several recent advances in chemopreventive strategy objected to justify optimism that chemoprevention will be an effective approach for the control of human cancer. siTRP (short-term intervention to revert premalignancy) strategy will be introduced for cancers in gastroenterology. PMID:25337558

  20. Community-directed interventions for integrated delivery of a health package against major health problems in rural Uganda: perceptions on the strategy and its effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Kabali, Asaph Turinde

    2010-09-01

    Despite growing interest at national and international levels to use community-directed interventions (CDI) for delivery of health interventions in Africa, inadequate information on its acceptability and effectiveness remains. This study aimed to examine community perceptions on CDI strategy and its effectiveness for integrated delivery of health interventions with different degrees of complexity (insecticide treated nets, vitamin A supplements to children, home management of malaria and direct observation treatment of tuberculosis), using community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) as an entry point, compared to conventional delivery channels. The interventions were implemented in an incremental manner and both qualitative and quantitative methods were used at evaluation, three years after implementation. Coverage was significantly higher in CDI arm, compared to conventional delivery channels for all interventions (P < 0.05), except for direct observation treatment of tuberculosis (P > 0.05). Community members expressed interest in CDI because it responds to their perceived health problems, actively engages them and improves access to health care services. CDI seemed to be appropriate for interventions that are relatively simple, intervention materials are available, the disease is perceived as a health problem affecting all sections of the community and can be easily integrated into their daily lives, and community structures with full community participation. PMID:24037700

  1. Defining the Relationship Between Human Error Classes and Technology Intervention Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegmann, Douglas A.; Rantanen, Esa; Crisp, Vicki K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    One of the main factors in all aviation accidents is human error. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), therefore, has identified several human-factors safety technologies to address this issue. Some technologies directly address human error either by attempting to reduce the occurrence of errors or by mitigating the negative consequences of errors. However, new technologies and system changes may also introduce new error opportunities or even induce different types of errors. Consequently, a thorough understanding of the relationship between error classes and technology "fixes" is crucial for the evaluation of intervention strategies outlined in the AvSP, so that resources can be effectively directed to maximize the benefit to flight safety. The purpose of the present project, therefore, was to examine the repositories of human factors data to identify the possible relationship between different error class and technology intervention strategies. The first phase of the project, which is summarized here, involved the development of prototype data structures or matrices that map errors onto "fixes" (and vice versa), with the hope of facilitating the development of standards for evaluating safety products. Possible follow-on phases of this project are also discussed. These additional efforts include a thorough and detailed review of the literature to fill in the data matrix and the construction of a complete database and standards checklists.

  2. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Colin; Van Der Lans, Ivo; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions. PMID:26389949

  3. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness.

    PubMed

    Bos, Colin; Lans, Ivo Van Der; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers' freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions. PMID:26389949

  4. Understanding the relationship of maternal health behavior change and intervention strategies in a Nicaraguan NGO network.

    PubMed

    Valadez, Joseph J; Hage, Jerald; Vargas, William

    2005-09-01

    Few studies of community interventions examine independent effects of investments in: (1) capital (i.e., physical, human and social capital), and (2) management systems (e.g., monitoring and evaluation systems (M&E)) on maternal and child health behavior change. This paper does this in the context of an inter-organizational network. In Nicaragua, international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and local NGOs formed the NicaSalud Federation. Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS), 14 member organizations took baselines measures of maternal safe motherhood and child health behavior indicators during November 1999 and August 2000, respectively, and final evaluation measures in December 2001. In April 2002, retrospective interviews were conducted with supervisors and managers in the 14 organizations to explore changes made to community health strategies, factors associated with the changes, and impacts they attributed to participating in NicaSalud. Physical capital (density of health huts), human capital (density and variety of paramedical personnel) and social capital (density of health committees) were associated with pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) 3+ times, and/or retaining ANC cards. The variety of paramedic personnel was also associated with women making post-partum visits to clinics. Physical capital (density of health huts) and social capital (density of health committees and mothers' clubs) were associated with child diarrhea case management indicators. One safe motherhood indicator (delivery of babies by a clinician) was not associated with intervention strategies. At the management level, NicaSalud's training of members to use LQAS for M&E was associated with the number of strategic and tactical changes they subsequently made to interventions (organizational learning). Organizational learning was related to changes in maternal and child health behaviors of the women (including changes in the proportion using post-partum care). As the

  5. Impact of a brief intervention on self-regulation, self-efficacy and physical activity in older adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Olson, Erin A; McAuley, Edward

    2015-12-01

    Despite evidence of the benefits of physical activity, most individuals with type 2 diabetes do not meet physical activity recommendations. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a brief intervention targeting self-efficacy and self-regulation to increase physical activity in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Older adults (Mage = 61.8 ± 6.4) with type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome were randomized into a titrated physical activity intervention (n = 58) or an online health education course (n = 58). The intervention included walking exercise and theory-based group workshops. Self-efficacy, self-regulation and physical activity were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and a follow-up. Results indicated a group by time effect for self-regulation [F(2,88) = 14.021, p < .001, η (2) = .24] and self-efficacy [F(12,77) = 2.322, p < .05, η (2) = .266] with increases in the intervention group. The intervention resulted in short-term increases in physical activity (d = .76, p < .01), which were partially maintained at the 6-month follow-up (d = .35, p < .01). The intervention increased short-term physical activity but was not successful at maintaining increases in physical activity. Similar intervention effects were observed in self-efficacy and self-regulation. Future research warrants adjusting intervention strategies to increase long-term change. PMID:26162648

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions to Improve Moderate Physical Activity: A Study in Nine UK Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Andy; Cooke, Carlton; Gilson, Nicholas; Marsh, Kevin; McKenna, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Objective: With growing concerns to establish the value for returns on public health investment, there is a need to identify cost-effective physical activity interventions. This study measured change in moderate physical activity (MPA) in seven community-based intervention types, costs and cost-effectiveness of the interventions, and possible…

  7. Association of negotiation strategies with consistent use of male condoms by women receiving an HIV prevention intervention in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Ann; Moore, Janet S; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Loeb, Lisa; Cobb, Daphne; Hruschka, Dan; Khan, Rizwana; Padian, Nancy

    2003-07-25

    One of the fundamental aspects of HIV counselling for women is condom negotiation strategy development. The present research sought to identify condom request strategies used by Zimbabwean women and to determine which were most effective in persuading male partners to use condoms. Of six types of strategies used by women after a prevention intervention, one was significantly associated with consistent condom use 2 months later. Implications for the development of counselling and testing protocols are discussed. PMID:12853758

  8. Strategies to recruit and retain older adults in intervention studies: a quantitative comparative study.

    PubMed

    Michelet, Mona; Lund, Anne; Sveen, Unni

    2014-01-01

    Recruitment and retention of participants in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) drawn from the older population is challenging, and studies have shown that poor recruitment and retention may lead to biased samples and results. Several strategies to improve the participation of older adults in research are outlined in the literature. The objective was to identify factors associated with participation in an RCT aiming at preventing depressive symptoms and social isolation in a later phase following a stroke, in an older population living in their homes. Strategies to improve participation were applied in the RCT "Lifestyle intervention for older adults in rehabilitation after stroke: development, implementation and evaluation". Quantitative data collected on participants (n=99) and non-participants (n=56) in the trial were compared using statistical analyses. The findings are in line with earlier studies in that the participants were younger (p=0.01) and received less help in the home (p=0.01) than did non-participants. The results differ from earlier studies in that participants had a higher rate of depressive symptoms (participation rate was 57% with HAD depression scale score 0-2, 61% with score 3-4, 62% with score 5-6 and 79% with a score 7 or above). The findings also illustrate a poorer health-related quality of life among the participants in the role physical domain on Short Form-36 (p=0.01). The results indicate that the use of targeted strategies to enhance participation may lead to a less biased sample as well as the inclusion of more subjects who seem to meet the aims of the intervention. PMID:24698174

  9. Assessment of a school-based intervention in eating habits and physical activity in school children: the AVall study

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Rosa; Recasens, Assumpta; Nadal, Ana; Vila, Maria; Pérez, Maria José; Manresa, Josep Maria; Recasens, Isabel; Salvador, Gemma; Serra, Jaume; Roure, Eulàlia; Castells, Conxa

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity has become a global public health problem, which also affects children. It has been proposed that the educational interventions during childhood could be a key strategy in the prevention of obesity. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of an intervention on food habits and physical activity in school children. Methods A 2-year cluster-randomised prospective study with two parallel arms was used to evaluate an intervention programme in children in their first year of primary schooling (5–6 years of age) in schools in the city of Granollers. The intervention consisted of the promotion of healthy eating habits and physical activity by means of the educational methodology Investigation, Vision, Action and Change (IVAC). At the beginning and at the end of the study (2006 and 2008) the weight and height of each child was measured in situ, while the families were given a self-report physical activity questionnaire and the Krece Plus quick test. Results Two years after the beginning of the study, the body mass index of the children in the control group was 0.89 kg/m2 higher than that of the intervention schools. The intervention reduced by 62% the prevalence of overweight children. Similarly, the proportion of children that ate a second piece of fruit and took part in an after-school physical activity increased in the intervention group. In the control group, the weekly consumption of fish was reduced. Conclusions The educational intervention in healthy eating habits and physical activity in the school could contribute to lessen the current increase in child obesity. PMID:21398682

  10. Adventurous Physical Activity Environments: A Mainstream Intervention for Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Clough, Peter; Houge Mackenzie, Susan; Mallabon, Liz; Brymer, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Adventurous physical activity has traditionally been considered the pastime of a small minority of people with deviant personalities or characteristics that compel them to voluntarily take great risks purely for the sake of thrills and excitement. An unintended consequence of these traditional narratives is the relative absence of adventure activities in mainstream health and well-being discourses and in large-scale governmental health initiatives. However, recent research has demonstrated that even the most extreme adventurous physical activities are linked to enhanced psychological health and well-being outcomes. These benefits go beyond traditional 'character building' concepts and emphasize more positive frameworks that rely on the development of effective environmental design. Based on emerging research, this paper demonstrates why adventurous physical activity should be considered a mainstream intervention for positive mental health. Furthermore, the authors argue that understanding how to design environments that effectively encourage appropriate adventure should be considered a serious addition to mainstream health and well-being discourse. PMID:26895993

  11. Progression to multi-scale models and the application to food system intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Gröhn, Yrjö T

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss how the systems science approach can be used to optimize intervention strategies in food animal systems. It advocates the idea that the challenges of maintaining a safe food supply are best addressed by integrating modeling and mathematics with biological studies critical to formulation of public policy to address these challenges. Much information on the biology and epidemiology of food animal systems has been characterized through single-discipline methods, but until now this information has not been thoroughly utilized in a fully integrated manner. The examples are drawn from our current research. The first, explained in depth, uses clinical mastitis to introduce the concept of dynamic programming to optimize management decisions in dairy cows (also introducing the curse of dimensionality problem). In the second example, a compartmental epidemic model for Johne's disease with different intervention strategies is optimized. The goal of the optimization strategy depends on whether there is a relationship between Johne's and Crohn's disease. If so, optimization is based on eradication of infection; if not, it is based on the cow's performance only (i.e., economic optimization, similar to the mastitis example). The third example focuses on food safety to introduce risk assessment using Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium. The last example, practical interventions to effectively manage antibiotic resistance in beef and dairy cattle systems, introduces meta-population modeling that accounts for bacterial growth not only in the host (cow), but also in the cow's feed, drinking water and the housing environment. Each example stresses the need to progress toward multi-scale modeling. The article ends with examples of multi-scale systems, from food supply systems to Johne's disease. Reducing the consequences of foodborne illnesses (i.e., minimizing disease occurrence and associated costs) can only occur through an

  12. Comparing of goal setting strategy with group education method to increase physical activity level: A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Jiryaee, Nasrin; Siadat, Zahra Dana; Zamani, Ahmadreza; Taleban, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Designing an intervention to increase physical activity is important to be based on the health care settings resources and be acceptable by the subject group. This study was designed to assess and compare the effect of the goal setting strategy with a group education method on increasing the physical activity of mothers of children aged 1 to 5. Materials and Methods: Mothers who had at least one child of 1-5 years were randomized into two groups. The effect of 1) goal-setting strategy and 2) group education method on increasing physical activity was assessed and compared 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Also, the weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, and well-being were compared between the two groups before and after the intervention. Results: Physical activity level increased significantly after the intervention in the goal-setting group and it was significantly different between the two groups after intervention (P < 0.05). BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, and well-being score were significantly different in the goal-setting group after the intervention. In the group education method, only the well-being score improved significantly (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our study presented the effects of using the goal-setting strategy to boost physical activity, improving the state of well-being and decreasing BMI, waist, and hip circumference. PMID:26929765

  13. Increasing resource allocation and research into tobacco control activities: a comprehensive approach including primary prevention, treatment and brief intervention.

    PubMed

    Richmond, R

    1993-01-01

    The range of tobacco control activities should be viewed as essential parts of a complex multi-component puzzle. Intervention strategies designed to address tobacco control should be comprehensive and include both primary and secondary prevention activities and be multi-faceted and capable of bringing about change at both the individual and broader social and cultural levels. In this paper I argue for a mutually inclusive framework in which the various components contribute in important and different ways. I examine the prevalence of smoking and identify the high risk groups, then I examine the range of available strategies and present the evidence for their success. I discuss the primary prevention approaches such as warning labels, taxes, price increases, workplace bans, education in schools, mass media and self-help materials, as well as brief interventions and treatment strategies which are conducted at the worksite, general practice and specialized cessation clinics. The areas for future research are delineated for increased resource allocation and include: the best ways to disseminate brief interventions to smokers, methods to motivate smokers; training of health professionals to deliver brief interventions; enhancing quitting and access to existing treatment resources among specific disadvantaged minority groups, e.g. migrants, unemployed youth, the effect on smoking prevalence of warning labels on cigarette packets and price rises on cigarettes. PMID:16818330

  14. Intervention strategies in the academic and career development of at-risk undergraduate students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccocioppo, Anna-Lisa

    This study had two primary purposes: (a) to learn more about the experiences and perceptions of students in science-related fields that have been placed on academic probation or academic warning, and (b) to learn about the impact of a course-based combined cognitive and career intervention on students' grade point averages, learning and study skills, and career decision-making self-efficacy. Participants (N=21) were second- to fourth-year students in a science-related faculty who were currently on academic probation (i.e., successfully appealed their 'required to withdraw' status due to unsatisfactory standing) or academic warning (those with marginal academic standing) and completed an intervention course. A matched-peer group of students from the previous academic year when the course was not available comprised the control group. Quantitative data collection included pre-, post-, and follow-up measures of participants' grade point averages (GPAs), scores on the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI), and the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale (CDMSE). Qualitative data collection included semi-structured interviews with a subset of the participants (N=13) as well as a pre-course questionnaire and the qualitative course evaluation. A repeated-measures ANCOVA showed no difference between the at-risk students who took the intervention course and the matched control group. Friedman results demonstrated significant increases in many subscales of the LASSI, the CDMSE, as well as the overall measure of career decision-making self-efficacy. In the qualitative findings, participants described various academic and non-academic factors that contributed to their at-risk academic standing and the majority described their experience in the course-based intervention as positive and helpful in improving their situation. The findings from this unique combined intervention approach provided a greater understanding of the experience of this often overlooked group

  15. Comprehension Strategy Instruction during Parent-Child Shared Reading: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kathryn L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a series of workshops and at-home activities designed to teach parents to integrate comprehension strategy instruction into read-alouds with their pre-kindergarten-aged children. Twenty parent-child dyads were randomly assigned to condition and parents in the experimental (workshop) condition were taught to…

  16. Supportive telephone outreach as an interventional strategy for elderly patients in a period of crisis.

    PubMed

    Berkman, P; Heinik, J; Rosenthal, M; Burke, M

    1999-01-01

    During the Gulf War in 1991 a telephone-based support system was established for elderly patients living at home in Israel. The study population involved 93 elderly patients (mean age 74), who had recently been discharged from hospital and were chosen for supervision by the Home-Care Unit of the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel. Two different teams were involved with the telephone support calls: secretarial staff (nonprofessional team) and social workers (professional team). The research examined the characteristics of the study population and also included a comparison between the two groups of patients receiving the psycho-social support. The latter indicated that better results of outcome indices were achieved by the professional team. Further, this study demonstrated the feasibility of telephone-support outreach as an interventional strategy for psycho-social support for elderly patients at a time of crisis. PMID:10425672

  17. Read, retrieve, connect and use: An intervention strategy for science and scientific literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Kerryane T.

    American students underachieve on local, state, national, and international assessments of science. Student performance on standardized assessments has driven numerous educational reforms including No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top with a resulting increased focus on student achievement. Local districts and schools struggle with how to improve student achievement in order to meet the requirements of state and federal legislation. International and national government officials extoll the value of science in driving the economic prosperity of a nation adding increased pressure to improve science scores in the United States. Moreover, to be effective decision-makers personally and within a democracy, citizens must be scientifically literate. Read, Retrieve, Connect and Use (RRCU) is an instructional strategy that combined state biology content standards, with the new Common Core Standards for Literacy in Science through evidenced-based literacy strategies recommended by the National Reading Panel. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of an intervention, RRCU to improve science content knowledge and literacy skills in Biology and Language Arts. The findings identified reading skill, as measured by FCAT Reading as predictive of Biology test scores indicating a close relationship between reading comprehension and the ability to learn and be assessed on science content knowledge. The data did not indicate RRCU was an effective means of improving student science content knowledge or literacy skills. However, teachers responded positively to the strategy as a means to reinforce content knowledge and support literacy skills. Future recommendations include improving the study design and expanding the use of the strategy to middle school to build a foundation of effective literacy skills students can use to cope with the depth and complexity of science content at the high school level.

  18. Adherence to the physical activity intervention in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders pilot (LIFE-P) study.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) was a trial to examine the effects of physical activity on measures of disability risk in previously sedentary older adults at risk for disability. We examined adherence and retention to the LIPE-P physical activity (PA) interventio...

  19. Screening strategies for active tuberculosis: focus on cost-effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Dobler, Claudia Caroline

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been renewed interest in screening for active tuberculosis (TB), also called active case-finding (ACF), as a possible means to achieve control of the global TB epidemic. ACF aims to increase the detection of TB, in order to diagnose and treat patients with TB earlier than if they had been diagnosed and treated only at the time when they sought health care because of symptoms. This will reduce or avoid secondary transmission of TB to other people, with the long-term goal of reducing the incidence of TB. Here, the history of screening for active TB, current screening practices, and the role of TB-diagnostic tools are summarized and the literature on cost-effectiveness of screening for active TB reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analyses indicate that community-wide ACF can be cost-effective in settings with a high incidence of TB. ACF among close TB contacts is cost-effective in settings with a low as well as a high incidence of TB. The evidence for cost-effectiveness of screening among HIV-infected persons is not as strong as for TB contacts, but the reviewed studies suggest that the intervention can be cost-effective depending on the background prevalence of TB and test volume. None of the cost-effectiveness analyses were informed by data from randomized controlled trials. As the results of randomized controlled trials evaluating different ACF strategies will become available in future, we will hopefully gain a better understanding of the role that ACF can play in achieving global TB control. PMID:27418848

  20. A systematic review and meta-analysis of workplace intervention strategies to reduce sedentary time in white-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Chu, A H Y; Ng, S H X; Tan, C S; Win, A M; Koh, D; Müller-Riemenschneider, F

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged sedentary behaviour has been associated with various detrimental health risks. Workplace sitting is particularly important, providing it occupies majority of total daily sedentary behaviour among desk-based employees. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effectiveness of workplace interventions overall, and according to different intervention strategies (educational/behavioural, environmental and multi-component interventions) for reducing sitting among white-collar working adults. Articles published through December 2015 were identified in five online databases and manual searches. Twenty-six controlled intervention studies published between 2003 and 2015 of 4568 working adults were included. All 26 studies were presented qualitatively, and 21 studies with a control group without any intervention were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled intervention effect showed a significant workplace sitting reduction of -39.6 min/8-h workday (95% confidence interval [CI]: -51.7, -27.5), favouring the intervention group. Multi-component interventions reported the greatest workplace sitting reduction (-88.8 min/8-h workday; 95% CI: -132.7, -44.9), followed by environmental (-72.8 min/8-h workday; 95% CI: -104.9, -40.6) and educational/behavioural strategies -15.5 min/8-h workday (95% CI:-22.9,-8.2). Our study found consistent evidence for intervention effectiveness in reducing workplace sitting, particularly for multi-component and environmental strategies. Methodologically rigorous studies using standardized and objectively determined outcomes are warranted. © 2016 World Obesity. PMID:26990220

  1. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Appropriate intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults.

    PubMed

    Jakicic, J M; Clark, K; Coleman, E; Donnelly, J E; Foreyt, J; Melanson, E; Volek, J; Volpe, S L

    2001-12-01

    In excess of 55% of adults in the United States are classified as either overweight (body mass index = 25-29.9 kg.m(-2)) or obese (body mass index > or = 30 kg.m(-2)). To address this significant public health problem, the American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the combination of reductions in energy intake and increases in energy expenditure, through structured exercise and other forms of physical activity, be a component of weight loss intervention programs. An energy deficit of 500-1000 kcal.d-1 achieved through reductions in total energy intake is recommended. Moreover, it appears that reducing dietary fat intake to <30% of total energy intake may facilitate weight loss by reducing total energy intake. Although there may be advantages to modifying protein and carbohydrate intake, the optimal doses of these macronutritents for weight loss have not been determined. Significant health benefits can be recognized with participation in a minimum of 150 min (2.5 h) of moderate intensity exercise per week, and overweight and obese adults should progressively increase to this initial exercise goal. However, there may be advantages to progressively increasing exercise to 200-300 min (3.3-5 h) of exercise per week, as recent scientific evidence indicates that this level of exercise facilitates the long-term maintenance of weight loss. The addition of resistance exercise to a weight loss intervention will increase strength and function but may not attenuate the loss of fat-free mass typically observed with reductions in total energy intake and loss of body weight. When medically indicated, pharmacotherapy may be used for weight loss, but pharmacotherapy appears to be most effective when used in combination with modifications of both eating and exercise behaviors. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the strategies outlined in this position paper be incorporated into interventions targeting weight loss and the prevention of weight regain for

  2. Physical activity interventions to prevent falls among older people: update of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sherrington, C; Lord, S R; Finch, C F

    2004-04-01

    Injuries resulting from falls are a significant public health issue, particularly for older people. This review provides an update of the evidence on the effects of various physical activity (PA) or exercise intervention strategies for the prevention of unintentional falls among older people. Six systematic reviews, and three randomised controlled trials not incorporated in previous reviews, were located with a literature search. There is clear evidence that a targeted supervised home exercise program of strength and balance exercise and walking practice, prescribed by a trained health professional, can prevent falls among older community dwellers. There is also an indication that untargeted group exercise (ie, not individually prescribed) can prevent falls among community dwellers, particularly if it involves Tai Chi or other exercises which challenge balance. There is some indication that individual prescription of PA is more important in frailer groups. Further investigation is required to establish the effects of PA in residential aged care, and the relative effects of different types of PA in different populations. In addition, multidisciplinary, multifactorial. health/environmental risk factor screening/intervention programs have been found to be effective in preventing falls. For many individuals with physical risk factors for falls (eg, impaired strength, balance or functional ability), PA alone is likely to reduce the risk of falls. For those with additional risk factors (eg, visual impairments, psychoactive medication use), other interventions may also be required. PMID:15214601

  3. Financial motivation undermines potential enjoyment in an intensive diet and activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    Moller, Arlen C.; Buscemi, Joanna; McFadden, H. Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    The use of material incentives in healthy lifestyle interventions is becoming widespread. However, self-determination theory (SDT) posits that when material incentives are perceived as controlling, they undermine intrinsic motivation. We analyzed data from the Make Better Choices trial—a trial testing strategies for improving four risk behaviors: low fruit–vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary activity. At baseline, participants reported the degree to which financial incentives were an important motivator (financial motivation); self-reported enjoyment of each behavior was assessed before and after the 3-week incentivization phase. Consistent with SDT, after controlling for general motivation and group assignment, lower financial motivation predicted more adaptive changes in enjoyment. Whereas participants low in financial motivation experienced adaptive changes, adaptive changes were suppressed among those high in financial motivation. PMID:24142187

  4. Financial motivation undermines potential enjoyment in an intensive diet and activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Moller, Arlen C; Buscemi, Joanna; McFadden, H Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie

    2014-10-01

    The use of material incentives in healthy lifestyle interventions is becoming widespread. However, self-determination theory (SDT) posits that when material incentives are perceived as controlling, they undermine intrinsic motivation. We analyzed data from the Make Better Choices trial-a trial testing strategies for improving four risk behaviors: low fruit-vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary activity. At baseline, participants reported the degree to which financial incentives were an important motivator (financial motivation); self-reported enjoyment of each behavior was assessed before and after the 3-week incentivization phase. Consistent with SDT, after controlling for general motivation and group assignment, lower financial motivation predicted more adaptive changes in enjoyment. Whereas participants low in financial motivation experienced adaptive changes, adaptive changes were suppressed among those high in financial motivation. PMID:24142187

  5. Antithrombotic strategies in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Son V; Pham, Phuong-Chi T; Pham, Phuong-Mai T; Miller, Jeffrey M; Pham, Phuong-Thu T; Pham, Phuong-Anh T

    2010-01-01

    In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), both periprocedural acute myocardial infarction and bleeding complications have been shown to be associated with early and late mortality. Current standard antithrombotic therapy after coronary stent implantation consists of lifelong aspirin and clopidogrel for a variable period depending in part on the stent type. Despite its well-established efficacy in reducing cardiac-related death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel is not without shortcomings. While clopidogrel may be of little beneficial effect if administered immediately prior to PCI and may even increase major bleeding risk if coronary artery bypass grafting is anticipated, early discontinuation of the drug may result in insufficient antiplatelet coverage with thrombotic complications. Optimal and rapid inhibition of platelet activity to suppress ischemic and thrombotic events while minimizing bleeding complications is an important therapeutic goal in the management of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. In this article we present an overview of the literature on clinical trials evaluating the different aspects of antithrombotic therapy in patients undergoing PCI and discuss the emerging role of these agents in the contemporary era of early invasive coronary intervention. Clinical trial acronyms and their full names are provided in Table 1. PMID:20856846

  6. The use of active learning strategies in the instruction of Reactor Physics concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    Each of the Active Learning strategies employed to teach Reactor Physics material has been or promises to be instructionally successful. The Cooperative Group strategy has demonstrated a statistically significant increase in student performance on the unit exam in teaching conceptually difficult, transport and diffusion theory material. However, this result was achieved at the expense of a modest increase in class time. The Tutorial CBI programs have enabled learning equally as well as classroom lectures without the direct intervention of an instructor. Thus, the Tutorials have been successful as homework assignments, releasing classroom time for other instruction. However, the time required for development of these tools was large, on the order of two hundred hours per hour of instruction. The initial introduction of the Case-Based strategy was roughly as effective as the traditional classroom instruction. Case-Based learning could well, after important modifications, perform better than traditional instruction. A larger percentage of the students prefer active learning strategies than prefer traditional lecture presentations. Student preferences for the active strategies were particularly strong when they believed that the strategies helped them learn the material better than they would have by using a lecture format. In some cases, students also preferred the active strategies because they were different from traditional instruction, a change of pace. Some students preferred lectures to CBI instruction, primarily because the CBI did not afford them the opportunity to question the instructor during the presentation.

