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Sample records for activity involving intentional

  1. The Role of Intentional Self Regulation, Lower Neighborhood Ecological Assets, and Activity Involvement in Youth Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Jennifer Brown; Lewin-Bizan, Selva; Lerner, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Extracurricular activities provide a key context for youth development, and participation has been linked with positive developmental outcomes. Using data from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD), this study explored how the intentional self regulation ability of youth interacted with participation in extracurricular activities to…

  2. Intentional replantation for periodontally involved hopeless teeth.

    PubMed

    Demiralp, Burak; Nohutçu, Rahime Meral; Tepe, Durul Işik; Eratalay, Kenan

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic results of intentional replantation of periodontally involved teeth after conditioning of root surfaces with tetracycline-HCl. Thirteen patients (seven female, six male; age range: 35-52 years) with 15 periodontally involved hopeless teeth were included in this study. During the replantation procedure, the affected teeth were gently extracted, then the granulation tissues, calculus, remaining periodontal ligament and necrotic cementum on the root surfaces were removed. Tetracycline-HCl, at a concentration of 100 mg ml(-1), was applied for 5 min to the root surfaces. The teeth were then replaced into the socket and splinted. Patients were clinically and radiographically evaluated at baseline (time of surgery) and 6 months after the surgery. The following measurements were recorded: probing depth (PD), gingival recession (R), the amount of bone loss (BL) and bone gain (BG). Results indicated a reduction in PD and in the amount of bone loss and healthy gingiva. Mean PD was decreased from 5.25 to 2.36 mm, gingival recession was increased from 3.73 to 4.0 mm, and BL was reduced from 73.20 to 56.86%. At the end of 6 months, no root resorption or ankylosis was observed radiographically. Even during the short period of evaluation, it may be suggested that intentional replantation can be an alternative approach to extraction in cases where advanced periodontal destruction is present and no other treatments could be considered.

  3. Intentional replantation of periodontally involved and endodontically mistreated tooth.

    PubMed

    Lu, D P

    1986-05-01

    This article presents a case in which a tooth was intentionally replanted after it was endodontically mistreated; there was also a severe periodontal involvement. The unusually long period of time that the tooth survived might be attributed to a different approach to the replantation technique, such as occlusion adjustment prior to replantation, preoperative reduction of oral cavity bacteria and of the harmful aerosols commonly found in the dental operatory, placement of a noneugenol periodontal packing under the acrylic splint to prevent residual liquid monomer from seeping into the periodontal space, use of the patient's own blood and no other material to moisten the root while it was out of the socket, a short extraoral period, loose splinting, complete isolation of the operative site in the oral cavity, and completion of periodontal therapy before intentional replantation.

  4. 15 CFR 27.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... intention of involving human subjects. 27.119 Section 27.119 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 27.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving...

  5. 15 CFR 27.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... intention of involving human subjects. 27.119 Section 27.119 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 27.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving...

  6. 15 CFR 27.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... intention of involving human subjects. 27.119 Section 27.119 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 27.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving...

  7. 49 CFR 11.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 11.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it...

  8. 10 CFR 745.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. 745.119 Section 745.119 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of...

  9. 45 CFR 690.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research undertaken without the intention...

  10. 28 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of involving human subjects. 46.119 Section 46.119 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 46.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  11. 22 CFR 225.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... involving human subjects. 225.119 Section 225.119 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it...

  12. 16 CFR 1028.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... involving human subjects. 1028.119 Section 1028.119 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  13. 28 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of involving human subjects. 46.119 Section 46.119 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 46.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  14. 10 CFR 745.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... human subjects. 745.119 Section 745.119 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later proposed to involve...

  15. 22 CFR 225.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... involving human subjects. 225.119 Section 225.119 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it...

  16. 49 CFR 11.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... involving human subjects. 11.119 Section 11.119 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 11.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it...

  17. 28 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of involving human subjects. 46.119 Section 46.119 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 46.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  18. 10 CFR 745.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... human subjects. 745.119 Section 745.119 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later proposed to involve...

  19. 16 CFR 1028.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... involving human subjects. 1028.119 Section 1028.119 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  20. 49 CFR 11.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... involving human subjects. 11.119 Section 11.119 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 11.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it...

  1. 28 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of involving human subjects. 46.119 Section 46.119 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 46.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  2. 28 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of involving human subjects. 46.119 Section 46.119 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 46.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  3. 22 CFR 225.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... involving human subjects. 225.119 Section 225.119 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it...

  4. 16 CFR 1028.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... involving human subjects. 1028.119 Section 1028.119 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  5. 49 CFR 11.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... involving human subjects. 11.119 Section 11.119 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 11.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it...

  6. 10 CFR 745.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... human subjects. 745.119 Section 745.119 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later proposed to involve...

  7. 7 CFR 1c.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... human subjects. 1c.119 Section 1c.119 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later...

  8. 40 CFR 26.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... intention of involving human subjects. 26.119 Section 26.119 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human... human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  9. 38 CFR 16.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... without the intention of involving human subjects. 16.119 Section 16.119 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the...

  10. 38 CFR 16.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... without the intention of involving human subjects. 16.119 Section 16.119 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the...

  11. 40 CFR 26.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... intention of involving human subjects. 26.119 Section 26.119 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human... human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  12. 7 CFR 1c.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... human subjects. 1c.119 Section 1c.119 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later...

  13. 38 CFR 16.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... without the intention of involving human subjects. 16.119 Section 16.119 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the...

  14. 45 CFR 690.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. 690.119 Section 690.119 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  15. 38 CFR 16.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. 16.119 Section 16.119 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects....

  16. 38 CFR 16.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. 16.119 Section 16.119 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects....

  17. 14 CFR 1230.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. 1230.119 Section 1230.119 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.119 Research undertaken without the intention of...

  18. 45 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research undertaken without the intention...

  19. 45 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research undertaken without the intention...

  20. Does Organizational Justice Modify the Association Between Job Involvement and Retirement Intentions of Nurses in Finland?

