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Sample records for activity interventions targeting

  1. Parent-Targeted Mobile Phone Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Sedentary Children: Randomized Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Marker, Arwen M; Allen, H Raymond; Machtmes, Ryan; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Schuna Jr, John M; Broyles, Stephanie T; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Church, Timothy S

    2014-01-01

    Background Low levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are associated with adverse health consequences. Objective The intent of the study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a 12-week physical activity promotion program targeting children, which was delivered to parents through mobile phones. Methods Potential participants were recruited through advertisements placed in the newspaper, local hospitals and schools, and an email listserv. Sedentary children aged 6-10 years were randomly assigned to a minimal (MIG) or intensive (IIG) intervention group. Parents in the MIG were given a goal to increase (within 1 month) and maintain their child’s activity at 6000 pedometer steps/day above their baseline levels and to monitor their child’s steps daily. Parents in the IIG were given the same steps/day and monitoring goals, in addition to text messages and articles containing additional behavioral strategies (based on the Social Cognitive Theory) designed to promote their child’s physical activity. The intervention components were delivered via mobile phone. Anthropometrics, body composition, and questionnaires were administered in a clinic. Children wore a New Lifestyles pedometer (NL-1000) each day throughout the intervention and parents were to monitor their child’s step counts daily. Results Out of 59 children who screened for the study, a total of 27 children (mean age 8.7, SD 1.4 years; 56%, 15/27 female; 59%, 16/27 African American) were enrolled and completed the study. Overall, 97.90% (2220/2268; 98.20%, 1072/1092 for MIG; 97.60%, 1148/1176 for IIG) of expected step data were successfully entered by the parent or study coordinator. Parents in the MIG and IIG were sent approximately 7 and 13 text messages per week, respectively, averaged over the course of the study. IIG parents accessed an average of 6.1 (SD 4.4) articles over the course of the intervention and accessed a fewer number of articles in the last month compared to the first

  2. Targeted recruitment of adults with type 2 diabetes for a physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Elizabeth J; Niles, Barbara L; Mori, DeAnna L

    2015-05-01

    Recruiting sufficient numbers of participants for physical activity trials for individuals with diabetes can be difficult because there are often many behavioral demands for participants, and inclusion and exclusion criteria can be extensive. This study examined the recruitment strategies used for a randomized, controlled trial designed to investigate the efficacy of an automated telephone intervention to promote physical activity in adults with type 2 diabetes in an urban Veterans Administration health care system. Traditional recruitment approaches of posting flyers and obtaining referrals from clinicians did not yield sufficient numbers of interested patients. Using the electronic medical record system to identify patients with uncontrolled diabetes allowed staff to send targeted mailings to participants, and 77% of participants were recruited using this method. The targeted mailing approach elicited a positive response rate of 12% (328 of 2,764 potential participants identified) and appeared to produce a more representative and appropriate sample than other recruitment methods used. Lessons learned in this study may be helpful to researchers in future trials who attempt to recruit participants with diabetes for physical activity protocols. PMID:25987808

  3. A systematic review of school-based interventions targeting physical activity and sedentary behaviour among older adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hynynen, S-T.; van Stralen, M. M.; Sniehotta, F. F.; Araújo-Soares, V.; Hardeman, W.; Chinapaw, M. J. M.; Vasankari, T.; Hankonen, N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lack of physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behaviour (SB) have been associated with health problems. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of school-based interventions to increase PA and decrease SB among 15–19-year-old adolescents, and examines whether intervention characteristics (intervention length, delivery mode and intervention provider) and intervention content (i.e. behaviour change techniques, BCTs) are related to intervention effectiveness. A systematic search of randomised or cluster randomised controlled trials with outcome measures of PA and/or SB rendered 10 results. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Intervention content was coded using Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy v1. Seven out of 10 studies reported significant increases in PA. Effects were generally small and short-term (Cohen's d ranged from 0.132 to 0.659). Two out of four studies that measured SB reported significant reductions in SB. Interventions that increased PA included a higher number of BCTs, specific BCTs (e.g., goal setting, action planning and self-monitoring), and were delivered by research staff. Intervention length and mode of delivery were unrelated to effectiveness. More studies are needed that evaluate long-term intervention effectiveness and target SBs among older adolescents. PMID:26807143

  4. Activated hedgehog pathway is a potential target for pharmacological intervention in biliary tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Kiesslich, Tobias; Mayr, Christian; Wachter, Julia; Bach, Doris; Fuereder, Julia; Wagner, Andrej; Alinger, Beate; Pichler, Martin; Di Fazio, Pietro; Ocker, Matthias; Berr, Frieder; Neureiter, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signalling contributes to carcinogenesis and represents a valid druggable target in human cancers, possibly also in biliary tract cancer (BTC). We analysed the expression of Hh components in BTC using eight heterogeneously differentiated cell lines, xenograft tumours and a human tissue microarray. The dose-, time- and cell line-dependent effects of two Hh inhibitors (cyclopamine and Gant-61) were analysed in vitro for survival, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and possible synergism with conventional chemotherapeutic agents. In human BTC samples, the sonic Hh ligand and the Gli1 transcription factor showed increased expression in tumours compared to normal adjacent tissue and were significantly associated with high tumour grade and positive lymph node status. In BTC cell lines, we could confirm the Hh component expression at varying extent within the employed cell lines in vitro and in vivo indicating non-canonical signalling. Both Hh inhibitors showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity above 5 µM with a stronger effect for Gant-61 inducing apoptosis whereas cyclopamine rather inhibited proliferation. Cytotoxicity was associated with low cytokeratin expression and higher mesenchymal marker expression such as vimentin. Additionally, drug combinations of Gant-61 with conventional chemotherapy (cisplatin) exerted synergistic effects. In conclusion, Hh pathway is significantly activated in human BTC tissue compared to normal adjacent tissue. The current data demonstrate for the first time an effective anticancer activity of especially Gant-61 in BTC and suggest second generation Hh pathway inhibitors as a potential novel treatment strategy in BTC. PMID:25064451

  5. Identification of TGF-β-activated kinase 1 as a possible novel target for renal cell carcinoma intervention

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Fandong; Li, Yan; Tian, Xin; Fu, Liye; Yin, Yuanqin; Sui, Chengguang; Ma, Ping; Jiang, Youhong

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Inhibition of TAK1 kinase activity suppresses NF-κB activation and RCC cell survival. • TAK1 inhibitors induces apoptotic cytotoxicity against RCC cells. • RCC cells with TAK1 depletion show reduced cell viability and increased apoptosis. • TAK1 and p-NF-κB are both over-expressed in human RCC tissues. • Inhibition or depletion of TAK1 enhances the activity of vinblastine sulfate. - Abstract: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is common renal malignancy within poor prognosis. TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) plays vital roles in cell survival, apoptosis-resistance and carcinogenesis through regulating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and other cancer-related pathways. Here we found that TAK1 inhibitors (LYTAK1, 5Z-7-oxozeanol (5Z) and NG-25) suppressed NF-κB activation and RCC cell (786-O and A489 lines) survival. TAK1 inhibitors induced apoptotic cytotoxicity against RCC cells, which was largely inhibited by the broad or specific caspase inhibitors. Further, shRNA-mediated partial depletion of TAK1 reduced 786-O cell viability whiling activating apoptosis. Significantly, TAK1 was over-expressed in human RCC tissues, and its level was correlated with phosphorylated NF-κB. Finally, kinase inhibition or genetic depletion of TAK1 enhanced the activity of vinblastine sulfate (VLB) in RCC cells. Together, these results suggest that TAK1 may be an important oncogene or an effective target for RCC intervention.

  6. A Group Contingency Plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students’ Class-Work and Active Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study. Students used self-management strategies during independent reading time to increase the amount of writing in their reading logs. They used self-monitoring strategies to record whether or not they performed expected behaviors in class. A token economy using points and tickets was included in the GC to provide positive reinforcement for target responses. The results were analyzed through visual inspection of graphs and effect size computations and showed that the intervention increased the total amount of written words in the students’ reading logs and overall classroom and individual student academic engagement. PMID:26617432

  7. Community participatory physical activity intervention targets children at high risk for obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This community participatory research evaluated the feasibility of a summer soccer and nutrition education program to increase physical activity (PA) in rural Mississippi Delta children at high risk of obesity and previously not exposed to soccer. Children aged 4-12 were recruited through school and...

  8. PTSD-Like Memory Generated Through Enhanced Noradrenergic Activity is Mitigated by a Dual Step Pharmacological Intervention Targeting its Reconsolidation

    PubMed Central

    Gazarini, Lucas; Stern, Cristina A. J.; Piornedo, Rene R.; Takahashi, Reinaldo N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traumatic memories have been resilient to therapeutic approaches targeting their permanent attenuation. One of the potentially promising pharmacological strategies under investigation is the search for safe reconsolidation blockers. However, preclinical studies focusing on this matter have scarcely addressed abnormal aversive memories and related outcomes. Methods: By mimicking the enhanced noradrenergic activity reported after traumatic events in humans, here we sought to generate a suitable condition to establish whether some clinically approved drugs able to disrupt the reconsolidation of conditioned fear memories in rodents would still be effective. Results: We report that the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine was able to induce an inability to restrict behavioral (fear) and cardiovascular (increased systolic blood pressure) responses to the paired context when administered immediately after acquisition, but not 6h later, indicating the formation of a generalized fear memory, which endured for over 29 days and was less susceptible to suppression by extinction. It was also resistant to reconsolidation disruption by the α2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine or cannabidiol, the major non-psychotomimetic component of Cannabis sativa. Since signaling at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is important for memory labilization and because a dysfunctional memory may be less labile than is necessary to trigger reconsolidation on its brief retrieval and reactivation, we then investigated and demonstrated that pre-retrieval administration of the partial NMDA agonist D-cycloserine allowed the disrupting effects of clonidine and cannabidiol on reconsolidation. Conclusions: These findings highlight the effectiveness of a dual-step pharmacological intervention to mitigate an aberrant and enduring aversive memory similar to that underlying the post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:25539509

  9. Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Valisa E.; Davy, Brenda M.; Myers, Emily A.; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories), yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER) or a physical activity group (MoveMore). Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149) (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7), p ≤ 0.001) and MoveMore (n = 143) (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2), p ≤ 0.001) participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05), over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01). Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction. PMID:26690208

  10. Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M; Myers, Emily A; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M

    2015-12-01

    The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories), yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER) or a physical activity group (MoveMore). Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149) (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7), p ≤ 0.001) and MoveMore (n = 143) (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2), p ≤ 0.001) participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05), over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01). Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction. PMID:26690208

  11. An Impact Evaluation of Two Versions of a Brief Intervention Targeting Alcohol Use and Physical Activity among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Anna E.; Werch, Chudley (CHAD); Michniewicz, Mara; Bian, Hui

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the immediate impact of two new versions of the Project SPORT program, a brief one-on-one tailored consult addressing alcohol use and physical activity for adolescents. One new version was a brief interactive CD-ROM (Study one) and a second was a brief small group consultation (Study two). In study one,…

  12. A Group Contingency plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students' Class-Work and Active Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study.…

  13. Spatial targeting of interventions against malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, R.; Mendis, K. N.; Roberts, D.

    2000-01-01

    Malaria transmission is strongly associated with location. This association has two main features. First, the disease is focused around specific mosquito breeding sites and can normally be transmitted only within certain distances from them: in Africa these are typically between a few hundred metres and a kilometre and rarely exceed 2-3 kilometres. Second, there is a marked clustering of persons with malaria parasites and clinical symptoms at particular sites, usually households. In localities of low endemicity the level of malaria risk or case incidence may vary widely between households because the specific characteristics of houses and their locations affect contact between humans and vectors. Where endemicity is high, differences in human/vector contact rates between different households may have less effect on malaria case incidences. This is because superinfection and exposure-acquired immunity blur the proportional relationship between inoculation rates and case incidences. Accurate information on the distribution of malaria on the ground permits interventions to be targeted towards the foci of transmission and the locations and households of high malaria risk within them. Such targeting greatly increases the effectiveness of control measures. On the other hand, the inadvertent exclusion of these locations causes potentially effective control measures to fail. The computerized mapping and management of location data in geographical information systems should greatly assist the targeting of interventions against malaria at the focal and household levels, leading to improved effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of control. PMID:11196487

  14. Interventions targeting social isolation in older people: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    the three domains compared with 59% of interventions with no evident theoretical foundation. Regarding intervention type, 86% of those providing activities and 80% of those providing support resulted in improved participant outcomes, compared with 60% of home visiting and 25% of internet training interventions. Fifty eight percent of interventions that explicitly targeted socially isolated or lonely older people reported positive outcomes, compared with 80% of studies with no explicit targeting. Conclusions More, well-conducted studies of the effectiveness of social interventions for alleviating social isolation are needed to improve the evidence base. However, it appeared that common characteristics of effective interventions were those developed within the context of a theoretical basis, and those offering social activity and/or support within a group format. Interventions in which older people are active participants also appeared more likely to be effective. Future interventions incorporating all of these characteristics may therefore be more successful in targeting social isolation in older people. PMID:21843337

  15. Molecular Targeted Intervention for Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Altaf; Janakiram, Naveena B.; Pant, Shubham; Rao, Chinthalapally V.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains one of the worst cancers, with almost uniform lethality. PC risk is associated with westernized diet, tobacco, alcohol, obesity, chronic pancreatitis, and family history of pancreatic cancer. New targeted agents and the use of various therapeutic combinations have yet to provide adequate treatments for patients with advanced cancer. To design better preventive and/or treatment strategies against PC, knowledge of PC pathogenesis at the molecular level is vital. With the advent of genetically modified animals, significant advances have been made in understanding the molecular biology and pathogenesis of PC. Currently, several clinical trials and preclinical evaluations are underway to investigate novel agents that target signaling defects in PC. An important consideration in evaluating novel drugs is determining whether an agent can reach the target in concentrations effective to treat the disease. Recently, we have reported evidence for chemoprevention of PC. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of current updates on molecularly targeted interventions, as well as dietary, phytochemical, immunoregulatory, and microenvironment-based approaches for the development of novel therapeutic and preventive regimens. Special attention is given to prevention and treatment in preclinical genetically engineered mouse studies and human clinical studies. PMID:26266422

  16. Interventions for promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Charles; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Thorogood, Margaret; Kaur, Asha; Wedatilake, Thamindu

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies to enable people to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote physical activity in adults aged 16 years and older, not living in an institution. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 1 2005), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, BIDS ISI, SPORTDISCUS, SIGLE, SCISEARCH (from earliest dates available to December 2004). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared different interventions to encourage sedentary adults not living in an institution to become physically active. Studies required a minimum of six months follow up from the start of the intervention to the collection of final data and either used an intention-to-treat analysis or, failing that, had no more than 20% loss to follow up. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently assessed each study quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous measures of self-reported physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main results The effect of interventions on self-reported physical activity (19 studies; 7598 participants) was positive and moderate (pooled SMD random effects model 0.28 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41) as was the effect of interventions (11 studies; 2195 participants) on cardio-respiratory fitness (pooled SMD random effects model 0.52 95% CI 0.14 to 0.90). There was significant heterogeneity in the reported effects as well as heterogeneity in characteristics of the interventions. The heterogeneity in reported effects was reduced in higher quality studies, when physical

  17. Target activated frame capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G. Marlon; Fitzgerald, James; McCormack, Michael; Steadman, Robert

    2008-04-01

    Over the past decade, technological advances have enabled the use of increasingly intelligent systems for battlefield surveillance. These systems are triggered by a combination of external devices including acoustic and seismic sensors. Such products are mainly used to detect vehicles and personnel. These systems often use infra-red imagery to record environmental information, but Textron Defense Systems' Terrain Commander is one of a small number of systems which analyze these images for the presence of targets. The Terrain Commander combines acoustic, infrared, magnetic, seismic, and visible spectrum sensors to detect nearby targets in military scenarios. When targets are detected by these sensors, the cameras are triggered and images are captured in the infrared and visible spectrum. In this paper we discuss a method through which such systems can perform target tracking in order to record and transmit only the most pertinent surveillance images. This saves bandwidth which is crucial because these systems often use communication systems with throughputs below 2400bps. This method is expected to be executable on low-power processors at frame rates exceeding 10HZ. We accomplish this by applying target activated frame capture algorithms to infra-red video data. The target activated frame capture algorithms combine edge detection and motion detection to determine the best frames to be transmitted to the end user. This keeps power consumption and bandwidth requirements low. Finally, the results of the algorithm are analyzed.

  18. Mitochondrial Targets for Pharmacological Intervention in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to an increasing number of human illnesses, making mitochondrial proteins (MPs) an ever more appealing target for therapeutic intervention. With 20% of the mitochondrial proteome (312 of an estimated 1500 MPs) having known interactions with small molecules, MPs appear to be highly targetable. Yet, despite these targeted proteins functioning in a range of biological processes (including induction of apoptosis, calcium homeostasis, and metabolism), very few of the compounds targeting MPs find clinical use. Recent work has greatly expanded the number of proteins known to localize to the mitochondria and has generated a considerable increase in MP 3D structures available in public databases, allowing experimental screening and in silico prediction of mitochondrial drug targets on an unprecedented scale. Here, we summarize the current literature on clinically active drugs that target MPs, with a focus on how existing drug targets are distributed across biochemical pathways and organelle substructures. Also, we examine current strategies for mitochondrial drug discovery, focusing on genetic, proteomic, and chemogenomic assays, and relevant model systems. As cell models and screening techniques improve, MPs appear poised to emerge as relevant targets for a wide range of complex human diseases, an eventuality that can be expedited through systematic analysis of MP function. PMID:25367773

  19. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  20. Key Beliefs for Targeted Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children: Analyzing Data from an Extended Version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger-Gravel, A.; Godin, G.

    2010-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children, a better understanding of physical activity behaviour is an important step in intervention planning. This study, based on the theory of planned behaviour, was conducted among 313 fifth graders and their parents. Children completed a computer-based questionnaire to evaluate theoretical constructs and behaviour. Additional information was obtained from parents by means of a questionnaire. Correlates of children's physical activity were intention and self-identity. Determinants of intention were self-efficacy, self-identity, and attitude. Parental variables were mediated through cognitions. Among girls, practicing sedentary activities was an additional negative determinant of intention. Key beliefs of boys and girls were related to time management and difficulties associated with physical activity. For girls, social identification as an active girl was another important belief related to positive intention. This study provides theory-based information for the development of more effective interventions aimed at promoting physical activity among children. PMID:20652005

  1. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Physical Education and School Sport Interventions Targeting Physical Activity, Movement Skills and Enjoyment of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Dean; Okely, Anthony; Pearson, Philip; Cotton, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of published literature on the effectiveness of physical education in promoting participation in physical activity, enjoyment of physical activity and movement skill proficiency in children and adolescents. The review utilized a literature search, specifically publications listed in Ovid, A+ Education,…

  2. Random and Targeted Interventions for Epidemic Control in Metapopulation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Gouhei; Urabe, Chiyori; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2014-07-01

    In general, different countries and communities respond to epidemics in accordance with their own control plans and protocols. However, owing to global human migration and mobility, strategic planning for epidemic control measures through the collaboration of relevant public health administrations is gaining importance for mitigating and containing large-scale epidemics. Here, we present a framework to evaluate the effectiveness of random (non-strategic) and targeted (strategic) epidemic interventions for spatially separated patches in metapopulation models. For a random intervention, we analytically derive the critical fraction of patches that receive epidemic interventions, above which epidemics are successfully contained. The analysis shows that the heterogeneity of patch connectivity makes it difficult to contain epidemics under the random intervention. We demonstrate that, particularly in such heterogeneously connected networks, targeted interventions are considerably effective compared to the random intervention. Our framework is useful for identifying the target areas where epidemic control measures should be focused.

  3. Transcription factors: molecular targets for prostate cancer intervention by phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manjinder; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2007-06-01

    With increasing incidence of cancer at most of the sites, and growing economic burden and associated psychological and emotional trauma, it is becoming clearer that more efforts are needed for cancer cure. Since most of the chemotherapeutic drugs are non-selective because they are also toxic to the normal cells, new and improved strategies are needed that selectively target the killing of cancer cells. Since aberrant activation of numerous signaling pathways is a key element of cancer cell survival and growth, blocking all of them is not that practical, which leads to the step where most of them commonly converge; the transcription factors. Recent research efforts, therefore, are also directed on targeting the activity and activation of transcription factors, which ultimately control the expression of genes that are involved in almost all aspects of cell biology. One class of agents that is becoming increasingly successful, not only in targeting signaling cascades, but also transcription factors is phytochemicals present in diet and those consumed as supplement. The added advantage with these agents is that they are mostly non-toxic when compared to chemotherapeutic agents. This review focuses on the efficacy of various phytochemicals in targeting transcription factors such as AR, Sp1, STATs, E2F, Egr1, c-Myc, HIF-1 alpha, NF-kappaB, AP-1, ETS2, GLI and p53 in the context of prostate cancer intervention. PMID:17979630

  4. Movement as Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes: protocol for an open pilot study and external pilot clustered randomised controlled trial to assess acceptability, feasibility and fidelity of a multifaceted behavioural intervention targeting physical activity in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and nutrition are the cornerstones of diabetes management. Several reviews and meta-analyses report that PA independently produces clinically important improvements in glucose control in people with Type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unclear what the optimal strategies are to increase PA behaviour in people with Type 2 diabetes in routine primary care. Methods This study will determine whether an evidence-informed multifaceted behaviour change intervention (Movement as Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes) targeting both consultation behaviour of primary healthcare professionals and PA behaviour in adults with Type 2 diabetes is both acceptable and feasible in the primary care setting. An open pilot study conducted in two primary care practices (phase one) will assess acceptability, feasibility and fidelity. Ongoing feedback from participating primary healthcare professionals and patients will provide opportunities for systematic adaptation and refinement of the intervention and study procedures. A two-arm parallel group clustered pilot randomised controlled trial with patients from participating primary care practices in North East England will assess acceptability, feasibility, and fidelity of the intervention (versus usual clinical care) and trial processes over a 12-month period. Consultation behaviour involving fidelity of intervention delivery, diabetes and PA related knowledge, attitudes/beliefs, intentions and self-efficacy for delivering a behaviour change intervention targeting PA behaviour will be assessed in primary healthcare professionals. We will rehearse the collection of outcome data (with the focus on data yield and quality) for a future definitive trial, through outcome assessment at baseline, one, six and twelve months. An embedded qualitative process evaluation and treatment fidelity assessment will explore issues around intervention implementation and assess whether intervention components can be reliably and

  5. Physical Activity Interventions for Adolescents: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cynthia K.; Garside, Hailey; Morones, Sandra; Hayman, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to the decline in physical activity (PA) observed during adolescence. We used an ecological framework to review 30 publications of PA interventions published between 1977 and 2009 targeting youth aged 12-18 years (19 PA interventions). We included studies that measured a primary outcome of PA and also examined intervening…

  6. Effect of a Targeted Early Literacy Intervention for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arellano, Elizabeth Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a targeted early literacy intervention among Spanish-speaking kindergarten English Learners (ELs). Using a Response to Intervention (RtI) framework, participants were screened in English to ensure a need for additional literacy support. Selected students were then screened in Spanish, and students with…

  7. Activin signaling as an emerging target for therapeutic interventions

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchida, Kunihiro; Nakatani, Masashi; Hitachi, Keisuke; Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Sunada, Yoshihide; Ageta, Hiroshi; Inokuchi, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    After the initial discovery of activins as important regulators of reproduction, novel and diverse roles have been unraveled for them. Activins are expressed in various tissues and have a broad range of activities including the regulation of gonadal function, hormonal homeostasis, growth and differentiation of musculoskeletal tissues, regulation of growth and metastasis of cancer cells, proliferation and differentiation of embryonic stem cells, and even higher brain functions. Activins signal through a combination of type I and II transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors. Activin receptors are shared by multiple transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) ligands such as myostatin, growth and differentiation factor-11 and nodal. Thus, although the activity of each ligand is distinct, they are also redundant, both physiologically and pathologically in vivo. Activin receptors activated by ligands phosphorylate the receptor-regulated Smads for TGF-β, Smad2 and 3. The Smad proteins then undergo multimerization with the co-mediator Smad4, and translocate into the nucleus to regulate the transcription of target genes in cooperation with nuclear cofactors. Signaling through receptors and Smads is controlled by multiple mechanisms including phosphorylation and other posttranslational modifications such as sumoylation, which affect potein localization, stability and transcriptional activity. Non-Smad signaling also plays an important role in activin signaling. Extracellularly, follistatin and related proteins bind to activins and related TGF-β ligands, and control the signaling and availability of ligands. The functions of activins through activin receptors are pleiotrophic, cell type-specific and contextual, and they are involved in the etiology and pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. Accordingly, activin signaling may be a target for therapeutic interventions. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on activin signaling and discuss the potential roles of

  8. The Effectiveness of a Technologically Facilitated Classroom-Based Early Reading Intervention: The Targeted Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amendum, Steven J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Ginsberg, Marnie C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a classroom-teacher-delivered reading intervention for struggling readers called the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), designed particularly for kindergarten and first-grade teachers and their struggling students in rural, low-wealth communities. The TRI was delivered via an innovative…

  9. A systematic review of physical activity interventions in Hispanic adults.

    PubMed

    Ickes, Melinda J; Sharma, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Healthy People 2020 aims to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Regular physical activity (PA) improves overall health and fitness and has the capability to reduce risk for chronic diseases. Identifying barriers which relate to the Hispanic population is important when designing PA interventions. Therefore, the purpose was to review existing PA interventions targeting Hispanic adults published between 1988 and 2011. This paper was limited to interventions which included more than 35% Hispanic adults (n = 20). Most of the interventions were community based (n = 16), although clinical, family-based, and faith-based settings were also represented. Interventions incorporated theory (n = 16), with social cognitive theory and transtheoretical model being used most frequently. Social support was integral, building on the assumption that it is a strong motivator of PA. Each of the interventions reported success related to PA, social support, and/or BMI. Lessons learned should be incorporated into future interventions. PMID:22496702

  10. Measuring the effectiveness of targeted interventions.

    PubMed

    Hassig, S

    1991-06-01

    Considered opinion is that multiple indicators must be used to evaluate a project's success in slowing HIV transmission. There may be difference only over which is the best measure. The 4 indicators recommended for availability, accuracy, and usefulness are 1) reported condom use, 2) reported number of sexual partners, 3) condom sales, and 4) incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD's). These measures are workable during program start-up, ongoing program implementation, and concurrent with evaluation. Methodologies employed for data collection are quantitative methods such as surveys and qualitative methods such as in-depth interviews or focus groups, direct observation or medical data from clinical exams, tests, or medical records. Reported condom use, albeit a surrogate measure, may be more valid when the questions asked about condom use during the last sex act, or a 1-week recall. Another reliability check would be to compare consistency with actual use in a focus group or reports from peer educators. Change in number of partners is important for intervention projects in STD clinics, workplace, or other social settings. The example given is for Trinidad's KAP surveys which measure changes in numbers of partners, condom use, and condom sales or distribution figures. Condom sales data, rather than free distribution figures, reflect a commitment to using condoms, and frequently condom use is already part of AIDS campaigns. Free condoms if part of a peer education project are more useful. In Mali, 82 prostitutes reported using 62,000 condoms while 58,000 were distributed in a month period. This is close enough to validate the data. STD rates are important measures because of the finding that STD's can increase the chance of HIV transmission by up to 100 times in a single act of intercourse. The number of STD cases can be substituted for costly incidence data. PMID:12316889

  11. Individuals with a family history of ESRD are a high-risk population for CKD: implications for targeted surveillance and intervention activities.

    PubMed

    McClellan, William M; Satko, Scott G; Gladstone, Elisa; Krisher, Jenna O; Narva, Andrew S; Freedman, Barry I

    2009-03-01

    Activities intended to improve the detection, treatment, and control of chronic kidney disease (CKD) should be incorporated into existing health care systems and targeted to high-risk populations to avoid redundancy and waste of resources. One high-risk population consists of first- or second-degree family members of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), who are 2 to 3 times as likely to have incident ESRD, have high rates of impaired kidney function and undetected and uncontrolled high blood pressure, and are more likely to be obese. These individuals usually are unaware of their underlying CKD and may discount their own risk of ESRD. The ESRD Network 6 Family History Project shows that the ESRD Networks, which constitute a national CKD surveillance system for patients with stage 5 CKD, may be an existing resource that can be used to identify relatives of incident patients with ESRD and provide these families with information about CKD. Nationally available resources have been developed by the National Kidney Disease Education Program for use with these at-risk families. Individuals interested in population-based CKD control activities should be aware of and use these resources. PMID:19231753

  12. Intervention development to reduce musculoskeletal disorders: Is the process on target?

    PubMed

    Oakman, Jodi; Rothmore, Paul; Tappin, David

    2016-09-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders remain an intractable OHS problem. In 2002, Haslam proposed applying the stage of change model to target ergonomics interventions and other health and safety prevention activities. The stage of change model proposes that taking into account an individual's readiness for change in developing intervention strategies is likely to improve uptake and success. This paper revisits Haslam's proposal in the context of interventions to reduce musculoskeletal disorders. Effective MSD interventions require a systematic approach and need to take into account a combination of measures. Research evidence suggests that in practice, those charged with the management of MSDs are not consistently adopting such an approach. Consequently, intervention development may not represent contemporary best practice. We propose a potential method of addressing this gap is the stage of change model, and use a case study to illustrate this argument in tailoring intervention development for managing MSDs. PMID:27184326

  13. Immune Activation and HIV Persistence: Considerations for Novel Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Hiroyu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review One of the potential barriers to current HIV cure strategies is the persistence of elevated levels of immune activation despite otherwise effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). The purpose of this review is to examine the relationship between immune activation and HIV persistence, and to review novel therapeutic interventions that are currently being pursued to target immune activation in treated HIV disease. Recent findings Multiple groups have consistently observed that elevated levels of inflammation, immune activation, and immune dysfunction persist in ART-treated individuals, despite successful suppression of plasma viremia. Increased immune activation may lead to viral persistence through multiple mechanisms. Several novel interventions aimed at decreasing persistent immune activation are being pursued and include studies aimed at decreasing low-level viral replication, approaches aimed at decreasing microbial translocation, interventions to treat co-infections, and therapies that directly target immune activation. Summary There appears to be a clear and consistent relationship between immune activation and viral persistence in treated HIV disease. Whether this relationship is causal or mediated through other mechanisms is still unknown. Small-scale, pathogenesis-oriented interventional studies are necessary to further evaluate this relationship and the effect of potential interventions. PMID:23454864

  14. Foodservice employees benefit from interventions targeting barriers to food safety.

    PubMed

    York, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Shanklin, Carol W; Roberts, Kevin R; Howells, Amber D; Barrett, Elizabeth B

    2009-09-01

    The number of foodborne illnesses traced to improper food handling in restaurants indicates a need for research to improve food safety in these establishments. Therefore, this 2-year longitudinal study investigated the effectiveness of traditional ServSafe (National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation, Chicago, IL) food-safety training and a Theory of Planned Behavior intervention program targeting employees' perceived barriers and attitudes toward important food-safety behaviors. The effectiveness of the training and intervention was measured by knowledge scores and observed behavioral compliance rates related to food-safety practices. Employees were observed for handwashing, thermometer usage, and proper handling of work surfaces at baseline, after receiving ServSafe training, and again after exposure to the intervention targeting barriers and negative attitudes about food-safety practices. Repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated training improved handwashing knowledge, but the intervention was necessary to improve overall behavioral compliance and handwashing compliance. Results suggest that registered dietitians; dietetic technicians, registered; and foodservice managers should implement a combination of training and intervention to improve knowledge and compliance with food-safety behaviors, rather than relying on training alone. Challenges encountered while conducting this research are discussed, and recommendations are provided for researchers interested in conducting this type of research in the future. PMID:19699837

  15. Evidence, Theory and Context: Using intervention mapping to develop a worksite physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    McEachan, Rosemary RC; Lawton, Rebecca J; Jackson, Cath; Conner, Mark; Lunt, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. Helping employees to be more physically active can not only improve their physical and mental health, but can also have economic benefits such as reduced sickness absence. The current paper describes the development of a three month theory-based intervention that aims to increase levels of moderate intensity physical activity amongst employees in sedentary occupations. Methods The intervention was developed using an intervention mapping protocol. The intervention was also informed by previous literature, qualitative focus groups, an expert steering group, and feedback from key contacts within a range of organisations. Results The intervention was designed to target awareness (e.g. provision of information), motivation (e.g. goal setting, social support) and environment (e.g. management support) and to address behavioural (e.g. increasing moderate physical activity in work) and interpersonal outcomes (e.g. encourage colleagues to be more physically active). The intervention can be implemented by local facilitators without the requirement for a large investment of resources. A facilitator manual was developed which listed step by step instructions on how to implement each component along with a suggested timetable. Conclusion Although time consuming, intervention mapping was found to be a useful tool for developing a theory based intervention. The length of this process has implications for the way in which funding bodies allow for the development of interventions as part of their funding policy. The intervention will be evaluated in a cluster randomised trial involving 1350 employees from 5 different organisations, results available September 2009. PMID:18808709

  16. Targeting macrophage necroptosis for therapeutic and diagnostic interventions in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Denuja; Geoffrion, Michele; Wei, Lihui; Gan, Wei; Richards, Laura; Shangari, Prakriti; DeKemp, Ella M.; Beanlands, Rachelle A.; Perisic, Ljubica; Maegdefessel, Lars; Hedin, Ulf; Sad, Subash; Guo, Liang; Kolodgie, Frank D.; Virmani, Renu; Ruddy, Terrence; Rayner, Katey J.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis results from maladaptive inflammation driven primarily by macrophages, whose recruitment and proliferation drive plaque progression. In advanced plaques, macrophage death contributes centrally to the formation of plaque necrosis, which underlies the instability that promotes plaque rupture and myocardial infarction. Hence, targeting macrophage cell death pathways may offer promise for the stabilization of vulnerable plaques. Necroptosis is a recently discovered pathway of programmed cell necrosis regulated by RIP3 and MLKL kinases that, in contrast to apoptosis, induces a proinflammatory state. We show herein that necroptotic cell death is activated in human advanced atherosclerotic plaques and can be targeted in experimental atherosclerosis for both therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. In humans with unstable carotid atherosclerosis, expression of RIP3 and MLKL is increased, and MLKL phosphorylation, a key step in the commitment to necroptosis, is detected in advanced atheromas. Investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying necroptosis showed that atherogenic forms of low-density lipoprotein increase RIP3 and MLKL transcription and phosphorylation—two critical steps in the execution of necroptosis. Using a radiotracer developed with the necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), we show that 123I-Nec-1 localizes specifically to atherosclerotic plaques in Apoe−/− mice, and its uptake is tightly correlated to lesion areas by ex vivo nuclear imaging. Furthermore, treatment of Apoe−/− mice with established atherosclerosis with Nec-1 reduced lesion size and markers of plaque instability, including necrotic core formation. Collectively, our findings offer molecular insight into the mechanisms of macrophage cell death that drive necrotic core formation in atherosclerosis and suggest that this pathway can be used as both a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for the treatment of unstable atherosclerosis. PMID:27532042

  17. Strategic targeting of advance care planning interventions: the Goldilocks phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Billings, J Andrew; Bernacki, Rachelle

    2014-04-01

    Strategically selecting patients for discussions and documentation about limiting life-sustaining treatments-choosing the right time along the end-of-life trajectory for such an intervention and identifying patients at high risk of facing end-of-life decisions-can have a profound impact on the value of advance care planning (ACP) efforts. Timing is important because the completion of an advance directive (AD) too far from or too close to the time of death can lead to end-of-life decisions that do not optimally reflect the patient's values, goals, and preferences: a poorly chosen target patient population that is unlikely to need an AD in the near future may lead to patients making unrealistic, hypothetical choices, while assessing preferences in the emergency department or hospital in the face of a calamity is notoriously inadequate. Because much of the currently studied ACP efforts have led to a disappointingly small proportion of patients eventually benefitting from an AD, careful targeting of the intervention should also improve the efficacy of such projects. A key to optimal timing and strategic selection of target patients for an ACP program is prognostication, and we briefly highlight prognostication tools and studies that may point us toward high-value AD interventions. PMID:24493203

  18. Physical Activity Interventions in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Ribeiro, Isabela C.; Parra, Diana C.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Azevedo, Mario R.; Hino, Adriano A.; Soares, Jesus; Hallal, Pedro C.; Simões, Eduardo J.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2013-01-01

    Context Systematic reviews of public health interventions are useful for identifying effective strategies for informing policy and practice. The goals of this review were to (1) update a previous systematic review of physical activity interventions in Latin America which found that only school-based physical education had sufficient evidence to recommend widespread adoption; (2) assess the reporting of external validity elements; and (3) develop and apply an evidence typology for classifying interventions. Evidence acquisition In 2010–2011, community-level, physical activity intervention studies from Latin America were identified, categorized, and screened based on the peer-reviewed literature or Brazilian theses published between 2006 and 2010. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were evaluated using U.S. Community Guide methods. External validity reporting was assessed among a subset of articles reviewed to date. An evidence rating typology was developed and applied to classify interventions along a continuum based on evidence about their effectiveness in the U.S. context, reach, adoption, implementation, institutionalization, and benefits and costs. Evidence synthesis Thirteen articles published between 2006 and 2010 met inclusion criteria and were abstracted systematically, yet when combined with evidence from articles from the previous systematic review, no additional interventions could be recommended for practice. Moreover, the reporting of external validity elements was low among a subset of 19 studies published to date (median=21% of elements reported). By applying the expanded evidence rating typology, one intervention was classified as evidence-based, seven as promising, and one as emerging. Conclusions Several physical activity interventions have been identified as promising for future research and implementation in Latin America. Enhanced reporting of external validity elements will inform the translation of research into practice. PMID:23415133

  19. The Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI): A Classroom Teacher Tier 2 Intervention to Help Struggling Readers in Early Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Amendum, Steve; Kainz, Kirsten; Ginsburg, Marnie

    2009-01-01

    The two studies presented in this report were designed to test the effectiveness of a new diagnostic-based reading intervention for classroom teachers, called the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI). This TRI Tier 2 intervention stressed diagnostic teaching as the key to helping struggling readers make rapid progress in reading in the regular…

  20. HIV behavioural interventions targeted towards older adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing number of people living with HIV aged 50 years and older has been recognised around the world yet non-pharmacologic HIV behavioural and cognitive interventions specifically targeted to older adults are limited. Evidence is needed to guide the response to this affected group. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the available published literature in MEDLINE, Embase and the Education Resources Information Center. A search strategy was defined with high sensitivity but low specificity to identify behavioural interventions with outcomes in the areas of treatment adherence, HIV testing uptake, increased HIV knowledge and uptake of prevention measures. Data from relevant articles were extracted into excel. Results Twelve articles were identified all of which originated from the Americas. Eight of the interventions were conducted among older adults living with HIV and four for HIV-negative older adults. Five studies included control groups. Of the included studies, four focused on general knowledge of HIV, three emphasised mental health and coping, two focused on reduced sexual risk behaviour, two on physical status and one on referral for care. Only four of the studies were randomised controlled trials and seven – including all of the studies among HIV-negative older adults – did not include controls at all. A few of the studies conducted statistical testing on small samples of 16 or 11 older adults making inference based on the results difficult. The most relevant study demonstrated that using telephone-based interventions can reduce risky sexual behaviour among older adults with control reporting 3.24 times (95% CI 1.79-5.85) as many occasions of unprotected sex at follow-up as participants. Overall however, few of the articles are sufficiently rigorous to suggest broad replication or to be considered representative and applicable in other settings. Conclusions More evidence is needed on what interventions work among older adults to

  1. The Gut Microbiome, Kidney Disease, and Targeted Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The human gut harbors >100 trillion microbial cells, which influence the nutrition, metabolism, physiology, and immune function of the host. Here, we review the quantitative and qualitative changes in gut microbiota of patients with CKD that lead to disturbance of this symbiotic relationship, how this may contribute to the progression of CKD, and targeted interventions to re-establish symbiosis. Endotoxin derived from gut bacteria incites a powerful inflammatory response in the host organism. Furthermore, protein fermentation by gut microbiota generates myriad toxic metabolites, including p-cresol and indoxyl sulfate. Disruption of gut barrier function in CKD allows translocation of endotoxin and bacterial metabolites to the systemic circulation, which contributes to uremic toxicity, inflammation, progression of CKD, and associated cardiovascular disease. Several targeted interventions that aim to re-establish intestinal symbiosis, neutralize bacterial endotoxins, or adsorb gut-derived uremic toxins have been developed. Indeed, animal and human studies suggest that prebiotics and probiotics may have therapeutic roles in maintaining a metabolically-balanced gut microbiota and reducing progression of CKD and uremia-associated complications. We propose that further research should focus on using this highly efficient metabolic machinery to alleviate uremic symptoms. PMID:24231662

  2. The gut microbiome, kidney disease, and targeted interventions.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Ali; Raj, Dominic S

    2014-04-01

    The human gut harbors >100 trillion microbial cells, which influence the nutrition, metabolism, physiology, and immune function of the host. Here, we review the quantitative and qualitative changes in gut microbiota of patients with CKD that lead to disturbance of this symbiotic relationship, how this may contribute to the progression of CKD, and targeted interventions to re-establish symbiosis. Endotoxin derived from gut bacteria incites a powerful inflammatory response in the host organism. Furthermore, protein fermentation by gut microbiota generates myriad toxic metabolites, including p-cresol and indoxyl sulfate. Disruption of gut barrier function in CKD allows translocation of endotoxin and bacterial metabolites to the systemic circulation, which contributes to uremic toxicity, inflammation, progression of CKD, and associated cardiovascular disease. Several targeted interventions that aim to re-establish intestinal symbiosis, neutralize bacterial endotoxins, or adsorb gut-derived uremic toxins have been developed. Indeed, animal and human studies suggest that prebiotics and probiotics may have therapeutic roles in maintaining a metabolically-balanced gut microbiota and reducing progression of CKD and uremia-associated complications. We propose that further research should focus on using this highly efficient metabolic machinery to alleviate uremic symptoms. PMID:24231662

  3. Health Care Provider Physical Activity Prescription Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josyula, Lakshmi; Lyle, Roseann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the feasibility and impact of a health care provider’s (HCP) physical activity (PA) prescription on the PA of patients on preventive care visits. Methods: Consenting adult patients completed health and PA questionnaires and were sequentially assigned to intervention groups. HCPs prescribed PA using a written prescription only…

  4. Cervical cancer screening in Malaysia: Are targeted interventions necessary?

    PubMed

    Dunn, Richard A; Tan, Andrew K G

    2010-09-01

    This study examines the determinants of Papanicolaou Smear Test (PST) screening for cervical cancer among women in Malaysia. Attention is focused on the reasons different population subgroups give for non-screening. We find that Indian women are the least likely to have had a PST and also the least likely to know the reasons why one is screened. Malay women are less likely than Chinese women to have received a PST and are more likely to report embarrassment as the reason for not being tested. Urban women are less likely than rural women to have been tested and more likely to state lack of time as the reason. These results suggest targeted interventions may be necessary to increase screening rates in Malaysia. PMID:20685019

  5. Symptom targeted intervention webinar trainings: feedback from participants.

    PubMed

    McCool, Melissa; Boyd, Shaun; Aebel-Groesch, Kathy; Gonzalez, Teresa; Evans, Deborah

    2014-06-01

    Professional trainings through the use of webinar format are widely used, but participant feedback is seldom studied. In the spring of 2013, 83 nephrology social workers participated in weekly webinar trainings to learn how to implement Symptom Targeted Intervention (STI) into their clinical practice. At the end of the project, participants were asked to complete an online questionnaire to provide feedback on the perceived value and effectiveness of the trainings. Sixty-eight participants completed the questionnaire. The results indicate that social workers found the webinar trainings to be very useful and wanted the trainings to continue beyond the project. Based on participant feedback, clinical training and case presentation through the use of ongoing webinars is a useful education modality for nephrology professionals, but more research is indicated to evaluate how best to utilize webinars to maximize learning. PMID:25055437

  6. Effectiveness of intervention strategies exclusively targeting reductions in children's sedentary time: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Altenburg, Teatske M; Kist-van Holthe, Joana; Chinapaw, Mai J M

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of interventions targeting sedentary behaviour in children have emerged in recent years. Recently published reviews included sedentary behaviour and physical activity interventions. This review critically summarizes evidence on the effectiveness of intervention strategies that exclusively targeted reducing sedentary time in children and adolescents. We performed a systematic literature search in Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library through November 2015. Two independent reviewers selected eligible studies, extracted relevant data and rated the methodological quality using the assessment tool for quantitative studies. We included 21 intervention studies, of which 8 studies scored moderate on methodological quality and 13 studies scored weak. Four out of eight moderate quality studies reported significant beneficial intervention effects.Although descriptions of intervention strategies were not always clearly reported, we identified encouragement of a TV turnoff week and implementing standing desks in classrooms as promising strategies. Due to a lack of high quality studies and inconsistent findings, we found no convincing evidence for the effectiveness of existing interventions targeting solely sedentary behaviour. We recommend that future studies apply mediation analyses to explore which strategies are most effective. Furthermore, to increase the effectiveness of interventions, knowledge of children's motives to engage in sedentary behavior is required, as well as their opinion on potentially effective intervention strategies. PMID:27276873

  7. Neural Regulation of Pancreatic Cancer: A Novel Target for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Aeson; Kim-Fuchs, Corina; Le, Caroline P.; Hollande, Frédéric; Sloan, Erica K.

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is known to play a pivotal role in driving cancer progression and governing response to therapy. This is of significance in pancreatic cancer where the unique pancreatic tumor microenvironment, characterized by its pronounced desmoplasia and fibrosis, drives early stages of tumor progression and dissemination, and contributes to its associated low survival rates. Several molecular factors that regulate interactions between pancreatic tumors and their surrounding stroma are beginning to be identified. Yet broader physiological factors that influence these interactions remain unclear. Here, we discuss a series of preclinical and mechanistic studies that highlight the important role chronic stress plays as a physiological regulator of neural-tumor interactions in driving the progression of pancreatic cancer. These studies propose several approaches to target stress signaling via the β-adrenergic signaling pathway in order to slow pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis. They also provide evidence to support the use of β-blockers as a novel therapeutic intervention to complement current clinical strategies to improve cancer outcome in patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:26193320

  8. Posture and Locomotion Coupling: A Target for Rehabilitation Interventions in Persons with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mille, Marie-Laure; Creath, Robert A.; Prettyman, Michelle G.; Johnson Hilliard, Marjorie; Martinez, Katherine M.; MacKinnon, Colum D.; Rogers, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Disorders of posture, balance, and gait are debilitating motor manifestations of advancing Parkinson's disease requiring rehabilitation intervention. These problems often reflect difficulties with coupling or sequencing posture and locomotion during complex whole body movements linked with falls. Considerable progress has been made with demonstrating the effectiveness of exercise interventions for individuals with Parkinson's disease. However, gaps remain in the evidence base for specific interventions and the optimal content of exercise interventions. Using a conceptual theoretical framework and experimental findings, this perspective and review advances the viewpoint that rehabilitation interventions focused on separate or isolated components of posture, balance, or gait may limit the effectiveness of current clinical practices. It is argued that treatment effectiveness may be improved by directly targeting posture and locomotion coupling problems as causal factors contributing to balance and gait dysfunction. This approach may help advance current clinical practice and improve outcomes in rehabilitation for persons with Parkinson's disease. “. . .postural activity should be regarded as a function in its own right and not merely as a component of movement. . .” James Purdon Martin PMID:22295253

  9. Characteristics of Interventions Targeting Multiple Lifestyle Risk Behaviours in Adult Populations: A Systematic Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    King, Kristel; Meader, Nick; Wright, Kath; Graham, Hilary; Power, Christine; Petticrew, Mark; White, Martin; Sowden, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Modifiable lifestyle risk behaviours such as smoking, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and alcohol misuse are the leading causes of major, non-communicable diseases worldwide. It is increasingly being recognised that interventions which target more than one risk behaviour may be an effective and efficient way of improving people’s lifestyles. To date, there has been no attempt to summarise the global evidence base for interventions targeting multiple risk behaviours. Objective To identify and map the characteristics of studies evaluating multiple risk behaviour change interventions targeted at adult populations in any country. Methods Seven bibliographic databases were searched between January, 1990, and January/ May, 2013. Authors of protocols, conference abstracts, and other relevant articles were contacted. Study characteristics were extracted and inputted into Eppi-Reviewer 4. Results In total, 220 studies were included in the scoping review. Most were randomised controlled trials (62%) conducted in the United States (49%), and targeted diet and physical activity (56%) in people from general populations (14%) or subgroups of general populations (45%). Very few studies had been conducted in the Middle East (2%), Africa (0.5%), or South America (0.5%). There was also a scarcity of studies conducted among young adults (1%), or racial and minority ethnic populations (4%) worldwide. Conclusions Research is required to investigate the interrelationships of lifestyle risk behaviours in varying cultural contexts around the world. Cross-cultural development and evaluation of multiple risk behaviour change interventions is also needed, particularly in populations of young adults and racial and minority ethnic populations. PMID:25617783

  10. Pharmacological Intervention in Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation and Hepatic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Schon, Hans-Theo; Bartneck, Matthias; Borkham-Kamphorst, Erawan; Nattermann, Jacob; Lammers, Twan; Tacke, Frank; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The activation and transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) into contractile, matrix-producing myofibroblasts (MFBs) are central events in hepatic fibrogenesis. These processes are driven by autocrine- and paracrine-acting soluble factors (i.e., cytokines and chemokines). Proof-of-concept studies of the last decades have shown that both the deactivation and removal of hepatic MFBs as well as antagonizing profibrogenic factors are in principle suitable to attenuate ongoing hepatic fibrosis. Although several drugs show potent antifibrotic activities in experimental models of hepatic fibrosis, there is presently no effective pharmaceutical intervention specifically approved for the treatment of liver fibrosis. Pharmaceutical interventions are generally hampered by insufficient supply of drugs to the diseased liver tissue and/or by adverse effects as a result of affecting non-target cells. Therefore, targeted delivery systems that bind specifically to receptors solely expressed on activated HSCs or transdifferentiated MFBs and delivery systems that can improve drug distribution to the liver in general are urgently needed. In this review, we summarize current strategies for targeted delivery of drugs to the liver and in particular to pro-fibrogenic liver cells. The applicability and efficacy of sequestering molecules, selective protein carriers, lipid-based drug vehicles, viral vectors, transcriptional targeting approaches, therapeutic liver- and HSC-specific nanoparticles, and miRNA-based strategies are discussed. Some of these delivery systems that had already been successfully tested in experimental animal models of ongoing hepatic fibrogenesis are expected to translate into clinically useful therapeutics specifically targeting HSCs. PMID:26941644

  11. Targeted Reading Intervention: A Coaching Model to Help Classroom Teachers with Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Kainz, Kirsten; Amendum, Steve; Ginsberg, Marnie; Wood, Tim; Bock, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a classroom teacher intervention, the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), in helping struggling readers in kindergarten and first grade. This intervention used biweekly literacy coaching in the general education classroom to help classroom teachers use diagnostic strategies with struggling readers in…

  12. Interventions Targeting Mental Health Self-Stigma: A Review and Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Yanos, Philip T.; Lucksted, Alicia; Drapalski, Amy L.; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective With growing awareness of the impact of mental illness self-stigma, interest has arisen in the development of interventions to combat it. The present article briefly reviews and compares interventions targeting self-stigma to clarify the similarities and important differences between the interventions. Methods We conducted a narrative review of published literature on interventions targeting self-stigma. Results Six intervention approaches (Healthy Self-Concept, Self-Stigma Reduction Program, Ending Self-Stigma, Narrative Enhancement and Cognitive Therapy, Coming Out Proud, and Anti-Stigma Photo-Voice Intervention) were identified and are discussed, and data is reviewed on format, group-leader backgrounds, languages, number of sessions, primary mechanisms of action, and the current state of data on their efficacy. Conclusions and Implications for Practice We conclude with a discussion of common elements and important distinctions between the interventions and a consideration of which interventions might be best suited to particular populations or settings. PMID:25313530

  13. Motivating People To Be Physically Active. Physical Activity Intervention Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.

    This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…

  14. The effects of workplace physical activity interventions in men: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jason Y L; Gilson, Nicholas D; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Brown, Wendy J

    2012-07-01

    The workplace is cited as a promising setting for physical activity (PA) promotion, but workplace PA interventions tend not to specifically target men. The aim of this article was to review the literature on workplace PA interventions for men and to identify key issues for future intervention development. Articles targeting PA at the workplace were located through a structured database search. Information on intervention strategies and PA outcomes were extracted. Only 13 studies (10.5%) reviewed focused on men, of which 5 showed significant increases in PA. These studies used generic, multicomponent, health promotion strategies with a variety of timeframes, self-report PA measures, and PA outcomes. The systematic review identified that evidence on the effectiveness of workplace PA interventions for men is equivocal and highlighted methodological concerns. Future research should use reliable and valid measures of PA and interventions that focus specifically on men's needs and PA preferences. PMID:22442206

  15. Alveolar bone loss: mechanisms, potential therapeutic targets, and interventions.

    PubMed

    Intini, G; Katsuragi, Y; Kirkwood, K L; Yang, S

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews recent research into mechanisms underlying bone resorption and highlights avenues of investigation that may generate new therapies to combat alveolar bone loss in periodontitis. Several proteins, signaling pathways, stem cells, and dietary supplements are discussed as they relate to periodontal bone loss and regeneration. RGS12 is a crucial protein that mediates osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction, and a potential therapeutic target. RGS12 likely regulates osteoclast differentiation through regulating calcium influx to control the calcium oscillation-NFATc1 pathway. A working model for RGS10 and RGS12 in the regulation of Ca(2+) oscillations during osteoclast differentiation is proposed. Initiation of inflammation depends on host cell-microbe interactions, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Oral p38 inhibitors reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone destruction in a rat periodontitis model but showed unsatisfactory safety profiles. The p38 substrate MK2 is a more specific therapeutic target with potentially superior tolerability. Furthermore, MKP-1 shows anti-inflammatory activity, reducing inflammatory cytokine biosynthesis and bone resorption. Multipotent skeletal stem cell (SSC) populations exist within the bone marrow and periosteum of long bones. These bone-marrow-derived SSCs and periosteum-derived SSCs have shown therapeutic potential in several applications, including bone and periodontal regeneration. The existence of craniofacial bone-specific SSCs is suggested based on existing studies. The effects of calcium, vitamin D, and soy isoflavone supplementation on alveolar and skeletal bone loss in post-menopausal women were investigated. Supplementation resulted in stabilization of forearm bone mass density and a reduced rate of alveolar bone loss over 1 yr, compared with placebo. Periodontal attachment levels were also well-maintained and alveolar bone loss suppressed during 24 wk of

  16. Social communication interventions for preschoolers: targeting peer interactions during peer group entry and cooperative play.

    PubMed

    Timler, Geralyn R; Olswang, Lesley B; Coggins, Truman E

    2005-08-01

    Some preschoolers with language impairment approach and manage peer interactions less effectively than typically developing peers. This article discusses assessment and intervention strategies for targeting preschoolers' social communication skills during peer entry and cooperative play situations. Essential features of effective interventions include identification of appropriate social communication targets, addressing and facilitating children's use of these targets during small group sessions with peers, and supporting generalization of newly acquired social communication behaviors to children's peer interactions within the classroom setting. PMID:16155855

  17. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS) for interventional tool guidance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M

    2014-01-01

    Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking. PMID:25337784

  18. Active Ultrasound Pattern Injection System (AUSPIS) for Interventional Tool Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking. PMID:25337784

  19. Effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity in children and adolescents: systematic review of controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    McMinn, Alison M; Griffin, Simon J

    2007-01-01

    Objective To review the published literature on the effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity in children and adolescents. Design Systematic review. Data sources Literature search using PubMed, SCOPUS, Psychlit, Ovid Medline, Sportdiscus, and Embase up to December 2006. Review methods Two independent reviewers assessed studies against the following inclusion criteria: controlled trial, comparison of intervention to promote physical activity with no intervention control condition, participants younger than 18 years, and reported statistical analyses of a physical activity outcome measure. Levels of evidence, accounting for methodological quality, were assessed for three types of intervention, five settings, and three target populations. Results The literature search identified 57 studies: 33 aimed at children and 24 at adolescents. Twenty four studies were of high methodological quality, including 13 studies in children. Interventions that were found to be effective achieved increases ranging from an additional 2.6 minutes of physical education related physical activity to 283 minutes per week of overall physical activity. Among children, limited evidence for an effect was found for interventions targeting children from low socioeconomic populations, and environmental interventions. Strong evidence was found that school based interventions with involvement of the family or community and multicomponent interventions can increase physical activity in adolescents. Conclusion Some evidence was found for potentially effective strategies to increase children's levels of physical activity. For adolescents, multicomponent interventions and interventions that included both school and family or community involvement have the potential to make important differences to levels of physical activity and should be promoted. A lack of high quality evaluations hampers conclusions concerning effectiveness, especially among children. PMID:17884863

  20. Target for optically activated seekers and trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakin, C. T.; Willett, N. F.

    1984-05-01

    This abstract discloses a target for optically activated seekers and trackers (TOAST) which provides for calibrated and variable target characteristics such as size, intensity, spatial position, color and interfering background. The TOAST has a first ilumination system providing a target light beam through an adjustable iris which controls image size. The target beam passes through a collimator lens which focuses the light at infinity. With the target beam focused at infinity, the motion of an elevation plate lengthens or shortens the distance from the collimator lens to a one motion mirror. The target beam is attenuated by a variable filter driven by a servo-motor, and a color selection process is provided by passing the beam through spectral filters. A background light beam with background imagery is provided to the beamsplitter mirror and mixed with the target image so as to simulate the target environment encountered by an operating optically activated seeker and tracker.

  1. Systematic review of reviews of intervention components associated with increased effectiveness in dietary and physical activity interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To develop more efficient programmes for promoting dietary and/or physical activity change (in order to prevent type 2 diabetes) it is critical to ensure that the intervention components and characteristics most strongly associated with effectiveness are included. The aim of this systematic review of reviews was to identify intervention components that are associated with increased change in diet and/or physical activity in individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library were searched for systematic reviews of interventions targeting diet and/or physical activity in adults at risk of developing type 2 diabetes from 1998 to 2008. Two reviewers independently selected reviews and rated methodological quality. Individual analyses from reviews relating effectiveness to intervention components were extracted, graded for evidence quality and summarised. Results Of 3856 identified articles, 30 met the inclusion criteria and 129 analyses related intervention components to effectiveness. These included causal analyses (based on randomisation of participants to different intervention conditions) and associative analyses (e.g. meta-regression). Overall, interventions produced clinically meaningful weight loss (3-5 kg at 12 months; 2-3 kg at 36 months) and increased physical activity (30-60 mins/week of moderate activity at 12-18 months). Based on causal analyses, intervention effectiveness was increased by engaging social support, targeting both diet and physical activity, and using well-defined/established behaviour change techniques. Increased effectiveness was also associated with increased contact frequency and using a specific cluster of "self-regulatory" behaviour change techniques (e.g. goal-setting, self-monitoring). No clear relationships were found between effectiveness and intervention setting, delivery mode, study population or delivery provider. Evidence on long-term effectiveness suggested the

  2. The Behavior Education Support and Treatment (BEST) School Intervention Program: Pilot Project Data Examining Schoolwide, Targeted-School, and Targeted-Home Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Massetti, Greta

    2005-01-01

    As part of a pilot project, four elementary schools were randomly assigned to receive one of four interventions: (a) a schoolwide intervention that incorporated universal and targeted treatment, (b) a targeted-school intervention delivered to individual students in regular and special education classrooms, (c) a targeted-home intervention…

  3. Translating Genetic Research into Preventive Intervention: The Baseline Target Moderated Mediator Design

    PubMed Central

    Howe, George W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Brody, Gene H.; Wyman, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM) design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We use simulated data to illustrate a BTMM, and end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach. PMID:26779062

  4. Active Targets For Capacitive Proximity Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenstrom, Del T.; Mcconnell, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Lightweight, low-power active targets devised for use with improved capacitive proximity sensors described in "Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range" (GSC-13377), and "Capacitive Proximity Sensors With Additional Driven Shields" (GSC-13475). Active targets are short-distance electrostatic beacons; they generate known alternating electro-static fields used for alignment and/or to measure distances.