  7. Impact of a social network-based intervention promoting diabetes self-management in socioeconomically deprived patients: a qualitative evaluation of the intervention strategies

    PubMed Central

    Vissenberg, C; Stronks, K; Nijpels, G; Uitewaal, P J M; Middelkoop, B J C; Kohinor, M J E; Hartman, M A; Nierkens, V

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is a need for effective interventions that improve diabetes self-management (DSM) among socioeconomically deprived patients with type 2 diabetes. The group-based intervention Powerful Together with Diabetes (PTWD) aimed to increase social support for DSM and decrease social influences hindering DSM (eg, peer pressure, social norms) in patients living in deprived neighbourhoods. Through a qualitative process evaluation, this paper aims to study whether this intervention changed social support and social influences, and which elements of the intervention contributed to this. Methods The intervention group (IG) was compared with a standard group-based educational intervention (control group, CG). 27 qualitative in-depth interviews with participants (multiethnic sample) and 24 interviews with group leaders were conducted. Interviews were coded and analysed using MAXQDA according to framework analysis. Results Patients in the IG experienced more emotional support from group members and more instrumental and appraisal support from relatives than those in the CG. Also, they were better able to recognise and cope with influences that hinder their DSM, exhibited more positive norms towards DSM and increased their priority regarding DSM and their adherence. Finally, the engagement in DSM by relatives of participants increased. Creating trust between group members, skills training, practising together and actively involving relatives through action plans contributed to these changes. Conclusions A group-based intervention aimed at creating trust, practising together and involving relatives has the potential to increase social support and diminish social influences hindering DSM in socioeconomically deprived patients with diabetes. Promising elements of the intervention were skills training and providing feedback using role-playing exercises in group sessions with patients, as well as the involvement of patients' significant others in self-management tasks, and

  8. Is School Community Readiness Related to Physical Activity before and after the Ready for Recess Intervention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlers, Diane K.; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Beseler, Cheryl L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine: (i) the effect of schools' baseline community readiness (CR) on youth physical activity (PA) at recess prior to the Ready for Recess intervention; (ii) if changes in PA due to the intervention were explained by baseline CR and (iii) if specific components of the intervention altered an association…

  9. Web-Based Physical Activity Intervention for College-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornes, Lynne; Ransdell, Lynda B.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of a web-based physical activity intervention to two control conditions in terms of increasing walking behavior in college-aged women. Women (N=112) from a public university in the southwest were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. The 4-week intervention featured an experimental, repeated…

  10. Evaluation of a Community-Based Intervention To Promote Physical Activity in Youth: Lessons from Active Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Ward, Dianne S.; Felton, Gwen; Trost, Stewart G.; Dowda, Marsha

    2003-01-01

    Tested the effectiveness of a community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity among rural fifth graders. Data on students who participated in after-school and summer programs and home, school, and community interventions indicated that the after-school and summer interventions were implemented as planned, but the home, school,…

  11. Three-dimensional virtual surgery models for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) optimization strategies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hujun; Liu, Jinghua; Zheng, Xu; Rong, Xiaohui; Zheng, Xuwei; Peng, Hongyu; Silber-Li, Zhanghua; Li, Mujun; Liu, Liyu

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially coronary stent implantation, has been shown to be an effective treatment for coronary artery disease. However, in-stent restenosis is one of the longstanding unsolvable problems following PCI. Although stents implanted inside narrowed vessels recover normal flux of blood flows, they instantaneously change the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution on the vessel surface. Improper stent implantation positions bring high possibilities of restenosis as it enlarges the low WSS regions and subsequently stimulates more epithelial cell outgrowth on vessel walls. To optimize the stent position for lowering the risk of restenosis, we successfully established a digital three-dimensional (3-D) model based on a real clinical coronary artery and analysed the optimal stenting strategies by computational simulation. Via microfabrication and 3-D printing technology, the digital model was also converted into in vitro microfluidic models with 3-D micro channels. Simultaneously, physicians placed real stents inside them; i.e., they performed "virtual surgeries". The hydrodynamic experimental results showed that the microfluidic models highly inosculated the simulations. Therefore, our study not only demonstrated that the half-cross stenting strategy could maximally reduce restenosis risks but also indicated that 3-D printing combined with clinical image reconstruction is a promising method for future angiocardiopathy research. PMID:26042609

  12. Three-dimensional virtual surgery models for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) optimization strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hujun; Liu, Jinghua; Zheng, Xu; Rong, Xiaohui; Zheng, Xuwei; Peng, Hongyu; Silber-Li, Zhanghua; Li, Mujun; Liu, Liyu

    2015-06-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially coronary stent implantation, has been shown to be an effective treatment for coronary artery disease. However, in-stent restenosis is one of the longstanding unsolvable problems following PCI. Although stents implanted inside narrowed vessels recover normal flux of blood flows, they instantaneously change the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution on the vessel surface. Improper stent implantation positions bring high possibilities of restenosis as it enlarges the low WSS regions and subsequently stimulates more epithelial cell outgrowth on vessel walls. To optimize the stent position for lowering the risk of restenosis, we successfully established a digital three-dimensional (3-D) model based on a real clinical coronary artery and analysed the optimal stenting strategies by computational simulation. Via microfabrication and 3-D printing technology, the digital model was also converted into in vitro microfluidic models with 3-D micro channels. Simultaneously, physicians placed real stents inside them; i.e., they performed “virtual surgeries”. The hydrodynamic experimental results showed that the microfluidic models highly inosculated the simulations. Therefore, our study not only demonstrated that the half-cross stenting strategy could maximally reduce restenosis risks but also indicated that 3-D printing combined with clinical image reconstruction is a promising method for future angiocardiopathy research.

  13. [A workplace intervention aimed at increasing awareness in nursing personnel performing manual handling activities].

    PubMed

    Scorpiniti, A; Lorusso, A; L'Abbate, N

    2007-01-01

    Here we describe a workplace intervention aimed at reducing the risk of low back pain in nursing personnel. The intervention we carried out included a specific ergonomic training and an exercise program according to the Feldenkrais Method. After the intervention, we evaluated its effect on the execution of manual handling activities in nurses. We found an increased rate of correct manual handling in the post-intervention period. PMID:18410001

  14. Determinants, self-management strategies and interventions for hope in people with mental disorders: systematic search and narrative review.

    PubMed

    Schrank, Beate; Bird, Victoria; Rudnick, Abraham; Slade, Mike

    2012-02-01

    Developing a recovery focus in mental health services is a policy goal internationally, and hope is a central component of recovery. Yet determinants of hope of people with mental disorders are not well known, nor are strategies and interventions that increase hope. This study aims to systematically summarise the available evidence to fill four relevant knowledge gaps: (1) hope scales used in psychiatric research, (2) determinants of hope, (2) hope-fostering self-management strategies, and (3) interventions to increase hope for people with mental disorders. We conducted a systematic literature search in April 2011 and a narrative synthesis of publications including qualitative and quantitative studies. Results for the first time provide a comprehensive overview of existing evidence and identify important scientific knowledge gaps: (1) Hope scales used do slightly vary in focus but are overall comparable. (2) Most published research used cross-sectional designs resulting in a high number of potential determinants of hope. No studies prospectively investigated the influence of these determinants. (3) Hope fostering self-management strategies of people with mental disorders were described in qualitative studies only with experimental studies completely missing. (4) While some recovery oriented interventions were shown to increase hope as a secondary outcome, there are no successful interventions specifically aimed at increasing hope. This review provides the basis for both practical and research recommendations: The five most promising candidate interventions to improve hope in people with mental disorders are (i) collaborative strategies for illness management, (ii) fostering relationships, (iii) peer support, (iv) helping clients to assume control and to formulate and pursue realistic goals, and (v) specific interventions to support multiple positive factors such as self-esteem, self-efficacy, spirituality and well-being. These may serve to directly improve care and

  15. Interventions to Promote Young People's Physical Activity: Issues, Implications and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2006-01-01

    There has been increased interest in the development and implementation of physical activity interventions designed to increase young people's physical activity participation in recent years. This is perhaps founded on concerns over youngsters' physical activity levels and the possible health consequences. School-based interventions are the most…

  16. Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT): A cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effects of an activity intervention in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Physical activity and motor skills acquisition are of high importance for health-related prevention and a normal development in childhood. However, few intervention studies exist in preschool children focussing on an increase in physical activity and motor skills. Proof of positive effects is available but not consistent. Methods/Design The design, curriculum, and evaluation strategy of a cluster randomised intervention study in preschool children are described in this manuscript. In the Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT), 41 of 131 kindergartens of Wuerzburg and Kitzingen, Germany, were randomised into an intervention and a control group by a random number table stratified for the location of the kindergarten in an urban (more than 20.000 inhabitants) or rural area. The aims of the intervention were to increase physical activity and motor skills in the participating children, and to reduce health risk factors as well as media use. The intervention was designed to involve children, parents and teachers, and lasted one academic year. It contained daily 30-min sessions of physical education in kindergarten based on a holistic pedagogic approach termed the "early psychomotor education". The sessions were instructed by kindergarten teachers under regular supervision by the research team. Parents were actively involved by physical activity homework cards. The kindergarten teachers were trained in workshops and during the supervision. Assessments were performed at baseline, 3-5 months into the intervention, at the end of the intervention and 2-4 months after the intervention. The primary outcomes of the study are increases in physical activity (accelerometry) and in motor skills performance (composite score of obstacle course, standing long jump, balancing on one foot, jumping sidewise to and fro) between baseline and the two assessments during the intervention. Secondary outcomes include decreases in body adiposity (BMI, skin folds

  17. Novel drugs and intervention strategies for the treatment of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo Jan; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2013-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide health problem. The disease is most often progressive of nature with a high impact on patients and society. It is increasingly recognized that CKD can be detected in the early stages and should be managed as early as possible. Treatment of the cause, but in particular control of the main risk markers, such as high blood pressure, glucose and albuminuria, has been instrumental in delaying the progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, despite the state of the art therapy, the absolute risk of renal and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in CKD patients remains devastatingly high. Novel drugs are therefore highly desirable to halt effectively the progressive renal (and cardiovascular) function loss. Recently, several novel strategies have been tested targeting traditional risk factors such as blood pressure (combination therapy of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and novel mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists) as well as dyslipidaemia (statins) with surprising results. In addition, drug targets specifically related to the kidney, such as vitamin D, uric acid, erythropoietin and phosphate, have been the subject of clinical trials, in some instances with unexpected results. Finally, novel targets including endothelin receptors and inflammatory pathways are increasingly explored as potential avenues to improve renal and cardiovascular protection, albeit that the drugs tested have not been unequivocally successful. In this article we review novel drugs or intervention strategies for the management of CKD, we try to provide explanations for the failure of some promising drugs and hypothesize on the potential success of new strategies. PMID:23802504

  18. Novel drugs and intervention strategies for the treatment of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo Jan; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide health problem. The disease is most often progressive of nature with a high impact on patients and society. It is increasingly recognized that CKD can be detected in the early stages and should be managed as early as possible. Treatment of the cause, but in particular control of the main risk markers, such as high blood pressure, glucose and albuminuria, has been instrumental in delaying the progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, despite the state of the art therapy, the absolute risk of renal and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in CKD patients remains devastatingly high. Novel drugs are therefore highly desirable to halt effectively the progressive renal (and cardiovascular) function loss. Recently, several novel strategies have been tested targeting traditional risk factors such as blood pressure (combination therapy of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and novel mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists) as well as dyslipidaemia (statins) with surprising results. In addition, drug targets specifically related to the kidney, such as vitamin D, uric acid, erythropoietin and phosphate, have been the subject of clinical trials, in some instances with unexpected results. Finally, novel targets including endothelin receptors and inflammatory pathways are increasingly explored as potential avenues to improve renal and cardiovascular protection, albeit that the drugs tested have not been unequivocally successful. In this article we review novel drugs or intervention strategies for the management of CKD, we try to provide explanations for the failure of some promising drugs and hypothesize on the potential success of new strategies. PMID:23802504

  19. Using Intervention Mapping as a Participatory Strategy: Development of a Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for Hispanic Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Theresa L.; Wilson, Katherine M.; Smith, Judith Lee; Heckert, Andrea; Orians, Carlyn E.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria E.; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable with treatment of precancerous lesions and treatable at early stages. Hispanics have higher rates of cervical cancer and lower rates of screening. "Ayndando a las Mujeres con Informaccion, Guia, y Amor para su Salud" (AMIGAS) is an intervention to increase cervical cancer screening in U.S. women of Mexican origin.…

  20. Response to Intervention: Principles and Strategies for Effective Practice. Practical Intervention in the Schools Series. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Chidsey, Rachel; Steege, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    This bestselling work provides practitioners with a complete guide to implementing response to intervention (RTI) in schools. The authors are leading experts who explain the main components of RTI--high-quality instruction, frequent assessment, and data-based decision making--and show how to use it to foster positive academic and behavioral…

  1. Promoting physical activity for elders with compromised function: the lifestyle Interventions and Independence for elders (LIFE) study physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    Rejeski, W Jack; Axtell, Robert; Fielding, Roger; Katula, Jeffrey; King, Abby C; Manini, Todd M; Marsh, Anthony P; Pahor, Marco; Rego, Alvito; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Newman, Mark; Walkup, Michael P; Miller, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is a Phase III randomized controlled clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01072500) that will provide definitive evidence regarding the effect of physical activity (PA) on major mobility disability in older adults (70–89 years old) who have compromised physical function. This paper describes the methods employed in the delivery of the LIFE Study PA intervention, providing insight into how we promoted adherence and monitored the fidelity of treatment. Data are presented on participants’ motives and self-perceptions at the onset of the trial along with accelerometry data on patterns of PA during exercise training. Prior to the onset of training, 31.4% of participants noted slight conflict with being able to meet the demands of the program and 6.4% indicated that the degree of conflict would be moderate. Accelerometry data collected during PA training revealed that the average intensity – 1,555 counts/minute for men and 1,237 counts/minute for women – was well below the cutoff point used to classify exercise as being of moderate intensity or higher for adults. Also, a sizable subgroup required one or more rest stops. These data illustrate that it is not feasible to have a single exercise prescription for older adults with compromised function. Moreover, the concept of what constitutes “moderate” exercise or an appropriate volume of work is dictated by the physical capacities of each individual and the level of comfort/stability in actually executing a specific prescription. PMID:24049442

  2. Physical activity interventions: effects of duration and intensity.

    PubMed

    Buchan, D S; Ollis, S; Thomas, N E; Buchanan, N; Cooper, S-M; Malina, R M; Baker, J S

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercising at different intensities over 7 weeks on components of physical fitness and CVD risk factors. Forty-seven boys and 10 girls, (16.4±0.7 years of age) were divided into a moderate, high intensity, or a control group. All participants had indices of obesity and blood pressure recorded in addition to four physical performance measures pre- and post-intervention. In addition, the intervention groups repeated the physical performance measures at the 4th week phase of the intervention. Following the intervention, significant improvements (P<0.05) in the high-intensity group were found in the 20 MSFT, agility, CMJ and 10 m sprint post-intervention. Participants in the moderate intensity group displayed significant improvements (P<0.05) in both the CMJ and 20 MSFT post-intervention. Body fat % significantly improved (P<0.01) in the moderate group only post-intervention. Interestingly, Systolic blood pressure significantly improved post-intervention (112±10 vs 106±11 mmHg) (P=0.017) in the high intensity group. In conclusion, high-intensity exercise over 7 weeks is a very time efficient means of improving important components of physical fitness in adolescents. PMID:21518010

  3. Financial Motivation Undermines Maintenance in an Intensive Diet and Activity Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Moller, Arlen C.; McFadden, H. Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    Financial incentives are widely used in health behavior interventions. However, self-determination theory posits that emphasizing financial incentives can have negative consequences if experienced as controlling. Feeling controlled into performing a behavior tends to reduce enjoyment and undermine maintenance after financial contingencies are removed (the undermining effect). We assessed participants' context-specific financial motivation to participate in the Make Better Choices trial—a trial testing four different strategies for improving four health risk behaviors: low fruit and vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary screen time. The primary outcome was overall healthy lifestyle change; weight loss was a secondary outcome. Financial incentives were contingent upon meeting behavior goals for 3 weeks and became contingent upon merely providing data during the 4.5-month maintenance period. Financial motivation for participation was assessed at baseline using a 7-item scale (α = .97). Across conditions, a main effect of financial motivation predicted a steeper rate of weight regained during the maintenance period, t(165) = 2.15, P = .04. Furthermore, financial motivation and gender interacted significantly in predicting maintenance of healthy diet and activity changes, t(160) = 2.42, P = .016, such that financial motivation had a more deleterious influence among men. Implications for practice and future research on incentivized lifestyle and weight interventions are discussed. PMID:22548152

  4. Prefrontal Cortex Activity Related to Abstract Response Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Genovesio, Aldo; Brasted, Peter J.; Mitz, Andrew R.; Wise, Steven P.

    2005-01-01

    Overview In monkeys, foraging strategies depend not only on a context established by spatial or symbolic cues, but also on the relations among cues. Genovesio et al. recorded the activity of prefrontal cortex neurons while monkeys chose a strategy based on the relation between consecutive symbolic cues. For the same cues and actions, the monkeys also learned fixed responses to the same symbols. Many neurons had activity selective for a given strategy, others for whether the monkeys’ response choice depended on a symbol or the relation between symbols. These findings indicate that the primate prefrontal cortex contributes to implementing abstract strategies. PMID:16039571

  5. Interventions to Address Chronic Disease and HIV: Strategies to Promote Exercise and Nutrition Among HIV-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Botros, Diana; Somarriba, Gabriel; Neri, Daniela; Miller, Tracie L.

    2012-01-01

    Food insecurity, micronutrient deficits, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and bone disorders complicate the treatment of HIV infection. Nutrition and exercise interventions can be effective in ameliorating these symptoms that are associated with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this literature review, we examine the most recent nutrition and exercise interventions for HIV-infected patients. Macronutrient supplementation can be useful in treating malnutrition and wasting. Multivitamin (vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E) supplements and vitamin D may improve quality of life and decrease morbidity and mortality. Nutritional counseling and exercise interventions are effective for treating obesity, fat redistribution, and metabolic abnormalities. Physical activity interventions improve body composition, strength, and fitness in HIV-infected individuals. Taken collectively, the evidence suggests that a proactive approach to nutrition and physical activity guidance and interventions can improve outcomes and help abrogate the adverse metabolic, cardiovascular, and psychological consequences of HIV and its treatments. PMID:22933247

  6. Using Curriculum-Derived Progress Monitoring Data as Part of a Response-to-Intervention Strategy: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henley, Natasha; Furlong, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The revised "Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Education Act" (2004) and subsequent Federal Regulations promote the use of alternative process of identifying students with specific learning disabilities based on how well a student responds to researched-based interventions. As these strategies are implemented, school psychologists have the…

  7. Improving Social Competence in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders through a Combined-Strategy Group Intervention: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotelo, Marlene

    2009-01-01

    This applied dissertation investigated whether a combined-strategy group intervention improved social competence among children with autism spectrum disorders. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders exhibit deficits in social behaviors that may negatively impact all aspects of their lives. Social competence for individuals with autism spectrum…

  8. Bridging Research and Practice: Challenges and Successes in Implementing Evidence-Based Preventive Intervention Strategies for Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Sheree L.; Manly, Jody Todd

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment has been associated with a wide range of negative developmental outcomes for children and families as well as significant economic consequences. While efficacious intervention strategies have been demonstrated to reduce symptoms of trauma and to improve behavioral and emotional functioning, these models have not been widely…

  9. The Relationship between Teacher Training, Intervention Strategies, and Students' Academic Achievement in the Classroom with K-5 ADHD Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    The primary intent of this study was to explore the effect between teachers' training, intervention strategies, and the academic achievement of K-5 ADHD students. The study design employed a mixed research design. The quantitative method focused on collecting data from certified regular and special-education teachers. Additionally, effects were…

  10. Finite Element Modeling of Endovascular Intervention Enables Hemodynamic Prediction of Complex Treatment Strategies for Coiling and Flow Diversion

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Robert J.; Ma, Ding; Xiang, Jianping; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Meng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular interventions using coil embolization and flow diversion are becoming the mainstream treatment for intracranial aneurysms (IAs). To help assess the effect of intervention strategies on aneurysm hemodynamics and treatment outcome, we have developed a finite-element-method (FEM)-based technique for coil deployment along with our HiFiVS technique for flow diverter (FD) deployment in patient-specific IAs. We tested four clinical intervention strategies: coiling (1–8 coils), single FD, FD with adjunctive coils (1–8 coils), and overlapping FDs. By evaluating post-treatment hemodynamics using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), we compared the flow-modification performance of these strategies. Results show that a single FD provides more reduction in inflow rate than low PD coiling, but less reduction in average velocity inside the aneurysm. Adjunctive coils add no additional reduction of inflow rate beyond a single FD until coil PD exceeds 11%. This suggests that the main role of FDs is to divert inflow, while that of coils is to create stasis in the aneurysm. Overlapping FDs decreases inflow rate, average velocity, and average wall shear stress (WSS) in the aneurysm sac, but adding a third FD produces minimal additional reduction. In conclusion, our FEM-based techniques for virtual coiling and flow diversion enable recapitulation of complex endovascular intervention strategies and detailed hemodynamics to identify hemodynamic factors that affect treatment outcome. PMID:26169778

  11. Understanding the Acceptance and Use of Virtual Gaming as an Intervention Strategy with Older Adults in Occupational Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Beth Ann

    2012-01-01

    Virtual gaming has taken the world by storm and is being used by a much larger population than originally anticipated. Since the Wii was put on the market, occupational therapists around the world have begun to incorporate its use as an intervention strategy for patients recovering from a wide scope of ailments. This use is ad hoc, intuitive, and…

  12. Evaluation of Child Care Subsidy Strategies: Implementation of Three Language and Literacy Interventions in Project Upgrade. OPRE 2011-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layzer, Carolyn J.; Layzer, Jean I.; Wolf, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the design and implementation of the three interventions tested in Project Upgrade, one of four experiments conducted as part of the Evaluation of Child Care Subsidy Strategies. The evaluation was a multi-site, multi-year effort to determine whether and how different child care subsidy policies and procedures and quality…

  13. Collaborative Inquiry: A Strategy for Assessing Response to Instruction and Intervention (RtI2) for English Learner Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vineyard, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study describes elementary teachers' use of collaborative inquiry as a strategy for assessing Response to Instruction and Intervention (RtI [superscript 2]) in reading for an English Learner student. The design of the study was based on the sociocultural theory that assessment practices shape teachers' understanding of students and of…

  14. Parent-Targeted Mobile Phone Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Sedentary Children: Randomized Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Marker, Arwen M; Allen, H Raymond; Machtmes, Ryan; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Schuna Jr, John M; Broyles, Stephanie T; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Church, Timothy S

    2014-01-01

    Background Low levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are associated with adverse health consequences. Objective The intent of the study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a 12-week physical activity promotion program targeting children, which was delivered to parents through mobile phones. Methods Potential participants were recruited through advertisements placed in the newspaper, local hospitals and schools, and an email listserv. Sedentary children aged 6-10 years were randomly assigned to a minimal (MIG) or intensive (IIG) intervention group. Parents in the MIG were given a goal to increase (within 1 month) and maintain their child’s activity at 6000 pedometer steps/day above their baseline levels and to monitor their child’s steps daily. Parents in the IIG were given the same steps/day and monitoring goals, in addition to text messages and articles containing additional behavioral strategies (based on the Social Cognitive Theory) designed to promote their child’s physical activity. The intervention components were delivered via mobile phone. Anthropometrics, body composition, and questionnaires were administered in a clinic. Children wore a New Lifestyles pedometer (NL-1000) each day throughout the intervention and parents were to monitor their child’s step counts daily. Results Out of 59 children who screened for the study, a total of 27 children (mean age 8.7, SD 1.4 years; 56%, 15/27 female; 59%, 16/27 African American) were enrolled and completed the study. Overall, 97.90% (2220/2268; 98.20%, 1072/1092 for MIG; 97.60%, 1148/1176 for IIG) of expected step data were successfully entered by the parent or study coordinator. Parents in the MIG and IIG were sent approximately 7 and 13 text messages per week, respectively, averaged over the course of the study. IIG parents accessed an average of 6.1 (SD 4.4) articles over the course of the intervention and accessed a fewer number of articles in the last month compared to the first

  15. Increasing Physical Activity Efficiently: An Experimental Pilot Study of a Website and Mobile Phone Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Vittersø, Joar; Svendsen, Gunnvald Bendix