    PubMed

    Sulander, Juhani; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Helkama, Klaus; Aalto, Anna-Mari

    2016-10-01

    Given the growing aging population in Finland, retaining health staff to care for them is important. In an exploration of predictors of quitting before the typical retirement age, which ranges from 63 to 68 years in Finland, we examined whether organizational justice moderated the association between job involvement and retirement intentions among nurses 50 years and over. The sample was 446 nurses (70% practical nurses) working in 134 assisted living facilities providing 24-hour care for older residents in Finland. Job involvement was measured with the Job Involvement Questionnaire, and organizational justice with a scale that tapped its three dimensions: distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice. In covariance analyses, low organizational justice and low job involvement were associated with a higher likelihood of retirement intention. Both interactional justice and procedural justice moderated the association of job involvement with retirement intentions. Among nurses with low job involvement, those who experienced unjust treatment, that is, low interactional justice, and evaluated organizational procedures as unjust had significantly stronger retirement intentions than nurses with high levels of interactional and procedural justice. Distributive justice was associated with retirement intentions in both high and low job-involved respondents. Organizational justice may act as a buffer against retirement intention as one consequence of nurses' low job involvement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effects of deceptive packaging and product involvement on purchase intention: an elaboration likelihood model perspective.

    PubMed

    Lammers, H B

    2000-04-01

    From an Elaboration Likelihood Model perspective, it was hypothesized that postexposure awareness of deceptive packaging claims would have a greater negative effect on scores for purchase intention by consumers lowly involved rather than highly involved with a product (n = 40). Undergraduates who were classified as either highly or lowly (ns = 20 and 20) involved with M&Ms examined either a deceptive or non-deceptive package design for M&Ms candy and were subsequently informed of the deception employed in the packaging before finally rating their intention to purchase. As anticipated, highly deceived subjects who were low in involvement rated intention to purchase lower than their highly involved peers. Overall, the results attest to the robustness of the model and suggest that the model has implications beyond advertising effects and into packaging effects. PMID:10840911

  2. 45 CFR 690.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... involving human subjects. 690.119 Section 690.119 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the...

  3. 32 CFR 219.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... involving human subjects. 219.119 Section 219.119 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without...

  4. 32 CFR 219.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... involving human subjects. 219.119 Section 219.119 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without...

  5. 32 CFR 219.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... involving human subjects. 219.119 Section 219.119 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without...

  6. 45 CFR 690.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... involving human subjects. 690.119 Section 690.119 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the...

  7. 45 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... involving human subjects. 46.119 Section 46.119 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the...

  8. 32 CFR 219.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... involving human subjects. 219.119 Section 219.119 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without...

  9. 45 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... involving human subjects. 46.119 Section 46.119 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the...

  10. 45 CFR 690.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... involving human subjects. 690.119 Section 690.119 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the...

  11. 14 CFR § 1230.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of involving human subjects. § 1230.119 Section § 1230.119 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS (Eff. until 2-14-14) § 1230.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without...

  12. Resident Fathers' Pregnancy Intentions, Prenatal Behaviors, and Links to Involvement with Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Ryan, Suzanne; Carrano, Jennifer; Moore, Kristen A.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, 9-month resident father surveys (N= 6,816), this paper examines the association between male pregnancy intentions, prenatal behaviors, and postbirth father involvement. Findings indicate that prenatal behaviors are associated with five domains of father involvement. Men who did…

  13. Top-down modulation of brain activity underlying intentional action and its relationship with awareness of intention: an ERP/Laplacian analysis.

    PubMed

    Rigoni, Davide; Brass, Marcel; Roger, Clémence; Vidal, Franck; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    Intentional actions are executed with the peculiar experience of "I decide to do that." It has been proposed that intentional actions involve a specific brain network involving the supplementary motor areas (SMAs). Here, we manipulated the internal representation participants attended to (intention vs. movement) in order to (1) examine the activity of SMAs and of the primary motor cortex (M1) during intentional action preparation and execution, and (2) investigate the temporal relationship between activity in these structures and intention awareness. Participants performed self-paced key presses. After each key press, participants were asked to report either the time they had the first intention to press the key (W-condition) or the time they actually started the movement (M-condition). We then estimated surface Laplacians from brain electrical potentials recorded while participants were performing the task. Activity in SMAs was greater in the W-condition than in the M-condition more than 1 s before electromyographic (EMG) activation, suggesting that this region is indeed associated to the formation of conscious intention. Conversely, activity in primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the responding hand was larger in the M-condition than in the W-condition, revealing that this region is also modulated by top-down processes. In addition, waveforms time-locked to the W-judgement revealed that M1 as well as EMG activation preceded the time at which participants become aware of their intention by about 0.3 s. This observation argues against the possibility that the temporal delay between motor-related activation and intention awareness results from smearing artifacts.

  14. Effects of Issue Involvement and Framing of a Responsible Drinking Message on Attitudes, Intentions, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Anneke; van den Putte, Bas; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2015-08-01

    To decrease the prevalence and the amount of alcohol consumption among students, health messages advocating responsible alcohol behavior can be used. However, it is unclear whether responsible drinking messages are most effective when they use a gain frame, presenting the advantages of responsible drinking, or a loss frame, presenting the disadvantages of irresponsible drinking. This study tests the effects of framing and the moderating role of involvement with the issue of responsible drinking. A three-wave, between-subjects, experimental study was conducted, in which participants (N = 90) were exposed to either a gain- or loss-framed message about responsible drinking behavior at Wave 2. At all three waves, attitudes, intentions and behavior toward responsible drinking were measured. Results showed that for participants with low issue- involvement, a gain frame led to more positive attitudes and intentions toward responsible alcohol use, whereas a loss frame did not have any effects for them. For participants with high issue involvement, a loss frame led to more positive attitudes and intentions toward responsible alcohol use, whereas a gain frame did not have an effect on attitude and only a delayed effect on intention. However, there were no effects of frame and issue involvement on adhering to the guideline of responsible alcohol use and average drinking behavior. PMID:26132603

  15. 14 CFR 1230.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. 1230.119 Section 1230.119 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.119 Research undertaken without the...

  16. 14 CFR 1230.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. 1230.119 Section 1230.119 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.119 Research undertaken without the...

  17. 34 CFR 97.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... human subjects. 97.119 Section 97.119 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving...

  18. 34 CFR 97.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... human subjects. 97.119 Section 97.119 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving...

  19. 34 CFR 97.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... human subjects. 97.119 Section 97.119 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving...

  20. 34 CFR 97.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... human subjects. 97.119 Section 97.119 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving...