  5. Targeting Cell Death Pathways for Therapeutic Intervention in Kidney Diseases.

    PubMed

    Garg, Jay P; Vucic, Domagoj

    2016-05-01

    Precise regulation of cell death and survival is essential for proper maintenance of organismal homeostasis, development, and the immune system. Deregulated cell death can lead to developmental defects, neuropathies, infections, and cancer. Kidney diseases, especially acute pathologies linked to ischemia-reperfusion injury, are among illnesses that profoundly are affected by improper regulation or execution of cell death pathways. Attempts to develop medicines for kidney diseases have been impacted by the complexity of these pathologies given the heterogeneous patient population and diverse etiologies. By analyzing cell death pathways activated in kidney diseases, we attempt to differentiate their importance for these pathologies with a goal of identifying those that have more profound impact and the best therapeutic potential. Although classic apoptosis still might be important, regulated necrosis pathways including necroptosis, ferroptosis, parthanatos, and mitochondrial permeability transition-associated cell death play a significantly role in kidney diseases, especially in acute kidney pathologies. Although targeting receptor-interacting protein 1 kinase appears to be the best therapeutic strategy, combination with inhibitors of other cell death pathways is likely to bring superior benefit and possible cure to patients suffering from kidney diseases. PMID:27339381

  6. Feasibility of a Tailored Intervention Targeting STD-Related Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellis, Jeffery M.; Grimely, Diane M.; Alexander, Leah R.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether high risk populations would be receptive to tailored, multimedia interventions to promote adoption of health-protective behaviors related to sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention and control. Feedback from predominantly African American, urban participants aged 16-50 years, recruited from a STD clinic, indicated that…

  7. Interventions Targeting Attention in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Elena; Watson, Linda R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The ability to focus and sustain one's attention is critical for learning. Children with autism demonstrate unusual characteristics of attention from infancy. It is reasonable to assume that early anomalies in attention influence a child's developmental trajectories. Therapeutic interventions for autism often focus on core features of…

  8. Cultural relevance of physical activity intervention research with underrepresented populations

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Chan, Keith; Banks, JoAnne; Ruppar, Todd M.; Scharff, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes cultural relevance in physical activity intervention research with underrepresented populations. Seventy-one extant studies which tested interventions to increase physical activity among underrepresented adults were included. Verbatim descriptions of efforts to enhance cultural relevance of study designs and interventions were extracted and then content analyzed. We found strategies to enhance cultural relevance of interventions as soliciting input from population members, linking intervention content with values, addressing language and literacy challenges, incorporating population media figures, using culturally relevant forms of physical activity, and addressing specific population linked barriers to activity. Methodological approaches included specialized recruitment and study locations, culturally relevant measures, underrepresented personnel, and cost-awareness study procedures to prevent fiscal barriers to participation. Most reported activities were surface matching. Existing research neither compared the effectiveness of cultural relevance approaches to standardized interventions nor addressed economic, education, geographic, or cultural heterogeneity among groups. PMID:25228486

  9. Feasibility study of an obesity "Prevention Plus" intervention targeting children and parenting practices: Helping HAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to test for feasibility and obesity intervention, targeting 5-8 year old children with BMI 85-99%tile in community primary care clinics. Randomized controlled trial with child and parenting data obtained pre and post intervention. Based on social cognitive and parenting...

  10. An Evaluation of Six Brief Interventions that Target Drug-Related Problems in Correctional Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, George W.; Knight, Kevin; Simpson, D. Dwayne; Flynn, Patrick M.; Morey, Janis T.; Bartholomew, Norma G.; Tindall, Michele Staton; Burdon, William M.; Hall, Elizabeth A.; Martin, Steve S.; O'Connell, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Finding brief effective treatments for criminal justice populations is a major public need. The CJ-DATS Targeted Intervention for Corrections (TIC), which consists of six brief interventions (communication, anger, motivation, criminal thinking, social networks, and HIV/sexual health), was tested in separate federally-funded randomized control…

  11. Pilot Evaluation of a Web-Based Intervention Targeting Sexual Health Service Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, K. E.; Newby, K.; Caley, M.; Danahay, A.; Kehal, I.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual health service access is fundamental to good sexual health, yet interventions designed to address this have rarely been implemented or evaluated. In this article, pilot evaluation findings for a targeted public health behavior change intervention, delivered via a website and web-app, aiming to increase uptake of sexual health services among…

  12. The Limerick Reading Initiative: A Reading Intervention Targeted at Struggling Readers in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Diarmuid; Olshtroon, Aoife; O'Halloran, Claire

    2016-01-01

    In this study we examined the effectiveness of a reading intervention targeting a group of 24 struggling readers in ten primary schools in Ireland. The intervention consisted of two components; component one consisted of 15-20 minutes delivery of the Toe-by-Toe programme (a well established systematic synthetic phonics programme) and the second…

  13. The Unintended Consequences of Targeting: Young People's Lived Experiences of Social and Emotional Learning Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Rhiannon; Scourfield, Jonathan; Murphy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In the past twenty years there has been a proliferation of targeted school-based social and emotional learning (SEL) interventions. However, the lived experience of young peoples' participation is often elided, while the potential for interventions to confer unintended and even adverse effects remains under-theorised and empirically…

  14. Psychostimulant and Sensory Stimulation Interventions That Target the Reading and Math Deficits of Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Sydney S.; Tom-Wright, Kinsey; Lee, Jiyeon

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this review of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was to summarize the following: (1) academic deficits in math and reading, (2) possible theoretical contributors to these deficits, and (3) psychostimulant interventions that target math and reading, as well as, parallel interventions involving…

  15. The Use and Effectiveness of a Targeted Math Intervention for Third Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Juli L.; Carter, Gabriel M.; Johnson, Evelyn S.; Carter, Deborah R.

    2013-01-01

    Students who fail to develop proficiency in math skills in the primary grades are more likely to experience difficulties in the math curriculum later on. These students may be in need of a more targeted intervention, or Tier 2 supports, in mathematic instruction. Although the instructional principles of an effective math intervention are becoming…

  16. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF INTERVENTIONS TARGETING PATERNAL MENTAL HEALTH IN THE PERINATAL PERIOD.

    PubMed

    Rominov, Holly; Pilkington, Pamela D; Giallo, Rebecca; Whelan, Thomas A

    2016-05-01

    Interventions targeting parents' mental health in the perinatal period are critical due to potential consequences of perinatal mental illness for the parent, the infant, and their family. To date, most programs have targeted mothers. This systematic review explores the current status and evidence for intervention programs aiming to prevent or treat paternal mental illness in the perinatal period. Electronic databases were systematically searched to identify peer-reviewed studies that described an intervention targeting fathers' mental health in the perinatal period. Mental health outcomes included depression, anxiety, and stress as well as more general measures of psychological functioning. Eleven studies were identified. Three of five psychosocial interventions and three massage-technique interventions reported significant effects. None of the couple-based interventions reported significant effects. A number of methodological limitations were identified, including inadequate reporting of study designs, and issues with the timing of interventions. The variability in outcomes measures across the studies made it difficult to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the interventions. Father-focused interventions aimed at preventing perinatal mood problems will be improved if future studies utilize more rigorous research strategies. PMID:27079685

  17. Activity-Focused Motor Interventions for Children with Neurological Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valvano, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a model to guide activity-focused physical therapy and occupational therapy interventions for children with neurological conditions. Activity-focused interventions involve structured practice and repetition of functional actions and are directed toward the learning of motor tasks that will increase independence and…

  18. Citizen participation in police crisis intervention activities.

    PubMed

    Baumann, D J; Schultz, D F; Brown, C; Paredes, R; Hepworth, J

    1987-08-01

    A naturalistic experiment tested the proposition that police time could be saved in nondangerous crisis intervention calls through the use of citizen participants. Results showed that police officers who used citizen intervention spent less time per call than officers who did not. However, police time was not saved in family disturbance calls. Family disturbance control group calls were rated by police as having a higher degree of physical danger present than other calls. PMID:3673956

  19. Dengue vector management using insecticide treated materials and targeted interventions on productive breeding-sites in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In view of the epidemiological expansion of dengue worldwide and the availability of new tools and strategies particularly for controlling the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti, an intervention study was set up to test the efficacy, cost and feasibility of a combined approach of insecticide treated materials (ITMs) alone and in combination with appropriate targeted interventions of the most productive vector breeding-sites. Methods The study was conducted as a cluster randomized community trial using “reduction of the vector population” as the main outcome variable. The trial had two arms: 10 intervention clusters (neighborhoods) and 10 control clusters in the town of Poptun Guatemala. Activities included entomological assessments (characteristics of breeding-sites, pupal productivity, Stegomyia indices) at baseline, 6 weeks after the first intervention (coverage of window and exterior doorways made of PermaNet 2.0 netting, factory treated with deltamethrin at 55 mg/m2, and of 200 L drums with similar treated material) and 6 weeks after the second intervention (combination of treated materials and other suitable interventions targeting productive breeding-sites i.e larviciding with Temephos, elimination etc.). The second intervention took place 17 months after the first intervention. The insecticide residual activity and the insecticidal content were also studied at different intervals. Additionally, information about demographic characteristics, cost of the intervention, coverage of houses protected and satisfaction in the population with the interventions was collected. Results At baseline (during the dry season) a variety of productive container types for Aedes pupae were identified: various container types holding >20 L, 200 L drums, washbasins and buckets (producing 83.7% of all pupae). After covering 100% of windows and exterior doorways and a small number of drums (where the commercial cover could be fixed) in 970 study households, tropical

  20. Targeted intervention strategies to optimise diversion of BMW in the Dublin, Ireland region

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, M.; Magette, W.L.

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Previous research indicates that targeted strategies designed for specific areas should lead to improved diversion. > Survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting. > Then logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific management intervention strategies. > Waste management initiatives can be tailored to specific needs of areas rather than one size fits all means currently used. - Abstract: Urgent transformation is required in Ireland to divert biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill and prevent increases in overall waste generation. When BMW is optimally managed, it becomes a resource with value instead of an unwanted by-product requiring disposal. An analysis of survey responses from commercial and residential sectors for the Dublin region in previous research by the authors proved that attitudes towards and behaviour regarding municipal solid waste is spatially variable. This finding indicates that targeted intervention strategies designed for specific geographic areas should lead to improved diversion rates of BMW from landfill, a requirement of the Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC. In the research described in this paper, survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting, after which logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific waste management intervention strategies. The main strategies devised include (a) roll out of the Brown Bin (Organics) Collection and Community Workshops in Dun Laoghaire Rathdown, (b) initiation of a Community Composting Project in Dublin City (c) implementation of a Waste Promotion and Motivation Scheme in South Dublin (d) development and distribution of a Waste Booklet to promote waste reduction activities in Fingal (e) region wide distribution of a Waste Booklet to the commercial sector and (f) Greening Irish Pubs Initiative. Each of these

  1. Target activation by regulatory RNAs in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Papenfort, Kai; Vanderpool, Carin K.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are commonly known to repress gene expression by base pairing to target mRNAs. In many cases, sRNAs base pair with and sequester mRNA ribosome-binding sites, resulting in translational repression and accelerated transcript decay. In contrast, a growing number of examples of translational activation and mRNA stabilization by sRNAs have now been documented. A given sRNA often employs a conserved region to interact with and regulate both repressed and activated targets. However, the mechanisms underlying activation differ substantially from repression. Base pairing resulting in target activation can involve sRNA interactions with the 5′ untranslated region (UTR), the coding sequence or the 3′ UTR of the target mRNAs. Frequently, the activities of protein factors such as cellular ribonucleases and the RNA chaperone Hfq are required for activation. Bacterial sRNAs, including those that function as activators, frequently control stress response pathways or virulence-associated functions required for immediate responses to changing environments. This review aims to summarize recent advances in knowledge regarding target mRNA activation by bacterial sRNAs, highlighting the molecular mechanisms and biological relevance of regulation. PMID:25934124

  2. Targeting condom distribution at high risk places increases condom utilization-evidence from an intervention study in Livingstone, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The PLACE-method presumes that targeting HIV preventive activities at high risk places is effective in settings with major epidemics. Livingstone, Zambia, has a major HIV epidemic despite many preventive efforts in the city. A baseline survey conducted in 2005 in places where people meet new sexual partners found high partner turnover and unprotected sex to be common among guests. In addition, there were major gaps in on-site condom availability. This study aimed to assess the impact of a condom distribution and peer education intervention targeting places where people meet new sexual partners on condom use and sexual risk taking among people socializing there. Methods The 2005 baseline survey assessed the presence of HIV preventive activities and sexual risk taking in places where people meet new sexual partners in Livingstone. One township was selected for a non-randomised intervention study on condom distribution and peer education in high risk venues in 2009. The presence of HIV preventive activities in the venues during the intervention was monitored by an external person. The intervention was evaluated after one year with a follow-up survey in the intervention township and a comparison township. In addition, qualitative interviews and focus group discussions were conducted. Results Young people between 17-32 years of age were recruited as peer educators, and 40% were females. Out of 72 persons trained before the intervention, 38 quit, and another 11 had to be recruited. The percentage of venues where condoms were reported to always be available at least doubled in both townships, but was significantly higher in the intervention vs. the control venues in both surveys (84% vs. 33% in the follow-up). There was a reduction in reported sexual risk taking among guests socializing in the venues in both areas, but reporting of recent condom use increased more among people interviewed in the intervention (57% to 84%) than in the control community (55% to 68

  3. Effects of School-Based Physical Activity Interventions on Cognition and Academic Achievement: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mura, Gioia; Vellante, Marcello; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Schools are an ideal setting to implement physical activity programs targeted at youths' learning and intellectual abilities, as exercise has been associated with improvement in cognitive skills and academic proficiency. A systematic review of the literature was performed to examine the effects of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and cognitive outcomes. A search for relevant papers was carried out on PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar. Only quasi-experimental and experimental studies were included, if focused on school-based physical activity interventions targeting 3 to 18 year-old healthy pupils, and designed to establish a relationship between exercise performed in a school setting and cognitive/academic performance. Thirty-one papers were retrieved by the search, reporting the findings of twenty-eight school-based physical activity interventions. Most of the included studies were published in the past five years. A large majority of the studies showed positive results in terms of academic achievement and, above all, cognitive skills. In the recent years, the number of studies on school-based physical interventions aimed to establish a relationship between physical activity performed in school setting and cognitive/academic outcomes significantly increased, as well as high quality assessments and designs. This review highlights the effectiveness of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and, above all, on youths' cognitive performance. Some interesting findings come from studies assessing brain functional changes, from interventions targeting culturally diverse or low-income samples, and from interventions where physical activity is in the form of active videogames. PMID:26556088

  4. Targeted intervention for the ultra poor in rural Bangladesh: Does it make any difference in their health-seeking behaviour?

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Petzold, Max; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Tomson, Göran

    2006-12-01

    It is now well recognised that regular microcredit intervention is not enough to effectively reach the ultra poor in rural Bangladesh, in fact it actively excludes them for structural reasons. A grants-based integrated intervention was developed (with health inputs to mitigate the income-erosion effect of illness) to examine whether such a targeted intervention could change the health-seeking behaviour of the ultra-poor towards greater use of health services and "formal allopathic" providers during illness, besides improving their poverty status and capacity for health expenditure. The study was carried out in three northern districts of Bangladesh with high density of ultra poor households, using a pre-test/post-test control group design. A pre-intervention baseline (2189 interventions and 2134 controls) survey was undertaken in 2002 followed by an intervention (of 18 months duration) and a post-intervention follow-up survey of the same households in 2004. Structured interviews were conducted to elicit information on health-seeking behaviour of household members. Findings reveal an overall change in health-seeking behaviour in the study population, but the intervention reduced self-care by 7 percentage units and increased formal allopathic care by 9 percentage units. The intervention increased the proportion of non-deficit households by 43 percentage units, as well as the capacity to spend more than Tk. 25 for treatment of illness during the reference period by 11 percentage units. Higher health expenditure and time (pre- to -post-intervention period) was associated with increased use of health care from formal allopathic providers. However, gender differences in health-seeking and health-expenditure disfavouring women were also noted. The programmatic implications of these findings are discussed in the context of improving the ability of health systems to reach the ultra poor. PMID:16954049

  5. A Review of eHealth Interventions for Physical Activity and Dietary Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Gregory J.; Zabinski, Marion F.; Adams, Marc A.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Atienza, Audie A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To review eHealth intervention studies for adults and children that targeted behavior change for physical activity, healthy eating, or both behaviors. Data Sources Systematic literature searches were performed using five databases: Medline, PsychInfo, CINAHL, ERIC, and the Cochrane Library to retrieve articles. Study Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Articles published in scientific journals were included if they evaluated an intervention for physical activity and/or dietary behaviors, or focused on weight loss; used randomized or quasi-experimental designs; measured outcomes at baseline and a follow-up period; and included an intervention where participants interacted with some type of electronic technology either as the main intervention or an adjunct component. All studies were published between 2000 and 2005. Results Eighty-six publications were initially identified, of which 49 met the inclusion criteria (13 physical activity publications, 16 dietary behaviors publications, and 20 weight loss or both physical activity and diet publications), and represented 47 different studies. Studies were described on multiple dimensions, including sample characteristics, design, intervention, measures, and results. eHealth interventions were superior to comparison groups for 21/41 (51%) studies (3 physical activity, 7 diet, 11 weight loss/physical activity and diet). Twenty-four studies had indeterminate results, and in four studies the comparison conditions outperformed eHealth interventions. Conclusions Published studies of eHealth interventions for physical activity and dietary behavior change are in their infancy. Results indicated mixed findings related to the effectiveness of eHealth interventions. Interventions that feature interactive technologies need to be refined and more rigorously evaluated to fully determine their potential as tools to facilitate health behavior change. PMID:17888860

  6. A Review of Culturally Targeted/Tailored Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Interventions for Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nisha; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Emerging racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco use behaviors and resulting long-term health outcomes highlight the importance of developing culturally tailored/targeted tobacco prevention and cessation interventions. This manuscript describes the efficacy and the components of prevention and cessation interventions developed for minority adolescents. Methods: Thirteen studies focused on culturally tailoring and targeting tobacco prevention/cessation interventions were selected and information on intervention design (type, number of sessions), setting (school or community), theoretical constructs, culture-specific components (surface/deep structures), and treatment outcomes were extracted. Results: Of the 13 studies, 5 focused on prevention, 4 on cessation, and 4 combined prevention and cessation, and most of the studies were primarily school-based, while a few used community locations. Although diverse minority groups were targeted, a majority of the studies (n = 6) worked with Hispanic adolescents. The most common theoretical construct examined was the Social Influence Model (n = 5). The overall findings indicated that culturally tailoring cessation interventions did not appear to improve tobacco quit rates among minority adolescents, but culturally tailored prevention interventions appeared to produce lower tobacco initiation rates among minority adolescents than control conditions. Conclusions: The results of review suggest that there is a critical need to develop better interventions to reduce tobacco use among minority adolescents and that developing a better understanding of cultural issues related to both cessation and initiation of tobacco use among minority populations is a key component of this endeavor. PMID:22614548

  7. Process and Effects Evaluation of a Digital Mental Health Intervention Targeted at Improving Occupational Well-Being: Lessons From an Intervention Study With Failed Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Ermes, Miikka

    2016-01-01

    Background Digital interventions have the potential to serve as cost-effective ways to manage occupational stress and well-being. However, little is known about the adoption of individual-level digital interventions at organizations. Objectives The aim of this paper is to study the effects of an unguided digital mental health intervention in occupational well-being and the factors that influence the adoption of the intervention. Methods The intervention was based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and its aim was to teach skills for stress management and mental well-being. It was delivered via a mobile and a Web-based app that were offered to employees of two information and communication technology (ICT) companies. The primary outcome measures were perceived stress and work engagement, measured by a 1-item stress questionnaire (Stress) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9). The intervention process was evaluated regarding the change mechanisms and intervention stages using mixed methods. The initial interviews were conducted face-to-face with human resource managers (n=2) of both companies in August 2013. The participants were recruited via information sessions and email invitations. The intervention period took place between November 2013 and March 2014. The participants were asked to complete online questionnaires at baseline, two months, and four months after the baseline measurement. The final phone interviews for the volunteer participants (n=17) and the human resource managers (n=2) were conducted in April to May 2014, five months after the baseline. Results Of all the employees, only 27 (8.1%, 27/332) took the app into use, with a mean use of 4.8 (SD 4.7) different days. In the beginning, well-being was on good level in both companies and no significant changes in well-being were observed. The activities of the intervention process failed to integrate the intervention into everyday activities at the workplace. Those who took the app into

  8. Testing a workplace physical activity intervention: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increased physical activity levels benefit both an individuals' health and productivity at work. The purpose of the current study was to explore the impact and cost-effectiveness of a workplace physical activity intervention designed to increase physical activity levels. Methods A total of 1260 participants from 44 UK worksites (based within 5 organizations) were recruited to a cluster randomized controlled trial with worksites randomly allocated to an intervention or control condition. Measurement of physical activity and other variables occurred at baseline, and at 0 months, 3 months and 9 months post-intervention. Health outcomes were measured during a 30 minute health check conducted in worksites at baseline and 9 months post intervention. The intervention consisted of a 3 month tool-kit of activities targeting components of the Theory of Planned Behavior, delivered in-house by nominated facilitators. Self-reported physical activity (measured using the IPAQ short-form) and health outcomes were assessed. Results and discussion Multilevel modelling found no significant effect of the intervention on MET minutes of activity (from the IPAQ) at any of the follow-up time points controlling for baseline activity. However, the intervention did significantly reduce systolic blood pressure (B = -1.79 mm/Hg) and resting heart rate (B = -2.08 beats) and significantly increased body mass index (B = .18 units) compared to control. The intervention was found not to be cost-effective, however the substantial variability round this estimate suggested that further research is warranted. Conclusions The current study found mixed support for this worksite physical activity intervention. The paper discusses some of the tensions involved in conducting rigorous evaluations of large-scale randomized controlled trials in real-world settings. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN08807396 PMID:21481265

  9. Systematic review of active workplace interventions to reduce sickness absence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The workplace is used as a setting for interventions to prevent and reduce sickness absence, regardless of the specific medical conditions and diagnoses. Aims To give an overview of the general effectiveness of active workplace interventions aimed at preventing and reducing sickness absence. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Psych-info, and ISI web of knowledge on 27 December 2011. Inclusion criteria were (i) participants over 18 years old with an active role in the intervention, (ii) intervention done partly or fully at the workplace or at the initiative of the workplace and (iii) sickness absence reported. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A narrative synthesis was used. Results We identified 2036 articles of which, 93 were assessed in full text. Seventeen articles were included (2 with low and 15 with medium risk of bias), with a total of 24 comparisons. Five interventions from four articles significantly reduced sickness absence. We found moderate evidence that graded activity reduced sickness absence and limited evidence that the Sheerbrooke model (a comprehensive multidisciplinary intervention) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) reduced sickness absence. There was moderate evidence that workplace education and physical exercise did not reduce sickness absence. For other interventions, the evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions. Conclusions The review found limited evidence that active workplace interventions were not generally effective in reducing sickness absence, but there was moderate evidence of effect for graded activity and limited evidence for the effectiveness of the Sheerbrooke model and CBT. PMID:23223750

  10. Meta-analysis of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity levels

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Many internet-delivered physical activity behaviour change programs have been developed and evaluated. However, further evidence is required to ascertain the overall effectiveness of such interventions. The objective of the present review was to evaluate the effectiveness of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity, whilst also examining the effect of intervention moderators. A systematic search strategy identified relevant studies published in the English-language from Pubmed, Proquest, Scopus, PsychINFO, CINHAL, and Sport Discuss (January 1990 – June 2011). Eligible studies were required to include an internet-delivered intervention, target an adult population, measure and target physical activity as an outcome variable, and include a comparison group that did not receive internet-delivered materials. Studies were coded independently by two investigators. Overall effect sizes were combined based on the fixed effect model. Homogeneity and subsequent exploratory moderator analysis was undertaken. A total of 34 articles were identified for inclusion. The overall mean effect of internet-delivered interventions on physical activity was d = 0.14 (p = 0.00). Fixed-effect analysis revealed significant heterogeneity across studies (Q = 73.75; p = 0.00). Moderating variables such as larger sample size, screening for baseline physical activity levels and the inclusion of educational components significantly increased intervention effectiveness. Results of the meta-analysis support the delivery of internet-delivered interventions in producing positive changes in physical activity, however effect sizes were small. The ability of internet-delivered interventions to produce meaningful change in long-term physical activity remains unclear. PMID:22546283

  11. Risks and Targeted Interventions: Firearms in Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Zeoli, April M; Malinski, Rebecca; Turchan, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    The use of firearms in intimate partner violence (IPV) is widely recognized as an important public health threat. However, what we know about the risks of firearm access on IPV outcomes is limited. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to determine the state of knowledge on 1) the risks of firearm access and use in IPV and 2) the effectiveness of interventions designed specifically to reduce firearm violence in intimate relationships. Only studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals from 1990 through 2014 were included. Results of the review suggest that, when violent intimates have access to firearms, IPV increases in severity and deadliness; however, increases in severity may not be due to firearm use. Additionally, statutes prohibiting persons under domestic violence restraining orders from accessing firearms are associated with reductions in intimate partner homicide, but certain provisions of these laws and their enforcement may impact their effectiveness. Future research should focus on elucidating the link between firearm access and increased IPV severity and on investigating whether and which specific provisions of domestic violence restraining order laws impact the laws' effectiveness. Additionally, more evaluations of initiatives designed to improve the enforcement of domestic violence restraining order firearm prohibitions are needed. PMID:26739680

  12. p53 as an intervention target for cancer and aging

    PubMed Central

    Hasty, Paul; Christy, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    p53 is well known for suppressing tumors but could also affect other aging processes not associated with tumor suppression. As a transcription factor, p53 responds to a variety of stresses to either induce apoptosis (cell death) or cell cycle arrest (cell preservation) to suppress tumor development. Yet, the effect p53 has on the non-cancer aspects of aging is complicated and not well understood. On one side, p53 could induce cellular senescence or apoptosis to suppress cancer but as an unintended consequence enhance the aging process especially if these responses diminish stem and progenitor cell populations. But on the flip side, p53 could reduce growth and growth-related stress to enable cell survival and ultimately delay the aging process. A better understanding of diverse functions of p53 is essential to elucidate its influences on the aging process and the possibility of targeting p53 or p53 transcriptional targets to treat cancer and ameliorate general aging. PMID:24124625

  13. [Development of the Saxon Health Target "Active aging - aging in health, autonomy, and participation"].

    PubMed

    Brockow, T; Schulze, J; Fürst, F; Sawatzki, R; Wegge, J; Kliegel, M; Zwingenberger, W; Thönges, B; Eberhard, C; Resch, K-L

    2009-07-01

    In Saxony, the consequences of demographic aging are observable already today. To manage the implications on the health sector, the Saxon Health Targets Steering Committee decided in March 2008 to develop a health target "Active Aging - Aging in Health, Autonomy, and Participation". Target development was based on a 7-level approach (fields of action, main goals, target areas, targets, strategies, intervention measures, indicators for evaluation). A quantitative content analysis was used to reveal 10 potential relevant fields of action, three of which were selected for target development. Targets were developed by 53 stakeholders in multiprofessional working groups. Criteria-based analyses were performed to assure appropriate scientific evidence and feasibility of targets and intervention measures. Over a period of 9 months, 24 targets were defined referring to the main goals "needs-based health care structures", "multiprofessional qualification", "self-rated health" and "intergenerational solidarity". Thirteen targets were developed into recommendations for specific intervention measures. Most of the proposed interventions aim to modify health-related structures or psychosocial determinants of health in the elderly. The best recommendations for intervention measures shall be implemented in cooperation with interested decision-makers. PMID:19565198

  14. The Impact of Targeted Classroom Interventions and Function-Based Behavior Interventions on Problem Behaviors of Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussell, Robert P.; Lewis, Timothy J.; Stichter, Janine P.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of both functional behavior assessment-based interventions and targeted classroom interventions for reducing problem behaviors of children with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) in special education classrooms. Specifically, this study was interested in how interventions based on changes in…

  15. Lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition among youth with an intellectual disability: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Maïano, Christophe; Normand, Claude L; Aimé, Annie; Bégarie, Jérôme

    2014-08-01

    Over the past three decades, the potential effects of lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition (weight, body mass index, fat mass, waist circumference) among adults with an intellectual disability (ID) have been examined in various systematic reviews. Nevertheless, since the middle of the 1980s, the potential effects of these interventions for youth with an ID remain an open question. The purpose of this article is to review the effects of lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition among youth with an ID. This review will focus on changes in body weight and composition, healthy lifestyle, and secondary health conditions. A systematic review of English- and French-language studies, published between 1981 and 2013, was performed on Academic Search Complete, PsycARTICLES, Medline and Scopus. The nine studies included in this review focused mainly on: a sample with a wide age range (e.g., 7-22 years); males; overweight-obese youth having a mild-to-moderate ID with Down or Prader-Willi syndrome; physical activity interventions; cohort pre- and post-test designs with/without a control group; and changes in body weight and composition. Taken together, results from these studies suggest successful changes in weight, body mass index and fat mass. However, intervention effects on healthy lifestyle and secondary health conditions are scarce and inconclusive. Given the weaknesses of the reviewed studies, the present findings should be considered preliminary and indicative of the need for future research. PMID:24830882

  16. Non-face-to-face physical activity interventions in older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Müller, Andre Matthias; Khoo, Selina

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is effective in preventing chronic diseases, increasing quality of life and promoting general health in older adults, but most older adults are not sufficiently active to gain those benefits. A novel and economically viable way to promote physical activity in older adults is through non-face-to-face interventions. These are conducted with reduced or no in-person interaction between intervention provider and program participants. The aim of this review was to summarize the scientific literature on non-face-to-face physical activity interventions targeting healthy, community dwelling older adults (≥ 50 years). A systematic search in six databases was conducted by combining multiple key words of the three main search categories "physical activity", "media" and "older adults". The search was restricted to English language articles published between 1st January 2000 and 31st May 2013. Reference lists of relevant articles were screened for additional publications. Seventeen articles describing sixteen non-face-to-face physical activity interventions were included in the review. All studies were conducted in developed countries, and eleven were randomized controlled trials. Sample size ranged from 31 to 2503 participants, and 13 studies included 60% or more women. Interventions were most frequently delivered via print materials and phone (n=11), compared to internet (n=3) and other media (n=2). Every intervention was theoretically framed with the Social Cognitive Theory (n=10) and the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (n=6) applied mostly. Individual tailoring was reported in 15 studies. Physical activity levels were self-assessed in all studies. Fourteen studies reported significant increase in physical activity. Eight out of nine studies conducted post-intervention follow-up analysis found that physical activity was maintained over a longer time. In the six studies where intervention dose was assessed the results varied considerably. One

  17. Sleep and Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension: A Possible Target for Intervention?

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Alyssa; Buysse, Daniel J.; Okun, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbances in the general population are associated with elevated blood pressure. This may be due to several mechanisms, including sympathetic activation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbance. Elevated blood pressure in pregnancy can have devastating effects on both maternal and fetal health and is associated with increased risk for preeclampsia and poor delivery outcomes. Preliminary evidence suggests that mechanisms linking sleep and blood pressure in the general population may also hold in the pregnant population. However, the effects of disturbed sleep on physiologic mechanisms that may directly influence blood pressure in pregnancy have not been well studied. The role that sleep disturbance plays in gestational blood pressure elevation and its subsequent consequences warrant further investigation. This review evaluates the current literature on sleep disturbance and elevated blood pressure in pregnancy and proposes possible treatment interventions. Citation: Haney A; Buysse DJ; Okun M. Sleep and pregnancy-induced hypertension: a possible target for intervention? J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(12):1349-1356. PMID:24340300

  18. Qualitative methods to ensure acceptability of behavioral and social interventions to the target population

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Elder, John P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces qualitative methods for assessing the acceptability of an intervention. Acceptability refers to determining how well an intervention will be received by the target population and the extent to which the new intervention or its components might meet the needs of the target population and organizational setting. In this paper, we focus on two common qualitative methods for conducting acceptability research and their advantages and disadvantages: focus groups and interviews. We provide examples from our own research and other studies to demonstrate the use of these methods for conducting acceptability research and how one might adapt this approach for oral health research. Finally, we present emerging methods for conducting acceptability research, including the use of community-based participatory research, as well as the utility of conducting acceptability research for assessing the appropriateness of measures in intervention research. PMID:21656958

  19. A Targeted Infection Prevention Intervention in Nursing Home Residents With Indwelling Devices

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Lona; Krein, Sarah L.; Saint, Sanjay K.; Min, Lillian C.; Montoya, Ana; Lansing, Bonnie; McNamara, Sara E.; Symons, Kathleen; Fisch, Jay; Koo, Evonne; Rye, Ruth Anne; Galecki, Andrzej; Kabeto, Mohammed U.; Fitzgerald, James T.; Olmsted, Russell N.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Bradley, Suzanne F.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Indwelling devices (eg, urinary catheters and feeding tubes) are often used in nursing homes (NHs). Inadequate care of residents with these devices contributes to high rates of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) and device-related infections in NHs. OBJECTIVE To test whether a multimodal targeted infection program (TIP) reduces the prevalence of MDROs and incident device-related infections. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Randomized clinical trial at 12 community-based NHs from May 2010 to April 2013. Participants were high-risk NH residents with urinary catheters, feeding tubes, or both. INTERVENTIONS Multimodal, including preemptive barrier precautions, active surveillance for MDROs and infections, and NH staff education. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was the prevalence density rate of MDROs, defined as the total number of MDROs isolated per visit averaged over the duration of a resident's participation. Secondary outcomes included new MDRO acquisitions and new clinically defined device-associated infections. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects multilevel Poisson regression model (primary outcome) and a Cox proportional hazards model (secondary outcome), adjusting for facility-level clustering and resident-level variables. RESULTS In total, 418 NH residents with indwelling devices were enrolled, with 34 174 device-days and 6557 anatomic sites sampled. Intervention NHs had a decrease in the overall MDRO prevalence density (rate ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62–0.94). The rate of new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus acquisitions was lower in the intervention group than in the control group (rate ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64–0.96). Hazard ratios for the first and all (including recurrent) clinically defined catheter-associated urinary tract infections were 0.54 (95% CI, 0.30–0.97) and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.49–0.99), respectively, in the intervention group and the control group. There were no reductions in new vancomycin

  20. Reactive oxygen species-targeted therapeutic interventions for atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Sovari, Ali A.; Dudley, Samuel C.

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia that requires medical attention, and its incidence is increasing. Current ion channel blockade therapies and catheter ablation have significant limitations in treatment of AF, mainly because they do not address the underlying pathophysiology of the disease. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a major underlying pathology that promotes AF; however, conventional antioxidants have not shown impressive therapeutic effects. A more careful design of antioxidant therapies and better selection of patients likely are required to treat effectively AF with antioxidant agents. Current evidence suggest inhibition of prominent cardiac sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and targeting subcellular compartments with the highest levels of ROS may prove to be effective therapies for AF. Increased serum markers of oxidative stress may be an important guide in selecting the AF patients who will most likely respond to antioxidant therapy. PMID:22934062

  1. Correlates of the Intention to Implement a Tailored Physical Activity Intervention: Perceptions of Intermediaries

    PubMed Central

    Peels, Denise; Mudde, Aart; Bolman, Catherine; Golsteijn, Rianne; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    The public health impact of health behaviour interventions is highly dependent on large-scale implementation. Intermediaries—intervention providers—determine to a large extent whether an intervention reaches the target population, and hence its impact on public health. A cross-sectional study was performed to identify the correlates of intermediaries’ intention to implement a computer-tailored physical activity intervention. According to theory, potential correlates are intervention characteristics, organisational characteristics, socio-political characteristics and intermediary characteristics. This study investigated whether intermediary characteristics mediated the association between the intervention, organisational and socio-political characteristics and intention to implement the intervention. Results showed that intervention characteristics (i.e., observability (B = 0.53; p = 0.006); relative advantage (B = 0.79; p = 0.020); complexity (B = 0.80; p < 0.001); compatibility (B = 0.70; p < 0.001)), organisational characteristics (i.e., type of organization (B = 0.38; p = 0.002); perceived task responsibility (B = 0.66; p ≤ 0.001); capacity (B = 0.83; p < 0.001)), and the social support received by intermediary organisations (B = 0.81; p < 0.001) were associated with intention to implement the intervention. These factors should thus be targeted by an implementation strategy. Since self-efficacy and social norms perceived by the intermediary organisations partially mediated the effects of other variables on intention to implement the intervention (varying between 29% and 84%), these factors should be targeted to optimise the effectiveness of the implementation strategy. PMID:24518647

  2. Correlates of the intention to implement a tailored physical activity intervention: perceptions of intermediaries.

    PubMed

    Peels, Denise; Mudde, Aart; Bolman, Catherine; Golsteijn, Rianne; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2014-02-01

    The public health impact of health behaviour interventions is highly dependent on large-scale implementation. Intermediaries-intervention providers-determine to a large extent whether an intervention reaches the target population, and hence its impact on public health. A cross-sectional study was performed to identify the correlates of intermediaries' intention to implement a computer-tailored physical activity intervention. According to theory, potential correlates are intervention characteristics, organisational characteristics, socio-political characteristics and intermediary characteristics. This study investigated whether intermediary characteristics mediated the association between the intervention, organisational and socio-political characteristics and intention to implement the intervention. Results showed that intervention characteristics (i.e., observability (B = 0.53; p = 0.006); relative advantage (B = 0.79; p = 0.020); complexity (B = 0.80; p < 0.001); compatibility (B = 0.70; p < 0.001)), organisational characteristics (i.e., type of organization (B = 0.38; p = 0.002); perceived task responsibility (B = 0.66; p ≤ 0.001); capacity (B = 0.83; p < 0.001)), and the social support received by intermediary organisations (B = 0.81; p < 0.001) were associated with intention to implement the intervention. These factors should thus be targeted by an implementation strategy. Since self-efficacy and social norms perceived by the intermediary organisations partially mediated the effects of other variables on intention to implement the intervention (varying between 29% and 84%), these factors should be targeted to optimise the effectiveness of the implementation strategy. PMID:24518647

  3. Video Guidance Sensors Using Remotely Activated Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Thomas C.; Howard, Richard T.; Book, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    Four updated video guidance sensor (VGS) systems have been proposed. As described in a previous NASA Tech Briefs article, a VGS system is an optoelectronic system that provides guidance for automated docking of two vehicles. The VGS provides relative position and attitude (6-DOF) information between the VGS and its target. In the original intended application, the two vehicles would be spacecraft, but the basic principles of design and operation of the system are applicable to aircraft, robots, objects maneuvered by cranes, or other objects that may be required to be aligned and brought together automatically or under remote control. In the first two of the four VGS systems as now proposed, the tracked vehicle would include active targets that would light up on command from the tracking vehicle, and a video camera on the tracking vehicle would be synchronized with, and would acquire images of, the active targets. The video camera would also acquire background images during the periods between target illuminations. The images would be digitized and the background images would be subtracted from the illuminated-target images. Then the position and orientation of the tracked vehicle relative to the tracking vehicle would be computed from the known geometric relationships among the positions of the targets in the image, the positions of the targets relative to each other and to the rest of the tracked vehicle, and the position and orientation of the video camera relative to the rest of the tracking vehicle. The major difference between the first two proposed systems and prior active-target VGS systems lies in the techniques for synchronizing the flashing of the active targets with the digitization and processing of image data. In the prior active-target VGS systems, synchronization was effected, variously, by use of either a wire connection or the Global Positioning System (GPS). In three of the proposed VGS systems, the synchronizing signal would be generated on, and

  4. Interventions to Promote Physical Activity among Young and Adolescent Girls: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho-Minano, Maria J.; LaVoi, Nicole M.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.

    2011-01-01

    A narrative systematic review was conducted to describe the available evidence from physical activity (PA) interventions that targeted girls aged 5-18 years and to determine their effectiveness and key characteristics of success. Systematic literature searches were conducted using four databases: PubMed, Web of Science, PsychInfo and SPORTDiscus…

  5. Evidence-based intervention in physical activity: lessons from around the world

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L; Andersen, Lars Bo; Owen, Neville; Goenka, Shifalika; Montes, Felipe; Brownson, Ross C

    2016-01-01

    Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community-wide and mass media campaigns, and short physical activity messages targeting key community sites are recommended. Behavioural and social approaches are effective, introducing social support for physical activity within communities and worksites, and school-based strategies that encompass physical education, classroom activities, after-school sports, and active transport. Recommended environmental and policy approaches include creation and improvement of access to places for physical activity with informational outreach activities, community-scale and street-scale urban design and land use, active transport policy and practices, and community-wide policies and planning. Thus, many approaches lead to acceptable increases in physical activity among people of various ages, and from different social groups, countries, and communities. PMID:22818939

  6. Neuroprotective interventions targeting detrimental host immune responses protect mice from fatal alphavirus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Irani, David N; Prow, Natalie A

    2007-06-01

    Systemic treatment with the tetracycline derivative, minocycline, attenuates neurologic deficits in animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, and multiple sclerosis. Inhibition of microglial activation within the CNS is 1 mechanism proposed to underlie the beneficial effects of the drug in these systems. Given the widening scope of acute viral encephalitis caused by mosquito-borne pathogens, we investigated the therapeutic effects of minocycline in a murine model of fatal alphavirus encephalomyelitis in which widespread microglial activation is known to occur. We found that minocycline conferred significant protection against both paralysis and death, even when started after viral challenge and despite having no effect on CNS virus replication or spread. Further studies demonstrated that minocycline inhibited early virus-induced microglial activation and that diminished CNS production of the inflammatory mediator, interleukin (IL)-1beta, contributed to its protective effect. Therapeutic blockade of IL-1 receptors also conferred significant protection in our model, validating the importance of the IL-1 pathway in disease pathogenesis. We propose that interventions targeting detrimental host immune responses arising from activated microglia may be of benefit in humans with acute viral encephalitis caused by related mosquito-borne pathogens. Such treatments could conceivably act through neuroprotective rather than antiviral mechanisms to generate these clinical effects. PMID:17549013

  7. LPTS: A Novel Tumor Suppressor Gene and a Promising Drug Target for Cancer Intervention.

    PubMed

    Baichuan, Li; Cao, Songshen; Liu, Yunlai

    2015-01-01

    Liver-related putative tumor suppressor (lpts) is a liver-related tumor suppressor candidate gene initially isolated by positional candidate cloning method. Three translation products of lpts gene are found, that are LPTS-L, LPTS-S and LPTS-M respectively. The gene highly expresses in normal tissues but lowly in cancer tissues. The LPTS proteins can suppress the activity of telomerase and trigger apoptosis for tumor cells in vivo and in vitro, despite that the detailed anti-cancer mechanism remains undefined. This review successively describes the lpts genomic assembly, transcriptional regulation and structure-activity evaluation of different LPTS isoforms; then it represents the LPTS binding partners, for example Pin2/TRF1 and MCRS2, which play important roles in decreasing telomerase activity, which benefits to reveal the anticancer mechanism; subsequently, it surveys several patents of recombinant LPTS proteins such as TAT-LPTS-LC, PinX1/C-G4S-9R-G4S-mBAFF and PinX1/C-9R-mBAF that can inhibit the growth of tumor cells. Lpts gene is becoming a promising drug target for cancer intervention owing to its powerful inhibition efficacy on telomerase activity, and recombinant LPTS proteins claimed by a couple of patents seem to be potential anti-cancer agents. PMID:25479038

  8. Non-face-to-face physical activity interventions in older adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is effective in preventing chronic diseases, increasing quality of life and promoting general health in older adults, but most older adults are not sufficiently active to gain those benefits. A novel and economically viable way to promote physical activity in older adults is through non-face-to-face interventions. These are conducted with reduced or no in-person interaction between intervention provider and program participants. The aim of this review was to summarize the scientific literature on non-face-to-face physical activity interventions targeting healthy, community dwelling older adults (≥ 50 years). A systematic search in six databases was conducted by combining multiple key words of the three main search categories “physical activity”, “media” and “older adults”. The search was restricted to English language articles published between 1st January 2000 and 31st May 2013. Reference lists of relevant articles were screened for additional publications. Seventeen articles describing sixteen non-face-to-face physical activity interventions were included in the review. All studies were conducted in developed countries, and eleven were randomized controlled trials. Sample size ranged from 31 to 2503 participants, and 13 studies included 60% or more women. Interventions were most frequently delivered via print materials and phone (n = 11), compared to internet (n = 3) and other media (n = 2). Every intervention was theoretically framed with the Social Cognitive Theory (n = 10) and the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (n = 6) applied mostly. Individual tailoring was reported in 15 studies. Physical activity levels were self-assessed in all studies. Fourteen studies reported significant increase in physical activity. Eight out of nine studies conducted post-intervention follow-up analysis found that physical activity was maintained over a longer time. In the six studies where intervention dose was assessed

  9. Breast Cancer Survivorship Care: Targeting a Colorectal Cancer Education Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Homan, Sherri G.; Yun, Shumei; Stewart, Bob R.; Armer, Jane M.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer survivors are at risk of developing a second primary cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading second primary cancers, and it is often preventable. We developed a multi-component educational tool to inform and encourage women breast cancer survivors to engage in CRC screening. To assess the strengths and weakness of the tool and to improve the relevancy to the target audience, we convened four focus groups of women breast cancer survivors in Missouri. We also assessed the potential impact of the tool on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding CRC and collected information on the barriers to CRC screening through pre- and post-focus groups’ questionnaires. A total of 43 women breast cancer survivors participated and provided very valuable suggestions on design and content to update the tool. Through the process and comparing pre- and post-focus group assessments, a significantly higher proportion of breast cancer survivors strongly agreed or agreed that CRC is preventable (78.6% vs. 96.9%, p = 0.02) and became aware that they were at a slightly increased risk for CRC (18.6% vs. 51.7%, p = 0.003). The most cited barrier was the complexity of preparation for colonoscopy. PMID:26258794

  10. Psychosocial Mediators of a Faith-Based Physical Activity Intervention: Implications and Lessons Learned from Null Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Blair, Steve; Hooker, Steve; Hussey, Jim; Saunders, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Mediation analyses in faith-based physical activity (PA) interventions targeting African-American adults are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychosocial mediators of a faith-based PA intervention with African-American adults. Churches were randomly assigned to receive immediate or delayed (1-year later) training in PA…

  11. Screen-time Weight-loss Intervention Targeting Children at Home (SWITCH): A randomized controlled trial study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Approximately one third of New Zealand children and young people are overweight or obese. A similar proportion (33%) do not meet recommendations for physical activity, and 70% do not meet recommendations for screen time. Increased time being sedentary is positively associated with being overweight. There are few family-based interventions aimed at reducing sedentary behavior in children. The aim of this trial is to determine the effects of a 24 week home-based, family oriented intervention to reduce sedentary screen time on children's body composition, sedentary behavior, physical activity, and diet. Methods/Design The study design is a pragmatic two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Two hundred and seventy overweight children aged 9-12 years and primary caregivers are being recruited. Participants are randomized to intervention (family-based screen time intervention) or control (no change). At the end of the study, the control group is offered the intervention content. Data collection is undertaken at baseline and 24 weeks. The primary trial outcome is child body mass index (BMI) and standardized body mass index (zBMI). Secondary outcomes are change from baseline to 24 weeks in child percentage body fat; waist circumference; self-reported average daily time spent in physical and sedentary activities; dietary intake; and enjoyment of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Secondary outcomes for the primary caregiver include change in BMI and self-reported physical activity. Discussion This study provides an excellent example of a theory-based, pragmatic, community-based trial targeting sedentary behavior in overweight children. The study has been specifically designed to allow for estimation of the consistency of effects on body composition for Māori (indigenous), Pacific and non-Māori/non-Pacific ethnic groups. If effective, this intervention is imminently scalable and could be integrated within existing weight management programs. Trial

  12. Outcomes of a pilot obesity prevention plus intervention targeting children and parenting practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevention-Plus interventions for primary care offer a venue to intervene with both children and parents for child obesity treatment. Such interventions can promote effective parenting practices that encourage healthy eating, physical activity (PA), and lower TV use among children. Test for feasibil...

  13. Active Targets for Experiments with Rare Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenhoever, Ingo

    2014-09-01

    Experimental studies of un-bound nuclear states and nuclear reaction rates relevant for astrophysical processes are an important area of research with rare isotope beams. Both topics require the development of specialized experimental methods to study resonant reactions. The so-called active target approach, where the target material becomes part of the detection process, promises to combine high yields from thicker targets and low background with high resolution. This presentation will describe the implementation of the active-target technique in the ANASEN detector, which was developed by researchers from Louisiana State University and Florida State University. ANASEN was used in a number of stable and rare iosotope experiments in α- and proton scattering, as well as (α , p) and (d , p) reactions at FSU's in-flight radioactive beam facility RESOLUT. ANASEN also was used to perform the first experiment, proton scattering off a 37K beam at the ReA3 facility. Another active-target detector with a very different approach is found in the Active Target Time-Projection Chamber, which was developed by a collaboration between researchers from MSU, the University of Notre Dame, Western Michigan University, LLNL, LBNL, and St. Mary's University (Canada). First experiments with an AT-TPC prototype have been reported. The talk will summarize the results from the first experiments with these systems, describe further development and future research projects. Experimental studies of un-bound nuclear states and nuclear reaction rates relevant for astrophysical processes are an important area of research with rare isotope beams. Both topics require the development of specialized experimental methods to study resonant reactions. The so-called active target approach, where the target material becomes part of the detection process, promises to combine high yields from thicker targets and low background with high resolution. This presentation will describe the implementation of the

  14. GSK-3 as potential target for therapeutic intervention in cancer

    PubMed Central

    McCubrey, James A.; Steelman, Linda S.; Bertrand, Fred E.; Davis, Nicole M.; Sokolosky, Melissa; Abrams, Steve L.; Montalto, Giuseppe; D'Assoro, Antonino B.; Libra, Massimo; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Maestro, Roberta; Basecke, Jorg; Rakus, Dariusz; Gizak, Agnieszka; Demidenko, Zoya; Cocco, Lucio; Martelli, Alberto M.; Cervello, Melchiorre

    2014-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) was initially identified and studied in the regulation of glycogen synthesis. GSK-3 functions in a wide range of cellular processes. Aberrant activity of GSK-3 has been implicated in many human pathologies including: bipolar depression, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cancer, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and others. In some cases, suppression of GSK-3 activity by phosphorylation by Akt and other kinases has been associated with cancer progression. In these cases, GSK-3 has tumor suppressor functions. In other cases, GSK-3 has been associated with tumor progression by stabilizing components of the beta-catenin complex. In these situations, GSK-3 has oncogenic properties. While many inhibitors to GSK-3 have been developed, their use remains controversial because of the ambiguous role of GSK-3 in cancer development. In this review, we will focus on the diverse roles that GSK-3 plays in various human cancers, in particular in solid tumors. Recently, GSK-3 has also been implicated in the generation of cancer stem cells in various cell types. We will also discuss how this pivotal kinase interacts with multiple signaling pathways such as: PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTORC1, Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK, Wnt/beta-catenin, Hedgehog, Notch and others. PMID:24931005

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Comparing Pre-diagnosis Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)-Targeted Intervention with Ontario's Autism Intervention Program.

    PubMed

    Penner, Melanie; Rayar, Meera; Bashir, Naazish; Roberts, S Wendy; Hancock-Howard, Rebecca L; Coyte, Peter C

    2015-09-01

    Novel management strategies for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) propose providing interventions before diagnosis. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the costs and dependency-free life years (DFLYs) generated by pre-diagnosis intensive Early Start Denver Model (ESDM-I); pre-diagnosis parent-delivered ESDM (ESDM-PD); and the Ontario Status Quo (SQ). The analyses took government and societal perspectives to age 65. We assigned probabilities of Independent, Semi-dependent or Dependent living based on projected IQ. Costs per person (in Canadian dollars) were ascribed to each living setting. From a government perspective, the ESDM-PD produced an additional 0.17 DFLYs for $8600 less than SQ. From a societal perspective, the ESDM-I produced an additional 0.53 DFLYs for $45,000 less than SQ. Pre-diagnosis interventions targeting ASD symptoms warrant further investigation. PMID:25936527

  16. A Molecular-Level Landscape of Diet-Gut Microbiome Interactions: Toward Dietary Interventions Targeting Bacterial Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yueqiong; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT As diet is considered the major regulator of the gut ecosystem, the overall objective of this work was to demonstrate that a detailed knowledge of the phytochemical composition of food could add to our understanding of observed changes in functionality and activity of the gut microbiota. We used metatranscriptomic data from a human dietary intervention study to develop a network that consists of >400 compounds present in the administered plant-based diet linked to 609 microbial targets in the gut. Approximately 20% of the targeted bacterial proteins showed significant changes in their gene expression levels, while functional and topology analyses revealed that proteins in metabolic networks with high centrality are the most “vulnerable” targets. This global view and the mechanistic understanding of the associations between microbial gene expression and dietary molecules could be regarded as a promising methodological approach for targeting specific bacterial proteins that impact human health. PMID:26507230

  17. Metabolic Control of Type 2 Diabetes by Targeting the GLUT4 Glucose Transporter: Intervention Approaches.

    PubMed

    Alam, Fahmida; Islam, Md Asiful; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Gan, Siew Hua

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the most common form of diabetes, is characterized by insulin resistance in the hepatic and peripheral tissues. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) plays a major role in the pathophysiology of T2DM. Its defective expression or translocation to the peripheral cell plasma membrane in T2DM patients hinders the entrance of glucose into the cell for energy production. In addition to suitable drugs, an appropriate diet and/or exercise can be implemented to target the increase in GLUT4 expression, GLUT4 concentrations and GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface when managing the glucose metabolism of T2DM patients. In this review, we discussed successful intervention strategies that were individually administered or coupled with diet and/or exercise and affected the expression and translocation of GLUT4 in T2DM while reducing the excess glucose load from the blood. Additionally, some potentially good synthetic and natural compounds, which can activate the insulin-independent GLUT4 signaling pathways for the efficient management of T2DM, are highlighted as possible targets or emerging alternative sources for future anti-diabetic drug development. PMID:26951104

  18. Targeting and Managing Behavioral Symptoms in Individuals with Dementia: A Randomized Trial of a Nonpharmacologic Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Winter, Laraine; Dennis, Marie P.; Hodgson, Nancy; Hauck, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Test effects of an intervention that helps families manage distressful behaviors. Design Two-group randomized trial Setting In-home Participants 272 caregivers and dementia patients Intervention Up to 11 home/telephone contacts over 16-weeks by health professionals who identified potential triggers of patient behaviors including communication, environment, patient undiagnosed medical conditions (by obtaining blood/urine samples), and trained caregivers in strategies to modify triggers and reduce caregiver upset. Between 16–24 weeks, 3 telephone contacts reinforced strategy use. Measurements Primary outcomes included frequency of targeted problem behavior, and caregiver upset with and confidence managing it at 16-weeks. Secondary outcomes included caregiver well-being and management skills at 16 and 24 weeks, and caregiver perceived benefits. Prevalence of medical conditions for intervention patients were also examined. Results At 16 weeks, 67.5% of intervention caregivers reported patient improvement in targeted problem behavior compared to 45.8% of caregivers in a no-treatment control group (p=.002), reduced upset with (p=.028) and enhanced confidence managing (p=.011) the behavior. Additionally, compared to controls, intervention caregivers reported less upset with all problem behaviors (p=.001), negative communication (p=.017), burden (p=.051), and improved well-being (p=.001). Fewer intervention caregivers had depressive symptoms (53.0%) than control group caregivers (67.8%, p=.020). Similar caregiver outcomes occurred at 24-weeks. Compared to controls, intervention caregivers perceived more study benefits (p values <.05) including ability to keep patients home. Blood/urine samples of intervention patients showed 40 (34.1%) had undiagnosed illnesses requiring physician follow-up. Conclusion Targeting behaviors upsetting to caregivers and modifying potential triggers improves patient symptomatology and caregiver well-being and skills. PMID:20662955

  19. MHEALTH INTERVENTION DEVELOPMENT TO SUPPORT PATIENTS WITH ACTIVE TUBERCULOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Iribarren, Sarah J.; Beck, Susan L.; Pearce, Patricia F.; Chirico, Cristina; Etchevarria, Mirta; Rubinstein, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile Health (mHealth) based interventions have been increasingly used to improve a broad range of health outcomes. However, few researchers have reported on the process or the application of theory to guide the development of mHealth based interventions, or specifically for tuberculosis (TB) treatment management. Aims To describe the steps, process, and considerations in developing a text messaging-based intervention to promote treatment adherence and provide support to patients with active TB. Methods Traditional qualitative techniques, including semi-structured interviews, field notes, content analysis, iterative coding, and thematic analysis, were used to design and document the intervention development with a multidisciplinary team of researchers, clinicians, administrators, and patients who were in active TB treatment. The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model was used to guide the coding scheme for content analysis of patient-directed TB educational material and intervention development. Results The development steps included: a) establishing intervention components, including justifications, considerations, timing and frequency of components; b) developing educational messages, including cultural adaption, text or short message service (SMS) formatting, and prioritizing message delivery order; and c) determining implementation protocol. A set of 16 IMB-based messages were developed for the educational component. Final intervention development was achieved in 3 months. Conclusion A collaborative approach and application of a theory to guide the intervention design and development is supported. Although a collaborative approach was more time consuming, it resulted in a more responsive, culturally appropriate, and comprehensive intervention. Considerations for developing a text messaging based intervention are provided and may serve as a guide for similar interventions. Further empirical evidence is needed for applying the IMB model

  20. Longitudinal Follow Up of Children with Autism Receiving Targeted Interventions on Joint Attention and Play RH = Targeted Interventions on Joint Attention and Play

    PubMed Central

    Kasari, Connie; Gulsrud, Amanda; Freeman, Stephanny; Paparella, Tanya; Hellemann, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examines the cognitive and language outcomes of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over a five -year period after receiving targeted early interventions that focused on joint attention and play skills. Method Forty children from the original study (n = 58) had complete data at the five year follow up. Results 80% of children had achieved functional use of spoken language with baseline play level predicting spoken language at the five -year follow- up. Of children who were using spoken language at age eight years, several baseline behaviors predicted their later ability, including earlier age of entry into the study, initiating joint attention skill, play level, and assignment to either the joint attention or symbolic play intervention group. Only baseline play diversity predicted cognitive scores at age eight. Conclusions This study represents one of the only long term follow up studies of children who participated in preschool early interventions aimed at targeting core developmental difficulties. The study findings suggest that focusing on joint attention and play skills in comprehensive treatment models is important for long term spoken language outcomes. PMID:22525955

  1. Intervention Markers of Physical Activity Maintenance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Floegel, Theresa A.; Giacobbi, Peter R.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T.; Roberts, Beverly; McCrae, Christina S.; Marsiske, Michael; Buman, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify intervention components that may promote long-term changes of physical activity among older adults in a behavioral theory-based physical activity trial. Methods Participants (N = 24; aged 65±8.79 years) shared perceptions of intervention components at the end of the intervention and physical activity was assessed at 18 months. Mixed-methods analyses using a pragmatic content analysis of interview data were conducted. Results Active study participants (25%) cited more specific goals/actions to achieve goals and more social support from family/friends, and had significantly higher self-determined motivation mean scores at 18 months than insufficiently active study participants (75%). Conclusions Specific goal-setting behaviors and social support from family/friends may be key elements of physical activity maintenance in older adults. PMID:26018097

  2. Targeted activation in deterministic and stochastic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhower, Bryan; Mezić, Igor

    2010-02-01

    Metastable escape is ubiquitous in many physical systems and is becoming a concern in engineering design as these designs (e.g., swarms of vehicles, coupled building energetics, nanoengineering, etc.) become more inspired by dynamics of biological, molecular and other natural systems. In light of this, we study a chain of coupled bistable oscillators which has two global conformations and we investigate how specialized or targeted disturbance is funneled in an inverse energy cascade and ultimately influences the transition process between the conformations. We derive a multiphase averaged approximation to these dynamics which illustrates the influence of actions in modal coordinates on the coarse behavior of this process. An activation condition that predicts how the disturbance influences the rate of transition is then derived. The prediction tools are derived for deterministic dynamics and we also present analogous behavior in the stochastic setting and show a divergence from Kramers activation behavior under targeted activation conditions.

  3. Behavioral intervention to reduce AIDS risk activities.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J A; St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T L

    1989-02-01

    Behavior change can curtail the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In this study, 104 gay men with a history of frequent AIDS high-risk behavior completed self-report, self-monitoring, and behavioral measures related to AIDS risk. The sample was randomly divided into experimental and waiting-list control groups. The experimental intervention provided AIDS risk education, cognitive-behavioral self-management training, sexual assertion training, and attention to the development of steady and self-affirming social supports. Experimental group participants greatly reduced their frequency of high-risk sexual practices and increased behavioral skills for refusing sexual coercions, AIDS risk knowledge, and adoption of "safer sex" practices. Change was maintained at the 8-month follow-up. PMID:2925974

  4. Catch up Numeracy: A Targeted Intervention for Children Who Are Low-Attaining in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Wayne; Dowker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Many children who would not be identified as having special educational needs are low-attaining in mathematics, which often has a severe impact on their progress at school and their successes in later life. This paper describes Catch Up Numeracy, a non-intensive targeted intervention for children who are low-attaining in mathematics, which is…

  5. Targeting Vulnerabilities to Risky Behavior: An Intervention for Promoting Adaptive Emotion Regulation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claro, Anthony; Boulanger, Marie-Michelle; Shaw, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    The paper examined the effectiveness of an in-school intervention for adolescents designed to target emotional regulation skills related to risky behaviors. The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Intended for Youth (CERTIFY) program was delivered to at-risk adolescents in Montreal, Canada. Participants were drawn from an alternative high school and a…

  6. Appropriately Targeting Group Interventions for Academic Success Adopting the Clinical Model and PAR Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Craig W.; Johnson, Ronald; Steigman, Michael; Odo, Chioma; Vijayan, Suvendra; Tata, Devadatta V.

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of academic risk (PAR) group profiles provide data enabling empirically based group-specialized prescriptions for targeted academic success interventions to increase student retention, completion, and graduation rates, while improving allocation of institutional resources. Postsecondary student attrition engenders student debt,…

  7. The Targeted Reading Intervention: Face-to-Face vs. Webcam Literacy Coaching of Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon-Feagans, L.; Bratsch-Hines, M.; Varghese, C.; Bean, A.; Hedrick, A.