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of an online, interactive physical activity intervention that also incorporated gaming components. The intervention design included an activity planner, progress monitoring, and gamification components and used SMS text as a secondary delivery channel and feedback to improve engagement in the intervention content. Healthy adults (n = 21) recruited through ads in local newspapers (age 35–73) were randomized to the intervention or the control condition. Both groups reported physical activity using daily report forms in four registration weeks during the three-month study: only the experiment condition received access to the intervention. Analyses showed that the intervention group had significantly more minutes of physical activity in weeks five and nine. We also found a difference in the intensity of exercise in week five. Although the intervention group reported more minutes of physical activity at higher intensity levels, we were not able to find a significant effect at the end of the study period. In conclusion, this study adds to the research on the effectiveness of using the Internet and SMS text messages for delivering physical activity interventions and supports gamification as a viable intervention tool. PMID:24963290

  16. Increasing physical activity efficiently: an experimental pilot study of a website and mobile phone intervention.

    PubMed

    Thorsteinsen, Kjærsti; Vittersø, Joar; Svendsen, Gunnvald Bendix

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of an online, interactive physical activity intervention that also incorporated gaming components. The intervention design included an activity planner, progress monitoring, and gamification components and used SMS text as a secondary delivery channel and feedback to improve engagement in the intervention content. Healthy adults (n = 21) recruited through ads in local newspapers (age 35-73) were randomized to the intervention or the control condition. Both groups reported physical activity using daily report forms in four registration weeks during the three-month study: only the experiment condition received access to the intervention. Analyses showed that the intervention group had significantly more minutes of physical activity in weeks five and nine. We also found a difference in the intensity of exercise in week five. Although the intervention group reported more minutes of physical activity at higher intensity levels, we were not able to find a significant effect at the end of the study period. In conclusion, this study adds to the research on the effectiveness of using the Internet and SMS text messages for delivering physical activity interventions and supports gamification as a viable intervention tool. PMID:24963290

  17. Community heart health programs: components, rationale, and strategies for effective interventions.

    PubMed

    Elder, J P; Schmid, T L; Dower, P; Hedlund, S

    1993-01-01

    Large, well-funded, community heart health programs (CHHPs) have successfully focused on improving the cardiovascular health status of entire communities. CHHPs attempt to reduce the prevalence of risk factors associated with high rates of coronary heart disease mortality: high blood pressure, elevated serum cholesterol, smoking, overweight, and sedentary lifestyle. Program components include community organization, needs assessment, priority and evaluation, and program maintenance. Organizing the community, assessing needs and resources, and setting priorities generally occur concurrently, followed by implementing interventions. CHHP activities include social marketing, direct behavior-change efforts (including skills training, health education, and contingency management), screening (including counseling and referral), and policy and environmental change. Because State-sponsored efforts will seldom have the resources of federally-funded demonstration projects, they must pay particular attention to the "3 As" of community interventions: affordability, acceptability, and adequacy. Attention to these principles and the critical program components outlined in this paper facilitate the planning, development, implementation and evaluation of the next generation of CHHPs. PMID:8163635

  18. Designing a theory-informed, contextually appropriate intervention strategy to improve delivery of paediatric services in Kenyan hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background District hospital services in Kenya and many low-income countries should deliver proven, effective interventions that could substantially reduce child and newborn mortality. However such services are often of poor quality. Researchers have therefore been challenged to identify intervention strategies that go beyond addressing knowledge, skill, or resource inadequacies to support health systems to deliver better services at scale. An effort to develop a system-oriented intervention tailored to local needs and context and drawing on theory is described. Methods An intervention was designed to improve district hospital services for children based on four main strategies: a reflective process to distill root causes for the observed problems with service delivery; developing a set of possible intervention approaches to address these problems; a search of literature for theory that provided the most appropriate basis for intervention design; and repeatedly moving backwards and forwards between identified causes, proposed interventions, identified theory, and knowledge of the existing context to develop an overarching intervention that seemed feasible and likely to be acceptable and potentially sustainable. Results and discussion In addition to human and resource constraints key problems included failures of relevant professionals to take responsibility for or ownership of the challenge of pediatric service delivery; inadequately prepared, poorly supported leaders of service units (mid-level managers) who are often professionally and geographically isolated and an almost complete lack of useful information for routinely monitoring or understanding service delivery practice or outcomes. A system-oriented intervention recognizing the pivotal role of leaders of service units but addressing the outer and inner setting of hospitals was designed to help shape and support an appropriate role for these professionals. It aims to foster a sense of ownership while

  19. Psychosocial Issues in Engaging Older People with Physical Activity Interventions for the Prevention of Falls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyman, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the psychosocial factors that influence older people's participation in physical activity interventions to prevent falls. The importance of psychosocial factors is stressed inasmuch as interventions will be rendered useless if they do not successfully gain the active participation of older people. The theory of…

  20. Effectiveness of Physical Activity Interventions for Preschoolers: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Elliott S.; Tucker, Patricia; Burke, Shauna M.; Carron, Albert V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the meta-analysis was to examine the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on physical activity participation among preschoolers. A secondary purpose was to investigate the influence of several possible moderator variables (e.g., intervention length, location, leadership, type) on moderate-to-vigorous physical…

  1. A Tale of 2 Teachers: A Preschool Physical Activity Intervention Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, Erin K.; Brewer, Alisa E.; Dowda, Marsha; McIver, Kerry L.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preschool settings vary greatly, and research has shown that interventions are more successful when they can be adapted to individual settings. This is a descriptive case study of how 2 teachers successfully adapted and implemented a preschool physical activity intervention. Methods: The Study of Health and Activity in Preschool…

  2. Divisions of Labour: Activity Theory, Multi-Professional Working and Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmington, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon, but also critiques, activity theory by combining analysis of how an activity theory derived research intervention attempted to address both everyday work practices and organisational power relationships among children's services professionals. It offers two case studies of developmental work research (DWR) interventions in…

  3. Insights for Exercise Adherence from a Minimal Planning Intervention to Increase Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Janine; Campbell, Marianne; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To test the impact of a minimal, online planning intervention on physical activity in Australian office workers. Method: Employees were randomized to an implementation intention intervention (n = 124) or health information control group (n = 130). Measures of physical activity, past behavior, and motivation were taken at baseline and 6…

  4. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  5. (Mis)Understanding Strategy as a "Spectacular Intervention": A Phenomenological Reflection on the Strategy Orientations Underpinning School Improvement in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of the "National Strategies" for primary education in 1998, positioned "strategy" as a powerful instrument for mobilising the school "workforce" in England in the cause of continuous improvement. Government approaches to strategy formulation and enactment appear to reflect an instrumentalist…

  6. The Impact of Long-Term Physical Activity Interventions for Overweight/Obese Postmenopausal Women on Adiposity Indicators, Physical Capacity, and Mental Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Amanda; Sirois-Leclerc, Héloïse; Tulloch, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity interventions have recently become a popular strategy to help postmenopausal women prevent and manage obesity. The current systematic review evaluates the efficacy of physical activity interventions among overweight and obese postmenopausal women and sheds light on the behavioral change techniques that were employed in order to direct future research. Method. Five electronic databases were searched to identify all prospective RCT studies that examine the impact of physical activity on adiposity indicators, physical capacity, and/or mental health outcomes among healthy, sedentary overweight, and obese postmenopausal women in North America. The behavior change technique taxonomy was used to identify the various strategies applied in the programs. Results. Five RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The findings showed that adiposity indicators and physical capacity outcomes significantly improved following long-term interventions; however, mental health outcomes showed nonsignificant changes. Furthermore, 17 behavior change techniques were identified with the taxonomy across all trials. The intrapersonal-level techniques were the most common. Conclusion. Physical activity interventions had a positive effect on adiposity measures and physical capacity. Future research should focus on testing the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on mental health and incorporate strategies at the individual and environmental level to maximize the health impact on the population. PMID:27293882

  7. The Impact of Long-Term Physical Activity Interventions for Overweight/Obese Postmenopausal Women on Adiposity Indicators, Physical Capacity, and Mental Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Baker, Amanda; Sirois-Leclerc, Héloïse; Tulloch, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity interventions have recently become a popular strategy to help postmenopausal women prevent and manage obesity. The current systematic review evaluates the efficacy of physical activity interventions among overweight and obese postmenopausal women and sheds light on the behavioral change techniques that were employed in order to direct future research. Method. Five electronic databases were searched to identify all prospective RCT studies that examine the impact of physical activity on adiposity indicators, physical capacity, and/or mental health outcomes among healthy, sedentary overweight, and obese postmenopausal women in North America. The behavior change technique taxonomy was used to identify the various strategies applied in the programs. Results. Five RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The findings showed that adiposity indicators and physical capacity outcomes significantly improved following long-term interventions; however, mental health outcomes showed nonsignificant changes. Furthermore, 17 behavior change techniques were identified with the taxonomy across all trials. The intrapersonal-level techniques were the most common. Conclusion. Physical activity interventions had a positive effect on adiposity measures and physical capacity. Future research should focus on testing the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on mental health and incorporate strategies at the individual and environmental level to maximize the health impact on the population. PMID:27293882

  8. Can Senior Volunteers Deliver Reminiscence and Creative Activity Interventions? Results of the Legacy Intervention Family Enactment (LIFE) Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Rebecca S.; Harris, Grant M.; Burgio, Louis D.; Azuero, Casey B.; Miller, Leslie A.; Shin, Hae Jung; Eichorst, Morgan K.; Csikai, Ellen L.; DeCoster, Jamie; Dunn, Linda L.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Parmelee, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Context Palliative care patients and their family caregivers may have a foreshortened perspective of time left to live, or the expectation of the patient’s death in the near future. Patients and caregivers may report distress in physical, psychological, or existential/spiritual realms. Objectives To conduct a randomized controlled trial examining the effectiveness of retired senior volunteers (RSVs) in delivering a reminiscence and creative activity intervention aimed at alleviating palliative care patient and caregiver distress. Methods Of the 45 dyads that completed baseline, 28 completed post-intervention and 24 completed follow-up. The intervention group received three home visits by RSVs; control group families received three supportive telephone calls by research staff. Measures included symptom assessment and associated burden, depression, religiousness/spirituality, and meaning in life. Results Patients in the intervention group reported a significantly greater reduction in frequency of emotional symptoms (P = 0.02) and emotional symptom bother (P = 0.04) than the control group, as well as improved spiritual functioning. Family caregivers in the intervention group were more likely than control caregivers to endorse items on the Meaning in Life Scale (P = 0.02). Only improvement in intervention patients’ emotional symptom bother maintained at follow-up after discontinuing RSV contact (P = 0.024). Conclusion Delivery of the intervention by RSVs had a positive impact on palliative care patients’ emotional symptoms and burden and caregivers’ meaning in life. Meaningful prolonged engagement with palliative care patients and caregivers, possibly through alternative modes of treatment delivery such as continued RSV contact, may be necessary for maintenance of therapeutic effects. PMID:24667180

  9. Measuring weight outcomes for obesity intervention strategies: the case of a sugar-sweetened beverage tax.

    PubMed

    Lin, Biing-Hwan; Smith, Travis A; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Hall, Kevin D

    2011-12-01

    Taxing unhealthy foods has been proposed as a means to improve diet and health by reducing calorie intake and raising funds to combat obesity, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). A growing number of studies have examined the effects of such food taxes, but few have estimated the weight-loss effects. Typically, a static model of 3500 calories for one pound of body weight is used, and the main objective of the study is to demonstrate its bias. To accomplish the objective, we estimate income-segmented beverage demand systems to examine the potential effects of a SSB tax. Elasticity estimates and a hypothetical 20 percent effective tax rate (or about 0.5 cent per ounce) are applied to beverage intake data from a nationally representative survey, and we find an average daily reduction of 34-47 calories among adults and 40-51 calories among children. The tax-induced energy reductions are translated into weight loss using both static and dynamic calorie-to-weight models. Results demonstrate that the static model significantly overestimates the weight loss from reduced energy intake by 63 percent in year one, 346 percent in year five, and 764 percent in year 10, which leads to unrealistic expectations for obesity intervention strategies. The tax is estimated to generate $5.8 billion a year in revenue and is found to be regressive, although it represents about 1 percent of household food and beverage spending. PMID:21940223

  10. Intervention strategies to eliminate truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining in West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Kecojevic, Vladislav

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this review was to build upon a previous study on the root causes of truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining operations in West Virginia, and to develop intervention strategies to eliminate these fatalities. This review considers a two-pronged approach to accident prevention: one that is fundamental and traditional (safety regulations, training and education, and engineering of the work environment); and one that is innovative and creative (e.g., applying technological advances to better control and eliminate the root causes of accidents). Suggestions for improving current training and education system are proposed, and recommendations are provided on improving the safety of mine working conditions, specifically safety conditions on haul roads, dump sites, and loading areas. We also discuss various currently available technologies that can help prevent haul truck-related fatal accidents. The results of this review should be used by mine personnel to help create safer working conditions and decrease truck-related fatalities in surface coal mining. PMID:25952985

  11. Social support for physical activity-role of Facebook with and without structured intervention.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, David N; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; DeVellis, Robert F; Thayer, Linden M; Ammerman, Alice S

    2014-12-01

    Despite their widespread use and extensive technical features, little is known about how to use online social networking sites to increase physical activity. This study aims to examine Facebook engagement among participants in the online social networking arm of a randomized controlled physical activity promotion trial (n = 67). Facebook communications were double coded and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Regression procedures were used to determine predictors of Facebook use and associations between types of use and changes in perceived social support and physical activity. Changes in perceived social support and physical activity were more strongly associated with participants' individual Facebook use than use of the Facebook intervention group. The way social media sites are used in intervention design could have an impact on their effects. Including existing friends in interventions and using applications that incorporate intervention activities into a more naturalistic use of Facebook may improve the efficacy of future interventions. PMID:25584083

  12. Identifying effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies underpinning preschool- and school-based obesity prevention interventions aimed at 4-6-year-olds: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nixon, C A; Moore, H J; Douthwaite, W; Gibson, E L; Vogele, C; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Manios, Y; Summerbell, C D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to identify the most effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies, underpinning preschool- and school-based interventions aimed at preventing obesity in 4-6-year-olds. Searching was conducted from April 1995 to April 2010 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library. Epidemiological studies relevant to the research question with controlled assignment of participants were included in the review, if they had follow-up periods of 6 months or longer. Outcomes included markers of weight gain; markers of body composition; physical activity behaviour changes and dietary behaviour changes. Twelve studies were included in the review. The most commonly used model was social cognitive theory (SCT)/social learning theory (SLT) either as a single model or in combination with other behavioural models. Studies that used SCT/SLT in the development of the intervention had significant favourable changes in one, or more, outcome measures. In addition, interventions that (i) combined high levels of parental involvement and interactive school-based learning; (ii) targeted physical activity and dietary change; and (iii) included long-term follow-up, appeared most effective. It is suggested that interventions should also be focused on developing children's (and parents') perceived competence at making dietary and physical changes. PMID:22309069

  13. The Implementation of Life Space Crisis Intervention as a School-Wide Strategy for Reducing Violence and Supporting Students' Continuation in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramin, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of implementing Life Space Crisis Intervention as a school-wide strategy for reducing school violence. Life Space Crisis Intervention (LSCI) is a strength-based verbal interaction strategy (Long, Fecser, Wood, 2001). LSCI utilizes naturally occurring crisis situations as teachable…

  14. Understanding and Addressing Barriers to Implementation of Environmental and Policy Interventions to Support Physical Activity and Healthy Eating in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Barnidge, Ellen K.; Radvanyi, Catherine; Duggan, Kathleen; Motton, Freda; Wiggs, Imogene; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Rural residents are at greater risk of obesity than urban and suburban residents. Failure to meet physical activity and healthy eating recommendations play a role. Emerging evidence shows the effectiveness of environmental and policy interventions to promote physical activity and healthy eating. Yet most of the evidence comes from urban and suburban communities. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify types of environmental and policy interventions being implemented in rural communities to promote physical activity or healthy eating, 2) identify barriers to the implementation of environmental or policy interventions, and 3) identify strategies rural communities have employed to overcome these barriers. METHODS Key informant interviews with public health professionals working in rural areas in the United States were conducted in 2010. A purposive sample included 15 practitioners engaged in planning, implementing, or evaluating environmental or policy interventions to promote physical activity or healthy eating. FINDINGS Our findings reveal that barriers in rural communities include cultural differences, population size, limited human capital, and difficulty demonstrating the connection between social and economic policy and health outcomes. Key informants identified a number of strategies to overcome these barriers such as developing broad-based partnerships and building on the existing infrastructure. CONCLUSON Recent evidence suggests that environmental and policy interventions have potential to promote physical activity and healthy eating at the population level. To realize positive outcomes, it is important to provide opportunities to implement these types of interventions and document their effectiveness in rural communities. PMID:23289660

  15. Do Active-Learning Strategies Improve Students' Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry P.; Crow, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Improving students' ability to recognize work-related problems and apply effective strategies and solutions to fundamental challenges in the field is at the crux of a good college preparation. This paper attempts to investigate if active-learning strategies improve students' critical thinking ability in this regard. Participants were pre-service…

  16. Physical Activity and Self-Regulation Strategy Use in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, James; Moran, Aidan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the degree to which the use of selected theoretically derived self-regulation strategies (eg, goal setting) could predict adolescents' self-reported leisure-time physical activity behavior. Method: Two hundred thirty-three (M age = 15.88) high school students completed measures assessing their self-regulation strategy use and…

  17. Notetaking Activity as a Logical Classroom Learning Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William; And Others

    The impact on learning performance of a notetaking strategy called the Directed Overt Activity Strategy (DOA) was evaluated on three types of instructional tasks: spatial learning, simple concept learning, and complex concept learning. One hundred volunteer freshman psychology students from Ohio State University used either the DOA or their own…

  18. An Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention to Improve Quality of Life of Inactive Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Broekhuizen, Karen; de Gelder, Jelle; Wijsman, Carolien A; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Westendorp, Rudi GJ; Verhagen, Evert; Slagboom, Pieternella E; van Mechelen, Willem; van Heemst, Diana; van der Ouderaa, Frans

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing physical activity is a viable strategy for improving both the health and quality of life of older adults. Objective The aim of this study was to assess if an Internet-based intervention aimed to increase physical activity was effective in improving quality of life of inactive older adults. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the intervention on quality of life among those participants who successfully reached their individually targeted increase in daily physical activity as indicated by the intervention program, as well as the dose-response effect of increasing physical activity on quality of life. Methods The intervention was tested in a randomized controlled trial and was comprised of an Internet program—DirectLife (Philips)—aimed at increasing physical activity using monitoring and feedback by accelerometry and feedback by digital coaching (n=119). The control group received no intervention (n=116). Participants were inactive 60-70-year-olds and were recruited from the general population. Quality of life and physical activity were measured at baseline and after 3 months using the Research ANd Development 36-item health survey (RAND-36) and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer, respectively. Results After 3 months, a significant improvement in quality of life was seen in the intervention group compared to the control group for RAND-36 subscales on emotional and mental health (2.52 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.03) and health change (8.99 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.01). A total of 50 of the 119 participants (42.0%) in the intervention group successfully reached their physical activity target and showed a significant improvement in quality of life compared to the control group for subscales on emotional and mental health (4.31 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.009) and health change (11.06 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.004). The dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant association between increase in minutes spent in moderate

  19. Dissemination strategies and adherence predictors for web-based interventions-how efficient are patient education sessions and email reminders?

    PubMed

    Schweier, R; Romppel, M; Richter, C; Grande, G

    2016-06-01

    The Internet offers the potential to efficaciously deliver health interventions at a low cost and with a low threshold across any distance. However, since many web-based interventions are confronted with low use and adherence, proactive dissemination strategies are needed. We, therefore, tested the efficacy of a 1-h patient education session as part of a rehabilitation program and an email reminder 4 weeks later on the publicity and use of a web-based intervention aimed at lifestyle changes in patients with either coronary heart disease or chronic back pain (CBP) and examined adherence predictors. The website www.lebensstil-aendern.de is a cost-free, German-language website providing more than 1000 patient narratives about successful lifestyle changes. To test the efficacy of the dissemination strategies and to examine adherence predictors, we conducted a sequential controlled trial with heart and CBP patients recruited from German inpatient rehabilitation centers. The dissemination strategies were found to be efficient. Use rates, however, remained low. The email reminder and internal health locus of control emerged as notable factors in motivating patients to participate in the web-based intervention. Other factors that have been suggested to be related to nonuse, e.g. sociodemographic characteristics and medical condition, did not predict use or adherence. PMID:27107431

  20. PRALIMAP: study protocol for a high school-based, factorial cluster randomised interventional trial of three overweight and obesity prevention strategies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Given the increase in overweight and obesity prevalence in adolescents in the last decade, effective prevention strategies for these conditions in adolescents are urgently needed. The PRALIMAP (Promotion de l'ALImentation et de l'Activité Physique) trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness for these conditions of 3 health promotion strategies -- educational, screening and environmental -- applied singly or in combination in high schools over a 2-year intervention period. Methods PRALIMAP is a stratified 2 × 2 × 2 factorial cluster randomised controlled trial including 24 state high schools in Lorraine, northeastern France, in 2 waves: 8 schools in 2006 (wave 1) and 16 in 2007 (wave 2). Students entering the selected high schools in the 4 academic years from 2006 to 2009 are eligible for data collection. Interventional strategies are organized over 2 academic years. The follow-up consists of 3 visits: at the entry of grade 10 (T0), grade 11 (T1) and grade 12 (T2). At T0, 5,458 (85.7%) adolescents participated. The educational strategy consists of nutritional lessons, working groups and a final party. The screening strategy consists in detecting overweight/obesity and eating disorders in adolescents and proposing, if necessary, an adapted care management program of 7 group educational sessions. The environmental strategy consists in improving dietary and physical activity offerings in high schools and facilities, especially catering. The main outcomes are body size evolution over time, nutritional behaviour and knowledge, health and quality of life. An evaluation process documents how each intervention strategy is implemented in the schools and estimates the dose of the intervention, allowing for a per protocol analysis after the main intention-to-treat analysis. Discussion PRALIMAP aims at improving the prevention and management of overweight and obesity in adolescents by translating current evidence into public health practice. Particular attention is

  1. Evaluating the effects of the Lunchtime Enjoyment Activity and Play (LEAP) school playground intervention on children’s quality of life, enjoyment and participation in physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An emerging public health strategy is to enhance children’s opportunities to be physically active during school break periods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Lunchtime Enjoyment Activity and Play (LEAP) school playground intervention on primary school children’s quality of life (QOL), enjoyment and participation in physical activity (PA). Methods This study consisted of a movable/recycled materials intervention that included baseline, a 7-week post-test and an 8-month follow-up data collection phase. Children within an intervention school (n = 123) and a matched control school (n = 152) aged 5-to-12-years-old were recruited for the study. Children’s PA was measured using a combination of pedometers and direct observation (SOPLAY). Quality of life, enjoyment of PA and enjoyment of lunchtime activities were assessed in the 8-12 year children. A multi-level mixed effect linear regression model was applied in STATA (version 12.0) using the xtmixed command to fit linear mixed models to each of the variables to examine whether there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the intervention and control school at the three time points (pre, post and follow-up). Results Significant overall interaction effects (group × time) were identified for children’s mean steps and distance (pedometers) in the intervention school compared to the control school. Intervention school children also spent significantly higher proportions within specified target areas engaged in higher PA intensities in comparison to the control school at both the 7-week post-test and 8-month follow-up. A short-term treatment effect was revealed after 7-weeks for children’s physical health scale QOL, enjoyment of PA and enjoyment of intra-personal play activities. Conclusions Examining the effects of this school playground intervention over a school year suggested that the introduction of movable/recycled materials can have a significant

  2. Community-based physical activity interventions among women: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Amiri Farahani, Leila; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Eesa; Parvizy, Soroor; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Taghizadeh, Ziba

    2015-01-01

    Objective Review and assess the effectiveness of community-based physical activity interventions among women aged 18–65 years. Design Systematic review Methods To find relevant articles, the researcher selected reports published in English between 1 January 2000 and 31 March 2013. Systematic search was to find controlled-trial studies that were conducted to uncover the effect of community-based interventions to promote physical activity among women 18–65 years of age, in which physical activity was reported as one of the measured outcomes. The methodological quality assessment was performed using a critical appraisal sheet. Also, the levels of evidence were assessed for the types of interventions. Results The literature search identified nine articles. Four of the studies were randomised and the others studies had high methodological quality. There was no evidence, on the basis of effectiveness, for social cognitive theory-based interventions and inconclusive evidence of effectiveness for the rest of interventions. Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to assess the effectiveness of community-based interventions for enhancing physical activity among women. There is a need for high-quality randomised clinical trials with adequate statistical power to determine whether multicomponent and community-based intervention programmes increase physical activity among women, as well as to determine what type of interventions have a more effective and sustainable impact on women's physical activity. PMID:25833668

  3. Promoting Physical Activity through Goal Setting Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Ray

    2004-01-01

    Physical educators are used to setting specific goals for students within a given unit. Here, the author emphasizes that they should also encourage students to set their own goals. Goal setting engages students in the learning process and allows them to develop the skills that support an active lifestyle. The author presents goal setting…

  4. Active Learning Strategies in Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamustafaoglu, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…

  5. Effects of an Obesity Prevention Intervention on Physical Activity Among Preschool Children: The CHILE Study.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Theresa H; Davis, Sally M; Myers, Orrin B; O'Donald, Elena R; Sanders, Sarah G; Sheche, Judith N

    2016-09-01

    Background Limited research addresses interventions to increase physical activity among American Indian and Hispanic preschool-aged children living in rural areas. We examined the impact of a Head Start-based intervention (Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise [CHILE]) on physical activity at home. Method Sixteen Head Start centers in predominantly Hispanic or American Indian communities were group randomized to the six-component intervention or a comparison group for 2 years. Structured surveys were administered at four assessment times to a convenience sample of caregivers of 655 children in the study. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effects of the intervention on physical activity. Results The relative change in physical activity in the intervention group compared with the comparison group over the 2-year period was 1.56 (95% confidence interval [1.02, 2.38]; p = .04). Among specific promoted activities (ball playing, dancing, active games, jumping, and walking), dancing increased significantly in the intervention compared with the comparison group (2.9; 95% confidence interval [1.2, 7.1]; p = .02). Conclusions The CHILE intervention was effective at increasing physical activity at home in preschool children in priority populations. Future research should focus on increasing family involvement and strengthening messaging about physical activity in these populations. PMID:27091603

  6. Model neural prostheses with integrated microfluidics: a potential intervention strategy for controlling reactive cell and tissue responses.