  1. Organic food consumption in Taiwan: Motives, involvement, and purchase intention under the moderating role of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Teng, Chih-Ching; Lu, Chi-Heng

    2016-10-01

    Despite the progressive development of the organic food sector in Taiwan, little is known about how consumers' consumption motives will influence organic food decision through various degrees of involvement and whether or not consumers with various degrees of uncertainty will vary in their intention to buy organic foods. The current study aims to examine the effect of consumption motives on behavioral intention related to organic food consumption under the mediating role of involvement as well as the moderating role of uncertainty. Research data were collected from organic food consumers in Taiwan via a questionnaire survey, eventually obtaining 457 valid questionnaires for analysis. This study tested the overall model fit and hypotheses through structural equation modeling method (SEM). The results show that consumer involvement significantly mediates the effects of health consciousness and ecological motives on organic food purchase intention, but not applied to food safety concern. Moreover, the moderating effect of uncertainty is statistical significance, indicating that the relationship between involvement and purchase intention becomes weaker in the condition of consumers with higher degree of uncertainty. Several implications and suggestions are also discussed for organic food providers and marketers.

  2. Organic food consumption in Taiwan: Motives, involvement, and purchase intention under the moderating role of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Teng, Chih-Ching; Lu, Chi-Heng

    2016-10-01

    Despite the progressive development of the organic food sector in Taiwan, little is known about how consumers' consumption motives will influence organic food decision through various degrees of involvement and whether or not consumers with various degrees of uncertainty will vary in their intention to buy organic foods. The current study aims to examine the effect of consumption motives on behavioral intention related to organic food consumption under the mediating role of involvement as well as the moderating role of uncertainty. Research data were collected from organic food consumers in Taiwan via a questionnaire survey, eventually obtaining 457 valid questionnaires for analysis. This study tested the overall model fit and hypotheses through structural equation modeling method (SEM). The results show that consumer involvement significantly mediates the effects of health consciousness and ecological motives on organic food purchase intention, but not applied to food safety concern. Moreover, the moderating effect of uncertainty is statistical significance, indicating that the relationship between involvement and purchase intention becomes weaker in the condition of consumers with higher degree of uncertainty. Several implications and suggestions are also discussed for organic food providers and marketers. PMID:27178878

  3. 14 CFR 1230.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. 1230.119 Section 1230.119 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.119 Research undertaken without the...

  4. 40 CFR 26.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. 26.119 Section 26.119 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA §...

  5. EVENT PRESTIGE AS A MEDIATOR BETWEEN SPORT INVOLVEMENT AND INTENT TO CONTINUE PARTICIPATION.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungmo; Liu, Jing Dong; Love, Adam

    2015-10-01

    The current study examined perceived event prestige as a mediator between sport involvement and sport participation behavioral intent. A total of 455 participants (M age = 28.6 yr., SD = 9.1) were recruited at the 2013 Standard Chartered Hong Kong Marathon. The findings indicated that a model in which perceived event prestige partially mediated the relationship between sport involvement and intent to return to the event was most representative of the data. While individuals with higher sport involvement were more likely to indicate an interest in continued participation, this relationship was strongest among those who perceived the event to be particularly prestigious. Thus, those who market mass participation sporting events should use strategies designed to emphasize the prestigious stature of the event and should employ measures to increase sport involvement among participants.

  6. EVENT PRESTIGE AS A MEDIATOR BETWEEN SPORT INVOLVEMENT AND INTENT TO CONTINUE PARTICIPATION.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungmo; Liu, Jing Dong; Love, Adam

    2015-10-01

    The current study examined perceived event prestige as a mediator between sport involvement and sport participation behavioral intent. A total of 455 participants (M age = 28.6 yr., SD = 9.1) were recruited at the 2013 Standard Chartered Hong Kong Marathon. The findings indicated that a model in which perceived event prestige partially mediated the relationship between sport involvement and intent to return to the event was most representative of the data. While individuals with higher sport involvement were more likely to indicate an interest in continued participation, this relationship was strongest among those who perceived the event to be particularly prestigious. Thus, those who market mass participation sporting events should use strategies designed to emphasize the prestigious stature of the event and should employ measures to increase sport involvement among participants. PMID:26474439

  7. Intentional Development: A Model to Guide Lifelong Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Framed in the context of researching influences on physical activity and actually working with individuals and groups seeking to initiate, increase or maintain physical activity, the purpose of this review is to present the model of Intentional Development as a multi-theoretical approach to guide research and applied work in physical activity.…

  8. Relationships Between Marijuana Dependence and Condom Use Intentions and Behavior Among Justice-Involved Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell Hooper, Ann E.; Thayer, Rachel E.; Magnan, Renee E.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relationships among marijuana dependence, a theoretical model of condom use intentions, and subsequent condom use behavior in justice-involved adolescents. Participants completed baseline measures of prior sexual and substance use behavior. Of the original 720 participants, 649 (90.13 %) completed follow-up measures 6 months later. There were high levels of marijuana use (58.7 % met criteria for dependence) and risky sexual behavior among participants. Baseline model constructs were associated with condom use intentions, and intentions were a significant predictor of condom use at follow-up. Marijuana dependence did not significantly influence the relationships between model constructs, nor did it moderate the relationship of model constructs with subsequent condom use. Findings suggest that the theoretical model of condom use intentions is equally valid regardless of marijuana dependence status, suggesting that interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior among both marijuana dependent and non-dependent justice-involved adolescents can be appropriately based on the model. PMID:23370834

  9. Protestant Evangelical Christian Fathers and Their Intentional Involvement in the Relational Christian Spiritual Formation of Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Steve Richard

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study explored paternal intentional involvement in the relational spiritual formation of their children. The main research question was to what degree are Protestant Evangelical fathers intentionally involved in the relational spiritual formation of their children? The research was based on two domains: relational spiritual…

  10. Promoting Active Involvement in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Bresnahan, Val; Hedin, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for using active involvement techniques, describes large- and small-group methods based on their documented effectiveness and applicability to K-12 classrooms, and illustrates their use. These approaches include ways of engaging students in large groups (e.g., unison responses, response cards, dry-erase boards,…

  11. The effect of gender stereotype activation on entrepreneurial intentions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal K; Turban, Daniel B; Bhawe, Nachiket M