    2015-01-01

    The targeted reading intervention (TRI) is a professional development program for rural kindergarten and first grade classroom teachers to help them provide effective reading strategies with struggling readers. In two randomized controlled trials, the TRI was delivered two ways: (1) literacy coaches provided support for classroom teachers through…

  8. A Behavioral Intervention to Reduce Child Exposure to Indoor Air Pollution: Identifying Possible Target Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Brendon R.; Mathee, Angela; Shafritz, Lonna B.; Krieger, Laurie; Zimicki, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Indoor air pollution has been causally linked to acute lower respiratory infections in children younger than 5. The aim of this study was to identify target behaviors for a behavioral intervention to reduce child exposure to indoor air pollution by attempting to answer two research questions: Which behaviors are protective of child respiratory…

  9. Personality-Targeted Interventions Delay the Growth of Adolescent Drinking and Binge Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrod, Patricia J.; Castellanos, Natalie; Mackie, Clare

    2008-01-01

    Background: Personality factors are implicated in the vulnerability to adolescent alcohol misuse. This study examined whether providing personality-targeted interventions in early adolescence can delay drinking and binge drinking in high-risk youth. Methods: A randomised control trial was carried out with 368 adolescents recruited from years 9 and…

  10. Effects of Targeted Intervention on Early Literacy Skills of At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chuang; Algozzine, Bob

    2008-01-01

    Reading problems are among the most prevalent concerns in schools; poor readers in elementary school who do not receive special assistance are particularly at risk for dismal academic careers. In a large-scale project, children with serious reading problems received targeted intervention to address critical early literacy skills. The assistance…

  11. Vowel Targeted Intervention for Children with Persisting Speech Difficulties: Impact on Intelligibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speake, Jane; Stackhouse, Joy; Pascoe, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the treatment of consonant segments, the treatment of vowels is infrequently described in the literature on children's speech difficulties. Vowel difficulties occur less frequently than those with consonants but may have significant impact on intelligibility. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of vowel targeted intervention (VTI)…

  12. Long-Term Effects of a Personality-Targeted Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Use in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrod, Patricia J.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Mackie, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the long-term effects of a personality-targeted intervention on drinking quantity and frequency (QF), problem drinking, and personality-specific motivations for alcohol use in early adolescence. Method: A randomized control trial was carried out with 364 adolescents (median age 14) recruited from 13 secondary schools with…

  13. Longitudinal Follow-Up of Children with Autism Receiving Targeted Interventions on Joint Attention and Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasari, Connie; Gulsrud, Amanda; Freeman, Stephanny; Paparella, Tanya; Hellemann, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the cognitive and language outcomes of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over a 5-year period after receiving targeted early interventions that focused on joint attention and play skills. Method: Forty children from the original study (n = 58) had complete data at the 5-year follow-up. Results: In all,…

  14. A trial of an iPad™ intervention targeting social communication skills in children with autism

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Petrou, Alexandra; Scott-Barrett, Juliet; Dicks, Pamela; Graham, Catherine; O’Hare, Anne; Pain, Helen; McConachie, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated a technology-based early intervention for social communication skills in pre-schoolers in a randomised controlled trial. Participants were 54 children aged under 6 years with a diagnosis of autism, assigned to either intervention or control conditions. The app engaged children, who played consistently, regardless of developmental level, and was rated highly by parents. There were no significant group differences in parent-report measures post-intervention, nor in a measure of parent–child play at follow-up. Therefore, this intervention did not have an observable impact on real-world social communication skills and caution is recommended about the potential usefulness of iPad™ apps for amelioration of difficulties in interaction. However, positive attitudes among participants, lack of harms and the potential of apps to deliver therapeutic content at low economic cost suggest this approach is worth pursuing further, perhaps targeting other skill domains. PMID:26503990

  15. Pathogenic immunity in systemic lupus erythematosus and atherosclerosis: common mechanisms and possible targets for intervention.

    PubMed

    Wigren, M; Nilsson, J; Kaplan, M J

    2015-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder that primarily affects young women and is characterized by inflammation in several organs including kidneys, skin, joints, blood and nervous system. Abnormal immune cellular and humoral responses play important roles in the development of the disease process. Impaired clearance of apoptotic material is a key factor contributing to the activation of self-reactive immune cells. The incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased up to 50-fold in patients with SLE compared to age- and gender-matched controls, and this can only partly be explained by traditional risk factors for CVD. Currently, there is no effective treatment to prevent CVD complications in SLE. Traditional preventive CVD therapies have not been found to significantly lower the incidence of CVD in SLE; therefore, there is a need for novel treatment strategies and increased understanding of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of CVD complications in SLE. The pathogenic immune responses in SLE and development of atherosclerotic plaques share some characteristics, such as impaired efferocytosis and skewed T-cell activation, suggesting the possibility of identifying novel targets for intervention. As novel immune-based therapies for CVD are being developed, it is possible that some of these may be effective for the prevention of CVD and for immunomodulation in SLE. However, further understanding of the mechanisms leading to an increased prevalence of cardiovascular events in SLE is critical for the development of such therapies. PMID:25720452

  16. PGC-1α, A Potential Therapeutic Target for Early Intervention in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Bin; Liao, Zhixiang; Locascio, Joseph J.; Lesniak, Kristen A.; Roderick, Sarah S.; Watt, Marla L.; Eklund, Aron C.; Zhang-James, Yanli; Kim, Peter D.; Hauser, Michael A.; Grünblatt, Edna; Moran, Linda B.; Mandel, Silvia A.; Riederer, Peter; Miller, Renee M.; Federoff, Howard J.; Wüllner, Ullrich; Papapetropoulos, Spyridon; Youdim, Moussa B.; Cantuti-Castelvetri, Ippolita; Young, Anne B.; Vance, Jeffery M.; Davis, Richard L.; Hedreen, John C.; Adler, Charles H.; Beach, Thomas G.; Graeber, Manuel B.; Middleton, Frank A.; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Scherzer, Clemens R.

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease affects 5 million people worldwide, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis are still unclear. Here, we report a genome-wide meta-analysis of gene sets (groups of genes that encode the same biological pathway or process) in 410 samples from patients with symptomatic Parkinson’s and subclinical disease and healthy controls. We analyzed 6.8 million raw data points from nine genome-wide expression studies, and 185 laser-captured human dopaminergic neuron and substantia nigra transcriptomes, followed by two-stage replication on three platforms. We found 10 gene sets with previously unknown associations with Parkinson’s disease. These gene sets pinpoint defects in mitochondrial electron transport, glucose utilization, and glucose sensing and reveal that they occur early in disease pathogenesis. Genes controlling cellular bioenergetics that are expressed in response to peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) are underexpressed in Parkinson’s disease patients. Activation of PGC-1α results in increased expression of nuclear-encoded subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and blocks the dopaminergic neuron loss induced by mutant α-synuclein or the pesticide rotenone in cellular disease models. Our systems biology analysis of Parkinson’s disease identifies PGC-1α as a potential therapeutic target for early intervention. PMID:20926834

  17. Intervention activities to improve the reasoning ability of students at risk in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, J.

    2006-12-01

    We describe a number of activities we have begun using in interventions targeting students who are at risk in introductory college physics courses. Some are adaptations of the work of others with pre-high school children, including Philip Adey in Great Britain (Cognitive Acceleration though Science Education), Reuven Feuerstein in Israel (Instrumental Enrichment), and Kurtz and Karplus in the U. S. in the 70’s (Numerical Relationships). We have also added some other activities, including Sudoku strategy development.

  18. Systematic Review of Physical Activity Outcomes of Rural Lifestyle Interventions.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yun; Richards, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to analyze current lifestyle intervention literature conducted in U.S. rural areas to identify the most effective and impactful interventions on physical activity outcomes. Quality of studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. Exploratory calculations of effect size and 95% confidence intervals were performed to demonstrate trends in clinical importance. Eight trials which included 1,399 adult participants met the inclusion criteria for review. Two trials reported a significant difference in the increase of physical activity between groups with medium to large effect sizes. Interventions which are very personalized or tailored and/or include many intervention contacts appear to be most effective. However, the small number of studies, mixed findings, and the risk of bias limit our ability to draw conclusion. PMID:26728043

  19. α-Synuclein-induced myelination deficit defines a novel interventional target for multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Ettle, Benjamin; Kerman, Bilal E; Valera, Elvira; Gillmann, Clarissa; Schlachetzki, Johannes C M; Reiprich, Simone; Büttner, Christian; Ekici, Arif B; Reis, André; Wegner, Michael; Bäuerle, Tobias; Riemenschneider, Markus J; Masliah, Eliezer; Gage, Fred H; Winkler, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare atypical parkinsonian disorder characterized by a rapidly progressing clinical course and at present without any efficient therapy. Neuropathologically, myelin loss and neurodegeneration are associated with α-synuclein accumulation in oligodendrocytes, but underlying pathomechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we analyzed the impact of oligodendrocytic α-synuclein on the formation of myelin sheaths to define a potential interventional target for MSA. Post-mortem analyses of MSA patients and controls were performed to quantify myelin and oligodendrocyte numbers. As pre-clinical models, we used transgenic MSA mice, a myelinating stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte-neuron co-culture, and primary oligodendrocytes to determine functional consequences of oligodendrocytic α-synuclein overexpression on myelination. We detected myelin loss accompanied by preserved or even increased numbers of oligodendrocytes in post-mortem MSA brains or transgenic mouse forebrains, respectively, indicating an oligodendrocytic dysfunction in myelin formation. Corroborating this observation, overexpression of α-synuclein in primary and stem cell-derived oligodendrocytes severely impaired myelin formation, defining a novel α-synuclein-linked pathomechanism in MSA. We used the pro-myelinating activity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist benztropine to analyze the reversibility of the myelination deficit. Transcriptome profiling of primary pre-myelinating oligodendrocytes demonstrated that benztropine readjusts myelination-related processes such as cholesterol and membrane biogenesis, being compromised by oligodendrocytic α-synuclein. Additionally, benztropine restored the α-synuclein-induced myelination deficit of stem cell-derived oligodendrocytes. Strikingly, benztropine also ameliorated the myelin deficit in transgenic MSA mice, resulting in a prevention of neuronal cell loss. In conclusion, this study defines the

  20. Designing an Active Target Test Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koci, James; Tan Ahn Collaboration, Dr.; Nicolas Dixneuf Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The development of instrumentation in nuclear physics is crucial for advancing our ability to measure the properties of exotic nuclei. One limitation of the use of exotic nuclei in experiment is their very low production intensities. Recently, detectors, called active-target dectectors, have been developed to address this issue. Active-target detectors use a gas medium to image charged-particle tracks that are emitted in nuclear reactions. Last semester, I designed a vacuum chamber to be used in developing Micro-Pattern Gas detectors that will upgrade the capabilities of an active-target detector called the Prototype AT-TPC. With the exterior of the chamber complete, I have now been using an electric field modeling program, Garfield, developed by CERN to design a field cage to be placed within the vacuum chamber. The field cage will be a box-like apparatus consisting of two parallel metal plates connected with a resistor chain and attached to wires wrapped between them. The cage will provide a uniform electric field within the chamber to drift electrons from nuclear reactions down to the detector in the bottom of the chamber. These signals are then amplified by a proportional counter, and the data is sent to a computer. For the long term, we would like to incorporate a Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors in the interior of the chamber and eventually use the AT-TPC to examine various nuclei. Dr. Ahn is my advising professor.

  1. Intervention fidelity and effectiveness of a UK worksite physical activity intervention funded by the BUPA Foundation, UK.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Rebecca; Mceachan, Rosie; Jackson, Cath; West, Robert; Conner, Mark

    2015-03-01

    The main aim of this study was to test whether the effectiveness of a worksite physical activity intervention delivered in five work organizations varied as a function of intervention fidelity. We conducted a fidelity analysis as part of a large matched-pair cluster randomized controlled trial of a worksite physical activity intervention (AME for Activity). Participants (N = 1260) were employees from five organizations in the UK. The primary trial outcome was physical activity at 9 months post intervention. Adherence, exposure, quality of delivery and participant responsiveness/engagement were measured to assess fidelity. Qualitative data about the context in which the intervention was delivered were collected via focus groups, interviews and field notes. Multi-level modelling was used to provide a comparison of the effect of the intervention on increases in physical activity for worksites where intervention fidelity was good, compared with those where intervention fidelity was poor or moderate. Intervention fidelity was poor in two organizations, moderate in two organizations and good in one organization (local council). Re-analysis of the trial data comparing employees in the local council (N = 443) with employees in all other worksites (N = 611) revealed a significant effect of the intervention on physical activity levels among council employees only. These findings suggest that the measurement of fidelity and the testing of the effects of intervention fidelity on outcomes, as part of the evaluation of complex interventions, are essential to understand the context and conditions in which interventions are most effective. PMID:25296727

  2. The Effects of a Targeted Intervention to Reduce Problem Behaviors: Elementary School Implementation of Check In-Check Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Anne W.; Campbell, Amy L.; Meyer, Gwen G.; Horner, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    Behavior support in schools is increasingly viewed as a three-tier prevention effort in which "universal" interventions are used for primary prevention, "targeted" interventions are used for secondary prevention, and "intensive" interventions are used for tertiary prevention. A growing body of research has demonstrated the effectiveness of…

  3. Activity-Based Intervention Practices in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozen, Arzu; Ergenekon, Yasemin

    2011-01-01

    Teaching practices in natural settings such as activity-based intervention (ABI) are suggested as alternatives to be used in effective early childhood education. As a multidisciplinary model, ABI consists of four components, which are choosing activities according to the child's interests; teaching generalizable goals embedded in routines and…

  4. Teachers' Collaborative Activity in School-Wide Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertesvåg, Sigrun K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the strong interest in research about collaboration among teachers, there are few longitudinal studies that have investigated improvements in collaborative activity among teachers through school-wide interventions. Drawing on data from a larger study, this article describes improvements in collaborative activity among 900 teachers at 28…

  5. Mediators of change following a senior school physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Lubans, David R; Sylva, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that the low level of effectiveness of youth interventions is due to a lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms responsible for behaviour change. The identification of behaviour mediators is necessary for the progression of physical activity research, as it allows researchers to determine which components of an intervention are responsible for mediating behaviour change. The purpose of this study was to identify mediators of behaviour change in a physical activity intervention for senior school students. Participants (n=78) were randomly allocated to control or intervention conditions for a period of 10 weeks. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and potential mediators were assessed at baseline and post-intervention (10 weeks). Hypothesized mediators were derived from Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory and included: peer support, exercise self-efficacy and outcome expectancy. Mediation was assessed using the product-of-coefficients test described by MacKinnon and colleagues, based on the criteria for mediation identified by Baron and Kenny. While none of the variables satisfied all four criteria for mediation among males or females, self-efficacy was able to satisfy the first three criteria among females in the study. Exercise self-efficacy may be a mediator of physical activity behaviour in adolescent girls. PMID:18069061

  6. Mobile Phone Interventions to Increase Physical Activity and Reduce Weight

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Janna; Allen, Jerilyn

    2013-01-01

    Objective This systematic review was conducted to determine user satisfaction and effectiveness of smartphone applications and text messaging interventions to promote weight reduction and physical activity. Methods Studies of smartphone applications and text messaging interventions related to the cardiovascular risk factors of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity published between January 2005 and August 2010 were eligible. Studies related to disease management were excluded. Study characteristics and results were gathered and synthesized. Results A total of 36 citations from CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsyclNFO, and PubMed were identified; 7 articles were eligible for inclusion. The most frequent outcome measured in the studies was change in the weight of participants (57%). More than half of the studies (71%) reported statistically significant results in at least 1 outcome of weight loss, physical activity, dietary intake, decreased body mass index, decreased waist circumference, sugar-sweetened beverage intake, screen time, and satisfaction or acceptability outcomes. Conclusions All of the technology interventions that were supported by education or an additional intervention demonstrated a beneficial impact of text messaging or smartphone application for reduction of physical inactivity and/or overweight/obesity. More rigorous trials that determine what parts of the technology or intervention are effective as well as establishment of cost-effectiveness are necessary for further evaluation of smartphone and text messaging interventions. PMID:22635061

  7. beta-catenin-mediated signaling: a molecular target for early chemopreventive intervention.

    PubMed

    Clapper, Margie L; Coudry, Jacques; Chang, Wen-Chi L

    2004-11-01

    Dysregulation of Wnt signaling appears to be a critical event in the formation of intestinal tumors and some other cancers. Accumulating data from preclinical studies strongly suggest that targeted disruption of beta-catenin-mediated TCF signaling is a promising strategy for early chemopreventive intervention, particularly with respect to intestinal tumorigenesis. While the search for potent inhibitors is just getting underway, the ability of several synthetic and naturally occurring agents to decrease the transcriptional activity of a luciferase reporter plasmid under the control of TCF-4 regulatory elements (pTOPFLASH) has been demonstrated already. Additional enthusiasm for this approach is provided by data from several groups, which indicate that sulindac, sulindac sulfone and indomethacin can modulate the subcellular localization of beta-catenin in vivo, resulting in either decreased nuclear compartmentalization or enhanced localization of beta-catenin to the plasma membrane. Although the mechanism by which agents disrupt beta-catenin-mediated TCF signaling remains to be elucidated, possibilities include: (1) physical inhibition of the beta-catenin/TCF complex formation, (2) upregulation of the ubiquitin-mediated proteosomal degradation of beta-catenin, (3) accelerated nuclear export of beta-catenin and (4) enhanced sequestration of beta-catenin by E-cadherin. The common role of beta-catenin in both Wnt signaling and cell adhesion provides a unique opportunity to develop chemopreventive therapies that both prevent the development of cancer and delay tumor progression. PMID:15476853

  8. mHealth Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Pilot Study in Physically Inactive Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Choi, JiWon; Lee, Ji Hyeon; Vittinghoff, Eric; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity is prevalent in pregnant women, and innovative strategies to promote physical activity are strongly needed. The purpose of the study was to test a 12-week mobile health (mHealth) physical activity intervention for feasibility and potential efficacy. Methods Participants were recruited between December 2012 and February 2014 using diverse recruitment methods. Thirty pregnant women between 10 and 20 weeks of gestation were randomized to an intervention (mobile phone app plus Fitbit) or a control (Fitbit) group. Both conditions targeted gradual increases in physical activity. The mHealth intervention included daily messages and a mobile phone activity diary with automated feedback and self-monitoring systems. Results On monthly average, 4 women were screened for initial eligibility by telephone and 2.5 were randomized. Intervention participants had a 1096 ± 1898 step increase in daily steps compared to an increase of 259 ± 1604 steps in control participants at 12 weeks. The change between groups in weekly mean steps per day during the 12-week study period was not statistically significant (p = 0.38). The intervention group reported lower perceived barrier to being active, lack of energy, than the control group at 12-week visit (p = 0.02). The rates of responding to daily messages and using the daily diary through the mobile app declined during the 12 week study period. Discussion It was difficult to recruit and randomize inactive women who wanted to increase physical activity during pregnancy. Pregnant women who were motivated to increase physical activity might find using mobile technologies in assessing and promoting PA acceptable. Possible reasons for the non-significant treatment effect of the mHealth intervention on physical activity are discussed. Public awareness of safety and benefits of physical activity during pregnancy should be promoted. Clinicaltrials.Gov Identifier NCT01461707. PMID:26649879

  9. Synthesising evidence for equity impacts of population-based physical activity interventions: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study applied an equity lens to existing research to investigate what is known about the impact of population-level physical activity interventions on social inequalities. Methods We performed a pilot systematic review to assess the availability of information on the social distribution of intervention effects, the targeting or allocation of interventions, and the baseline characteristics of participants. This comprised (i) a rapid review of systematic reviews and (ii) a review and synthesis of a sample of primary studies included in the eligible systematic reviews. Results We found 19 systematic reviews of environmental and policy interventions. Relatively few of these (26%, n=5) were prospectively designed to examine effects on inequalities, and none were able to fully synthesise evidence of distributional effects. Over 40% of primary studies reported subgroup intervention effects; 18% reported socio-demographic interaction effects. Studies most often compared effectiveness by gender, followed by age, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. For gender, effects appeared to be evenly distributed overall, although heterogeneity in gradients between studies suggested that some interventions affect males and females differently. Conclusions Our findings suggest that it is feasible to generate better evidence about how public health interventions may affect health inequalities using existing data and innovative methods of research synthesis. PMID:23768212

  10. Motivation for physical activity and exercise in severe mental illness: A systematic review of intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit

    2016-06-01

    There has been increasing interest for research on motivation for physical activity (PA) and exercise among individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). The aim of this systematic review is to summarize findings from all intervention studies on PA or exercise that either include empirical data on motivational constructs or apply motivational techniques/theories in their intervention. Systematic searches of seven databases were conducted from database inception to February 2015. Studies were eligible if they: (i) included participants with SMI, (ii) had PA as part of the intervention, and (iii) reported empirical data on motivational constructs related to PA or incorporated motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Of the 79 studies that met the inclusion criteria only one had motivation for PA as its main outcome. Nine additional interventions reported empirical data on motivational constructs. Altogether these studies yielded mixed results with respect to change in motivational constructs. Only one of those examined the association between motivation and PA, but found none. Sixty-four studies reported using motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Motivational interviewing and goal-setting were the most popular techniques. Due to the exploratory nature of most of these studies, findings from intervention studies do not so far give very clear directions for motivational work with the patients. There is an urgent need for a more systematic theory based approach when developing strategies that target to increase engagement in PA among people with SMI. PMID:26916699

  11. An Evaluation of Six Brief Interventions that Target Drug-Related Problems in Correctional Populations

    PubMed Central

    JOE, GEORGE W.; KNIGHT, KEVIN; SIMPSON, D. DWAYNE; FLYNN, PATRICK M.; MOREY, JANIS T.; BARTHOLOMEW, NORMA G.; TINDALL, MICHELE STATON; BURDON, WILLIAM M.; HALL, ELIZABETH A.; MARTIN, STEVE S.; O’CONNELL, DANIEL J.

    2012-01-01

    Finding brief effective treatments for criminal justice populations is a major public need. The CJ-DATS Targeted Intervention for Corrections (TIC), which consists of six brief interventions (Communication, Anger, Motivation, Criminal Thinking, Social Networks, and HIV/Sexual Health), were tested in separate federally-funded randomized control studies. In total, 1,573 criminal justice-involved individuals from 20 correction facilities participated (78% males; 54% white). Multi-level repeated measures analyses found significant gains in knowledge, attitudes, and psychosocial functioning (criteria basic to Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) and TCU Treatment Process Models). While improvements were less consistent in criminal thinking, overall evidence supported efficacy for the TIC interventions. PMID:22547911

  12. Targeted and anonymized smartphone-based public health interventions in a participatory sensing system.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Steele, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Public health interventions comprising information dissemination to affect behavioral adjustment have long been a significant component of public health campaigns. However, there has been limited development of public health intervention systems to make use of advances in mobile computing and telecommunications technologies. Such developments pose significant challenges to privacy and security where potentially sensitive data may be collected. In our previous work we identified and demonstrated the feasibility of using mobile devices as anonymous public health data collection devices as part of a Health Participatory Sensing Network (HPSN). An advanced capability of these networks extended in this paper would be the ability to distribute, apply, report on and analyze the usage and effectiveness of targeted public health interventions in an anonymous way. In this paper we describe such a platform, its place in the HPSN and demonstrate its feasibility through an implementation. PMID:25570789

  13. A Camp-based Intervention Targeting Independence Among Individuals with Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    O’Mahar, Kerry; Jandasek, Barbara; Zukerman, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Objective To design and evaluate a camp-based intervention, the goal of which was to increase independence among children, adolescents, and adults with spina bifida. Methods An intervention targeting independence was embedded within a typical week long camp experience. The intervention consisted of the following: collaborative (i.e., parent and camper) goal identification, group sessions consisting of psycho-education and cognitive tools, and goal monitoring by camp counselors. Camper and parent report of demographic variables, goal attainment, spina bifida knowledge, and independence were gathered. Interventionist report of adherence to the treatment manual was also collected. Results Campers made significant gains in individual goals, management of spina bifida responsibilities, and independence with general spina bifida tasks, with medium effect sizes observed in goal attainment. Conclusions Results indicated that significant progress was made on individually oriented goals from pre- to post-camp. Design issues are discussed. PMID:20026569

  14. The Active plus protocol: systematic development of two theory- and evidence-based tailored physical activity interventions for the over-fifties

    PubMed Central

    van Stralen, Maartje M; Kok, Gerjo; de Vries, Hein; Mudde, Aart N; Bolman, Catherine; Lechner, Lilian

    2008-01-01

    Background Limited data are available on the development, implementation and evaluation processes of physical activity promotion programmes among older adults. More integrative insights into interventions describing the planned systematic development, implementation and evaluation are needed. Methods and design The purpose of this study is to give an integrative insight into the development of the Active plus programme applying the six-step Intervention Mapping protocol. The Active plus programme consisted of two theory- and evidence-based tailored physical activity promotion interventions, both comprising three tailored letters delivered over four months and aimed at raising awareness of insufficient physical activity, and stimulating physical activity initiation and maintenance among the over-fifties. The first intervention, the basic tailored intervention, provided tailored letters that intervened on the psychosocial determinants of physical activity. The second intervention, the intervention plus, provided the same tailored information but additionally provided tailored information about physical activity opportunities in the specific environment in which the older adults lived. This environment-based component also provided access to a forum and e-buddy system on a website. A plan for implementation and evaluation is also described. Discussion The planned development of the Active plus programme resulted in two theory- and evidence-based tailored physical activity interventions targeted at the over-fifties. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Register NTR 920 PMID:19055806

  15. Increasing physical activity through mobile device interventions: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Adrià; Vidal-Conti, Josep; Palou, Pere

    2016-09-01

    Physical inactivity is a health problem that affects people worldwide and has been identified as the fourth largest risk factor for overall mortality (contributing to 6% of deaths globally). Many researchers have tried to increase physical activity levels through traditional methods without much success. Thus, many researchers are turning to mobile technology as an emerging method for changing health behaviours. This systematic review sought to summarise and update the existing scientific literature on increasing physical activity through mobile device interventions, taking into account the methodological quality of the studies. The articles were identified by searching the PubMed, SCOPUS and SPORTDiscus databases for studies published between January 2003 and December 2013. Studies investigating efforts to increase physical activity through mobile phone or even personal digital assistant interventions were included. The search results allowed the inclusion of 11 studies that gave rise to 12 publications. Six of the articles included in this review reported significant increases in physical activity levels. The number of studies using mobile devices for interventions has increased exponentially in the last few years, but future investigations with better methodological quality are needed to draw stronger conclusions regarding how to increase physical activity through mobile device interventions. PMID:25649783

  16. Adolescent Weight Control: An Intervention Targeting Parent Communication and Modeling Compared With Minimal Parental Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Hadley, Wendy; Sato, Amy; Kuhl, Elizabeth; Rancourt, Diana; Oster, Danielle; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adolescent weight control interventions demonstrate variable findings, with inconsistent data regarding the appropriate role for parents. The current study examined the efficacy of a standard adolescent behavioral weight control (BWC) intervention that also targeted parent–adolescent communication and parental modeling of healthy behaviors (Standard Behavioral Treatment + Enhanced Parenting; SBT + EP) compared with a standard BWC intervention (SBT). Methods 49 obese adolescents (M age = 15.10; SD = 1.33; 76% female; 67.3% non-Hispanic White) and a caregiver were randomly assigned to SBT or SBT + EP. Adolescent and caregiver weight and height, parental modeling, and weight-related communication were obtained at baseline and end of the 16-week intervention. Results Significant decreases in adolescent weight and increases in parental self-monitoring were observed across both conditions. Analyses of covariance revealed a trend for greater reduction in weight and negative maternal commentary among SBT condition participants. Conclusions Contrary to hypotheses, targeting parent–adolescent communication and parental modeling did not lead to better outcomes in adolescent weight control. PMID:25294840

  17. Worksite Physical Activity Intervention for Ambulatory Clinic Nursing Staff.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Sharon; Farrington, Michele; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M; Clark, M Kathleen; Dawson, Cindy; Quinn, Geralyn J; Laffoon, Trudy; Perkhounkova, Yelena

    2016-07-01

    Health behaviors, including physical activity (PA), of registered nurses (RNs) and medical assistants (MAs) are suboptimal but may improve with worksite programs. Using a repeated-measures crossover design, the authors explored if integrating a 6-month worksite non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) intervention, with and without personalized health coaching via text messaging into workflow could positively affect sedentary time, PA, and body composition of nursing staff without jeopardizing work productivity. Two ambulatory clinics were randomly assigned to an environmental NEAT intervention plus a mobile text message coaching for either the first 3 months (early texting group, n = 27) or the last 3 months (delayed texting group, n = 13), with baseline 3-month and 6-month measurements. Sedentary and PA levels, fat mass, and weight improved for both groups, significantly only for the early text group. Productivity did not decline for either group. This worksite intervention is feasible and may benefit nursing staff. PMID:27143144

  18. ELSa interventional Portuguese health program to promote physical activity.

    PubMed

    Mourão Carvalhal, Maria Isabel Martins; Fonseca, Sandra; de Castro Coelho, Eduarda Maria Rocha Teles

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the communication was to present the baseline data from incidence of obesity, eating habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, before ELSa, interventional Portuguese health program. The sample was composed of 496 children (238 girls and 258 boys) with an average 7.7 (± 2.5) years of age. Thinness, overweight and obesity were calculated by using the BMI and the cut off of Cole et al., 24 h dietary recalls and a general questionnaire was completed by the parents to provide information about eating habits, sedentary behaviour and physical activity. The results indicated high incidence of overweight and obesity, many hours in screen activities and low level of physical activity. The eating habits seemed healthy, but our children's lifestyles were sedentary. To combat the high incidence of obesity it is very urgent to design a multi-level intervention aimed to modify key behaviours: physical activity, screen time and nutrition. PMID:21923295

  19. Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention Targeting HIV-Infected Prisoners in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Copenhaver, Michael M; Tunku, Noor; Ezeabogu, Ifeoma; Potrepka, Jessica; Zahari, Muhammad Muhsin A; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2011-01-01

    HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia represent a critical target population for secondary HIV risk reduction interventions and care. We report on the process and outcome of our formative research aimed at systematically selecting and adapting an EBI designed to reduce secondary HIV risk and improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy among soon-to-be-released HIV-infected prisoners. Our formative work involved a critical examination of established EBIs and associated published reports complemented by data elicited through structured interviews and focus groups with key stakeholders, members of the target population, and their family members. Based on all information, we adapted the Holistic Health Recovery Program targeting people living with HIV (HHRP+), an EBI, to consist of eight 2-hour sessions that cover a range of specified topics so that participants may individually apply intervention content as needed to accommodate their particular substance abuse, HIV risk, and antiretroviral adherence issues. This study provides a complete example of the process of selecting and adapting an EBI-taking into account both empirical evidence and input from target organization stakeholders and target population members and their families-for use in real world prison settings where high-risk populations are concentrated. PMID:21860786

  20. Active debris removal of multiple priority targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Vitali; Lüpken, A.; Flegel, S.; Gelhaus, J.; Möckel, M.; Kebschull, C.; Wiedemann, C.; Vörsmann, P.

    2013-05-01

    Today's space debris environment shows major concentrations of objects within distinct orbital regions for nearly all size regimes. The most critical region is found at orbital altitudes near 800 km with high declinations. Within this region many satellites are operated in so called sun-synchronous orbits (SSO). Among those, there are Earth observation, communication and weather satellites. Due to the orbital geometry in SSO, head-on encounters with relative velocities of about 15 km/s are most probable and would thus result in highly energetic collisions, which are often referred to as catastrophic collisions, leading to the complete fragmentation of the participating objects. So called feedback collisions can then be triggered by the newly generated fragments, thus leading to a further population increase in the affected orbital region. This effect is known as the Kessler syndrome.Current studies show that catastrophic collisions are not a major problem today, but will become the main process for debris generation within the SSO region in the near future, even without any further launches. In order to avoid this effect, objects with a major impact on collisional cascading have to be actively removed from the critical region after their end of life. Not having the capability to perform an end-of-life maneuver in order to transfer to a graveyard orbit or to de-orbit, many satellites and rocket bodies would have to be de-orbited within a dedicated mission. In such a mission, a service satellite would perform a de-orbit maneuver, after having docked to a specific target.In this paper, chemical and electric propulsion systems were analysed with the main focus on removing multiple targets within one single mission. The targets were chosen from a previously defined priority list in order to enhance the mission efficiency. Total mission time, ΔV and system mass were identified as key parameters to allow for an evaluation of the different concepts. It was shown that it

  1. Intervention in Overweight Children Improves BMI and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Siwik, Violet; Kutob, Randa; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Cruz, Luis; Senf, Janet; Aickin, Mikel; Going, Scott; Shatte, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a growing epidemic in family medicine with few clinical treatment options. We implemented and evaluated a group office-visit intervention by family physicians emphasizing nutrition and physical activity within a resiliency psychosocial model, for overweight children and their parents. Methods The intervention lasted for 3 months, with half of the children crossing over to intervention after 6 months on study. Participants included 35 children who met eligibility criteria of being in third through fifth grades and having a body mass index above the 85th percentile. The 3-month twelve-session intervention, “Choices”, included topics on nutrition, physical activity, and resiliency. The sessions were developed for delivery by a family physician, and a nutritionist, who all received training in positive psychology and resilience skills. Main outcome measures were body mass index (BMI) z-scores for age-and-gender, and weight-for-age-and-gender z-scores, as well as qualitative interviews to understand individual and family processes. Results The intervention resulted in a significant effect on one primary outcome, BMI z-score (-0.138 per 9 months (p =0.017) and a trend toward significance on the other, weight for age z-score (-0.87 per 9 months (p=0.09). The net shift of activity from the low METS to the high METS had an intervention effect of 2.84 METS (p = 0.037). Families reported lasting changes in behaviors and attitudes. Discussion The innovative approach used in this study demonstrated modest efficacy in reducing BMI z-score, changing physical activity levels, and possibly shifting family dynamics. PMID:23471926

  2. Effects of a Workplace Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Risk Factors on Safety and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Truxillo, Donald M.; Bodner, Todd; Rineer, Jennifer; Pytlovany, Amy C.; Richman, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based), followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety. PMID:26557703

  3. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-07-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a 'super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  4. Pilot evaluation of a web-based intervention targeting sexual health service access.

    PubMed

    Brown, K E; Newby, K; Caley, M; Danahay, A; Kehal, I

    2016-04-01

    Sexual health service access is fundamental to good sexual health, yet interventions designed to address this have rarely been implemented or evaluated. In this article, pilot evaluation findings for a targeted public health behavior change intervention, delivered via a website and web-app, aiming to increase uptake of sexual health services among 13-19-year olds are reported. A pre-post questionnaire-based design was used. Matched baseline and follow-up data were identified from 148 respondents aged 13-18 years. Outcome measures were self-reported service access, self-reported intention to access services and beliefs about services and service access identified through needs analysis. Objective service access data provided by local sexual health services were also analyzed. Analysis suggests the intervention had a significant positive effect on psychological barriers to and antecedents of service access among females. Males, who reported greater confidence in service access compared with females, significantly increased service access by time 2 follow-up. Available objective service access data support the assertion that the intervention may have led to increases in service access. There is real promise for this novel digital intervention. Further evaluation is planned as the model is licensed to and rolled out by other local authorities in the United Kingdom. PMID:26928566

  5. Diminution of the gut resistome after a gut microbiota-targeted dietary intervention in obese children

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guojun; Zhang, Chenhong; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Ruirui; Shen, Jian; Wang, Linghua; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Menghui

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiome represents an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Effective methods are urgently needed for managing the gut resistome to fight against the antibiotic resistance threat. In this study, we show that a gut microbiota-targeted dietary intervention, which shifts the dominant fermentation of gut bacteria from protein to carbohydrate, significantly diminished the gut resistome and alleviated metabolic syndrome in obese children. Of the non-redundant metagenomic gene catalog of ~2 × 106 microbial genes, 399 ARGs were identified in 131 gene types and conferred resistance to 47 antibiotics. Both the richness and diversity of the gut resistome were significantly reduced after the intervention. A total of 201 of the 399 ARGs were carried in 120 co-abundance gene groups (CAGs) directly binned from the gene catalog across both pre-and post-intervention samples. The intervention significantly reduced several CAGs in Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Escherichia, which were the major hubs for multiple resistance gene types. Thus, dietary intervention may become a potentially effective method for diminishing the gut resistome. PMID:27044409

  6. Lifestyle Interventions Targeting Body Weight Changes during the Menopause Transition: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jull, Janet; Stacey, Dawn; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Ufholz, Lee-Anne; Prince, Stephanie; Abdulnour, Joseph; Prud'homme, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of exercise and/or nutrition interventions and to address body weight changes during the menopause transition. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searching. Two independent researchers screened for studies using experimental designs to evaluate the impact of exercise and/or nutrition interventions on body weight and/or central weight gain performed during the menopausal transition. Studies were quality appraised using Cochrane risk of bias. Included studies were analyzed descriptively. Results. Of 3,564 unique citations screened, 3 studies were eligible (2 randomized controlled trials, and 1 pre/post study). Study quality ranged from low to high risk of bias. One randomized controlled trial with lower risk of bias concluded that participation in an exercise program combined with dietary interventions might mitigate body adiposity increases, which is normally observed during the menopause transition. The other two studies with higher risk of bias suggested that exercise might attenuate weight loss or weight gain and change abdominal adiposity patterns. Conclusions. High quality studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions targeting body weight changes in women during their menopause transition are needed. Evidence from one higher quality study indicates an effective multifaceted intervention for women to minimize changes in body adiposity. PMID:24971172

  7. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size

    PubMed Central

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a ‘super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  8. Educational interventions targeted at minors in situations of grave social vulnerability and their families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Caba Collado, Mariangeles; Bartau Rojas, Isabel

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this article is to outline and assess an educational intervention programme targeted at improving the skills of families and the personal and social development of children living in situations of grave social vulnerability. The sample comprised 10 families during the first phase of the intervention and six during the second. The design, intervention and assessment process of this study was carried out in two phases over a period of a year and a half. For both phases, three different groups—of men/fathers, women/mothers and children—were established. Study variables (parenting skills and children's personal and social development) were evaluated before and after the intervention in every group, as well as during the entire process. The results, taking into account the improvements reported by all the participants (social workers, group monitors, fathers, mothers, children) show that inter-professional involvement and coordination at all phases of the intervention is vital in order to achieve small but significant improvements.

  9. [Integrative neuroimaging for schizophrenia targeting early intervention and prevention (IN-STEP)].

    PubMed

    Kasai, Kiyoto

    2010-11-01

    The editorial of the new-year issue of Nature 2010 features "A decade for psychiatric disorders". The DALY estimation clearly shows that psychiatric disorders are the top source for burden of diseases to the individual life and society. Schizophrenia is a most devastating psychiatric disorder in which the onset is usually at youth and the cognitive dysfunction persists for life-long in some patients. Schizophrenia is associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities. It has been unknown whether post-onset progressive pathology is also present in schizophrenia until the recent sophistication of in vivo neuroimaging techniques. Longitudinal neuroimaging studies on first-episode schizophrenia have shown a progressive deterioration of structure and function of neocortical regions in the early stage of the disorder. Insult to dendritic spines through glutamatergic dysfunction may underlie this process, which may in turn be a promising molecular target for intervention to improve the functional outcome of schizophrenia. More recently, the question of whether early intervention can be targeted at prodromal stage of schizophrenia has called special attention in psychiatry. In University of Tokyo, the integrative neuroimaging studies for schizophrenia targeting early intervention and prevention (IN-STEP) is ongoing. Through these efforts, we would like to contribute to the establishment of "youth mental health", where every youth in the community can know, prevent, and have easy access to needs- and value-based services, and pursue mental well-being and recovery. PMID:21921453

  10. A Randomized Stepped Care Intervention Trial Targeting Posttraumatic Stress Disorder for Surgically Hospitalized Injury Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Zatzick, Douglas; Jurkovich, Gregory; Rivara, Frederick P.; Russo, Joan; Wagner, Amy; Wang, Jin; Dunn, Chris; Lord, Sarah Peregrine; Petrie, Megan; O’Connor, Stephen S.; Katon, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of a stepped care intervention model targeting posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after injury. Background Few investigations have evaluated interventions for injured patients with PTSD and related impairments that can be feasibly implemented in trauma surgical settings. Methods The investigation was a pragmatic effectiveness trial in which 207 acutely injured hospitalized trauma survivors were screened for high PTSD symptom levels and then randomized to a stepped combined, care management, psychopharmacology, and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy intervention (n = 104) or usual care control (n = 103) conditions. The symptoms of PTSD and functional limitations were reassessed at one-, three-, six-, nine-, and twelve-months after the index injury admission. Results Regression analyses demonstrated that over the course of the year after injury, intervention patients had significantly reduced PTSD symptoms when compared to controls (group by time effect, CAPS, F(2, 185) = 5.50, P < 0.01; PCL-C, F(4, 185) = 5.45, P < 0.001). Clinically and statistically significant PTSD treatment effects were observed at the six-, nine-, and twelve-month post-injury assessments. Over the course of the year after injury, intervention patients also demonstrated significant improvements in physical function (MOS SF-36 PCS main effect, F(1, 172) = 9.87, P < 0.01). Conclusion Stepped care interventions can reduce PTSD symptoms and improve functioning over the course of the year after surgical injury hospitalization. Orchestrated investigative and policy efforts could systematically introduce and evaluate screening and intervention procedures for PTSD at United States trauma centers. (Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00270959) PMID:23222034

  11. Targeted interventions for patellofemoral pain syndrome (TIPPS): classification of clinical subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Selfe, James; Callaghan, Michael; Witvrouw, Erik; Richards, James; Dey, Maria Paola; Sutton, Chris; Dixon, John; Martin, Denis; Stokes, Maria; Janssen, Jessie; Ritchie, Elizabeth; Turner, David

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Patellofemoral pain (PFP) can cause significant pain leading to limitations in societal participation and physical activity. An international expert group has highlighted the need for a classification system to allow targeted intervention for patients with PFP; we have developed a work programme systematically investigating this. We have proposed six potential subgroups: hip abductor weakness, quadriceps weakness, patellar hypermobility, patellar hypomobility, pronated foot posture and lower limb biarticular muscle tightness. We could not uncover any evidence of the relative frequency with which patients with PFP fell into these subgroups or whether these subgroups were mutually exclusive. The aim of this study is to provide information on the clinical utility of our classification system. Methods and analysis 150 participants will be recruited over 18 months in four National Health Services (NHS) physiotherapy departments in England. Inclusion criteria: adults 18–40 years with PFP for longer than 3 months, PFP in at least two predesignated functional activities and PFP elicited by clinical examination. Exclusion criteria: prior or forthcoming lower limb surgery; comorbid illness or health condition; and lower limb training or pregnancy. We will record medical history, demographic details, pain, quality of life, psychomotor movement awareness and knee temperature. We will assess hip abductor and quadriceps weakness, patellar hypermobility and hypomobility, foot posture and lower limb biarticular muscle tightness. The primary analytic approach will be descriptive. We shall present numbers and percentages of participants who meet the criteria for membership of (1) each of the subgroups, (2) none of the subgroups and (3) multiple subgroups. Exact (binomial) 95% CIs for these percentages will also be presented. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by National Research Ethics Service (NRES) Committee North West—Greater Manchester

  12. Promoting physical activity: development and testing of self-determination theory-based interventions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of studies have pulled from Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory to design interventions targeting health behavior change. More recently, researchers have begun using SDT to promote the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle. In this review, we aim to highlight how researchers and practitioners can draw from the SDT framework to develop, implement, and evaluate intervention efforts centered on increasing physical activity levels in different contexts and different populations. In the present paper, the rationale for using SDT to foster physical activity engagement is briefly reviewed before particular attention is given to three recent randomized controlled trials, the Canadian Physical Activity Counseling (PAC) Trial, the Empower trial from the UK, and the Portuguese PESO (Promotion of Health and Exercise in Obesity) trial, each of which focused on promoting physical activity behavior. The SDT-based intervention components, procedures, and participants are highlighted, and the key findings that have emanated from these three trials are presented. Lastly, we outline some of the limitations of the work conducted to date in this area and we acknowledge the challenges that arise when attempting to design, deliver, and test SDT-grounded interventions in the context of physical activity promotion. PMID:22385751

  13. A diet and physical activity intervention for rural African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PURPOSE Epidemic levels of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease are rampant in the largely rural Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of Mississippi. We assessed the effectiveness of a six-month, church-based, diet and physical activity (PA) intervention for improving diet quality (as ...

  14. Theory-Driven Intervention for Changing Personality: Expectancy Value Theory, Behavioral Activation, and Conscientiousness

    PubMed Central

    Magidson, Jessica F.; Roberts, Brent; Collado-Rodriguez, Anahi; Lejuez, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that personality traits may be changeable, raising the possibility that personality traits most linked to health problems can be modified with intervention. A growing body of research suggests that problematic personality traits may be altered with behavioral intervention using a bottom-approach. That is, by targeting core behaviors that underlie personality traits with the goal of engendering new, healthier patterns of behavior that over time become automatized and manifest in changes in personality traits. Nevertheless, a bottom-up model for changing personality traits is somewhat diffuse and requires clearer integration of theory and relevant interventions to enable real clinical application. As such, this manuscript proposes a set of guiding principles for theory-driven modification of targeted personality traits using a bottom-up approach, focusing specifically on targeting the trait of conscientiousness using a relevant behavioral intervention, Behavioral Activation (BA), considered within the motivational framework of Expectancy Value Theory (EVT). We conclude with a real case example of the application of BA to alter behaviors counter to conscientiousness in a substance dependent patient, highlighting the EVT principles most relevant to the approach and the importance and viability of a theoretically-driven, bottom-up approach to changing personality traits. PMID:23106844

  15. Active Debris Removal of Multiple Priority Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Vitali; Flegel, Sven Kevin; Vörsmann, Peter; Wiedemann, Carsten; Gelhaus, Johannes; Moeckel, Marek; Kebschull, Christopher

    2012-07-01

    Today's space debris environment shows major concentrations of objects within distinct orbital regions for nearly all size regimes. The most critical region is found at orbital altitudes near 800 kilometers with high declinations. Within this region many satellites are operated in so called sun-synchronous orbits (SSO). Among those, there are Earth observation, communication and weather satellites. Due to the orbital geometry, head-on encounters with relative velocities of about 15 km/s are most probable and would thus result in highly energetic collisions, which are often referred to as catastrophic collisions, leading to the complete fragmentation of the participating objects. So called feedback collisions can then be triggered by the newly generated fragments, thus leading to a further population increase in the affected orbital region. This effect is known as the Kessler syndrome. Current studies show that catastrophic collisions are not a major problem today, but will become the main process for debris generation within the SSO region in the near future, even without any future launches. In order to avoid this effect, objects with a major impact on collisional cascading have to be actively removed from the critical region after their end of life. Not having the capability to perform an end-of-life maneuver in order to transfer to a graveyard orbit or to de-orbit, many satellites and rocket bodies would have to be de-orbited within a dedicated mission. In such a mission, a service satellite would perform a de-orbit maneuver, after having docked to a specific target. In this paper several systems, e.g. chemical and electrical engines are analysed with the main focus on removing multiple targets within one single mission. The service satellite has to undock from the previously de-orbited target in order to start the rendezvous and docking phase for a subsequent target. The targets are chosen from a previously defined priority list in order to enhance the mission

  16. Meta-Analysis of Workplace Physical Activity Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Hafdahl, Adam R.; Cooper, Pamela S.; Brown, Lori M.; Lusk, Sally L.

    2009-01-01

    Context Most adults do not achieve adequate physical activity. Despite the potential benefits of worksite health promotion, no previous comprehensive meta-analysis has summarized health and physical activity behavior outcomes from these programs. This comprehensive meta-analysis integrated the extant wide range of worksite physical activity intervention research. Evidence acquisition Extensive searching located published and unpublished intervention studies reported from 1969 through 2007. Results were coded from primary studies. Random-effects meta-analytic procedures, including moderator analyses, were completed in 2008. Evidence synthesis Effects on most variables were substantially heterogeneous because diverse studies were included. Standardized mean difference (d) effect sizes were synthesized across approximately 38,231 subjects. Significantly positive effects were observed for physical activity behavior (0.21), fitness (0.57), lipids (0.13), anthropometric measures (0.08), work attendance (0.19), and job stress (0.33). The significant effect size for diabetes risk (0.98) is more tentative given small sample sizes. Significant heterogeneity documents intervention effects varied across studies. The mean effect size for fitness corresponds to a difference between treatment minus control subjects' means on V02max of 3.5 mL/kg/min; for lipids, −0.2 on total cholesterol:HDL; and for diabetes risk, −12.6 mg/dL on fasting glucose. Conclusions These findings document that some workplace physical activity interventions can improve both health and important worksite outcomes. Effects were variable for most outcomes, reflecting the diversity of primary studies. Future primary research should compare interventions to confirm causal relationships and further explore heterogeneity. PMID:19765506

  17. HEALTHY Intervention: Fitness, Physical Activity, and Metabolic Syndrome Results

    PubMed Central

    Jago, Russell; McMurray, Robert G.; Drews, Kimberly L.; Moe, Esther L.; Murray, Tinker; Pham, Trang H.; Venditti, Elizabeth M.; Volpe, Stella L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the effect of the HEALTHY intervention on the metabolic syndrome (Met-S), fitness, and physical activity levels of US middle-school students. Methods Cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 (21 intervention) US middle schools. Participants were recruited at the start of sixth grade (2006) when baseline assessments were made, with post-assessments made 2.5 yr later at the end of eighth grade (2009). The HEALTHY intervention had four components: 1) improved school food environment, 2) physical activity and eating educational sessions, 3) social marketing, and 4) revised physical education curriculum. Met-S risk factors, 20-m shuttle run (fitness), and self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were assessed at each time point. Ethnicity and gender were self-reported. Obesity status (normal weight, overweight, or obese) was also assessed. Results At baseline, 5% of the participants were classified with Met-S, with two-thirds of the males and one-third of the females recording below average baseline fitness levels. Control group participants reported 96 min of MVPA at baseline with 103 min reported by the intervention group. There were no statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences in Met-S, fitness, or MVPA levels at the end of the study after adjustment for baseline values and confounders. There were no differences in any ethnic, obesity, or ethnic × obesity subgroups for either gender. Conclusions The HEALTHY intervention had no effect on the Met-S, fitness, or physical activity levels. Approaches that focus on how to change physical activity, fitness, and Met-S using nonschool or perhaps in addition to school based components need to be developed. PMID:21233778

  18. Feasibility of an obesity intervention for paediatric primary care targeting parenting and children: Helping HAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary care setting offers the opportunity to reach children and parents to encourage healthy lifestyle behaviours, and improve weight status among children. Our objective was to test the feasibility of Helping HAND (Healthy Activity and Nutrition Directions), an obesity intervention for 5- to...

  19. Cortical inhibition, pH and cell excitability in epilepsy: what are optimal targets for antiepileptic interventions?

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Ivan; Kaila, Kai; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Miles, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is characterised by the propensity of the brain to generate spontaneous recurrent bursts of excessive neuronal activity, seizures. GABA-mediated inhibition is critical for restraining neuronal excitation in the brain, and therefore potentiation of GABAergic neurotransmission is commonly used to prevent seizures. However, data obtained in animal models of epilepsy and from human epileptic tissue suggest that GABA-mediated signalling contributes to interictal and ictal activity. Prolonged activation of GABAA receptors during epileptiform bursts may even initiate a shift in GABAergic neurotransmission from inhibitory to excitatory and so have a proconvulsant action. Direct targeting of the membrane mechanisms that reduce spiking in glutamatergic neurons may better control neuronal excitability in epileptic tissue. Manipulation of brain pH may be a promising approach and recent advances in gene therapy and optogenetics seem likely to provide further routes to effective therapeutic intervention. PMID:22890709

  20. Dissection of the Process of Brain Metastasis Reveals Targets and Mechanisms for Molecular-based Intervention.

    PubMed

    Weidle, Ulrich H; Birzele, Fabian; Kollmorgen, Gwendlyn; Rüger, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases outnumber the incidence of brain tumors by a factor of ten. Patients with brain metastases have a dismal prognosis and current treatment modalities achieve only a modest clinical benefit. We discuss the process of brain metastasis with respect to mechanisms and involved targets to outline options for therapeutic intervention and focus on breast and lung cancer, as well as melanoma. We describe the process of penetration of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) by disseminated tumor cells, establishment of a metastatic niche, colonization and outgrowth in the brain parenchyma. Furthermore, the role of angiogenesis in colonization of the brain parenchyma, interactions of extravasated tumor cells with microglia and astrocytes, as well as their propensity for neuromimicry, is discussed. We outline targets suitable for prevention of metastasis and summarize targets suitable for treatment of established brain metastases. Finally, we highlight the implications of findings revealing druggable mutations in brain metastases that cannot be identified in matching primary tumors. PMID:27365375

  1. Can Targeted Intervention Mitigate Early Emotional and Behavioral Problems?: Generating Robust Evidence within Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Orla; McGlanaghy, Edel; O’Farrelly, Christine; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a targeted Irish early intervention program on children’s emotional and behavioral development using multiple methods to test the robustness of the results. Data on 164 Preparing for Life participants who were randomly assigned into an intervention group, involving home visits from pregnancy onwards, or a control group, was used to test the impact of the intervention on Child Behavior Checklist scores at 24-months. Using inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, permutation testing to address small sample size, and quantile regression to characterize the distributional impact of the intervention, we found that the few treatment effects were largely concentrated among boys most at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. The average treatment effect identified a 13% reduction in the likelihood of falling into the borderline clinical threshold for Total Problems. The interaction and subgroup analysis found that this main effect was driven by boys. The distributional analysis identified a 10-point reduction in the Externalizing Problems score for boys at the 90th percentile. No effects were observed for girls or for the continuous measures of Total, Internalizing, and Externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the impact of this prenatally commencing home visiting program may be limited to boys experiencing the most difficulties. Further adoption of the statistical methods applied here may help to improve the internal validity of randomized controlled trials and contribute to the field of evaluation science more generally. Trial Registration: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN04631728 PMID:27253184

  2. Cognitive Interventions Targeting Brain Plasticity in the Prodromal and Early Phases of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Melissa; Loewy, Rachel; Hardy, Kate; Schlosser, Danielle; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Several important paradigm shifts have occurred in the field of schizophrenia treatment, including an increased focus on early detection, the development of preemptive interventions, and the view of schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by decreased efficiency and abnormal connectivity in cortical and subcortical neural networks. In this review article, we will briefly describe some of the neural impairments that contribute to the development of schizophrenia, with an emphasis on the impact of stress and trauma on cognitively vulnerable neural systems. We will then present current data on two behavioral interventions that target these critical risk factors and that aim to preempt the onset of schizophrenia in vulnerable individuals or improve the clinical course in recent onset schizophrenia: cognitive therapy and computerized cognitive training. PMID:23297786

  3. Molecular Targets Related to Inflammation and Insulin Resistance and Potential Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hirabara, Sandro M.; Gorjão, Renata; Vinolo, Marco A.; Rodrigues, Alice C.; Nachbar, Renato T.; Curi, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation and insulin resistance are common in several chronic diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Various studies show a relationship between these two factors, although the mechanisms involved are not completely understood yet. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of insulin resistance and inflammation and the molecular aspects on inflammatory pathways interfering in insulin action. Moreover, we explore interventions based on molecular targets for preventing or treating correlated disorders, advances for a better characterization, and understanding of the mechanisms and mediators involved in the different inflammatory and insulin resistance conditions. Finally, we address biotechnological studies for the development of new potential therapies and interventions. PMID:23049242

  4. What Are the Most Effective Intervention Techniques for Changing Physical Activity Self-Efficacy and Physical Activity Behaviour--and Are They the Same?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, S. L.; French, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    There is convincing evidence that targeting self-efficacy is an effective means of increasing physical activity. However, evidence concerning which are the most effective techniques for changing self-efficacy and thereby physical activity is lacking. The present review aims to estimate the association between specific intervention techniques used…

  5. On-Task Behavior, Academic Performance, and Classroom Disruptions: Untangling the Target Selection Problem in Classroom Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentz, Francis E., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The research literature on measurement problems with such outcome variables as student on-task behavior, classroom disruption, and academic performance is examined. Focus is on how the problems relate to understanding the interrelationships among these common intervention targets. (TJH)

  6. Hip Hop HEALS: Pilot Study of a Culturally Targeted Calorie Label Intervention to Improve Food Purchases of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Olajide; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Sawyer, Vanessa; Apakama, Donald; Shaffer, Michele; Gerin, William; Noble, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We explored the effect of a culturally targeted calorie label intervention on food purchasing behavior of elementary school students. Method: We used a quasi-experimental design with two intervention schools and one control school to assess food purchases of third through fifth graders at standardized school food sales before and after…

  7. Using Indices of Fidelity to Intervention Core Components to Identify Program Active Ingredients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abry, Tashia; Hulleman, Chris S.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the active ingredients of an intervention--intervention-specific components serving as key levers of change--is crucial for unpacking the intervention black box. Measures of intervention fidelity can be used to identify specific active ingredients, yet such applications are rare. We illustrate how fidelity measures can be used to…

  8. Minority Youth, Physical Activity, and Fitness Levels: Targeted Interventions Needed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane; Hall, Heather L.; Gutuskey, Lila

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a clear disparity in health in the United States such that African Americans and Hispanics are more likely to suffer from morbidity and mortality related to chronic disease than their Caucasian counterparts. Purpose: We will determine whether fourth- and fifth-grade students' measures of health-related fitness and physical…

  9. Identification of brain-targeted bioactive dietary quercetin-3-O-glucuronide as a novel intervention for Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Lap; Ferruzzi, Mario G.; Janle, Elsa M.; Wang, Jun; Gong, Bing; Chen, Tzu-Ying; Lobo, Jessica; Cooper, Bruce; Wu, Qing Li; Talcott, Stephen T.; Percival, Susan S.; Simon, James E.; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and preclinical studies indicate that polyphenol intake from moderate consumption of red wines may lower the relative risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. There is limited information regarding the specific biological activities and cellular and molecular mechanisms by which wine polyphenolic components might modulate AD. We assessed accumulations of polyphenols in the rat brain following oral dosage with a Cabernet Sauvignon red wine and tested brain-targeted polyphenols for potential beneficial AD disease-modifying activities. We identified accumulations of select polyphenolic metabolites in the brain. We demonstrated that, in comparison to vehicle-control treatment, one of the brain-targeted polyphenol metabolites, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, significantly reduced the generation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides by primary neuron cultures generated from the Tg2576 AD mouse model. Another brain-targeted metabolite, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, had no detectable effect on Aβ generation. Moreover, in an in vitro analysis using the photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins (PICUP) technique, we found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide is also capable of interfering with the initial protein-protein interaction of Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 that is necessary for the formation of neurotoxic oligomeric Aβ species. Lastly, we found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide treatment, compared to vehicle-control treatment, significantly improved AD-type deficits in hippocampal formation basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation, possibly through mechanisms involving the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinases and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Brain-targeted quercetin-3-O-glucuronide may simultaneously modulate multiple independent AD disease-modifying mechanisms and, as such, may contribute to the benefits of dietary supplementation with red wines as an effective intervention for AD.—Ho, L., Ferruzzi, M. G

  10. Mediation of Effects of a Theory-Based Behavioral Intervention on Self-Reported Physical Activity in South African Men

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, John B.; Stephens, Alisa; O’Leary, Ann; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Teitelman, Anne; Ngwane, Zolani; Mtose, Xoliswa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Increasing physical activity is an important public-health goal worldwide, but there are few published mediation analyses of physical-activity interventions in low-to-middle-income countries like South Africa undergoing a health transition involving markedly increased mortality from non-communicable diseases. This article reports secondary analyses on the mediation of a theory-of-planned-behavior-based behavioral intervention that increased self-reported physical activity in a trial with 1,181 men in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Method Twenty-two matched-pairs of neighborhoods were randomly selected. Within pairs, neighborhoods were randomized to a health-promotion intervention or an attention-matched control intervention with baseline, immediate-post, and 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments. Theory-of-planned-behavior constructs measured immediately post-intervention were tested as potential mediators of the primary outcome, self-reported physical activity averaged over the 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments, using a product-of-coefficients approach in a generalized-estimating-equations framework. Data were collected in 2007–2010. Results Attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and intention were significant mediators of intervention-induced increases in self-reported physical activity. The descriptive norm, not affected by the intervention, was not a mediator, but predicted increased self-reported physical activity. Conclusion The results suggest that interventions targeting theory-of-planned-behavior constructs may contribute to efforts to increase physical activity to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases among South African men. PMID:25565482

  11. Study protocol: a multi-professional team intervention of physical activity referrals in primary care patients with cardiovascular risk factors—the Dalby lifestyle intervention cohort (DALICO) study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present study protocol describes the trial design of a primary care intervention cohort study, which examines whether an extended, multi-professional physical activity referral (PAR) intervention is more effective in enhancing and maintaining self-reported physical activity than physical activity prescription in usual care. The study targets patients with newly diagnosed hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes. Secondary outcomes include: need of pharmacological therapy; blood pressure/plasma glucose; physical fitness and anthropometric variables; mental health; health related quality of life; and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design The study is designed as a long-term intervention. Three primary care centres are involved in the study, each constituting one of three treatment groups: 1) Intervention group (IG): multi-professional team intervention with PAR, 2) Control group A (CA): physical activity prescription in usual care and 3) Control group B: treatment as usual (retrospective data collection). The intervention is based on self-determination theory and follows the principles of motivational interviewing. The primary outcome, physical activity, is measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-minutes per week. Physical fitness is estimated with the 6-minute walk test in IG only. Variables such as health behaviours; health-related quality of life; motivation to change; mental health; demographics and socioeconomic characteristics are assessed with an electronic study questionnaire that submits all data to a patient database, which automatically provides feed-back to the health-care providers on the patients’ health status. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention is evaluated continuously and the intermediate outcomes of the intervention are extrapolated by economic modelling. Discussions By helping patients to overcome practical, social and cultural obstacles and increase

  12. A simplified interventional mapping system (SIMS) for the selection of combinations of targeted treatments in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Vladimir; Rubin, Eitan; Depil, Stephane; Pawitan, Yudi; Martini, Jean-François; Gomez-Navarro, Jesus; Yver, Antoine; Kan, Zhengyin; Dry, Jonathan R; Kehren, Jeanne; Validire, Pierre; Rodon, Jordi; Vielh, Philippe; Ducreux, Michel; Galbraith, Susan; Lehnert, Manfred; Onn, Amir; Berger, Raanan; Pierotti, Marco A; Porgador, Angel; Pramesh, C S; Ye, Ding-wei; Carvalho, Andre L; Batist, Gerald; Le Chevalier, Thierry; Morice, Philippe; Besse, Benjamin; Vassal, Gilles; Mortlock, Andrew; Hansson, Johan; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Dann, Robert; Haspel, Joel; Irimie, Alexandru; Laderman, Steve; Nechushtan, Hovav; Al Omari, Amal S; Haywood, Trent; Bresson, Catherine; Soo, Khee Chee; Osman, Iman; Mata, Hilario; Lee, Jack J; Jhaveri, Komal; Meurice, Guillaume; Palmer, Gary; Lacroix, Ludovic; Koscielny, Serge; Eterovic, Karina Agda; Blay, Jean-Yves; Buller, Richard; Eggermont, Alexander; Schilsky, Richard L; Mendelsohn, John; Soria, Jean-Charles; Rothenberg, Mace; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Hong, Waun Ki; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-06-10