    PubMed

    Retterer, Scott T; Smith, Karen L; Bjornsson, Christopher S; Neeves, Keith B; Spence, Andrew J H; Turner, James N; Shain, William; Isaacson, Michael S

    2004-11-01

    Model silicon intracortical probes with microfluidic channels were fabricated and tested to examine the feasibility of using diffusion-mediated delivery to deliver therapeutic agents into the volume of tissue exhibiting reactive responses to implanted devices. Three-dimensional probe structures with microfluidic channels were fabricated using surface micromachining and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) techniques. In vitro functional tests of devices were performed using fluorescence microscopy to record the transient release of Texas Red labeled transferrin (TR-transferrin) and dextran (TR-dextran) from the microchannels into 1% w/v agarose gel. In vivo performance was characterized by inserting devices loaded with TR-transferrin into the premotor cortex of adult male rats. Brain sections were imaged using confocal microscopy. Diffusion of TR-transferrin into the extracellular space and uptake by cells up to 400 microm from the implantation site was observed in brain slices taken 1 h postinsertion. The reactive tissue volume, as indicated by the presence of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), was characterized using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. The reactive tissue volume extended 600, 800, and 400 microm radially from the implantation site at 1 h, 24 h, and 6 weeks following insertion, respectively. These results indicate that diffusion-mediated delivery can be part of an effective intervention strategy for the treatment of reactive tissue responses around chronically implanted intracortical probes. PMID:15536908

  7. Associations between Active Trachoma and Community Intervention with Antibiotics, Facial Cleanliness, and Environmental Improvement (A,F,E)

    PubMed Central

    Ngondi, Jeremiah; Matthews, Fiona; Reacher, Mark; Baba, Samson; Brayne, Carol; Emerson, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial cleanliness and Environmental improvement (SAFE) are advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO) for trachoma control. However, few studies have evaluated the complete SAFE strategy, and of these, none have investigated the associations of Antibiotics, Facial cleanliness, and Environmental improvement (A,F,E) interventions and active trachoma. We aimed to investigate associations between active trachoma and A,F,E interventions in communities in Southern Sudan. Methods and Findings Surveys were undertaken in four districts after 3 years of implementation of the SAFE strategy. Children aged 1–9 years were examined for trachoma and uptake of SAFE assessed through interviews and observations. Using ordinal logistic regression, associations between signs of active trachoma and A,F,E interventions were explored. Trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) was considered more severe than trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF). A total of 1,712 children from 25 clusters (villages) were included in the analysis. Overall uptake of A,F,E interventions was: 53.0% of the eligible children had received at least one treatment with azithromycin; 62.4% children had a clean face on examination; 72.5% households reported washing faces of children two or more times a day; 73.1% households had received health education; 44.4% of households had water accessible within 30 minutes; and 6.3% households had pit latrines. Adjusting for age, sex, and district baseline prevalence of active trachoma, factors independently associated with reduced odds of a more severe active trachoma sign were: receiving three treatments with azithromycin (odds ratio [OR] = 0.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0–0.4); clean face (OR = 0.3; 95% CI 0.2–0.4); washing faces of children three or more times daily (OR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.3–0.7); and presence and use of a pit latrine in the household (OR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.2–0.9). Conclusion Analysis of

  8. An Activity-Based Approach to Early Intervention. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretti-Frontczak, Kristie; Bricker, Diane

    2004-01-01

    How can early childhood professionals seamlessly link assessment, goal development, intervention, and evaluation for children from birth to age 5--while developing individualized IEP/IFSP goals, creating multiple and varied learning opportunities, and working as a team? The third edition of this highly respected resource has the answers. A classic…

  9. Intervention strategies for energy efficient municipal buildings: Influencing energy decisions throughout buildings` lifetimes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The current energy-related decisionmaking processes that take place during the lifetimes of municipal buildings in San Francisco do not reflect our ideal picture of energy efficiency as a part of staff awareness and standard practice. Two key problems that undermine the success of energy efficiency programs are lost opportunities and incomplete actions. These problems can be caused by technology-related issues, but often the causes are institutional barriers (organizational or procedural {open_quotes}people problems{close_quotes}). Energy efficient decisions are not being made because of a lack of awareness or policy mandate, or because financial resources are not available to decisionmakers. The Bureau of Energy Conservation (BEC) is working to solve such problems in the City & County of San Francisco through the Intervention Strategies project. In the first phase of the project, using the framework of the building lifetime, we learned how energy efficiency in San Francisco municipal buildings can be influenced through delivering services to support decisionmakers; at key points in the process of funding, designing, constructing and maintaining them. The second phase of the project involved choosing and implementing five pilot projects. Through staff interviews, we learned how decisions that impact energy use are made at various levels. We compiled information about city staff and their needs, and resources available to meet those needs. We then designed actions to deliver appropriate services to staff at these key access points. BEC implemented five pilot projects corresponding to various stages in the building`s lifetime. These were: Bond Guidelines, Energy Efficient Design Practices, Commissioning, Motor Efficiency, and Facilities Condition Monitoring Program.

  10. A Review of eHealth Interventions for Physical Activity and Dietary Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Gregory J.; Zabinski, Marion F.; Adams, Marc A.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Atienza, Audie A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To review eHealth intervention studies for adults and children that targeted behavior change for physical activity, healthy eating, or both behaviors. Data Sources Systematic literature searches were performed using five databases: Medline, PsychInfo, CINAHL, ERIC, and the Cochrane Library to retrieve articles. Study Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Articles published in scientific journals were included if they evaluated an intervention for physical activity and/or dietary behaviors, or focused on weight loss; used randomized or quasi-experimental designs; measured outcomes at baseline and a follow-up period; and included an intervention where participants interacted with some type of electronic technology either as the main intervention or an adjunct component. All studies were published between 2000 and 2005. Results Eighty-six publications were initially identified, of which 49 met the inclusion criteria (13 physical activity publications, 16 dietary behaviors publications, and 20 weight loss or both physical activity and diet publications), and represented 47 different studies. Studies were described on multiple dimensions, including sample characteristics, design, intervention, measures, and results. eHealth interventions were superior to comparison groups for 21/41 (51%) studies (3 physical activity, 7 diet, 11 weight loss/physical activity and diet). Twenty-four studies had indeterminate results, and in four studies the comparison conditions outperformed eHealth interventions. Conclusions Published studies of eHealth interventions for physical activity and dietary behavior change are in their infancy. Results indicated mixed findings related to the effectiveness of eHealth interventions. Interventions that feature interactive technologies need to be refined and more rigorously evaluated to fully determine their potential as tools to facilitate health behavior change. PMID:17888860

  11. Which Pain Coping Strategies and Cognitions Are Associated with Outcomes of a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Neuropathic Pain after Spinal Cord Injury?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic neuropathic pain is one of the most difficult problems to manage after spinal cord injury (SCI). Pain coping and pain cognitions are known to be associated with the patient’s experience of neuropathic pain, but they have not been studied in the context of a cognitive behavioral treatment program for coping with neuropathic pain after SCI. Objective: To explore associations of pain coping strategies and cognitions with pain intensity and pain-related disability and changes in pain coping strategies and cognitions with changes in pain intensity and pain-related disability. Methods: Forty-seven persons who participated in the CONECSI (COping with NEuropathiC Spinal cord Injury pain) trial completed questionnaires before the intervention (baseline) and 3 months after of the intervention (follow-up). Results: Compared to baseline, participants showed more favorable scores on 2 pain coping scales (Pain Transformation and Worrying), the subtotal score Active Coping, and 3 pain cognitions scales (Catastrophizing, Optimism, and Reliance on Health Care) at follow-up. Baseline Reliance on Health Care was associated with change in pain intensity and pain-related disability. Change in Catastrophizing and change in Restriction cognitions were associated with change in pain-related disability. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that modifying pain coping strategies and cognitions by a cognitive behavioral intervention for chronic neuropathic pain after SCI may have some beneficial effects on pain intensity and pain-related disability. Further research should show how dysfunctional pain coping strategies and cognitions can be most effectively modified. PMID:24244098

  12. Development of Motivate4Change Using the Intervention Mapping Protocol: An Interactive Technology Physical Activity and Medication Adherence Promotion Program for Hospitalized Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    te Velde, Saskia J; Stut, Wim; Brug, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background It is important that heart failure (HF) patients adhere to their medication regimen and engage in physical activity. Evidence shows that adherence to these HF self-management behaviors can be improved with appropriate interventions. Objective To further promote medication adherence and physical activity among HF patients, we developed an intervention for hospitalized HF patients. Methods The intervention mapping protocol was applied in the development of the intervention. This entailed performing a needs assessment, defining change objectives, selecting determinants and strategies, and developing the materials. Results The resulting intervention, Motivate4Change, makes use of interactive technology and provides HF patients with personalized feedback and advice. Specific change objectives were defined. The relevant behavioral determinants for the physical activity program were practical knowledge on physical activity performance and self-efficacy for, and perceived benefits of, physical activity. For medication-taking, the selected determinants were practical knowledge on medication-taking, perceived barriers to medication-taking, beliefs about the necessity and harm regarding the medication prescribed, and beliefs about overprescribing and harm of medication in general. The change objectives and behavior change determinants were translated in feedback and advice strategies in an interactive technology program that included tailored feedback and advice, and role models in videos in which the behaviors and overcoming barriers were demonstrated. Relevant stakeholders were involved in the interventions development process. The intervention was pretested among HF patients and adjustments were made accordingly. Conclusions The interactive technology physical activity and medication adherence promotion program for hospitalized HF patients was systematically developed using the intervention mapping protocol and was based on the available theory and evidence

  13. Enhancing Documentation of Pressure Ulcer Prevention Interventions: A Quality Improvement Strategy to Reduce Pressure Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Therese M; Thompson, Susan L; Halvorson, Anna M; Zeitler, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers requires the implementation of evidence-based interventions. A quality improvement project was conducted to provide nurses with data on the frequency with which pressure ulcer prevention interventions were performed as measured by documentation. Documentation reports provided feedback to stakeholders, triggering reminders and reeducation. Intervention reports and modifications to the documentation system were effective both in increasing the documentation of pressure ulcer prevention interventions and in decreasing the number of avoidable hospital-acquired pressure ulcers. PMID:26863048

  14. Achieving change in primary care—effectiveness of strategies for improving implementation of complex interventions: systematic review of reviews

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Rosa; Stevenson, Fiona; Ong, Bie Nio; Dziedzic, Krysia; Treweek, Shaun; Eldridge, Sandra; Everitt, Hazel; Kennedy, Anne; Qureshi, Nadeem; Rogers, Anne; Peacock, Richard; Murray, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify, summarise and synthesise available literature on the effectiveness of implementation strategies for optimising implementation of complex interventions in primary care. Design Systematic review of reviews. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and PsychINFO were searched, from first publication until December 2013; the bibliographies of relevant articles were screened for additional reports. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Eligible reviews had to (1) examine effectiveness of single or multifaceted implementation strategies, (2) measure health professional practice or process outcomes and (3) include studies from predominantly primary care in developed countries. Two reviewers independently screened titles/abstracts and full-text articles of potentially eligible reviews for inclusion. Data synthesis Extracted data were synthesised using a narrative approach. Results 91 reviews were included. The most commonly evaluated strategies were those targeted at the level of individual professionals, rather than those targeting organisations or context. These strategies (eg, audit and feedback, educational meetings, educational outreach, reminders) on their own demonstrated a small to modest improvement (2–9%) in professional practice or behaviour with considerable variability in the observed effects. The effects of multifaceted strategies targeted at professionals were mixed and not necessarily more effective than single strategies alone. There was relatively little review evidence on implementation strategies at the levels of organisation and wider context. Evidence on cost-effectiveness was limited and data on costs of different strategies were scarce and/or of low quality. Conclusions There is a substantial literature on implementation strategies aimed at changing professional practices or behaviour. It remains unclear which implementation strategies are more likely to be effective than others and under what conditions

  15. A Group Contingency Plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students’ Class-Work and Active Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study. Students used self-management strategies during independent reading time to increase the amount of writing in their reading logs. They used self-monitoring strategies to record whether or not they performed expected behaviors in class. A token economy using points and tickets was included in the GC to provide positive reinforcement for target responses. The results were analyzed through visual inspection of graphs and effect size computations and showed that the intervention increased the total amount of written words in the students’ reading logs and overall classroom and individual student academic engagement. PMID:26617432

  16. Testing a workplace physical activity intervention: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increased physical activity levels benefit both an individuals' health and productivity at work. The purpose of the current study was to explore the impact and cost-effectiveness of a workplace physical activity intervention designed to increase physical activity levels. Methods A total of 1260 participants from 44 UK worksites (based within 5 organizations) were recruited to a cluster randomized controlled trial with worksites randomly allocated to an intervention or control condition. Measurement of physical activity and other variables occurred at baseline, and at 0 months, 3 months and 9 months post-intervention. Health outcomes were measured during a 30 minute health check conducted in worksites at baseline and 9 months post intervention. The intervention consisted of a 3 month tool-kit of activities targeting components of the Theory of Planned Behavior, delivered in-house by nominated facilitators. Self-reported physical activity (measured using the IPAQ short-form) and health outcomes were assessed. Results and discussion Multilevel modelling found no significant effect of the intervention on MET minutes of activity (from the IPAQ) at any of the follow-up time points controlling for baseline activity. However, the intervention did significantly reduce systolic blood pressure (B = -1.79 mm/Hg) and resting heart rate (B = -2.08 beats) and significantly increased body mass index (B = .18 units) compared to control. The intervention was found not to be cost-effective, however the substantial variability round this estimate suggested that further research is warranted. Conclusions The current study found mixed support for this worksite physical activity intervention. The paper discusses some of the tensions involved in conducting rigorous evaluations of large-scale randomized controlled trials in real-world settings. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN08807396 PMID:21481265

  17. Brief time-based activity pacing instruction as a singular behavioral intervention was not effective in participants with symptomatic osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Susan L; Kratz, Anna L; Kidwell, Kelley; Lyden, Angela K; Geisser, Michael E; Williams, David A

    2016-07-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the lower extremities is a prevalent cause of disability in which symptoms interfere with mobility and activity participation. Behavioral self-management for OA symptomatology is commonly recommended; but these interventions are underutilized, unstandardized in application, and at times, unavailable in the context of clinical care. For people with chronic pain, rehabilitation professionals may select to apply activity pacing instruction as one behavioral strategy to manage symptoms. Activity pacing is widely used in combination with other pharmacological and behavioral interventions but has not been studied as a singular behavioral intervention for people with OA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an occupational therapist-delivered, time-based activity pacing program for treatment of pain, fatigue, and physical function in people with symptomatic knee or hip OA. A 3-arm randomized controlled trial was conducted in which 193 people were randomized into tailored activity pacing, general activity pacing, or usual care arms. Assessments were done at 10 weeks and 6 months after baseline. Using linear mixed models, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index pain scores changed over time, decreasing the most in the general and usual care groups; only the usual care group had decreased pain over 6 months. The tailored and general activity pacing groups reported higher frequency of pacing behaviors than the usual care group at 10 weeks, but pacing was not sustained at 6 months. This trial does not support the use of time-based pacing as a singular behavioral strategy for people with knee or hip OA. PMID:26963847

  18. Physical Activity Behavior, Barriers to Activity, and Opinions About a Smartphone-Based Physical Activity Intervention Among Rural Residents

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Henrietta; Manini, Todd; Dallery, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Rural Americans engage in less physical activity (PA) and experience higher rates of consequent health problems (i.e., obesity, cardiovascular disease) than urban Americans. Although geographic barriers have historically made this population hard to reach, rural individuals are increasingly gaining access to smartphones. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate PA behavior and barriers to PA among rural residents and to gauge their receptiveness to a smartphone-based PA intervention that is currently in the development stage. Materials and Methods: Rural Floridian adults (n=113), 18 years of age and older, completed surveys to assess PA behavior, PA barriers, and opinions about an intervention to increase PA. Specifically, they were asked to imagine a program that would require them to do PA with their mobile phones and whether they viewed intended aspects of the program as helpful. The present work is therefore formative research that sought to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a smartphone-based intervention among rural residents. Results of the survey will inform the development of a tailored, smartphone-based PA intervention. Results: The 37.2% of participants with low PA levels (<600 metabolic equivalent [MET]-min per week) were more likely to report personal and environmental barriers to PA than the 47.8% of participants with moderate PA levels (≥600 MET-min per week). More barriers were reported among participants who self-reported as white and among participants of older age, lower education level, and lower socioeconomic status. Additionally, 75.9% of participants reported features of the intervention as at least somewhat helpful. Conclusions: The growing ubiquity of smartphones among rural residents, combined with participants' positive response to the program description, supports the acceptability of a smartphone-based PA intervention for rural communities. Given the participants' receptiveness, future research

  19. Active tectonics and human survival strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Geoffrey; Bailey, Geoffrey; Sturdy, Derek

    1994-10-01

    Tectonic movements continuously remould the surface of Earth in response to plate motion. Yet such deformation is rarely taken into account when assessing landscape change and its impact on human land use, except perhaps as an occasional hazard to human life or a temporary disruption in the longer term patterns of human history. However, active tectonics also create and sustain landscapes that can be beneficial to human survival, forming a complex topography of potentially fertile sedimentary basins enclosed by mountain barriers that can facilitate the control and explotation of food resources, especially animal prey. We discuss the tectonic history of northwest Greece and show how the Paleolithic sites of the region are located to take advantage of tectonically created features at both a local and a regional scale. We suggest that the association of significant concentrations of early Paleolithic sites with tectonically acitve regions is not coincidental and that on the longer time spans of human biological evolution, active tectonics has been an important selective agent contributing to the development of the human species as an intelligent predator.

  20. Using Adult Education Principles for HIV/AIDS Awareness Intervention Strategies in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Julia; Ntseane, Gabo

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a mainly qualitative study into company strategies for HIV/AIDS information, education and communication (IEC) strategies in the Botswana workplace. The authors argue that HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention strategies in Botswana need a new approach. The research proposal hypothesized that IEC strategies need to take account…

  1. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Nutrition Interventions for Weight Control in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…

  2. A Comparison of Activity-Based Intervention and Embedded Direct Instruction When Teaching Emergent Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botts, Dawn C.; Losardo, Angela S.; Tillery, Christina Y.; Werts, Margaret G.

    2014-01-01

    This replication study focused on the effectiveness of two different intervention approaches, activity-based intervention and embedded direct instruction, on the acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of phonological awareness, a key area of emergent literacy, by preschool children with language delays. Five male preschool participants with…

  3. Student Academic Performance Outcomes of a Classroom Physical Activity Intervention: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Fedewa, Alicia; Ahn, Soyeon

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity is beneficial to children's health, yet academic pressures limit opportunities for students throughout the school day. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a classroom PA intervention on student academic performance outcomes. Intervention participants (n = 15) received daily PA breaks. Reading and mathematics…

  4. The impact of sarcopenia on the response to a physical activity intervention in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine if the changes observed in the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) after a physical activity or health education intervention are influenced by sarcopenia status at baseline. Data were obtained from the Lifestyles for Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot Study, a RCT th...

  5. Preschool Children's Use of Thematic Vocabulary during Dialogic Reading and Activity-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Naomi L.; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Storie, Sloan

    2016-01-01

    An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the expressive use of thematic vocabulary by three preschool children with developmental delays during Dialogic Reading, a shared book reading intervention, and Activity-Based Intervention, a naturalistic play-based teaching method. The design was replicated across two early childhood…

  6. The Development of Spatial Skills through Interventions Involving Block Building Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Beth M.; Andrews, Nicole; Schindler, Holly; Kersh, Joanne E.; Samper, Alexandra; Copley, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the use of block-building interventions to develop spatial-reasoning skills in kindergartners. Two intervention conditions and a control condition were included to determine, first, whether the block building activities themselves benefited children's spatial skills, and secondly, whether a story context further improved…

  7. Community capacity for sustainability of nutrition and physical activity interventions in small, rural communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rural communities would seem to present a challenge for sustainability of interventions because of resource limitations. This session will examine ways in which capacity for sustainability has been emphasized as part of nutrition and physical activity interventions in three rural Mississippi River D...

  8. Conceptualizing a Theoretical Model for School-Centered Adolescent Physical Activity Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ang; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent physical inactivity has risen to an alarming rate. Several theoretical frameworks (models) have been proposed and tested in school-based interventions. The results are mixed, indicating a similar weakness as that observed in community-based physical activity interventions (Baranowski, Lin, Wetter, Resnicow, & Hearn, 1997). The…

  9. Targeted recruitment of adults with type 2 diabetes for a physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Elizabeth J; Niles, Barbara L; Mori, DeAnna L

    2015-05-01

    Recruiting sufficient numbers of participants for physical activity trials for individuals with diabetes can be difficult because there are often many behavioral demands for participants, and inclusion and exclusion criteria can be extensive. This study examined the recruitment strategies used for a randomized, controlled trial designed to investigate the efficacy of an automated telephone intervention to promote physical activity in adults with type 2 diabetes in an urban Veterans Administration health care system. Traditional recruitment approaches of posting flyers and obtaining referrals from clinicians did not yield sufficient numbers of interested patients. Using the electronic medical record system to identify patients with uncontrolled diabetes allowed staff to send targeted mailings to participants, and 77% of participants were recruited using this method. The targeted mailing approach elicited a positive response rate of 12% (328 of 2,764 potential participants identified) and appeared to produce a more representative and appropriate sample than other recruitment methods used. Lessons learned in this study may be helpful to researchers in future trials who attempt to recruit participants with diabetes for physical activity protocols. PMID:25987808

  10. Effects of Short-Term Physical Activity Interventions on Simple and Choice Response Times

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Kevin; Norton, Lynda; Lewis, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Response time (RT) is important for health and human performance and provides insight into cognitive processes. It deteriorates with age, is associated with chronic physical activity (PA), and improves with PA interventions. We investigated associations between the amount and type of PA undertaken and the rate of change in RT for low-active adults across the age range 18–63 yr. Methods. Insufficiently active adults were assigned to either a walking (n = 263) or higher-intensity (n = 380) exercise program conducted over 40 days. Active controls were also recruited (n = 135). Simple response time (SRT) and choice response time (CRT) were measured before and after the intervention and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Results. SRT and CRT slowed across the age range; however, habitually active participants at baseline had significantly faster CRT (p < 0.05). The interventions increased weekly PA with corresponding increases in physical fitness. These changes were mirrored in faster CRT across the study for both intervention groups (p < 0.05). No changes were found for SRT. Conclusions. Both PA interventions resulted in improvements in CRT among adults starting from a low activity base. These improvements were relatively rapid and occurred in both interventions despite large differences in exercise volume, type, and intensity. There were no effects on SRT in either intervention. PMID:27190993

  11. The effects of physical activity interventions on psychosocial outcomes in adolescents: A meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Spruit, Anouk; Assink, Mark; van Vugt, Eveline; van der Put, Claudia; Stams, Geert Jan

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity interventions are often implemented in the adolescent mental health care practice to prevent or treat psychosocial problems. To date, no systematic review of the effect of these physical activity interventions in adolescents has been conducted. In the current study, four multilevel meta-analyses were performed to assess the overall effect of physical activity interventions on externalizing problems, internalizing problems, self-concept, and academic achievement in adolescents. In addition, possible moderating factors were examined. In total, 57 studies reporting on 216 effect sizes were included, and the results showed significant small-to-moderate effects of physical activity interventions on externalizing problems (d=0.320), internalizing problems (d=0.316), self-concept (d=0.297), and academic achievement (d=0.367). Further, moderator analyses showed that outcome, study, sample, and intervention characteristics influenced the effects of physical activity interventions on psychosocial outcomes. Implications for theory and practice concerning the use of physical activity interventions in adolescent mental health care practice are discussed. PMID:27064552

  12. Improving the Psychosocial Work Environment at Multi-Ethnic Workplaces: A Multi-Component Intervention Strategy in the Cleaning Industry

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Louise Hardman; Hviid, Kirsten; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2013-01-01

    Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places. PMID:24129115

  13. Improving the psychosocial work environment at multi-ethnic workplaces: a multi-component intervention strategy in the cleaning industry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Louise Hardman; Hviid, Kirsten; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2013-10-01

    Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places. PMID:24129115

  14. Comparison of strategies to reduce meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus rates in surgical patients: a controlled multicentre intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Andie S; Cooper, Ben S; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Chalfine, Annie; Daikos, George L; Fankhauser, Carolina; Carevic, Biljana; Lemmen, Sebastian; Martínez, José Antonio; Masuet-Aumatell, Cristina; Pan, Angelo; Phillips, Gabby; Rubinovitch, Bina; Goossens, Herman; Brun-Buisson, Christian; Harbarth, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of two strategies (enhanced hand hygiene vs meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening and decolonisation) alone and in combination on MRSA rates in surgical wards. Design Prospective, controlled, interventional cohort study, with 6-month baseline, 12-month intervention and 6-month washout phases. Setting 33 surgical wards of 10 hospitals in nine countries in Europe and Israel. Participants All patients admitted to the enrolled wards for more than 24 h. Interventions The two strategies compared were (1) enhanced hand hygiene promotion and (2) universal MRSA screening with contact precautions and decolonisation (intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine bathing) of MRSA carriers. Four hospitals were assigned to each intervention and two hospitals combined both strategies, using targeted MRSA screening. Outcome measures Monthly rates of MRSA clinical cultures per 100 susceptible patients (primary outcome) and MRSA infections per 100 admissions (secondary outcome). Planned subgroup analysis for clean surgery wards was performed. Results After adjusting for clustering and potential confounders, neither strategy when used alone was associated with significant changes in MRSA rates. Combining both strategies was associated with a reduction in the rate of MRSA clinical cultures of 12% per month (adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) 0.88, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.98). In clean surgery wards, strategy 2 (MRSA screening, contact precautions and decolonisation) was associated with decreasing rates of MRSA clinical cultures (15% monthly decrease, aIRR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.97) and MRSA infections (17% monthly decrease, aIRR 0.83, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.99). Conclusions In surgical wards with relatively low MRSA prevalence, a combination of enhanced standard and MRSA-specific infection control approaches was required to reduce MRSA rates. Implementation of single interventions was not effective, except in clean surgery wards where MRSA