    2008-09-01

    In this study, the impact of implicit and explicit activation of gender stereotypes on men's and women's intentions to pursue a traditionally masculine career, such as entrepreneurship, was examined. On the basis of stereotype activation theory, it was hypothesized that men and women would confirm the gender stereotype about entrepreneurship when it was presented implicitly but disconfirm it when it was presented explicitly. Hypotheses were tested by randomly assigning 469 business students to one of 6 experimental conditions and then measuring their entrepreneurial intentions. Results supported the hypothesis when entrepreneurship was associated with stereotypically masculine characteristics but not when it was associated with traditionally feminine characteristics. Men also had higher entrepreneurial intention scores compared with women when no stereotypical information about entrepreneurship was presented, suggesting that underlying societal stereotypes associating entrepreneurship with masculine characteristics may influence people's intentions. However, men and women reported similar intentions when entrepreneurship was presented as gender neutral, suggesting that widely held gender stereotypes can be nullified. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:18808225

  12. Intentional replantation for a periodontally involved hopeless incisor by using autologous platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Tözüm, Tolga Fikret; Keçeli, Hüseyin Gencay; Serper, Ahmet; Tuncel, Behram

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present case is to describe the use of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in an intentional replantation procedure for a periodontally involved lower right central incisor with 18 months follow-up. Brief information is also given on the preoperative preparation of PRP in the dental office. PRP preparation is a new biotechnology, and the prepared material contains thrombocyte concentrates and high levels of growth factors. This material promotes healing time in a range of various sites. In this case, a tooth with severe periodontal breakdown was treated with PRP with intentional replantation procedure. This tooth was previously treated with root canal treatment and root planing. The tooth was extracted, and was replanted with autologous PRP. Clinical and radiographic follow-up for 18 months demonstrated new bone formation around the apical portion of the root and all clinical parameters indicated a trend of healing. The mobility of this previously grade III mobile incisor returned to normal limits. We speculate that intentional replantation with PRP application may induce wound healing and may induce bone formation.

  13. Relationship between involvement and functional milk desserts intention to purchase. Influence on attitude towards packaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Besio, Mariángela; Giménez, Ana; Deliza, Rosires

    2010-10-01

    Consumers perceive functional foods as member of the particular food category to which they belong. In this context, apart from health and sensory characteristics, non-sensory factors such as packaging might have a key role on determining consumers' purchase decisions regarding functional foods. The aims of the present work were to study the influence of different package attributes on consumer willingness to purchase regular and functional chocolate milk desserts; and to assess if the influence of these attributes was affected by consumers' level of involvement with the product. A conjoint analysis task was carried out with 107 regular milk desserts consumers, who were asked to score their willingness to purchase of 16 milk dessert package concepts varying in five features of the package, and to complete a personal involvement inventory questionnaire. Consumers' level of involvement with the product affected their interest in the evaluated products and their reaction towards the considered conjoint variables, suggesting that it could be a useful segmentation tool during food development. Package colour and the presence of a picture on the label were the variables with the highest relative importance, regardless of consumers' involvement with the product. The importance of these variables was higher than the type of dessert indicating that packaging may play an important role in consumers' perception and purchase intention of functional foods.

  14. Relationship between involvement and functional milk desserts intention to purchase. Influence on attitude towards packaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Besio, Mariángela; Giménez, Ana; Deliza, Rosires

    2010-10-01

    Consumers perceive functional foods as member of the particular food category to which they belong. In this context, apart from health and sensory characteristics, non-sensory factors such as packaging might have a key role on determining consumers' purchase decisions regarding functional foods. The aims of the present work were to study the influence of different package attributes on consumer willingness to purchase regular and functional chocolate milk desserts; and to assess if the influence of these attributes was affected by consumers' level of involvement with the product. A conjoint analysis task was carried out with 107 regular milk desserts consumers, who were asked to score their willingness to purchase of 16 milk dessert package concepts varying in five features of the package, and to complete a personal involvement inventory questionnaire. Consumers' level of involvement with the product affected their interest in the evaluated products and their reaction towards the considered conjoint variables, suggesting that it could be a useful segmentation tool during food development. Package colour and the presence of a picture on the label were the variables with the highest relative importance, regardless of consumers' involvement with the product. The importance of these variables was higher than the type of dessert indicating that packaging may play an important role in consumers' perception and purchase intention of functional foods. PMID:20609376

  15. An Exploration of How Involvement in a Freshman Retention Program Relates to Intention to Complete an Undergraduate Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clounch, Teresa Lynn

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the relationship of the level and type of involvement of freshman students in the Hawk Link Retention Program, a first-year program at the University of Kansas, to intent to return and graduate. The study found that participants were retained at a high level but that their type and level of involvement were not related to…

  16. Active route learning in virtual environments: disentangling movement control from intention, instruction specificity, and navigation control.

    PubMed

    von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C

    2013-09-01

    Active navigation research examines how physiological and psychological involvement in navigation benefits spatial learning. However, existing conceptualizations of active navigation comprise separable, distinct factors. This research disentangles the contributions of movement control (i.e., self-contained vs. observed movement) as a central factor from learning intention (Experiment 1), instruction specificity and instruction control (Experiment 2), as well as navigation control (Experiment 3) to spatial learning in virtual environments. We tested the effects of these factors on landmark recognition (landmark knowledge), tour-integration and route navigation (route knowledge). Our findings suggest that movement control leads to robust advantages in landmark knowledge as compared to observed movement. Advantages in route knowledge do not depend on learning intention, but on the need to elaborate spatial information. Whenever the necessary level of elaboration is assured for observed movement, too, the development of route knowledge is not inferior to that for self-contained movement.

  17. 40 CFR 26.203 - Prohibition of research conducted or supported by EPA involving intentional exposure of any human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... her fetus), a nursing woman, or child. 26.203 Section 26.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Involving Intentional Exposure of Human Subjects who are Children or Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.203... is a pregnant woman (and therefore her fetus), a nursing woman, or child. Notwithstanding any...

  18. 40 CFR 26.203 - Prohibition of research conducted or supported by EPA involving intentional exposure of any human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... her fetus), a nursing woman, or child. 26.203 Section 26.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Involving Intentional Exposure of Human Subjects who are Children or Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.203... is a pregnant woman (and therefore her fetus), a nursing woman, or child. Notwithstanding any...

  19. 40 CFR 26.203 - Prohibition of research conducted or supported by EPA involving intentional exposure of any human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... her fetus), a nursing woman, or child. 26.203 Section 26.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Involving Intentional Exposure of Human Subjects who are Children or Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.203... is a pregnant woman (and therefore her fetus), a nursing woman, or child. Notwithstanding any...

  20. 40 CFR 26.203 - Prohibition of research conducted or supported by EPA involving intentional exposure of any human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... her fetus), a nursing woman, or child. 26.203 Section 26.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Involving Intentional Exposure of Human Subjects who are Children or Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.203... is a pregnant woman (and therefore her fetus), a nursing woman, or child. Notwithstanding any...