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Targeted monotherapies produce high regression rates, albeit for limited patient subgroups, who inevitably succumb. We present a novel strategy for identifying customized combinations of triplets of targeted agents, utilizing a simplified interventional mapping system (SIMS) that merges knowledge about existent drugs and their impact on the hallmarks of cancer. Based on interrogation of matched lung tumor and normal tissue using targeted genomic sequencing, copy number variation, transcriptomics, and miRNA expression, the activation status of 24 interventional nodes was elucidated. An algorithm was developed to create a scoring system that enables ranking of the activated interventional nodes for each patient. Based on the trends of co-activation at interventional points, combinations of drug triplets were defined in order to overcome resistance. This methodology will inform a prospective trial to be conducted by the WIN consortium, aiming to significantly impact survival in metastatic NSCLC and other malignancies. PMID:25944621

  13. A simplified interventional mapping system (SIMS) for the selection of combinations of targeted treatments in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Vladimir; Martini, Jean-François; Gomez-Navarro, Jesus; Yver, Antoine; Kan, Zhengyin; Dry, Jonathan R.; Kehren, Jeanne; Validire, Pierre; Rodon, Jordi; Vielh, Philippe; Ducreux, Michel; Galbraith, Susan; Lehnert, Manfred; Onn, Amir; Berger, Raanan; Pierotti, Marco A.; Porgador, Angel; Pramesh, CS; Ye, Ding-wei; Carvalho, Andre L.; Batist, Gerald; Le Chevalier, Thierry; Morice, Philippe; Besse, Benjamin; Vassal, Gilles; Mortlock, Andrew; Hansson, Johan; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Dann, Robert; Haspel, Joel; Irimie, Alexandru; Laderman, Steve; Nechushtan, Hovav; Al Omari, Amal S.; Haywood, Trent; Bresson, Catherine; Soo, Khee Chee; Osman, Iman; Mata, Hilario; Lee, Jack J.; Jhaveri, Komal; Meurice, Guillaume; Palmer, Gary; Lacroix, Ludovic; Koscielny, Serge; Eterovic, Karina Agda; Blay, Jean-Yves; Buller, Richard; Eggermont, Alexander; Schilsky, Richard L.; Mendelsohn, John; Soria, Jean-Charles; Rothenberg, Mace

    2015-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Targeted monotherapies produce high regression rates, albeit for limited patient subgroups, who inevitably succumb. We present a novel strategy for identifying customized combinations of triplets of targeted agents, utilizing a simplified interventional mapping system (SIMS) that merges knowledge about existent drugs and their impact on the hallmarks of cancer. Based on interrogation of matched lung tumor and normal tissue using targeted genomic sequencing, copy number variation, transcriptomics, and miRNA expression, the activation status of 24 interventional nodes was elucidated. An algorithm was developed to create a scoring system that enables ranking of the activated interventional nodes for each patient. Based on the trends of co-activation at interventional points, combinations of drug triplets were defined in order to overcome resistance. This methodology will inform a prospective trial to be conducted by the WIN consortium, aiming to significantly impact survival in metastatic NSCLC and other malignancies. PMID:25944621

  14. Energy Expenditure of the Physical Activity across the Curriculum Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Greene, Jerry L.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is frequently a component of interventions designed to diminish weight gain in children. It is essential to determine whether the energy expenditure (EE) elicited by these interventions is sufficient to reduce the rate of weight gain. Purpose To quantify the EE of the Physical Activity across the Curriculum (PAAC) intervention. This intervention involved two 10-min physically active academic lessons per day, taught by classroom teachers. Methods We assessed EE of PAAC in 19 males and 19 females using both an indirect calorimeter (IC) (COSMED K4b2) and an accelerometer (ActiGraph) (AC). Independent t-tests were used to evaluate gender differences. Dependent t-tests were used to examine the difference between EE assessed by IC and AC. The agreement between EE measured by IC and estimated by AC was evaluated using a Bland-Altman plot. A Pearson correlation between EE measured by IC and estimated by AC was calculated. Results There were no significant gender differences for age, BMI, or EE; therefore, analyses by gender were not performed. The mean EE measured by IC was 3.1 ± 1.0 kcal/min(3.4 METs). Mean EE estimated by AC (1.8 ± 0.9 kcal/min) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than EE measured by IC (mean underestimation = 1.3 kcal/min). The Bland-Altman plot suggested increased underestimation with increased levels of EE. The 95% limits of agreement were large (-2.8 to +0.3 kcal/min). The correlation between EE measured by IC and estimated by AC was r = 0.68 (P < 0.001). Conclusion PAAC elicited a level of EE that may prevent excessive weight gain in children. AC significantly underestimated the EE of PAAC lessons and may not provide useful EE estimates in this context. PMID:18614939

  15. Community empowerment and involvement of female sex workers in targeted sexual and reproductive health interventions in Africa: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) experience high levels of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) morbidity, violence and discrimination. Successful SRH interventions for FSWs in India and elsewhere have long prioritised community mobilisation and structural interventions, yet little is known about similar approaches in African settings. We systematically reviewed community empowerment processes within FSW SRH projects in Africa, and assessed them using a framework developed by Ashodaya, an Indian sex worker organisation. Methods In November 2012 we searched Medline and Web of Science for studies of FSW health services in Africa, and consulted experts and websites of international organisations. Titles and abstracts were screened to identify studies describing relevant services, using a broad definition of empowerment. Data were extracted on service-delivery models and degree of FSW involvement, and analysed with reference to a four-stage framework developed by Ashodaya. This conceptualises community empowerment as progressing from (1) initial engagement with the sex worker community, to (2) community involvement in targeted activities, to (3) ownership, and finally, (4) sustainability of action beyond the community. Results Of 5413 articles screened, 129 were included, describing 42 projects. Targeted services in FSW ‘hotspots’ were generally isolated and limited in coverage and scope, mostly offering only free condoms and STI treatment. Many services were provided as part of research activities and offered via a clinic with associated community outreach. Empowerment processes were usually limited to peer-education (stage 2 of framework). Community mobilisation as an activity in its own right was rarely documented and while most projects successfully engaged communities, few progressed to involvement, community ownership or sustainability. Only a few interventions had evolved to facilitate collective action through formal democratic structures (stage 3

  16. Meta-Analysis of Patient Education Interventions to Increase Physical Activity among Chronically Ill Adults

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Hafdahl, Adam R.; Brown, Sharon A.; Brown, Lori M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This meta-analysis integrates primary research testing the effect of patient education to increase physical activity (PA) on behavior outcomes among adults with diverse chronic illnesses. Methods Extensive literature searching strategies located published and unpublished intervention studies that measured PA behavior outcomes. Primary study results were coded. Fixed- and random-effects meta-analytic procedures included moderator analyses. Results Data were synthesized across 22,527 subjects from 213 samples in 163 reports. The overall mean weighted effect size for two-group comparisons was 0.45 (higher mean for treatment than control). This effect size is consistent with a difference of 48 minutes of PA per week or 945 steps per day. Preliminary moderator analyses suggest interventions were most effective when they targeted only PA behavior, used behavioral strategies (vs. cognitive strategies), and encouraged PA self-monitoring. Differences among chronic illnesses were documented. Individual strategies unrelated to PA outcomes included supervised exercise sessions, exercise prescription, fitness testing, goal setting, contracting, problem solving, barriers management, and stimulus/cues. PA outcomes were unrelated to gender, age, ethnicity, or socioeconomic distribution among samples. Conclusion These findings suggest that some patient education interventions to increase PA are effective, despite considerable heterogeneity in the magnitude of intervention effect. Practice Implications Moderator analyses are preliminary and provide suggestive evidence for further testing of interventions to inform practice. PMID:18023128

  17. Enhancing the population impact of collaborative care interventions: Mixed method development and implementation of stepped care targeting posttraumatic stress disorder and related comorbidities after acute trauma

    PubMed Central

    Zatzick, Douglas; Rivara, Frederick; Jurkovich, Gregory; Russo, Joan; Trusz, Sarah Geiss; Wang, Jin; Wagner, Amy; Stephens, Kari; Dunn, Chris; Uehara, Edwina; Petrie, Megan; Engel, Charles; Davydow, Dimitri; Katon, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop and implement a stepped collaborative care intervention targeting PTSD and related co-morbidities to enhance the population impact of early trauma-focused interventions. Method We describe the design and implementation of the Trauma Survivors Outcomes & Support Study (TSOS II). An interdisciplinary treatment development team was comprised of trauma surgical, clinical psychiatric and mental health services “change agents” who spanned the boundaries between front-line trauma center clinical care and acute care policy. Mixed method clinical epidemiologic and clinical ethnographic studies informed the development of PTSD screening and intervention procedures. Results Two-hundred and seven acutely injured trauma survivors with high early PTSD symptom levels were randomized into the study. The stepped collaborative care model integrated care management (i.e., posttraumatic concern elicitation and amelioration, motivational interviewing, and behavioral activation) with cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy targeting PTSD. The model was feasibly implemented by front-line acute care MSW and ARNP providers. Conclusions Stepped care protocols targeting PTSD may enhance the population impact of early interventions developed for survivors of individual and mass trauma by extending the reach of collaborative care interventions to acute care medical settings and other non-specialty posttraumatic contexts. PMID:21596205

  18. Impacting Environmental and Public Health through the Use of Dual Targeted and Tailored Asthma Educational Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Genny; Han, Daikwon; Lucio, Rose L.; Seol, Yoon-Ho; Chong-Menard, Betty; Smith, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Home-based asthma environmental education for parents of asthmatic children is needed since many health professionals lack the time to offer it. However, developing targeted and tailored education is important in order to address the individual needs of participants. This nonrandomized longitudinal study examined knowledge on asthma with an Asthma and Healthy Homes educational intervention training offered to parents of children from low income families who reside in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Eighty-nine parents received the training and pre- and posttest surveys were used to measure knowledge outcomes. A standardized assessment on asthma triggers was used to identify the different triggers each child was exposed to, and a follow-up survey was conducted 6 months after the educational intervention to identify how many parents reported household and behavior changes as a result of the training. Results showed significant changes in behavior by participants as a result of the training received. This study suggests that these behavioral changes are attributed to the dual “targeted” and “tailored” educational interventions delivered to parents which resulted in a greater understanding of how to manage asthma by eliminating asthma triggers in their respective homes. PMID:26240576

  19. Targeted home visiting intervention: the impact on mother-infant relationships.

    PubMed

    Walker, Anne Marie; Johnson, Rebecca; Banner, Catherine; Delaney, Jill; Farley, Rita; Ford, Margaret; Lake, Helen; Douglas, Hazel

    2008-03-01

    This paper reviews and reflects on six papers, which describe various early home visiting interventions that resulted in positive outcomes, particularly in relation to the mother-infant relationship. The papers were published in a special issue of the Infant Mental Health Journal in 2006. We provide a brief overview of each paper, highlighting the conclusions drawn across the six papers. Key learning points for health visitors in the UK are explored throughout. Suggestions are described for improvements to the way in which health visiting services in the UK are structured in order to further enhance mother-infant relationships. The overall finding is that mother-infant relationships and interactions can be improved through early home visiting interventions over a period of time, and that this prevents childhood problems later on. It is recommended that specific patient groups be targeted and offered tailored programmes of interventions that have a relevant theoretical base, by trained nursing staff who are supported by an infant mental health consultant. PMID:18416406

  20. A Review of Supportive Interventions Targeting Individuals or Couples Undergoing Infertility Treatment: Directions for the Development of Interventions.

    PubMed

    Luk, Bronya Hi-Kwan; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2016-08-17

    The purpose of this systematic review is to explore the types, content, and outcomes of different psychosocial approaches used in existing interventions for infertile individuals or couples. Relevant intervention studies published in English between 2000 and 2014 were searched using the electronic databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINHAL Plus. A total of 23 articles were identified and included in this review. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), and counseling were the most commonly adopted psychosocial interventions for infertile individuals or couples. After reviewing the various approaches, directions are given on the development of interventions for couples suffering from infertility. PMID:26259844

  1. State of the art: psychotherapeutic interventions targeting the psychological factors involved in IBD.

    PubMed

    Leone, Daniela; Menichetti, Julia; Fiorino, Gionata; Vegni, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The present article aims to review the literature on the relationship between psychology and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In particular, the first section is dedicated to explore the role of psychological factors in the etiopathology of the disease, its development and the efficacy of treatments, while the second analyzes existing literature on the role of psychological interventions in the care of IBD patients. Although the role of psychological factors in IBD appears controversial, literature seems to distinguish between antecedents of the disease (stress and lifestyle behavior), potential mediators of disease course (family functioning, attachment style, coping strategies, and illness perception), outcomes of IBD and concurrent factors (anxiety, depression and quality of life). Four types of psychological interventions are described: Stress management, Psychodynamic, Cognitive behavioral and Hypnosis based. Data on the role and efficacy of psychological interventions in IBD patients show little evidence both on reduction of the disease activity and benefits on psychological variables. Psychological interventions seem to be beneficial in the short term especially for adolescents. The importance of considering the connections between psychology and IBD from a broader perspective reflecting the complexity of the phenomenon at multiple levels is discussed. PMID:24975400

  2. Physical Activity Programs with Post-Intervention Follow-Up in Children: A Comprehensive Review According to Categories of Intervention.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Sally; Häcker, Anna-Luisa; Henderson, Melanie; Barnett, Tracie; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Pagani, Linda; Bigras, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Only 9% of Canadian children meet the National Guidelines of 60 min of daily moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. The aim of this review is to assess the mid- and long-term effectiveness of physical activity interventions and their impact on cardiovascular risk factors in children. We assessed the success of interventions within three different categories: those using a behavioural and social approach, an informational approach or an environmental approach. The average number of children included in these studies was 860 (range of 30-5106); the age range was from 2 to 18 years; and the mean intervention duration was 1607 min (range of 12-8160 min). The length of follow-up post-intervention averaged 13 months (ranging from 0.25 to 96 months). A positive impact on physical activity was found in 74% and on any measured outcomes in 90% of the studies reviewed. However, the benefits of physical activity interventions decreased with longer follow-up. Regardless of the approaches, physical activity interventions improved cardiovascular risk factors. However, the challenge of any program is to maintain beneficial effects once the intervention is completed. These findings will inform the development of future intervention programs in order to optimize sustained cardiovascular benefits. PMID:27376315

  3. Physical Activity Programs with Post-Intervention Follow-Up in Children: A Comprehensive Review According to Categories of Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Sally; Häcker, Anna-Luisa; Henderson, Melanie; Barnett, Tracie; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Pagani, Linda; Bigras, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Only 9% of Canadian children meet the National Guidelines of 60 min of daily moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. The aim of this review is to assess the mid- and long-term effectiveness of physical activity interventions and their impact on cardiovascular risk factors in children. We assessed the success of interventions within three different categories: those using a behavioural and social approach, an informational approach or an environmental approach. The average number of children included in these studies was 860 (range of 30–5106); the age range was from 2 to 18 years; and the mean intervention duration was 1607 min (range of 12–8160 min). The length of follow-up post-intervention averaged 13 months (ranging from 0.25 to 96 months). A positive impact on physical activity was found in 74% and on any measured outcomes in 90% of the studies reviewed. However, the benefits of physical activity interventions decreased with longer follow-up. Regardless of the approaches, physical activity interventions improved cardiovascular risk factors. However, the challenge of any program is to maintain beneficial effects once the intervention is completed. These findings will inform the development of future intervention programs in order to optimize sustained cardiovascular benefits. PMID:27376315

  4. Hyperactivity and Motoric Activity in ADHD: Characterization, Assessment, and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Kühnhausen, Jan; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present literature review is threefold. (1) We will review theories, models, and studies on symptomatic hyperactivity and motoric activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (2) Another focus will be on assessment methods that have been proven to be effective in the detection of hyperactivity and motoric activity in children, adolescents, and adults with and without ADHD and emerging areas of research in the field of ADHD. We will compare subjective methods (i.e., rating scales) and objective methods (i.e., accelerometers). (3) Finally, physical activity intervention studies aiming at a modification of activity and overactive behavior will be summarized that seem to be promising candidates for alleviating hyperactivity symptoms in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD. PMID:25506329

  5. Hyperactivity and Motoric Activity in ADHD: Characterization, Assessment, and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Kühnhausen, Jan; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present literature review is threefold. (1) We will review theories, models, and studies on symptomatic hyperactivity and motoric activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (2) Another focus will be on assessment methods that have been proven to be effective in the detection of hyperactivity and motoric activity in children, adolescents, and adults with and without ADHD and emerging areas of research in the field of ADHD. We will compare subjective methods (i.e., rating scales) and objective methods (i.e., accelerometers). (3) Finally, physical activity intervention studies aiming at a modification of activity and overactive behavior will be summarized that seem to be promising candidates for alleviating hyperactivity symptoms in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD. PMID:25506329

  6. Stakeholder engagement analysis - a bioethics dilemma in patient-targeted intervention: patients with temporomandibular joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Barkhordarian, Andre; Demerjian, Gary; Jan, Allison; Sama, Nateli; Nguyen, Mia; Du, Angela; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Modern health care in the field of Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing is grounded in fundamental philosophy and epistemology of translational science. Recently in the U.S major national initiatives have been implemented in the hope of closing the gaps that sometimes exist between the two fundamental components of translational science, the translational research and translational effectiveness. Subsequent to these initiatives, many improvements have been made; however, important bioethical issues and limitations do still exist that need to be addressed. One such issue is the stakeholder engagement and its assessment and validation. Federal, state and local organizations such as PCORI and AHRQ concur that the key to a better understanding of the relationship between translational research and translational effectiveness is the assessment of the extent to which stakeholders are actively engaged in the translational process of healthcare. The stakeholder engagement analysis identifies who the stakeholders are, maps their contribution and involvement, evaluates their priorities and opinions, and accesses their current knowledge base. This analysis however requires conceptualization and validation from the bioethics standpoint. Here, we examine the bioethical dilemma of stakeholder engagement analysis in the context of the person-environment fit (PE-fit) theoretical model. This model is an approach to quantifying stakeholder engagement analysis for the design of patient-targeted interventions. In our previous studies of Alzheimer patients, we have developed, validated and used a simple instrument based on the PE-fit model that can be adapted and utilized in a much less studied pathology as a clinical model that has a wide range of symptoms and manifestations, the temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the jaw joint endowed with sensory and motor innervations that project from within the central nervous system and its dysfunction can

  7. How targets select activation or repression in response to Wnt.

    PubMed

    Murgan, Sabrina; Bertrand, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In metazoans, the Wnt signaling pathway plays a key role in the regulation of binary decisions during development. During this process different sets of target genes are activated in cells where the Wnt pathway is active (classic target genes) versus cells where the pathway is inactive (opposite target genes). While the mechanism of transcriptional activation is well understood for classic target genes, how opposite target genes are activated in the absence of Wnt remains poorly characterized. Here we discuss how the key transcriptional mediator of the Wnt pathway, the TCF family member POP-1, regulates opposite target genes during C. elegans development. We examine recent findings suggesting that the direction of the transcriptional output (activation or repression) can be determined by the way TCF is recruited and physically interacts with its target gene. PMID:27123368

  8. The "Robustness" of Vocabulary Intervention in the Public Schools: Targets and Techniques Employed in Speech-Language Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Laura M.; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Murphy, Kimberly A.; Pratt, Amy; Biancone, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined vocabulary intervention--in terms of targets and techniques--for children with language impairment receiving speech-language therapy in public schools (i.e., non-fee-paying schools) in the United States. Vocabulary treatments and targets were examined with respect to their alignment with the empirically validated practice of…

  9. Healthy Weight Regulation and Eating Disorder Prevention in High School Students: A Universal and Targeted Web-Based Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Taylor Lynch, Katherine; Kass, Andrea E; Burrows, Amanda; Williams, Joanne; Wilfley, Denise E; Taylor, C Barr

    2014-01-01

    significantly decreased among participants in both tracks who had elevated weight/shape concerns at baseline. Fruit and vegetable consumption increased for both tracks. Physical activity increased among participants in the weight management track, while soda consumption and television time decreased. Conclusions Results suggest that an Internet-based, universally delivered, targeted intervention may support healthy weight regulation, improve weight/shape concerns among participants with eating disorders risk, and increase physical activity in high school students. Tailored content and interactive features to encourage behavior change may lead to sustainable improvements in adolescent health. PMID:24583683

  10. Formative evaluation of a motivational intervention for increasing physical activity in underserved youth.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dawn K; Griffin, Sarah; Saunders, Ruth P; Evans, Alexandra; Mixon, Gary; Wright, Marcie; Beasley, Amelia; Umstattd, M Renee; Lattimore, Diana; Watts, Ashley; Freelove, Julie

    2006-08-01

    The present study was designed to develop an innovative motivational intervention (based on Self-Determination Theory and Social Cognitive Theory) to increase physical activity (PA) in underserved adolescents. Sixty-four adolescents (35 females, 29 males; 50% minority; 65% on reduced lunch program; ages 11-13 yr) participated in either an 8-week motivational intervention after-school (n = 32) or a typical after-school program (n = 32). The conceptual framework for the intervention targeted the social environment (perceived autonomy, perceived social support, participation, fun), cognitive mediators (perceived choice, self-efficacy, and relatedness/belongingness), and motivational orientation (intrinsic motivation, commitment, positive self-concept). Formative evaluation data was collected by staff through daily forms throughout the 8-week program and through observational data completed by independent objective observers during 2 weeks of the program. The major themes that were identified addressed theoretical concepts regarding the intervention and logistical issues in delivering the intervention. The data revealed information regarding the importance of the cognitive appropriateness of the PA and motivational activities, the environmental climate for promoting nurturing relationships, developing specific strategies for increasing intrinsic rather than extrinsic reinforcement, and developing methods for preventing social "cliques" and gender conflicts to maintain an appropriate level of support in the social climate. Themes for training staff included focusing on team building, leadership, and nurturing. This formative evaluation is being used to formalize a randomized trial to test the effects of a student-centered motivational intervention on increasing PA in underserved 6th graders. PMID:21048891

  11. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants and metabolic modulators as pharmacological interventions to slow ageing.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Jan; Fong, Sheng; Chen, Ce-Belle; Yoong, Sialee; Pastorin, Giorgia; Schaffer, Sebastian; Cheah, Irwin; Halliwell, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Populations in many nations today are rapidly ageing. This unprecedented demographic change represents one of the main challenges of our time. A defining property of the ageing process is a marked increase in the risk of mortality and morbidity with age. The incidence of cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases increases non-linearly, sometimes exponentially with age. One of the most important tasks in biogerontology is to develop interventions leading to an increase in healthy lifespan (health span), and a better understanding of basic mechanisms underlying the ageing process itself may lead to interventions able to delay or prevent many or even all age-dependent conditions. One of the putative basic mechanisms of ageing is age-dependent mitochondrial deterioration, closely associated with damage mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Given the central role that mitochondria and mitochondrial dysfunction play not only in ageing but also in apoptosis, cancer, neurodegeneration and other age-related diseases there is great interest in approaches to protect mitochondria from ROS-mediated damage. In this review, we explore strategies of targeting mitochondria to reduce mitochondrial oxidative damage with the aim of preventing or delaying age-dependent decline in mitochondrial function and some of the resulting pathologies. We discuss mitochondria-targeted and -localized antioxidants (e.g.: MitoQ, SkQ, ergothioneine), mitochondrial metabolic modulators (e.g. dichloroacetic acid), and uncouplers (e.g.: uncoupling proteins, dinitrophenol) as well as some alternative future approaches for targeting compounds to the mitochondria, including advances from nanotechnology. PMID:23022622

  12. From orphan drugs to adopted therapies: Advancing C3-targeted intervention to the clinical stage.

    PubMed

    Mastellos, Dimitrios C; Reis, Edimara S; Yancopoulou, Despina; Hajishengallis, George; Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D

    2016-10-01

    Complement dysregulation is increasingly recognized as an important pathogenic driver in a number of clinical disorders. Complement-triggered pathways intertwine with key inflammatory and tissue destructive processes that can either increase the risk of disease or exacerbate pathology in acute or chronic conditions. The launch of the first complement-targeted drugs in the clinic has undeniably stirred the field of complement therapeutic design, providing new insights into complement's contribution to disease pathogenesis and also helping to leverage a more personalized, comprehensive approach to patient management. In this regard, a rapidly expanding toolbox of complement therapeutics is being developed to address unmet clinical needs in several immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases. Elegant approaches employing both surface-directed and fluid-phase inhibitors have exploited diverse components of the complement cascade as putative points of therapeutic intervention. Targeting C3, the central hub of the system, has proven to be a promising strategy for developing biologics as well as small-molecule inhibitors with clinical potential. Complement modulation at the level of C3 has recently shown promise in preclinical primate models, opening up new avenues for therapeutic intervention in both acute and chronic indications fueled by uncontrolled C3 turnover. This review highlights recent developments in the field of complement therapeutics, focusing on C3-directed inhibitors and alternative pathway (AP) regulator-based approaches. Translational perspectives and considerations are discussed, particularly with regard to the structure-guided drug optimization and clinical advancement of a new generation of C3-targeted peptidic inhibitors. PMID:27353192

  13. Interventions targeting sexual and reproductive health and rights outcomes of young people living with HIV: a comprehensive review of current interventions from sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pretorius, Leandri; Gibbs, Andrew; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Willan, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing number of young people (ages 10–24) are living with HIV (YPLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). These YPLWH have particular needs and challenges related to their sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). Contextual factors including gender inequalities, violence, stigma, and discrimination and lack of tailored services undermine YPLWH's SRHR. Objective Understand the scope and impact of interventions targeting YPLWH to improve SRH-related outcomes in SSA. Design We undertook a review to synthesise evaluated interventions (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods) aimed at improving the SRH outcomes of YPLWH in SSA with outcomes based on a World Health Organization framework of comprehensive SRHR approaches for women living with HIV. Using inclusion criteria, only six interventions were identified. Results Interventions sought to improve a range of direct and indirect SRH outcomes, including sexual behaviour, adherence, disclosure, and mental health. Four overarching issues emerged: 1) all interventions were structured according to cognitive behavioural therapy theories of behaviour change – while showing promise they do not tackle the wider gender, social, and economic contexts that shape YPLWH's SRH; 2) ‘significant others’ were included in two of the interventions, but further work needs to consider how to leverage parental/guardian support appropriately; 3) interventions only accessed young people who were already linked to care, participants were likely to have better SRH outcomes than those potentially more vulnerable YPLWH; and 4) none of the interventions explored the sexuality of young people. Conclusions There have been a limited number of evaluated interventions to strengthen SRH of YPLWH in SSA, and gaps exist in addressing the SRHR needs of YPLWH. Intervention approaches require greater scope and depth, including the need to address structural and contextual challenges. PMID:26534721

  14. An active target concept for the electronuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Grebyonkin, K.F.; Shzerebzov, A.L.; Kandiev, Ya.Z.; Maloyaroslavtsev, A.N.; Modin, V.N.; Orlov, A.I.; Peschkov, I.A.; Scherbakov, A.P.

    1995-12-31

    Preliminary identification of the components and efficiency estimations for the proposed (by Chelyabinsk-70) concept of active target for electronuclear reactor are goals of this work. (The electronuclear reactor comprises a high-energy proton acclerator, a high-atomic-number target (lead, tungsten) which produces neutrons from the protons, and a subcritical blanket.) Results of preliminary neutron and thermal-hydraulic simulations of the target are represented in the paper and preliminary detailing of the active target components is performed. It is shown that the use of active target can lead to an essential reduction of the requirements to the accelerator power without deterioration of the safety of the system.

  15. The Theory of Active Involvement: Processes Underlying Interventions that Engage Adolescents in Message Planning and/or Production

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased risk-taking and recent intervention strategies have included adolescents planning or producing anti-risk messages for their peers. Although these projects may generate enthusiasm, we know little about message planning or production as a strategy for changing adolescent decision-making and behavior. The paper articulates the Theory of Active Involvement (TAI) to describe and explain the processes through which these active involvement interventions influence adolescents. TAI is based on social cognitive theory’s notion of self-regulation and examines multiple perspective-taking and activating the self-reflection processes. The theory specifically describes the process of cognitive changes experienced by participants in active involvement interventions. The sequence is conceptualized as starting when engagement with the intervention (arousal and involvement) produces skill and knowledge gains (immediate outcomes) that lead to reflection (perceived discrepancy) and then other cognitions (expectancies, norms, intentions), with the ultimate outcome being behavior change. Engaging the target audience in a process of self-reflection is conceptualized as the crucial ingredient for meaningful and sustainable change in cognitions and behavior. This paper provides valuable insight into how active involvement strategies function and how to best design these interventions, particularly those targeting adolescents. PMID:23980581

  16. Active pixel as dosimetric device for interventional radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servoli, L.; Baldaccini, F.; Biasini, M.; Checcucci, B.; Chiocchini, S.; Cicioni, R.; Conti, E.; Di Lorenzo, R.; Dipilato, A. C.; Esposito, A.; Fanó, L.; Paolucci, M.; Passeri, D.; Pentiricci, A.; Placidi, P.

    2013-08-01

    Interventional Radiology (IR) is a subspecialty of radiology comprehensive of all minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed using radiological devices to obtain image guidance. The interventional procedures are potentially harmful for interventional radiologists and medical staff due to the X-ray diffusion by the patient's body. The characteristic energy range of the diffused photons spans few tens of keV. In this work we will present a proposal for a new X-ray sensing element in the energy range of interest for IR procedures. The sensing element will then be assembled in a dosimeter prototype, capable of real-time measurement, packaged in a small form-factor, with wireless communication and no external power supply to be used for individual operators dosimetry for IR procedures. For the sensor, which is the heart of the system, we considered three different Active Pixel Sensors (APS). They have shown a good capability as single X-ray photon detectors, up to several tens keV photon energy. Two dosimetric quantities have been considered, the number of detected photons and the measured energy deposition. Both observables have a linear dependence with the dose, as measured by commercial dosimeters. The uncertainties in the measurement are dominated by statistic and can be pushed at ˜5% for all the sensors under test.

  17. School physical activity interventions: do not forget about obesity bias.

    PubMed

    Rukavina, P B; Li, W

    2008-01-01

    Obesity bias is the tendency to negatively judge an overweight or obese individual based on assumed and/or false character traits, such as being physically unattractive, incompetent, lazy and lacking self-discipline. Obesity biases, such as teasing or weight criticism during physical activity (PA), can be psychologically or emotionally damaging for overweight children and adolescents. Ultimately, the effects students experience over time may create a psychological barrier and students can become resistant to schools' health and PA interventions that promote lifestyle changes. Fortunately, the psychological effects of obesity bias are mediated by social buffers and coping mechanisms. Several PA-related researchers have proposed strategic intervention components, but no studies have been completed in PA settings. The purpose of this review was to discuss the nature and different types of obesity bias in PA settings. Major theoretical frameworks of the aetiology and change mechanisms of obesity biases from the psychological literature were reviewed and direct applications for strategic component interventions were made for PA settings. Because of the pervasiveness and entrenchment of obesity bias, it is obvious that multiple theoretical frameworks need to be considered and even combined to create safe and caring school PA environments for students. PMID:18154603

  18. Using Environmental Stimuli in Physical Activity Intervention for School Teachers: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Peggy PY.; Chow, Bik C.; Parfitt, Gaynor

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of a six-week intervention that aimed to promote teachers' physical activity level during working hours. Thirty-eight teachers from three intervention schools (schools randomly assigned as intervention group) received intervention prompts: SMS messages, leaflets and posters…

  19. Accelerometer Use in a Physical Activity Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Borradaile, Kelley E.; Lewis, Beth A.; Whiteley, Jessica A.; Longval, Jaime L.; Parisi, Alfred F.; Albrecht, Anna E.; Sciamanna, Christopher N.; Jakicic, John M.; Papandonatos, George D.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the application of best practice recommendations for using accelerometers in a physical activity (PA) intervention trial, and the concordance of different methods for measuring PA. A subsample (n=63; 26%) of the 239 healthy, sedentary adults participating in a PA trial (mean age=47.5; 82% women) wore the ActiGraph monitor at all 3 assessment time points. ActiGraph data were compared with self-report (i.e., PA weekly recall and monthly log) and fitness variables. Correlations between the PA recall and ActiGraph for moderate intensity activity ranged from 0.16–0.48 and from 0.28–0.42 for vigorous intensity activity. ActiGraph and fitness [estimated VO2(ml/kg/min)] had correlations of 0.15–0.45. The ActiGraph and weekly self-report were significantly correlated at all time points (correlations ranged from 0.23–0.44). In terms of detecting intervention effects, intervention groups recorded more minutes of at least moderate-intensity PA on the ActiGraph than the control group at 6 months (min=46.47, 95% CI=14.36–78.58), but not at 12 months. Limitations of the study include a small sample size and only 3 days of ActiGraph monitoring. To obtain optimal results with accelerometers in clinical trials, the authors recommend following best practice recommendations: detailed protocols for monitor use, calibration of monitors and validation of data quality, and use of validated equations for analysis. The ActiGraph has modest concordance with other assessment tools and is sensitive to change over time. However, until more information validating the use of accelerometry in clinical trials becomes available, properly administered self-report measures of PA should remain part of the assessment battery. PMID:20723619

  20. Complement therapeutics in inflammatory diseases: promising drug candidates for C3-targeted intervention.

    PubMed

    Mastellos, D C; Ricklin, D; Hajishengallis, E; Hajishengallis, G; Lambris, J D

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing appreciation that complement dysregulation lies at the heart of numerous immune-mediated and inflammatory disorders. Complement inhibitors are therefore being evaluated as new therapeutic options in various clinical translation programs and the first clinically approved complement-targeted drugs have profoundly impacted the management of certain complement-mediated diseases. Among the many members of the intricate protein network of complement, the central component C3 represents a 'hot-spot' for complement-targeted therapeutic intervention. C3 modulates both innate and adaptive immune responses and is linked to diverse immunomodulatory systems and biological processes that affect human pathophysiology. Compelling evidence from preclinical disease models has shown that C3 interception may offer multiple benefits over existing therapies or even reveal novel therapeutic avenues in disorders that are not commonly regarded as complement-driven, such as periodontal disease. Using the clinically developed compstatin family of C3 inhibitors and periodontitis as illustrative examples, this review highlights emerging therapeutic concepts and developments in the design of C3-targeted drug candidates as novel immunotherapeutics for oral and systemic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26332138

  1. Impact of a physical activity intervention program on cognitive predictors of behaviour among adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes (ProActive randomised controlled trial)

    PubMed Central

    Hardeman, Wendy; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Michie, Susan; Sutton, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Background In the ProActive Trial an intensive theory-based intervention program was no more effective than theory-based brief advice in increasing objectively measured physical activity among adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes. We aimed to illuminate these findings by assessing whether the intervention program changed cognitions about increasing activity, defined by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, in ways consistent with the theory. Methods N = 365 sedentary participants aged 30–50 years with a parental history of Type 2 diabetes were randomised to brief advice alone or to brief advice plus the intervention program delivered face-to-face or by telephone. Questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months assessed cognitions about becoming more physically active. Analysis of covariance was used to test intervention impact. Bootstrapping was used to test multiple mediation of intervention impact. Results At 6 months, combined intervention groups (face-to-face and telephone) reported that they found increasing activity more enjoyable (affective attitude, d = .25), and they perceived more instrumental benefits (e.g., improving health) (d = .23) and more control (d = .32) over increasing activity than participants receiving brief advice alone. Stronger intentions (d = .50) in the intervention groups than the brief advice group at 6 months were partially explained by affective attitude and perceived control. At 12 months, intervention groups perceived more positive instrumental (d = .21) and affective benefits (d = .29) than brief advice participants. The intervention did not change perceived social pressure to increase activity. Conclusion Lack of effect of the intervention program on physical activity over and above brief advice was consistent with limited and mostly small short-term effects on cognitions. Targeting affective benefits (e.g., enjoyment, social interaction) and addressing barriers to physical activity may strengthen intentions, but stronger intentions did

  2. Identifying HIV most-at-risk groups in Malawi for targeted interventions. A classification tree model

    PubMed Central

    Emina, Jacques B O; Madise, Nyovani; Kuepie, Mathias; Zulu, Eliya M; Ye, Yazoume

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify HIV-socioeconomic predictors as well as the most-at-risk groups of women in Malawi. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Malawi Participants The study used a sample of 6395 women aged 15–49 years from the 2010 Malawi Health and Demographic Surveys. Interventions N/A Primary and secondary outcome measures Individual HIV status: positive or not. Results Findings from the Pearson χ2 and χ2 Automatic Interaction Detector analyses revealed that marital status is the most significant predictor of HIV. Women who are no longer in union and living in the highest wealth quintiles households constitute the most-at-risk group, whereas the less-at-risk group includes young women (15–24) never married or in union and living in rural areas. Conclusions In the light of these findings, this study recommends: (1) that the design and implementation of targeted interventions should consider the magnitude of HIV prevalence and demographic size of most-at-risk groups. Preventive interventions should prioritise couples and never married people aged 25–49 years and living in rural areas because this group accounts for 49% of the study population and 40% of women living with HIV in Malawi; (2) with reference to treatment and care, higher priority must be given to promoting HIV test, monitoring and evaluation of equity in access to treatment among women in union disruption and never married or women in union aged 30–49 years and living in urban areas; (3) community health workers, households-based campaign, reproductive-health services and reproductive-health courses at school could be used as canons to achieve universal prevention strategy, testing, counselling and treatment. PMID:23793677

  3. Inhibition of the HIV Rev transactivator : a new target for therapeutic intervention.

    PubMed

    Heguy, A

    1997-01-01

    The viral transactivator Rev is essential for HIV replication, since it allows the nuclear export of unspliced and partially spliced viral mRNAs that encode the structural proteins. Rev is an RNA binding protein that interacts with a highly structured RNA element, the RRE, found within the envelope sequences. This viral protein also interacts with cellular proteins, termed nucleoporins, and acts as an adaptor between the viral mRNAs and the cellular nuclear export machinery. Both interactions are specific, and required for Rev function. Because of its crucial role in the HIV replication cycle, and its novel mechanism of action, Rev represents an ideal target for therapeutic intervention. This review describes the efforts towards Rev inhibition. Gene therapy approaches, including the expression of trans-dominant mutants and RNA decoys, as well as antisense therapies and small molecule inhibitors of Rev-RRE binding or Rev interaction with the cellular machinery will be discussed PMID:9206979

  4. Qualitative investigation of targets for and barriers to interventions to prevent psychosis relapse

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early signs based relapse prevention interventions for psychosis show promise. In order to examine how they might be improved we sought to better understand the early relapse process, service users’ abilities to identify early signs, and any potential facilitators and barriers to early signs interventions. Methods Data from in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of service users with psychosis varying in gender, age, duration of mental health problems, and time since last relapse were analysed using a thematic approach. Interview transcripts were coded inductively and relationships between emerging themes were examined by the research team to provide a thorough synthesis of the data. Results Three central themes emerged from the analysis: 1) recognising risk factors (how risk factors were identified and linked to relapse, and reactions to such risk factors); 2) identifying early signs (issues related to both recognising and recalling signs of relapse); 3) reacting to deterioration (participants’ thoughts and feelings in response to early signs, including help seeking and its challenges). Conclusions There was considerable variation in the attention participants had paid to pre-relapse signs, the ease with which they were able to recall them, and their reactions to them. For many, there were substantial barriers to help seeking from services. A family or friend confidant was an important means of assistance, although the supportive presence of significant others was not always available. Based on these results, a number of recommendations about facilitating service users’ recognition of early signs and targeting potential accelerants of relapse are made. PMID:25030092

  5. HIV capsid is a tractable target for small molecule therapeutic intervention.

    PubMed

    Blair, Wade S; Pickford, Chris; Irving, Stephen L; Brown, David G; Anderson, Marie; Bazin, Richard; Cao, Joan; Ciaramella, Giuseppe; Isaacson, Jason; Jackson, Lynn; Hunt, Rachael; Kjerrstrom, Anne; Nieman, James A; Patick, Amy K; Perros, Manos; Scott, Andrew D; Whitby, Kevin; Wu, Hua; Butler, Scott L

    2010-01-01

    Despite a high current standard of care in antiretroviral therapy for HIV, multidrug-resistant strains continue to emerge, underscoring the need for additional novel mechanism inhibitors that will offer expanded therapeutic options in the clinic. We report a new class of small molecule antiretroviral compounds that directly target HIV-1 capsid (CA) via a novel mechanism of action. The compounds exhibit potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 laboratory strains, clinical isolates, and HIV-2, and inhibit both early and late events in the viral replication cycle. We present mechanistic studies indicating that these early and late activities result from the compound affecting viral uncoating and assembly, respectively. We show that amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal domain of HIV-1 CA are sufficient to confer resistance to this class of compounds, identifying CA as the target in infected cells. A high-resolution co-crystal structure of the compound bound to HIV-1 CA reveals a novel binding pocket in the N-terminal domain of the protein. Our data demonstrate that broad-spectrum antiviral activity can be achieved by targeting this new binding site and reveal HIV CA as a tractable drug target for HIV therapy. PMID:21170360

  6. The impact of hotspot-targeted interventions on malaria transmission: study protocol for a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous in most settings, resulting in the formation of recognizable malaria hotspots. Targeting these hotspots might represent a highly efficacious way of controlling or eliminating malaria if the hotspots fuel malaria transmission to the wider community. Methods/design Hotspots of malaria will be determined based on spatial patterns in age-adjusted prevalence and density of antibodies against malaria antigens apical membrane antigen-1 and merozoite surface protein-1. The community effect of interventions targeted at these hotspots will be determined. The intervention will comprise larviciding, focal screening and treatment of the human population, distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying. The impact of the intervention will be determined inside and up to 500 m outside the targeted hotspots by PCR-based parasite prevalence in cross-sectional surveys, malaria morbidity by passive case detection in selected facilities and entomological monitoring of larval and adult Anopheles populations. Discussion This study aims to provide direct evidence for a community effect of hotspot-targeted interventions. The trial is powered to detect large effects on malaria transmission in the context of ongoing malaria interventions. Follow-up studies will be needed to determine the effect of individual components of the interventions and the cost-effectiveness of a hotspot-targeted approach, where savings made by reducing the number of compounds that need to receive interventions should outweigh the costs of hotspot-detection. Trial registration NCT01575613. The protocol was registered online on 20 March 2012; the first community was randomized on 26 March 2012. PMID:23374910

  7. A systematic review of suicide prevention interventions targeting indigenous peoples in Australia, United States, Canada and New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Indigenous peoples of Australia, Canada, United States and New Zealand experience disproportionately high rates of suicide. As such, the methodological quality of evaluations of suicide prevention interventions targeting these Indigenous populations should be rigorously examined, in order to determine the extent to which they are effective for reducing rates of Indigenous suicide and suicidal behaviours. This systematic review aims to: 1) identify published evaluations of suicide prevention interventions targeting Indigenous peoples in Australia, Canada, United States and New Zealand; 2) critique their methodological quality; and 3) describe their main characteristics. Methods A systematic search of 17 electronic databases and 13 websites for the period 1981–2012 (inclusive) was undertaken. The reference lists of reviews of suicide prevention interventions were hand-searched for additional relevant studies not identified by the electronic and web search. The methodological quality of evaluations of suicide prevention interventions was assessed using a standardised assessment tool. Results Nine evaluations of suicide prevention interventions were identified: five targeting Native Americans; three targeting Aboriginal Australians; and one First Nation Canadians. The main intervention strategies employed included: Community Prevention, Gatekeeper Training, and Education. Only three of the nine evaluations measured changes in rates of suicide or suicidal behaviour, all of which reported significant improvements. The methodological quality of evaluations was variable. Particular problems included weak study designs, reliance on self-report measures, highly variable consent and follow-up rates, and the absence of economic or cost analyses. Conclusions There is an urgent need for an increase in the number of evaluations of preventive interventions targeting reductions in Indigenous suicide using methodologically rigorous study designs across geographically

  8. School-based interventions for minors in war-exposed countries: a review of targeted and general programmes.

    PubMed

    Persson, T J; Rousseau, C

    2009-01-01

    Lately, there has been a call to develop and assess efficacious mental health interventions for minors who have witnessed organized violence. This review outlines what is currently known about targeted and general school-based interventions for children and adolescents in war exposed countries. Seven empirical outcome studies were identified from a PubMed and PsychINFO search; four targeted and three general programmes. Despite the paucity of published evidence, some promising findings were noted. School-based interventions implemented by locally trained paraprofessionals in organized violence settings appear to be a feasible and low cost sustainable alternative to individualized therapy for distressed children in low and middle income countries. However, the reported outcomes for treatment effectiveness were mixed and suggest that school-based group crisis interventions for traumatized war exposed minors may not be sufficient to reduce mental distress and may sometimes even increase it. Several limitations in the published literature were observed. Although studies reported changes in symptoms associated with interventions, most did not report on the degree of functional impairment. Further, there may be a need to develop interventions targeting other dimensions of organized violence than post-traumatic distress, for example, depression and maladaptive grief. At this point in time it is difficult to compare targeted versus general interventions. There may be risks associated with screening minors, and studies should weigh the cost benefit of targeted versus broader treatment approaches. Future research should aim to determine which therapeutic ingredients, which could be professional-specific, such as manualized cognitive-behavioural therapy, culture-specific, or a combination, significantly contribute to positive outcomes. PMID:19920327

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions to Improve Moderate Physical Activity: A Study in Nine UK Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Andy; Cooke, Carlton; Gilson, Nicholas; Marsh, Kevin; McKenna, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Objective: With growing concerns to establish the value for returns on public health investment, there is a need to identify cost-effective physical activity interventions. This study measured change in moderate physical activity (MPA) in seven community-based intervention types, costs and cost-effectiveness of the interventions, and possible…

  10. Violence and HIV/AIDS prevention among female out-of-school youths in southwestern Nigeria: lessons learnt from interventions targeted at hawkers and apprentices.

    PubMed

    Fawole, O I; Ajuwon, A J; Osungbade, K O

    2004-12-01

    Between 1997 and 2003, four studies on hawkers and apprentices in motor parks and work shops in south west, Nigeria were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions aimed at preventing HIV infection and gender based violence (GBV). The studies were in 3 phases namely baseline survey, intervention and end line survey. Interventions consisting of:--development and distribution of education materials and training programmes for the police, judiciary, instructors, drivers, traders and apprentices/hawkers, including micro-credit facilities were implemented in some of the studies. The major lessons learnt were that: Young girls working in the informal sector of the Nigerian economy face dual risks of HIV infection and GBV and yet they are seldom targets of intervention; Many had been victims of GBV and did not seek redress either because they accept it is their lot, are afraid of being stigmatized or are put off the prolonged legal system; Perpetrators tend to deny their involvement in violence; Despite the challenges involved, interventions implemented among female apprentices and hawkers, especially those that involve multiple stakeholders, made a difference in protecting this group from dual risks of GBV and HIV/AIDS infection. We recommend more intervention programmes for this population, and regulation of activities in the informal sector of the Nigerian economy. PMID:15977443

  11. Impact of a brief intervention on self-regulation, self-efficacy and physical activity in older adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Olson, Erin A; McAuley, Edward

    2015-12-01

    Despite evidence of the benefits of physical activity, most individuals with type 2 diabetes do not meet physical activity recommendations. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a brief intervention targeting self-efficacy and self-regulation to increase physical activity in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Older adults (Mage = 61.8 ± 6.4) with type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome were randomized into a titrated physical activity intervention (n = 58) or an online health education course (n = 58). The intervention included walking exercise and theory-based group workshops. Self-efficacy, self-regulation and physical activity were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and a follow-up. Results indicated a group by time effect for self-regulation [F(2,88) = 14.021, p < .001, η (2) = .24] and self-efficacy [F(12,77) = 2.322, p < .05, η (2) = .266] with increases in the intervention group. The intervention resulted in short-term increases in physical activity (d = .76, p < .01), which were partially maintained at the 6-month follow-up (d = .35, p < .01). The intervention increased short-term physical activity but was not successful at maintaining increases in physical activity. Similar intervention effects were observed in self-efficacy and self-regulation. Future research warrants adjusting intervention strategies to increase long-term change. PMID:26162648

  12. Semiparametric Estimation of the Impacts of Longitudinal Interventions on Adolescent Obesity using Targeted Maximum-Likelihood: Accessible Estimation with the ltmle Package

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Anna L.; Hubbard, Alan; Crespi, Catherine M.; Seto, Edmund Y.W.; Wang, May C.

    2015-01-01

    While child and adolescent obesity is a serious public health concern, few studies have utilized parameters based on the causal inference literature to examine the potential impacts of early intervention. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the causal effects of early interventions to improve physical activity and diet during adolescence on body mass index (BMI), a measure of adiposity, using improved techniques. The most widespread statistical method in studies of child and adolescent obesity is multi-variable regression, with the parameter of interest being the coefficient on the variable of interest. This approach does not appropriately adjust for time-dependent confounding, and the modeling assumptions may not always be met. An alternative parameter to estimate is one motivated by the causal inference literature, which can be interpreted as the mean change in the outcome under interventions to set the exposure of interest. The underlying data-generating distribution, upon which the estimator is based, can be estimated via a parametric or semi-parametric approach. Using data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, a 10-year prospective cohort study of adolescent girls, we estimated the longitudinal impact of physical activity and diet interventions on 10-year BMI z-scores via a parameter motivated by the causal inference literature, using both parametric and semi-parametric estimation approaches. The parameters of interest were estimated with a recently released R package, ltmle, for estimating means based upon general longitudinal treatment regimes. We found that early, sustained intervention on total calories had a greater impact than a physical activity intervention or non-sustained interventions. Multivariable linear regression yielded inflated effect estimates compared to estimates based on targeted maximum-likelihood estimation and data-adaptive super learning. Our analysis demonstrates that sophisticated

  13. Physical Activity Interventions in Schools for Improving Lifestyle in European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mura, Gioia; Rocha, Nuno B.F; Helmich, Ingo; Budde, Henning; Machado, Sergio; Wegner, Mirko; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Vellante, Marcello; Baum, Antonia; Guicciardi, Marco; Patten, Scott B; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Background : In the last decades, children’s and adolescents’ obesity and overweight have increased in European Countries. Unhealthy eating habits and sedentary lifestyle have been recognized to determine such an epidemic. Schools represent an ideal setting to modify harmful behaviors, and physical activity could be regarded as a potential way to avoid the metabolic risks related to obesity. Methods : A systematic review of the literature was carried out to summarize the evidence of school-based interventions aimed to promote, enhance and implement physical activity in European schools. Only randomized controlled trials were included, carried out in Europe from January 2000 to April 2014, universally delivered and targeting pupils aged between 3 and 18 years old. Results : Forty-seven studies were retrieved based either on multicomponent interventions or solely physical activity programs. Most aimed to prevent obesity and cardiovascular risks among youths. While few studies showed a decrease in BMI, positive results were achieved on other outcomes, such as metabolic parameters and physical fitness. Conclusion : Physical activity in schools should be regarded as a simple, non-expensive and enjoyable way to reach all the children and adolescents with adequate doses of moderate to vigorous physical activity. PMID:25834629

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Comparing Pre-Diagnosis Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)-Targeted Intervention with Ontario's Autism Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Melanie; Rayar, Meera; Bashir, Naazish; Roberts, S. Wendy; Hancock-Howard, Rebecca L.; Coyte, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Novel management strategies for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) propose providing interventions before diagnosis. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the costs and dependency-free life years (DFLYs) generated by pre-diagnosis intensive Early Start Denver Model (ESDM-I); pre-diagnosis parent-delivered ESDM (ESDM-PD); and the Ontario…

  15. Camera calibration approach based on adaptive active target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yalin; Zhou, Fuqiang; Deng, Peng

    2011-12-01

    Aiming at calibrating camera on site, where the lighting condition is hardly controlled and the quality of target images would be declined when the angle between camera and target changes, an adaptive active target is designed and the camera calibration approach based on the target is proposed. The active adaptive target in which LEDs are embedded is flat, providing active feature point. Therefore the brightness of the feature point can be modified via adjusting the electricity, judging from the threshold of image feature criteria. In order to extract features of the image accurately, the concept of subpixel-precise thresholding is also proposed. It converts the discrete representation of the digital image to continuous function by bilinear interpolation, and the sub-pixel contours are acquired by the intersection of the continuous function and the appropriate selection of threshold. According to analysis of the relationship between the features of the image and the brightness of the target, the area ratio of convex hulls and the grey value variance are adopted as the criteria. Result of experiments revealed that the adaptive active target accommodates well to the changing of the illumination in the environment, the camera calibration approach based on adaptive active target can obtain high level of accuracy and fit perfectly for image targeting in various industrial sites.

  16. Chemokines and the inflammatory response following cardiopulmonary bypass--a new target for therapeutic intervention?--A review.

    PubMed

    Ben-Abraham, Ron; Weinbroum, Avi A; Dekel, Benjamin; Paret, Gideon

    2003-10-01

    This 10-year Medline search of English-language articles describing experimental and clinical studies on chemokines, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and systemic or multiorgan failure revealed that chemokines are significantly involved in the pathogenesis of post-CPB syndrome. The post-CPB inflammatory response depends upon recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells. Leucocyte recruitment is a well-orchestrated process that involves several protein families, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, adhesion molecules and chemokines. Current anti-inflammatory therapies mostly act on the cells that have already been recruited. A more efficient therapy might be the prevention of excessive recruitment of particular leucocyte populations by antagonizing chemokine receptors which might act upstream of the current anti-inflammatory agents. The chemokines, which are a cytokine subfamily of chemotactic cytokines, participate in recognizing, recruiting, removing and repairing inflammation. As chemokines target specific leucocyte subsets, antagonism of a single chemokine ligand or receptor would be expected to have a circumscribed effect, thereby endowing the antagonist with a limited side-effect profile. Chemokines should be considered as possible targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:14535901

  17. Adventurous Physical Activity Environments: A Mainstream Intervention for Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Clough, Peter; Houge Mackenzie, Susan; Mallabon, Liz; Brymer, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Adventurous physical activity has traditionally been considered the pastime of a small minority of people with deviant personalities or characteristics that compel them to voluntarily take great risks purely for the sake of thrills and excitement. An unintended consequence of these traditional narratives is the relative absence of adventure activities in mainstream health and well-being discourses and in large-scale governmental health initiatives. However, recent research has demonstrated that even the most extreme adventurous physical activities are linked to enhanced psychological health and well-being outcomes. These benefits go beyond traditional 'character building' concepts and emphasize more positive frameworks that rely on the development of effective environmental design. Based on emerging research, this paper demonstrates why adventurous physical activity should be considered a mainstream intervention for positive mental health. Furthermore, the authors argue that understanding how to design environments that effectively encourage appropriate adventure should be considered a serious addition to mainstream health and well-being discourse. PMID:26895993

  18. School-based physical education programs: evidence-based physical activity interventions for youth in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Isabela C; Parra, Diana C; Hoehner, Christine M; Soares, Jesus; Torres, Andrea; Pratt, Michael; Legetic, Branka; Malta, Deborah C; Matsudo, Victor; Ramos, Luiz R; Simoes, Eduardo J; Brownson, Ross C

    2010-06-01

    This article focuses on results of the systematic review from the Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Latin America project related to school-based physical education (PE) programs in Latin America. The aims of the article are to describe five school-based PE programs from Latin America, discuss implications for effective school-based PE recommendations, propose approaches for implementing these interventions, and identify gaps in the research literature related to physical activity promotion in Latin American youth. Following the US Community Guide systematic review process, five school-based PE intervention studies with sufficient quality of design, execution and detail of intervention and outcomes were selected for full abstraction. One study was conducted in Brazil, two studies were conducted in Chile and two studies were conducted on the US/Mexico border. While studies presented assorted outcomes, methods and duration of interventions, there were consistent positive increases in physical activity levels for all outcomes measured during PE classes, endurance and active transportation to school in all three randomized studies. Except for one cohort from one study, the non-randomized studies showed positive intervention effects for moderate and vigorous physical activity levels during PE classes. The core elements of these five interventions included capacity building and staff training (PE specialists and/or classroom teachers); changes in the PE curricula; provision of equipment and materials; and adjustment of the interventions to specific target populations. In order to translate the strong evidence for school-based PE into practice, systematic attention to policy and implementation issues is required. PMID:20587626

  19. School-based physical education programs: evidence-based physical activity interventions for youth in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Isabela C.; Parra, Diana C.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Soares, Jesus; Torres, Andrea; Pratt, Michael; Legetic, Branka; Malta, Deborah C.; Matsudo, Victor; Ramos, Luiz R.; Simoes, Eduardo J.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on results of the systematic review from the Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Latin America project related to school-based physical education (PE) programs in Latin America. The aims of the article are to describe five school-based PE programs from Latin America, discuss implications for effective school-based PE recommendations, propose approaches for implementing these interventions, and identify gaps in the research literature related to physical activity promotion in Latin American youth. Following the US Community Guide systematic review process, five school-based PE intervention studies with sufficient quality of design, execution and detail of intervention and outcomes were selected for full abstraction. One study was conducted in Brazil, two studies were conducted in Chile and two studies were conducted on the US/Mexico border. While studies presented assorted outcomes, methods and duration of interventions, there were consistent positive increases in physical activity levels for all outcomes measured during PE classes, endurance and active transportation to school in all three randomized studies. Except for one cohort from one study, the non-randomized studies showed positive intervention effects for moderate and vigorous physical activity levels during PE classes. The core elements of these five interventions included capacity building and staff training (PE specialists and/or classroom teachers); changes in the PE curricula; provision of equipment and materials; and adjustment of the interventions to specific target populations. In order to translate the strong evidence for school-based PE into practice, systematic attention to policy and implementation issues is required. (Global Health Promotion, 2010; 17(2): pp. 05–15) PMID:20587626

  20. Effectiveness of Cultural Adaptations of Interventions Aimed at Smoking Cessation, Diet, and/or Physical Activity in Ethnic Minorities. A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Nierkens, Vera; Hartman, Marieke A.; Nicolaou, Mary; Vissenberg, Charlotte; Beune, Erik J. A. J.; Hosper, Karen; van Valkengoed, Irene G.; Stronks, Karien

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of cultural adaptations in behavioral interventions targeting ethnic minorities in high-income societies is widely recognized. Little is known, however, about the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in such interventions. Aim To systematically review the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in interventions that target smoking cessation, diet, and/or physical activity and to explore features of such adaptations that may account for their effectiveness. Methods Systematic review using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials registers (1997–2009). Inclusion criteria: a) effectiveness study of a lifestyle intervention targeted to ethnic minority populations living in a high income society; b) interventions included cultural adaptations and a control group that was exposed to the intervention without the cultural adaptation under study; c) primary outcome measures included smoking cessation, diet, or physical activity. Results Out of 44904 hits, we identified 17 studies, all conducted in the United States. In five studies, specific cultural adaptations had a statistically significant effect on primary outcomes. The remaining studies showed no significant effects on primary outcomes, but some presented trends favorable for cultural adaptations. We observed that interventions incorporating a package of cultural adaptations, cultural adaptations that implied higher intensity and those incorporating family values were more likely to report statistically significant effects. Adaptations in smoking cessation interventions seem to be more effective than adaptations in interventions aimed at diet and physical activity. Conclusion This review indicates that culturally targeted behavioral interventions may be more effective if cultural adaptations are implemented as a package of adaptations, the adaptation includes family level, and where the adaptation results in a higher intensity of the

  1. What works in community-based interventions promoting physical activity and healthy eating? A review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Brand, Tilman; Pischke, Claudia R; Steenbock, Berit; Schoenbach, Johanna; Poettgen, Saskia; Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-06-01

    Chronic diseases, such as type II diabetes, are on the rise worldwide. There is consistent evidence that physical activity and healthy eating are important lifestyle factors which affect the risk for chronic diseases. Community-based interventions are of particular public health interest as they reach target groups in their natural living environment and may thus achieve high population-level impacts. We conducted a systematic literature search to assess the effectiveness of community-based interventions to promote physical activity and healthy eating. Specifically, we searched for promising intervention strategies in this setting. We narratively summarized the results of 18 systematic reviews. Among children and adolescents, we found moderate evidence for effects on weight change in primary school-aged children for interventions containing a school component. The evidence for interventions aimed at general adult populations was inconclusive. Self-monitoring, group-based components, and motivational signs to encourage stair use were identified as promising strategies to increase physical activity. Among adults at risk for type II diabetes, evidence was found for beneficial effects on weight change and diabetes incidence. However, interventions for this group were not integrated in more comprehensive community-based approaches. PMID:24886756

  2. What Works in Community-Based Interventions Promoting Physical Activity and Healthy Eating? A Review of Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Tilman; Pischke, Claudia R.; Steenbock, Berit; Schoenbach, Johanna; Poettgen, Saskia; Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-01-01

    Chronic diseases, such as type II diabetes, are on the rise worldwide. There is consistent evidence that physical activity and healthy eating are important lifestyle factors which affect the risk for chronic diseases. Community-based interventions are of particular public health interest as they reach target groups in their natural living environment and may thus achieve high population-level impacts. We conducted a systematic literature search to assess the effectiveness of community-based interventions to promote physical activity and healthy eating. Specifically, we searched for promising intervention strategies in this setting. We narratively summarized the results of 18 systematic reviews. Among children and adolescents, we found moderate evidence for effects on weight change in primary school-aged children for interventions containing a school component. The evidence for interventions aimed at general adult populations was inconclusive. Self-monitoring, group-based components, and motivational signs to encourage stair use were identified as promising strategies to increase physical activity. Among adults at risk for type II diabetes, evidence was found for beneficial effects on weight change and diabetes incidence. However, interventions for this group were not integrated in more comprehensive community-based approaches. PMID:24886756

  3. Nuclease Target Site Selection for Maximizing On-target Activity and Minimizing Off-target Effects in Genome Editing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ciaran M; Cradick, Thomas J; Fine, Eli J; Bao, Gang

    2016-03-01

    The rapid advancement in targeted genome editing using engineered nucleases such as ZFNs, TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas9 systems has resulted in a suite of powerful methods that allows researchers to target any genomic locus of interest. A complementary set of design tools has been developed to aid researchers with nuclease design, target site selection, and experimental validation. Here, we review the various tools available for target selection in designing engineered nucleases, and for quantifying nuclease activity and specificity, including web-based search tools and experimental methods. We also elucidate challenges in target selection, especially in predicting off-target effects, and discuss future directions in precision genome editing and its applications. PMID:26750397

  4. Nuclease Target Site Selection for Maximizing On-target Activity and Minimizing Off-target Effects in Genome Editing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ciaran M; Cradick, Thomas J; Fine, Eli J; Bao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The rapid advancement in targeted genome editing using engineered nucleases such as ZFNs, TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas9 systems has resulted in a suite of powerful methods that allows researchers to target any genomic locus of interest. A complementary set of design tools has been developed to aid researchers with nuclease design, target site selection, and experimental validation. Here, we review the various tools available for target selection in designing engineered nucleases, and for quantifying nuclease activity and specificity, including web-based search tools and experimental methods. We also elucidate challenges in target selection, especially in predicting off-target effects, and discuss future directions in precision genome editing and its applications. PMID:26750397

  5. Targeted, noninvasive blockade of cortical neuronal activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDannold, Nathan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Power, Chanikarn; Arvanitis, Costas D.; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Livingstone, Margaret

    2015-11-01

    Here we describe a novel method to noninvasively modulate targeted brain areas through the temporary disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via focused ultrasound, enabling focal delivery of a neuroactive substance. Ultrasound was used to locally disrupt the BBB in rat somatosensory cortex, and intravenous administration of GABA then produced a dose-dependent suppression of somatosensory-evoked potentials in response to electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve. No suppression was observed 1-5 days afterwards or in control animals where the BBB was not disrupted. This method has several advantages over existing techniques: it is noninvasive; it is repeatable via additional GABA injections; multiple brain regions can be affected simultaneously; suppression magnitude can be titrated by GABA dose; and the method can be used with freely behaving subjects. We anticipate that the application of neuroactive substances in this way will be a useful tool for noninvasively mapping brain function, and potentially for surgical planning or novel therapies.