  15. Comparing Intervention Strategies among Rural, Low SES, Young Adult Tobacco Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanis, David A.; Hollm, Ronald E.; Derr, Daniel; Ibrahim, Jennifer K.; Collins, Bradley N.; Coviello, Donna; Melochick, Jennifer Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate 3-month tobacco quit rates of young adult tobacco users randomized to 2 intervention conditions. Methods: Overall 192 non-treatment-seeking 18-to-24-year-old tobacco users received educational information and advice to quit smoking. Participants were then block randomized to 2 brief intervention conditions: (1) a telephone…

  16. Peer-Mediated Instruction and Intervention Strategies for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Laurie; Neitzel, Jennifer; Engelhardt-Wells, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Peer-mediated instruction and intervention is based on principles of behaviorism and social learning theory. In this intervention approach, developing peers are typically taught ways to interact with and help children and youth with autism spectrum disorders acquire new social skills by increasing social opportunities in natural environments. The…

  17. Community Involvement in Dengue Outbreak Control: An Integrated Rigorous Intervention Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hualiang; Liu, Tao; Song, Tie; Lin, Lifeng; Xiao, Jianpeng; Lin, Jinyan; He, Jianfeng; Zhong, Haojie; Hu, Wenbiao; Deng, Aiping; Peng, Zhiqiang; Ma, Wenjun; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-01-01

    Background An explosive outbreak of dengue fever occurred in Guangdong Province, China in 2014. A community-based integrated intervention was applied to control this outbreak in the capital city Guangzhou, where dengue epidemic was mainly caused by imported cases. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a time series generalized additive model based on meteorological factors to assess the effectiveness of this intervention. The results showed that there was significant reduction in mosquito density following the intervention, and there was a 70.47% (95% confidence interval: 66.07%, 74.88%) reduction in the reported dengue cases compared with the predicted cases after 12 days since the beginning of the intervention, we estimated that a total of 23,302 dengue cases were prevented. Conclusions This study suggests that an integrated dengue intervention program has significant effects to control a dengue outbreak in areas where dengue epidemic was mainly caused by imported dengue cases. PMID:27548481

  18. Neuroimaging of reading intervention: a systematic review and activation likelihood estimate meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Barquero, Laura A; Davis, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie E

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies examine instructional training and brain activity. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding neuroimaging of reading intervention, with a particular focus on reading difficulties (RD). To locate relevant studies, searches of peer-reviewed literature were conducted using electronic databases to search for studies from the imaging modalities of fMRI and MEG (including MSI) that explored reading intervention. Of the 96 identified studies, 22 met the inclusion criteria for descriptive analysis. A subset of these (8 fMRI experiments with post-intervention data) was subjected to activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis to investigate differences in functional activation following reading intervention. Findings from the literature review suggest differences in functional activation of numerous brain regions associated with reading intervention, including bilateral inferior frontal, superior temporal, middle temporal, middle frontal, superior frontal, and postcentral gyri, as well as bilateral occipital cortex, inferior parietal lobules, thalami, and insulae. Findings from the meta-analysis indicate change in functional activation following reading intervention in the left thalamus, right insula/inferior frontal, left inferior frontal, right posterior cingulate, and left middle occipital gyri. Though these findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies and the disparate methodologies used, this paper is an effort to synthesize across studies and to guide future exploration of neuroimaging and reading intervention. PMID:24427278

  19. Neuroimaging of Reading Intervention: A Systematic Review and Activation Likelihood Estimate Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barquero, Laura A.; Davis, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie E.

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies examine instructional training and brain activity. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding neuroimaging of reading intervention, with a particular focus on reading difficulties (RD). To locate relevant studies, searches of peer-reviewed literature were conducted using electronic databases to search for studies from the imaging modalities of fMRI and MEG (including MSI) that explored reading intervention. Of the 96 identified studies, 22 met the inclusion criteria for descriptive analysis. A subset of these (8 fMRI experiments with post-intervention data) was subjected to activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis to investigate differences in functional activation following reading intervention. Findings from the literature review suggest differences in functional activation of numerous brain regions associated with reading intervention, including bilateral inferior frontal, superior temporal, middle temporal, middle frontal, superior frontal, and postcentral gyri, as well as bilateral occipital cortex, inferior parietal lobules, thalami, and insulae. Findings from the meta-analysis indicate change in functional activation following reading intervention in the left thalamus, right insula/inferior frontal, left inferior frontal, right posterior cingulate, and left middle occipital gyri. Though these findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies and the disparate methodologies used, this paper is an effort to synthesize across studies and to guide future exploration of neuroimaging and reading intervention. PMID:24427278

  20. Active Patient Participation in the Development of an Online Intervention

    PubMed Central

    van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn M; Snippe, Harm Wouter; Gouw, Hans; Zijlstra, Josée M; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Background An important and challenging part of living with cancer relates to the repeated visits to the hospital. Since how patients cope between these post-diagnostic visits depends partly on the information and support received from their physician during the visits, it is important to make the most of them. Recent findings reinforce the importance of training not only the health care professionals in communication skills, but providing patients with support in communication as well. Delivering such supportive interventions online can have potential benefits in terms of accessibility, cost-effectiveness, and ability to tailor information to personal needs. However, problems with attrition (dropout, non-usage) during the test phase and poor uptake after implementation are frequently reported. The marginal level of engagement of the patient as end user seems to play a role in this. Therefore, recent research suggests integrating theory-based development methods with methods that promote involvement of the patient at an early stage. This paper describes a participatory protocol, used to let patients guide a theory-informed development process. Objective The objective of this project was to apply a bottom-up inspired procedure to develop a patient-centered intervention with corresponding evaluation and implementation plan. Methods The applied development protocol was based on the intervention mapping framework, combined with patient participatory methods that were inspired by the participation ladder and user-centred design methods. Results The applied protocol led to a self-directed online communication intervention aimed at helping patients gain control during their communications with health care professionals. It also led to an evaluation plan and an implementation plan. The protocol enabled the continuous involvement of patient research partners and the partial involvement of patient service users, which led to valuable insights and improvements. Conclusions

  1. Depressive symptoms among older adults: long-term reduction after a physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; Konopack, James F; McAuley, Edward; Elavsky, Steriani; Jerome, Gerald J; Marquez, David X

    2005-08-01

    We examined the effects of two physical activity modes on depressive symptoms over a 5-year period among older adults and change in physical self-esteem as a mediator of changes in depressive symptoms. Formerly sedentary, older adults (N = 174) were randomly assigned into 6-month conditions of either walking or low-intensity resistance/flexibility training. Depressive symptoms and physical self-esteem were measured before and after the 6-month intervention, and 12 and 60 months after intervention initiation. Depressive symptoms scores were decreased immediately after the intervention, followed by a sustained reduction for 12 and 60 months after intervention initiation; there was no differential pattern of change between the physical activity modes. Change in physical self-esteem predicted change in depressive symptoms. This study supports the effectiveness of an exercise intervention for the sustained reduction of depressive symptoms among sedentary older adults and physical self-esteem as a potential mediator of this effect. PMID:16049630

  2. A cluster-randomised, controlled trial to assess the impact of a workplace osteoporosis prevention intervention on the dietary and physical activity behaviours of working women: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    strategies in the context of osteoporosis prevention. The intervention used locally relevant behavioural strategies previously shown to support good outcomes in other countries. The combination of these elements have not been incorporated in similar studies in the past, supporting the study hypothesis that the intervention will be more efficacious than standard practice in osteoporosis prevention through improvements in calcium intake and physical activity. PMID:23627684

  3. Children's physical activity levels during school recess: a quasi-experimental intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth; Fairclough, Stuart J; Twisk, Jos WR

    2007-01-01

    Background Recess provides a daily opportunity for children to engage in moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA). Limited research has investigated the effects of recess-based interventions on physical activity using large sample sizes whilst investigating variables that may influence the intervention effect. The aim of the study was to investigate the short-term effects of a playground markings and physical structures intervention on recess physical activity. A secondary aim was to investigate the effects of covariates on the intervention. Methods 150 boys and 147 girls were randomly selected from 26 elementary schools to wear uni-axial accelerometers that quantified physical activity every 5 seconds during recess. Fifteen schools located in deprived areas in one large urban city in England received funding through a national initiative to redesign the playground environment. Eleven schools served as matched socioeconomic controls. Data were collected at baseline and 6-weeks following playground intervention. Recess MVPA and VPA levels adjusted for pupil- and school-level covariates (baseline physical activity, age, gender, recess length, body mass index) were analysed using multilevel analyses. Results Positive but non-significant intervention effects were found for MVPA and VPA when confounding variables were added to the model. Gender was a significant predictor of recess physical activity, with boys engaging in more MVPA and VPA than girls. Significant interactions for MVPA revealed that the intervention effect was stronger for younger elementary aged school children compared to older children, and the intervention effect increased as daily recess duration increased. Conclusion The playground redesign intervention resulted in small but non-significant increases in children's recess physical activity when school and pupil level variables were added to the analyses. Changing the playground environment produced a stronger intervention

  4. Randomized Controlled Trial of Positive Affect Induction to Promote Physical Activity After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Janey C.; Charlson, Mary E.; Hoffman, Zachary; Wells, Martin T.; Wong, Shing-Chiu; Hollenberg, James P.; Jobe, Jared B.; Boschert, Kathryn A.; Isen, Alice M.; Allegrante, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Within 1 year after percutaneous coronary intervention, more than 20% of patients experience new adverse events. Physical activity confers a 25% reduction in mortality; however, physical activity is widely underused. Thus, there is a need for more powerful behavioral interventions to promote physical activity. Our objective was to motivate patients to achieve an increase in expenditure of 336 kcal/wk or more at 12 months as assessed by the Paffenbarger Physical Activity and Exercise Index. Methods Two hundred forty-two patients were recruited immediately after percutaneous coronary intervention between October 2004 and October 2006. Patients were randomized to 1 of 2 groups. The patient education (PE) control group (n=118) (1) received an educational workbook, (2) received a pedometer, and (3) set a behavioral contract for a physical activity goal. The positive affect/self-affirmation (PA) intervention group (n=124) received the 3 PE control components plus (1) a PA workbook chapter, (2) bimonthly induction of PA by telephone, and (3) small mailed gifts. All patients were contacted with standardized bimonthly telephone follow-up for 12 months. Results Attrition was 4.5%, and 2.1% of patients died. Significantly more patients in the PA intervention group increased expenditure by 336 kcal/wk or more at 12 months, our main outcome, compared with the PE control group (54.9% vs 37.4%, P=.007). The PA intervention patients were 1.7 times more likely to reach the goal of a 336-kcal/wk or more increase by 12 months, controlling for demographic and psychosocial measures. In multivariate analysis, the PA intervention patients had nearly double the improvement in kilocalories per week at 12 months compared with the PE control patients (602 vs 328, P=.03). Conclusion Patients who receive PA intervention after percutaneous coronary intervention are able to achieve a sustained and clinically significant increase in physical activity by 12 months. Trial Registration

  5. Process Evaluation Results from a School- and Community-Linked Intervention: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, D. R.; Steckler, A.; Cohen, S.; Pratt, C.; Felton, G.; Moe, S. G.; Pickrel, J.; Johnson, C. C.; Grieser, M.; Lytle, L. A.; Lee, J.-S.; Raburn, B.

    2008-01-01

    Process evaluation is a component of intervention research that evaluates whether interventions are delivered and received as intended. Here, we describe the process evaluation results for the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) intervention. The intervention consisted of four synergistic components designed to provide supportive school-…

  6. Non-face-to-face physical activity interventions in older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Müller, Andre Matthias; Khoo, Selina

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is effective in preventing chronic diseases, increasing quality of life and promoting general health in older adults, but most older adults are not sufficiently active to gain those benefits. A novel and economically viable way to promote physical activity in older adults is through non-face-to-face interventions. These are conducted with reduced or no in-person interaction between intervention provider and program participants. The aim of this review was to summarize the scientific literature on non-face-to-face physical activity interventions targeting healthy, community dwelling older adults (≥ 50 years). A systematic search in six databases was conducted by combining multiple key words of the three main search categories "physical activity", "media" and "older adults". The search was restricted to English language articles published between 1st January 2000 and 31st May 2013. Reference lists of relevant articles were screened for additional publications. Seventeen articles describing sixteen non-face-to-face physical activity interventions were included in the review. All studies were conducted in developed countries, and eleven were randomized controlled trials. Sample size ranged from 31 to 2503 participants, and 13 studies included 60% or more women. Interventions were most frequently delivered via print materials and phone (n=11), compared to internet (n=3) and other media (n=2). Every intervention was theoretically framed with the Social Cognitive Theory (n=10) and the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (n=6) applied mostly. Individual tailoring was reported in 15 studies. Physical activity levels were self-assessed in all studies. Fourteen studies reported significant increase in physical activity. Eight out of nine studies conducted post-intervention follow-up analysis found that physical activity was maintained over a longer time. In the six studies where intervention dose was assessed the results varied considerably. One

  7. The ARC organizational and community intervention strategy for implementing evidence-based children's mental health treatments.

    PubMed

    Glisson, Charles; Schoenwald, Sonja K

    2005-12-01

    This paper reviews the implications of organizational and community intervention research for the implementation of effective mental health treatments in usual community practice settings. The paper describes an organizational and community intervention model named ARC for Availability, Responsiveness and Continuity, that was designed to support the improvement of social and mental health services for children. The ARC model incorporates intervention components from organizational development, interorganizational domain development, the diffusion of innovation, and technology transfer that target social, strategic, and technological factors in effective children's services. This paper also describes a current NIMH-funded study that is using the ARC intervention model to support the implementation of an evidence-based treatment, Multisystemic Therapy (MST), for delinquent youth in extremely rural, impoverished communities in the Appalachian Mountains of East Tennessee. PMID:16320107

  8. Narrative Intervention: A School-Based Counseling Strategy for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamali, Khosrow; Yoosefi Looyeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a group narrative intervention for improving the behavior of 8- to 11-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at home and school. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)

  9. Non-face-to-face physical activity interventions in older adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is effective in preventing chronic diseases, increasing quality of life and promoting general health in older adults, but most older adults are not sufficiently active to gain those benefits. A novel and economically viable way to promote physical activity in older adults is through non-face-to-face interventions. These are conducted with reduced or no in-person interaction between intervention provider and program participants. The aim of this review was to summarize the scientific literature on non-face-to-face physical activity interventions targeting healthy, community dwelling older adults (≥ 50 years). A systematic search in six databases was conducted by combining multiple key words of the three main search categories “physical activity”, “media” and “older adults”. The search was restricted to English language articles published between 1st January 2000 and 31st May 2013. Reference lists of relevant articles were screened for additional publications. Seventeen articles describing sixteen non-face-to-face physical activity interventions were included in the review. All studies were conducted in developed countries, and eleven were randomized controlled trials. Sample size ranged from 31 to 2503 participants, and 13 studies included 60% or more women. Interventions were most frequently delivered via print materials and phone (n = 11), compared to internet (n = 3) and other media (n = 2). Every intervention was theoretically framed with the Social Cognitive Theory (n = 10) and the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (n = 6) applied mostly. Individual tailoring was reported in 15 studies. Physical activity levels were self-assessed in all studies. Fourteen studies reported significant increase in physical activity. Eight out of nine studies conducted post-intervention follow-up analysis found that physical activity was maintained over a longer time. In the six studies where intervention dose was assessed

  10. Defining the Relationship Between Human Error Classes and Technology Intervention Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegmann, Douglas A.; Rantanen, Eas M.

    2003-01-01

    The modus operandi in addressing human error in aviation systems is predominantly that of technological interventions or fixes. Such interventions exhibit considerable variability both in terms of sophistication and application. Some technological interventions address human error directly while others do so only indirectly. Some attempt to eliminate the occurrence of errors altogether whereas others look to reduce the negative consequences of these errors. In any case, technological interventions add to the complexity of the systems and may interact with other system components in unforeseeable ways and often create opportunities for novel human errors. Consequently, there is a need to develop standards for evaluating the potential safety benefit of each of these intervention products so that resources can be effectively invested to produce the biggest benefit to flight safety as well as to mitigate any adverse ramifications. The purpose of this project was to help define the relationship between human error and technological interventions, with the ultimate goal of developing a set of standards for evaluating or measuring the potential benefits of new human error fixes.

  11. Effects of organic carbon sequestration strategies on soil enzymatic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, E.; Suciu, N.; Botteri, L.; Ferrari, T.; Coppolecchia, D.; Trevisan, M.; Piccolo, A.

    2009-04-01

    Greenhouse gases emissions can be counterbalanced with proper agronomical strategies aimed at sequestering carbon in soils. These strategies must be tested not only for their ability in reducing carbon dioxide emissions, but also for their impact on soil quality: enzymatic activities are related to main soil ecological quality, and can be used as early and sensitive indicators of alteration events. Three different strategies for soil carbon sequestration were studied: minimum tillage, protection of biodegradable organic fraction by compost amendment and oxidative polimerization of soil organic matter catalyzed by biometic porfirins. All strategies were compared with a traditional agricultural management based on tillage and mineral fertilization. Experiments were carried out in three Italian soils from different pedo-climatic regions located respectively in Piacenza, Turin and Naples and cultivated with maize or wheat. Soil samples were taken for three consecutive years after harvest and analyzed for their content in phosphates, ß-glucosidase, urease and invertase. An alteration index based on these enzymatic activities levels was applied as well. The biomimetic porfirin application didn't cause changes in enzymatic activities compared to the control at any treatment or location. Enzymatic activities were generally higher in the minimum tillage and compost treatment, while differences between location and date of samplings were limited. Application of the soil alteration index based on enzymatic activities showed that soils treated with compost or subjected to minimum tillage generally have a higher biological quality. The work confirms the environmental sustainability of the carbon sequestering agronomical practices studied.

  12. Physical Activity Interventions with Healthy Minority Adults: Meta-Analysis of Behavior and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Phillips, Lorraine J.; Ruppar, Todd M.; Chase, Jo-Ana D.

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis is a systematic compilation of research focusing on various exercise interventions and their impact on the health and behavior outcomes of healthy African American, Hispanic, Native American, and Native Hawaiian adults. Comprehensive searching located published and unpublished studies. Random-effects analyses synthesized data to calculate effect sizes (ES) as a standardized mean difference (d) and variability measures. Data were synthesized across 21,151 subjects in 100 eligible samples. Supervised exercise significantly improved fitness (ES=.571–.584). Interventions designed to motivate minority adults to increase physical activity changed subsequent physical activity behavior (ES=.172–.312) and anthropometric outcomes (ES=.070–.124). Some ES should be interpreted in the context of limited statistical power and heterogeneity. Attempts to match intervention content and delivery with minority populations were inconsistently reported. Healthy minority adults experienced health improvements following supervised exercise. Interventions designed to motivate subjects to increase physical activity have limited magnitude heterogeneous effects. PMID:22643462

  13. The Sequential Aerosol Technique: A Major Component in an Integrated Strategy of Intervention against Riverine Tsetse in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Yahaya; Cecchi, Giuliano; Kgori, Patrick M.; Marcotty, Tanguy; Mahama, Charles I.; Abavana, Martin; Anderson, Benita; Paone, Massimo; Mattioli, Raffaele; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2013-01-01

    Background An integrated strategy of intervention against tsetse flies was implemented in the Upper West Region of Ghana (9.62°–11.00° N, 1.40°–2.76° W), covering an area of ≈18,000 km2 within the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign. Two species were targeted: Glossina tachinoides and Glossina palpalis gambiensis. Methodology/Principal Findings The objectives were to test the potentiality of the sequential aerosol technique (SAT) to eliminate riverine tsetse species in a challenging subsection (dense tree canopy and high tsetse densities) of the total sprayed area (6,745 km2) and the subsequent efficacy of an integrated strategy including ground spraying (≈100 km2), insecticide treated targets (20,000) and insecticide treated cattle (45,000) in sustaining the results of tsetse suppression in the whole intervention area. The aerial application of low-dosage deltamethrin aerosols (0.33–0.35 g a.i/ha) was conducted along the three main rivers using five custom designed fixed-wings Turbo thrush aircraft. The impact of SAT on tsetse densities was monitored using 30 biconical traps deployed from two weeks before until two weeks after the operations. Results of the SAT monitoring indicated an overall reduction rate of 98% (from a pre-intervention mean apparent density per trap per day (ADT) of 16.7 to 0.3 at the end of the fourth and last cycle). One year after the SAT operations, a second survey using 200 biconical traps set in 20 sites during 3 weeks was conducted throughout the intervention area to measure the impact of the integrated control strategy. Both target species were still detected, albeit at very low densities (ADT of 0.27 inside sprayed blocks and 0.10 outside sprayed blocks). Conclusions/Significance The SAT operations failed to achieve elimination in the monitored section, but the subsequent integrated strategy maintained high levels of suppression throughout the intervention area, which will

  14. Factors Predicting Behavioral Response to a Physical Activity Intervention among Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Schneider, Margaret; Cooper, Dan M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether individual factors influenced rates of physical activity change in response to a school-based intervention. Methods: Sedentary adolescent females (N = 63) participated in a 9-month physical activity program. Weekly levels of leisure-time physical activity were reported using an interactive website. Results: Change…

  15. BE-ACTIV: A Staff-Assisted Behavioral Intervention for Depression in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Suzanne; Looney, Stephen W.; Van Haitsma, Kimberly; Teri, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article (a) describes a 10-week, behavioral, activities-based intervention for depression that can be implemented in nursing homes collaboratively with nursing home activities staff and (b) presents data related to its development, feasibility, and preliminary outcomes. Design and Methods: We developed BE-ACTIV, which stands for…

  16. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  17. Low Discretionary Time as a Barrier to Physical Activity and Intervention Uptake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Bennett, Gary G.; McNeill, Lorna H.; Sorensen, Glorian; Emmons, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether self-reported discretionary time was associated with physical activity and uptake of a physical activity promotion intervention in a multi-ethnic urban sample. Methods: We examined the association of self-reported discretionary time with hours/week of leisure-time physical activity at baseline and physical activity…

  18. Activity Systems and Moral Reasoning: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardi, Eva; Helkama, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Seventeen social educator students were taught to analyze their work activity by means of a Vygotsky-inspired method, drawing on Engeström's notion of an activity system. The method aimed at increasing the consciousness of the students of the structure of work activity system. The participants wrote two accounts of their field-work practice…

  19. Internet-based physical activity intervention for women with a family history of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Sheri J.; Dunsiger, Shira I.; Marinac, Catherine R.; Marcus, Bess H.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Gans, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for breast cancer. Physical activity interventions that can be delivered through the Internet have the potential to increase participant reach. The efficacy of an Internet-based physical activity intervention was tested in a sample of women at an elevated risk for breast cancer. Methods A total of 55 women with at least one first-degree relative with breast cancer (but no personal history of breast cancer) were randomized to a 3-month theoretically grounded Internet-based physical activity intervention or an active control arm. Minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity, psychosocial mediators of physical activity adoption and maintenance, as well as worry and perceived risk of developing breast cancer were assessed at baseline, 3-month, and 5-month follow up. Results Participants were on average 46.2 (SD=11.4) years old with a BMI of 27.3 (SD=4.8) kg/m2. The intervention arm significantly increased minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity compared to the active control arm at 3 months (213 vs. 129 min/week) and 5 months (208 vs. 119 min/week; both p<.001). Regression models indicated that participants in the intervention had significantly higher self-efficacy for physical activity at 3 months (p<.01) and borderline significantly higher self-efficacy at 5 months (p=0.05). Baseline breast cancer worry and perceived risk were not associated with physical activity. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that an Internet-based physical activity intervention may substantially increase physical activity in women with a family history of breast cancer. PMID:26651471

  20. The Effect of Structured Exercise Intervention on Intensity and Volume of Total Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wasenius, Niko; Venojärvi, Mika; Manderoos, Sirpa; Surakka, Jukka; Lindholm, Harri; Heinonen, Olli J.; Aunola, Sirkka; Eriksson, Johan G.; Mälkiä, Esko

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1–4 weeks) and during the intervention (1–12 weeks) and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050). The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity) increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p < 0.050) but not in the resistance training group (p > 0.050) compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised. Key Points Structured NW or RT training does not increase the volume of total physical activity. NW intervention can increase the volume of higher intensity activities. The increased in volume of LTPA induced by the structured NW and RT interventions was associated with the decreased volume of NLTPA. PMID:25435776

  1. Cognitive strategy interventions improve word problem solving and working memory in children with math disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of strategy instruction and working memory capacity (WMC) on problem solving solution accuracy in children with and without math disabilities (MD). Children in grade 3 (N = 204) with and without MD subdivided into high and low WMC were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: verbal strategies (e.g., underlining question sentence), visual strategies (e.g., correctly placing numbers in diagrams), verbal + visual strategies, and an untreated control. The dependent measures for training were problem solving accuracy and two working memory transfer measures (operation span and visual-spatial span). Three major findings emerged: (1) strategy instruction facilitated solution accuracy but the effects of strategy instruction were moderated by WMC, (2) some strategies yielded higher post-test scores than others, but these findings were qualified as to whether children were at risk for MD, and (3) strategy training on problem solving measures facilitated transfer to working memory measures. The main findings were that children with MD, but high WM spans, were more likely to benefit from strategy conditions on target and transfer measures than children with lower WMC. The results suggest that WMC moderates the influence of cognitive strategies on both the targeted and non-targeted measures. PMID:26300803

  2. Examining an Australian physical activity and nutrition intervention using RE-AIM.

    PubMed

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Duncan, Mitch; Kolt, Gregory S; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Maeder, Anthony; Noakes, Manny; Karunanithi, Mohan; Mummery, W Kerry