  1. 40 CFR 26.203 - Prohibition of research conducted or supported by EPA involving intentional exposure of any human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... her fetus), a nursing woman, or child. 26.203 Section 26.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Involving Intentional Exposure of Human Subjects who are Children or Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.203... is a pregnant woman (and therefore her fetus), a nursing woman, or child. Notwithstanding any...

  2. Influences of volitional and forced intentions on physical activity and effort within the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Frederick, Christina; Biddle, Stuart J H; Hagger, Martin S; Smith, Brett

    2007-04-01

    In the present study, we examined the utility of volitional and forced intentions in predicting participation in physical activities and effort within the theory of planned behaviour. Four hundred and forty-four participants (184 males, 260 females) aged 19.1 +/- 3.3 years (mean +/- s) completed self-report measures of intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, volitional intentions, forced intentions, and past behaviour in a physical activity context. Six weeks later, they completed self-report measures of physical activity behaviour and effort. Results indicated that volitional intentions and forced intentions contributed to the prediction of effort over and above intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, perceptions of control, past behaviour, and the product terms of attitudesxintentions and subjective normsxintentions. Volitional intentions and forced intentions did not predict participation in physical activities over and above effort. We concluded that volitional intentions and forced intentions assist in the explanation of effort in the context of physical activity behaviour.

  3. Determinants of leisure-time physical activity and future intention to practice in Spanish college students.

    PubMed

    Molina-García, Javier; Castillo, Isabel; Pablos, Carlos

    2009-05-01

    Few studies analyze determinants and patterns of physical activity among college students, so it has not been possible to carry out effective interventions to promote this practice. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between some personal, social, and environmental determinants, practice of physical activity and future intention to practice in a sample of 639 university students (321 men and 318 women), mean age 21.43 years (+/- 2.78). Physical fitness self-perception, physical activity history, and coach's support to practice physical activity have a direct effect on the practice of physical activity and an indirect effect on future intention to practice, both in men and women. The practice of physical activity has also a direct effect on future intention to practice. Likewise, the participation in sport competitions predicts practice of physical activity and future intention in men, whereas being a member of a sports club predicts practice and future intention in women. PMID:19476226

  4. Frontal and parietal lobe involvement in the processing of pretence and intention.

    PubMed

    Chiavarino, Claudia; Apperly, Ian A; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2009-09-01

    We assessed whether different processes might be at play during pretence understanding by examining breakdowns of performance in participants with acquired brain damage. In Experiment 1 patients with frontal or parietal lesions and neurologically intact adults were asked to categorize videos of pretend and real actions. In Experiment 2 participants saw three types of videos: real intentional actions, real accidental actions, and pretend actions. In one session they judged whether the actions they saw were intentional or accidental, and in a second session they judged whether the actions were real or pretend. Parietal patients had particular difficulties in the identification of pretend actions, and both parietal and frontal patients were more impaired than controls in understanding the intentional nature of pretence. Analyses of individual patients' performance revealed that parietal lesions, and in particular lesions to the temporo-parietal junction, impaired the ability to discriminate pretend from real actions. However, this did not necessarily affect the discrimination of intentional from unintentional actions, which instead may be independently disrupted by damage to frontal areas. Moreover, spared ability to discriminate pretend actions from real actions, and intentional actions from accidental actions, did not grant a full conceptual understanding of the intentional nature of pretence. The implications for pretence understanding are discussed. PMID:19219753

  5. 40 CFR 26.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research undertaken without the... PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.119 Research undertaken without the intention of...

  6. 40 CFR 26.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Research undertaken without the... PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.119 Research undertaken without the intention of...

  7. Determinants of Teachers' Intentions To Teach Physically Active Physical Education Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Eklund, Robert C.; Reed, Brett

    2001-01-01

    Investigated elementary and secondary teachers' intentions to teach physically active physical education classes, examining a model hypothesizing that teachers' intentions were determined by subjective norm, attitude, perceived behavioral control, and self-efficacy. Teacher surveys supported the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.…

  8. Effect of university physical education courses on intention for physical activity adherence in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Soo; Lee, Hwa-Suk

    2010-10-01

    Individuals' intentions of adopting physical activity as part of their lifestyle changed after university physical education courses in Korea. Male students (N = 264) taking physical education courses at a university in Korea were tested on the first and last day of a semester using a physical activity adherence questionnaire. The results showed that the intention to continue physical activity increased after taking the courses. PMID:21162447

  9. Intention to be Physically Active is Influenced by Physical Activity and Fitness, Sedentary Behaviours, and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Nuviala, Alberto; Pérez-Turpin, José A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of levels of physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), sedentary lifestyle and life satisfaction with the intention to be physically active after secondary school graduation, in teenagers of both genders. A total of 1986 Spanish adolescents (12-16 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. PA, sedentary lifestyle, life satisfaction and intention to be physically active were assessed through validated questionnaires, and PF was evaluated objectively with the ALPHA battery tests. In both genders, adolescents who had significantly higher odds ratios (OR) of showing low intention to be physically active had low level of PA, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness in the lower body, and they were more sedentary in front of the computer. The girls that spent a lot of time watching TV and the boys with low life satisfaction also showed higher OR of having low intention to be physically active. PMID:26898051

  10. Independent and joint effects of personality on intentions to become an active participant in local union activities in Canada.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Deborah M; Sears, Greg J; Wiesner, Willi H

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this field study (N = 282) investigates the impact of two focal personality traits, extraversion and conscientiousness, on employees' attitudes and intentions to actively participate in their local union. Consistent with the TPB, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and attitudes toward participation each explained unique variance in union participation intentions. Furthermore, results revealed that extraversion was positively related, and conscientiousness was negatively related to participation intentions, with attitudes toward participation mediating these effects. A significant interaction between extraversion and conscientiousness was also observed, such that introverted workers higher in conscientiousness were less inclined to express positive attitudes toward union participation. Overall, these results provide support for the utility of the TPB in predicting union participation intentions and highlight the vital role that personality traits may play in determining union participation attitudes and intentions. PMID:24684076

  11. Executive function moderates the intention-behavior link for physical activity and dietary behavior.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Epp, Lynette J; Elias, Lorin J