  6. “Girls on the Move” intervention protocol for increasing physical activity among low-active underserved urban girls: a group randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing moderate to vigorous physical activity among urban girls of low socioeconomic status is both a challenge and a public health priority. Physical activity interventions targeting exclusively girls remain limited, and maintenance of moderate to vigorous physical activity during the post-intervention period has been difficult to maintain. The main aim of the 5-year “Girls on the Move” group randomized trial is to evaluate the efficacy of a comprehensive school-based intervention in increasing girls’ minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity and improving cardiovascular fitness, body mass index, and percent body fat immediately post-intervention (after 17 weeks) and at 9-month post-intervention follow-up (9 months after end of intervention). Methods/Design A total of 24 urban middle schools in the Midwestern U.S. will be randomized to either receive the intervention or serve as a control (N = 1200 girls). The intervention, based on the Health Promotion Model and Self-Determination Theory, will include: (1) two face-to-face motivational, individually tailored counseling sessions with a registered nurse, one at the beginning and the other at the end of the intervention period; (2) an interactive Internet-based session during which each girl receives individually tailored motivational and feedback messages via iPad at 11 weeks (shortly after midpoint of intervention); and (3) a 90-minute after-school physical activity club. Racially diverse, low-active, 10- to 14-year-old 5th to 8th-grade girls will complete questionnaires and physical measures at baseline and post-intervention (n = 50 per school). Minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity will be assessed with accelerometers. Cardiovascular fitness will be assessed by estimating VO2 max with PACER (Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run) scores. Height and weight will be assessed to calculate body mass index. Percent body fat will be estimated with a foot

  7. An Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention to Improve Quality of Life of Inactive Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Broekhuizen, Karen; de Gelder, Jelle; Wijsman, Carolien A; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Westendorp, Rudi GJ; Verhagen, Evert; Slagboom, Pieternella E; van Mechelen, Willem; van Heemst, Diana; van der Ouderaa, Frans

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing physical activity is a viable strategy for improving both the health and quality of life of older adults. Objective The aim of this study was to assess if an Internet-based intervention aimed to increase physical activity was effective in improving quality of life of inactive older adults. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the intervention on quality of life among those participants who successfully reached their individually targeted increase in daily physical activity as indicated by the intervention program, as well as the dose-response effect of increasing physical activity on quality of life. Methods The intervention was tested in a randomized controlled trial and was comprised of an Internet program—DirectLife (Philips)—aimed at increasing physical activity using monitoring and feedback by accelerometry and feedback by digital coaching (n=119). The control group received no intervention (n=116). Participants were inactive 60-70-year-olds and were recruited from the general population. Quality of life and physical activity were measured at baseline and after 3 months using the Research ANd Development 36-item health survey (RAND-36) and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer, respectively. Results After 3 months, a significant improvement in quality of life was seen in the intervention group compared to the control group for RAND-36 subscales on emotional and mental health (2.52 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.03) and health change (8.99 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.01). A total of 50 of the 119 participants (42.0%) in the intervention group successfully reached their physical activity target and showed a significant improvement in quality of life compared to the control group for subscales on emotional and mental health (4.31 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.009) and health change (11.06 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.004). The dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant association between increase in minutes spent in moderate

  8. NK-cell dysfunction in human renal carcinoma reveals diacylglycerol kinase as key regulator and target for therapeutic intervention.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Petra U; Mendler, Anna N; Brech, Dorothee; Masouris, Ilias; Oberneder, Ralph; Noessner, Elfriede

    2014-10-15

    The relevance of NK cells in tumor control is well established in mouse models and human hematologic malignancies; however, their contribution to the control of human solid tumors remains disputed due to problems with in situ detection and reports of functional inactivity in the tumor milieu. In this study, we established a reliable in situ detection method for NK cells. Moreover, we performed analysis to elucidate mechanisms that impair NK-cell function in the tumor milieu and thereby identify therapeutic targets that allow recovery of NK-cell functionality. It was observed that NK cells from clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), compared to NK cells from nontumor kidney and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), displayed conjoint phenotypic alterations and dysfunction induced by the tumor milieu, which were associated mechanistically with high levels of signaling attenuator diacylglycerol kinase (DGK)-α and blunted mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation (ERK1/2, Jun kinase). Reinstating NK-cell functionality was possible by DGK inhibition or brief IL-2 culture, interventions that de-repressed the ERK pathway. The extent of alteration and magnitude of recovery could be linked to NK-cell frequency within ccRCC-infiltrating lymphocytes, possibly explaining the observed survival benefit of patients with NK(high) tumors. In conclusion, DGK-mediated dampening of the ERK pathway ensuing in NK-cell dysfunction was identified as an important escape mechanism in ccRCC. DGK and the ERK pathway thus emerge as promising therapeutic targets to restore suppressed NK-cell activity for the improvement of antitumor immunity. PMID:24615391

  9. Joint marketing as a framework for targeting men who have sex with men in China: a pilot intervention study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jingguang; Cai, Rui; Lu, Zuxun; Cheng, Jinquan; de Vlas, Sake J; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2013-04-01

    To apply the joint marketing principle as a new intervention approach for targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) who are often difficult to reach in societies with discrimination towards homosexuality and HIV/AIDS. A pilot intervention according to the principles of joint marketing was carried out by the CDC in Shenzhen, China, in MSM social venues. A self-designed questionnaire of HIV knowledge, condom use, and access to HIV-related services was used before and after the pilot intervention to evaluate its effectiveness. The CDC supported gatekeepers of MSM social venues in running their business and thereby increasing their respectability and income. In return, the gatekeepers cooperated with the CDC in reaching the MSM at the venues with health promotion messages and materials. Thus a win-win situation was created, bringing together two noncompetitive parties in reaching out to a shared customer, the MSM. The pilot intervention succeeded in demonstrating acceptability and feasibility of the joint marketing approach targeting MSM. HIV knowledge, the rate of condom use, and access to HIV-related services of participants in the pilot intervention increased significantly. The joint marketing intervention is an innovative way to create synergies between the gatekeepers of MSM social venues and public health officials for reaching and potentially changing HIV high-risk behaviors among MSM. PMID:23514078

  10. Adherence to the physical activity intervention in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders pilot (LIFE-P) study.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) was a trial to examine the effects of physical activity on measures of disability risk in previously sedentary older adults at risk for disability. We examined adherence and retention to the LIPE-P physical activity (PA) interventio...

  11. Activation of p53 Facilitates the Target Search in DNA by Enhancing the Target Recognition Probability.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuji; Murata, Agato; Sakamoto, Seiji; Nanatani, Kei; Wada, Takehiko; Takahashi, Satoshi; Kamagata, Kiyoto

    2016-07-17

    Tumor suppressor p53 binds to the target in a genome and regulates the expression of downstream genes. p53 searches for the target by combining three-dimensional diffusion and one-dimensional sliding along the DNA. To examine the regulation mechanism of the target binding, we constructed the pseudo-wild type (pseudo-WT), activated (S392E), and inactive (R248Q) mutants of p53 and observed their target binding in long DNA using single-molecule fluorescence imaging. The pseudo-WT sliding along the DNA showed many pass events over the target and possessed target recognition probability (TRP) of 7±2%. The TRP increased to 18±2% for the activated mutant but decreased to 0% for the inactive mutant. Furthermore, the fraction of the target binding by the one-dimensional sliding among the total binding events increased from 63±9% for the pseudo-WT to 87±2% for the activated mutant. Control of TRP upon activation, as demonstrated here for p53, might be a general activation mechanism of transcription factors. PMID:27291286

  12. Building Social Competence in Preschool: The Effects of a Social Skills Intervention Targeting Children Enrolled in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Walker, Virginia; Jamison, Kristen R.

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the peer-to-peer interactions of at-risk children enrolled in Head Start who participated in a social pragmatic intervention targeting skills such as initiations, responses, name use, proximity, and turn-taking skills. Eight Head Start classroom teams received two workshops and two coaching sessions and were taught to…

  13. Intervention Targeting Development of Socially Synchronous Engagement in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landa, Rebecca J.; Holman, Katherine C.; O'Neill, Allison H.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Social and communication impairments are core deficits and prognostic indicators of autism. We evaluated the impact of supplementing a comprehensive intervention with a curriculum targeting socially synchronous behavior on social outcomes of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Methods: Fifty toddlers with ASD, ages 21 to 33…

  14. The Effectiveness of Social Skills Intervention Targeting Nonverbal Communication for Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome and Related Pervasive Developmental Delays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhill, Gena P.; Cook, Katherine Tapscott; Tebbenkamp, Kelly; Myles, Brenda Smith

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of an 8-week social skills intervention targeting nonverbal communication for eight adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Although minimal nonverbal communication skills development was apparent, some social relationships were developed and the ability of some participants to read the nonverbal communication of…

  15. Live Webcam Coaching to Help Early Elementary Classroom Teachers Provide Effective Literacy Instruction for Struggling Readers: The Targeted Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Kainz, Kirsten; Hedrick, Amy; Ginsberg, Marnie; Amendum, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), a classroom teacher professional development program delivered through webcam technology literacy coaching, could provide rural classroom teachers with the instructional skills to help struggling readers progress rapidly in early reading. Fifteen rural schools were randomly…

  16. Internet-Delivered Targeted Group Intervention for Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating in Adolescent Girls: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinicke, Brooke E.; Paxton, Susan J.; McLean, Sian A.; Wertheim, Eleanor H.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated a targeted intervention designed to alleviate body image and eating problems in adolescent girls that was delivered over the internet so as to increase access to the program. The program consisted of six, 90-minute weekly small group, synchronous on-line sessions and was facilitated by a therapist and manual. Participants were…

  17. Reported Use and Acceptability of Self-Management Interventions to Target Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briesch, Amy M.; Briesch, Jacquelyn M.; Mahoney, Corrine

    2014-01-01

    Although self-management interventions have a long history of empirical evaluation, attention has not been paid toward understanding actual use of this class of interventions. From a nationally representative sample of school psychology practitioners, a total of 295 respondents were presented with a description of a self-management intervention as…

  18. Computer-Assisted Interventions Targeting Reading Skills of Children with Reading Disabilities--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falth, Linda; Gustafson, Stefan; Tjus, Tomas; Heimann, Mikael; Svensson, Idor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of three computerized interventions on the reading skills of children with reading disabilities in Grade 2. This longitudinal intervention study included five test sessions over 1 year. Two test points occur before the intervention, and three afterwards. The last follow-up was conducted 1…

  19. Active calibration target for bistatic radar cross-section measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pienaar, M.; Odendaal, J. W.; Joubert, J.; Cilliers, J. E.; Smit, J. C.

    2016-05-01

    Either passive calibration targets are expensive and complex to manufacture or their bistatic radar cross section (RCS) levels are significantly lower than the monostatic RCS levels of targets such as spheres, dihedral, and trihedral corner reflectors. In this paper the performance of an active calibration target with relative high bistatic RCS values is illustrated as a reference target for bistatic RCS measurements. The reference target is simple to manufacture, operates over a wide frequency range, and can be configured to calibrate all four polarizations (VV, HH, HV, and VH). Bistatic RCS measurements of canonical targets, performed in a controlled environment, are calibrated with the reference target and the results are compared to simulated results using FEKO.

  20. Targeted learning in real-world comparative effectiveness research with time-varying interventions.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Romain; Schmittdiel, Julie A; van der Laan, Mark J

    2014-06-30

    In comparative effectiveness research (CER), often the aim is to contrast survival outcomes between exposure groups defined by time-varying interventions. With observational data, standard regression analyses (e.g., Cox modeling) cannot account for time-dependent confounders on causal pathways between exposures and outcome nor for time-dependent selection bias that may arise from informative right censoring. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) estimation to fit marginal structural models (MSMs) has commonly been applied to properly adjust for these expected sources of bias in real-world observational studies. We describe the application and performance of an alternate estimation approach in such a study. The approach is based on the recently proposed targeted learning methodology and consists in targeted minimum loss-based estimation (TMLE) with super learning (SL) within a nonparametric MSM. The evaluation is based on the analysis of electronic health record data with both IPW estimation and TMLE to contrast cumulative risks under four more or less aggressive strategies for treatment intensification in adults with type 2 diabetes already on 2+ oral agents or basal insulin. Results from randomized experiments provide a surrogate gold standard to validate confounding and selection bias adjustment. Bootstrapping is used to validate analytic estimation of standard errors. This application does the following: (1) establishes the feasibility of TMLE in real-world CER based on large healthcare databases; (2) provides evidence of proper confounding and selection bias adjustment with TMLE and SL; and (3) motivates their application for improving estimation efficiency. Claims are reinforced with a simulation study that also illustrates the double-robustness property of TMLE. PMID:24535915

  1. A Semantic Problem Solving Environment for Integrative Parasite Research: Identification of Intervention Targets for Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Priti P.; Minning, Todd A.; Nguyen, Vinh; Lalithsena, Sarasi; Asiaee, Amir H.; Sahoo, Satya S.; Doshi, Prashant; Tarleton, Rick; Sheth, Amit P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Research on the biology of parasites requires a sophisticated and integrated computational platform to query and analyze large volumes of data, representing both unpublished (internal) and public (external) data sources. Effective analysis of an integrated data resource using knowledge discovery tools would significantly aid biologists in conducting their research, for example, through identifying various intervention targets in parasites and in deciding the future direction of ongoing as well as planned projects. A key challenge in achieving this objective is the heterogeneity between the internal lab data, usually stored as flat files, Excel spreadsheets or custom-built databases, and the external databases. Reconciling the different forms of heterogeneity and effectively integrating data from disparate sources is a nontrivial task for biologists and requires a dedicated informatics infrastructure. Thus, we developed an integrated environment using Semantic Web technologies that may provide biologists the tools for managing and analyzing their data, without the need for acquiring in-depth computer science knowledge. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a semantic problem-solving environment (SPSE) that uses ontologies to integrate internal lab data with external resources in a Parasite Knowledge Base (PKB), which has the ability to query across these resources in a unified manner. The SPSE includes Web Ontology Language (OWL)-based ontologies, experimental data with its provenance information represented using the Resource Description Format (RDF), and a visual querying tool, Cuebee, that features integrated use of Web services. We demonstrate the use and benefit of SPSE using example queries for identifying gene knockout targets of Trypanosoma cruzi for vaccine development. Answers to these queries involve looking up multiple sources of data, linking them together and presenting the results. Conclusion/Significance The SPSE facilitates

  2. Targeted Nutritional and Behavioral Feeding Intervention for a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tami, Amanda; Schutte, Claire; Hewitson, Laura; Olive, Melissa L.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of feeding issues and concerns, including food aversion, food selectivity, and complete food refusal, are not uncommon among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Other underlying issues are often comorbid with the concerns for feeding and ASD. These may include food allergies, gastrointestinal issues, oral motor issues, and swallowing disorders. The refusal to consume particular foods coupled with the inability to tolerate, digest, and absorb these foods can compromise an individual's overall nutrition status. Therefore, a child's behavior toward food and feeding activities has great impact on dietary intake, nutritional status, and growth. This case report is the first to document combined medical, behavioral, and nutritional intervention for a toddler with ASD and comorbid feeding disorder. PMID:27051550

  3. Targeted Nutritional and Behavioral Feeding Intervention for a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Barnhill, Kelly; Tami, Amanda; Schutte, Claire; Hewitson, Laura; Olive, Melissa L

    2016-01-01

    A variety of feeding issues and concerns, including food aversion, food selectivity, and complete food refusal, are not uncommon among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Other underlying issues are often comorbid with the concerns for feeding and ASD. These may include food allergies, gastrointestinal issues, oral motor issues, and swallowing disorders. The refusal to consume particular foods coupled with the inability to tolerate, digest, and absorb these foods can compromise an individual's overall nutrition status. Therefore, a child's behavior toward food and feeding activities has great impact on dietary intake, nutritional status, and growth. This case report is the first to document combined medical, behavioral, and nutritional intervention for a toddler with ASD and comorbid feeding disorder. PMID:27051550

  4. Head-and-Neck Target Delineation Among Radiation Oncology Residents After a Teaching Intervention: A Prospective, Blinded Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bekelman, Justin E. Wolden, Suzanne; Lee, Nancy

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: We conducted this study to determine the feasibility of incorporating a teaching intervention on target delineation into the educational curriculum of a radiation oncology residency program and to assess the short-term effects on resident skills. Methods and Materials: The study schema consisted of a baseline evaluation, the teaching intervention, and a follow-up evaluation. At the baseline evaluation, the participants contoured three clinical tumor volumes (CTVs) (70 Gy, 59.4 Gy, and 54 Gy) on six contrast-enhanced axial computed tomography images of a de-identified patient with Stage T2N2bM0 squamous cell carcinoma of the right base of the tongue. The participants attended a series of head-and-neck oncology and anatomy seminars. The teaching intervention consisted of a didactic lecture and an interactive hands-on practical session designed to improve the knowledge and skills for target delineation in the head and neck. At the follow-up evaluation, the residents again contoured the CTVs. Results: Of the 14 eligible residents, 11 (79%) actually participated in the study. For all participants, but especially for those who had not had previous experience with head-and-neck target delineation, the teaching intervention was associated with improvement in the delineation of the node-negative neck (CTV 54 Gy contour). Regardless of clinical experience, participants had difficulty determining what should be included in the CTV 59.4 Gy contour to ensure adequate coverage of potential microscopic disease. Conclusion: Incorporating a teaching intervention into the education curriculum of a radiation oncology residency program is feasible and was associated with short-term improvements in target delineation skills. Subsequent interventions will require content refinement, additional validation, longer term follow-up, and multi-institutional collaboration.

  5. Is School Community Readiness Related to Physical Activity before and after the Ready for Recess Intervention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlers, Diane K.; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Beseler, Cheryl L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine: (i) the effect of schools' baseline community readiness (CR) on youth physical activity (PA) at recess prior to the Ready for Recess intervention; (ii) if changes in PA due to the intervention were explained by baseline CR and (iii) if specific components of the intervention altered an association…

  6. Web-Based Physical Activity Intervention for College-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornes, Lynne; Ransdell, Lynda B.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of a web-based physical activity intervention to two control conditions in terms of increasing walking behavior in college-aged women. Women (N=112) from a public university in the southwest were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. The 4-week intervention featured an experimental, repeated…

  7. Integrative Review of Nurse-Delivered Physical Activity Interventions in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Richards, Elizabeth A; Cai, Yun

    2016-04-01

    Promotion of physical activity has been a public health priority for decades. The purpose of this integrative review is to examine the effectiveness of nurse-delivered physical activity interventions conducted in primary care settings. Computerized database and ancestry search strategies located distinct intervention trials between 1990 and 2014. Nineteen national and international studies with 7,350 participants were reviewed. The most common intervention was physical activity counseling with supportive or motivational contacts. Few studies utilized exercise training, device-based exercise monitoring, or exercise prescriptions. The most common follow-up durations were 3 to 12 months. Half the studies integrated health behavior theoretical frameworks into the intervention. Almost 80% of the studies reported significant increases in walking, moderate or vigorous physical activity, or overall physical activity in the intervention groups. Interventions successful in increasing physical activity most often utilized tailored techniques such as providing "stage of change"-specific strategies or helping patients set individualized goals. PMID:25903812

  8. Screening instruments for substance use and brief interventions targeting adolescents in primary care: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pilowsky, Daniel J; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2013-01-01

    Background A review of the literature was conducted to examine substance use screening instruments commonly used with adolescents in medical settings, their comparative usefulness, and SBIRT (Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment). Methods We screened two databases (Ovid MEDLINE and PsycINFO) targeting journal articles dealing with screening for alcohol and drug use in adolescence as well as adolescent SBIRT. Results Adolescents preferred paper forms and computerized questionnaires over interviews with physicians or nurses. The CRAFFT was the best studied instrument for screening for alcohol/drug use and related problems, and is the only tool with data to support its use in medical settings. Other screening instruments require more testing/evaluation in more representative samples of adolescents in primary care settings. Long term follow-up data to establish the efficacy of SBIRT in adolescence are not available. Innovative computerized approaches to screening for substance use in this population have recently been proposed. Although promising, they require further evaluation. Conclusions The CRAFFT has the most consistent data to support its use in primary care settings. The effects of SBIRT in adolescence have not been adequately evaluated. Adolescents’ opinions and preferences for SBIRT should be studied to improve their acceptance. PMID:23454877

  9. Human mesenchymal stromal cell proteomics: contribution for identification of new markers and targets for medicine intervention.

    PubMed

    Faça, Vitor Marcel

    2012-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) have become of great interest for cell-based therapy owing to their roles in tissue repair and immune suppression. MSCs have the ability to differentiate into specialized tissues, including bone, cartilage and muscle, among several others. Furthermore, it has been found that MSCs can also serve as cellular factories that secrete mediators to stimulate in situ regeneration of injured tissues. Proteomics has contributed significantly to the identification of new proteins to improve cellular characterization of MSCs, to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention and to elucidate important pathways utilized by MSCs to differentiate into distinct tissues. As proteomics technology advances, several studies can be revisited and analyzed in depth, employing state-of-the-art approaches, helping to uncover the cellular mechanisms utilized by MSCs to exert their regenerative functionalities. In this article, we will review the progress made so far and discuss further opportunities for proteomics to contribute to the clinical applications of MSCs. PMID:22462791

  10. Choroidal mast cells in retinal pathology: a potential target for intervention.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Elodie; Zhao, Min; Thillaye-Goldenberg, Brigitte; Lorena, Viera; Castaneda, Beatriz; Naud, Marie Christine; Bergin, Ciara; Besson-Lescure, Bernadette; Behar-Cohen, Francine; de Kozak, Yvonne

    2015-08-01

    Mast cells are important in the initiation of ocular inflammation, but the consequences of mast cell degranulation on ocular pathology remain uncharacterized. We induced mast cell degranulation by local subconjunctival injection of compound 48/80. Initial degranulation of mast cells was observed in the choroid 15 minutes after the injection and increased up to 3 hours after injection. Clinical signs of anterior segment inflammation paralleled mast cell degranulation. With the use of optical coherence tomography, dilation of choroidal vessels and serous retinal detachments (SRDs) were observed and confirmed by histology. Subconjunctival injection of disodium cromoglycate significantly reduced the rate of SRDs, demonstrating the involvement of mast cell degranulation in posterior segment disorders. The infiltration of polymorphonuclear and macrophage cells was associated with increased ocular media concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α, CXCL1, IL-6, IL-5, chemokine ligand 2, and IL-1β. Analysis of the amounts of vascular endothelial growth factor and IL-18 showed an opposite evolution of vascular endothelial growth factor compared with IL-18 concentrations, suggesting that they regulate each other's production. These findings suggest that the local degranulation of ocular mast cells provoked acute ocular inflammation, dilation, increased vascular permeability of choroidal vessels, and SRDs. The involvement of mast cells in retinal diseases should be further investigated. The pharmacologic inhibition of mast cell degranulation may be a potential target for intervention. PMID:26166807

  11. Women With Early Menopause Have Higher Rates of Target Lesion Revascularization After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Zhijian; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Zhiming; Zhao, Yingxin; Shi, Dongmei; Liu, Yuyang; Liang, Jing; Yang, Lixia; Chai, Meng; Zhou, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Early menopause has been found to be associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to investigate the impact of early menopause on clinical outcomes for women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We observed female patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing PCI and found that women with early menopause (≤46 years old) were more likely to have CAD risk factors and more severe coronary lesions. During the 18-month follow-up, early menopause was associated with similar risk of death and myocardial infarction but higher risk of target lesion revascularization (TLR; 7.8% vs 5.3%, P = .003) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs; 11.3% vs 9.0%, P = .007). After adjustment, early menopause was an independent risk factor for 18-month MACEs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.00) and TLR (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.21-2.13). In conclusion, for women undergoing PCI, early menopause is associated with higher risk of MACE, which is mainly driven by risk of TLR. PMID:26032851

  12. Repositioning of drugs for intervention in tumor progression and metastasis: Old drugs for new targets.

    PubMed

    Mudduluru, Giridhar; Walther, Wolfgang; Kobelt, Dennis; Dahlmann, Mathias; Treese, Christoph; Assaraf, Yehuda G; Stein, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    The increasing unraveling of the molecular basis of cancer offers manifold novel options for intervention strategies. However, the discovery and development of new drugs for potential clinical applications is a tremendously time-consuming and costly process. Translating a novel lead candidate compound into an approved clinical drug takes often more than a decade, and the success rate is very low due to versatile efforts including defining its pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, side effects as well as lack of sufficient efficacy. Thus, strategies are needed to minimize time and costs, while maximizing success rates. A very attractive strategy for novel cancer therapeutic options is the repositioning of already approved drugs. These medicines, approved for the treatment of non-malignant disorders, have already passed some early costs and time, have been tested in humans and are ready for clinical trials as anti-cancer drugs. Here we discuss the repositioning of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), statins, anti-psychotic drugs, anti-helminthic drugs and vitamin D as anti-tumor agents. We focus on their novel actions and potential for inhibition of cancer growth and metastasis by interfering with target molecules and pathways, which drive these malignant processes. Furthermore, important pre-clinical and clinical data are reviewed herein, which elucidate their therapeutic mechanisms which enable their repositioning for cancer therapy and disruption of metastasis. PMID:27180307

  13. Physical activity interventions to prevent falls among older people: update of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sherrington, C; Lord, S R; Finch, C F

    2004-04-01

    Injuries resulting from falls are a significant public health issue, particularly for older people. This review provides an update of the evidence on the effects of various physical activity (PA) or exercise intervention strategies for the prevention of unintentional falls among older people. Six systematic reviews, and three randomised controlled trials not incorporated in previous reviews, were located with a literature search. There is clear evidence that a targeted supervised home exercise program of strength and balance exercise and walking practice, prescribed by a trained health professional, can prevent falls among older community dwellers. There is also an indication that untargeted group exercise (ie, not individually prescribed) can prevent falls among community dwellers, particularly if it involves Tai Chi or other exercises which challenge balance. There is some indication that individual prescription of PA is more important in frailer groups. Further investigation is required to establish the effects of PA in residential aged care, and the relative effects of different types of PA in different populations. In addition, multidisciplinary, multifactorial. health/environmental risk factor screening/intervention programs have been found to be effective in preventing falls. For many individuals with physical risk factors for falls (eg, impaired strength, balance or functional ability), PA alone is likely to reduce the risk of falls. For those with additional risk factors (eg, visual impairments, psychoactive medication use), other interventions may also be required. PMID:15214601

  14. Evaluation of a Community-Based Intervention To Promote Physical Activity in Youth: Lessons from Active Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Ward, Dianne S.; Felton, Gwen; Trost, Stewart G.; Dowda, Marsha

    2003-01-01

    Tested the effectiveness of a community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity among rural fifth graders. Data on students who participated in after-school and summer programs and home, school, and community interventions indicated that the after-school and summer interventions were implemented as planned, but the home, school,…

  15. Targeting the specific vocabulary needs of at-risk preschoolers: a randomized study of the effectiveness of an educator-implemented intervention.

    PubMed

    Vuattoux, Delphine; Japel, Christa; Dion, Eric; Dupéré, Véronique

    2014-04-01

    This randomized study examined the effectiveness of a preschool stimulation program created to teach words that had been selected by considering the needs of the target population of children. Twenty-two educators and their group of at-risk preschoolers (N = 222, M age = 4.27 years) were assigned to one of two conditions: control or intervention. In the latter condition, educators had to read specifically developed storybooks to their group and conduct stimulation activities. Despite the training and support they received, educators implemented the intervention with varying degrees of fidelity. Nonetheless, intent-to-treat comparison of the two conditions indicates that children in the intervention condition learned the meaning of a much greater number of words than their peers in the control condition. In addition, efficacy subset analyses that took into account fidelity of implementation show that the greatest gains were made by children who had an educator who had implemented the intervention reliably. Strategies for scaling up the intervention and optimizing its implementation are discussed. PMID:23543358

  16. [A workplace intervention aimed at increasing awareness in nursing personnel performing manual handling activities].

    PubMed

    Scorpiniti, A; Lorusso, A; L'Abbate, N

    2007-01-01

    Here we describe a workplace intervention aimed at reducing the risk of low back pain in nursing personnel. The intervention we carried out included a specific ergonomic training and an exercise program according to the Feldenkrais Method. After the intervention, we evaluated its effect on the execution of manual handling activities in nurses. We found an increased rate of correct manual handling in the post-intervention period. PMID:18410001

  17. Cancer active targeting by nanoparticles: a comprehensive review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Bazak, Remon; Houri, Mohamad; Achy, Samar El; Kamel, Serag

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cancer is one of the leading causes of death, and thus, the scientific community has but great efforts to improve cancer management. Among the major challenges in cancer management is development of agents that can be used for early diagnosis and effective therapy. Conventional cancer management frequently lacks accurate tools for detection of early tumors and has an associated risk of serious side effects of chemotherapeutics. The need to optimize therapeutic ratio as the difference with which a treatment affects cancer cells versus healthy tissues lead to idea that it is needful to have a treatment that could act a the “magic bullet”—recognize cancer cells only. Nanoparticle platforms offer a variety of potentially efficient solutions for development of targeted agents that can be exploited for cancer diagnosis and treatment. There are two ways by which targeting of nanoparticles can be achieved, namely passive and active targeting. Passive targeting allows for the efficient localization of nanoparticles within the tumor microenvironment. Active targeting facilitates the active uptake of nanoparticles by the tumor cells themselves. Methods Relevant English electronic databases and scientifically published original articles and reviews were systematically searched for the purpose of this review. Results In this report, we present a comprehensive review of literatures focusing on the active targeting of nanoparticles to cancer cells, including antibody and antibody fragment-based targeting, antigen-based targeting, aptamer-based targeting, as well as ligand-based targeting. Conclusion To date, the optimum targeting strategy has not yet been announced, each has its own advantages and disadvantages even though a number of them have found their way for clinical application. Perhaps, a combination of strategies can be employed to improve the precision of drug delivery, paving the way for a more effective personalized therapy. PMID:25005786

  18. Interventions to Promote Young People's Physical Activity: Issues, Implications and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2006-01-01

    There has been increased interest in the development and implementation of physical activity interventions designed to increase young people's physical activity participation in recent years. This is perhaps founded on concerns over youngsters' physical activity levels and the possible health consequences. School-based interventions are the most…

  19. Compstatin: a C3-targeted complement inhibitor reaching its prime for bedside intervention.

    PubMed

    Mastellos, Dimitrios C; Yancopoulou, Despina; Kokkinos, Petros; Huber-Lang, Markus; Hajishengallis, George; Biglarnia, Ali R; Lupu, Florea; Nilsson, Bo; Risitano, Antonio M; Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing awareness that complement plays an integral role in human physiology and disease, transcending its traditional perception as an accessory system for pathogen clearance and opsonic cell killing. As the list of pathologies linked to dysregulated complement activation grows longer, it has become clear that targeted modulation of this innate immune system opens new windows of therapeutic opportunity for anti-inflammatory drug design. Indeed, the introduction of the first complement-targeting drugs has reignited a vibrant interest in the clinical translation of complement-based inhibitors. Compstatin was discovered as a cyclic peptide that inhibits complement activation by binding C3 and interfering with convertase formation and C3 cleavage. As the convergence point of all activation pathways and a molecular hub for crosstalk with multiple pathogenic pathways, C3 represents an attractive target for therapeutic modulation of the complement cascade. A multidisciplinary drug optimization effort encompassing rational 'wet' and in silico synthetic approaches and an array of biophysical, structural and analytical tools has culminated in an impressive structure-function refinement of compstatin, yielding a series of analogues that show promise for a wide spectrum of clinical applications. These new derivatives have improved inhibitory potency and pharmacokinetic profiles and show efficacy in clinically relevant primate models of disease. This review provides an up-to-date survey of the drug design effort placed on the compstatin family of C3 inhibitors, highlighting the most promising drug candidates. It also discusses translational challenges in complement drug discovery and peptide drug development and reviews concerns related to systemic C3 interception. PMID:25678219

  20. Promoting physical activity for elders with compromised function: the lifestyle Interventions and Independence for elders (LIFE) study physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    Rejeski, W Jack; Axtell, Robert; Fielding, Roger; Katula, Jeffrey; King, Abby C; Manini, Todd M; Marsh, Anthony P; Pahor, Marco; Rego, Alvito; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Newman, Mark; Walkup, Michael P; Miller, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is a Phase III randomized controlled clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01072500) that will provide definitive evidence regarding the effect of physical activity (PA) on major mobility disability in older adults (70–89 years old) who have compromised physical function. This paper describes the methods employed in the delivery of the LIFE Study PA intervention, providing insight into how we promoted adherence and monitored the fidelity of treatment. Data are presented on participants’ motives and self-perceptions at the onset of the trial along with accelerometry data on patterns of PA during exercise training. Prior to the onset of training, 31.4% of participants noted slight conflict with being able to meet the demands of the program and 6.4% indicated that the degree of conflict would be moderate. Accelerometry data collected during PA training revealed that the average intensity – 1,555 counts/minute for men and 1,237 counts/minute for women – was well below the cutoff point used to classify exercise as being of moderate intensity or higher for adults. Also, a sizable subgroup required one or more rest stops. These data illustrate that it is not feasible to have a single exercise prescription for older adults with compromised function. Moreover, the concept of what constitutes “moderate” exercise or an appropriate volume of work is dictated by the physical capacities of each individual and the level of comfort/stability in actually executing a specific prescription. PMID:24049442

  1. A systematic review of interventions for promoting active transportation to school

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Active transportation to school is an important contributor to the total physical activity of children and adolescents. However, active school travel has declined over time, and interventions are needed to reverse this trend. The purpose of this paper is to review intervention studies related to active school transportation to guide future intervention research. Methods A systematic review was conducted to identify intervention studies of active transportation to school published in the scientific literature through January 2010. Five electronic databases and a manual search were conducted. Detailed information was extracted, including a quantitative assessment comparing the effect sizes, and a qualitative assessment using an established evaluation tool. Results We identified 14 interventions that focused on active transportation to school. These interventions mainly focused on primary school children in the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom. Almost all the interventions used quasi-experimental designs (10/14), and most of the interventions reported a small effect size on active transportation (6/14). Conclusion More research with higher quality study designs and measures should be conducted to further evaluate interventions and to determine the most successful strategies for increasing active transportation to school. PMID:21320322

  2. Physical activity interventions: effects of duration and intensity.

    PubMed

    Buchan, D S; Ollis, S; Thomas, N E; Buchanan, N; Cooper, S-M; Malina, R M; Baker, J S

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercising at different intensities over 7 weeks on components of physical fitness and CVD risk factors. Forty-seven boys and 10 girls, (16.4±0.7 years of age) were divided into a moderate, high intensity, or a control group. All participants had indices of obesity and blood pressure recorded in addition to four physical performance measures pre- and post-intervention. In addition, the intervention groups repeated the physical performance measures at the 4th week phase of the intervention. Following the intervention, significant improvements (P<0.05) in the high-intensity group were found in the 20 MSFT, agility, CMJ and 10 m sprint post-intervention. Participants in the moderate intensity group displayed significant improvements (P<0.05) in both the CMJ and 20 MSFT post-intervention. Body fat % significantly improved (P<0.01) in the moderate group only post-intervention. Interestingly, Systolic blood pressure significantly improved post-intervention (112±10 vs 106±11 mmHg) (P=0.017) in the high intensity group. In conclusion, high-intensity exercise over 7 weeks is a very time efficient means of improving important components of physical fitness in adolescents. PMID:21518010

  3. Targeted group-based interventions in schools to promote emotional well-being: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Gemma; Schlösser, Annette; Nash, Poppy; Glover, Lesley

    2014-07-01

    The school environment offers significant opportunities to deliver psychological interventions to groups of young people in the UK. However, the nature and effectiveness of programmes are not consistently documented. This systematic review aimed to identify and examine group-based interventions delivered in UK schools. Sixteen papers describing eight interventions were included. It was found that nurture groups have an immediate positive impact on the social and emotional well-being of young people. Results from follow-up studies are less clear, and limited by a high level of sample attrition. The findings reported in relation to social and emotional aspects of learning, cognitive, behavioural and social skills based interventions were limited as each intervention is only evaluated by one paper. The review highlighted a need to implement well-designed, longitudinal studies with larger samples in order to evaluate which interventions are effective in UK schools. PMID:23737607

  4. Early Intervention Combined with Targeted Treatment Promotes Cognitive and Behavioral Improvements in Young Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Winarni, Tri Indah; Schneider, Andrea; Borodyanskara, Mariya; Hagerman, Randi J.

    2012-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability due to an expansion in the full mutation range (>200 CGG repeats) of the promoter region of the FMR1 gene leading to gene silencing. Lack of FMRP, a critical protein for dendritic spine formation and maturation, will cause FXS. Early environmental enrichment combined with pharmacological intervention has been proven to rescue dendritic spine abnormalities in the animal model of FXS. Here we report on 2 young children with FXS who were treated early with a combination of targeted treatment and intensive educational interventions leading to improvement in their cognition and behavior and a normal IQ. PMID:23074686

  5. Risk Factors for Tungiasis in Nigeria: Identification of Targets for Effective Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ugbomoiko, Uade Samuel; Ariza, Liana; Ofoezie, Ifeanyi Emmanuel; Heukelbach, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    Background The parasitic skin disease tungiasis (caused by the flea Tunga penetrans) affects resource-poor communities in Latin America, the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa. Prevalences in endemic areas are high, and severe pathology occurs commonly. However, risk factors for infestation have never been assessed in Africa. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in Erekiti, a rural community in Lagos State (Nigeria), where tungiasis is endemic. Individuals were examined clinically for the presence of tungiasis, and a questionnaire was applied. Data from 643 individuals (86.6% of the target population) were analyzed; 252 (42.5%) were infested with T. penetrans. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, presence of pigs on the compounds (adjusted odds ratio = 17.98; 95% confidence interval: 5.55–58.23), sand or clay floor inside houses (9.33; 5.06–17.19), and having the common resting place outside the house (7.14; 4.0–14.29) were the most important risk factors identified. The regular use of closed footwear (0.34; 0.18–0.62) and the use of insecticides indoors (0.2; 0.05–0.83) were protective against infestation. The population attributable fractions associated with tungiasis were: sand or clay floor inside the house (73.7%), resting usually outside the house (65.5%), no regular use of closed footwear (51.1%), and pigs on the compound (37.9%). Conclusion The presence of tungiasis in Erekiti is determined to an important extent by a limited number of modifiable variables. Effective and sustainable intervention measures addressing these factors need to be implemented in this and other West African communities with high disease burden. PMID:18160986

  6. Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) and Target Systolic Blood Pressure in Future Hypertension Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Egan, Brent M; Li, Jiexiang; Wagner, C Shaun

    2016-08-01

    The Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP, mm Hg) Intervention Trial (SPRINT) showed that targeting SBP <120 mm Hg (intensive treatment, mean SBP: 121.5 mm Hg) versus <140 (standard treatment, mean SBP: 134.6 mm Hg) reduced cardiovascular events 25%. SPRINT has 2 implicit assumptions that could impact future US hypertension guidelines: (1) standard therapy controlled SBP similarly to that in adults with treated hypertension and (2) intensive therapy produced a lower mean SBP than in adults with treated hypertension and SBP <140 mm Hg. To examine these assumptions, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2012 data were analyzed on 3 groups of adults with treated hypertension: group 1 consisted of SPRINT-like participants aged ≥50 years; group 2 consisted of participants all aged ≥18 years; and group 3 consisted of participants aged ≥18 years excluding group 1 but otherwise similar to SPRINT-like participants except high cardiovascular risk. Mean SBPs in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 133.0, 130.1, and 124.6, with 66.2%, 72.2%, and 81.9%, respectively, controlled to SBP <140; 68.3%, 74.8%, and 83.4% of the controlled subset had SBP <130. Mean SBPs in those controlled to <140 were 123.3, 120.9, and 118.9, respectively. Among US adults with treated hypertension, (1) the SPRINT-like group had higher mean SBP than comparison groups, yet lower than SPRINT standard treatment group and (2) among groups 1 to 3 with SBP <140, SBP values were within <3 mm Hg of SPRINT intensive treatment. SPRINT results suggest that treatment should be continued and not reduced when treated SBP is <130, especially for the SPRINT-like subset. Furthermore, increasing the percentage of treated adults with SBP <140 could approximate SPRINT intensive treatment SBP without lowering treatment goals. PMID:27354422

  7. Development and implementation of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: a youth-targeted intervention to improve the urban food environment.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Dennisuk, Lauren A; Christiansen, Karina; Bhimani, Roshni; Johnson, Antoinette; Alexander, Eleanore; Lee, Matthew; Lee, Seung Hee; Rowan, Megan; Coutinho, Anastasia J

    2013-08-01

    Poor accessibility to affordable healthy foods is associated with higher rates of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We present our process evaluation of a youth-targeted environmental intervention (Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones) that aimed to increase the availability of healthy foods and promote these foods through signage, taste tests and other interactive activities in low-income Baltimore City. Trained peer educators reinforced program messages. Dose, fidelity and reach-as measured by food stocking, posting of print materials, distribution of giveaways and number of interactions with community members-were collected in six recreation centers and 21 nearby corner stores and carryouts. Participating stores stocked promoted foods and promotional print materials with moderate fidelity. Interactive sessions were implemented with high reach and dose among both adults and youth aged 10-14 years, with more than 4000 interactions. Recreation centers appear to be a promising location to interact with low-income youth and reinforce exposure to messages. PMID:23766452

  8. Development and implementation of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: a youth-targeted intervention to improve the urban food environment

    PubMed Central

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Dennisuk, Lauren A.; Christiansen, Karina; Bhimani, Roshni; Johnson, Antoinette; Alexander, Eleanore; Lee, Matthew; Lee, Seung Hee; Rowan, Megan; Coutinho, Anastasia J.

    2013-01-01

    Poor accessibility to affordable healthy foods is associated with higher rates of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We present our process evaluation of a youth-targeted environmental intervention (Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones) that aimed to increase the availability of healthy foods and promote these foods through signage, taste tests and other interactive activities in low-income Baltimore City. Trained peer educators reinforced program messages. Dose, fidelity and reach—as measured by food stocking, posting of print materials, distribution of giveaways and number of interactions with community members—were collected in six recreation centers and 21 nearby corner stores and carryouts. Participating stores stocked promoted foods and promotional print materials with moderate fidelity. Interactive sessions were implemented with high reach and dose among both adults and youth aged 10–14 years, with more than 4000 interactions. Recreation centers appear to be a promising location to interact with low-income youth and reinforce exposure to messages. PMID:23766452

  9. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as a therapeutic target for intervention of respiratory effects and lethality from phosgene.

    PubMed

    Andres, Devon; Keyser, Brian; Benton, Betty; Melber, Ashley; Olivera, Dorian; Holmes, Wesley; Paradiso, Danielle; Anderson, Dana; Ray, Radharaman

    2016-02-26

    Phosgene (CG), a toxic inhalation and industrial hazard, causes bronchoconstriction, vasoconstriction and associated pathological effects that could be life threatening. Ion channels of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family have been identified to act as specific chemosensory molecules in the respiratory tract in the detection, control of adaptive responses and initiation of detrimental signaling cascades upon exposure to various toxic inhalation hazards (TIH); their activation due to TIH exposure may result in broncho- and vasoconstriction. We studied changes in the regulation of intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in cultures of human bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMC) and human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) exposed to CG (16ppm, 8min), using an air/liquid interface exposure system. CG increased [Ca(2+)]i (p<0.05) in both cell types, The CG-induced [Ca(2+)]i was blocked (p<0.05) by two types of TRP channel blockers, SKF-96365, a general TRP channel blocker, and RR, a general TRPV (vanilloid type) blocker, in both BSMC and HPMEC. These effects correlate with the in vivo efficacies of these compounds to protect against lung injury and 24h lethality from whole body CG inhalation exposure in mice (8-10ppm×20min). Thus the TRP channel mechanism appears to be a potential target for intervention in CG toxicity. PMID:26562769

  10. An Evaluation of Web- and Print-Based Methods to Attract People to a Physical Activity Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Cally; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-01-01

    Background Cost-effective and efficient methods to attract people to Web-based health behavior interventions need to be identified. Traditional print methods including leaflets, posters, and newspaper advertisements remain popular despite the expanding range of Web-based advertising options that have the potential to reach larger numbers at lower cost. Objective This study evaluated the effectiveness of multiple Web-based and print-based methods to attract people to a Web-based physical activity intervention. Methods A range of print-based (newspaper advertisements, newspaper articles, letterboxing, leaflets, and posters) and Web-based (Facebook advertisements, Google AdWords, and community calendars) methods were applied to attract participants to a Web-based physical activity intervention in Australia. The time investment, cost, number of first time website visits, the number of completed sign-up questionnaires, and the demographics of participants were recorded for each advertising method. Results A total of 278 people signed up to participate in the physical activity program. Of the print-based methods, newspaper advertisements totaled AUD $145, letterboxing AUD $135, leaflets AUD $66, posters AUD $52, and newspaper article AUD $3 per sign-up. Of the Web-based methods, Google AdWords totaled AUD $495, non-targeted Facebook advertisements AUD $68, targeted Facebook advertisements AUD $42, and community calendars AUD $12 per sign-up. Although the newspaper article and community calendars cost the least per sign-up, they resulted in only 17 and 6 sign-ups respectively. The targeted Facebook advertisements were the next most cost-effective method and reached a large number of sign-ups (n=184). The newspaper article and the targeted Facebook advertisements required the lowest time investment per sign-up (5 and 7 minutes respectively). People reached through the targeted Facebook advertisements were on average older (60 years vs 50 years, P<.001) and had a higher

  11. Targeting Parkinson's - tyrosine hydroxylase and oxidative stress as points of interventions.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Shahnawa; Tabrez, Shams; Priyadarshini, Medha; Priyamvada, Shubha; Khan, Mohd M

    2012-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive loss of the dopaminergic neurons leading to decrease in striatal dopamine (DA) levels. In the present review, our focus was on recent advances in the treatment procedures of PD to achieve an increase in deficient tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and/or expression. Stimulation of residual TH activity by the cofactors, 6R-L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin (BPH4) or NADH, or by brain transplant of natural TH-containing cells (fetal substantia nigra) or genetically engineered TH-containing cells, has been tried experimentally and clinically lately. As a promising approach to the gene therapy, intrastriatal expression of DAsynthesizing enzymes through transduction with separate adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors/ marrow stromal cells (MSCs) or nonviral intravenous administration of rat transferrin receptor monoclonal antibody (TfRmAb)-targeted PEGylated immunoliposomes (PILs) has been found to be effective in animal models. Oxidative stress has been identified as one of the intermediary risk factors that could initiate and/or promote degeneration of DA neurons. TH itself is a prime target of oxidative/nitrosative injury. Certain superoxide dismutase and catalase mimetic prevented nitration of TH in cultured dopaminergic neurons. Therefore, development of therapeutic agents that can prevent formation of or specifically remove nitrating agents without interfering with normal neuronal function may protect protein from inactivation and provide means of limiting neuronal injury in PD. Non-pharmacological approaches such as diet therapy or use of active constituents of plants and phytomedicines have also emerged as a new - area of high interest. New treatment strategies for TH dysfunction rectification, a provision for neuroprotection in PD, seem to be on the horizon with many therapies under investigation. PMID:22483312

  12. High efficiency cell-specific targeting of cytokine activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, Geneviève; Paul, Franciane; Staufenbiel, Markus; Bordat, Yann; van der Heyden, José; Wilmes, Stephan; Cartron, Guillaume; Apparailly, Florence; de Koker, Stefaan; Piehler, Jacob; Tavernier, Jan; Uzé, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Systemic toxicity currently prevents exploiting the huge potential of many cytokines for medical applications. Here we present a novel strategy to engineer immunocytokines with very high targeting efficacies. The method lies in the use of mutants of toxic cytokines that markedly reduce their receptor-binding affinities, and that are thus rendered essentially inactive. Upon fusion to nanobodies specifically binding to marker proteins, activity of these cytokines is selectively restored for cell populations expressing this marker. This ‘activity-by-targeting’ concept was validated for type I interferons and leptin. In the case of interferon, activity can be directed to target cells in vitro and to selected cell populations in mice, with up to 1,000-fold increased specific activity. This targeting strategy holds promise to revitalize the clinical potential of many cytokines.

  13. Firm Foundations: The Effectiveness of an Educational Psychologist Developed Intervention Targeting Early Numeracy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Ros; Ayre, Kate; Tunbridge, Daniel; Cole, Katy; Stollery, Richard; Sanders, Mary

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of a mathematics intervention devised by Essex Educational Psychology Service (EPS), UK. The intervention was designed to develop understanding and skills across four key domains within arithmetical development, by applying the principles of errorless learning, distributed practice and teaching to mastery. A…

  14. Increasing Physical Activity Efficiently: An Experimental Pilot Study of a Website and Mobile Phone Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Vittersø, Joar; Svendsen, Gunnvald Bendix

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of an online, interactive physical activity intervention that also incorporated gaming components. The intervention design included an activity planner, progress monitoring, and gamification components and used SMS text as a secondary delivery channel and feedback to improve engagement in the intervention content. Healthy adults (n = 21) recruited through ads in local newspapers (age 35–73) were randomized to the intervention or the control condition. Both groups reported physical activity using daily report forms in four registration weeks during the three-month study: only the experiment condition received access to the intervention. Analyses showed that the intervention group had significantly more minutes of physical activity in weeks five and nine. We also found a difference in the intensity of exercise in week five. Although the intervention group reported more minutes of physical activity at higher intensity levels, we were not able to find a significant effect at the end of the study period. In conclusion, this study adds to the research on the effectiveness of using the Internet and SMS text messages for delivering physical activity interventions and supports gamification as a viable intervention tool. PMID:24963290

  15. Increasing physical activity efficiently: an experimental pilot study of a website and mobile phone intervention.

    PubMed

    Thorsteinsen, Kjærsti; Vittersø, Joar; Svendsen, Gunnvald Bendix

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of an online, interactive physical activity intervention that also incorporated gaming components. The intervention design included an activity planner, progress monitoring, and gamification components and used SMS text as a secondary delivery channel and feedback to improve engagement in the intervention content. Healthy adults (n = 21) recruited through ads in local newspapers (age 35-73) were randomized to the intervention or the control condition. Both groups reported physical activity using daily report forms in four registration weeks during the three-month study: only the experiment condition received access to the intervention. Analyses showed that the intervention group had significantly more minutes of physical activity in weeks five and nine. We also found a difference in the intensity of exercise in week five. Although the intervention group reported more minutes of physical activity at higher intensity levels, we were not able to find a significant effect at the end of the study period. In conclusion, this study adds to the research on the effectiveness of using the Internet and SMS text messages for delivering physical activity interventions and supports gamification as a viable intervention tool. PMID:24963290

  16. Enhancing Shared Decision Making Through Carefully Designed Interventions That Target Patient And Provider Behavior.

    PubMed

    Tai-Seale, Ming; Elwyn, Glyn; Wilson, Caroline J; Stults, Cheryl; Dillon, Ellis C; Li, Martina; Chuang, Judith; Meehan, Amy; Frosch, Dominick L

    2016-04-01

    Patient-provider communication and shared decision making are essential for primary care delivery and are vital contributors to patient experience and health outcomes. To alleviate communication shortfalls, we designed a novel, multidimensional intervention aimed at nudging both patients and primary care providers to communicate more openly. The intervention was tested against an existing intervention, which focused mainly on changing patients' behaviors, in four primary care clinics involving 26 primary care providers and 300 patients. Study results suggest that compared to usual care, both the novel and existing interventions were associated with better patient reports of how well primary care providers engaged them in shared decision making. Future research should build on the work in this pilot to rigorously examine the comparative effectiveness and scalability of these interventions to improve shared decision making at the point of care. PMID:27044959

  17. Targeting Interventions: Moderators of the Effects of Expressive Writing and Assertiveness Training on the Adjustment of International University Students

    PubMed Central

    Hijazi, Alaa M.; Tavakoli, Shedeh; Slavin-Spenny, Olga M.; Lumley, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Acculturative stress is a common experience for international students and is associated with psychological and physical problems. In a previous study, the authors reported that two stress reduction interventions—expressive writing (EW) and assertiveness training (AT)—had limited overall benefits among international students at an American University. The current analyses of data from that study investigated whether individual differences moderated the effects of EW and AT. Results indicate that greater acculturative stress at baseline predicted greater improvement from both interventions, compared with control. Women benefited more from AT than EW, except that EW improved women’s physical symptoms. Men benefited more from EW than AT. Students with limited emotional awareness and expression tended to benefit from both interventions, relative to control. Finally, nation of origin cultural differences generally did not predict outcomes. It is concluded that the benefits of EW and AT and can be enhanced by targeting these interventions to specific subgroups of international students. PMID:21660220

  18. Psychosocial Issues in Engaging Older People with Physical Activity Interventions for the Prevention of Falls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyman, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the psychosocial factors that influence older people's participation in physical activity interventions to prevent falls. The importance of psychosocial factors is stressed inasmuch as interventions will be rendered useless if they do not successfully gain the active participation of older people. The theory of…

  19. Effectiveness of Physical Activity Interventions for Preschoolers: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Elliott S.; Tucker, Patricia; Burke, Shauna M.; Carron, Albert V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the meta-analysis was to examine the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on physical activity participation among preschoolers. A secondary purpose was to investigate the influence of several possible moderator variables (e.g., intervention length, location, leadership, type) on moderate-to-vigorous physical…

  20. A Tale of 2 Teachers: A Preschool Physical Activity Intervention Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, Erin K.; Brewer, Alisa E.; Dowda, Marsha; McIver, Kerry L.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preschool settings vary greatly, and research has shown that interventions are more successful when they can be adapted to individual settings. This is a descriptive case study of how 2 teachers successfully adapted and implemented a preschool physical activity intervention. Methods: The Study of Health and Activity in Preschool…

  1. Divisions of Labour: Activity Theory, Multi-Professional Working and Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmington, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon, but also critiques, activity theory by combining analysis of how an activity theory derived research intervention attempted to address both everyday work practices and organisational power relationships among children's services professionals. It offers two case studies of developmental work research (DWR) interventions in…

  2. Insights for Exercise Adherence from a Minimal Planning Intervention to Increase Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Janine; Campbell, Marianne; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To test the impact of a minimal, online planning intervention on physical activity in Australian office workers. Method: Employees were randomized to an implementation intention intervention (n = 124) or health information control group (n = 130). Measures of physical activity, past behavior, and motivation were taken at baseline and 6…

  3. An active target for the accelerator-based transmutation system

    SciTech Connect

    Grebyonkin, K. F.

    1995-09-15

    Consideration is given to the possibility of radical reduction in power requirements to the proton accelerator of the electronuclear reactor due to neutron multiplication both in the blanket and the target of an active material. The target is supposed to have the fast-neutron spectrum, and the blanket--the thermal one. The blanket and the target are separated by the thermal neutrons absorber, which is responsible for the neutron decoupling of the active target and blanket. Also made are preliminary estimations which illustrate that the realization of the idea under consideration can lead to significant reduction in power requirements to the proton beam and, hence considerably improve economic characteristics of the electronuclear reactor.

  4. The Positive Effect on Determinants of Physical Activity of a Tailored, General Practice-Based Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Sluijs, E. M. F.; Van Poppel, M. N. M.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Brug, J.; Van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    PACE (Physician-based Assessment and Counseling for Exercise) is an individualized theory-based minimal intervention strategy aimed at the enhancement of regular physical activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a PACE intervention applied by general practitioners (GPs) on potential determinants of physical activity. A…

  5. Can Senior Volunteers Deliver Reminiscence and Creative Activity Interventions? Results of the Legacy Intervention Family Enactment (LIFE) Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Rebecca S.; Harris, Grant M.; Burgio, Louis D.; Azuero, Casey B.; Miller, Leslie A.; Shin, Hae Jung; Eichorst, Morgan K.; Csikai, Ellen L.; DeCoster, Jamie; Dunn, Linda L.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Parmelee, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Context Palliative care patients and their family caregivers may have a foreshortened perspective of time left to live, or the expectation of the patient’s death in the near future. Patients and caregivers may report distress in physical, psychological, or existential/spiritual realms. Objectives To conduct a randomized controlled trial examining the effectiveness of retired senior volunteers (RSVs) in delivering a reminiscence and creative activity intervention aimed at alleviating palliative care patient and caregiver distress. Methods Of the 45 dyads that completed baseline, 28 completed post-intervention and 24 completed follow-up. The intervention group received three home visits by RSVs; control group families received three supportive telephone calls by research staff. Measures included symptom assessment and associated burden, depression, religiousness/spirituality, and meaning in life. Results Patients in the intervention group reported a significantly greater reduction in frequency of emotional symptoms (P = 0.02) and emotional symptom bother (P = 0.04) than the control group, as well as improved spiritual functioning. Family caregivers in the intervention group were more likely than control caregivers to endorse items on the Meaning in Life Scale (P = 0.02). Only improvement in intervention patients’ emotional symptom bother maintained at follow-up after discontinuing RSV contact (P = 0.024). Conclusion Delivery of the intervention by RSVs had a positive impact on palliative care patients’ emotional symptoms and burden and caregivers’ meaning in life. Meaningful prolonged engagement with palliative care patients and caregivers, possibly through alternative modes of treatment delivery such as continued RSV contact, may be necessary for maintenance of therapeutic effects. PMID:24667180

  6. Neuroinflammatory mechanisms in Parkinson's disease: Potential environmental triggers, pathways, and targets for early therapeutic intervention

    PubMed Central

    Tansey, Malú G.; McCoy, Melissa K.; Frank-Cannon, Tamy C.

    2013-01-01

    Most acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions are accompanied by neuroinflammation; yet the exact nature of the inflammatory processes and whether they modify disease progression is not well understood. In this review, we discuss the key epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence implicating inflammatory processes in the progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA) nigrostriatal pathway and their potential contribution to the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Given that interplay between genetics and environment are likely to contribute to risk for development of idiopathic PD, recent data showing interactions between products of genes linked to heritable PD that function to protect DA neurons against oxidative or proteolytic stress and inflammation pathways will be discussed. Cellular mechanisms activated or enhanced by inflammatory processes that may contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, or apoptosis of dopaminergic (DA) neurons will be reviewed, with special emphasis on tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β) signaling pathways. Epigenetic factors which have the potential to trigger neuroinflammation, including environmental exposures and age-associated chronic inflammatory conditions, will be discussed as possible ‘second-hit’ triggers that may affect disease onset or progression of idiopathic PD. If inflammatory processes have an active role in nigrostriatal pathway degeneration, then evidence should exist to indicate that such processes begin in the early stages of disease and that they contribute to neuronal dysfunction and/or hasten neurodegeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway. Therapeutically, if anti-inflammatory interventions can be shown to rescue nigral DA neurons from degeneration and lower PD risk, then timely use of anti-inflammatory therapies should be investigated further in well-designed clinical trials for their ability to prevent or delay the progressive loss of

  7. Social support for physical activity-role of Facebook with and without structured intervention.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, David N; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; DeVellis, Robert F; Thayer, Linden M; Ammerman, Alice S

    2014-12-01

    Despite their widespread use and extensive technical features, little is known about how to use online social networking sites to increase physical activity. This study aims to examine Facebook engagement among participants in the online social networking arm of a randomized controlled physical activity promotion trial (n = 67). Facebook communications were double coded and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Regression procedures were used to determine predictors of Facebook use and associations between types of use and changes in perceived social support and physical activity. Changes in perceived social support and physical activity were more strongly associated with participants' individual Facebook use than use of the Facebook intervention group. The way social media sites are used in intervention design could have an impact on their effects. Including existing friends in interventions and using applications that incorporate intervention activities into a more naturalistic use of Facebook may improve the efficacy of future interventions. PMID:25584083

  8. Developing a multi-pollutant conceptual framework for the selection and targeting of interventions in water industry catchment management schemes.