    2016-06-01

    Translating evidence-based interventions into community practice is vital to health promotion. This study used the RE-AIM framework to evaluate the larger dissemination of the ManUp intervention, an intervention which utilized interactive web-based technologies to improve the physical activity and nutrition behaviors of residents in Central Queensland, Australia. Data were collected for each RE-AIM measure (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) using (i) computer-assisted telephone interview survey (N = 312) with adults (18 years and over) from Central Queensland, (ii) interviews with key stakeholders from local organizations (n = 12) and (iii) examination of project-related statistics and findings. In terms of Reach, 47% of participants were aware of the intervention; Effectiveness, there were no significant differences between physical activity and healthy nutrition levels in those aware and unaware; Adoption, 73 participants registered for the intervention and 25% of organizations adopted some part of the intervention; Implementation, 26% of participants initially logged onto the website, 29 and 17% started the web-based physical activity and nutrition challenges, 33% of organizations implemented the intervention, 42% considered implementation and 25% reported difficulties; Maintenance, an average of 0.57 logins and 1.35 entries per week during the 12 week dissemination and 0.27 logins and 0.63 entries per week during the 9-month follow-up were achieved, 22 and 0% of participants completed the web-based physical activity and nutrition challenges and 33.3% of organizations intended to continue utilizing components of the intervention. While this intervention demonstrated good reach, effectiveness, adoption and implementation warrant further investigation. PMID:25715801

  3. The staying safe intervention: training people who inject drugs in strategies to avoid injection-related HCV and HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Guarino, Honoria; Sandoval, Milagros; Cleland, Charles M; Jordan, Ashly; Hagan, Holly; Lune, Howard; Friedman, Samuel R

    2014-04-01

    This pilot study explores the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the Staying Safe Intervention, an innovative, strengths-based program to facilitate prevention of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus and with the hepatitis C virus among people who inject drugs (PWID). The authors explored changes in the intervention's two primary endpoints: (a) frequency and amount of drug intake, and (b) frequency of risky injection practices. We also explored changes in hypothesized mediators of intervention efficacy: planning skills, motivation/self-efficacy to inject safely, skills to avoid PWID-associated stigma, social support, drug-related withdrawal symptoms, and injection network size and risk norms. A 1-week, five-session intervention (10 hours total) was evaluated using a pre- versus 3-month posttest design. Fifty-one participants completed pre- and posttest assessments. Participants reported significant reductions in drug intake and injection-related risk behavior. Participants also reported significant increases in planning skills, motivation/self-efficacy, and stigma management strategies, while reducing their exposure to drug withdrawal episodes and risky injection networks. PMID:24694328

  4. THE STAYING SAFE INTERVENTION: TRAINING PEOPLE WHO INJECT DRUGS IN STRATEGIES TO AVOID INJECTION-RELATED HCV AND HIV INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Guarino, Honoria; Sandoval, Milagros; Cleland, Charles M.; Jordan, Ashly; Hagan, Holly; Lune, Howard; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study explores the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the Staying Safe Intervention, an innovative, strengths-based program to facilitate prevention of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus and with the hepatitis C virus among people who inject drugs (PWID). The authors explored changes in the intervention's two primary endpoints: (a) frequency and amount of drug intake, and (b) frequency of risky injection practices. We also explored changes in hypothesized mediators of intervention efficacy: planning skills, motivation/self-efficacy to inject safely, skills to avoid PWID-associated stigma, social support, drug-related withdrawal symptoms, and injection network size and risk norms. A 1-week, five-session intervention (10 hours total) was evaluated using a pre- versus 3-month posttest design. Fifty-one participants completed pre- and posttest assessments. Participants reported significant reductions in drug intake and injection-related risk behavior. Participants also reported significant increases in planning skills, motivation/self-efficacy, and stigma management strategies, while reducing their exposure to drug withdrawal episodes and risky injection networks. PMID:24694328

  5. Evaluability Assessment of an immunization improvement strategy in rural Burkina Faso: intervention theory versus reality, information need and evaluations.

    PubMed

    Sanou, Aboubakary; Kouyaté, Bocar; Bibeau, Gilles; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim

    2011-08-01

    An innovative immunization improvement strategy was proposed by the CRSN (Centre de Recherche en Santé de Nouna) to improve the low coverage rate for children aged 0-11 months in the health district of Nouna in Burkina Faso. This article reports on the Evaluability Assessment (EA) study that aimed to orient decisions for its evaluation in close relationship with the information needs of the stakeholders. Various methods were used, including document reviews, individual interviews, focus group discussions, meetings, literature reviews and site visits. A description of the intervention theory and philosophy is provided with its logic models and its reality documented. Lessons on the procedure include the importance of the position of the evaluability assessor, the value of replicating some steps of the assessment and the relationships between EA and process evaluation. The evaluability study concludes that the intervention had some evaluable components. To satisfy the stakeholders' needs, the initially planned community randomized controlled trial can be maintained and complemented with a process evaluation. There is a need to provide sufficient information on the cost of the intervention. This will inform decision makers on the possibility of replicating the intervention in other contexts. PMID:21168211

  6. Development of a Brief Intervention to Improve Knowledge of Autism and Behavioral Strategies Among Parents in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ashley Johnson; Long, Kristin A; Manji, Karim P; Blane, Karyn K

    2016-06-01

    Despite the global presence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a paucity of treatment services exists in Tanzania and other low- and middle-income countries. The effect of delayed or low-quality treatments is enduring and contributes to lifelong variability in ASD-related functional impairments. Service disparities in Tanzania derive in part from a widespread lack of national ASD knowledge. Historically, in Western countries, parents have played a major role in increasing ASD awareness, advancing research, and encouraging empirically supported treatments. In the absence of established treatment services, parents of children with ASD have also learned to implement behavioral interventions to reduce the widening skills gaps. This article describes the development of an intervention designed to inform parents in Tanzania about ASD and empirically supported behavioral strategies. Preliminary data, collected from a clinical implementation with 29 Tanzanian families of children diagnosed with ASD or general developmental delays, support the initial feasibility and acceptability of this intervention. This brief intervention may help to ameliorate treatment disparities due to insufficient regional knowledge, language barriers, or limited service availability and may help improve functional outcomes among Tanzanian children with ASD. PMID:27268474

  7. [Educational activity and psychosocial prevention : a model of intervention.].

    PubMed

    Plamondon, G; Plamondon, L

    1981-01-01

    The authors describe the socio-economic conditions of the retired in 1980 (poverty, poor health, lack of adequate services, etc.) and explain how these conditions are related to capitalist social organization. Their analysis leads them to set down the principal goal of the community workers in regard to the elderly population as follows : contribute to the organization and to the development of conditions favorable to the mobilization of the retired and elderly workers who, as a group, have the greatest potential for changing their conditions. To attain this long-term objective, the pre-retirement clientele possess the most favorable potential, and this is why the retirement preparation intervention is defined in an educationel orientation of psycho-social prevention. Seconding to the authors, the apprenticeships showed permit the elderly to assume both personal and collective control - thereby making it possible to transform the existing conditions. PMID:17093720

  8. Active Kids Active Minds: A Physical Activity Intervention to Promote Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    lisahunter; Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Ziviani, Jennifer; Cuskelly, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility and impact of introducing a programme of an additional 30 minutes per day of moderate physical activity within curriculum time on learning and readiness to learn in a large elementary school in south-east Queensland, Australia. The programme, Active Kids Active Minds (AKAM), involved Year 5 students (n = 107),…

  9. Variations in Substance Use Prevalence Estimates and Need for Interventions among Adult Emergency Department Patients Based on Different Screening Strategies Using the ASSIST

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Roland C.; Liu, Tao; Baird, Janette R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Among adult emergency department (ED) patients, we sought to examine how estimates of substance use prevalence and the need for interventions can differ, based on the type of screening and assessment strategies employed. Methods We estimated the prevalence of substance use and the need for interventions using the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in a secondary analysis of data from two cross-sectional studies using random samples of English- or Spanish-speaking 18–64-year-old ED patients. In addition, the test performance characteristics of three simplified screening strategies consisting of selected questions from the ASSIST (lifetime use, past three-month use, and past three-month frequency of use) to identify patients in need of a possible intervention were compared against using the full ASSIST. Results Of 6,432 adult ED patients, the median age was 37 years-old, 56.6% were female, and 61.6% were white. Estimated substance use prevalence among this population differed by how it was measured (lifetime use, past three-month use, past three-month frequency of use, or need for interventions). As compared to using the full ASSIST, the predictive value and accuracy to identify patients in need of any intervention was best for a simplified strategy asking about past three-month substance use. A strategy asking about daily/near-daily use was better in identifying patients needing intensive interventions. However, some patients needing interventions were missed when using these simplified strategies. Conclusion Substance use prevalence estimates and identification of ED patients needing interventions differ by screening strategies used. EDs should carefully select strategies to identify patients in need of substance use interventions. PMID:27330663

  10. Active Anti-erosion Protection Strategy in Tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla)

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhiwu; Yin, Wei; Zhang, Junqiu; Niu, Shichao; Ren, Luquan

    2013-01-01

    Plants have numerous active protection strategies for adapting to complex and severe environments. These strategies provide endless inspiration for extending the service life of materials and machines. Tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla), a tree that thrives in raging sandstorm regions, has adapted to blustery conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust erosion resistant characteristics. However, the relationships among its surface cracks, internal histology and biomechanics, such as cracks, rings, cells, elasticity modulus and growth stress, which account for its erosion resistance, remain unclear. This present study reveals that the directionally eccentric growth rings of tamarisk, which are attributed to reduced stress and accelerated cell division, promote the formation of surface cracks. The windward rings are more extensive than the leeward side rings. The windward surfaces are more prone to cracks, which improves erosion resistance. Our data provide insight into the active protection strategy of the tamarisk against wind–sand erosion. PMID:24305989

  11. Active Anti-erosion Protection Strategy in Tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhiwu; Yin, Wei; Zhang, Junqiu; Niu, Shichao; Ren, Luquan

    2013-12-01

    Plants have numerous active protection strategies for adapting to complex and severe environments. These strategies provide endless inspiration for extending the service life of materials and machines. Tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla), a tree that thrives in raging sandstorm regions, has adapted to blustery conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust erosion resistant characteristics. However, the relationships among its surface cracks, internal histology and biomechanics, such as cracks, rings, cells, elasticity modulus and growth stress, which account for its erosion resistance, remain unclear. This present study reveals that the directionally eccentric growth rings of tamarisk, which are attributed to reduced stress and accelerated cell division, promote the formation of surface cracks. The windward rings are more extensive than the leeward side rings. The windward surfaces are more prone to cracks, which improves erosion resistance. Our data provide insight into the active protection strategy of the tamarisk against wind-sand erosion.

  12. Active anti-erosion protection strategy in tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla).

    PubMed

    Han, Zhiwu; Yin, Wei; Zhang, Junqiu; Niu, Shichao; Ren, Luquan

    2013-01-01

    Plants have numerous active protection strategies for adapting to complex and severe environments. These strategies provide endless inspiration for extending the service life of materials and machines. Tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla), a tree that thrives in raging sandstorm regions, has adapted to blustery conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust erosion resistant characteristics. However, the relationships among its surface cracks, internal histology and biomechanics, such as cracks, rings, cells, elasticity modulus and growth stress, which account for its erosion resistance, remain unclear. This present study reveals that the directionally eccentric growth rings of tamarisk, which are attributed to reduced stress and accelerated cell division, promote the formation of surface cracks. The windward rings are more extensive than the leeward side rings. The windward surfaces are more prone to cracks, which improves erosion resistance. Our data provide insight into the active protection strategy of the tamarisk against wind-sand erosion. PMID:24305989

  13. Gamification of active travel to school: A pilot evaluation of the Beat the Street physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Emma; Jones, Andy

    2016-05-01

    Beat the Street aims to get children more active by encouraging them to walk and cycle in their neighbourhood using tracking technology with a reward scheme. This pilot study evaluates the impact of Beat the Street on active travel to school in Norwich, UK. Eighty children 8-10 yrs were recruited via an intervention and control school. They wore an accelerometer for 7 days at baseline, mid-intervention and post-intervention (+20 weeks), and completed a travel diary. Physical activity overall was not higher at follow-up amongst intervention children compared to controls. However, there was a positive association between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during school commute times and the number of days on which children touched a Beat the Street sensor. This equated to 3.46min extra daily MVPA during commute times for children who touched a sensor on 14.5 days (the mean number of days), compared to those who did not engage. We also found weekly active travel increased at the intervention school (+10.0% per child) while it decreased at the control (-7.0%), p=0.056. Further work is needed to understand how improved engagement with the intervention might impact outcomes. PMID:26974232

  14. Evaluation of Work Place Group and Internet Based Physical Activity Interventions on Psychological Variables Associated with Exercise Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Kimberley A.; Tracey, Jill; Berry, Tanya

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy) and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an “unhappy employee ”typology. Key pointsGroup-based physical activity interventions are capable of improving exercise self-efficacy and barrier self-efficacy.At pretest, participants who selected the internet physical activity intervention were significantly lower in job and life satisfaction than those who selected the group-intervention.While the internet intervention attracted more participants, the group-based physical activity intervention was more successful at changing cognitions associated with successful exercise behavior change. PMID:24149963

  15. Developing community-based intervention strategies to save newborn lives: lessons learned from formative research in five countries.

    PubMed

    2008-12-01

    This paper summarizes lessons learned from formative research conducted in Bangladesh, Ghana, India, Mali and Nepal to inform the development of newborn health interventions, mostly in the context of field trials. Current practices, constraints to the adoption of optimal practices and implications for implementing inventions to improve newborn survival are discussed for: optimal care during pregnancy; skilled care at birth; optimal delivery and newborn care practices; special care of low birth weight babies; and timely and appropriate care seeking for newborn illness. General lessons concerning target audiences and intervention strategy are also drawn. In brief, interventions to reduce neonatal mortality need to start during pregnancy not only to promote birth preparedness and institutional delivery, but also to start the process of change concerning early newborn care practices. Their target audience should not only be pregnant or recently delivered women, but also include the main gatekeepers, particularly traditional birth attendants, grandmothers and other family members. Health providers' opinions also matter as care practices are less likely to change if families receive conflicting messages from different sources. Interventions are more likely to succeed if they are not simply message based, but include problem solving approaches, and a behavior change component to address community norms. Although antenatal care (ANC) is theoretically a good channel for newborn interventions, capitalising on its potential is not straightforward, and will require considerable investment and intervention development in its own right in order to improve ANC counselling, which will need to extend beyond training and tackle the many working day constraints encountered by ANC providers. Removing or subsidising the cost of deliveries may be a necessary action to increase institutional deliveries, but it is unlikely to be sufficient; measures will need to be put in place to ensure

  16. A cluster randomised trial of a school-based intervention to prevent decline in adolescent physical activity levels: study protocol for the ‘Physical Activity 4 Everyone’ trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescence is an established period of physical activity decline. Multi-component school-based interventions have the potential to slow the decline in adolescents’ physical activity; however, few interventions have been conducted in schools located in low-income or disadvantaged communities. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention in reducing the decline in physical activity among students attending secondary schools located in disadvantaged communities. Methods/Design The cluster randomised trial will be conducted with 10 secondary schools located in selected regions of New South Wales, Australia. The schools will be selected from areas that have a level of socio-economic status that is below the state average. Five schools will be allocated to receive an intervention based on the Health Promoting Schools framework, and will be supported by a part-time physical activity consultant placed in intervention schools who will implement a range of intervention adoption strategies. Study measures will be taken at baseline when students are in Year 7 (12–13 years) and again after 12- and 24-months. The primary outcome, minutes of moderate- to-vigorous- intensity physical activity per day and percentage of time in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), will be objectively assessed using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3x+). Group allocation and intervention delivery will commence after baseline data collection. The intervention will continue during school terms through to 24-month follow-up. Discussion The study will provide evidence regarding the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention that includes an in-school physical activity consultant targeting the physical activity levels of adolescents in disadvantaged Australian secondary schools. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000382875. PMID:23336603

  17. A Hybrid Model Predictive Control Strategy for Optimizing a Smoking Cessation Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Timms, Kevin P.; Rivera, Daniel E.; Piper, Megan E.; Collins, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    The chronic, relapsing nature of tobacco use represents a major challenge in smoking cessation treatment. Recently, novel intervention paradigms have emerged that seek to adjust treatments over time in order to meet a patient’s changing needs. This article demonstrates that Hybrid Model Predictive Control (HMPC) offers an appealing framework for designing these optimized, time-varying smoking cessation interventions. HMPC is a particularly appropriate approach as it recognizes that intervention doses must be assigned in predetermined, discrete units while retaining receding-horizon, constraint-handling, and combined feedback and feedforward capabilities. Specifically, an intervention algorithm is developed here in which counseling and two pharmacotherapies are manipulated to reduce daily smoking and craving levels. The potential usefulness of such an intervention is illustrated through simulated treatment of a quit attempt in a hypothetical patient, which highlights that prioritizing reduction in craving over total daily smoking levels significantly reduces craving levels, suppresses relapse, and successfully rejects time-varying disturbances such as stress, all while adhering to several practical operational constraints and resource use considerations. PMID:25400326

  18. Effects of School-Based Physical Activity Interventions on Cognition and Academic Achievement: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mura, Gioia; Vellante, Marcello; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Schools are an ideal setting to implement physical activity programs targeted at youths' learning and intellectual abilities, as exercise has been associated with improvement in cognitive skills and academic proficiency. A systematic review of the literature was performed to examine the effects of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and cognitive outcomes. A search for relevant papers was carried out on PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar. Only quasi-experimental and experimental studies were included, if focused on school-based physical activity interventions targeting 3 to 18 year-old healthy pupils, and designed to establish a relationship between exercise performed in a school setting and cognitive/academic performance. Thirty-one papers were retrieved by the search, reporting the findings of twenty-eight school-based physical activity interventions. Most of the included studies were published in the past five years. A large majority of the studies showed positive results in terms of academic achievement and, above all, cognitive skills. In the recent years, the number of studies on school-based physical interventions aimed to establish a relationship between physical activity performed in school setting and cognitive/academic outcomes significantly increased, as well as high quality assessments and designs. This review highlights the effectiveness of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and, above all, on youths' cognitive performance. Some interesting findings come from studies assessing brain functional changes, from interventions targeting culturally diverse or low-income samples, and from interventions where physical activity is in the form of active videogames. PMID:26556088

  19. Strategies to Facilitate Exposure to Internet-Delivered Health Behavior Change Interventions Aimed at Adolescents or Young Adults: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutzen, Rik; de Nooijer, Jascha; Brouwer, Wendy; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Nanne K.

    2011-01-01

    The Internet is considered to be a promising delivery channel of interventions aimed at promoting healthful behaviors, especially for adolescents and young adults. Exposure to these interventions, however, is generally low. A more extensive exploration of methods, strategies, and their effectiveness with regard to facilitating exposure is…

  20. X-ray irradiation as a microbial intervention strategy for food.

    PubMed

    Moosekian, Scott R; Jeong, Sanghyup; Marks, Bradley P; Ryser, Elliot T

    2012-01-01

    First recognized in 1895, X-ray irradiation soon became a breakthrough diagnostic tool for the dental and medical professions. However, the food industry remained slow to adopt X-ray irradiation as a means for controlling insects and microbial contaminants in food, instead using gamma and electron beam (E-beam) irradiation. However, the reinvention of X-ray machines with increased efficiency, combined with recent developments in legislation and engineering, is now allowing X-ray to actively compete with gamma irradiation and E-beam as a microbial reduction strategy for foods. This review summarizes the historical developments of X-rays and discusses the key technological advances over the past two decades that now have led to the development of several different X-ray irradiators capable of enhancing the safety and shelf life of many heat-sensitive products, including lettuce, spinach, tomatoes, and raw almonds, all of which have been linked to high profile outbreaks of foodborne illness. PMID:22149074

  1. Interpreting Intervention Induced Neuroplasticity with fMRI: The Case for Multimodal Imaging Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Lee B.; Boyd, Roslyn N.; Cunnington, Ross; Rose, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Direct measurement of recovery from brain injury is an important goal in neurorehabilitation, and requires reliable, objective, and interpretable measures of changes in brain function, referred to generally as “neuroplasticity.” One popular imaging modality for measuring neuroplasticity is task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (t-fMRI). In the field of neurorehabilitation, however, assessing neuroplasticity using t-fMRI presents a significant challenge. This commentary reviews t-fMRI changes commonly reported in patients with cerebral palsy or acquired brain injuries, with a focus on studies of motor rehabilitation, and discusses complexities surrounding their interpretations. Specifically, we discuss the difficulties in interpreting t-fMRI changes in terms of their underlying causes, that is, differentiating whether they reflect genuine reorganisation, neurological restoration, compensation, use of preexisting redundancies, changes in strategy, or maladaptive processes. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of heterogeneous disease states and essential t-fMRI processing steps on the interpretability of activation patterns. To better understand therapy-induced neuroplastic changes, we suggest that researchers utilising t-fMRI consider concurrently acquiring information from an additional modality, to quantify, for example, haemodynamic differences or microstructural changes. We outline a variety of such supplementary measures for investigating brain reorganisation and discuss situations in which they may prove beneficial to the interpretation of t-fMRI data. PMID:26839711

  2. Using Active Learning Strategies in Psychology Classes: Illustrative Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Judith A.; Eison, James

    This bibliography was designed to assist psychology instructors in incorporating active learning strategies into their courses. The document contains articles that describe specific techniques that should help students to become more involved in learning about psychology than traditional lecture methods allow. The bibliography was prepared by…

  3. Brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion

    PubMed Central

    Sebastião, Emerson; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-01-01

    Public health actions endorsed by the federal government, for instance, health promotion initiatives, usually have greater impact at population level compared to other types of initiatives. This commentary aims to instigate debate on the importance and necessity of producing federally endorsed brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion. PMID:25210830

  4. Using Active Learning Strategies to Present Bloodborne Pathogen Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Leslie; Weaver, Mary G.

    2003-01-01

    Every year, school nurses have the responsibility for developing and presenting a bloodborne pathogen presentation to the education and clerical staff of their buildings. Although the information is similar from year to year, the manner in which the information is presented can be altered. Teachers are using active learning strategies in a variety…

  5. Perceived Strategies and Activities for Successful Later Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.; Velasquez, Katherine S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated perceived strategies and activities for successful later aging. Participants were 242 members of the Terman Study of the Gifted who responded to an open-ended question concerning how they make the most of their aging years. Data were collected in 1996 and 1999, when the participants were average ages of 84 and 86.…

  6. Multiple strategies to activate gold nanoparticles as antibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuyun; Jiang, Xingyu

    2013-08-01

    Widespread antibiotic resistance calls for new strategies. Nanotechnology provides a chance to overcome antibiotic resistance by multiple antibiotic mechanisms. This paper reviews the progress in activating gold nanoparticles with nonantibiotic or antibiotic molecules to combat bacterial resistance, analyzes the gap between experimental achievements and real clinical application, and suggests some potential directions in developing antibacterial nanodrugs.

  7. Multiple strategies to activate gold nanoparticles as antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuyun; Jiang, Xingyu

    2013-09-21

    Widespread antibiotic resistance calls for new strategies. Nanotechnology provides a chance to overcome antibiotic resistance by multiple antibiotic mechanisms. This paper reviews the progress in activating gold nanoparticles with nonantibiotic or antibiotic molecules to combat bacterial resistance, analyzes the gap between experimental achievements and real clinical application, and suggests some potential directions in developing antibacterial nanodrugs. PMID:23893008

  8. Promoting Visualization Skills through Deconstruction Using Physical Models and a Visualization Activity Intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiltz, Holly Kristine

    ' modeled visualization artifacts had on students. No patterns emerged from the passive observation of visualization artifacts in lecture or recitation, but the need to elicit visual information from students was made clear. Deconstruction proved to be a valuable method for instruction and assessment of visual information. Three strategies for using deconstruction in teaching were distilled from the lessons and observations of the student focus groups: begin with observations of what is given in an image and what it's composed of, identify the relationships between components to find additional operations in different environments about the molecule, and deconstructing steps of challenging questions can reveal mistakes. An intervention was developed to teach students to use deconstruction and verbalization to analyze complex visualization tasks and employ the principles of the theoretical framework. The activities were scaffolded to introduce increasingly challenging concepts to students, but also support them as they learned visually demanding chemistry concepts. Several themes were observed in the analysis of the visualization activities. Students used deconstruction by documenting which parts of the images were useful for interpretation of the visual. Students identified valid patterns and rules within the images, which signified understanding of arrangement of information presented in the representation. Successful strategy communication was identified when students documented personal strategies that allowed them to complete the activity tasks. Finally, students demonstrated the ability to extend symmetry skills to advanced applications they had not previously seen. This work shows how the use of deconstruction and verbalization may have a great impact on how students master difficult topics and combined, they offer students a powerful strategy to approach visually demanding chemistry problems and to the instructor a unique insight to mentally constructed strategies.