    2008-01-01

    Dominant theories of health behavior posit that social-cognitive and conative variables are sufficient to explain health behavior tendencies. The current studies challenge this assumption in two ways: (1) by demonstrating that unique variance in health protective behavior is predictable by knowing about individual differences in executive functioning, and (2) by demonstrating that executive function moderates the association between intention and behavior. In Studies 1 and 2, participants completed a computer-based task of executive function (Go/NoGo task) and articulated 1-week behavioral intentions for physical activity (Study 1) and dietary behavior (Study 2). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that executive function predicts unique variance in both behaviors, and strongly moderates the association between behavioral intention and behavioral performance. Together behavioral intention and executive function explain more variance in health protective behavior than 'rational actor' models that have been widely adopted and disseminated. PMID:25160480

  12. Intentional reim plantation of a tooth with severe periodontal involvement using enamel matrix derivative in combination with guided tissue regeneration and bone grafting: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sugai, Kenji; Sato, Shuichi; Suzuki, Kuniharu; Ito, Koichi

    2008-02-01

    This case involved the intentional reimplantation of a tooth with severe periodontal involvement using regenerative therapies. The maxillary left central incisor was intentionally extracted, enamel matrix derivative (EMD) was applied, and the tooth was repositioned accurately. The bone defect was filled with a xenograft and a demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft, and a guided tissue regeneration membrane was adapted over the site. After 5 years, a reduction in probing depth and a gain in clinical attachment were observed. Conventional radiographs and cone-beam computerized tomographs showed hard tissue improvement. Favorable clinical results were obtained with reimplantation with applied EMD, combined with regenerative therapies, for treating a tooth with severe periodontal involvement.

  13. Physically active students' intentions and self-efficacy towards healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Bebetsos, Evagelos; Chroni, Stiliani; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated intentions and self-efficacy of physically active university students towards healthy eating. The application of Planned Behavior theory has shown that attitudes, intention, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms play an important role in shaping people's behavior. 96 students, who participated in physical activities, voluntarily completed the Questionnaire for the Planned Behavior Model and the Health Behavior Questionnaire. The former examines attitudes, intentions, perceived behavioral control, and the lately added attitude strength, and role identity towards the behavior factors. The latter assesses one's efficacy expectations towards healthy eating. The regression showed strong associations between the examined variables, signifying that attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and role identity could account for one's intention towards healthy eating behaviors. On the other hand, one's self-efficacy for healthy eating could be explained from the attitudes, intention, perceived behavioral control, and attitude strength held. Overall, systematic participation in physical activities appeared to be accompanied with a relatively healthier diet, while self-efficacy had a significant association with maintaining the healthy eating behaviors. Possible interpretations, limitations, and implications for health professionals are discussed.

  14. Physically active students' intentions and self-efficacy towards healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Bebetsos, Evagelos; Chroni, Stiliani; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated intentions and self-efficacy of physically active university students towards healthy eating. The application of Planned Behavior theory has shown that attitudes, intention, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms play an important role in shaping people's behavior. 96 students, who participated in physical activities, voluntarily completed the Questionnaire for the Planned Behavior Model and the Health Behavior Questionnaire. The former examines attitudes, intentions, perceived behavioral control, and the lately added attitude strength, and role identity towards the behavior factors. The latter assesses one's efficacy expectations towards healthy eating. The regression showed strong associations between the examined variables, signifying that attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and role identity could account for one's intention towards healthy eating behaviors. On the other hand, one's self-efficacy for healthy eating could be explained from the attitudes, intention, perceived behavioral control, and attitude strength held. Overall, systematic participation in physical activities appeared to be accompanied with a relatively healthier diet, while self-efficacy had a significant association with maintaining the healthy eating behaviors. Possible interpretations, limitations, and implications for health professionals are discussed. PMID:12416842

  15. Habit as moderator of the intention-physical activity relationship in older adults: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    van Bree, Rob J H; van Stralen, Maartje M; Bolman, Catherine; Mudde, Aart N; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether habit strength moderates the intention-physical activity (PA) relationship in older adults, within the framework of the attitude-social influences-efficacy (ASE) model and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). A total of 1836 older adults (Mage = 62.95 years, SDage = 8.17) completed a questionnaire on social cognitive constructs and PA habit strength at baseline, and six months later a measure of PA. Three PA habit groups (i.e., low, medium and high) were composed, based on tertiles of the mean index score. Multi-group structural equation modelling analyses showed that intention significantly determined PA behaviour only in participants with a low or medium habit strength towards PA. This result suggests that PA is not intentional at high levels of habit strength and demonstrates the usefulness of incorporating habit in the ASE and TPB models. Results also showed that about half of the participants with a strong PA habit did not meet the recommended PA level. As strong habits may prevent intentional behavioural change and may hinder the receptiveness and openness for informational PA change strategies, additional intervention strategies, such as awareness raising and the use of implementation intentions, are needed for strongly habitual, but insufficiently active older adults. PMID:23244776

  16. A daily process analysis of intentions and physical activity in college students.

    PubMed

    Conroy, David E; Elavsky, Steriani; Doerksen, Shawna E; Maher, Jaclyn P

    2013-10-01

    Social-cognitive theories, such as the theory of planned behavior, posit intentions as proximal influences on physical activity (PA). This paper extends those theories by examining within-person variation in intentions and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as a function of the unfolding constraints in people's daily lives (e.g., perceived time availability, fatigue, soreness, weather, overeating). College students (N = 63) completed a 14-day diary study over the Internet that rated daily motivation, contextual constraints, and MVPA. Key findings from multilevel analyses were that (1) between-person differences represented 46% and 33% of the variability in daily MVPA intentions and behavior, respectively; (2) attitudes, injunctive norms, self-efficacy, perceptions of limited time availability, and weekend status predicted daily changes in intention strength; and (3) daily changes in intentions, perceptions of limited time availability, and weekend status predicted day-to-day changes in MVPA. Embedding future motivation and PA research in the context of people's daily lives will advance understanding of individual PA change processes. PMID:24197717

  17. Using Movement and Intentions to Understand Human Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Kumar, Shawn; Abrams, Richard A.; Mehta, Ritesh

    2009-01-01

    During perception, people segment continuous activity into discrete events. They do so in part by monitoring changes in features of an ongoing activity. Characterizing these features is important for theories of event perception and may be helpful for designing information systems. The three experiments reported here asked whether the body…

  18. Psychological Needs Satisfaction, Motivational Regulations and Physical Activity Intention among Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Weiyun

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between psychological needs satisfaction, motivational regulations in physical education and physical activity intention among elementary school students. A total of 291 elementary school students in grades 3-6 voluntarily completed the three measures. This study indicated that satisfaction of three basic…

  19. 77 FR 37706 - Agency Information Collection Activities: 30-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Agency Information Collection Activities: 30-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for Public Comment AGENCY: National Park Service,...