    PubMed

    Bloodworth, J W; Holman, I P; Burgess, P J; Gillman, S; Frogbrook, Z; Brown, P

    2015-09-15

    In recent years water companies have started to adopt catchment management to reduce diffuse pollution in drinking water supply areas. The heterogeneity of catchments and the range of pollutants that must be removed to meet the EU Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC) limits make it difficult to prioritise areas of a catchment for intervention. Thus conceptual frameworks are required that can disaggregate the components of pollutant risk and help water companies make decisions about where to target interventions in their catchments to maximum effect. This paper demonstrates the concept of generalising pollutants in the same framework by reviewing key pollutant processes within a source-mobilisation-delivery context. From this, criteria are developed (with input from water industry professionals involved in catchment management) which highlights the need for a new water industry specific conceptual framework. The new CaRPoW (Catchment Risk to Potable Water) framework uses the Source-Mobilisation-Delivery concept as modular components of risk that work at two scales, source and mobilisation at the field scale and delivery at the catchment scale. Disaggregating pollutant processes permits the main components of risk to be ascertained so that appropriate interventions can be selected. The generic structure also allows for the outputs from different pollutants to be compared so that potential multiple benefits can be identified. CaRPow provides a transferable framework that can be used by water companies to cost-effectively target interventions under current conditions or under scenarios of land use or climate change. PMID:26172105

  9. Development of a universal approach to increase physical activity among adolescents: the GoActive intervention

    PubMed Central

    Corder, Kirsten; Schiff, Annie; Kesten, Joanna M; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop a physical activity (PA) promotion intervention for adolescents using a process addressing gaps in the literature while considering participant engagement. We describe the initial development stages; (1) existing evidence, (2) large scale opinion gathering and (3) developmental qualitative work, aiming (A) to gain insight into how to increase PA among the whole of year 9 (13–14 years-old) by identifying elements for intervention inclusion (B) to improve participant engagement and (C) to develop and refine programme design. Methods Relevant systematic reviews and longitudinal analyses of change were examined. An intervention was developed iteratively with older adolescents (17.3±0.5 years) and teachers, using the following process: (1) focus groups with (A) adolescents (n=26) and (B) teachers (n=4); (2) individual interviews (n=5) with inactive and shy adolescents focusing on engagement and programme acceptability. Qualitative data were analysed thematically. Results Limitations of the existing literature include lack of evidence on whole population approaches, limited adolescent involvement in intervention development, and poor participant engagement. Qualitative work suggested six themes which may encourage adolescents to do more PA; choice, novelty, mentorship, competition, rewards and flexibility. Teachers discussed time pressures as a barrier to encouraging adolescent PA and suggested between-class competition as a strategy. GoActive aims to increase PA through increased peer support, self-efficacy, group cohesion, self-esteem and friendship quality, and is implemented in tutor groups using a student-led tiered-leadership system. Conclusions We have followed an evidence-based iterative approach to translate existing evidence into an adolescent PA promotion intervention. Qualitative work with adolescents and teachers supported intervention design and addressed lack of engagement with health promotion programmes within this age group

  10. A review of the ligands and related targeting strategies for active targeting of paclitaxel to tumours.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Wang, Fengshan; Sun, Deqing; Wang, Rongmei

    2016-08-01

    It has been 30 years since the discovery of the anti-tumour property of paclitaxel (PTX), which has been successfully applied in clinic for the treatment of carcinomas of the lungs, breast and ovarian. However, PTX is poorly soluble in water and has no targeting and selectivity to tumour tissue. Recent advances in active tumour targeting of PTX delivery vehicles have addressed some of the issues related to lack of solubility in water and non-specific toxicities associated with PTX. These PTX delivery vehicles are designed for active targeting to specific cancer cells by the addition of ligands for recognition by specific receptors/antigens on cancer cells. This article will focus on various ligands and related targeting strategies serving as potential tools for active targeting of PTX to tumour tissues, illustrating their use in different tumour models. This review also highlights the need of further studies on the discovery of receptors in different cells of specific organ and ligands with binding efficiency to these specific receptors. PMID:26878228

  11. Cost-benefit of infection control interventions targeting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Farbman, L; Avni, T; Rubinovitch, B; Leibovici, L; Paul, M

    2013-12-01

    Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) incur significant costs. We aimed to examine the cost and cost-benefit of infection control interventions against MRSA and to examine factors affecting economic estimates. We performed a systematic review of studies assessing infection control interventions aimed at preventing spread of MRSA in hospitals and reporting intervention costs, savings, cost-benefit or cost-effectiveness. We searched PubMed and references of included studies with no language restrictions up to January 2012. We used the Quality of Health Economic Studies tool to assess study quality. We report cost and savings per month in 2011 US$. We calculated the median save/cost ratio and the save-cost difference with interquartile range (IQR) range. We examined the effects of MRSA endemicity, intervention duration and hospital size on results. Thirty-six studies published between 1987 and 2011 fulfilled inclusion criteria. Fifteen of the 18 studies reporting both costs and savings reported a save/cost ratio >1. The median save/cost ratio across all 18 studies was 7.16 (IQR 1.37-16). The median cost across all studies reporting intervention costs (n = 31) was 8648 (IQR 2025-19 170) US$ per month; median savings were 38 751 (IQR 14 206-75 842) US$ per month (23 studies). Higher save/cost ratios were observed in the intermediate to high endemicity setting compared with the low endemicity setting, in hospitals with <500-beds and with interventions of >6 months. Infection control intervention to reduce spread of MRSA in acute-care hospitals showed a favourable cost/benefit ratio. This was true also for high MRSA endemicity settings. Unresolved economic issues include rapid screening using molecular techniques and universal versus targeted screening. PMID:23991635

  12. Profiling unauthorized natural resource users for better targeting of conservation interventions.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Mariel; Baker, Julia; Twinamatsiko, Medard; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-12-01

    Unauthorized use of natural resources is a key threat to many protected areas. Approaches to reducing this threat include law enforcement and integrated conservation and development (ICD) projects, but for such ICDs to be targeted effectively, it is important to understand who is illegally using which natural resources and why. The nature of unauthorized behavior makes it difficult to ascertain this information through direct questioning. Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, has many ICD projects, including authorizing some local people to use certain nontimber forest resources from the park. However, despite over 25 years of ICD, unauthorized resource use continues. We used household surveys, indirect questioning (unmatched count technique), and focus group discussions to generate profiles of authorized and unauthorized resource users and to explore motivations for unauthorized activity. Overall, unauthorized resource use was most common among people from poor households who lived closest to the park boundary and farthest from roads and trading centers. Other motivations for unauthorized resource use included crop raiding by wild animals, inequity of revenue sharing, and lack of employment, factors that created resentment among the poorest communities. In some communities, benefits obtained from ICD were reported to be the greatest deterrents against unauthorized activity, although law enforcement ranked highest overall. Despite the sensitive nature of exploring unauthorized resource use, management-relevant insights into the profiles and motivations of unauthorized resource users can be gained from a combination of survey techniques, as adopted here. To reduce unauthorized activity at Bwindi, we suggest ICD benefit the poorest people living in remote areas and near the park boundary by providing affordable alternative sources of forest products and addressing crop raiding. To prevent resentment from driving further unauthorized activity, ICDs should be

  13. Profiling unauthorized natural resource users for better targeting of conservation interventions

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Julia; Twinamatsiko, Medard; Milner‐Gulland, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unauthorized use of natural resources is a key threat to many protected areas. Approaches to reducing this threat include law enforcement and integrated conservation and development (ICD) projects, but for such ICDs to be targeted effectively, it is important to understand who is illegally using which natural resources and why. The nature of unauthorized behavior makes it difficult to ascertain this information through direct questioning. Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, has many ICD projects, including authorizing some local people to use certain nontimber forest resources from the park. However, despite over 25 years of ICD, unauthorized resource use continues. We used household surveys, indirect questioning (unmatched count technique), and focus group discussions to generate profiles of authorized and unauthorized resource users and to explore motivations for unauthorized activity. Overall, unauthorized resource use was most common among people from poor households who lived closest to the park boundary and farthest from roads and trading centers. Other motivations for unauthorized resource use included crop raiding by wild animals, inequity of revenue sharing, and lack of employment, factors that created resentment among the poorest communities. In some communities, benefits obtained from ICD were reported to be the greatest deterrents against unauthorized activity, although law enforcement ranked highest overall. Despite the sensitive nature of exploring unauthorized resource use, management‐relevant insights into the profiles and motivations of unauthorized resource users can be gained from a combination of survey techniques, as adopted here. To reduce unauthorized activity at Bwindi, we suggest ICD benefit the poorest people living in remote areas and near the park boundary by providing affordable alternative sources of forest products and addressing crop raiding. To prevent resentment from driving further unauthorized activity, ICDs

  14. Characterization of optically actuated MRI-compatible active needles for medical interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Richard J.; Ryu, Seokchang; Moslehi, Behzad; Costa, Joannes M.

    2014-03-01

    The development of a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) compatible optically-actuated active needle for guided percutaneous surgery and biopsy procedures is described. Electrically passive MRI-compatible actuation in the small diameter needle is provided by non-magnetic materials including a shape memory alloy (SMA) subject to precise fiber laser operation that can be from a remote (e.g., MRI control room) location. Characterization and optimization of the needle is facilitated using optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors arrays. Active bending of the needle during insertion allows the needle to be accurately guided to even relatively small targets in an organ while avoiding obstacles and overcoming undesirable deviations away from the planned path due to unforeseen or unknowable tissue interactions. This feature makes the needle especially suitable for use in image-guided surgical procedures (ranging from MRI to CT and ultrasound) when accurate targeting is imperative for good treatment outcomes. Such interventions include reaching small tumors in biopsies, delineating freezing areas in, for example, cryosurgery and improving the accuracy of seed placement in brachytherapy. Particularly relevant are prostate procedures, which may be subject to pubic arch interference. Combining diagnostic imaging and actuation assisted biopsy into one treatment can obviate the need for a second exam for guided biopsy, shorten overall procedure times (thus increasing operating room efficiencies), address healthcare reimbursement constraints and, most importantly, improve patient comfort and clinical outcomes.

  15. Community-based physical activity interventions among women: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Amiri Farahani, Leila; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Eesa; Parvizy, Soroor; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Taghizadeh, Ziba

    2015-01-01

    Objective Review and assess the effectiveness of community-based physical activity interventions among women aged 18–65 years. Design Systematic review Methods To find relevant articles, the researcher selected reports published in English between 1 January 2000 and 31 March 2013. Systematic search was to find controlled-trial studies that were conducted to uncover the effect of community-based interventions to promote physical activity among women 18–65 years of age, in which physical activity was reported as one of the measured outcomes. The methodological quality assessment was performed using a critical appraisal sheet. Also, the levels of evidence were assessed for the types of interventions. Results The literature search identified nine articles. Four of the studies were randomised and the others studies had high methodological quality. There was no evidence, on the basis of effectiveness, for social cognitive theory-based interventions and inconclusive evidence of effectiveness for the rest of interventions. Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to assess the effectiveness of community-based interventions for enhancing physical activity among women. There is a need for high-quality randomised clinical trials with adequate statistical power to determine whether multicomponent and community-based intervention programmes increase physical activity among women, as well as to determine what type of interventions have a more effective and sustainable impact on women's physical activity. PMID:25833668

  16. "Targeting or supporting, what drives patterns of aggressive intervention in fights?".

    PubMed

    Puga-Gonzalez, Ivan; Cooper, Matthew A; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K

    2016-02-01

    GrooFiWorld is an individual-based, computational model of social interactions that can be used to examine factors underlying reciprocation and interchange of social behavior in primate societies. Individuals within GrooFiWorld are programed to maintain spatial proximity and thereby form a group. When an individual encounters another individual in its proximity, the individual attacks the other if the risk of losing is low. Otherwise, the individual considers grooming the other. Patterns of social behavior that emerge in the model resemble empirical data from primates. Triadic aggression emerges when an individual attacks one of the former combatants by chance immediately after an aggressive interaction, and reciprocation and interchange of grooming and support emerge even though individuals have no intention to help others or pay back services. The model generates predictions for patterns of contra-intervention that are counterintuitive within a framework of interchange of social services, such as that individuals receive more contra-intervention from those whom they groom more frequently. Here we tested these predictions in data collected on social interactions in a group of bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). We confirmed the predictions of the model in the sense that contra-intervention was strongly correlated with dyadic aggression which suggests that contra-intervention is a subset of dyadic aggression. Adult females directed more contra-intervention to those individuals from whom they received more grooming. Further, contra-intervention was directed down the dominance hierarchy such that adult females received more contra-intervention from higher ranking females. Because these findings are consistent with the predictions from the GrooFiWorld model, they suggest that the distribution of interventions in fights is regulated by factors such as dominance rank and spatial structure rather than a motivation to help others and interchange social services. PMID

  17. A participatory parent-focused intervention promoting physical activity in preschools: design of a cluster-randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA) promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates at the preschool and

  18. Evaluating the effects of the Lunchtime Enjoyment Activity and Play (LEAP) school playground intervention on children’s quality of life, enjoyment and participation in physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An emerging public health strategy is to enhance children’s opportunities to be physically active during school break periods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Lunchtime Enjoyment Activity and Play (LEAP) school playground intervention on primary school children’s quality of life (QOL), enjoyment and participation in physical activity (PA). Methods This study consisted of a movable/recycled materials intervention that included baseline, a 7-week post-test and an 8-month follow-up data collection phase. Children within an intervention school (n = 123) and a matched control school (n = 152) aged 5-to-12-years-old were recruited for the study. Children’s PA was measured using a combination of pedometers and direct observation (SOPLAY). Quality of life, enjoyment of PA and enjoyment of lunchtime activities were assessed in the 8-12 year children. A multi-level mixed effect linear regression model was applied in STATA (version 12.0) using the xtmixed command to fit linear mixed models to each of the variables to examine whether there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the intervention and control school at the three time points (pre, post and follow-up). Results Significant overall interaction effects (group × time) were identified for children’s mean steps and distance (pedometers) in the intervention school compared to the control school. Intervention school children also spent significantly higher proportions within specified target areas engaged in higher PA intensities in comparison to the control school at both the 7-week post-test and 8-month follow-up. A short-term treatment effect was revealed after 7-weeks for children’s physical health scale QOL, enjoyment of PA and enjoyment of intra-personal play activities. Conclusions Examining the effects of this school playground intervention over a school year suggested that the introduction of movable/recycled materials can have a significant

  19. Future directions for interventions targeting PTSD in HIV-infected adults

    PubMed Central

    Applebaum, Allison J.; Bedoya, C. Andres; Hendriksen, Ellen S.; Wilkinson, Jesse L.; Safren, Steven A.; O’Cleirigh, Conall

    2015-01-01

    Although studies consistently report high rates of comorbid Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and HIV infection, development and testing of PTSD treatment interventions in HIV-infected adults is limited. As such, the purpose of this review was twofold. First, this review augments the 3 existing reviews of research for PTSD in HIV-infected adults conducted within the past 10 years. We found 2 empirically supported cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-based interventions for the treatment of trauma-related symptoms in HIV-infected adults. Due to the continued limited number of effective interventions for this population, a second aim of our review was to draw from the expansive field of effective PTSD interventions for the general population to propose ways that future clinical intervention research may be tailored for HIV-infected adults. Therefore, in addition to a review, we conceptualized this paper as an opportunity to generate an ideal preview of the field of intervention research in this population. PMID:25665885

  20. Effects of an Obesity Prevention Intervention on Physical Activity Among Preschool Children: The CHILE Study.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Theresa H; Davis, Sally M; Myers, Orrin B; O'Donald, Elena R; Sanders, Sarah G; Sheche, Judith N

    2016-09-01

    Background Limited research addresses interventions to increase physical activity among American Indian and Hispanic preschool-aged children living in rural areas. We examined the impact of a Head Start-based intervention (Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise [CHILE]) on physical activity at home. Method Sixteen Head Start centers in predominantly Hispanic or American Indian communities were group randomized to the six-component intervention or a comparison group for 2 years. Structured surveys were administered at four assessment times to a convenience sample of caregivers of 655 children in the study. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effects of the intervention on physical activity. Results The relative change in physical activity in the intervention group compared with the comparison group over the 2-year period was 1.56 (95% confidence interval [1.02, 2.38]; p = .04). Among specific promoted activities (ball playing, dancing, active games, jumping, and walking), dancing increased significantly in the intervention compared with the comparison group (2.9; 95% confidence interval [1.2, 7.1]; p = .02). Conclusions The CHILE intervention was effective at increasing physical activity at home in preschool children in priority populations. Future research should focus on increasing family involvement and strengthening messaging about physical activity in these populations. PMID:27091603

  1. A helium gas scintillator active target for photoreaction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Jebali, Ramsey; Annand, John R. M.; Adler, Jan-Olof; Akkurt, Iskender; Buchanan, Emma; Brudvik, Jason; Fissum, Kevin; Gardner, Simon; Hamilton, David J.; Hansen, Kurt; Isaksson, Lennart; Livingston, Kenneth; Lundin, Magnus; McGeorge, John C.; MacGregor, Ian J. D.; MacRae, Roderick; Middleton, Duncan G.; Reiter, Andreas J. H.; Rosner, Günther; Schröder, Bent; Sjögren, Johan; Sokhan, Daria; Strandberg, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    A multi-cell He gas scintillator active target, designed for the measurement of photoreaction cross sections, is described. The target has four main chambers, giving an overall thickness of 0.103 g/cm3 at an operating pressure of 2 MPa. Scintillations are read out by photomultiplier tubes and the addition of small amounts of N2 to the He, to shift the scintillation emission from UV to visible, is discussed. First results of measurements at the MAX IV Laboratory tagged-photon facility show that the target has a timing resolution of around 1 ns and can cope well with a high-flux photon beam. The determination of reaction cross sections from target yields relies on a Monte Carlo simulation, which considers scintillation light transport, photodisintegration processes in 4He, background photon interactions in target windows and interactions of the reaction-product particles in the gas and target container. The predictions of this simulation are compared to the measured target response.

  2. Identifying solutions to increase participation in physical activity interventions within a socio-economically disadvantaged community: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need to increase population levels of physical activity, particularly amongst those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. Multiple factors influence physical activity behaviour but the generalisability of current evidence to such ‘hard-to-reach’ population subgroups is limited by difficulties in recruiting them into studies. Also, rigorous qualitative studies of lay perceptions and perceptions of community leaders about public health efforts to increase physical activity are sparse. We sought to explore, within a socio-economically disadvantaged community, residents’ and community leaders’ perceptions of physical activity (PA) interventions and issues regarding their implementation, in order to improve understanding of needs, expectations, and social/environmental factors relevant to future interventions. Methods Within an ongoing regeneration project (Connswater Community Greenway), in a socio-economically disadvantaged community in Belfast, we collaborated with a Community Development Agency to purposively sample leaders from public- and voluntary-sector community groups and residents. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 leaders. Residents (n = 113), of both genders and a range of ages (14 to 86 years) participated in focus groups (n = 14) in local facilities. Interviews and focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic framework. Results Three main themes were identified: awareness of PA interventions; factors contributing to intervention effectiveness; and barriers to participation in PA interventions. Participants reported awareness only of interventions in which they were involved directly, highlighting a need for better communications, both inter- and intra-sectoral, and with residents. Meaningful engagement of residents in planning/organisation, tailoring to local context, supporting volunteers, providing relevant resources and an ‘exit strategy

  3. Active Targeted Drug Delivery for Microbes Using Nano-Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yung-Sheng; Lee, Ming-Yuan; Yang, Chih-Hui; Huang, Keng-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Although vaccines and antibiotics could kill or inhibit microbes, many infectious diseases remain difficult to treat because of acquired resistance and adverse side effects. Nano-carriers-based technology has made significant progress for a long time and is introducing a new paradigm in drug delivery. However, it still has some challenges like lack of specificity toward targeting the infectious site. Nano-carriers utilized targeting ligands on their surface called ‘active target’ provide the promising way to solve the problems like accelerating drug delivery to infectious areas and preventing toxicity or side-effects. In this mini review, we demonstrate the recent studies using the active targeted strategy to kill or inhibit microbes. The four common nano-carriers (e.g. liposomes, nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes) delivering encapsulated drugs are introduced. PMID:25877093

  4. An Activity-Based Approach to Early Intervention. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretti-Frontczak, Kristie; Bricker, Diane

    2004-01-01

    How can early childhood professionals seamlessly link assessment, goal development, intervention, and evaluation for children from birth to age 5--while developing individualized IEP/IFSP goals, creating multiple and varied learning opportunities, and working as a team? The third edition of this highly respected resource has the answers. A classic…

  5. Acoustic gaze adjustments during active target selection in echolocating porpoises.

    PubMed

    Wisniewska, Danuta Maria; Johnson, Mark; Beedholm, Kristian; Wahlberg, Magnus; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2012-12-15

    Visually dominant animals use gaze adjustments to organize perceptual inputs for cognitive processing. Thereby they manage the massive sensory load from complex and noisy scenes. Echolocation, as an active sensory system, may provide more opportunities to control such information flow by adjusting the properties of the sound source. However, most studies of toothed whale echolocation have involved stationed animals in static auditory scenes for which dynamic information control is unnecessary. To mimic conditions in the wild, we designed an experiment with captive, free-swimming harbor porpoises tasked with discriminating between two hydrophone-equipped targets and closing in on the selected target; this allowed us to gain insight into how porpoises adjust their acoustic gaze in a multi-target dynamic scene. By means of synchronized cameras, an acoustic tag and on-target hydrophone recordings we demonstrate that porpoises employ both beam direction control and range-dependent changes in output levels and pulse intervals to accommodate their changing spatial relationship with objects of immediate interest. We further show that, when switching attention to another target, porpoises can set their depth of gaze accurately for the new target location. In combination, these observations imply that porpoises exert precise vocal-motor control that is tied to spatial perception akin to visual accommodation. Finally, we demonstrate that at short target ranges porpoises narrow their depth of gaze dramatically by adjusting their output so as to focus on a single target. This suggests that echolocating porpoises switch from a deliberative mode of sensorimotor operation to a reactive mode when they are close to a target. PMID:23175527

  6. Effect of target probability on pre-stimulus brain activity.

    PubMed

    Lucci, G; Berchicci, M; Perri, R L; Spinelli, D; Di Russo, F

    2016-05-13

    Studies on perceptual decision-making showed that manipulating the proportion of target and non-target stimuli affects the behavioral performance. Tasks with high frequency of targets are associated to faster response times (RTs) conjunctively to higher number of errors (reflecting a response bias characterized by speed/accuracy trade-off) when compared to conditions with low frequency of targets. Electroencephalographic studies well described modulations of post-stimulus event-related potentials as effect of the stimulus probability; in contrast, in the present study we focused on the pre-stimulus preparatory activities subtending the response bias. Two versions of a Go/No-go task characterized by different proportion of Go stimuli (88% vs. 12%) were adopted. In the task with frequent go trials, we observed a strong enhancement in the motor preparation as indexed by the Bereitschaftspotential (BP, previously associated with activity within the supplementary motor area), faster RTs, and larger commission error rate than in the task with rare go trials. Contemporarily with the BP, a right lateralized prefrontal negativity (lateral pN, previously associated with activity within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) was larger in the task with rare go trial. In the post-stimulus processing stage, we confirmed that the N2 and the P3 components were larger for rare trials, irrespective of the Go/No-go stimulus category. The increase of activities recorded in the preparatory phase related to frequency of targets is consistent with the view proposed in accumulation models of perceptual decision for which target frequency affects the subjective baseline, reducing the distance between the starting-point and the response boundary, which determines the response speed. PMID:26912279

  7. Eliciting Production of L2 Target Structures through Priming Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Kim; Trofimovich, Pavel; Neumann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the pedagogical applications of structural priming research in an English for academic purposes (EAP) context, investigating whether priming activities are an effective tool for eliciting production of target grammatical structures. University students across four EAP classes carried out a total of 6 information-exchange…

  8. Developing an Exploratory Response to Intervention Construct in the Behavior Domain: An Analysis of Outcome Measures and Targeted, School-Based Interventions for Elementary Students At-Risk for Severe Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielenz, Christine R.

    2010-01-01

    Targeted, school-based behavioral interventions that are designed in the positive behavior support model and created for elementary students at-risk for severe problem behavior have used four approaches to measuring response to intervention: (1) office discipline referrals, (2) systematic direct observation, (3) standardized behavior rating…

  9. Moderators of intervention dose effects on diet quality and physical activity changes in a church-based, multicomponent, lifestyle study: Delta Body and Soul III.

    PubMed

    Thomson, J L; Zoellner, J M; Tussing-Humphreys, L M; Goodman, M H

    2016-06-01

    Many community-based lifestyle interventions targeting African Americans have reported positive effects on participants' dietary choices and physical activity habits. However, these effects vary and not all participants will have outcome changes. Moderation analysis can help explain differential effects observed, but are not often reported. Hence, the objective of this secondary analysis was to explore potential moderators of intervention dose effects on diet quality and physical activity outcomes in an effective lifestyle intervention. Delta Body and Soul III, conducted from 2011 to 2012, was a 6-month, church-based, multicomponent, educational intervention designed to improve diet quality and increase physical activity in rural Southern African American adults. Generalized linear mixed models were used to determine associations among indicators of intervention dose received by participants, potential moderators and health outcome changes. Results indicated only three baseline characteristics-employment status, food shopping frequency and individual with primary responsibility for meal preparation-moderated the effects of education session attendance on diet quality changes. No evidence for moderation of exercise class attendance effects on physical activity changes was found. Thus, this culturally targeted, multicomponent lifestyle intervention did induce positive health changes in participants with a range of sociodemographic characteristics and food shopping and eating behaviors. PMID:26944868

  10. Physical Activity Behavior, Barriers to Activity, and Opinions About a Smartphone-Based Physical Activity Intervention Among Rural Residents

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Henrietta; Manini, Todd; Dallery, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Rural Americans engage in less physical activity (PA) and experience higher rates of consequent health problems (i.e., obesity, cardiovascular disease) than urban Americans. Although geographic barriers have historically made this population hard to reach, rural individuals are increasingly gaining access to smartphones. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate PA behavior and barriers to PA among rural residents and to gauge their receptiveness to a smartphone-based PA intervention that is currently in the development stage. Materials and Methods: Rural Floridian adults (n=113), 18 years of age and older, completed surveys to assess PA behavior, PA barriers, and opinions about an intervention to increase PA. Specifically, they were asked to imagine a program that would require them to do PA with their mobile phones and whether they viewed intended aspects of the program as helpful. The present work is therefore formative research that sought to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a smartphone-based intervention among rural residents. Results of the survey will inform the development of a tailored, smartphone-based PA intervention. Results: The 37.2% of participants with low PA levels (<600 metabolic equivalent [MET]-min per week) were more likely to report personal and environmental barriers to PA than the 47.8% of participants with moderate PA levels (≥600 MET-min per week). More barriers were reported among participants who self-reported as white and among participants of older age, lower education level, and lower socioeconomic status. Additionally, 75.9% of participants reported features of the intervention as at least somewhat helpful. Conclusions: The growing ubiquity of smartphones among rural residents, combined with participants' positive response to the program description, supports the acceptability of a smartphone-based PA intervention for rural communities. Given the participants' receptiveness, future research

  11. The unfolded protein response selectively targets active smoothened mutants.

    PubMed

    Marada, Suresh; Stewart, Daniel P; Bodeen, William J; Han, Young-Goo; Ogden, Stacey K

    2013-06-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway, an essential regulator of developmental patterning, has been implicated in playing causative and survival roles in a range of human cancers. The signal-transducing component of the pathway, Smoothened, has revealed itself to be an efficacious therapeutic target in combating oncogenic signaling. However, therapeutic challenges remain in cases where tumors acquire resistance to Smoothened antagonists, and also in cases where signaling is driven by active Smoothened mutants that exhibit reduced sensitivity to these compounds. We previously demonstrated that active Smoothened mutants are subjected to prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention, likely due to their mutations triggering conformation shifts that are detected by ER quality control. We attempted to exploit this biology and demonstrate that deregulated Hedgehog signaling driven by active Smoothened mutants is specifically attenuated by ER stressors that induce the unfolded protein response (UPR). Upon UPR induction, active Smoothened mutants are targeted by ER-associated degradation, resulting in attenuation of inappropriate pathway activity. Accordingly, we found that the UPR agonist thapsigargin attenuated mutant Smoothened-induced phenotypes in vivo in Drosophila melanogaster. Wild-type Smoothened and physiological Hedgehog patterning were not affected, suggesting that UPR modulation may provide a novel therapeutic window to be evaluated for targeting active Smoothened mutants in disease. PMID:23572559

  12. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Nutrition Interventions for Weight Control in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…

  13. A Comparison of Activity-Based Intervention and Embedded Direct Instruction When Teaching Emergent Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botts, Dawn C.; Losardo, Angela S.; Tillery, Christina Y.; Werts, Margaret G.

    2014-01-01

    This replication study focused on the effectiveness of two different intervention approaches, activity-based intervention and embedded direct instruction, on the acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of phonological awareness, a key area of emergent literacy, by preschool children with language delays. Five male preschool participants with…

  14. Student Academic Performance Outcomes of a Classroom Physical Activity Intervention: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Fedewa, Alicia; Ahn, Soyeon

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity is beneficial to children's health, yet academic pressures limit opportunities for students throughout the school day. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a classroom PA intervention on student academic performance outcomes. Intervention participants (n = 15) received daily PA breaks. Reading and mathematics…

  15. The impact of sarcopenia on the response to a physical activity intervention in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine if the changes observed in the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) after a physical activity or health education intervention are influenced by sarcopenia status at baseline. Data were obtained from the Lifestyles for Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot Study, a RCT th...

  16. Preschool Children's Use of Thematic Vocabulary during Dialogic Reading and Activity-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Naomi L.; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Storie, Sloan

    2016-01-01

    An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the expressive use of thematic vocabulary by three preschool children with developmental delays during Dialogic Reading, a shared book reading intervention, and Activity-Based Intervention, a naturalistic play-based teaching method. The design was replicated across two early childhood…

  17. The Development of Spatial Skills through Interventions Involving Block Building Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Beth M.; Andrews, Nicole; Schindler, Holly; Kersh, Joanne E.; Samper, Alexandra; Copley, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the use of block-building interventions to develop spatial-reasoning skills in kindergartners. Two intervention conditions and a control condition were included to determine, first, whether the block building activities themselves benefited children's spatial skills, and secondly, whether a story context further improved…

  18. Community capacity for sustainability of nutrition and physical activity interventions in small, rural communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rural communities would seem to present a challenge for sustainability of interventions because of resource limitations. This session will examine ways in which capacity for sustainability has been emphasized as part of nutrition and physical activity interventions in three rural Mississippi River D...

  19. Conceptualizing a Theoretical Model for School-Centered Adolescent Physical Activity Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ang; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent physical inactivity has risen to an alarming rate. Several theoretical frameworks (models) have been proposed and tested in school-based interventions. The results are mixed, indicating a similar weakness as that observed in community-based physical activity interventions (Baranowski, Lin, Wetter, Resnicow, & Hearn, 1997). The…

  20. RCT of a theory-based intervention promoting healthy eating and physical activity amongst out-patients older than 65 years.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Kate; Abraham, Charles

    2004-08-01

    A randomised controlled trial was used to evaluate a theory-based health promotion intervention. The intervention, a healthy living booklet, was designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity amongst people aged over 65 years attending hospital out-patient clinics. The booklet employed persuasive arguments targeting the most proximal cognitive antecedents of behaviour specified by the theory of planned behaviour, as well as goal setting prompts. Participants (N = 252, average age=82) were randomly allocated to a control (patient satisfaction questionnaire) or intervention (healthy living booklet) group. Cognitions and behaviour were measured pre-intervention and at a two week follow up. The intervention group made significantly higher gains in perceived behavioural control, intention and behaviour for both target behaviours, suggesting that the intervention was successful. Sixty three of those invited to set goals to eat more healthily (e.g., "to eat five portions of fruit and vegetables a day") did so, and 67% of those who set such goals reported 100% success in acting on them. By contrast, only 34% of intervention participants set an activity goal (e.g., "a five minute walk everyday"), and only 51% reported 100% success in enacting these goals. Results suggest that the observed behavioural effects of the healthy eating booklet could be attributed to goal setting as well as changes in perceived behavioural control and intention. PMID:15177835

  1. Contributions of Qualitative Research in Informing HIV/AIDS Interventions Targeting Black MSM in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick A; Valera, Pamela; Martos, Alexander J; Wittlin, Natalie M; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A; Parker, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of qualitative studies focusing on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States. We reviewed studies that were published between 1980 and 2014. Qualitative methods employed in the studies reviewed include in-depth interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and ethnography. We searched several databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, JSTOR, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, and Google Scholar) for relevant articles using the following broad terms: "Black men" "Black gay/bisexual" or "Black men who have sex with men," and "qualitative" and/or "ethnography." We include 70 studies in this review. The key themes observed across studies were (1) heterogeneity, (2) layered stigma and intersectionality, (3) risk behaviors, (4) mental health, (5) resilience, and (6) community engagement. The review suggests that sexual behavior and HIV-status disclosure, sexual risk taking, substance use, and psychological well-being were contextually situated. Interventions occurring at multiple levels and within multiple contexts are needed to reduce stigma within the Black community. Similarly, structural interventions targeting religious groups, schools, and health care systems are needed to improve the health outcomes among BMSM. Community engagement and using community-based participatory research methods may facilitate the development and implementation of culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS interventions targeting BMSM. PMID:26241373

  2. Contributions of Qualitative Research in Informing HIV/AIDS Interventions Targeting Black MSM in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Patrick A.; Valera, Pamela; Martos, Alexander J.; Wittlin, Natalie M.; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A.; Parker, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of qualitative studies focusing on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States. We reviewed studies that were published between 1980-2014. Qualitative methods employed in the studies reviewed include: in-depth interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and ethnography. We searched the following databases: PubMed, PsychINFO, JSTOR, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, and Google Scholar for relevant articles using the following broad terms: “Black men” and/or “BMSM,” and “qualitative” and/or “ethnography.” Seventy studies were included in this review. The key themes observed across studies were: (1) heterogeneity, (2) layered stigma and intersectionality, (3) risk behaviors, (4) mental health, (5) resilience, and (6) community engagement. The review suggests that sexual behavior and HIV-status disclosure, sexual risk-taking, substance use, and psychological well-being were contextually situated. Interventions occurring at multiple levels and within multiple contexts are needed to reduce stigma within the Black community. Similarly, structural interventions targeting religious groups, schools, and health care systems are needed to improve the health outcomes among BMSM. Community engagement and using community-based participatory research methods may facilitate the development and implementation of culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS interventions targeting BMSM. PMID:26241373

  3. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1): A Potential Target for Intervention in Ocular Neovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Constant oxygen supply is essential for proper tissue development, homeostasis and function of all eukaryotic organisms. Cellular response to reduced oxygen levels is mediated by the transcriptional regulator hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). It is a heterodimeric complex protein consisting of an oxygen dependent subunit (HIF-1α) and a constitutively expressed nuclear subunit (HIF-1β). In normoxic conditions, de novo synthesized cytoplasmic HIF-1α is degraded by 26S proteasome. Under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1α is stabilized, binds with HIF-1β and activates transcription of various target genes. These genes play a key role in regulating angiogenesis, cell survival, proliferation, chemotherapy, radiation resistance, invasion, metastasis, genetic instability, immortalization, immune evasion, metabolism and stem cell maintenance. This review highlights the importance of hypoxia signaling in development and progression of various vision threatening pathologies such as diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. Further, various inhibitors of HIF-1 pathway that may have a viable potential in the treatment of oxygen-dependent ocular diseases are also discussed. PMID:23701276

  4. Targeted Immune Interventions for Type 1 Diabetes: Not as Easy as it Looks!

    PubMed Central

    Rigby, Mark R; Ehlers, Mario R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Although insulin is life-saving an sustaining for those with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) curing the disease will be much more complex than simple replacement of this hormone. T1D is be an autoimmune disease orchestrated by T cells, and includes many arms of the immune response. Tremendous effort has gone into understanding its underlying immune, genetic and environmental causes, and this progress has led to immunologically-based clinical trials in T1D. This review will focus primarily on the clinical trials of the past decade that have attempted to translate these fundamental findings. Recent findings It is known that powerful, non-specific immune suppressants can temporarily slow the course of newly diagnosed T1D, yet are too toxic for long-term use, especially in children. Recent clinical trials to reverse T1D have used newly developed therapies which target specific components of the immune process believed to be involved with T1D. Although well justified and designed, no recent approach has resulted in clinical remission and few have had any effect on disease course. Summary Advances in our fundamental understanding of how the human diabetes immune response is activated and regulated coupled with lessons that have been learnt from the most recent era of completed trials are guiding us toward development of more effective, multipronged therapies to ablate diabetes autoimmunity, restore immune tolerance, preserve beta cells, and, ultimately, improve the lives of patients with T1D. PMID:24983393

  5. Hitting the moving target known as reading development: some thoughts on screening children for secondary interventions.

    PubMed

    Speece, Deborah L

    2005-01-01

    Attention to growth may net more accurate screening results than have been apparent in the long history of early identification research. Instead of relying solely on measures administered at one time point, including a measure of children's growth or responsiveness may add an important dimension to the screening equation and provide a clearer view of who may require secondary intervention. Several possibilities were examined that led to suggestions for further research. It was recommended that screening for secondary interventions be viewed as a three-legged stool that incorporates not only individual differences at the screen and outcome but also development conceptualized as rate of learning. PMID:16392689

  6. Effects of Short-Term Physical Activity Interventions on Simple and Choice Response Times

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Kevin; Norton, Lynda; Lewis, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Response time (RT) is important for health and human performance and provides insight into cognitive processes. It deteriorates with age, is associated with chronic physical activity (PA), and improves with PA interventions. We investigated associations between the amount and type of PA undertaken and the rate of change in RT for low-active adults across the age range 18–63 yr. Methods. Insufficiently active adults were assigned to either a walking (n = 263) or higher-intensity (n = 380) exercise program conducted over 40 days. Active controls were also recruited (n = 135). Simple response time (SRT) and choice response time (CRT) were measured before and after the intervention and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Results. SRT and CRT slowed across the age range; however, habitually active participants at baseline had significantly faster CRT (p < 0.05). The interventions increased weekly PA with corresponding increases in physical fitness. These changes were mirrored in faster CRT across the study for both intervention groups (p < 0.05). No changes were found for SRT. Conclusions. Both PA interventions resulted in improvements in CRT among adults starting from a low activity base. These improvements were relatively rapid and occurred in both interventions despite large differences in exercise volume, type, and intensity. There were no effects on SRT in either intervention. PMID:27190993

  7. The effects of physical activity interventions on psychosocial outcomes in adolescents: A meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Spruit, Anouk; Assink, Mark; van Vugt, Eveline; van der Put, Claudia; Stams, Geert Jan

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity interventions are often implemented in the adolescent mental health care practice to prevent or treat psychosocial problems. To date, no systematic review of the effect of these physical activity interventions in adolescents has been conducted. In the current study, four multilevel meta-analyses were performed to assess the overall effect of physical activity interventions on externalizing problems, internalizing problems, self-concept, and academic achievement in adolescents. In addition, possible moderating factors were examined. In total, 57 studies reporting on 216 effect sizes were included, and the results showed significant small-to-moderate effects of physical activity interventions on externalizing problems (d=0.320), internalizing problems (d=0.316), self-concept (d=0.297), and academic achievement (d=0.367). Further, moderator analyses showed that outcome, study, sample, and intervention characteristics influenced the effects of physical activity interventions on psychosocial outcomes. Implications for theory and practice concerning the use of physical activity interventions in adolescent mental health care practice are discussed. PMID:27064552

  8. Behavioural physical activity interventions in participants with lower-limb osteoarthritis: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Wilby; Kluzek, Stefan; Roberts, Nia; Richards, Justin; Arden, Nigel; Leeson, Paul; Newton, Julia; Foster, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess effectiveness of osteoarthritis interventions to promote long-term physical activity behaviour change. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis. Protocol registration PROSPERO CRD4201300444 5 (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/). Study selection Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing physical activity interventions with placebo, no/or minimal intervention in community-dwelling adults with symptomatic knee or hip osteoarthritis. Primary outcomes were change in physical activity or cardiopulmonary fitness after a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Data extraction Outcomes were measures of physical activity (self-reported and objectively measured) and cardiovascular fitness. Standard mean differences between postintervention values were used to describe the effect sizes. Results 27 984 titles were screened and 180 papers reviewed in full. Eleven RCTs satisfied inclusion criteria, total study population of 2741 participants, mean age 62.2. The commonest reasons for study exclusion were follow-up less than 6 months and no physical activity measures. The majority of included interventions implement an arthritis self-management programme targeting coping skills and self-efficacy. Seven studies used self-report measures, the pooled effect of these studies was small with significant heterogeneity between studies (SMD 0.22 with 95% CI −0.11 to 0.56, z=1.30 (p=0.19) I2 statistic of 85%). Subgroup analysis of 6–12 month outcome reduced heterogeneity and increased intervention effect compared to control (SMD 0.53, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.65, z=8.84 (p<0.00001) I2 of 66%). Conclusions Arthritis self-management programmes achieve a small but significant improvement in physical activity in the short term. Effectiveness of intervention declines with extended follow-up beyond 12 months with no significant benefit compared to control. The small number of studies (11 RCTs) limited ability to define effective delivery methods. Investigation of

  9. Evaluation of a targeted AIDS prevention intervention to increase condom use among prostitutes in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asamoah-Adu, A; Weir, S; Pappoe, M; Kanlisi, N; Neequaye, A; Lamptey, P

    1994-02-01

    Findings of a prospective study of condom use among prostitutes in Ghana provided support for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention educational interventions with this high risk populating and evidence of informal program diffusion. 382 self-identified prostitutes voluntarily entered the study in three waves (a pilot group of 72 recruited in June 1987, another 176 prostitutes who were admitted at their request in January 1988, and 106 who entered in September 1991). From this group, selected prostitutes were trained to educate their peers about AIDS risk factors through meetings and printed materials and to distribute free condoms. Self-reported condom use in 1991 was correlated with contact with these peer educators. During the 6-month pilot study, the proportion of prostitutes who always used condom increased from 6% at baseline to 71%. 48% of prostitutes entering the study in January 1988 were already always using condoms, suggesting a diffusion effect. In 1991, consistent condom use was reported by 56% of women from the pilot group available for follow-up and 66% of those interviewed from the 1988 wave; however, these rates were not appreciably higher than the 55% rate reported at baseline by the 1991 wave of recruits. (This convergence is assumed to reflect both suspension of the educational program in 1988-91 and increased social acceptance of condom use given the spread of AIDS.) Of the 107 women from the pilot and expanded groups available for interview in 1991, 24% identified peer outreach workers as their source of AIDS information. Women who had contact with staff were 2.63 times more likely than non-exposed women to report consistent condom use. The interaction model revealed that women who maintained contact with project staff were 3.17 times more likely to be consistent users, those who knew that healthy appearing men could transmit AIDS were 2.68 times more likely to fall into this use category, and prostitutes who had clients who

  10. Effect of physical activity intervention based on a pedometer on physical activity level and anthropometric measures after childbirth: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pregnancy and childbirth are associated with weight gain in women, and retention of weight gained during pregnancy can lead to obesity in later life. Diet and physical activity are factors that can influence the loss of retained pregnancy weight after birth. Exercise guidelines exist for pregnancy, but recommendations for exercise after childbirth are virtually nonexistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of physical activity intervention based on pedometer on physical activity level and anthropometric measures of women after childbirth. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial in which 66 women who had given birth 6 weeks to 6 months prior were randomly assigned to receive either a 12 week tailored program encouraging increased walking using a pedometer (intervention group, n = 32) or routine postpartum care (control group, n = 34). During the 12-week study period, each woman in the intervention group wore a pedometer and recorded her daily step count. The women were advised to increase their steps by 500 per week until they achieved the first target of 5000 steps per day and then continued to increase it to minimum of 10,000 steps per day by the end of 12th week. Assessed outcomes included anthropometric measures, physical activity level, and energy expenditure per week. Data were analyzed using the paired t-test, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney, chi-square, Wilcoxon, covariance analysis, and the general linear model repeated measures procedure as appropriate. Results After 12 weeks, women in the intervention group had significantly increased their physical activity and energy expenditure per week (4394 vs. 1651 calorie, p < 0.001). Significant differences between-group in weight (P = 0.001), Body Mass Index (P = 0.001), waist circumference (P = 0.001), hip circumference (P = 0.032) and waist-hip ratio (P = 0.02) were presented after the intervention. The intervention group significantly increased their mean daily step count

  11. Development of a Fully Automated, Web-Based, Tailored Intervention Promoting Regular Physical Activity Among Insufficiently Active Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Integrating the I-Change Model, Self-Determination Theory, and Motivational Interviewing Components

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Michel; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is a major challenge for Canadian public health authorities, and regular physical activity is a key factor in the management of this disease. Given that fewer than half of people with type 2 diabetes in Canada are sufficiently active to meet the recommendations, effective programs targeting the adoption of regular physical activity (PA) are in demand for this population. Many researchers argue that Web-based, tailored interventions targeting PA are a promising and effective avenue for sedentary populations like Canadians with type 2 diabetes, but few have described the detailed development of this kind of intervention. Objective This paper aims to describe the systematic development of the Web-based, tailored intervention, Diabète en Forme, promoting regular aerobic PA among adult Canadian francophones with type 2 diabetes. This paper can be used as a reference for health professionals interested in developing similar interventions. We also explored the integration of theoretical components derived from the I-Change Model, Self-Determination Theory, and Motivational Interviewing, which is a potential path for enhancing the effectiveness of tailored interventions on PA adoption and maintenance. Methods The intervention development was based on the program-planning model for tailored interventions of Kreuter et al. An additional step was added to the model to evaluate the intervention’s usability prior to the implementation phase. An 8-week intervention was developed. The key components of the intervention include a self-monitoring tool for PA behavior, a weekly action planning tool, and eight tailored motivational sessions based on attitude, self-efficacy, intention, type of motivation, PA behavior, and other constructs and techniques. Usability evaluation, a step added to the program-planning model, helped to make several improvements to the intervention prior to the implementation phase. Results The intervention development cost was

  12. Active helium target: Neutron scalar polarizability extraction via Compton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Meg Hornidge, David; Annand, John; Strandberg, Bruno

    2015-12-31

    Precise measurement of the neutron scalar polarizabilities has been a lasting challenge because of the lack of a free-neutron target. Led by the University of Glasgow and the Mount Allison University groups of the A2 collaboration in Mainz, Germany, preparations have begun to test a recent theoretical model with an active helium target with the hope of determining these elusive quantities with small statistical, systematic, and model-dependent errors. Apparatus testing and background-event simulations have been carried out, with the full experiment projected to run in 2015. Once determined, these values can be applied to help understand quantum chromodynamics in the nonperturbative region.

  13. Active helium target: Neutron scalar polarizability extraction via Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Meg; Annand, John; Hornidge, David; Strandberg, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Precise measurement of the neutron scalar polarizabilities has been a lasting challenge because of the lack of a free-neutron target. Led by the University of Glasgow and the Mount Allison University groups of the A2 collaboration in Mainz, Germany, preparations have begun to test a recent theoretical model with an active helium target with the hope of determining these elusive quantities with small statistical, systematic, and model-dependent errors. Apparatus testing and background-event simulations have been carried out, with the full experiment projected to run in 2015. Once determined, these values can be applied to help understand quantum chromodynamics in the nonperturbative region.

  14. Applying Theory of Mind Concepts When Designing Interventions Targeting Social Cognition among Youth Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Kristine K.; Westby, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study employed a multiple baseline, across-participants, single-subject design to investigate the feasibility of an individual, narrative-based, social problem-solving intervention on the social problem-solving, narrative, and theory of mind (ToM) abilities of 3 incarcerated adolescent youth offenders identified as having emotional…

  15. Improving Behavior by Using Multicomponent Self-Monitoring within a Targeted Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhn, Allison; Watt, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Many researchers have documented the interrelatedness of reading and behavior (McIntosh, Sadler, & Brown, 2012). Thus, research examining the best way to intervene with students who exhibit problems in both skill sets is merited. Recently, taking an integrated approach to reading and behavioral intervention has been suggested (Mooney, Ryan, Uhing,…

  16. Coping and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents with a Chronic Medical Condition: A Search for Intervention Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find relevant coping factors for the development of psychological intervention programs for adolescents with a chronic medical condition. A wide range of coping techniques were studied, including cognitive coping, behavioral coping and goal adjustment coping. A total of 176 adolescents participated. They were…

  17. Empirically Based School Interventions Targeted at Academic and Mental Health Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Olin, S. Serene; Kerker, Bonnie D.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Crowe, Maura; Saka, Noa

    2007-01-01

    This review examines empirically based studies of school-based mental health interventions. The review identified 64 out of more than 2,000 articles published between 1990 and 2006 that met methodologically rigorous criteria for inclusion. Of these 64 articles, only 24 examined both mental health "and" educational outcomes. The majority of…

  18. Computer-assisted interventions targeting reading skills of children with reading disabilities - a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fälth, Linda; Gustafson, Stefan; Tjus, Tomas; Heimann, Mikael; Svensson, Idor

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of three computerized interventions on the reading skills of children with reading disabilities in Grade 2. This longitudinal intervention study included five test sessions over 1 year. Two test points occur before the intervention, and three afterwards. The last follow-up was conducted 1 year after the first measurement. One hundred thirty children in Grade 2 participated in the study. Three groups of children with reading difficulties received computerized training programmes: one aimed at improving word decoding skills and phonological abilities, the second focused on word and sentence levels and the third was a combination of these two training programmes. A fourth group received ordinary special instruction. In addition, there was one comparison group with age-matched typical readers. All groups improved their reading skills. The group that received combined training showed greater improvement than the one with ordinary special instruction and the group of typical readers at two follow-ups. The longitudinal results indicate additional positive results for the group that received the combined training, the majority of students from that group being no longer judged to be needing special education 1 year after the intervention. PMID:23338977

  19. Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions Targeting Personality Risk Factors for Youth Alcohol Misuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrod, Patricia J.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Comeau, Nancy; Maclean, A. Michael

    2006-01-01

    Sensation seeking, anxiety sensitivity, and hopelessness are personality risk factors for alcohol use disorders, each associated with specific risky drinking motives in adolescents. We developed a set of interventions and manuals that were designed to intervene at the level of personality risk and associated maladaptive coping strategies,…

  20. Developmental Phenotypes and Causal Pathways in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Potential Targets for Early Intervention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Early intervention approaches have rarely been implemented for the prevention of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this paper we explore whether such an approach may represent an important new direction for therapeutic innovation. We propose that such an approach is most likely to be of value when grounded in and informed by…

  1. Childhood obesity prevention: an intervention targeting primary caregivers of school children.

    PubMed

    Bruss, Mozhdeh B; Michael, Timothy J; Morris, Joseph R; Applegate, Brooks; Dannison, Linda; Quitugua, Jackie A; Palacios, Rosa T; Klein, David J

    2010-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) was used to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a culturally relevant, science-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), a US Commonwealth in the western Pacific. This cognitive behavioral lifestyle intervention, Project Familia Giya Marianas (PFGM), was offered during the 2005-2007 school years in all CNMI public elementary schools over eight sessions to primary caregivers of 3rd grade children (N = 407). A crossover design was utilized with half of the schools offering the intervention in the Fall term, while the other half delivered the sessions in the Spring term. The primary outcome measure was change in BMI z-score. There was an intervention-dependent effect on BMI z-score, with program impact being a function of baseline BMI and the number of lessons attended. This effect was most apparent in students whose baseline BMI z-score was in healthy range (>/=5 to <85 percentile). In both Asian and Pacific Island groups, children whose caregivers completed 5-8 lessons experienced a significant change in BMI z-score as compared to those with 0 lessons (P < 0.05). Research that integrates multidisciplinary and multimethod approaches is effective in identifying and/or devising solutions to address a complex condition such as childhood obesity. PFGM demonstrated that community participation can be successfully utilized in the development and implementation of childhood obesity prevention programs. PMID:19424164

  2. What kinds of website and mobile phone-delivered physical activity and nutrition interventions do middle-aged men want?

    PubMed

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Caperchione, Cristina M; Ellison, Marcus; George, Emma S; Maeder, Anthony; Kolt, Gregory S; Duncan, Mitch J; Karunanithi, Mohanraj; Noakes, Manny; Hooker, Cindy; Viljoen, Pierre; Mummery, W Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Within a health context, men in Western societies are a hard-to-reach population who experience higher rates of chronic disease compared with women. Innovative technology-based interventions that specifically target men are needed; however, little is known about how these should be developed for this group. This study aimed to examine opinions and perceptions regarding the use of Internet and mobile phones to improve physical activity and nutrition behaviors for middle-aged men. The authors conducted 6 focus groups (n = 30) in Queensland, Australia. Their analyses identified 6 themes: (a) Internet experience, (b) website characteristics, (c) Web 2.0 applications, (d) website features, (e) self-monitoring, and (f) mobile phones as delivery method. The outcomes indicate that men support the use of the Internet to improve and self-monitor physical activity and dietary behaviors on the condition that the website-delivered interventions are quick and easy to use, because commitment levels to engage in online tasks are low. Participants also indicated that they were reluctant to use normal mobile phones to change health behaviors, although smartphones were perceived to be more acceptable. This pilot study suggests that there are viable avenues to engage middle-aged men in Internet- or in mobile-delivered health interventions. This study also suggests that to be successful, these interventions need to be tailor-made especially for men, with an emphasis on usability and convenience. A wider quantitative study would bring further support to these findings. PMID:23647448

  3. Reversible, activity-dependent targeting of profilin to neuronal nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Birbach, Andreas . E-mail: andreas.birbach@lbicr.lbg.ac.at; Verkuyl, J. Martin; Matus, Andrew . E-mail: aim@fmi.ch

    2006-07-15

    The actin cytoskeleton in pyramidal neurons plays a major role in activity-dependent processes underlying neuronal plasticity. The small actin-binding protein profilin shows NMDA receptor-dependent accumulation in dendritic spines, which is correlated with suppression of actin dynamics and long-term stabilization of synaptic morphology. Here we show that following NMDA receptor activation profilin also accumulates in the nucleus of hippocampal neurons via a process involving rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. This simultaneous targeting to dendritic spines and the cell nucleus suggests a novel mechanism of neuronal plasticity in which profilin both tags activated synapses and influences nuclear events.

  4. Interventions targeted at women to encourage the uptake of cervical screening

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Thomas; Bryant, Andrew; Griffin, Michelle F; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre PL; Forbes, Carol A; Jepson, Ruth G

    2014-01-01

    Background World-wide, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women. Increasing the uptake of screening, alongside increasing informed choice is of great importance in controlling this disease through prevention and early detection. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions aimed at women, to increase the uptake, including informed uptake, of cervical cancer screening. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Issue 1, 2009. MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS databases up to March 2009. We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions to increase uptake/informed uptake of cervical cancer screening. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. Where possible the data were synthesised in a meta-analysis. Main results Thirty-eight trials met our inclusion criteria. These trials assessed the effectiveness of invitational and educational interventions, counselling, risk factor assessment and procedural interventions. Heterogeneity between trials limited statistical pooling of data. Overall, however, invitations appear to be effective methods of increasing uptake. In addition, there is limited evidence to support the use of educational materials. Secondary outcomes including cost data were incompletely documented so evidence was limited. Most trials were at moderate risk of bias. Informed uptake of cervical screening was not reported in any trials. Authors’ conclusions There is evidence to support the use of invitation letters to increase the uptake of cervical screening. There is limited evidence to support educational interventions but it is unclear what format is most effective. The majority of the studies are from

  5. Neuroimaging of reading intervention: a systematic review and activation likelihood estimate meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Barquero, Laura A; Davis, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie E

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies examine instructional training and brain activity. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding neuroimaging of reading intervention, with a particular focus on reading difficulties (RD). To locate relevant studies, searches of peer-reviewed literature were conducted using electronic databases to search for studies from the imaging modalities of fMRI and MEG (including MSI) that explored reading intervention. Of the 96 identified studies, 22 met the inclusion criteria for descriptive analysis. A subset of these (8 fMRI experiments with post-intervention data) was subjected to activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis to investigate differences in functional activation following reading intervention. Findings from the literature review suggest differences in functional activation of numerous brain regions associated with reading intervention, including bilateral inferior frontal, superior temporal, middle temporal, middle frontal, superior frontal, and postcentral gyri, as well as bilateral occipital cortex, inferior parietal lobules, thalami, and insulae. Findings from the meta-analysis indicate change in functional activation following reading intervention in the left thalamus, right insula/inferior frontal, left inferior frontal, right posterior cingulate, and left middle occipital gyri. Though these findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies and the disparate methodologies used, this paper is an effort to synthesize across studies and to guide future exploration of neuroimaging and reading intervention. PMID:24427278

  6. Neuroimaging of Reading Intervention: A Systematic Review and Activation Likelihood Estimate Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barquero, Laura A.; Davis, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie E.

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies examine instructional training and brain activity. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding neuroimaging of reading intervention, with a particular focus on reading difficulties (RD). To locate relevant studies, searches of peer-reviewed literature were conducted using electronic databases to search for studies from the imaging modalities of fMRI and MEG (including MSI) that explored reading intervention. Of the 96 identified studies, 22 met the inclusion criteria for descriptive analysis. A subset of these (8 fMRI experiments with post-intervention data) was subjected to activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis to investigate differences in functional activation following reading intervention. Findings from the literature review suggest differences in functional activation of numerous brain regions associated with reading intervention, including bilateral inferior frontal, superior temporal, middle temporal, middle frontal, superior frontal, and postcentral gyri, as well as bilateral occipital cortex, inferior parietal lobules, thalami, and insulae. Findings from the meta-analysis indicate change in functional activation following reading intervention in the left thalamus, right insula/inferior frontal, left inferior frontal, right posterior cingulate, and left middle occipital gyri. Though these findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies and the disparate methodologies used, this paper is an effort to synthesize across studies and to guide future exploration of neuroimaging and reading intervention. PMID:24427278

  7. Who to target in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy prevention and how? Risk factors, biomarkers, and intervention study designs.

    PubMed

    Tomson, Torbjörn; Surges, Rainer; Delamont, Robert; Haywood, Serena; Hesdorffer, Dale C

    2016-01-01

    The risk of dying suddenly and unexpectedly is increased 24- to 28-fold among young people with epilepsy compared to the general population, but the incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) varies markedly depending on the epilepsy population. This article first reviews risk factors and biomarkers for SUDEP with the overall aim of enabling identification of epilepsy populations with different risk levels as a background for a discussion of possible intervention strategies. The by far most important clinical risk factor is frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), but nocturnal seizures, early age at onset, and long duration of epilepsy have been identified as additional risk factors. Lack of antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment or, in the context of clinical trials, adjunctive placebo versus active treatment is associated with increased risks. Despite considerable research, reliable electrophysiologic (electrocardiography [ECG] or electroencephalography [EEG]) biomarkers of SUDEP risk remain to be established. This is an important limitation for prevention strategies and intervention studies. There is a lack of biomarkers for SUDEP, and until validated biomarkers are found, the endpoint of interventions to prevent SUDEP must be SUDEP itself. These interventions, be they pharmacologic, seizure-detection devices, or nocturnal supervision, require large numbers. Possible methods for assessing prevention measures include public health community interventions, self-management, and more traditional (and much more expensive) randomized clinical trials. PMID:26749012

  8. Active Patient Participation in the Development of an Online Intervention

    PubMed Central

    van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn M; Snippe, Harm Wouter; Gouw, Hans; Zijlstra, Josée M; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Background An important and challenging part of living with cancer relates to the repeated visits to the hospital. Since how patients cope between these post-diagnostic visits depends partly on the information and support received from their physician during the visits, it is important to make the most of them. Recent findings reinforce the importance of training not only the health care professionals in communication skills, but providing patients with support in communication as well. Delivering such supportive interventions online can have potential benefits in terms of accessibility, cost-effectiveness, and ability to tailor information to personal needs. However, problems with attrition (dropout, non-usage) during the test phase and poor uptake after implementation are frequently reported. The marginal level of engagement of the patient as end user seems to play a role in this. Therefore, recent research suggests integrating theory-based development methods with methods that promote involvement of the patient at an early stage. This paper describes a participatory protocol, used to let patients guide a theory-informed development process. Objective The objective of this project was to apply a bottom-up inspired procedure to develop a patient-centered intervention with corresponding evaluation and implementation plan. Methods The applied development protocol was based on the intervention mapping framework, combined with patient participatory methods that were inspired by the participation ladder and user-centred design methods. Results The applied protocol led to a self-directed online communication intervention aimed at helping patients gain control during their communications with health care professionals. It also led to an evaluation plan and an implementation plan. The protocol enabled the continuous involvement of patient research partners and the partial involvement of patient service users, which led to valuable insights and improvements. Conclusions

  9. A Comparison of Word Learning in 3-Year-Old Children At-Risk for Language and Literacy Difficulties in Two Conditions: Dialogic Reading and Activity-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Naomi L.