  9. Genome-based nutrition: An intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Sonia; Ojeda-Granados, Claudia; Ramos-Lopez, Omar; Panduro, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are increasing in westernized countries, regardless of their geographic location. In Latin America, most countries, including Mexico, have a heterogeneous admixture genome with Amerindian, European and African ancestries. However, certain high allelic frequencies of several nutrient-related polymorphisms may have been achieved by past gene-nutrient interactions. Such interactions may have promoted the positive selection of variants adapted to regional food sources. At present, the unbalanced diet composition of the Mexicans has led the country to a 70% prevalence rate of overweightness and obesity due to substantial changes in food habits, among other factors. International guidelines and intervention strategies may not be adequate for all populations worldwide because they do not consider disparities in genetic and environmental factors, and thus there is a need for differential prevention and management strategies. Here, we provide the rationale for an intervention strategy for the prevention and management of obesity-related diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis based on a regionalized genome-based diet. The components required to design such a diet should focus on the specific ancestry of each population around the world and the convenience of consuming traditional ethnic food. PMID:25834309

  10. Effect of a behavioral intervention on dimensions of self-regulation and physical activity among overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Silfee, Valerie; Petosa, Rick; Laurent, Devin; Schaub, Timothy; Focht, Brian

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the preliminary effect of a behavioral intervention on the use of self-regulation strategies and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes. 23 individuals recruited from ResearchMatc.org and campus advertisements were randomized into an intervention (n = 12) and control (n = 11) group. The intervention group received a behavioral intervention that used goal setting, time management, and self-monitoring to target dimensions of self-regulation and MVPA. The control received information regarding their PA habits. MVPA was measured via BodyMedia Armbands at pre- and post-test. The use of self-regulatory strategies for MVPA was assessed at pretest and posttest using the Self-Regulation for Exercise Scale. Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated to determine the practical impact of the intervention. The intervention had a large effect on all dimensions of self-regulation across time: including total self-regulation (3.15), self-monitoring (4.63), goal setting (3.17), social support (1.29), self-reward (1.98), time management (4.41), and overcoming barriers (2.25). The intervention had no impact on dimensions of MVPA across time. This pilot study demonstrated the ability of a behavioral intervention to improve the use of self-regulation strategies for MVPA in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes. These findings can further inform the development of health promotion programs to promote self-regulation. Future research should focus on determining ability of improvements in self-regulation to stimulate behavior change. PMID:26785605

  11. Brief intervention strategies for harmful drinkers: new directions for medical education.

    PubMed Central

    Babor, T F

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology of behavioural interventions for harmful drinkers have created a new role for clinical practice and new challenges for medical education. Several reports from expert committees have recommended new initiatives in the secondary prevention of alcohol problems through physician-based interventions at the primary care level. The conceptual and scientific bases for these recommendations are discussed in terms of recent studies of harmful and hazardous drinkers. The behavioural principles thought to account for the effectiveness of brief interventions are explained. Despite these promising developments, difficulties are inherent in the introduction of new technologies, especially behavioural technologies, into medical practice. A major challenge to medical education will be the development of academic programs that not only teach skills and competencies in secondary prevention but also deal with the socialization of physicians as behavioural practitioners. PMID:2224675

  12. Prevention and intervention strategies to alleviate preoperative anxiety in children: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kristi D; Stewart, Sherry H; Finley, G Allen; Buffett-Jerrott, Susan E

    2007-01-01

    Preoperative anxiety (anxiety regarding impending surgical experience) in children is a common phenomenon that has been associated with a number of negative behaviors during the surgery experience (e.g., agitation, crying, spontaneous urination, and the need for physical restraint during anesthetic induction). Preoperative anxiety has also been associated with the display of a number of maladaptive behaviors postsurgery, including postoperative pain, sleeping disturbances, parent-child conflict, and separation anxiety. For these reasons, researchers have sought out interventions to treat or prevent childhood preoperative anxiety and possibly decrease the development of negative behaviors postsurgery. Such interventions include sedative premedication, parental presence during anesthetic induction, behavioral preparation programs, music therapy, and acupuncture. The present article reviews the existing research on the various modes of intervention for preoperative anxiety in children. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:17179531

  13. Playing Active Video Games may not develop movement skills: An intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Ridgers, Nicola D.; Reynolds, John; Hanna, Lisa; Salmon, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the impact of playing sports Active Video Games on children's actual and perceived object control skills. Methods: Intervention children played Active Video Games for 6 weeks (1 h/week) in 2012. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence assessed perceived object control skill. Repeated measurements of object control and perceived object control were analysed for the whole sample, using linear mixed models, which included fixed effects for group (intervention or control) and time (pre and post) and their interaction. The first model adjusted for sex only and the second model also adjusted for age, and prior ball sports experience (yes/no). Seven mixed-gender focus discussions were conducted with intervention children after programme completion. Results: Ninety-five Australian children (55% girls; 43% intervention group) aged 4 to 8 years (M 6.2, SD 0.95) participated. Object control skill improved over time (p = 0.006) but there was no significant difference (p = 0.913) between groups in improvement (predicted means: control 31.80 to 33.53, SED = 0.748; intervention 30.33 to 31.83, SED = 0.835). A similar result held for the second model. Similarly the intervention did not change perceived object control in Model 1 (predicted means: control: 19.08 to 18.68, SED = 0.362; intervention 18.67 to 18.88, SED = 0.406) or Model 2. Children found the intervention enjoyable, but most did not perceive direct equivalence between Active Video Games and ‘real life’ activities. Conclusions: Whilst Active Video Game play may help introduce children to sport, this amount of time playing is unlikely to build skill. PMID:26844136

  14. Motivational interviewing in a web-based physical activity intervention: questions and reflections.

    PubMed

    Friederichs, Stijn A H; Oenema, Anke; Bolman, Catherine; Guyaux, Janneke; Van Keulen, Hilde M; Lechner, Lilian

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify which question/reflection format leads to the most favorable results in terms of effect on autonomous motivation and appreciation for the intervention in a web-based computer-tailored physical activity (PA) intervention, based on principles from self-determination theory (SDT) and motivational interviewing (MI). For this purpose, a randomized trial was conducted among 465 Dutch adults, comparing three web-based computer-tailored MI/SDT PA interventions, including (i) exclusively open-ended questions (without skillful reflections), (ii) exclusively multiple choice questions (with skillful reflections) and (iii) including both question types (with skillful reflections). Measurements included motivation-related determinants of PA and process variables, measured at baseline, directly following the intervention and 1-month post-intervention. Results suggest that open-ended questions represent an important element in web-based MI in terms of effect on autonomous motivation. In order to optimize appreciation of the intervention, a combination of both open-ended and multiple choice question types seems to hold most promise. The findings of this study suggest that both open-ended and multiple choice questions should be included in web-based computer-tailored SDT/MI PA interventions. More research is needed to reveal the optimal configuration of this novel intervention type. PMID:24101160

  15. Physical activity intervention effects on perceived stress in working mothers: the role of self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Mailey, Emily L; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Working mothers often report elevated stress, and efforts to improve their coping resources are needed to buffer the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study examined the impact of changes in physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-regulation across the course of a brief intervention on subsequent levels of stress in working mothers. Participants (N = 141) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control condition (2:1 ratio). The intervention was conducted in Illinois between March 2011 and January 2012 and consisted of two group-mediated workshop sessions with content based on social cognitive theory. Participants completed measures of physical activity, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and perceived stress at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 6-month follow-up. Stress levels declined across the 6-month period in both groups. Changes in stress were negatively associated with changes in self-efficacy and self-regulation among intervention participants only. Regression analyses revealed the intervention elicited short-term increases in physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-regulation, but only changes in self-efficacy predicted perceived stress at 6-month follow-up. These results suggest that enhancing self-efficacy is likely to improve working mothers' perceived capabilities to cope with stressors in their lives. Future interventions should continue to focus on increasing self-efficacy to promote improvements in physical activity and psychological well-being in this population. PMID:24964227

  16. Systematic dissemination of a preschool physical activity intervention to the control preschools.

    PubMed

    Howie, Erin K; Brewer, Alisa E; Brown, William H; Saunders, Ruth P; Pate, Russell R

    2016-08-01

    For public health interventions to have a meaningful impact on public health, they must be disseminated to the wider population. Systematic planning and evaluation of dissemination efforts can aid translation from experimental trials to larger dissemination programs. The Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES) was a group-randomized intervention trial conducted in 16 preschools that successfully increased the physical activity of preschool age children. Following the completion of the research study protocol, the intervention was abbreviated, modified and implemented in four preschools that participated as control preschools in the original research study. The purposes of the current study were to describe the process of refining the intervention for dissemination to the control preschools, and to assess the acceptability of the resulting abbreviated intervention delivery. Five overarching behavioral objectives, informed by process evaluation, data from the original trial and collaboration with intervention teachers, were used to guide the implementation. Teachers in the dissemination classrooms reported high levels of acceptability, potential for sustainability of the program, and positive results in knowledge, skills, and child outcomes. Researchers can include a systematic approach to dissemination of effective intervention elements to the control participants in experimental studies to inform future dissemination efforts and begin to bridge the dissemination gap. PMID:27107302

  17. Effectiveness of Point-Based Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largo-Wight, Erin; Todorovich, John R.; O'Hara, Brian K.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding and promoting physical activity is critical to combat the growing obesity epidemic in the U.S. This study was designed to compare two 10-week physical activity programs among college students. One hundred and thirty-six undergraduate college students participated in this randomized posttest only control group study. Seventy-seven…

  18. Evaluation of an Internet, Stage-Based Physical Activity Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Ronald L.; Hardy, Aaron; Aldana, Steven G.; George, James D.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the impact of online, stage-based materials on exercise behavior and stage of readiness to change. College faculty participated in stage-based, action-message, or control groups. Occupational and leisure activity, 7-day physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and stage of readiness to change were assessed at baseline and 6 weeks.…

  19. The use of concept mapping to identify community-driven intervention strategies for physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Lisa M; Jacquez, Farrah; McLinden, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Research that partners with youth and community stakeholders increases contextual relevance and community buy-in and therefore maximizes the chance for intervention success. Concept mapping is a mixed-method participatory research process that accesses the input of the community in a collaborative manner. After a school-wide health needs assessment at a low-income, minority/immigrant K-8 school identified bullying and obesity as the most important health issues, concept mapping was used to identify and prioritize specific strategies to address these two areas. Stakeholders including 160 K-8 students, 33 college students working in the school, 35 parents, 20 academic partners, and 22 teachers/staff brainstormed strategies to reduce and prevent obesity and bullying. A smaller group of stakeholders worked individually to complete an unstructured sorting of these strategies into groups of similar ideas, once for obesity and again for bullying. Multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis was applied to the sorting data to produce a series of maps that illustrated the stakeholders' conceptual thinking about obesity and bullying prevention strategies. The maps for both obesity and bullying organized specific strategies into themes that included education, parental role, teacher/school supervision, youth role, expert/professional role, and school structure/support. PMID:23099661

  20. Development of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity in Mexican school-age children.

    PubMed

    Amaya-Castellanos, Claudia; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Escalante-Izeta, Ericka; Morales-Ruán, María Del Carmen; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Salazar-Coronel, Araceli; Uribe-Carvajal, Rebeca; Amaya-Castellanos, Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    Mexico has the highest and most alarming rates of childhood obesity worldwide. A study conducted in the State of Mexico revealed that one of every three children presents overweight or obesity. The objective of this paper is to provide a step-by-step description of the design and implementation of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity called "Healthy Recess". The educational intervention was designed using the six stages of the Health Communication Process. This methodological model allowed identifying the needs of school-age children on information and participation in activities. In order to improve the strategy, adjustments were made to the print and audiovisual materials as well as to assessment tools. Typography was modified as well as the color of the images in student's workbook and facilitator's; special effects of the videos were increased; the narration of the radio spots was improved and common words and phrases were included. The Health Communication Process is an effective tool for program planners to design interventions aimed at managing prevalent health problems such as overweight and obesity in school-age children. PMID:26099561

  1. Peer-Assisted Learning/Literacy Strategies. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies" and a similar program known as "Peer-Assisted Literacy Strategies" are peer-tutoring programs that supplement the primary reading curriculum (Fuchs, Fuchs, Kazdan, & Allen, 1999; Mathes & Babyak, 2001). This review uses the acronym "PALS" to encompass both programs and their respective full names when referring…

  2. Examining the efficacy of a brief group protective behavioral strategies skills training alcohol intervention with college women.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Shannon R; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W; Martens, Matthew P

    2014-12-01

    College students' use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS; e.g., determining not to exceed a set number of drinks, avoiding drinking games) is related to lower levels of alcohol consumption and problems. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a novel brief, single-session group PBS skills training intervention aimed at increasing college students' use of PBS and reducing risky drinking and consequences. Participants (N = 226) were heavy-drinking incoming first-year college women randomized to either a PBS skills training intervention or study skills control condition. Participants attended a 45-min group session and completed online surveys pre- and postintervention (1 month and 6 months). We conducted a series of 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANCOVAs with condition and baseline mental health (anxiety/depression) as the between-subjects factors and time as the within-subjects factor. Intervention participants, relative to controls, reported significantly greater increases in PBS use and reductions in both heavy episodic drinking and alcohol consequences. The intervention was particularly effective in increasing PBS use at 1 month among participants with high anxiety. Further, tests of moderated mediation showed a significant conditional indirect effect of condition on 1-month consequences through PBS use among participants with high levels of anxiety. Findings provide preliminary support for a brief PBS-specific group intervention to reduce alcohol risk among college women, particularly anxious women. Future research is needed to strengthen the long-term effectiveness of the present approach and further explore the moderating effects of mental health. PMID:25347024

  3. Pragmatism rules: the intervention and prevention strategies used by psychiatric nurses working with non-suicidal self-harming individuals.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, A

    2007-02-01

    Self harm in the absence of expressed suicidal intent is an under explored area in psychiatric nursing research. This paper reports on findings of a study undertaken in two acute psychiatric inpatient units in Ireland. The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding of the practices of psychiatric nurses in relation to people who self harm, but who are not considered suicidal. Semi structured interviews were held with eight psychiatric nurses. Content analysis revealed several themes. For the purpose of this paper the prevention and intervention strategies psychiatric nurses engage in when working with non-suicidal self harming individuals are presented. Recommendations for further research are offered. PMID:17244007

  4. Combined Intimate Partner Violence and HIV/AIDS Prevention in Rural Uganda: Design of the SHARE Intervention Strategy.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Jennifer A; King, Elizabeth J; Namatovu, Fredinah; Kiwanuka, Deus; Kairania, Robert; Semanda, John Baptist; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J; Gray, Ronald; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has a bidirectional relationship with HIV infection. Researchers from the Rakai Health Sciences Program (RHSP), an HIV research and services organization in rural Uganda, conducted a combination IPV and HIV prevention intervention called the Safe Homes and Respect for Everyone (SHARE) Project between 2005 and 2009. SHARE was associated with significant declines in physical and sexual IPV and overall HIV incidence, and its model could be adopted as a promising practice in other settings. In this article we describe how SHARE's IPV-prevention strategies were integrated into RHSP's existing HIV programming and provide recommendations for replication of the approach. PMID:26086189

  5. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  6. Student-Driven Interviewing: Practical Strategies for Building Strength-Based Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The principles and practices of positive psychology are gaining wider acceptance among school psychologists (Gilman, Huebner, & Furlong, 2009). Unlike traditional assessment and intervention practices that focus primarily on what is wrong and missing with students, positive practices focus on what is right and working with students--strengths,…

  7. Reforming Personnel Preparation in Early Intervention: Issues, Models, and Practical Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Pamela J., Ed.; And Others

    The 21 papers in this collection address changes and reforms in the preparation of teachers and other personnel concerned with early intervention with children having or at risk for disabilities. The papers are: (1) "Ecological Perspectives on Personnel Preparation: Rationale, Framework, and Guidelines for Change" (Pamela J. Winton, Jeanette A.…

  8. Improving First-Year Intervention Strategies at Universities by Focusing on Meaning and Purpose in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Joo Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Research has increasingly appreciated the potential benefits of having a higher sense of meaning in life for positive college student development. Drawing on Steger's (2009) meaning development model, this study investigated the effects of a 6-week web-based intervention designed to enhance a sense of meaning in life among college freshmen. The…

  9. People Awakening: Collaborative Research to Develop Cultural Strategies for Prevention in Community Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Beehler, Sarah; Rowe, Hillary L.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and suicide create immense health disparities among Alaska Native people. The People Awakening project is a long-term collaboration between Alaska Native (AN) communities and university researchers seeking to foster health equity through development of positive solutions to these disparities. These efforts initiated a research relationship that identified individual, family, and community protective factors from AUD and suicide. AN co-researchers next expressed interest in translating these findings into intervention. This led to development of a strengths-based community intervention that is the focus of the special issue. The intervention builds these protective factors to prevent AUD and suicide risk within AN youth, and their families and communities. This review provides a critical examination of existing literature and a brief history of work leading to the intervention research. These work efforts portray a shared commitment of university researchers and community members to function as co-researchers, and to conduct research in accord with local Yup’ik cultural values. This imperative allowed the team to navigate several tensions we locate in a convergence of historical and contemporary ecological contextual factors inherent in AN tribal communities with countervailing constraints imposed by Western science. PMID:24903819

  10. People awakening: collaborative research to develop cultural strategies for prevention in community intervention.

    PubMed

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Beehler, Sarah; Rowe, Hillary L

    2014-09-01

    The consequences of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and suicide create immense health disparities among Alaska Native people. The People Awakening project is a long-term collaboration between Alaska Native (AN) communities and university researchers seeking to foster health equity through development of positive solutions to these disparities. These efforts initiated a research relationship that identified individual, family, and community protective factors from AUD and suicide. AN co-researchers next expressed interest in translating these findings into intervention. This led to development of a strengths-based community intervention that is the focus of the special issue. The intervention builds these protective factors to prevent AUD and suicide risk within AN youth, and their families and communities. This review provides a critical examination of existing literature and a brief history of work leading to the intervention research. These work efforts portray a shared commitment of university researchers and community members to function as co-researchers, and to conduct research in accord with local Yup'ik cultural values. This imperative allowed the team to navigate several tensions we locate in a convergence of historical and contemporary ecological contextual factors inherent in AN tribal communities with countervailing constraints imposed by Western science. PMID:24903819

  11. School-Based Intervention Strategies for School Phobia--A Ten-Step "Common Sense" Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Want, Jerome H.

    1983-01-01

    Characteristic behaviors and personality features of school phobia (anxiety, willfulness, dependency, depression, and unrealistic self image) are described, and 10 steps in a school-based intervention approach are listed (including assessing the family constellation, preparing teachers for the student's return to school, and encouraging therapy…

  12. The Effect of Behavioral Family Intervention on Knowledge of Effective Parenting Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Leanne; Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of research considering the effect of behavioral family intervention (BFI) on parenting knowledge and the relative importance of both knowledge and parent confidence in reducing parenting dysfunction and problematic child behavior is unclear. In this study ninety-one parents (44 mothers, 47 fathers) of children aged 2-10 years…

  13. Counseling Older Adults at Risk of Suicide: Recognizing Barriers, Reviewing Strategies, and Exploring Opportunities for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Patricia; Williams, Beverly Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Age-related challenges to health and well-being among older adults give rise to a distinctive array of risk factors for suicide, calling for a unique approach to suicide interventions. Americans over the age of 65 are disproportionally overrepresented in the number of completed suicides. This paper examines the epidemiology of geriatric suicide,…

  14. AN OUTLOOK OF NONTHERMAL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES AS FOOD SAFETY INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods should provide sensorial satisfaction and nutrition to people. Yet, foodborne pathogens cause significant illness and lose of life to human kind every year. A processing intervention step may be necessary prior to the consumption to ensure the safety of foods. Nonthermal processing technologi...

  15. Women's Self-Ratings of Skills: Issues and Strategies for Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reixach, Deborah

    1995-01-01

    Discusses underestimation of women's skills as an issue of concern for all women and for socioeconomically disadvantaged women in particular. Factors contributing to underestimation are gender-biased expectations, socialization, gender-biased definitions of skills, discrimination, and low self-esteem. Presents interventions to increase skills…

  16. Facilitating Children's Proportional Reasoning: A Model of Reasoning Processes and Effects of Intervention on Strategy Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimura, Nobuyuki

    2001-01-01

    One hundred forty fourth graders were asked to solve proportion problems about juice-mixing situations both before and after an intervention that used a manipulative model or other materials in three experiments. Results indicate different approaches appear to be necessary to facilitate children's proportional reasoning, depending on the reasoning…

  17. Behavioral Interventions in Schools: Evidence-Based Positive Strategies. School Psychology Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin-Little, Angeleque, Ed.; Little, Steven G., Ed.; Bray, Melissa A., Ed.; Kehle, Thomas J., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The emotional and behavioral problems of students in the classroom are a major concern for teachers, administrators, and the public. Without effective behavior management, a positive and productive classroom environment is impossible to achieve. Forty years of scientific research supports the efficacy of behavioral interventions in the classroom,…

  18. Dynamic Simulation of Crime Perpetration and Reporting to Examine Community Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonas, Michael A.; Burke, Jessica G.; Brown, Shawn T.; Borrebach, Jeffrey D.; Garland, Richard; Burke, Donald S.; Grefenstette, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop a conceptual computational agent-based model (ABM) to explore community-wide versus spatially focused crime reporting interventions to reduce community crime perpetrated by youth. Method: Agents within the model represent individual residents and interact on a two-dimensional grid representing an abstract nonempirically…

  19. Caregiver Coaching Strategies for Early Intervention Providers: Moving toward Operational Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Mollie; Woods, Juliann; Salisbury, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) providers increasingly coach and collaborate with caregivers to strengthen and support caregiver-child interactions. The EI providers learning to coach other adults benefit from knowing what, exactly, they should do to support caregivers. This article serves two purposes. First, it proposes an operationally defined,…

  20. Parent Assisted Learning Strategies: The Development of an Early Intervention Program for Parents and Their Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrock, John H.

    This report describes the development, implementation and evaluation of a pilot early intervention program for parents and their infants 1 to 36 months old. Parents were trained by paraprofessionals (under the direction of professionals) to increase their psychomotor areas. The pilot project included 90 families with children under three years of…

  1. Anger, Hostility, and Aggression: Assessment, Prevention, and Intervention Strategies for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, Michael J., Ed.; Smith, Douglas C., Ed.

    This book is designed to give those who work with youth the information they need on recent anger-related research. It presents practical information about critical assessment, prevention, and intervention by emphasizing the affective, attitudinal, and behavioral aspects of anger. Chapters include: (1) "Correlates of Anger, Hostility, and…

  2. Effects of Ratio Strategies Intervention on Knowledge of Ratio Equivalence for Students with Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jessica H.; Vasquez, Eleazar, III

    2014-01-01

    Students with mathematics learning disabilities have a weak understanding of mathematical concepts that underlie success in Algebra I, such as ratios and proportional reasoning. In this study, researchers used a multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effects of a intervention based on a instructional trajectory of how…

  3. Strategies to Address Weight-Based Victimization: Youths' Preferred Support Interventions from Classmates, Teachers, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhl, Rebecca M.; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Luedicke, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    Weight-Based Victimization is a frequent experience for adolescents who are overweight or obese, and is associated with numerous psychosocial and physical consequences for those who are targets of victimization. Assessing targets' preferences for different types of support and intervention has been absent in the context of weight-based…

  4. One More Chance: The Pursuit of Promising Intervention Strategies for Chronic Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Peter W.; Zimring, Franklin E.

    This document gives the findings and recommendations of a study designed to identify interventions which can reduce the criminality of chronic juvenile offenders. The findings presented should be of interest to researchers and practitioners who are attempting to devise methods of reducing the crimes of chronic offenders that are more effective and…

  5. Juvenile First Offenders: Characteristics of At-Risk Families and Strategies for Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, William H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation undertaken to develop a family-based intervention model designed to address problems of juvenile offenders and reduce effects of delinquency. Risk factors investigated included age at first court referral, seriousness of offenses, parental supervision, school functioning, peer group, alcohol and drug use, and criminality in…

  6. Coping with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Intervention Strategies and a Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aadalen, Sharon

    1980-01-01

    Family-centered intervention after the death of a baby due to sudden infant death syndrome facilitates reorganization, growth, and development of the family system. A potentially defeating crisis becomes an opportunity to develop coping skills and strengthen family members. Public health nursing is an essential component of the program.…

  7. The Physiology of Chronic Pain: The Foundation for Successful Intervention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Susan R.; Wakat, Diane K.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses psychological and behavioral interventions used to help clients deal with chronic pain from the standpoint of clients' relationship to the physiology of chronic pain. Claims when both mental health counselor and client have good understanding of physiology of chronic pain, the shared knowledge can be effectively applied to maximize…

  8. The Evaluation of Four Mind/Body Intervention Strategies to Reduce Perceived Stress among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterdyk, John; Ray, Heather; Lafave, Lynne; Flessati, Sonya; Huston, Michael; Danelesko, Elaine; Murray, Christina

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of four distinct mind/body interventions on reported perceived stress, anxiety, and health promoting behaviours in college students. Ninety students were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups (i.e., nutritional, exercise, relaxation, or cognitive behavioural therapy). There were approximately 18…

  9. Improving Physical Activity and Metabolic Syndrome Indicators in Women: A Transtheoretical Model-Based Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Ghofranipour, Fazllolah; Feizi, Awat; Pirzadeh, Asiyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed at investigating the impact of an educational intervention based on transtheoretical model to increase physical activity and improve metabolic syndrome indicators in women. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 142 women with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to the case and control group (each group 71 participants). SECQ (Marcus), processes of change (Marcus), decisional balance (Bandura) and self-efficacy (Nigg) questionnaires and International Physical Activities Standard Questionnaire in preintervention, 3 and 6 months after intervention were completed. Furthermore, abdominal obesity, triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were measured. Physical activity intervention based on transtheoretical model (TTM) was performed in the case group. Finally, data were analyzed by SPSS (16) (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and repeated measure ANOVA, independent t-test and Freidman was used. A two-tailed P value, lower than 0.05, was considered to be statistically significant. Results: After the intervention, physical activity level increased in the intervention group, and they also progressed in stages of change, but the people in the control group had regressed. All changes in TTM constructs were significant in the intervention group during the time and differences in pros and cons were not significant in the control group. Abdominal obesity and TG has significantly reduced, and HDL has increased in the intervention group. In the control group, there was a significant increase in TGs and a decrease in HDL. Conclusions: Physical activity training based on TTM can improve physical activity and metabolic syndrome indicators in women. PMID:25949778

  10. Factors Associated with Sustained Attention During an Activity Intervention in Persons with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kolanowski, Ann; Bossen, Ann; Hill, Nikki; Guzman-Velez, Edmarie; Litaker, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Are the non-cognitive factors of self-reported mood and personality related to sustained attention in nursing home residents with dementia during an activity intervention? Methods Intervention data from a randomized clinical trial were used to address the aim of this project. Subjects were 128 nursing home residents who were assessed for mood, personality, behavioral indicators of attention, time on task and number of disengagements during an activity intervention. Results More positive self-reported mood was associated with greater behavioral displays of attention during activities, greater time spent engaged in the activities and less disengagement. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first study to report on the association of mood, personality and sustained attention in nursing home residents with dementia. While the findings are preliminary, they can be used to inform the design of future research. PMID:22652933

  11. A home-based nutrition and physical activity intervention for grandparents raising grandchildren: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kicklighter, Jana R; Whitley, Deborah M; Kelley, Susan J; Lynch, Judith E; Melton, Tamara S

    2009-04-01

    Five African American grandparents raising their grandchildren participated in a home-based nutrition and physical activity intervention. The primary goals were to increase grandparents' knowledge and skills in selecting and preparing healthy foods and to increase the grandparents' and grandchildren's physical activity levels. Results revealed that grandparents' concerns regarding their chronic diseases and desire to prevent health problems in their grandchildren served as motivators. Following the intervention, grandparents scored higher on nutrition and physical activity knowledge and their self-efficacy improved, although most health status indicators remained unchanged. Self-reported changes included walking more, reading food labels, and switching to a healthier type of fat. PMID:21184365

  12. Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abery, Brian, Ed.; McConnell, Scott, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This "feature issue" focuses on early intervention with handicapped children, with an emphasis on: Project EDGE (Expanding Developmental Growth through Education), an early intervention research project initiated in 1968; strategies for developing family-friendly early intervention services; and progress reports from various states and programs.…

  13. The impact of spatial arrangements on epidemic disease dynamics and intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michael R; Tien, Joseph H; Eisenberg, Marisa C; Lenhart, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    The role of spatial arrangements on the spread and management strategies of a cholera epidemic is investigated. We consider the effect of human and pathogen movement on optimal vaccination strategies. A metapopulation model is used, incorporating a susceptible-infected-recovered system of differential equations coupled with an equation modelling the concentration of Vibrio cholerae in an aquatic reservoir. The model compared spatial arrangements and varying scenarios to draw conclusions on how to effectively manage outbreaks. The work is motivated by the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti. Results give guidance for vaccination strategies in response to an outbreak. PMID:26981710

  14. Impact of Physical Activity Interventions on Blood Pressure in Brazilian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Vivian Freitas Rezende; Albino, Flávia Barbizan; de Moura, Karen Fernandes; Maftum, Gustavo Jorge; dos Santos, Mauro de Castro; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César; Faria Neto, José Rocha; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino

    2015-01-01

    Background High blood pressure is associated with cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of mortality in the Brazilian population. Lifestyle changes, including physical activity, are important for lowering blood pressure levels and decreasing the costs associated with outcomes. Objective Assess the impact of physical activity interventions on blood pressure in Brazilian individuals. Methods Meta-analysis and systematic review of studies published until May 2014, retrieved from several health sciences databases. Seven studies with 493 participants were included. The analysis included parallel studies of physical activity interventions in adult populations in Brazil with a description of blood pressure (mmHg) before and after the intervention in the control and intervention groups. Results Of 390 retrieved studies, eight matched the proposed inclusion criteria for the systematic review and seven randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. Physical activity interventions included aerobic and resistance exercises. There was a reduction of -10.09 (95% CI: -18.76 to -1.43 mmHg) in the systolic and -7.47 (95% CI: -11.30 to -3.63 mmHg) in the diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions Available evidence on the effects of physical activity on blood pressure in the Brazilian population shows a homogeneous and significant effect at both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. However, the strength of the included studies was low and the methodological quality was also low and/or regular. Larger studies with more rigorous methodology are necessary to build robust evidence. PMID:26016783

  15. Active Learning in Large Classes: Can Small Interventions Produce Greater Results than Are Statistically Predictable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, Lynne M.