  20. 76 FR 60810 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Intent To Renew Collection, Copies of Crop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ..., usefulness, and clarity of the information to be collected; and Ways to minimize the burden of collection of... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Intent To Renew Collection, Copies of Crop and Market Information Reports AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  1. The Effects of Discriminate Message Interventions on Behavioral Intentions to Engage in Physical Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Taejin; Heald, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors attempt to show the usefulness of discriminate messages designed to increase college students' intentions to engage in physical activities. Participants: The authors selected a sample of undergraduate students enrolled in communication courses at a university in the southeastern United States for a baseline online survey (n…

  2. Physical Education Lessons and Physical Activity Intentions within Spanish Secondary Schools: A Self-Determination Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Oliva, David; Sanchez-Miguel, Pedro Antonio; Leo, Francisco Miguel; Kinnafick, Florence-Emilie; García-Calvo, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, the purpose of this study was to analyze how motivational processes within Physical Education classes can predict intention to participate in sport or physical activity outside of the school curriculum. Participants included 1,692 Spanish students aged 12-16 years (M = 13.34; SD = 0.76) who participated in…

  3. 77 FR 77038 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Intent to Renew Collection, Futures Volume...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Intent to Renew Collection, Futures Volume... comment in response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on futures volume, open interest, price... responses. Futures Volume, Open Interest, Price, Deliveries and Exchange of Futures for Physicals,...

  4. Anterior insula activity reflects the effects of intentionality on the anticipation of aversive stimulation.

    PubMed

    Liljeholm, Mimi; Dunne, Simon; O'Doherty, John P

    2014-08-20

    If someone causes you harm, your affective reaction to that person might be profoundly influenced by your inferences about the intentionality of their actions. In the present study, we aimed to understand how affective responses to a biologically salient aversive outcome administered by others are modulated by the extent to which a given individual is judged to have deliberately or inadvertently delivered the outcome. Using fMRI, we examined how neural responses to anticipation and receipt of an aversive stimulus are modulated by this fundamental social judgment. We found that affective evaluations about an individual whose actions led to either noxious or neutral consequences for the subject did indeed depend on the perceived intentions of that individual. At the neural level, activity in the anterior insula correlated with the interaction between perceived intentionality and anticipated outcome valence, suggesting that this region reflects the influence of mental state attribution on aversive expectations.

  5. Understanding Physical Activity Intention in Canadian School Children and Youth: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mummery, W. Kerry; Spence, John C.; Hudee, John C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated how well the theory of planned behavior could predict students' physical activity intention. Surveys indicated that direct measures of the theory of planned behavior explained 47 percent of variability in the measure of physical activity intention. Differences surfaced in the relative contributions of three predictors (attitude,…

  6. Active glass-type human augmented cognition system considering attention and intention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bumhwi; Ojha, Amitash; Lee, Minho

    2015-10-01

    Human cognition is the result of an interaction of several complex cognitive processes with limited capabilities. Therefore, the primary objective of human cognitive augmentation is to assist and expand these limited human cognitive capabilities independently or together. In this study, we propose a glass-type human augmented cognition system, which attempts to actively assist human memory functions by providing relevant, necessary and intended information by constantly assessing intention of the user. To achieve this, we exploit selective attention and intention processes. Although the system can be used in various real-life scenarios, we test the performance of the system in a person identity scenario. To detect the intended face, the system analyses the gaze points and change in pupil size to determine the intention of the user. An assessment of the gaze points and change in pupil size together indicates that the user intends to know the identity and information about the person in question. Then, the system retrieves several clues through speech recognition system and retrieves relevant information about the face, which is finally displayed through head-mounted display. We present the performance of several components of the system. Our results show that the active and relevant assistance based on users' intention significantly helps the enhancement of memory functions.

  7. EEG activations during intentional inhibition of voluntary action: an electrophysiological correlate of self-control?

    PubMed

    Walsh, E; Kühn, S; Brass, M; Wenke, D; Haggard, P

    2010-01-01

    An important aspect of volition is the internal decision whether to act or to withhold an action. We used EEG frequency analysis of sensorimotor rhythms to investigate brain activity when people prepare and then cancel a voluntary action. Participants used a rotating clock-hand to report when they experienced the intention to press a key with their right hand, even on trials where they freely decided to inhibit movement at the last moment. On action trials, we observed the classical pattern of reduced beta-band spectral power prior to movement, followed by beta rebound after movement. On inhibition trials where participants prepared but then cancelled a movement, we found a left frontal increase in spectral power (event-related synchronisation: ERS) peaking 12 ms before the perceived intention to move. This neural correlate of intentional inhibition was significantly different from the activity at the corresponding moment in action trials. The results are discussed in the context of a recent model of voluntary action (WWW model; Brass & Haggard, 2008). Planned actions can be subjected to a final predictive check which either commits actions for execution or suspends and withholds them. The neural mechanism of intentional inhibition may play an important role in self-control.

  8. Motivation and intention to integrate physical activity into daily school life: the JAM World Record event.

    PubMed

    Vazou, Spyridoula; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P

    2014-11-01

    Research on the motivation of stakeholders to integrate physical activity into daily school life is limited. The purpose was to examine the motivation of stakeholders to participate in a world record physical activity event and whether motivation was associated with future intention to use activity breaks during the daily school life and future participation in a similar event. After the 2012 JAM (Just-a-Minute) World Record event, 686 adults (591 women; 76.1% participated for children <10 years) completed measures of motivational regulations and future intention to (a) use the activity breaks and (b) participate in the event. High intrinsic motivation and low extrinsic motivation and amotivation for participation in the next event were reported. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for age, gender, and occupation, showed that intrinsic forms of motivation positively predicted, whereas amotivation negatively predicted, future intention to participate in the event and use the activity breaks. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that school-related participants were more intrinsically motivated and intended to use the activity breaks and repeat the event more than those who were not affiliated with a school. Nonschool participants reported higher extrinsic motivation and amotivation than school-related participants. PMID:25001232

  9. Motivation and intention to integrate physical activity into daily school life: the JAM World Record event.

    PubMed

    Vazou, Spyridoula; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P

    2014-11-01

    Research on the motivation of stakeholders to integrate physical activity into daily school life is limited. The purpose was to examine the motivation of stakeholders to participate in a world record physical activity event and whether motivation was associated with future intention to use activity breaks during the daily school life and future participation in a similar event. After the 2012 JAM (Just-a-Minute) World Record event, 686 adults (591 women; 76.1% participated for children <10 years) completed measures of motivational regulations and future intention to (a) use the activity breaks and (b) participate in the event. High intrinsic motivation and low extrinsic motivation and amotivation for participation in the next event were reported. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for age, gender, and occupation, showed that intrinsic forms of motivation positively predicted, whereas amotivation negatively predicted, future intention to participate in the event and use the activity breaks. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that school-related participants were more intrinsically motivated and intended to use the activity breaks and repeat the event more than those who were not affiliated with a school. Nonschool participants reported higher extrinsic motivation and amotivation than school-related participants.