    2013-01-01

    Existing research suggests a need for an intervention that can accelerate vocabulary acquisition for young children at-risk due to poverty. An adapted alternating treatments design was used to examine the effects of Dialogic Reading and Activity-Based Intervention (ABI) on participants' production of target words. Participants were three…

  10. Depressive symptoms among older adults: long-term reduction after a physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; Konopack, James F; McAuley, Edward; Elavsky, Steriani; Jerome, Gerald J; Marquez, David X

    2005-08-01

    We examined the effects of two physical activity modes on depressive symptoms over a 5-year period among older adults and change in physical self-esteem as a mediator of changes in depressive symptoms. Formerly sedentary, older adults (N = 174) were randomly assigned into 6-month conditions of either walking or low-intensity resistance/flexibility training. Depressive symptoms and physical self-esteem were measured before and after the 6-month intervention, and 12 and 60 months after intervention initiation. Depressive symptoms scores were decreased immediately after the intervention, followed by a sustained reduction for 12 and 60 months after intervention initiation; there was no differential pattern of change between the physical activity modes. Change in physical self-esteem predicted change in depressive symptoms. This study supports the effectiveness of an exercise intervention for the sustained reduction of depressive symptoms among sedentary older adults and physical self-esteem as a potential mediator of this effect. PMID:16049630

  11. Children's physical activity levels during school recess: a quasi-experimental intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth; Fairclough, Stuart J; Twisk, Jos WR

    2007-01-01

    Background Recess provides a daily opportunity for children to engage in moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA). Limited research has investigated the effects of recess-based interventions on physical activity using large sample sizes whilst investigating variables that may influence the intervention effect. The aim of the study was to investigate the short-term effects of a playground markings and physical structures intervention on recess physical activity. A secondary aim was to investigate the effects of covariates on the intervention. Methods 150 boys and 147 girls were randomly selected from 26 elementary schools to wear uni-axial accelerometers that quantified physical activity every 5 seconds during recess. Fifteen schools located in deprived areas in one large urban city in England received funding through a national initiative to redesign the playground environment. Eleven schools served as matched socioeconomic controls. Data were collected at baseline and 6-weeks following playground intervention. Recess MVPA and VPA levels adjusted for pupil- and school-level covariates (baseline physical activity, age, gender, recess length, body mass index) were analysed using multilevel analyses. Results Positive but non-significant intervention effects were found for MVPA and VPA when confounding variables were added to the model. Gender was a significant predictor of recess physical activity, with boys engaging in more MVPA and VPA than girls. Significant interactions for MVPA revealed that the intervention effect was stronger for younger elementary aged school children compared to older children, and the intervention effect increased as daily recess duration increased. Conclusion The playground redesign intervention resulted in small but non-significant increases in children's recess physical activity when school and pupil level variables were added to the analyses. Changing the playground environment produced a stronger intervention

  12. Buoyancy-activated cell sorting using targeted biotinylated albumin microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Liou, Yu-Ren; Wang, Yu-Hsin; Lee, Chia-Ying; Li, Pai-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs) conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs). Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2 μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10 g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4 °C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs), which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44(+)) and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44-), which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44(+) is a commonly used cancer-stem-cell biomarker, our

  13. Buoyancy-Activated Cell Sorting Using Targeted Biotinylated Albumin Microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Yu-Ren; Wang, Yu-Hsin; Lee, Chia-Ying; Li, Pai-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including florescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs) conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs). Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4°C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs), which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44+) and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44–), which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44+ is a commonly used cancer-stem-cell biomarker, our targeted

  14. Randomized Controlled Trial of Positive Affect Induction to Promote Physical Activity After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Janey C.; Charlson, Mary E.; Hoffman, Zachary; Wells, Martin T.; Wong, Shing-Chiu; Hollenberg, James P.; Jobe, Jared B.; Boschert, Kathryn A.; Isen, Alice M.; Allegrante, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Within 1 year after percutaneous coronary intervention, more than 20% of patients experience new adverse events. Physical activity confers a 25% reduction in mortality; however, physical activity is widely underused. Thus, there is a need for more powerful behavioral interventions to promote physical activity. Our objective was to motivate patients to achieve an increase in expenditure of 336 kcal/wk or more at 12 months as assessed by the Paffenbarger Physical Activity and Exercise Index. Methods Two hundred forty-two patients were recruited immediately after percutaneous coronary intervention between October 2004 and October 2006. Patients were randomized to 1 of 2 groups. The patient education (PE) control group (n=118) (1) received an educational workbook, (2) received a pedometer, and (3) set a behavioral contract for a physical activity goal. The positive affect/self-affirmation (PA) intervention group (n=124) received the 3 PE control components plus (1) a PA workbook chapter, (2) bimonthly induction of PA by telephone, and (3) small mailed gifts. All patients were contacted with standardized bimonthly telephone follow-up for 12 months. Results Attrition was 4.5%, and 2.1% of patients died. Significantly more patients in the PA intervention group increased expenditure by 336 kcal/wk or more at 12 months, our main outcome, compared with the PE control group (54.9% vs 37.4%, P=.007). The PA intervention patients were 1.7 times more likely to reach the goal of a 336-kcal/wk or more increase by 12 months, controlling for demographic and psychosocial measures. In multivariate analysis, the PA intervention patients had nearly double the improvement in kilocalories per week at 12 months compared with the PE control patients (602 vs 328, P=.03). Conclusion Patients who receive PA intervention after percutaneous coronary intervention are able to achieve a sustained and clinically significant increase in physical activity by 12 months. Trial Registration

  15. Process Evaluation Results from a School- and Community-Linked Intervention: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, D. R.; Steckler, A.; Cohen, S.; Pratt, C.; Felton, G.; Moe, S. G.; Pickrel, J.; Johnson, C. C.; Grieser, M.; Lytle, L. A.; Lee, J.-S.; Raburn, B.

    2008-01-01

    Process evaluation is a component of intervention research that evaluates whether interventions are delivered and received as intended. Here, we describe the process evaluation results for the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) intervention. The intervention consisted of four synergistic components designed to provide supportive school-…

  16. Gender-Associated Genes in Filarial Nematodes Are Important for Reproduction and Potential Intervention Targets

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ben-Wen; Rush, Amy C.; Jiang, Dao-Jun; Mitreva, Makedonka; Abubucker, Sahar; Weil, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    Background A better understanding of reproductive processes in parasitic nematodes may lead to development of new anthelmintics and control strategies for combating disabling and disfiguring neglected tropical diseases such as lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Transcriptomatic analysis has provided important new insights into mechanisms of reproduction and development in other invertebrates. We have performed the first genome-wide analysis of gender-associated (GA) gene expression in a filarial nematode to improve understanding of key reproductive processes in these parasites. Methodology/Principal Findings The Version 2 Filarial Microarray with 18,104 elements representing ∼85% of the filarial genome was used to identify GA gene transcripts in adult Brugia malayi worms. Approximately 19% of 14,293 genes were identified as GA genes. Many GA genes have potential Caenorhabditis elegans homologues annotated as germline-, oogenesis-, spermatogenesis-, and early embryogenesis- enriched. The potential C. elegans homologues of the filarial GA genes have a higher frequency of severe RNAi phenotypes (such as lethal and sterility) than other C. elegans genes. Molecular functions and biological processes associated with GA genes were gender-segregated. Peptidase, ligase, transferase, regulator activity for kinase and transcription, and rRNA and lipid binding were associated with female GA genes. In contrast, catalytic activity from kinase, ATP, and carbohydrate binding were associated with male GA genes. Cell cycle, transcription, translation, and biological regulation were increased in females, whereas metabolic processes of phosphate and carbohydrate metabolism, energy generation, and cell communication were increased in males. Significantly enriched pathways in females were associated with cell growth and protein synthesis, whereas metabolic pathways such as pentose phosphate and energy production pathways were enriched in males. There were also striking gender

  17. Target motion predictions for pre-operative planning during needle-based interventions.

    PubMed

    op den Buijs, Jorn; Abayazid, Momen; de Korte, Chris L; Misra, Sarthak

    2011-01-01

    During biopsies, breast tissue is subjected to displacement upon needle indentation, puncture, and penetration. Thus, accurate needle placement requires pre-operative predictions of the target motions. In this paper, we used ultrasound elastography measurements to non-invasively predict elastic properties of breast tissue phantoms. These properties were used in finite element (FE) models of indentation of breast soft tissue phantoms. To validate the model predictions of target motion, experimental measurements were carried out. Breast tissue phantoms with cubic and hemispherical geometries were manufactured and included materials with different elastic properties to represent skin, adipose tissue, and lesions. Ultrasound was used to track the displacement of the target (i.e., the simulated lesion) during indentation. The FE model predictions were compared with ultrasound measurements for cases with different boundary conditions and phantom geometry. Maximum errors between measured and predicted target motions were 12% and 3% for the fully supported and partially supported cubic phantoms at 6.0 mm indentation, respectively. Further, FE-based parameter sensitivity analysis indicated that increasing skin elastic modulus and reducing the target depth location increased the target motion. Our results indicate that with a priori knowledge about the geometry, boundary conditions, and linear elastic properties, indentation of breast tissue phantoms can be accurately predicted with FE models. FE models for pre-operative planning in combination with robotic needle insertions, could play a key role in improving lesion targeting for breast biopsies. PMID:22255554

  18. Systematic Review Shows Only Few Reliable Studies of Physical Activity Intervention in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Nara Michelle Moura; Leão, Arley Santos; Santos, Josivan Rosa; Monteiro, Glauber Rocha; dos Santos, Jorge Rollemberg; Thomazzi, Sara Maria; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Several studies have pointed to the high prevalence of low levels of physical activity in adolescents, suggesting the need for more effective interventions for this group. The aim of this study was to present evidence of intervention programs for efficacy of physical activity for adolescents. Methods. Surveys in PubMed, SportDiscus, LiLacs, and SciELO databases were conducted using keywords to identify population, intervention, and outcome, as well as DeCS and MeSH terms in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, whenever appropriate. The review included observational studies with minimal intervention of six months, minimum sample size of 100 adolescents, written in any language, and those who have reached STROBE score greater than 70%. Results. Only seven studies met all inclusion criteria. Of these, five were pre- and postintervention and two had n > 2000 participants. Interventions were of several types, durations, and strategies for physical activity implementation. Behavior change was assessed in 43% of studies and three reported success in some way. Conclusion. Due to heterogeneity in their contents and methodologies, as well as the lack of jobs that accompany adolescents after the intervention period, one cannot draw conclusions about the actual effects of the intervention programs of physical activity on the behavior of young people. PMID:25152903

  19. Coping and depressive symptoms in adolescents with a chronic medical condition: a search for intervention targets.

    PubMed

    Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to find relevant coping factors for the development of psychological intervention programs for adolescents with a chronic medical condition. A wide range of coping techniques were studied, including cognitive coping, behavioral coping and goal adjustment coping. A total of 176 adolescents participated. They were contacted through social networking websites or Internet forums and through schools for children with a physical disability. Several cognitive and behavioral coping strategies and goal adjustment were found to be related to symptoms of depression. The cognitive coping strategies had the strongest influence on depressive symptoms. Especially self-blame, rumination and catastrophizing seemed to be important factors. If these findings can be confirmed, they could contribute to the focus and content of intervention programs for adolescents with a chronic medical condition. PMID:22771158

  20. AMPK activation: a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Coughlan, Kimberly A; Valentine, Rudy J; Ruderman, Neil B; Saha, Asish K

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disease characterized by insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and elevated hepatic glucose output. Over 350 million people worldwide have T2D, and the International Diabetes Federation projects that this number will increase to nearly 600 million by 2035. There is a great need for more effective treatments for maintaining glucose homeostasis and improving insulin sensitivity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase whose activation elicits insulin-sensitizing effects, making it an ideal therapeutic target for T2D. AMPK is an energy-sensing enzyme that is activated when cellular energy levels are low, and it signals to stimulate glucose uptake in skeletal muscles, fatty acid oxidation in adipose (and other) tissues, and reduces hepatic glucose production. There is substantial evidence suggesting that AMPK is dysregulated in animals and humans with metabolic syndrome or T2D, and that AMPK activation (physiological or pharmacological) can improve insulin sensitivity and metabolic health. Numerous pharmacological agents, natural compounds, and hormones are known to activate AMPK, either directly or indirectly – some of which (for example, metformin and thiazolidinediones) are currently used to treat T2D. This paper will review the regulation of the AMPK pathway and its role in T2D, some of the known AMPK activators and their mechanisms of action, and the potential for future improvements in targeting AMPK for the treatment of T2D. PMID:25018645

  1. A cluster-randomised, controlled trial to assess the impact of a workplace osteoporosis prevention intervention on the dietary and physical activity behaviours of working women: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease and its risk can be reduced through adequate calcium consumption and physical activity. This protocol paper describes a workplace-based intervention targeting behaviour change in premenopausal women working in sedentary occupations. Method/Design A cluster-randomised design was used, comparing the efficacy of a tailored intervention to standard care. Workplaces were the clusters and units of randomisation and intervention. Sample size calculations incorporated the cluster design. Final number of clusters was determined to be 16, based on a cluster size of 20 and calcium intake parameters (effect size 250 mg, ICC 0.5 and standard deviation 290 mg) as it required the highest number of clusters. Sixteen workplaces were recruited from a pool of 97 workplaces and randomly assigned to intervention and control arms (eight in each). Women meeting specified inclusion criteria were then recruited to participate. Workplaces in the intervention arm received three participatory workshops and organisation wide educational activities. Workplaces in the control/standard care arm received print resources. Intervention workshops were guided by self-efficacy theory and included participatory activities such as goal setting, problem solving, local food sampling, exercise trials, group discussion and behaviour feedback. Outcomes measures were calcium intake (milligrams/day) and physical activity level (duration: minutes/week), measured at baseline, four weeks and six months post intervention. Discussion This study addresses the current lack of evidence for behaviour change interventions focussing on osteoporosis prevention. It addresses missed opportunities of using workplaces as a platform to target high-risk individuals with sedentary occupations. The intervention was designed to modify behaviour levels to bring about risk reduction. It is the first to address dietary and physical activity components each with unique intervention

  2. The Platin-X series: activation, targeting, and delivery.

    PubMed

    Basu, Uttara; Banik, Bhabatosh; Wen, Ru; Pathak, Rakesh K; Dhar, Shanta

    2016-08-16

    Anticancer platinum (Pt) complexes have long been considered to be one of the biggest success stories in the history of medicinal inorganic chemistry. Yet there remains the hunt for the "magic bullet" which can satisfy the requirements of an effective chemotherapeutic drug formulation. Pt(iv) complexes are kinetically more inert than the Pt(ii) congeners and offer the opportunity to append additional functional groups/ligands for prodrug activation, tumor targeting, or drug delivery. The ultimate aim of functionalization is to enhance the tumor selective action and attenuate systemic toxicity of the drugs. Moreover, an increase in cellular accumulation to surmount the resistance of the tumor against the drugs is also of paramount importance in drug development and discovery. In this review, we will address the attempts made in our lab to develop Pt(iv) prodrugs that can be activated and delivered using targeted nanotechnology-based delivery platforms. PMID:27493131

  3. Feasibility study of an active target for the MEG experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa, A.; Cavoto, G.; Ripiccini, E.

    2014-03-01

    We consider the possibility to have an active target for the upgrade of the MEG experiment (MEG II). The active target should work as (1) a beam monitoring, to continuously measure the muon stopping rate and therefore provide a direct evaluation of the detector acceptance (or an absolute normalization of the stopped muon); and as (2) an auxiliary device for the spectrometer, to improve the determination of the muon decay vertex and consequently to achieve a better positron momentum and angular resolutions, detecting the positron from the muon decay. In this work we studied the feasibility of detecting minimum ionizing particle with a single layer of 250 μm fiber and the capability to discriminate between the signal induced by either a muon or a positron.

  4. Exploring Behavioral Markers of Long-term Physical Activity Maintenance: A Case Study of System Identification Modeling within a Behavioral Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hekler, Eric B.; Buman, Matthew P.; Poothakandiyil, Nikhil; Rivera, Daniel E.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Morgan, Adrienne Aiken; McCrae, Christina S.; Roberts, Beverly L.; Marsiske, Michael; Giacobbi, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Efficacious interventions to promote long-term maintenance of physical activity are not well understood. Engineers have developed methods to create dynamical system models for modeling idiographic (i.e., within-person) relationships within systems. In behavioral research, dynamical systems modeling may assist in decomposing intervention effects and identifying key behavioral patterns that may foster behavioral maintenance. The Active Adult Mentoring Program (AAMP) was a 16-week randomized controlled trial of a group-based, peer-delivered physical activity intervention targeting older adults. Time intensive (i.e., daily) physical activity reports were collected throughout the intervention. We explored differential patterns of behavior among participants who received the active intervention (N=34; 88% women, 64.1±8.3 years of age) and either maintained 150 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA; n=10) or did not (n=24) at 18 months following the intervention period. We used dynamical systems modeling to explore whether key intervention components (i.e., self-monitoring, access to an exercise facility, behavioral initiation training, behavioral maintenance training) and theoretically plausible behavioral covariates (i.e., indoor vs. outdoor activity) predicted differential patterns of behavior among maintainers and non-maintainers. We found that maintainers took longer to reach a steady-state of MVPA. At week 10 of the intervention, non-maintainers began to drop whereas maintainers increased MVPA. Self-monitoring, behavioral initiation training, % outdoor activity, and behavioral maintenance training, but not access to an exercise facility, were key variables that explained patterns of change among maintainers. Future studies should be conducted to systematically explore these concepts within a priori idiographic (i.e., N-of-1) experimental designs. PMID:24084400

  5. Exploring behavioral markers of long-term physical activity maintenance: a case study of system identification modeling within a behavioral intervention.

    PubMed

    Hekler, Eric B; Buman, Matthew P; Poothakandiyil, Nikhil; Rivera, Daniel E; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Morgan, Adrienne Aiken; McCrae, Christina S; Roberts, Beverly L; Marsiske, Michael; Giacobbi, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    Efficacious interventions to promote long-term maintenance of physical activity are not well understood. Engineers have developed methods to create dynamical system models for modeling idiographic (i.e., within-person) relationships within systems. In behavioral research, dynamical systems modeling may assist in decomposing intervention effects and identifying key behavioral patterns that may foster behavioral maintenance. The Active Adult Mentoring Program was a 16-week randomized controlled trial of a group-based, peer-delivered physical activity intervention targeting older adults. Time-intensive (i.e., daily) physical activity reports were collected throughout the intervention. We explored differential patterns of behavior among participants who received the active intervention (N = 34; 88% women, 64.1 ± 8.3 years of age) and either maintained 150 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA; n = 10) or did not (n = 24) at 18 months following the intervention period. We used dynamical systems modeling to explore whether key intervention components (i.e., self-monitoring, access to an exercise facility, behavioral initiation training, behavioral maintenance training) and theoretically plausible behavioral covariates (i.e., indoor vs. outdoor activity) predicted differential patterns of behavior among maintainers and nonmaintainers. We found that maintainers took longer to reach a steady-state of MVPA. At week 10 of the intervention, nonmaintainers began to drop whereas maintainers increased MVPA. Self-monitoring, behavioral initiation training, percentage of outdoor activity, and behavioral maintenance training, but not access to an exercise facility, were key variables that explained patterns of change among maintainers. Future studies should be conducted to systematically explore these concepts within a priori idiographic (i.e., N-of-1) experimental designs. PMID:24084400

  6. A Qualitative Study to Examine Feasibility and Design of an Online Social Networking Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Teenage Girls

    PubMed Central

    Van Kessel, Gisela; Kavanagh, Madeleine; Maher, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background Online social networks present wide-reaching and flexible platforms through which to deliver health interventions to targeted populations. This study used a social marketing approach to explore teenage girls’ perceptions of physical activity and the potential use of online social networks to receive a physical activity intervention. Methods Six focus groups were conducted with 19 Australian teenage girls (ages 13 to 18 years) with varying levels of physical activity and socioeconomic status. A semi-structured format was used, with groups discussion transcribed verbatim. Content analysis identified emergent themes, with triangulation and memos used to ensure accuracy. Results Physical activity was most appealing when it emphasised sport, exercise and fitness, along with opportunities for socialisation with friends and self-improvement. Participants were receptive to delivery of a physical activity intervention via online social networks, with Facebook the most widely reported site. Participants commonly accessed online social networks via mobile devices and particularly smartphones. Undesirable features included promotion of physical activity in terms of walking; use of cartoon imagery; use of humour; and promotion of the intervention via schools, each of which were considered “uncool”. Participants noted that their parents were likely to be supportive of them using an online social networking physical activity intervention, particularly if not promoted as a weight loss intervention. Conclusion This study identified key features likely to increase the feasibility and retention of an online social networking physical activity intervention for teenage girls. Guidelines for the design of interventions for teenage girls are provided for future applications. PMID:26934191

  7. Targeted IgA Fc receptor I (FcαRI) therapy in the early intervention and treatment of pristane-induced lupus nephritis in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Kanamaru, Y; Watanabe, T; Tada, N; Horikoshi, S; Suzuki, Y; Liu, Z; Tomino, Y

    2015-09-01

    The Fc receptor I for IgA (FcαRI) down-regulates humoral immune responses and modulates the risk of autoimmunity. This study aimed to investigate whether FcαRI targeting can affect progression of pristine-induced lupus nephritis. In the first experiment (early intervention), four groups of animals were evaluated: untreated FcαRI/FcRγ transgenic (Tg) mice and Tg mice administered control antibody (Ctr Fab), saline and anti-FcαRI Fab [macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-8a], respectively, three times a week for 29 weeks, after being injected once intraperitoneally with 0·5 ml pristane. In the second experiment, antibody injection started after the onset of nephritis and was carried out for 2 months, with similar groups as described above. MIP-8a improved proteinuria, decreased the amounts of glomerular injury markers, serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and F4/80 macrophages in the interstitium and glomeruli, in both experiments. When MIP-8a was used as early intervention, a decrease in mouse serum anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) titres and reduced deposition of immunoglobulins in glomeruli were observed. This effect was associated with reduced serum titres of immunoglobulin (Ig)G2a but not IgG1, IgG2b and IgG3. Furthermore, pathological analysis showed lower glomerular activity index and less fibronectin in MIP-8a treated mice. This study suggests that FcαRI targeting could halt disease progression and lupus activation by selective inhibition of cytokine production, leucocyte recruitment and renal inflammation. Our findings provide a basis for the use of FcαRI as a molecular target for the treatment of lupus. PMID:25907714

  8. Active multispectral near-IR detection of small surface targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Arie N.; Winkel, Hans; Roos, Marco J. J.

    2001-10-01

    The detection and identification of small surface targets with Electro-Optical sensors is seriously hampered by ground clutter, leading to false alarms and reduced detection probabilities. Active ground illumination can improve the detection performance of EO sensors compared to passive skylight illumination because of the knowledge of the illumination level and of its temporal stability. Sun and sky cannot provide this due to the weather variability. In addition multispectral sensors with carefully chosen spectral bands ranging from the visual into the near IR from 400-2500 nm wavelength can take benefit of a variety of cheap active light sources, ranging from lasers to Xenon or halogen lamps. Results are presented, obtained with a two- color laser scanner with one wavelength in the chlorophyll absorption dip. Another active scanner is described operating at 4 wavebands between 1400 and 2300 nm, using tungsten halogen lamps. Finally a simple TV camera was used with either a ste of narrow band spectral filters or polarization filters in front of the lamps. The targets consisted of an array of mixed objects, most of them real mines. The results how great promise in enhancing the detection and identification probabilities of EO sensors against small surface targets.

  9. Target system of IFMIF/EVEDA in Japanese activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, M.; Fukada, S.; Furukawa, T.; Hirakawa, Y.; Horiike, H.; Kanemura, T.; Kondo, H.; Miyashita, M.; Nakamura, H.; Sigiura, H.; Suzuki, A.; Terai, T.; Tsuji, Y.; Ushimaru, H.; Watanabe, K.; Yagi, J.

    2011-10-01

    The Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) have been started. As Japanese activities for the target system, the EVEDA Lithium (Li) Test Loop to simulate hydraulic and impurity conditions of the IFMIF Li loop is under design. The feasibility of the thermo-mechanical structure of the target assembly and the replaceable back-plate made of F82H and 316L stainless steel is a key research subject. Toward final validation at the EVEDA loop, diagnostics systems applicable to the high-speed free-surface Li flow and hot traps to control nitrogen and hydrogen in Li loop have been investigated. In the remote handling subject of target assemblies and the replaceable back-plates activated by irradiation up to 50 dpa/y, lip welds on 316L-316L by laser and dissimilar metal welds on F82H-316L are necessary. Water experiments and hydraulic/thermo-mechanical analyses of the back-plate are underway.

  10. Brain activation underlying threat detection to targets of different races.

    PubMed

    Senholzi, Keith B; Depue, Brendan E; Correll, Joshua; Banich, Marie T; Ito, Tiffany A

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined blood oxygen level-dependent signal underlying racial differences in threat detection. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants determined whether pictures of Black or White individuals held weapons. They were instructed to make shoot responses when the picture showed armed individuals but don't shoot responses to unarmed individuals, with the cost of not shooting armed individuals being greater than that of shooting unarmed individuals. Participants were faster to shoot armed Blacks than Whites, but faster in making don't shoot responses to unarmed Whites than Blacks. Brain activity differed to armed versus unarmed targets depending on target race, suggesting different mechanisms underlying threat versus safety decisions. Anterior cingulate cortex was preferentially engaged for unarmed Whites than Blacks. Parietal and visual cortical regions exhibited greater activity for armed Blacks than Whites. Seed-based functional connectivity of the amygdala revealed greater coherence with parietal and visual cortices for armed Blacks than Whites. Furthermore, greater implicit Black-danger associations were associated with increased amygdala activation to armed Blacks, compared to armed Whites. Our results suggest that different neural mechanisms may underlie racial differences in responses to armed versus unarmed targets. PMID:26357911

  11. Minireview: Targeting GPCR Activated ERK Pathways for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Eishingdrelo, Haifeng; Kongsamut, Sathapana

    2013-01-01

    It has become clear in recent years that multiple signal transduction pathways are employed upon GPCR activation. One of the major cellular effectors activated by GPCRs is extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Both G-protein and β-arrestin mediated signaling pathways can lead to ERK activation. However, depending on activation pathway, the subcellular destination of activated ERK1/2 may be different. G-protein -dependent ERK activation results in the translocation of active ERK to the nucleus, whereas ERK activated via an arrestin-dependent mechanism remains largely in the cytoplasm. The subcellular location of activated ERK1/2 determines the downstream signaling cascade. Many substrates of ERK1/2 are found in the nucleus: nuclear transcription factors that participate in gene transcription, cell proliferation and differentiation. ERK1/2 substrates are also found in cytosol and other cellular organelles: they may play roles in translation, mitosis, apoptosis and cross-talk with other signaling pathways. Therefore, determining specific subcellular locations of activated ERK1/2 mediated by GPCR ligands would be important in correlating signaling pathways with cellular physiological functions. While GPCR-stimulated selective ERK pathway activation has been studied in several receptor systems, exploitation of these different signaling cascades for therapeutics has not yet been seriously pursued. Many old drug candidates were identified from screens based on G-protein signaling assays, and their activity on β-arrestin signaling pathways being mostly unknown, especially regarding their subcellular ERK pathways. With today’s knowledge of complicated GPCR signaling pathways, drug discovery can no longer rely on single-pathway approaches. Since ERK activation is an important signaling pathway and associated with many physiological functions, targeting the ERK pathway, especially specific subcellular activation pathways should provide new avenues for GPCR drug

  12. Physical Activity Interventions with Healthy Minority Adults: Meta-Analysis of Behavior and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Phillips, Lorraine J.; Ruppar, Todd M.; Chase, Jo-Ana D.

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis is a systematic compilation of research focusing on various exercise interventions and their impact on the health and behavior outcomes of healthy African American, Hispanic, Native American, and Native Hawaiian adults. Comprehensive searching located published and unpublished studies. Random-effects analyses synthesized data to calculate effect sizes (ES) as a standardized mean difference (d) and variability measures. Data were synthesized across 21,151 subjects in 100 eligible samples. Supervised exercise significantly improved fitness (ES=.571–.584). Interventions designed to motivate minority adults to increase physical activity changed subsequent physical activity behavior (ES=.172–.312) and anthropometric outcomes (ES=.070–.124). Some ES should be interpreted in the context of limited statistical power and heterogeneity. Attempts to match intervention content and delivery with minority populations were inconsistently reported. Healthy minority adults experienced health improvements following supervised exercise. Interventions designed to motivate subjects to increase physical activity have limited magnitude heterogeneous effects. PMID:22643462

  13. Factors Predicting Behavioral Response to a Physical Activity Intervention among Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Schneider, Margaret; Cooper, Dan M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether individual factors influenced rates of physical activity change in response to a school-based intervention. Methods: Sedentary adolescent females (N = 63) participated in a 9-month physical activity program. Weekly levels of leisure-time physical activity were reported using an interactive website. Results: Change…

  14. BE-ACTIV: A Staff-Assisted Behavioral Intervention for Depression in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Suzanne; Looney, Stephen W.; Van Haitsma, Kimberly; Teri, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article (a) describes a 10-week, behavioral, activities-based intervention for depression that can be implemented in nursing homes collaboratively with nursing home activities staff and (b) presents data related to its development, feasibility, and preliminary outcomes. Design and Methods: We developed BE-ACTIV, which stands for…

  15. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  16. Low Discretionary Time as a Barrier to Physical Activity and Intervention Uptake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Bennett, Gary G.; McNeill, Lorna H.; Sorensen, Glorian; Emmons, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether self-reported discretionary time was associated with physical activity and uptake of a physical activity promotion intervention in a multi-ethnic urban sample. Methods: We examined the association of self-reported discretionary time with hours/week of leisure-time physical activity at baseline and physical activity…

  17. Promising School-Based Strategies and Intervention Guidelines to Increase Physical Activity of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Berta Murillo; Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia; Lanaspa, Eduardo Generelo; Bush, Paula L.; Casterad, Javier Zaragoza; Clemente, Jose A. Julian; Gonzalez, Luis Garcia

    2013-01-01

    This narrative review describes the available scientific evidence regarding promising school-based strategies to increase physical activity of adolescents. We conducted a literature search for studies published up to 2011, regarding adolescent physical activity intervention studies that resulted in increased physical activity (regardless of…

  18. Activity Systems and Moral Reasoning: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardi, Eva; Helkama, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Seventeen social educator students were taught to analyze their work activity by means of a Vygotsky-inspired method, drawing on Engeström's notion of an activity system. The method aimed at increasing the consciousness of the students of the structure of work activity system. The participants wrote two accounts of their field-work practice…

  19. Targeting Gli Transcription Activation by Small Molecule Suppresses Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Bosco-Clément, Geneviève; Zhang, Fang; Chen, Zhao; Zhou, Hai-Meng; Li, Hui; Mikami, Iwao; Hirata, Tomomi; Yagui-Beltran, Adam; Lui, Natalie; Do, Hanh T.; Cheng, Tiffany; Tseng, Hsin-Hui; Choi, Helen; Fang, Li-Tai; Kim, Il-Jin; Yue, Dongsheng; Wang, Changli; Zheng, Qingfeng; Fujii, Naoaki; Mann, Michael; Jablons, David M.; He, Biao

    2014-01-01

    Targeted inhibition of Hedgehog signaling at the cell membrane has been associated with anti-cancer activity in preclinical and early clinical studies. Hedgehog signaling involves activation of Gli transcription factors that can also be induced by alternative pathways. In this study we identified an interaction between Gli proteins and a transcription co-activator TAF9, and validated its functional relevance in regulating Gli transactivation. We also describe a novel, synthetic small molecule, FN1-8, that efficiently interferes with Gli/TAF9 interaction and down-regulate Gli/TAF9 dependent transcriptional activity. More importantly, FN1-8 suppresses cancer cell proliferation in vitro and inhibits tumor growth in vivo. Our results suggest that blocking Gli transactivation, a key control point of multiple oncogenic pathways, may be an effective anti-cancer strategy. PMID:23686308

  20. Effect of a targeted education intervention on the incidence of waste-burning injuries in a military population.

    PubMed

    Kauvar, David S; Baer, David G

    2009-01-01

    The burning of waste is a common cause of accidental injury on the battlefield. This study was devised to determine the incidence of burns incurred while burning waste during U.S. military operations prior to and following an intervention targeted at reducing such injuries. The intervention consisted of memoranda outlining potential dangers and suggesting improved safety procedures. It was distributed to the combat theater (Iraq and Afghanistan) in March 2004. We reviewed military burn center records from March 2003 to March 2005. Demographics, injury data, and outcomes were recorded and compared between those casualties injured prior to and following the initiative. Twenty-four patients were injured while burning waste, 10% of military casualties admitted to the burn center during the study period. From March 2003 to March 2004, 20 patients were admitted with such injuries. The incidence of 1.67 per month was significantly (P<.05) higher than that seen the year after the intervention (four patients, 0.33 per month). TBSA burned was not different between the two time periods (9.8+/-8% before vs 6.3+/-7% after, P=.43). There were no deaths, and only one patient had an associated nonburn injury. Only 54% of patients returned to military duty. The initiative was followed by a significant decrease in the incidence of waste-burning injuries. We conclude that the initiative was successful and highlights the importance of continued military burn surveillance and prevention efforts. PMID:19506492

  1. Social Competence Intervention for Parents (SCI-P): Comparing Outcomes for a Parent Education Program Targeting Adolescents with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Tia R.; Stichter, Janine P.; Herzog, Melissa J.; McGhee, Stephanie D.; Lierheimer, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that parent education programs can address some of the distinct challenges that parents of youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) encounter. This study examined the effectiveness of the Social Competence Intervention for Parents (SCI-P), a parent education program, administered in conjunction with a social competence intervention that targeted youth with ASD ages 11–14 (SCI-A). Using a quasi-experimental pre-post design, parents were assigned to either the SCI-P group (n = 16) or to the waitlist comparison group (n = 10). Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) revealed a significant effect for parent education participation such that SCI-P participants experienced significantly greater reductions in levels of stress and a trend for increases in parenting sense of competence from pre- to post-intervention. Moreover, parents in the SCI-P group reported high satisfaction with the program. These findings suggest that parent education can result in positive outcomes for parents' well being. PMID:22934178

  2. Internet-based physical activity intervention for women with a family history of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Sheri J.; Dunsiger, Shira I.; Marinac, Catherine R.; Marcus, Bess H.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Gans, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for breast cancer. Physical activity interventions that can be delivered through the Internet have the potential to increase participant reach. The efficacy of an Internet-based physical activity intervention was tested in a sample of women at an elevated risk for breast cancer. Methods A total of 55 women with at least one first-degree relative with breast cancer (but no personal history of breast cancer) were randomized to a 3-month theoretically grounded Internet-based physical activity intervention or an active control arm. Minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity, psychosocial mediators of physical activity adoption and maintenance, as well as worry and perceived risk of developing breast cancer were assessed at baseline, 3-month, and 5-month follow up. Results Participants were on average 46.2 (SD=11.4) years old with a BMI of 27.3 (SD=4.8) kg/m2. The intervention arm significantly increased minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity compared to the active control arm at 3 months (213 vs. 129 min/week) and 5 months (208 vs. 119 min/week; both p<.001). Regression models indicated that participants in the intervention had significantly higher self-efficacy for physical activity at 3 months (p<.01) and borderline significantly higher self-efficacy at 5 months (p=0.05). Baseline breast cancer worry and perceived risk were not associated with physical activity. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that an Internet-based physical activity intervention may substantially increase physical activity in women with a family history of breast cancer. PMID:26651471

  3. The Effect of Structured Exercise Intervention on Intensity and Volume of Total Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wasenius, Niko; Venojärvi, Mika; Manderoos, Sirpa; Surakka, Jukka; Lindholm, Harri; Heinonen, Olli J.; Aunola, Sirkka; Eriksson, Johan G.; Mälkiä, Esko

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1–4 weeks) and during the intervention (1–12 weeks) and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050). The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity) increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p < 0.050) but not in the resistance training group (p > 0.050) compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised. Key Points Structured NW or RT training does not increase the volume of total physical activity. NW intervention can increase the volume of higher intensity activities. The increased in volume of LTPA induced by the structured NW and RT interventions was associated with the decreased volume of NLTPA. PMID:25435776

  4. Examining an Australian physical activity and nutrition intervention using RE-AIM.

    PubMed

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Duncan, Mitch; Kolt, Gregory S; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Maeder, Anthony; Noakes, Manny; Karunanithi, Mohan; Mummery, W Kerry

    2016-06-01

    Translating evidence-based interventions into community practice is vital to health promotion. This study used the RE-AIM framework to evaluate the larger dissemination of the ManUp intervention, an intervention which utilized interactive web-based technologies to improve the physical activity and nutrition behaviors of residents in Central Queensland, Australia. Data were collected for each RE-AIM measure (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) using (i) computer-assisted telephone interview survey (N = 312) with adults (18 years and over) from Central Queensland, (ii) interviews with key stakeholders from local organizations (n = 12) and (iii) examination of project-related statistics and findings. In terms of Reach, 47% of participants were aware of the intervention; Effectiveness, there were no significant differences between physical activity and healthy nutrition levels in those aware and unaware; Adoption, 73 participants registered for the intervention and 25% of organizations adopted some part of the intervention; Implementation, 26% of participants initially logged onto the website, 29 and 17% started the web-based physical activity and nutrition challenges, 33% of organizations implemented the intervention, 42% considered implementation and 25% reported difficulties; Maintenance, an average of 0.57 logins and 1.35 entries per week during the 12 week dissemination and 0.27 logins and 0.63 entries per week during the 9-month follow-up were achieved, 22 and 0% of participants completed the web-based physical activity and nutrition challenges and 33.3% of organizations intended to continue utilizing components of the intervention. While this intervention demonstrated good reach, effectiveness, adoption and implementation warrant further investigation. PMID:25715801

  5. Adoption of workplaces and reach of employees for a multi-faceted intervention targeting low back pain among nurses’ aides

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Workplace adoption and reach of health promotion are important, but generally poorly reported. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate the adoption of workplaces (organizational level) and reach of employees (individual level) of a multi-faceted workplace health promotion and work environment intervention targeting low back pain among nurses’ aides in elderly care. Methods Percentage of adopters was calculated among eligible workplaces and differences between adopters and non-adopters were evaluated through workplace registrations and manager questionnaires from all eligible workplaces. From the adopted workplaces reach was calculated among eligible employees as the percentage who responded on a questionnaire. Responders were compared with non-responders using data from company registrations. Among responders, comparisons based on questionnaire data were performed between those consenting to participate in the intervention (consenters) and those not consenting to participate in the intervention (non-consenters). Comparisons were done using Student's t-test for the continuous variables, Fisher's exact test for dichotomous variables and the Pearson’s chi2 for categorical variables. Moreover odds ratios for non-responding and non-consenting were investigated with binary logistic regression analyses. Results The project was adopted by 44% of the offered workplaces. The main differences between adopters and non-adopters were that workplaces adopting the intervention had a more stable organization as well as a management with positive beliefs of the intervention’s potential benefits. Of eligible employees, 71% responded on the questionnaire and 57% consented to participate. Non-responders and non-consenters did not differ from the responders and consenters on demographic factors and health. However, more non-responders and non-consenters were low skilled, worked less than 30 hours pr. week, and worked evening and nightshift compared to responders

  6. [Educational activity and psychosocial prevention : a model of intervention.].

    PubMed

    Plamondon, G; Plamondon, L

    1981-01-01

    The authors describe the socio-economic conditions of the retired in 1980 (poverty, poor health, lack of adequate services, etc.) and explain how these conditions are related to capitalist social organization. Their analysis leads them to set down the principal goal of the community workers in regard to the elderly population as follows : contribute to the organization and to the development of conditions favorable to the mobilization of the retired and elderly workers who, as a group, have the greatest potential for changing their conditions. To attain this long-term objective, the pre-retirement clientele possess the most favorable potential, and this is why the retirement preparation intervention is defined in an educationel orientation of psycho-social prevention. Seconding to the authors, the apprenticeships showed permit the elderly to assume both personal and collective control - thereby making it possible to transform the existing conditions. PMID:17093720

  7. Active Kids Active Minds: A Physical Activity Intervention to Promote Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    lisahunter; Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Ziviani, Jennifer; Cuskelly, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility and impact of introducing a programme of an additional 30 minutes per day of moderate physical activity within curriculum time on learning and readiness to learn in a large elementary school in south-east Queensland, Australia. The programme, Active Kids Active Minds (AKAM), involved Year 5 students (n = 107),…

  8. Gamification of active travel to school: A pilot evaluation of the Beat the Street physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Emma; Jones, Andy

    2016-05-01

    Beat the Street aims to get children more active by encouraging them to walk and cycle in their neighbourhood using tracking technology with a reward scheme. This pilot study evaluates the impact of Beat the Street on active travel to school in Norwich, UK. Eighty children 8-10 yrs were recruited via an intervention and control school. They wore an accelerometer for 7 days at baseline, mid-intervention and post-intervention (+20 weeks), and completed a travel diary. Physical activity overall was not higher at follow-up amongst intervention children compared to controls. However, there was a positive association between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during school commute times and the number of days on which children touched a Beat the Street sensor. This equated to 3.46min extra daily MVPA during commute times for children who touched a sensor on 14.5 days (the mean number of days), compared to those who did not engage. We also found weekly active travel increased at the intervention school (+10.0% per child) while it decreased at the control (-7.0%), p=0.056. Further work is needed to understand how improved engagement with the intervention might impact outcomes. PMID:26974232

  9. Large Dog Relinquishment to Two Municipal Facilities in New York City and Washington, D.C.: Identifying Targets for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Emily; Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Drain, Natasha; Dolan, Emily; Scarlett, Janet M.; Zawistowski, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary While the overall trend in euthanasia has been decreasing nationally, large dogs are at a higher risk of euthanasia than other-sized dogs in most animal shelters in the United States. We hypothesized that one way to increase the lives saved with regard to large dogs in shelters is to keep them home in the first place when possible. Our research is the first to collect data in New York City and Washington, D.C., identifying the process leading to the owner relinquishment of large dogs. We found that targets for interventions to decrease large dog relinquishment are likely different in each community. Abstract While the overall trend in euthanasia has been decreasing nationally, large dogs are at a higher risk of euthanasia than other sized dogs in most animal shelters in the United States. We hypothesized one way to increase the lives saved with respect to these large dogs is to keep them home when possible. In order to develop solutions to decrease relinquishment, a survey was developed to learn more about the reasons owners relinquish large dogs. The survey was administered to owners relinquishing their dogs at two large municipal facilities, one in New York City and one in Washington, D.C. There were 157 responses between the two facilities. We found both significant similarities and differences between respondents and their dogs from the two cities. We identified opportunities to potentially support future relinquishers and found that targets for interventions are likely different in each community. PMID:26480315

  10. Evaluation of Work Place Group and Internet Based Physical Activity Interventions on Psychological Variables Associated with Exercise Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Kimberley A.; Tracey, Jill; Berry, Tanya

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy) and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an “unhappy employee ”typology. Key pointsGroup-based physical activity interventions are capable of improving exercise self-efficacy and barrier self-efficacy.At pretest, participants who selected the internet physical activity intervention were significantly lower in job and life satisfaction than those who selected the group-intervention.While the internet intervention attracted more participants, the group-based physical activity intervention was more successful at changing cognitions associated with successful exercise behavior change. PMID:24149963

  11. Targeting Appropriate Interventions to Minimize Deterioration of Drinking-water Quality in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Trevett, Andrew F.; Carter, Richard C.

    2008-01-01

    In developing countries, it has been observed that drinking-water frequently becomes recontaminated following its collection and during storage in the home. This paper proposes a semi-quantified ‘disease risk index' (DRI) designed to identify communities or households that are ‘most at risk' from consuming recontaminated drinking-water. A brief review of appropriate physical and educational intervention measures is presented, and their effective use is discussed. It is concluded that incorporating a simple appraisal tool, such as the proposed DRI, into a community water-supply programme would be useful in shaping the overall strategy requiring only a minimum of organizational learning. PMID:18686547

  12. Active targets for the study of nuclei far from stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beceiro-Novo, S.; Ahn, T.; Bazin, D.; Mittig, W.

    2015-09-01

    Weakly bound nuclear systems can be considered to represent a good testing-ground of our understanding of non-perturbative quantum systems. Reactions leading to bound and unbound states in systems with very unbalanced neutron-to-proton ratios are used to understand the properties of these systems. Radioactive beams with energies from below the Coulomb barrier up to several hundreds MeV/nucleon are now available, and with these beams, a broad variety of studies of nuclei near the drip-line can be performed. To compensate for the low intensity of secondary beams as compared to primary beams, thick targets and high efficiency detection is necessary. In this context, a new generation of detectors was developed, called active target detectors: the detector gas is used as target, and the determination of the reaction vertex in three dimensions allows for good resolution even with thick targets. The reaction products can be measured over essentially 4 π. The physics explored with these detectors together with the technology developed will be described.

  13. HIV prevention and care services for female sex workers: efficacy of a targeted community-based intervention in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Traore, Isidore T; Meda, Nicolas; Hema, Noelie M; Ouedraogo, Djeneba; Some, Felicien; Some, Roselyne; Niessougou, Josiane; Sanon, Anselme; Konate, Issouf; Van De Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe; Nagot, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although interventions to control HIV among high-risk groups such as female sex workers (FSW) are highly recommended in Africa, the contents and efficacy of these interventions are unclear. We therefore designed a comprehensive dedicated intervention targeting young FSW and assessed its impact on HIV incidence in Burkina Faso. Methods Between September 2009 and September 2011 we conducted a prospective, interventional cohort study of FSW aged 18 to 25 years in Ouagadougou, with quarterly follow-up for a maximum of 21 months. The intervention combined prevention and care within the same setting, consisting of peer-led education sessions, psychological support, sexually transmitted infections and HIV care, general routine health care and reproductive health services. At each visit, behavioural characteristics were collected and HIV, HSV-2 and pregnancy were tested. We compared the cohort HIV incidence with a modelled expected incidence in the study population in the absence of intervention, using data collected at the same time from FSW clients. Results The 321 HIV-uninfected FSW enrolled in the cohort completed 409 person-years of follow-up. No participant seroconverted for HIV during the study (0/409 person-years), whereas the expected modelled number of HIV infections were 5.05/409 person-years (95% CI, 5.01–5.08) or 1.23 infections per 100 person-years (p=0.005). This null incidence was related to a reduction in the number of regular partners and regular clients, and by an increase in consistent condom use with casual clients (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.19; 95% CI, 1.16–4.14, p=0.01) and with regular clients (aOR=2.18; 95% CI, 1.26–3.76, p=0.005). Conclusions Combining peer-based prevention and care within the same setting markedly reduced the HIV incidence among young FSW in Burkina Faso, through reduced risky behaviours. PMID:26374604

  14. A numerically optimized active shield for improved TMS targeting

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Hall, Timothy; Gomez, Luis; Michielssen, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) devices suffer of poor targeting and penetration depth. A new approach to designing TMS coils is introduced in order to improve the focus of the stimulation region through the use of actively shielded probes. Iterative optimization techniques were used to design different active shielding coils for TMS probes. The new approach aims to increase the amount of energy deposited in a thin cylindrical region below the probe relative to the energy deposited elsewhere in the region (“sharpness”), while simultaneously increase the induced electric field deep in the target region relative to the surface (“penetration”). After convergence, the resulting designs showed that there is a clear tradeoff between sharpness and penetration that can be controlled by the choice of a tuning parameter. The resulting designs were tested on a realistic human head conductivity model, taking the contribution from surface charges into account. The design of choice reduced penetration depths by 16.7%. The activated surface area was reduced by 24.1 % and the volume of the activation was reduced from 42.6% by the shield. Restoring the lost penetration could be achieved by increasing the total power to the coil by 16.3%, but in that case, the stimulated volume reduction was only 13.1% and there was a slight increase in the stimulated surface area (2.9 %) PMID:20965451

  15. Factor XI and Contact Activation as Targets for Antithrombotic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gailani, David; Bane, Charles E.; Gruber, Andras

    2015-01-01

    Summary The most commonly used anticoagulants produce therapeutic antithrombotic effects either by inhibiting thrombin or factor Xa, or by lowering the plasma levels of the precursors of these key enzymes, prothrombin and factor X. These drugs do not distinguish between thrombin generation contributing to thrombosis from thrombin generation required for hemostasis. Thus, anticoagulants increase bleeding risk, and many patients who would benefit from therapy go untreated because of comorbidities that place them at unacceptable risk for hemorrhage. Studies in animals demonstrate that components of the plasma contact activation system contribute to experimentally-induced thrombosis, despite playing little or no role in hemostasis. Attention has focused on factor XII, the zymogen of a protease (factor XIIa) that initiates contact activation when blood is exposed to foreign surfaces; and factor XI, the zymogen of the protease factor XIa, which links contact activation to the thrombin generation mechanism. In the case of factor XI, epidemiologic data indicate this protein contributes to stroke and venous thromboembolism, and perhaps myocardial infarction, in humans. A phase 2 trial showing that reduction of factor XI may be more effective than low-molecular-weight heparin at preventing venous thrombosis during knee replacement surgery provides proof of concept for the premise that an antithrombotic effect can be uncoupled from an anticoagulant effect in humans by targeting components of contact activation. Here we review data on the role of factor XI and factor XII in thrombosis, and results of pre-clinical and human trials for therapies targeting these proteins. PMID:25976012

  16. HER2 activating mutations are targets for colorectal cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kavuri, Shyam M.; Jain, Naveen; Galimi, Francesco; Cottino, Francesca; Leto, Simonetta M.; Migliardi, Giorgia; Searleman, Adam C.; Shen, Wei; Monsey, John; Trusolino, Livio; Jacobs, Samuel A.; Bertotti, Andrea; Bose, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas project identified HER2 somatic mutations and gene amplification in 7% of colorectal cancer patients. Introduction of the HER2 mutations, S310F, L755S, V777L, V842I, and L866M, into colon epithelial cells increased signaling pathways and anchorage-independent cell growth, indicating that they are activating mutations. Introduction of these HER2 activating mutations into colorectal cancer cell lines produced resistance to cetuximab and panitumumab by sustaining MAPK phosphorylation. HER2 mutations are potently inhibited by low nanomolar doses of the irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors, neratinib and afatinib. HER2 gene sequencing of 48 cetuximab resistant, quadruple (KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA) WT colorectal cancer patient-derived xenografts (PDX’s) identified 4 PDX’s with HER2 mutations. HER2 targeted therapies were tested on two PDX’s. Treatment with a single HER2 targeted drug (trastuzumab, neratinib, or lapatinib) delayed tumor growth, but dual HER2 targeted therapy with trastuzumab plus tyrosine kinase inhibitors produced regression of these HER2 mutated PDX’s. PMID:26243863

  17. A gut microbiota-targeted dietary intervention for amelioration of chronic inflammation underlying metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Shuiming; Fei, Na; Pang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Jian; Wang, Linghua; Zhang, Baorang; Zhang, Menghui; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Chenhong; Li, Min; Sun, Lifeng; Xue, Zhengsheng; Wang, Jingjing; Feng, Jie; Yan, Feiyan; Zhao, Naisi; Liu, Jiaqi; Long, Wenmin; Zhao, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation induced by endotoxin from a dysbiotic gut microbiota contributes to the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Modification of gut microbiota by a diet to balance its composition becomes a promising strategy to help manage obesity. A dietary scheme based on whole grains, traditional Chinese medicinal foods, and prebiotics (WTP diet) was designed to meet human nutritional needs as well as balance the gut microbiota. Ninety-three of 123 central obese volunteers (BMI ≥ 28 kg m−2) completed a self-controlled clinical trial consisting of 9-week intervention on WTP diet followed by a 14-week maintenance period. The average weight loss reached 5.79 ± 4.64 kg (6.62 ± 4.94%), in addition to improvement in insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, and blood pressure. Pyrosequencing of fecal samples showed that phylotypes related to endotoxin-producing opportunistic pathogens of Enterobacteriaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae were reduced significantly, while those related to gut barrier-protecting bacteria of Bifidobacteriaceae increased. Gut permeability, measured as lactulose/mannitol ratio, was decreased compared with the baseline. Plasma endotoxin load as lipopolysaccharide-binding protein was also significantly reduced, with concomitant decrease in tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and an increase in adiponectin. These results suggest that modulation of the gut microbiota via dietary intervention may enhance the intestinal barrier integrity, reduce circulating antigen load, and ultimately ameliorate the inflammation and metabolic phenotypes. PMID:24117923

  18. Playing Active Video Games may not develop movement skills: An intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Ridgers, Nicola D.; Reynolds, John; Hanna, Lisa; Salmon, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the impact of playing sports Active Video Games on children's actual and perceived object control skills. Methods: Intervention children played Active Video Games for 6 weeks (1 h/week) in 2012. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence assessed perceived object control skill. Repeated measurements of object control and perceived object control were analysed for the whole sample, using linear mixed models, which included fixed effects for group (intervention or control) and time (pre and post) and their interaction. The first model adjusted for sex only and the second model also adjusted for age, and prior ball sports experience (yes/no). Seven mixed-gender focus discussions were conducted with intervention children after programme completion. Results: Ninety-five Australian children (55% girls; 43% intervention group) aged 4 to 8 years (M 6.2, SD 0.95) participated. Object control skill improved over time (p = 0.006) but there was no significant difference (p = 0.913) between groups in improvement (predicted means: control 31.80 to 33.53, SED = 0.748; intervention 30.33 to 31.83, SED = 0.835). A similar result held for the second model. Similarly the intervention did not change perceived object control in Model 1 (predicted means: control: 19.08 to 18.68, SED = 0.362; intervention 18.67 to 18.88, SED = 0.406) or Model 2. Children found the intervention enjoyable, but most did not perceive direct equivalence between Active Video Games and ‘real life’ activities. Conclusions: Whilst Active Video Game play may help introduce children to sport, this amount of time playing is unlikely to build skill. PMID:26844136

  19. Motivational interviewing in a web-based physical activity intervention: questions and reflections.

    PubMed

    Friederichs, Stijn A H; Oenema, Anke; Bolman, Catherine; Guyaux, Janneke; Van Keulen, Hilde M; Lechner, Lilian

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify which question/reflection format leads to the most favorable results in terms of effect on autonomous motivation and appreciation for the intervention in a web-based computer-tailored physical activity (PA) intervention, based on principles from self-determination theory (SDT) and motivational interviewing (MI). For this purpose, a randomized trial was conducted among 465 Dutch adults, comparing three web-based computer-tailored MI/SDT PA interventions, including (i) exclusively open-ended questions (without skillful reflections), (ii) exclusively multiple choice questions (with skillful reflections) and (iii) including both question types (with skillful reflections). Measurements included motivation-related determinants of PA and process variables, measured at baseline, directly following the intervention and 1-month post-intervention. Results suggest that open-ended questions represent an important element in web-based MI in terms of effect on autonomous motivation. In order to optimize appreciation of the intervention, a combination of both open-ended and multiple choice question types seems to hold most promise. The findings of this study suggest that both open-ended and multiple choice questions should be included in web-based computer-tailored SDT/MI PA interventions. More research is needed to reveal the optimal configuration of this novel intervention type. PMID:24101160

  20. A socio-ecological approach to physical activity interventions in childcare: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of physical activity (PA) in young children requires effective interventions. This article reviews the evidence on PA interventions in childcare by applying a socio-ecological approach. A computer-based literature search for intervention studies aimed at increasing children’s PA levels was run across four databases: SPORTDiscus, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO and ERIC. The participants had to be in childcare, aged 2-6-year-old, and their pre- and post- intervention PA levels measured. Selection was restricted to peer-reviewed publications and to studies conducted in childcare settings. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria and their methodological quality was assessed. Seven studies exhibited high methodological quality; twelve were rated as moderate and four low. The effectiveness of the interventions was determined according to the post-intervention behavioral changes reported in children’s PA. Fourteen studies found increases in PA levels or reductions in sedentary time, although the changes were modest. The data remain too limited to allow firm conclusions to be drawn on the effectiveness of the components mediating PA interventions, although PA-specific in-service teacher training seems a potential strategy. The findings of this review indicate that children’s PA remained low and did not approach the 180 min/day criteria. It may be that more intensive multilevel and multicomponent interventions based on a comprehensive model are needed. PMID:24559188

  1. A systematic review of physical activity interventions among African American adults: evidence from 2009 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Whitt-Glover, M C; Keith, N R; Ceaser, T G; Virgil, K; Ledford, L; Hasson, R E

    2014-10-01

    This review extends findings from four previous reviews of physical activity (PA) interventions among African Americans (AA) and includes papers published between January 2009 and August 2013. Eligible papers were retrieved using strategies employed in previous reviews. Overall, 16 relevant papers were identified, including four pilot studies and 12 full trials. Interventions were based on a variety of behavioural sciences theories. The most common setting for interventions was churches. Most interventions lasted >6 months; few interventions included >6 months of post-intervention follow-up. Overall, studies identified within-group differences showing positive improvements in PA, and most studies showed statistically significant between-group differences in at least one measure of PA. A quality score was used to rate various elements of the studies and provide a numerical assessment of each paper; scores ranged from 3 to 10 out of 13 possible points. The current review indicates a continued need for studies that use objective PA measures, assess long-term intervention impact, provide specific PA goals for interventions, include more attention to strategies that can increase retention and adherence among AA study participants, include AA men and determine the independent and synergistic effects of individual and environmental (socio-cultural and built) change strategies. PMID:25196410

  2. Physical activity intervention effects on perceived stress in working mothers: the role of self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Mailey, Emily L; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Working mothers often report elevated stress, and efforts to improve their coping resources are needed to buffer the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study examined the impact of changes in physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-regulation across the course of a brief intervention on subsequent levels of stress in working mothers. Participants (N = 141) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control condition (2:1 ratio). The intervention was conducted in Illinois between March 2011 and January 2012 and consisted of two group-mediated workshop sessions with content based on social cognitive theory. Participants completed measures of physical activity, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and perceived stress at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 6-month follow-up. Stress levels declined across the 6-month period in both groups. Changes in stress were negatively associated with changes in self-efficacy and self-regulation among intervention participants only. Regression analyses revealed the intervention elicited short-term increases in physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-regulation, but only changes in self-efficacy predicted perceived stress at 6-month follow-up. These results suggest that enhancing self-efficacy is likely to improve working mothers' perceived capabilities to cope with stressors in their lives. Future interventions should continue to focus on increasing self-efficacy to promote improvements in physical activity and psychological well-being in this population. PMID:24964227

  3. Development of a Self-Help Web-Based Intervention Targeting Young Cancer Patients With Sexual Problems and Fertility Distress in Collaboration With Patient Research Partners

    PubMed Central

    Obol, Claire Micaux; Lampic, Claudia; Eriksson, Lars E; Pelters, Britta; Wettergren, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Background The Internet should be suitable for delivery of interventions targeting young cancer patients. Young people are familiar with the technologies, and this patient group is small and geographically dispersed. Still, only few psycho-educational Web-based interventions are designed for this group. Young cancer patients consider reproductive health, including sexuality, an area of great importance and approximately 50% report sexual problems and fertility-related concerns following cancer treatment. Therefore, we set out to develop a self-help Web-based intervention, Fex-Can, to alleviate such problems. To improve its quality, we decided to involve patients and significant others as research partners. The first 18 months of our collaboration are described in this paper. The intervention will subsequently be tested in a feasibility study followed by a randomized controlled trial. Objective The study aims to describe the development of a Web-based intervention in long-term collaboration with patient research partners (PRPs). Methods Ten former cancer patients and two significant others participated in building the Web-based intervention, using a participatory design. The development process is described according to the design step in the holistic framework presented by van Gemert-Pijnen et al and evaluates the PRPs’ impact on the content, system, and service quality of the planned intervention. Results The collaboration between the research group and the PRPs mainly took place in the form of 1-day meetings to develop the key components of the intervention: educational and behavior change content, multimedia (pictures, video vignettes, and audios), interactive online activities (eg, self-monitoring), and partial feedback support (discussion forum, tailored feedback from experts). The PRPs influenced the intervention’s content quality in several ways. By repeated feedback on prototypes, the information became more comprehensive, relevant, and understandable

  4. Degradable Magnetic Composites for Minimally Invasive Interventions: Device Fabrication, Targeted Drug Delivery, and Cytotoxicity Tests.