    2010-01-01

    Six online postings and six one-minute papers were added to an introductory first-year class, forming 5 percent of the final grade, but represented significant intervention in class functioning and amount of active learning. Active learning produced results in student performance beyond the percentage of the final grade it constituted. (Contains 1…

  16. Positive Behavior Interventions and Support in a Physical Activity Summer Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Vanessa; Buchanan, Alice M.

    2015-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to investigate the implementation of positive behavior interventions and support (PBIS) in a summer camp. The camp provided physical activity opportunities to underserved children attending a summer program at a local, rural public school. Certified physical education teachers led activity stations. Participants in…

  17. The Evaluation of a Web-Based Physical Activity Intervention in a Predominantly Hispanic College Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoc, Dejan

    2009-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) suggest at least 30 min of moderate physical activity at least 5 days a week or 20 min of vigorous physical activity at least 3 days a week. The overall aim of this experiment was to evaluate the efficacy of a web-based intervention--one that relied on…

  18. Effects of a Curricular Physical Activity Intervention on Children's School Performance, Wellness, and Brain Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Käll, Lina Bunketorp; Malmgren, Helge; Olsson, Erik; Lindén, Thomas; Nilsson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity and structural differences in the hippocampus have been linked to educational outcome. We investigated whether a curriculum-based physical activity intervention correlates positively with children's academic achievement, psychological well-being, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), fitness, and structural…

  19. What's in It for Me? An Intervention to Increase Physical Activity among Adolescents in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Melissa; Vealey, Robin; Galli, Nick; Evers, Juli; Klug, Justin; Reichert, Kendra

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents typically become less physically active as they progress through high school. This inactivity has led to some adolescents become unhealthy, overweight, and unmotivated to participate in physical activity. The purpose of this article is to present two interventions aimed at motivating physical education students to be more physically…

  20. Promoting physical activity in low back pain patients: six months follow-up of a randomised controlled trial comparing a multicomponent intervention with a low intensity intervention

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, Andrea; Dintsios, Charalabos-Markos; Icks, Andrea; Reibling, Nadine; Froboese, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess a comprehensive multicomponent intervention against a low intensity intervention for promoting physical activity in chronic low back pain patients. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation and aftercare. Subjects: A total of 412 patients with chronic low back pain. Interventions: A multicomponent intervention (Movement Coaching) comprising of small group intervention (twice during inpatient rehabilitation), tailored telephone aftercare (twice after rehabilitation) and internet-based aftercare (web 2.0 platform) versus a low level intensity intervention (two general presentations on physical activity, download of the presentations). Main measures: Physical activity was measured using a questionnaire. Primary outcome was total physical activity; secondary outcomes were setting specific physical activity (transport, workplace, leisure time) and pain. Comparative group differences were evaluated six months after inpatient rehabilitation. Results: At six months follow-up, 92 participants in Movement Coaching (46 %) and 100 participants in the control group (47 %) completed the postal follow-up questionnaire. No significant differences between the two groups could be shown in total physical activity (P = 0.30). In addition to this, workplace (P = 0.53), transport (P = 0.68) and leisure time physical activity (P = 0.21) and pain (P = 0.43) did not differ significantly between the two groups. In both groups, physical activity decreased during the six months follow-up. Conclusions: The multicomponent intervention was no more effective than the low intensity intervention in promoting physical activity at six months follow-up. The decrease in physical activity in both groups is an unexpected outcome of the study and indicates the need for further research. PMID:27496696

  1. Synthesising evidence for equity impacts of population-based physical activity interventions: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study applied an equity lens to existing research to investigate what is known about the impact of population-level physical activity interventions on social inequalities. Methods We performed a pilot systematic review to assess the availability of information on the social distribution of intervention effects, the targeting or allocation of interventions, and the baseline characteristics of participants. This comprised (i) a rapid review of systematic reviews and (ii) a review and synthesis of a sample of primary studies included in the eligible systematic reviews. Results We found 19 systematic reviews of environmental and policy interventions. Relatively few of these (26%, n=5) were prospectively designed to examine effects on inequalities, and none were able to fully synthesise evidence of distributional effects. Over 40% of primary studies reported subgroup intervention effects; 18% reported socio-demographic interaction effects. Studies most often compared effectiveness by gender, followed by age, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. For gender, effects appeared to be evenly distributed overall, although heterogeneity in gradients between studies suggested that some interventions affect males and females differently. Conclusions Our findings suggest that it is feasible to generate better evidence about how public health interventions may affect health inequalities using existing data and innovative methods of research synthesis. PMID:23768212

  2. Active Interventions in Clinical Practice: Contributions of Gestalt Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammert, Marilyn; Dolan, Mary M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes two dimensions of Gestalt therapy that can enhance clinical practice--orientation to the present and active-experimental style--and examines them in relation to some traditional principles of practice. Gestalt theory offers a method of discovery that is a combination of phenomenology and behaviorism. (JAC)

  3. Website Physical Activity Interventions: Preferences of Potential Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferney, Shannon L.; Marshall, Alison L.

    2006-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (particularly websites and e-mail) have the potential to deliver health behavior change programs to large numbers of adults at low cost. Controlled trials using these new media to promote physical activity have produced mixed results. User-centered development methods can assist in understanding the…

  4. Externalizing Disorders and Environmental Risk: Mechanisms of Gene-Environment Interplay and Strategies for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Samek, Diana R.; Hicks, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Though heritable, externalizing disorders have a number of robust associations with several environmental risk factors, including family, school, and peer contexts. To account for these associations, we integrate a behavioral genetic perspective with principles of a developmental cascade theory of antisocial behavior. The major environmental contexts associated with child externalizing problems are reviewed, as are the processes of gene-environment interplay underlying these associations. Throughout, we discuss implications for prevention and intervention. Three major approaches designed to reduce child externalizing behavior are reviewed. Prevention and intervention programs appear to be most successful when they target individuals or communities most at risk for developing externalizing disorders, rather than applied universally. We end by commenting on areas in need of additional research concerning environmental influences on persistent externalizing behaviors. PMID:25485087

  5. Systematic review of various laser intervention strategies for proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dawei; Zheng, Zhi; Xu, Xun; Fan, Ying; Zhu, Bijun; Liu, Kun; Wang, Fenghua; Sun, Xiaodong; Zou, Haidong; Xia, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common complication of diabetes. DR obstructs blood supply to the retina and has serious and long-lasting detrimental effects on quality of life. Panretinal photocoagulation, a laser surgical intervention, is advocated for early treatment of DR to prevent visual loss; however, results from studies reporting its efficacy vary markedly. In this review, we systematically conducted a database search of randomized controlled trials that investigated the safety and efficacy of different types of laser interventions, alone or in combination with adjunct intravitreal steroid utilization, in patients with DR. Data from 14 studies demonstrated that panretinal photocoagulation can be a safe and effective option for reducing visual loss and blindness in patients with DR. PMID:25154790

  6. Strategies for mHealth research: lessons from 3 mobile intervention studies

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Zeev, Dror; Schueller, Stephen M.; Begale, Mark; Duffecy, Jennifer; Kane, John M.; Mohr, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The capacity of Mobile Health (mHealth) technologies to propel healthcare forward is directly linked to the quality of mobile interventions developed through careful mHealth research. mHealth research entails several unique characteristics, including collaboration with technologists at all phases of a project, reliance on regional telecommunication infrastructure and commercial mobile service providers, and deployment and evaluation of interventions “in the wild”, with participants using mobile tools in uncontrolled environments. In the current paper, we summarize the lessons our multi-institutional/multi-disciplinary team has learned conducting a range of mHealth projects using mobile phones with diverse clinical populations. First, we describe three ongoing projects that we draw from to illustrate throughout the paper. We then provide an example for multidisciplinary teamwork and conceptual mHealth intervention development that we found to be particularly useful. Finally, we discuss mHealth research challenges (i.e. evolving technology, mobile phone selection, user characteristics, the deployment environment, and mHealth system “bugs and glitches”), and provide recommendations for identifying and resolving barriers, or preventing their occurrence altogether. PMID:24824311

  7. Child development surveillance: intervention study with nurses of the Family Health Strategy1

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Altamira Pereira da Silva; Collet, Neusa; Eickmann, Sophie Helena; Lima, Marília de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care. Methods: interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated. Results: after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development. Conclusions: the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care. PMID:26487147

  8. Pathways curriculum and family interventions to promote healthful eating and physical activity in American Indian schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sally M.; Clay, Theresa; Smyth, Mary; Gittelsohn, Joel; Arviso, Vivian; Flint-Wagner, Hilary; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Brice, Richard A.; Metcalfe, Lauve; Stewart, Dawn; Vu, Maihan; Stone, Elaine J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pathways, a multisite school-based study aimed at promoting healthful eating and increasing physical activity, was a randomized field trial including 1704 American Indian third to fifth grade students from 41 schools (21 intervention, 20 controls) in seven American Indian communities. Methods The intervention schools received four integrated components: a classroom curriculum, food service, physical activity, and family modules. The curriculum and family components were based on Social Learning Theory, American Indian concepts, and results from formative research. Process evaluation data were collected from teachers (n = 235), students (n = 585), and families. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Questionnaire data were collected from 1150 students including both intervention and controls. Results There were significant increases in knowledge and cultural identity in children in intervention compared to control schools with a significant retention of knowledge over the 3 years, based on the results of repeating the third and fourth grade test items in the fifth grade. Family members participated in Family Events and take-home activities, with fewer participating each year. Conclusion A culturally appropriate school intervention can promote positive changes in knowledge, cultural identity, and self-reported healthful eating and physical activity in American Indian children and environmental change in school food service. PMID:14636806

  9. Problems, Needs, and Useful Strategies in Older Adults Self-Managing Epilepsy: Implications for Patient Education and Future Intervention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Wendy R.; Bakas, Tamilyn; Buelow, Janice M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine, in a sample of older adults diagnosed with epilepsy, perceived self-management problems and needs encountered since diagnosis, as well as strategies used to address problems and needs. Methods Qualitative description was used. 20 older adults engaged in face-to-face interviews. Interviews were analyzed via content analysis. Results Participants reported problems, needs, and strategies in six categories: Information, Physical and Emotional Symptoms, Memory and Concentration, Medications, Commitments, and Relationships. Conclusion Participants noted some problems and needs previously documented in the literature, though current results have built upon extant literature to reveal etiologies of and contexts surrounding problems and needs; new findings were also revealed. This knowledge can be used by health care providers in counseling and educating older adults with epilepsy, and can inform formal self-management interventions. Practice Implications Determining needs from the patient’s perspective is consistent with today’s focus on patient-centered care. Current findings have led to an organizing framework for problems and needs of older adults with epilepsy. More research is needed to develop the framework so that it can serve as a template for an intervention. In the interim, findings can inform educational practices of those caring for this population. PMID:24317297

  10. Brain single photon emission computed tomography: Newer activation and intervention studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tikofsky, R.S.; Hellman, R.S. )

    1991-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings using non-xenon 133 tracers in combination with activation and intervention techniques are reviewed. Examination of the currently available data indicates that it is possible to detect the effects of a variety of activations and interventional procedures using SPECT rCBF with non-xenon 133 tracers. There are still many issues to be resolved before SPECT can reach the level of sophistication attained by xenon 133 and positron emission tomography in studying rCBF during activation or intervention. However, research to date indicates that SPECT rCBF studied with tracers other than xenon 133 has an excellent potential for increasing the ability to differentiate normal and pathological states. 97 refs.

  11. Novel strategies for ultrahigh specific activity targeted nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Dong

    2012-12-13

    We have developed novel strategies optimized for preparing high specific activity radiolabeled nanoparticles, targeting nuclear imaging of low abundance biomarkers. Several compounds have been labeled with F-18 and Cu-64 for radiolabeling of SCK-nanoparticles via Copper(I) catalyzed or copper-free alkyne-azide cyclolization. Novel strategies have been developed to achieve ultrahigh specific activity with administrable amount of dose for human study using copper-free chemistry. Ligands for carbonic anhydrase 12 (CA12), a low abundance extracellular biomarker for the responsiveness of breast cancer to endocrine therapie, have been labeled with F-18 and Cu-64, and one of them has been evaluated in animal models. The results of this project will lead to major improvements in the use of nanoparticles in nuclear imaging and will significantly advance their potential for detecting low abundance biomarkers of medical importance.

  12. An investigation of the effects of interventions on problem-solving strategies and abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Charles Terrence, Jr.

    Problem-solving has been described as being the "heart" of the chemistry classroom, and students' development of problem-solving skills is essential for their success in chemistry. Despite the importance of problem-solving, there has been little research within the chemistry domain, largely because of the lack of tools to collect data for large populations. Problem-solving was assessed using a software package known as IMMEX (for Interactive Multimedia Exercises) which has an HTML tracking feature that allows for collection of problem-solving data in the background as students work the problems. The primary goal of this research was to develop methods (known as interventions) that could promote improvements in students' problem-solving and most notably aid in their transition from the novice to competent level. Three intervention techniques that were incorporated within the chemistry curricula: collaborative grouping (face-to-face and distance), concept mapping, and peer-led team learning. The face-to-face collaborative grouping intervention was designed to probe the factors affecting the quality of the group interaction. Students' logical reasoning abilities were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test which classifies students as formal, transitional, or concrete. These classifications essentially provide a basis for identifying scientific aptitude. These designations were used as the basis for forming collaborative groups of two students. The six possibilities (formal-formal, formal-transitional, etc.) were formed to determine how the group composition influences the gains in student abilities observed from collaborative grouping interventions. Students were given three assignments (an individual pre-collaborative, an individual post collaborative, and a collaborative assignment) each requiring them to work an IMMEX problem set. Similar gains in performance of 10% gains were observed for each group with two exceptions. The

  13. The 3-year evolution of a preschool physical activity intervention through a collaborative partnership between research interventionists and preschool teachers

    PubMed Central

    Howie, E. K.; Brewer, A.; Brown, W. H.; Pfeiffer, K. A.; Saunders, R. P.; Pate, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite evidence that preschoolers spend the majority of their time in sedentary activities, few physical activity interventions have focused on preschool-age children. Health promotion interventions that can be integrated into the daily routines of a school or other setting are more likely to be implemented. The Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments employed a flexible approach to increasing physical activity opportunities in preschools’ daily schedules through recess, indoor physical activity and physical activity integrated into academic lessons. Eight preschools were randomly assigned to receive the study’s physical activity intervention. Teachers in these schools partnered with university-based interventionists across 3 years to design and implement a flexible and adaptive intervention. The intervention approach included trainings and workshops, site visits and feedback from intervention personnel, newsletters, and physical activity equipment and materials. Teachers reported a high acceptability of the intervention. The purpose of this article is to describe the evolution of a multi-component physical activity intervention in preschools, including (i) a description of the intervention components, (ii) an explanation of the intervention process and approach, and (iii) a report of teachers’ perceptions of barriers to implementation. PMID:24659421

  14. The 3-year evolution of a preschool physical activity intervention through a collaborative partnership between research interventionists and preschool teachers.

    PubMed

    Howie, E K; Brewer, A; Brown, W H; Pfeiffer, K A; Saunders, R P; Pate, R R

    2014-06-01

    Despite evidence that preschoolers spend the majority of their time in sedentary activities, few physical activity interventions have focused on preschool-age children. Health promotion interventions that can be integrated into the daily routines of a school or other setting are more likely to be implemented. The Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments employed a flexible approach to increasing physical activity opportunities in preschools' daily schedules through recess, indoor physical activity and physical activity integrated into academic lessons. Eight preschools were randomly assigned to receive the study's physical activity intervention. Teachers in these schools partnered with university-based interventionists across 3 years to design and implement a flexible and adaptive intervention. The intervention approach included trainings and workshops, site visits and feedback from intervention personnel, newsletters, and physical activity equipment and materials. Teachers reported a high acceptability of the intervention. The purpose of this article is to describe the evolution of a multi-component physical activity intervention in preschools, including (i) a description of the intervention components, (ii) an explanation of the intervention process and approach, and (iii) a report of teachers' perceptions of barriers to implementation. PMID:24659421

  15. Using intervention mapping for the development of a targeted secure web-based outreach strategy named SafeFriend, for Chlamydia trachomatis testing in young people at risk

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many young people at high risk for Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) are not reached by current sexual health care systems, such as general practitioners and public sexual health care centres (sexually transmitted infection clinics).Ct is the most frequently diagnosed bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) among sexually active people and in particular young heterosexuals. Innovative screening strategies are needed to interrupt the transmission of Ct among young people and connect the hidden cases to care. Methods Intervention Mapping (IM), a systematic approach to develop theory- and evidence-based interventions, was used to develop a strategy to target Ct testing towards young people who are currently hidden to care in The Netherlands. Both clinical users (i.e. sexual health care nurses) and public users (i.e., young people at risk for Ct) were closely involved in the IM process. A needs assessment study was carried out using semi-structured interviews among users (N = 21), a literature search and by taking lessons learned from existing screening programmes. Theoretical methods and practical applications to reach high risk young people and influence testing were selected and translated into specific programme components. Results The IM approach resulted in the development of a secure and web-based outreach Ct screening strategy, named SafeFriend. It is developed to target groups of high-risk young people who are currently hidden to care. Key methods include web-based Respondent Driven Sampling, starting from young Ct positive sexual health care centre clients, to reach and motivate peers (i.e., sex partners and friends) to get tested for Ct. Testing and the motivation of peers were proposed as the desired behavioural outcomes and the Precaution Adoption Process Model was chosen as theoretical framework. End users, i.e., young people and sexual health care nurses were interviewed and included in the development process to increase the success of

  16. Making healthy eating and physical activity policy practice: process evaluation of a group randomized controlled intervention in afterschool programs.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Hutto, Brent; Saunders, Ruth P; Moore, Justin B; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer L; Ward, Dianne S; Pate, Russell R; Beighle, Aaron; Freedman, Darcy

    2015-12-01

    This study describes the link between level of implementation and outcomes from an intervention to increase afterschool programs' (ASPs) achievement of healthy eating and physical activity (HE-PA) Standards. Ten intervention ASPs implemented the Strategies-To-Enhance-Practice (STEPs), a multi-component, adaptive intervention framework identifying factors essential to meeting HE-PA Standards, while 10 control ASPs continued routine practice. All programs, intervention and control, were assigned a STEPs for HE-PA index score based on implementation. Mixed-effects linear regressions showed high implementation ASPs had the greatest percentage of boys and girls achieving 30 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (47.3 and 29.3%), followed by low implementation ASPs (41.3 and 25.0%), and control ASPs (34.8 and 18.5%). For healthy eating, high/low implementation programs served fruits and vegetables an equivalent number of days, but more days than control programs (74.0 and 79.1% of days versus 14.2%). A similar pattern emerged for the percent of days sugar-sweetened foods and beverages were served, with high and low implementation programs serving sugar-sweetened foods (8.0 and 8.4% of days versus 52.2%), and beverages (8.7 and 2.9% of days versus 34.7%) equivalently, but less often than control programs. Differences in characteristics and implementation of STEPs for HE-PA between high/low implementers were also identified. PMID:26590240

  17. Development of an mHealth Intervention (iSTEP) to Promote Physical Activity among People Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Jessica L; Wing, David; Knight, Adam; Moore, David J; Henry, Brook L

    2015-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial is being conducted in the United States to test the efficacy of a personalized interactive mobile health intervention (iSTEP) designed to increase physical activity (PA) and improve neurocognitive functioning among HIV-positive persons. This article describes an initial qualitative study performed to develop iSTEP for the HIV-positive population, including assessment of PA barriers and facilitators. Two focus groups, with 9 and 12 unique HIV-positive individuals, respectively, were administered to evaluate barriers limiting PA and potential iSTEP content created to encourage greater PA. Group discussions revealed prominent PA barriers, including HIV symptoms (neuropathy, lipoatrophy), antiretroviral medication effects, and fatigue; significant PA facilitators included self-monitoring and family support. Participants provided feedback on strategies to increase PA and expressed positive support for a mobile intervention adapted to personal priorities. These findings will assist the development of novel PA interventions focused on treating the epidemic of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. PMID:26307212

  18. Strategies to Address Common Challenges When Teaching in an Active Learning Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Christina I.; Gorman, Kristen S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides practical strategies for addressing common challenges that arise for teachers in active learning classrooms. Our strategies come from instructors with experience teaching in these environments.

  19. The Impact of Arts Activity on Nursing Staff Well-Being: An Intervention in the Workplace.

    PubMed

    Karpavičiūtė, Simona; Macijauskienė, Jūratė

    2016-04-01

    Over 59 million workers are employed in the healthcare sector globally, with a daily risk of being exposed to a complex variety of health and safety hazards. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of arts activity on the well-being of nursing staff. During October-December 2014, 115 nursing staff working in a hospital, took part in this study, which lasted for 10 weeks. The intervention group (n = 56) took part in silk painting activities once a week. Data was collected using socio-demographic questions, the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale, Short Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire, Reeder stress scale, and Multidimensional fatigue inventory (before and after art activities in both groups). Statistical data analysis included descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation), non-parametric statistics analysis (Man Whitney U Test; Wilcoxon signed-ranks test), Fisher's exact test and reliability analysis (Cronbach's Alpha). The level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. In the intervention group, there was a tendency for participation in arts activity having a positive impact on their general health and mental well-being, reducing stress and fatigue, awaking creativity and increasing a sense of community at work. The control group did not show any improvements. Of the intervention group 93% reported enjoyment, with 75% aspiring to continue arts activity in the future. This research suggests that arts activity, as a workplace intervention, can be used to promote nursing staff well-being at work. PMID:27104550

  20. Promoting physical activity: development and testing of self-determination theory-based interventions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of studies have pulled from Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory to design interventions targeting health behavior change. More recently, researchers have begun using SDT to promote the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle. In this review, we aim to highlight how researchers and practitioners can draw from the SDT framework to develop, implement, and evaluate intervention efforts centered on increasing physical activity levels in different contexts and different populations. In the present paper, the rationale for using SDT to foster physical activity engagement is briefly reviewed before particular attention is given to three recent randomized controlled trials, the Canadian Physical Activity Counseling (PAC) Trial, the Empower trial from the UK, and the Portuguese PESO (Promotion of Health and Exercise in Obesity) trial, each of which focused on promoting physical activity behavior. The SDT-based intervention components, procedures, and participants are highlighted, and the key findings that have emanated from these three trials are presented. Lastly, we outline some of the limitations of the work conducted to date in this area and we acknowledge the challenges that arise when attempting to design, deliver, and test SDT-grounded interventions in the context of physical activity promotion. PMID:22385751