    PubMed

    Peters, Christian; Hoop, Marcus; Pané, Salvador; Nelson, Bradley J; Hierold, Christofer

    2016-01-20

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles and a functional, degradable polymer matrix based on poly(ethylene glycol) are combined to enable fully degradable magnetic microdevices for minimally invasive biomedical applications. A bioinspired helical microrobot platform mimicking Escherichia coli bacteria is fabricated and actuated using weak rotating magnetic fields. Locomotion based on corkscrew propulsion, targeted drug delivery, and low-degradation-product cytotoxicity are demonstrated. PMID:26603856

  5. Use of GIS Technology in Surface Water Monitoring fro Targeted Policy Intervention in a Mountainous Catchment in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giali, Gabriela; Schneider, Petra

    2015-04-01

    USE OF GIS TECHNOLOGY IN SURFACE WATER MONITORING FOR TARGETED POLICY INTERVENTION IN A MOUNTAINOUS CATCHMENT IN ROMANIA The collection of information on surface water quality is a specific activity that takes place systematically and regularly at regional and national scale, and it is important for the assessment of the water quality as well as for water management policy-making. A data base information management using a Geographical Information System (GIS) forms an important aspect of environmental management, which provides the frame for processing and visualisation of water monitoring data and information as well as for the optimisation of monitoring concepts. This paper presents an architecture performed by a GIS which provides a grafic database and attributes the nesessary measurements of the water quality to different sections of the mountainous catchment of the Suceava river in the north of Romania. With this approach the location of the water sampling points can be optimised in terms of the selection and setting of the river sections. To facilitate the setting of the sampling locations in the various sections of water sampling in the river, the presented GIS system provides to the user different information layers with combined or isolated data according to the objectives. In the frame of the research were created 5 layers of information in the basin under study, underlying the determination of a new information layer, namely the "Hydrografic Network Graded to Hydrographic Sections". Practically, in the studied basin were established 8 sections for water sampling locations, and the water quality characterization was done by the consideration of 15 quality indicators. The GIS system presented in this research is a valuable, useful and adaptable to land use changes data base that can be exploited by any number of combinations, its capabilities justify it's role as "tool to support decision making." With this characteristics it supports the policy-making of

  6. A cluster randomised trial of a school-based intervention to prevent decline in adolescent physical activity levels: study protocol for the ‘Physical Activity 4 Everyone’ trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescence is an established period of physical activity decline. Multi-component school-based interventions have the potential to slow the decline in adolescents’ physical activity; however, few interventions have been conducted in schools located in low-income or disadvantaged communities. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention in reducing the decline in physical activity among students attending secondary schools located in disadvantaged communities. Methods/Design The cluster randomised trial will be conducted with 10 secondary schools located in selected regions of New South Wales, Australia. The schools will be selected from areas that have a level of socio-economic status that is below the state average. Five schools will be allocated to receive an intervention based on the Health Promoting Schools framework, and will be supported by a part-time physical activity consultant placed in intervention schools who will implement a range of intervention adoption strategies. Study measures will be taken at baseline when students are in Year 7 (12–13 years) and again after 12- and 24-months. The primary outcome, minutes of moderate- to-vigorous- intensity physical activity per day and percentage of time in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), will be objectively assessed using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3x+). Group allocation and intervention delivery will commence after baseline data collection. The intervention will continue during school terms through to 24-month follow-up. Discussion The study will provide evidence regarding the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention that includes an in-school physical activity consultant targeting the physical activity levels of adolescents in disadvantaged Australian secondary schools. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000382875. PMID:23336603

  7. Do Overweight Adolescents Adhere to Dietary Intervention Messages? Twelve-Month Detailed Dietary Outcomes from Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyla L; Kerr, Deborah A; Howie, Erin K; Straker, Leon M

    2015-06-01

    Dietary components of adolescent obesity interventions are rarely evaluated with comprehensive reporting of dietary change. The objective was to assess dietary change in overweight adolescents, including adherence to dietary intervention. The dietary intervention was part of a multi-component intervention (CAFAP) targeting the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviors of overweight adolescents (n = 69). CAFAP was a staggered entry, within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical trial with 12 months of follow up. Diet was assessed using three-day food records and a brief eating behavior questionnaire. Changes in dietary outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, adjusted for underreporting. Food record data suggested reduced adherence to dietary intervention messages over time following the intervention, despite conflicting information from the brief eating behavior questionnaire. During the intervention, energy intake was stable but favorable nutrient changes occurred. During the 12 month maintenance period; self-reported eating behaviors improved, energy intake remained stable but dietary fat and saturated fat intake gradually returned to baseline levels. Discrepancies between outcomes from brief dietary assessment methods and three-day food records show differences between perceived and actual intake, highlighting the need for detailed dietary reporting. Further, adherence to dietary intervention principles reduces over time, indicating a need for better maintenance support. PMID:26043035

  8. Development of AN Active 238UF6 Gas Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckardt, C.; Enders, J.; Freudenberger, M.; Göök, A.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Oberstedt, A.; Oberstedt, S.

    2014-09-01

    Detailed studies of the fission process, e.g., the search for parity nonconservation (PNC) effects, the energy dependence of fission modes or the population of fission isomers, depend on high quality data, therefore requiring high luminosities. An active gas target containing uranium may overcome the deterioration of energy and angular resolution caused by large solid target thicknesses. A single Frisch-grid ionization chamber has been built to test a mixture of standard counting gases (e.g., argon) with depleted uranium hexafluoride (238UF6), utilizing a triple alpha source to evaluate signal quality and drift velocity. For mass fractions of up to 4 percent of 238U the drift velocity increases with rising UF6 content, while a good signal quality and energy resolution is preserved.

  9. Haem-activated promiscuous targeting of artemisinin in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jigang; Zhang, Chong-Jing; Chia, Wan Ni; Loh, Cheryl C Y; Li, Zhengjun; Lee, Yew Mun; He, Yingke; Yuan, Li-Xia; Lim, Teck Kwang; Liu, Min; Liew, Chin Xia; Lee, Yan Quan; Zhang, Jianbin; Lu, Nianci; Lim, Chwee Teck; Hua, Zi-Chun; Liu, Bin; Shen, Han-Ming; Tan, Kevin S W; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of action of artemisinin and its derivatives, the most potent of the anti-malarial drugs, is not completely understood. Here we present an unbiased chemical proteomics analysis to directly explore this mechanism in Plasmodium falciparum. We use an alkyne-tagged artemisinin analogue coupled with biotin to identify 124 artemisinin covalent binding protein targets, many of which are involved in the essential biological processes of the parasite. Such a broad targeting spectrum disrupts the biochemical landscape of the parasite and causes its death. Furthermore, using alkyne-tagged artemisinin coupled with a fluorescent dye to monitor protein binding, we show that haem, rather than free ferrous iron, is predominantly responsible for artemisinin activation. The haem derives primarily from the parasite's haem biosynthesis pathway at the early ring stage and from haemoglobin digestion at the latter stages. Our results support a unifying model to explain the action and specificity of artemisinin in parasite killing. PMID:26694030

  10. Haem-activated promiscuous targeting of artemisinin in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jigang; Zhang, Chong-Jing; Chia, Wan Ni; Loh, Cheryl C. Y.; Li, Zhengjun; Lee, Yew Mun; He, Yingke; Yuan, Li-Xia; Lim, Teck Kwang; Liu, Min; Liew, Chin Xia; Lee, Yan Quan; Zhang, Jianbin; Lu, Nianci; Lim, Chwee Teck; Hua, Zi-Chun; Liu, Bin; Shen, Han-Ming; Tan, Kevin S. W.; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of action of artemisinin and its derivatives, the most potent of the anti-malarial drugs, is not completely understood. Here we present an unbiased chemical proteomics analysis to directly explore this mechanism in Plasmodium falciparum. We use an alkyne-tagged artemisinin analogue coupled with biotin to identify 124 artemisinin covalent binding protein targets, many of which are involved in the essential biological processes of the parasite. Such a broad targeting spectrum disrupts the biochemical landscape of the parasite and causes its death. Furthermore, using alkyne-tagged artemisinin coupled with a fluorescent dye to monitor protein binding, we show that haem, rather than free ferrous iron, is predominantly responsible for artemisinin activation. The haem derives primarily from the parasite's haem biosynthesis pathway at the early ring stage and from haemoglobin digestion at the latter stages. Our results support a unifying model to explain the action and specificity of artemisinin in parasite killing. PMID:26694030

  11. Systematic dissemination of a preschool physical activity intervention to the control preschools.

    PubMed

    Howie, Erin K; Brewer, Alisa E; Brown, William H; Saunders, Ruth P; Pate, Russell R

    2016-08-01

    For public health interventions to have a meaningful impact on public health, they must be disseminated to the wider population. Systematic planning and evaluation of dissemination efforts can aid translation from experimental trials to larger dissemination programs. The Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES) was a group-randomized intervention trial conducted in 16 preschools that successfully increased the physical activity of preschool age children. Following the completion of the research study protocol, the intervention was abbreviated, modified and implemented in four preschools that participated as control preschools in the original research study. The purposes of the current study were to describe the process of refining the intervention for dissemination to the control preschools, and to assess the acceptability of the resulting abbreviated intervention delivery. Five overarching behavioral objectives, informed by process evaluation, data from the original trial and collaboration with intervention teachers, were used to guide the implementation. Teachers in the dissemination classrooms reported high levels of acceptability, potential for sustainability of the program, and positive results in knowledge, skills, and child outcomes. Researchers can include a systematic approach to dissemination of effective intervention elements to the control participants in experimental studies to inform future dissemination efforts and begin to bridge the dissemination gap. PMID:27107302

  12. Effectiveness of Point-Based Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largo-Wight, Erin; Todorovich, John R.; O'Hara, Brian K.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding and promoting physical activity is critical to combat the growing obesity epidemic in the U.S. This study was designed to compare two 10-week physical activity programs among college students. One hundred and thirty-six undergraduate college students participated in this randomized posttest only control group study. Seventy-seven…

  13. Evaluation of an Internet, Stage-Based Physical Activity Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Ronald L.; Hardy, Aaron; Aldana, Steven G.; George, James D.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the impact of online, stage-based materials on exercise behavior and stage of readiness to change. College faculty participated in stage-based, action-message, or control groups. Occupational and leisure activity, 7-day physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and stage of readiness to change were assessed at baseline and 6 weeks.…

  14. Modeling the target acquisition performance of active imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Espinola, Richard L; Jacobs, Eddie L; Halford, Carl E; Vollmerhausen, Richard; Tofsted, David H

    2007-04-01

    Recent development of active imaging system technology in the defense and security community have driven the need for a theoretical understanding of its operation and performance in military applications such as target acquisition. In this paper, the modeling of active imaging systems, developed at the U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate, is presented with particular emphasis on the impact of coherent effects such as speckle and atmospheric scintillation. Experimental results from human perception tests are in good agreement with the model results, validating the modeling of coherent effects as additional noise sources. Example trade studies on the design of a conceptual active imaging system to mitigate deleterious coherent effects are shown. PMID:19532626

  15. Modeling the target acquisition performance of active imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinola, Richard L.; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Halford, Carl E.; Vollmerhausen, Richard; Tofsted, David H.

    2007-04-01

    Recent development of active imaging system technology in the defense and security community have driven the need for a theoretical understanding of its operation and performance in military applications such as target acquisition. In this paper, the modeling of active imaging systems, developed at the U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate, is presented with particular emphasis on the impact of coherent effects such as speckle and atmospheric scintillation. Experimental results from human perception tests are in good agreement with the model results, validating the modeling of coherent effects as additional noise sources. Example trade studies on the design of a conceptual active imaging system to mitigate deleterious coherent effects are shown.

  16. Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: Potential Target for Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Dong, De-Li; Bai, Yun-Long; Cai, Ben-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (KCa) are classified into three subtypes: big conductance (BKCa), intermediate conductance (IKCa), and small conductance (SKCa) KCa channels. The three types of KCa channels have distinct physiological or pathological functions in cardiovascular system. BKCa channels are mainly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and inner mitochondrial membrane of cardiomyocytes, activation of BKCa channels in these locations results in vasodilation and cardioprotection against cardiac ischemia. IKCa channels are expressed in VSMCs, endothelial cells, and cardiac fibroblasts and involved in vascular smooth muscle proliferation, migration, vessel dilation, and cardiac fibrosis. SKCa channels are widely expressed in nervous and cardiovascular system, and activation of SKCa channels mainly contributes membrane hyperpolarization. In this chapter, we summarize the physiological and pathological roles of the three types of KCa channels in cardiovascular system and put forward the possibility of KCa channels as potential target for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27038376

  17. Thymosin beta4 targeting impairs tumorigenic activity of colon cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ricci-Vitiani, Lucia; Mollinari, Cristiana; di Martino, Simona; Biffoni, Mauro; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Pagliuca, Alfredo; de Stefano, Maria Chiara; Circo, Rita; Merlo, Daniela; De Maria, Ruggero; Garaci, Enrico

    2010-11-01

    Thymosin β4 (Tβ4) is an actin-binding peptide overexpressed in several tumors, including colon carcinomas. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Tβ4 in promoting the tumorigenic properties of colorectal cancer stem cells (CR-CSCs), which are responsible for tumor initiation and growth. We first found that CR-CSCs from different patients have higher Tβ4 levels than normal epithelial cells. Then, we used a lentiviral strategy to down-regulate Tβ4 expression in CR-CSCs and analyzed the effects of such modulation on proliferation, survival, and tumorigenic activity of CR-CSCs. Empty vector-transduced CR-CSCs were used as a control. Targeting of the Tβ4 produced CR-CSCs with a lower capacity to grow and migrate in culture and, interestingly, reduced tumor size and aggressiveness of CR-CSC-based xenografts in mice. Moreover, such loss in tumorigenic activity was accompanied by a significant increase of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and a concomitant reduction of the integrin-linked kinase (ILK) expression, which resulted in a decreased activation of protein kinase B (Akt). Accordingly, exogenous expression of an active form of Akt rescued all the protumoral features lost after Tβ4 targeting in CR-CSCs. In conclusion, Tβ4 may have important implications for therapeutic intervention for treatment of human colon carcinoma. PMID:20566622

  18. Natural Killer Cell Immunomodulation: Targeting Activating, Inhibitory, and Co-stimulatory Receptor Signaling for Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Cariad; Fritsch, Katherine; Kohrt, Holbrook E.

    2015-01-01

    There is compelling clinical and experimental evidence to suggest that natural killer (NK) cells play a critical role in the recognition and eradication of tumors. Efforts at using NK cells as antitumor agents began over two decades ago, but recent advances in elucidating NK cell biology have accelerated the development of NK cell-targeting therapeutics. NK cell activation and the triggering of effector functions is governed by a complex set of activating and inhibitory receptors. In the early phases of cancer immune surveillance, NK cells directly identify and lyse cancer cells. Nascent transformed cells elicit NK cell activation and are eliminated. However, as tumors progress, cancerous cells develop immunosuppressive mechanisms that circumvent NK cell-mediated killing, allowing for tumor escape and proliferation. Therapeutic intervention aims to reverse tumor-induced NK cell suppression and sustain NK cells’ tumorlytic capacities. Here, we review tumor–NK cell interactions, discuss the mechanisms by which NK cells generate an antitumor immune response, and discuss NK cell-based therapeutic strategies targeting activating, inhibitory, and co-stimulatory receptors. PMID:26697006

  19. Using intervention mapping for the development of a targeted secure web-based outreach strategy named SafeFriend, for Chlamydia trachomatis testing in young people at risk

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many young people at high risk for Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) are not reached by current sexual health care systems, such as general practitioners and public sexual health care centres (sexually transmitted infection clinics).Ct is the most frequently diagnosed bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) among sexually active people and in particular young heterosexuals. Innovative screening strategies are needed to interrupt the transmission of Ct among young people and connect the hidden cases to care. Methods Intervention Mapping (IM), a systematic approach to develop theory- and evidence-based interventions, was used to develop a strategy to target Ct testing towards young people who are currently hidden to care in The Netherlands. Both clinical users (i.e. sexual health care nurses) and public users (i.e., young people at risk for Ct) were closely involved in the IM process. A needs assessment study was carried out using semi-structured interviews among users (N = 21), a literature search and by taking lessons learned from existing screening programmes. Theoretical methods and practical applications to reach high risk young people and influence testing were selected and translated into specific programme components. Results The IM approach resulted in the development of a secure and web-based outreach Ct screening strategy, named SafeFriend. It is developed to target groups of high-risk young people who are currently hidden to care. Key methods include web-based Respondent Driven Sampling, starting from young Ct positive sexual health care centre clients, to reach and motivate peers (i.e., sex partners and friends) to get tested for Ct. Testing and the motivation of peers were proposed as the desired behavioural outcomes and the Precaution Adoption Process Model was chosen as theoretical framework. End users, i.e., young people and sexual health care nurses were interviewed and included in the development process to increase the success of

  20. Improving Physical Activity and Metabolic Syndrome Indicators in Women: A Transtheoretical Model-Based Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Ghofranipour, Fazllolah; Feizi, Awat; Pirzadeh, Asiyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed at investigating the impact of an educational intervention based on transtheoretical model to increase physical activity and improve metabolic syndrome indicators in women. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 142 women with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to the case and control group (each group 71 participants). SECQ (Marcus), processes of change (Marcus), decisional balance (Bandura) and self-efficacy (Nigg) questionnaires and International Physical Activities Standard Questionnaire in preintervention, 3 and 6 months after intervention were completed. Furthermore, abdominal obesity, triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were measured. Physical activity intervention based on transtheoretical model (TTM) was performed in the case group. Finally, data were analyzed by SPSS (16) (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and repeated measure ANOVA, independent t-test and Freidman was used. A two-tailed P value, lower than 0.05, was considered to be statistically significant. Results: After the intervention, physical activity level increased in the intervention group, and they also progressed in stages of change, but the people in the control group had regressed. All changes in TTM constructs were significant in the intervention group during the time and differences in pros and cons were not significant in the control group. Abdominal obesity and TG has significantly reduced, and HDL has increased in the intervention group. In the control group, there was a significant increase in TGs and a decrease in HDL. Conclusions: Physical activity training based on TTM can improve physical activity and metabolic syndrome indicators in women. PMID:25949778

  1. Targeting poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase1 in neurological diseases: A promising trove for new pharmacological interventions to enter clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Chandra Shekhar; Jangra, Ashok; Kasala, Eshvendar Reddy; Bodduluru, Lakshmi Narendra; Bezbaruah, Babul Kumar

    2014-10-01

    The highly conserved abundant nuclear protein poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase1 (PARP1) functions at the center of cellular stress response and is mainly implied in DNA damage repair mechanism. Apart from its involvement in DNA damage repair, it does sway multiple vital cellular processes such as cell death pathways, cell aging, insulator function, chromatin modification, transcription and mitotic apparatus function. Since brain is the principal organ vulnerable to oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, upon stress encounters robust DNA damage can occur and intense PARP1 activation may result that will lead to various CNS diseases. In the context of soaring interest towards PARP1 as a therapeutic target for newer pharmacological interventions, here in the present review, we are attempting to give a silhouette of the role of PARP1 in the neurological diseases and the potential of its inhibitors to enter clinical translation, along with its structural and functional aspects. PMID:25049175

  2. Factors Associated with Sustained Attention During an Activity Intervention in Persons with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kolanowski, Ann; Bossen, Ann; Hill, Nikki; Guzman-Velez, Edmarie; Litaker, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Are the non-cognitive factors of self-reported mood and personality related to sustained attention in nursing home residents with dementia during an activity intervention? Methods Intervention data from a randomized clinical trial were used to address the aim of this project. Subjects were 128 nursing home residents who were assessed for mood, personality, behavioral indicators of attention, time on task and number of disengagements during an activity intervention. Results More positive self-reported mood was associated with greater behavioral displays of attention during activities, greater time spent engaged in the activities and less disengagement. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first study to report on the association of mood, personality and sustained attention in nursing home residents with dementia. While the findings are preliminary, they can be used to inform the design of future research. PMID:22652933

  3. Basigin is a druggable target for host-oriented antimalarial interventions.

    PubMed

    Zenonos, Zenon A; Dummler, Sara K; Müller-Sienerth, Nicole; Chen, Jianzhu; Preiser, Peter R; Rayner, Julian C; Wright, Gavin J

    2015-07-27

    Plasmodium falciparum is the parasite responsible for the most lethal form of malaria, an infectious disease that causes a large proportion of childhood deaths and poses a significant barrier to socioeconomic development in many countries. Although antimalarial drugs exist, the repeated emergence and spread of drug-resistant parasites limit their useful lifespan. An alternative strategy that could limit the evolution of drug-resistant parasites is to target host factors that are essential and universally required for parasite growth. Host-targeted therapeutics have been successfully applied in other infectious diseases but have never been attempted for malaria. Here, we report the development of a recombinant chimeric antibody (Ab-1) against basigin, an erythrocyte receptor necessary for parasite invasion as a putative antimalarial therapeutic. Ab-1 inhibited the PfRH5-basigin interaction and potently blocked erythrocyte invasion by all parasite strains tested. Importantly, Ab-1 rapidly cleared an established P. falciparum blood-stage infection with no overt toxicity in an in vivo infection model. Collectively, our data demonstrate that antibodies or other therapeutics targeting host basigin could be an effective treatment for patients infected with multi-drug resistant P. falciparum. PMID:26195724

  4. Curcumin: Updated Molecular Mechanisms and Intervention Targets in Human Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming-Xiang; Li, Yan; Yin, Hong; Zhang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin, a yellow pigment derived from Curcuma longa Linn, has attracted great interest in the research of cancer during the past decades. Extensive studies documented that curcumin attenuates cancer cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Curcumin has been demonstrated to interact with multiple molecules and signal pathways, which makes it a potential adjuvant anti-cancer agent to chemotherapy. Previous investigations focus on the mechanisms of action for curcumin, which is shown to manipulate transcription factors and induce apoptosis in various kinds of human cancer. Apart from transcription factors and apoptosis, emerging studies shed light on latent targets of curcumin against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), microRNAs (miRNA), autophagy and cancer stem cell. The present review predominantly discusses significance of EGFR, miRNA, autophagy and cancer stem cell in lung cancer therapy. Curcumin as a natural phytochemicals could communicate with these novel targets and show synergism to chemotherapy. Additionally, curcumin is well tolerated in humans. Therefore, EGFR-, miRNA-, autophagy- and cancer stem cell-based therapy in the presence of curcumin might be promising mechanisms and targets in the therapeutic strategy of lung cancer. PMID:22489192

  5. Factors and associations for physical activity in severely obese adults during a two-year lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Randi; Aadland, Eivind; Robertson, Lesley; Kristiansen, Merete; Andersen, John Roger; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study of severely obese adults participating in a two-year lifestyle intervention investigates associations between the independent variables: change in self-efficacy for physical activity (PA) in the face of psychological barriers, perceived behavioural control over PA, and PA self-identity and the dependent variable of change in objectively assessed PA. The intervention comprised four residential periods in a rehabilitation centre and combined diet, physical activity, and cognitive behavioural therapy. Materials and Methods. Forty-nine severely obese adults (37 women, mean body mass index 42.1 kg/m(2)) were included in the study. Assessment was done four times using questionnaires and an accelerometer. A linear mixed model based on restricted maximum likelihood was used in analyses for change over time. Associations were studied using linear regression analyses. Age, gender, and change in body mass index were used as control variables. Results. In the adjusted analyses, change in perceived behavioural control over PA was associated with change in PA (Stand. coeff. = 0.32, p = .005). Change in PA was not associated with either change in self-efficacy over PA in the face of psychological barriers (Stand. coeff. = 0.13, p = .259) or PA self-identity (Stand. coeff. = -0.07, p = .538). Conclusion. Perceived behavioural control may be a valid target to increase and maintain PA in severely obese adults participating in lifestyle interventions. More research is needed to investigate the process of behaviour change in this population. PMID:25165622

  6. A home-based nutrition and physical activity intervention for grandparents raising grandchildren: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kicklighter, Jana R; Whitley, Deborah M; Kelley, Susan J; Lynch, Judith E; Melton, Tamara S

    2009-04-01

    Five African American grandparents raising their grandchildren participated in a home-based nutrition and physical activity intervention. The primary goals were to increase grandparents' knowledge and skills in selecting and preparing healthy foods and to increase the grandparents' and grandchildren's physical activity levels. Results revealed that grandparents' concerns regarding their chronic diseases and desire to prevent health problems in their grandchildren served as motivators. Following the intervention, grandparents scored higher on nutrition and physical activity knowledge and their self-efficacy improved, although most health status indicators remained unchanged. Self-reported changes included walking more, reading food labels, and switching to a healthier type of fat. PMID:21184365

  7. Sustainability of physical activity promoting environments and influences on sustainability following a structural intervention in residential children's homes.

    PubMed

    Dominick, Gregory M; Tudose, Alina; Pohlig, Ryan T; Saunders, Ruth P

    2016-04-01

    Research examining sustainability of health promotion programs within organizational settings is limited. The Environmental Interventions in Residential Children's Homes (ENRICH) was a structural intervention that trained Wellness Teams (WTs) within residential children's homes (RCH) to target environmental changes that promote physical activity (PA) among residential youth. This study examines the sustainability of PA promoting environments and influences on sustainability within RCHs. A sustainability survey was administered to 14 RCHs 2 years after receiving ENRICH. Variables included sustainability of PA promoting environments, Organizational Influences, perceived organizational and individual benefits, and implementation of PA and general (i.e. Global) wellness activities. Activities reported as sustained and barriers were used descriptively to inform sustainability. Path analyses explained the relationship between sustainability influences and sustainability of PA promoting environments. Sustainability was found in 8 of 14 (57%) RCHs. Sustained activities reflected greater Global versus PA implementation. Global implementation mediated the relationship between Organizational Influences and sustainability, which may have been more easily achieved since Global activities were most likely controlled by WTs and did not require extensive organizational support from RCH administrators. Results highlight the importance of defining and assessing different implementation types when measuring sustainability and influences on sustainability within RCHs organizations. PMID:26944869

  8. Impact of Physical Activity Interventions on Blood Pressure in Brazilian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Vivian Freitas Rezende; Albino, Flávia Barbizan; de Moura, Karen Fernandes; Maftum, Gustavo Jorge; dos Santos, Mauro de Castro; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César; Faria Neto, José Rocha; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino

    2015-01-01

    Background High blood pressure is associated with cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of mortality in the Brazilian population. Lifestyle changes, including physical activity, are important for lowering blood pressure levels and decreasing the costs associated with outcomes. Objective Assess the impact of physical activity interventions on blood pressure in Brazilian individuals. Methods Meta-analysis and systematic review of studies published until May 2014, retrieved from several health sciences databases. Seven studies with 493 participants were included. The analysis included parallel studies of physical activity interventions in adult populations in Brazil with a description of blood pressure (mmHg) before and after the intervention in the control and intervention groups. Results Of 390 retrieved studies, eight matched the proposed inclusion criteria for the systematic review and seven randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. Physical activity interventions included aerobic and resistance exercises. There was a reduction of -10.09 (95% CI: -18.76 to -1.43 mmHg) in the systolic and -7.47 (95% CI: -11.30 to -3.63 mmHg) in the diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions Available evidence on the effects of physical activity on blood pressure in the Brazilian population shows a homogeneous and significant effect at both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. However, the strength of the included studies was low and the methodological quality was also low and/or regular. Larger studies with more rigorous methodology are necessary to build robust evidence. PMID:26016783

  9. Dynamics of p53 and NF-κB regulation in response to DNA damage and identification of target proteins suitable for therapeutic intervention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genome is continuously attacked by a variety of agents that cause DNA damage. Recognition of DNA lesions activates the cellular DNA damage response (DDR), which comprises a network of signal transduction pathways to maintain genome integrity. In response to severe DNA damage, cells undergo apoptosis to avoid transformation into tumour cells, or alternatively, the cells enter permanent cell cycle arrest, called senescence. Most tumour cells have defects in pathways leading to DNA repair or apoptosis. In addition, apoptosis could be counteracted by nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), the main anti-apoptotic transcription factor in the DDR. Despite the high clinical relevance, the interplay of the DDR pathways is poorly understood. For therapeutic purposes DNA damage signalling processes are induced to induce apoptosis in tumour cells. However, the efficiency of radio- and chemotherapy is strongly hampered by cell survival pathways in tumour cells. In this study logical modelling was performed to facilitate understanding of the complexity of the signal transduction networks in the DDR and to provide cancer treatment options. Results Our comprehensive discrete logical model provided new insights into the dynamics of the DDR in human epithelial tumours. We identified new mechanisms by which the cell regulates the dynamics of the activation of the tumour suppressor p53 and NF-κB. Simulating therapeutic intervention by agents causing DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) or DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) we identified candidate target proteins for sensitization of carcinomas to therapeutic intervention. Further, we enlightened the DDR in different genetic diseases, and by failure mode analysis we defined molecular defects putatively contributing to carcinogenesis. Conclusion By logic modelling we identified candidate target proteins that could be suitable for radio- and chemotherapy, and contributes to the design of more effective therapies. PMID:22979979

  10. Impacts of residential heating intervention measures on air quality and progress towards targets in Christchurch and Timaru, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Angelique J.; Scarrott, Carl

    2011-06-01

    Elevated wintertime particulate concentrations in the New Zealand cities of Christchurch and Timaru are mostly attributed to the burning of wood and coal for residential heating. A carrot-and-stick approach was adopted for managing air quality in Christchurch, where strict intervention measures were introduced together with a residential heater replacement programme to encourage householders to change to cleaner forms of heating. A similar approach was only recently implemented for Timaru. This paper presents the results of a partial accountability analysis, where the impact of these measures on the target source, PM 10 emissions, and PM 10 concentrations are quantified. A statistical model was developed to estimate trends in the concentrations, which were tested for significance after accounting for meteorological effects, and to estimate the probability of meeting air quality targets. Results for Christchurch and Timaru are compared to illustrate the impacts of differing levels of intervention on air quality. In Christchurch, approximately 34,000 (76%) open fires and old solid fuel burners were replaced with cleaner heating technology from 2002 to 2009, and total open fires and solid fuel burner numbers decreased by 45%. Over the same time period, estimated PM 10 emissions reduced by 71% and PM 10 concentrations by 52% (maxima), 36% (winter mean), 26% (winter median) and 41% (meteorology-adjusted winter means). In Timaru, just 3000 (50%) open fires and old solid fuel burners were replaced from 2001 to 2008, with total open fire and solid fuel burner numbers reduced by 24%. PM 10 emissions declined by 32%, with low reductions in the PM 10 concentrations (maxima decreased by 7%, winter means by 11% and winter medians by 3%). These findings, supported by the results of the meteorology corrected trend analysis for Christchurch, strongly indicate that the combination of stringent intervention measures and financial incentives has led to substantial air quality

  11. Active Learning in Large Classes: Can Small Interventions Produce Greater Results than Are Statistically Predictable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, Lynne M.

    2010-01-01

    Six online postings and six one-minute papers were added to an introductory first-year class, forming 5 percent of the final grade, but represented significant intervention in class functioning and amount of active learning. Active learning produced results in student performance beyond the percentage of the final grade it constituted. (Contains 1…

  12. The Effect of an Active Transport to School Intervention at a Suburban Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bungum, Timothy J.; Clark, Sheila; Aguilar, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many children do not meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. One strategy that may enhance PA is to increase active transport to school (ATS) rates. Purpose: To assess the effects of an ATS intervention. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used to compare ATS and vehicle traffic rates at a school that participated in a statewide…

  13. Positive Behavior Interventions and Support in a Physical Activity Summer Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Vanessa; Buchanan, Alice M.

    2015-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to investigate the implementation of positive behavior interventions and support (PBIS) in a summer camp. The camp provided physical activity opportunities to underserved children attending a summer program at a local, rural public school. Certified physical education teachers led activity stations. Participants in…

  14. The Evaluation of a Web-Based Physical Activity Intervention in a Predominantly Hispanic College Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoc, Dejan

    2009-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) suggest at least 30 min of moderate physical activity at least 5 days a week or 20 min of vigorous physical activity at least 3 days a week. The overall aim of this experiment was to evaluate the efficacy of a web-based intervention--one that relied on…

  15. Effects of a Curricular Physical Activity Intervention on Children's School Performance, Wellness, and Brain Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Käll, Lina Bunketorp; Malmgren, Helge; Olsson, Erik; Lindén, Thomas; Nilsson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity and structural differences in the hippocampus have been linked to educational outcome. We investigated whether a curriculum-based physical activity intervention correlates positively with children's academic achievement, psychological well-being, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), fitness, and structural…

  16. What's in It for Me? An Intervention to Increase Physical Activity among Adolescents in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Melissa; Vealey, Robin; Galli, Nick; Evers, Juli; Klug, Justin; Reichert, Kendra

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents typically become less physically active as they progress through high school. This inactivity has led to some adolescents become unhealthy, overweight, and unmotivated to participate in physical activity. The purpose of this article is to present two interventions aimed at motivating physical education students to be more physically…

  17. IKK is a therapeutic target in KRAS-Induced lung cancer with disrupted p53 activity

    PubMed Central

    Bassères, Daniela S.; Ebbs, Aaron; Cogswell, Patricia C.; Baldwin, Albert S.

    2014-01-01

    Activating mutations in KRAS are prevalent in cancer, but therapies targeted to oncogenic RAS have been ineffective to date. These results argue that targeting downstream effectors of RAS will be an alternative route for blocking RAS-driven oncogenic pathways. We and others have shown that oncogenic RAS activates the NF-κB transcription factor pathway and that KRAS-induced lung tumorigenesis is suppressed by expression of a degradation-resistant form of the IκBα inhibitor or by genetic deletion of IKKβ or the RELA/p65 subunit of NF-κB. Here, genetic and pharmacological approaches were utilized to inactivate IKK in human primary lung epithelial cells transformed by KRAS, as well as KRAS mutant lung cancer cell lines. Administration of the highly specific IKKβ inhibitor Compound A (CmpdA) led to NF-κB inhibition in different KRAS mutant lung cells and siRNA-mediated knockdown of IKKα or IKKβ reduced activity of the NF-κB canonical pathway. Next, we determined that both IKKα and IKKβ contribute to oncogenic properties of KRAS mutant lung cells, particularly when p53 activity is disrupted. Based on these results, CmpdA was tested for potential therapeutic intervention in the Kras-induced lung cancer mouse model (LSL-KrasG12D) combined with loss of p53 (LSL-KrasG12D/p53fl/fl). CmpdA treatment was well tolerated and mice treated with this IKKβ inhibitor presented smaller and lower grade tumors than mice treated with placebo. Additionally, IKKβ inhibition reduced inflammation and angiogenesis. These results support the concept of targeting IKK as a therapeutic approach for oncogenic RAS-driven tumors with altered p53 activity. PMID:24955217

  18. Promoting physical activity in low back pain patients: six months follow-up of a randomised controlled trial comparing a multicomponent intervention with a low intensity intervention

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, Andrea; Dintsios, Charalabos-Markos; Icks, Andrea; Reibling, Nadine; Froboese, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess a comprehensive multicomponent intervention against a low intensity intervention for promoting physical activity in chronic low back pain patients. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation and aftercare. Subjects: A total of 412 patients with chronic low back pain. Interventions: A multicomponent intervention (Movement Coaching) comprising of small group intervention (twice during inpatient rehabilitation), tailored telephone aftercare (twice after rehabilitation) and internet-based aftercare (web 2.0 platform) versus a low level intensity intervention (two general presentations on physical activity, download of the presentations). Main measures: Physical activity was measured using a questionnaire. Primary outcome was total physical activity; secondary outcomes were setting specific physical activity (transport, workplace, leisure time) and pain. Comparative group differences were evaluated six months after inpatient rehabilitation. Results: At six months follow-up, 92 participants in Movement Coaching (46 %) and 100 participants in the control group (47 %) completed the postal follow-up questionnaire. No significant differences between the two groups could be shown in total physical activity (P = 0.30). In addition to this, workplace (P = 0.53), transport (P = 0.68) and leisure time physical activity (P = 0.21) and pain (P = 0.43) did not differ significantly between the two groups. In both groups, physical activity decreased during the six months follow-up. Conclusions: The multicomponent intervention was no more effective than the low intensity intervention in promoting physical activity at six months follow-up. The decrease in physical activity in both groups is an unexpected outcome of the study and indicates the need for further research. PMID:27496696

  19. A Deterministic Approach to Active Debris Removal Target Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidtke, A.; Lewis, H.; Armellin, R.

    2014-09-01

    Many decisions, with widespread economic, political and legal consequences, are being considered based on space debris simulations that show that Active Debris Removal (ADR) may be necessary as the concerns about the sustainability of spaceflight are increasing. The debris environment predictions are based on low-accuracy ephemerides and propagators. This raises doubts about the accuracy of those prognoses themselves but also the potential ADR target-lists that are produced. Target selection is considered highly important as removal of many objects will increase the overall mission cost. Selecting the most-likely candidates as soon as possible would be desirable as it would enable accurate mission design and allow thorough evaluation of in-orbit validations, which are likely to occur in the near-future, before any large investments are made and implementations realized. One of the primary factors that should be used in ADR target selection is the accumulated collision probability of every object. A conjunction detection algorithm, based on the smart sieve method, has been developed. Another algorithm is then applied to the found conjunctions to compute the maximum and true probabilities of collisions taking place. The entire framework has been verified against the Conjunction Analysis Tools in AGIs Systems Toolkit and relative probability error smaller than 1.5% has been achieved in the final maximum collision probability. Two target-lists are produced based on the ranking of the objects according to the probability they will take part in any collision over the simulated time window. These probabilities are computed using the maximum probability approach, that is time-invariant, and estimates of the true collision probability that were computed with covariance information. The top-priority targets are compared, and the impacts of the data accuracy and its decay are highlighted. General conclusions regarding the importance of Space Surveillance and Tracking for the

  20. Deep insights into Dictyocaulus viviparus transcriptomes provides unique prospects for new drug targets and disease intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cantacessi, Cinzia; Gasser, Robin B.; Strube, Christina; Schnieder, Thomas; Jex, Aaron R.; Hall, Ross S.; Campbell, Bronwyn E.; Young, Neil D.; Ranganathan, Shoba; Sternberg, Paul W.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2013-01-01

    The lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus, causes parasitic bronchitis in cattle, and is responsible for substantial economic losses in temperate regions of the world. Here, we undertake the first large-scale exploration of available transcriptomic data for this lungworm, examine differences in transcription between different stages/both genders and identify and prioritize essential molecules linked to fundamental metabolic pathways, which could represent novel drug targets. Approximately 3 million expressed sequence tags (ESTs), generated by 454 sequencing from third-stage larvae (L3) as well as adult females and males of D. viviparus, were assembled and annotated. The assembly of these sequences yielded ~61,000 contigs, of which relatively large proportions encoded collagens (4.3%), ubiquitins (2.1%) and serine/threonine protein kinases (1.9%). Subtractive analysis in silico identified 6,928 nucleotide sequences as being uniquely transcribed in L3, and 5,203 and 7,889 transcripts as being exclusive to the adult female and male, respectively. Most peptides predicted from the conceptual translations were nucleoplasmins (L3), serine/threonine protein kinases (female) and major sperm proteins (male). Additional analyses allowed the prediction of three drug target candidates, whose Caenorhabditis elegans homologues were linked to a lethal RNA interference phenotype. This detailed exploration, combined with future transcriptomic sequencing of all developmental stages of D. viviparus, will facilitate future investigations of the molecular biology of this parasitic nematode as well as genomic sequencing. These advances will underpin the discovery of new drug and/or vaccine targets, focused on biotechnological outcomes. PMID:21182926

  1. Improved drug targeting of cancer cells by utilizing actively targetable folic acid-conjugated albumin nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zheyu; Li, Yan; Kohama, Kazuhiro; Oneill, Brian; Bi, Jingxiu

    2011-01-01

    Folic acid-conjugated albumin nanospheres (FA-AN) have been developed to provide an actively targetable drug delivery system for improved drug targeting of cancer cells with reduced side effects. The nanospheres were prepared by conjugating folic acid onto the surface of albumin nanospheres using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) as a catalyst. To test the efficacy of these nanospheres as a potential delivery platform, doxorubicin-loaded albumin nanospheres (DOX-AN) and doxorubicin-loaded FA-AN (FA-DOX-AN) were prepared by entrapping DOX (an anthracycline, antibiotic drug widely used in cancer chemotherapy that works by intercalating DNA) into AN and FA-AN nanoparticles. Cell uptake of the DOX was then measured. The results show that FA-AN was incorporated into HeLa cells (tumor cells) only after 2.0h incubation, whereas HeLa cells failed to incorporate albumin nanospheres without conjugated folic acid after 4.0h incubation. When HeLa cells were treated with the DOX-AN, FA-DOX-AN nanoparticles or free DOX, cell viability decreased with increasing culture time (i.e. cell death increases with time) over a 70h period. Cell viability was always the lowest for free DOX followed by FA-DOX-AN4 and then DOX-AN. In a second set of experiments, HeLa cells washed to remove excess DOX after an initial incubation for 2h were incubated for 70h. The corresponding cell viability was slightly higher when the cells were treated with FA-DOX-AN or free DOX whilst cells treated with DOX-AN nanoparticles remained viable. The above experiments were repeated for non-cancerous, aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMC). As expected, cell viability of the HeLa cells (with FA receptor alpha, FRα) and AoSMC cells (without FRα) decreased rapidly with time in the presence of free DOX, but treatment with FA-DOX-AN resulted in selective killing of the tumor cells. These results indicated that FA-AN may be used as a promising actively targetable drug delivery system to improve drug

  2. The Impact of Hotspot-Targeted Interventions on Malaria Transmission in Rachuonyo South District in the Western Kenyan Highlands: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, John; Knight, Philip; Stone, William; Osoti, Victor; Makori, Euniah; Owaga, Chrispin; Odongo, Wycliffe; China, Pauline; Shagari, Shehu; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Kariuki, Simon; Drakeley, Chris; Stevenson, Jennifer; Cox, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous, generating malaria hotspots that can fuel malaria transmission across a wider area. Targeting hotspots may represent an efficacious strategy for reducing malaria transmission. We determined the impact of interventions targeted to serologically defined malaria hotspots on malaria transmission both inside hotspots and in surrounding communities. Methods and Findings Twenty-seven serologically defined malaria hotspots were detected in a survey conducted from 24 June to 31 July 2011 that included 17,503 individuals from 3,213 compounds in a 100-km2 area in Rachuonyo South District, Kenya. In a cluster-randomized trial from 22 March to 15 April 2012, we randomly allocated five clusters to hotspot-targeted interventions with larviciding, distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets, indoor residual spraying, and focal mass drug administration (2,082 individuals in 432 compounds); five control clusters received malaria control following Kenyan national policy (2,468 individuals in 512 compounds). Our primary outcome measure was parasite prevalence in evaluation zones up to 500 m outside hotspots, determined by nested PCR (nPCR) at baseline and 8 wk (16 June–6 July 2012) and 16 wk (21 August–10 September 2012) post-intervention by technicians blinded to the intervention arm. Secondary outcome measures were parasite prevalence inside hotpots, parasite prevalence in the evaluation zone as a function of distance from the hotspot boundary, Anopheles mosquito density, mosquito breeding site productivity, malaria incidence by passive case detection, and the safety and acceptability of the interventions. Intervention coverage exceeded 87% for all interventions. Hotspot-targeted interventions did not result in a change in nPCR parasite prevalence outside hotspot boundaries (p ≥ 0.187). We observed an average reduction in nPCR parasite prevalence of 10.2% (95% CI −1.3 to 21.7%) inside hotspots 8 wk post-intervention

  3. Active Interventions in Clinical Practice: Contributions of Gestalt Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammert, Marilyn; Dolan, Mary M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes two dimensions of Gestalt therapy that can enhance clinical practice--orientation to the present and active-experimental style--and examines them in relation to some traditional principles of practice. Gestalt theory offers a method of discovery that is a combination of phenomenology and behaviorism. (JAC)

  4. Website Physical Activity Interventions: Preferences of Potential Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferney, Shannon L.; Marshall, Alison L.

    2006-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (particularly websites and e-mail) have the potential to deliver health behavior change programs to large numbers of adults at low cost. Controlled trials using these new media to promote physical activity have produced mixed results. User-centered development methods can assist in understanding the…

  5. Active imaging system performance model for target acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinola, Richard L.; Teaney, Brian; Nguyen, Quang; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Halford, Carl E.; Tofsted, David H.

    2007-04-01

    The U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate has developed a laser-range-gated imaging system performance model for the detection, recognition, and identification of vehicle targets. The model is based on the established US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD sensor performance models of the human system response through an imaging system. The Java-based model, called NVLRG, accounts for the effect of active illumination, atmospheric attenuation, and turbulence effects relevant to LRG imagers, such as speckle and scintillation, and for the critical sensor and display components. This model can be used to assess the performance of recently proposed active SWIR systems through various trade studies. This paper will describe the NVLRG model in detail, discuss the validation of recent model components, present initial trade study results, and outline plans to validate and calibrate the end-to-end model with field data through human perception testing.

  6. Novel strategies for ultrahigh specific activity targeted nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Dong

    2012-12-13

    We have developed novel strategies optimized for preparing high specific activity radiolabeled nanoparticles, targeting nuclear imaging of low abundance biomarkers. Several compounds have been labeled with F-18 and Cu-64 for radiolabeling of SCK-nanoparticles via Copper(I) catalyzed or copper-free alkyne-azide cyclolization. Novel strategies have been developed to achieve ultrahigh specific activity with administrable amount of dose for human study using copper-free chemistry. Ligands for carbonic anhydrase 12 (CA12), a low abundance extracellular biomarker for the responsiveness of breast cancer to endocrine therapie, have been labeled with F-18 and Cu-64, and one of them has been evaluated in animal models. The results of this project will lead to major improvements in the use of nanoparticles in nuclear imaging and will significantly advance their potential for detecting low abundance biomarkers of medical importance.

  7. Small Molecule Inhibitors Targeting Activator Protein 1 (AP-1)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a pivotal transcription factor that regulates a wide range of cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, survival, cell migration, and transformation. Accumulating evidence supports that AP-1 plays an important role in several severe disorders including cancer, fibrosis, and organ injury, as well as inflammatory disorders such as asthma, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. AP-1 has emerged as an actively pursued drug discovery target over the past decade. Excitingly, a selective AP-1 inhibitor T-5224 (51) has been investigated in phase II human clinical trials. Nevertheless, no effective AP-1 inhibitors have yet been approved for clinical use. Despite significant advances achieved in understanding AP-1 biology and function, as well as the identification of small molecules modulating AP-1 associated signaling pathways, medicinal chemistry efforts remain an urgent need to yield selective and efficacious AP-1 inhibitors as a viable therapeutic strategy for human diseases. PMID:24831826

  8. Cellular Stress Responses, The Hormesis Paradigm, and Vitagenes: Novel Targets for Therapeutic Intervention in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Carolin; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Calabrese, Edward J.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Despite the capacity of chaperones and other homeostatic components to restore folding equilibrium, cells appear poorly adapted for chronic oxidative stress that increases in cancer and in metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. Modulation of endogenous cellular defense mechanisms represents an innovative approach to therapeutic intervention in diseases causing chronic tissue damage, such as in neurodegeneration. This article introduces the concept of hormesis and its applications to the field of neuroprotection. It is argued that the hormetic dose response provides the central underpinning of neuroprotective responses, providing a framework for explaining the common quantitative features of their dose–response relationships, their mechanistic foundations, and their relationship to the concept of biological plasticity, as well as providing a key insight for improving the accuracy of the therapeutic dose of pharmaceutical agents within the highly heterogeneous human population. This article describes in mechanistic detail how hormetic dose responses are mediated for endogenous cellular defense pathways, including sirtuin and Nrf2 and related pathways that integrate adaptive stress responses in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. Particular attention is given to the emerging role of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide gases in hormetic-based neuroprotection and their relationship to membrane radical dynamics and mitochondrial redox signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 1763–1811. PMID:20446769

  9. Targeting reperfusion injury in the era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention: hope or hype?

    PubMed

    Lønborg, Jacob Thomsen

    2015-10-01

    Introduction of reperfusion therapy by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has resulted in improved outcomes for patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Despite the obvious advantages of primary PCI, acute restoration of blood flow paradoxically also jeopardises the myocardium in the first minutes of reperfusion-a phenomenon known as reperfusion injury. Prevention of reperfusion injury may help to improve outcome following primary PCI. This review focuses on the clinical evidence of potential therapeutic cardioprotective methods as adjuvant to primary PCI. Despite overall disappointing, there exists some promising strategies, including ischaemic postconditioning, remote ischaemic conditioning, pharmacological conditioning with focus on adenosine, cyclosporine A, glucose-insulin-potassium, exenatide, atrial natriuretic peptide and metoprolol and cooling. But hitherto no large randomised study has demonstrated any effect on outcome, and ongoing studies that address this issue are underway. Moreover, this review will discuss important clinical predictors associated with reperfusion injury during primary PCI that may interfere with a potential protective effect (pre-PCI thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow, preinfarction angina, collateral flow, duration of ischaemia and hyperglycaemia). This paper will also provide a short overview of the technical issues related to surrogate endpoints in phase II trials. Based upon these discussions, the paper will provide factors that should be taken into account when designing future clinical studies. PMID:26130664

  10. Targeted training modifies oscillatory brain activity in schizophrenia patients

    PubMed Central

    Popov, Tzvetan G.; Carolus, Almut; Schubring, David; Popova, Petia; Miller, Gregory A.; Rockstroh, Brigitte S.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of both domain-specific and broader cognitive remediation protocols have been reported for neural activity and overt performance in schizophrenia (SZ). Progress is limited by insufficient knowledge of relevant neural mechanisms. Addressing neuronal signal resolution in the auditory system as a mechanism contributing to cognitive function and dysfunction in schizophrenia, the present study compared effects of two neuroplasticity-based training protocols targeting auditory–verbal or facial affect discrimination accuracy and a standard rehabilitation protocol on magnetoencephalographic (MEG) oscillatory brain activity in an auditory paired-click task. SZ were randomly assigned to either 20 daily 1-hour sessions over 4 weeks of auditory–verbal training (N = 19), similarly intense facial affect discrimination training (N = 19), or 4 weeks of treatment as usual (TAU, N = 19). Pre-training, the 57 SZ showed smaller click-induced posterior alpha power modulation than did 28 healthy comparison participants, replicating Popov et al. (2011b). Abnormally small alpha decrease 300–800 ms around S2 improved more after targeted auditory–verbal training than after facial affect training or TAU. The improvement in oscillatory brain dynamics with training correlated with improvement on a measure of verbal learning. Results replicate previously reported effects of neuroplasticity-based psychological training on oscillatory correlates of auditory stimulus differentiation, encoding, and updating and indicate specificity of cortical training effects. PMID:26082889

  11. Pathways curriculum and family interventions to promote healthful eating and physical activity in American Indian schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sally M.; Clay, Theresa; Smyth, Mary; Gittelsohn, Joel; Arviso, Vivian; Flint-Wagner, Hilary; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Brice, Richard A.; Metcalfe, Lauve; Stewart, Dawn; Vu, Maihan; Stone, Elaine J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pathways, a multisite school-based study aimed at promoting healthful eating and increasing physical activity, was a randomized field trial including 1704 American Indian third to fifth grade students from 41 schools (21 intervention, 20 controls) in seven American Indian communities. Methods The intervention schools received four integrated components: a classroom curriculum, food service, physical activity, and family modules. The curriculum and family components were based on Social Learning Theory, American Indian concepts, and results from formative research. Process evaluation data were collected from teachers (n = 235), students (n = 585), and families. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Questionnaire data were collected from 1150 students including both intervention and controls. Results There were significant increases in knowledge and cultural identity in children in intervention compared to control schools with a significant retention of knowledge over the 3 years, based on the results of repeating the third and fourth grade test items in the fifth grade. Family members participated in Family Events and take-home activities, with fewer participating each year. Conclusion A culturally appropriate school intervention can promote positive changes in knowledge, cultural identity, and self-reported healthful eating and physical activity in American Indian children and environmental change in school food service. PMID:14636806

  12. Brain single photon emission computed tomography: Newer activation and intervention studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tikofsky, R.S.; Hellman, R.S. )

    1991-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings using non-xenon 133 tracers in combination with activation and intervention techniques are reviewed. Examination of the currently available data indicates that it is possible to detect the effects of a variety of activations and interventional procedures using SPECT rCBF with non-xenon 133 tracers. There are still many issues to be resolved before SPECT can reach the level of sophistication attained by xenon 133 and positron emission tomography in studying rCBF during activation or intervention. However, research to date indicates that SPECT rCBF studied with tracers other than xenon 133 has an excellent potential for increasing the ability to differentiate normal and pathological states. 97 refs.

  13. Genital hygiene practices of fishermen targeted for a topical microbicide intervention against sexually transmitted infections in Kisumu, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kwena, Z A; Bukusi, E A; Gorbach, P; Sharma, A; Sang, N M; Holmes, K K

    2010-06-01

    Research on hygiene has been relatively limited in the current era of rigorous observational studies and clinical trials. We set out to investigate the perception and practices of genital hygiene among fishermen working on the beaches along Lake Victoria, targeted for a topical male microbicide hygiene intervention. We conducted 12 focus group discussions involving fishermen (n = 130), recording the discussions in Dholuo (the local language) and transcribing them verbatim before translating into English. Transcripts were double-coded and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Despite easy access to lake water and recognition of a link that may exist between poor genital hygiene and the risk of penile infection and poor sexual relationships, few fishermen regularly washed their genitalia due to fear/embarrassment from cleaning their genitalia in public, traditional Luo beliefs such as that washing with soap would reduce the fish catch, lack of time because of their busy schedules, laziness and lack of responsibility, and excessive consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs. Hygiene practices of the fishermen were poor and could contribute to genital infections including sexually transmitted infections. Given the fishermen's poor genital hygiene practices, they may benefit from hygiene intervention, including that provided by penile microbicides, which can be applied in the privacy of their bedrooms. PMID:20606226

  14. Who are the Preferential Targets for Intervention Programs Related to the Female Condom among Sex Workers in Southern China?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei; Weeks, Margaret R.; Nie, Li; Li, Jianghong; He, Bin; Zhou, Yuejiao; Li, Fei; Dunn, Jennifer; Zhang, Qingning

    2015-01-01

    We used a cluster analysis approach to investigate which female sex workers (FSW) are preferential targets for female condom (FC) intervention programs in southern China. Cross-sectional 6-month (N=316) and 12-month (N=217) post-intervention surveys of FSW were analyzed. Based on FC attitudes and beliefs, initially suggesting FC use to a partner, practicing insertion, total times ever used, and willingness to use in the future, cluster analysis apportioned women into two clusters, with 50.6% and 58.1% of participants in the likely future FC users group at 6-months and 12-months, respectively. Likely future FC users tended to be from boarding houses, older, currently or previously married, experienced with childbirth, with current multiple sex partners, longer history of sex work, and more unprotected sexual encounters. Focusing FC programs on sectors of the community with more FSW who are likely to use FC may be more cost-effective for enhancing FC acceptability and usage. PMID:23837812

  15. The 3-year evolution of a preschool physical activity intervention through a collaborative partnership between research interventionists and preschool teachers

    PubMed Central

    Howie, E. K.; Brewer, A.; Brown, W. H.; Pfeiffer, K. A.; Saunders, R. P.; Pate, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite evidence that preschoolers spend the majority of their time in sedentary activities, few physical activity interventions have focused on preschool-age children. Health promotion interventions that can be integrated into the daily routines of a school or other setting are more likely to be implemented. The Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments employed a flexible approach to increasing physical activity opportunities in preschools’ daily schedules through recess, indoor physical activity and physical activity integrated into academic lessons. Eight preschools were randomly assigned to receive the study’s physical activity intervention. Teachers in these schools partnered with university-based interventionists across 3 years to design and implement a flexible and adaptive intervention. The intervention approach included trainings and workshops, site visits and feedback from intervention personnel, newsletters, and physical activity equipment and materials. Teachers reported a high acceptability of the intervention. The purpose of this article is to describe the evolution of a multi-component physical activity intervention in preschools, including (i) a description of the intervention components, (ii) an explanation of the intervention process and approach, and (iii) a report of teachers’ perceptions of barriers to implementation. PMID:24659421

  16. The 3-year evolution of a preschool physical activity intervention through a collaborative partnership between research interventionists and preschool teachers.

    PubMed

    Howie, E K; Brewer, A; Brown, W H; Pfeiffer, K A; Saunders, R P; Pate, R R

    2014-06-01

    Despite evidence that preschoolers spend the majority of their time in sedentary activities, few physical activity interventions have focused on preschool-age children. Health promotion interventions that can be integrated into the daily routines of a school or other setting are more likely to be implemented. The Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments employed a flexible approach to increasing physical activity opportunities in preschools' daily schedules through recess, indoor physical activity and physical activity integrated into academic lessons. Eight preschools were randomly assigned to receive the study's physical activity intervention. Teachers in these schools partnered with university-based interventionists across 3 years to design and implement a flexible and adaptive intervention. The intervention approach included trainings and workshops, site visits and feedback from intervention personnel, newsletters, and physical activity equipment and materials. Teachers reported a high acceptability of the intervention. The purpose of this article is to describe the evolution of a multi-component physical activity intervention in preschools, including (i) a description of the intervention components, (ii) an explanation of the intervention process and approach, and (iii) a report of teachers' perceptions of barriers to implementation. PMID:24659421

  17. Web-Based Interventions Targeting Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Middle-Aged and Older People: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Beishuizen, Cathrien RL; Stephan, Blossom CM; van Gool, Willem A; Brayne, Carol; Peters, Ron JG; Andrieu, Sandrine; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka; Busschers, Wim B; Moll van Charante, Eric P

    2016-01-01

    Background Web-based interventions can improve single cardiovascular risk factors in adult populations. In view of global aging and the associated increasing burden of cardiovascular disease, older people form an important target population as well. Objective In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we evaluated whether Web-based interventions for cardiovascular risk factor management reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in older people. Methods Embase, Medline, Cochrane and CINAHL were systematically searched from January 1995 to November 2014. Search terms included cardiovascular risk factors and diseases (specified), Web-based interventions (and synonyms) and randomized controlled trial. Two authors independently performed study selection, data-extraction and risk of bias assessment. In a meta-analysis, outcomes regarding treatment effects on cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, smoking status, weight and physical inactivity) and incident cardiovascular disease were pooled with random effects models. Results A total of 57 studies (N=19,862) fulfilled eligibility criteria and 47 studies contributed to the meta-analysis. A significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (mean difference –2.66 mmHg, 95% CI –3.81 to –1.52), diastolic blood pressure (mean difference –1.26 mmHg, 95% CI –1.92 to –0.60), HbA1c level (mean difference –0.13%, 95% CI –0.22 to –0.05), LDL cholesterol level (mean difference –2.18 mg/dL, 95% CI –3.96 to –0.41), weight (mean difference –1.34 kg, 95% CI –1.91 to –0.77), and an increase of physical activity (standardized mean difference 0.25, 95% CI 0.10-0.39) in the Web-based intervention group was found. The observed effects were more pronounced in studies with short (<12 months) follow-up and studies that combined the Internet application with human support (blended care). No difference in incident cardiovascular disease

  18. Identification of BIRC6 as a novel intervention target for neuroblastoma therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuroblastoma are pediatric tumors of the sympathetic nervous system with a poor prognosis. Apoptosis is often deregulated in cancer cells, but only a few defects in apoptotic routes have been identified in neuroblastoma. Methods Here we investigated genomic aberrations affecting genes of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in neuroblastoma. We analyzed DNA profiling data (CGH and SNP arrays) and mRNA expression data of 31 genes of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in a dataset of 88 neuroblastoma tumors using the R2 bioinformatic platform ( http://r2.amc.nl). BIRC6 was selected for further analysis as a tumor driving gene. Knockdown experiments were performed using BIRC6 lentiviral shRNA and phenotype responses were analyzed by Western blot and MTT-assays. In addition, DIABLO levels and interactions were investigated with immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation. Results We observed frequent gain of the BIRC6 gene on chromosome 2, which resulted in increased mRNA expression. BIRC6 is an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP), that can bind and degrade the cytoplasmic fraction of the pro-apoptotic protein DIABLO. DIABLO mRNA expression was exceptionally high in neuroblastoma but the protein was only detected in the mitochondria. Upon silencing of BIRC6 by shRNA, DIABLO protein levels increased and cells went into apoptosis. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed direct interaction between DIABLO and BIRC6 in neuroblastoma cell lines. Conclusion Our findings indicate that BIRC6 may have a potential oncogenic role in neuroblastoma by inactivating cytoplasmic DIABLO. BIRC6 inhibition may therefore provide a means for therapeutic intervention in neuroblastoma. PMID:22788920

  19. Youths living away from families in the US mental health system: opportunities for targeted intervention.

    PubMed

    Pottick, Kathleen J; Warner, Lynn A; Yoder, Kevin A

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the clinical characteristics of youths who lived away from families at the time of admission to specialty mental health services, and investigates the association between type of nonfamily living situation and admission to residential versus outpatient programs. Of 3995 youths sampled from 1598 mental health programs in the United States, 14% lived away from their own families, either in foster care, group care settings, or correctional settings, or were emancipated. As a group, youths living away from families were more seriously emotionally disturbed and more likely to receive treatment in residential care programs. Youths who lived in foster care were more likely to be admitted to outpatient programs, while youths who lived in group care settings or correctional settings were more likely to be admitted to residential care programs, controlling on demographic and clinical characteristics. Targeting resources to enhance the availability and therapeutic capacity of foster care may facilitate community living, and decrease time spent in institutional settings. PMID:16010183

  20. The Impact of Arts Activity on Nursing Staff Well-Being: An Intervention in the Workplace.

    PubMed

    Karpavičiūtė, Simona; Macijauskienė, Jūratė

    2016-04-01

    Over 59 million workers are employed in the healthcare sector globally, with a daily risk of being exposed to a complex variety of health and safety hazards. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of arts activity on the well-being of nursing staff. During October-December 2014, 115 nursing staff working in a hospital, took part in this study, which lasted for 10 weeks. The intervention group (n = 56) took part in silk painting activities once a week. Data was collected using socio-demographic questions, the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale, Short Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire, Reeder stress scale, and Multidimensional fatigue inventory (before and after art activities in both groups). Statistical data analysis included descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation), non-parametric statistics analysis (Man Whitney U Test; Wilcoxon signed-ranks test), Fisher's exact test and reliability analysis (Cronbach's Alpha). The level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. In the intervention group, there was a tendency for participation in arts activity having a positive impact on their general health and mental well-being, reducing stress and fatigue, awaking creativity and increasing a sense of community at work. The control group did not show any improvements. Of the intervention group 93% reported enjoyment, with 75% aspiring to continue arts activity in the future. This research suggests that arts activity, as a workplace intervention, can be used to promote nursing staff well-being at work. PMID:27104550

  1. Target concentration intervention is needed for tobramycin dosing in paediatric patients with cystic fibrosis – a population pharmacokinetic study

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Stefanie; Norris, Ross; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J

    2008-01-01

    Aim The primary aim was to estimate the population pharmacokinetic parameters of once-daily intravenous (i.v.) tobramycin in paediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and to investigate the influence of covariates. The second aim was to assess the need for target concentration intervention (TCI) for tobramycin in this patient group. Methods Retrospective demographic, dosing and concentration data were collected from 35 CF patients (21 female, 14 male) aged 0.5–17.8 years, from whom 318 tobramycin plasma concentrations were available. NONMEM was used to estimate the population pharmacokinetics of tobramycin. Simulations were performed using weight-based dosing with a weight from a covariate distribution model to evaluated current dosing schedules and monitoring practices. Results A two-compartment model best described the data with population parameter estimates for clearance of central compartment (CL) of 6.37 l h−1 per 70 kg; volume of central compartment (Vc) of 18.7 l per 70 kg; intercompartmental clearance (Q) of 0.393 l h−1; and volume of peripheral compartment (Vper) of 1.32 l. The inclusion of total body weight as covariate reduced the random component of between