  10. Influences of personality traits and continuation intentions on physical activity participation within the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Hagger, Martin S

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the theory of planned behaviour is insufficient in capturing all the antecedents of physical activity participation and that continuation intentions or personality traits may improve the predictive validity of the model. The present study examined the combined effects of continuation intentions and personality traits on health behaviour within the theory of planned behaviour. To examine these effects, 180 university students (N = 180, Male = 87, Female = 93, Age = 19.14 years, SD = 0.94) completed self-report measures of the theory of planned behaviour, personality traits and continuation intentions. After 5 weeks, perceived achievement of behavioural outcomes and actual participation in physical activities were assessed. Results supported discriminant validity between continuation intentions, conscientiousness and extroversion and indicated that perceived achievement of behavioural outcomes and continuation intentions of failure predicted physical activity participation after controlling for personality effects, past behaviour and other variables in the theory of planned behaviour. In addition, results indicated that conscientiousness moderated the effects of continuation intentions of failure on physical activity such that continuation intentions of failure predicted physical activity participation among conscientious and not among less conscientious individuals. These findings suggest that the effects of continuation intentions on health behaviour are contingent on personality characteristics.

  11. Behavioral Intention to Use a Virtual Instrumental Activities of Daily Living System Among People With Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Richard; White, Marga; Diamond, Paul

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavioral intention to use (BIU) regarding a virtual system for practicing instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among people with stroke. METHOD. Fourteen people who had sustained a stroke used a virtual world–based system over four sessions to participate in virtual occupations of preparing meals and putting away groceries. To investigate intention to use the technology, participants responded to a questionnaire based on the Technology Acceptance Model and were interviewed about the experience. RESULTS. Analysis of questionnaire responses revealed favorable attitudes toward the technology and statistically significant correlations between these attitudes and positive BIU. Analysis of qualitative data revealed four themes to support system use: Use of the affected arm increased, the virtual practice was enjoyable, the technology was user-friendly, and the system reflected real-life activities. CONCLUSION. This study shows that participants reported a positive BIU for the virtual system for practicing IADLs. PMID:25871604

  12. Increased Event-Related Potentials and Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-Activity Associated with Intentional Actions

    PubMed Central

    Karch, Susanne; Loy, Fabian; Krause, Daniela; Schwarz, Sandra; Kiesewetter, Jan; Segmiller, Felix; Chrobok, Agnieszka I.; Keeser, Daniel; Pogarell, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Internally guided actions are defined as being purposeful, self-generated and offering choices between alternatives. Intentional actions are essential to reach individual goals. In previous empirical studies, internally guided actions were predominantly related to functional responses in frontal and parietal areas. The aim of the present study was to distinguish event-related potentials and oscillatory responses of intentional actions and externally guided actions. In addition, we compared neurobiological findings of the decision which action to perform with those referring to the decision whether or not to perform an action. Methods: Twenty-eight subjects participated in adapted go/nogo paradigms, including a voluntary selection condition allowing participants to (1) freely decide whether to press the response button or (2) to decide whether they wanted to press the response button with the right index finger or the left index finger. Results: The reaction times were increased when participants freely decided whether and how they wanted to respond compared to the go condition. Intentional processes were associated with a fronto-centrally located N2 and P3 potential. N2 and P3 amplitudes were increased during intentional actions compared to instructed responses (go). In addition, increased activity in the alpha-, beta- and gamma-frequency range was shown during voluntary behavior rather than during externally guided responses. Conclusion: These results may indicate that an additional cognitive process is needed for intentional actions compared to instructed behavior. However, the neural responses were comparatively independent of the kind of decision that was made (1) decision which action to perform; (2) decision whether or not to perform an action). Significance: The study demonstrates the importance of fronto-central alpha-, beta-, and gamma oscillations for voluntary behavior. PMID:26834680

  13. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  14. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  15. [Impact of the activation of intention to perform physical activity in type II diabetics: a randomized clinical trial].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marco Antonio Vieira; Gouvêa, Giovana Renata; Claro, Anielle Fabiane Buoso; Agondi, Rúbia de Freitas; Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Mialhe, Fábio Luiz

    2015-03-01

    Type II diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent disease among the adult Brazilian population, and one that can be controlled by interventions such as physical activity, among others. The aim of this randomized controlled study was to evaluate the impact of a traditional motivational strategy, associated with the activation of intention theory, on adherence to physical activity in patients with type II, diabetes mellitus who are part of the Unified Health System (SUS). Participants were divided into a control group (CG) and an intervention group (IG). In both groups, the traditional motivational strategy was applied, but the activation of intention strategy was only applied to the IG Group. After a two-month follow-up, statistically significant differences were verified between the groups, related to the practice of walking (p = 0.0050), number of days per week (p = 0.0076), minutes per day (p = 0.0050) and minutes walking per week (p = 0.0015). At the end of the intervention, statistically significant differences in abdominal circumference (p = 0.0048) between the groups were observed. The conclusion drawn is that the activation of intention strategy had greater impact on adherence to physical activity and reduction in abdominal circumference in type II diabetics, than traditional motivational strategy.

  16. Measuring psychological engagement in youth activity involvement.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Heather L; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Busseri, Michael A; Gadbois, Shannon; Bowker, Anne; Findlay, Leanne

    2015-12-01

    Although psychological engagement (e.g., enjoyment, concentration) may be critical in fostering positive outcomes of youth activity participation, too few studies have been conducted to establish its role in development. Furthermore, an established measurement tool is lacking. In the current study, we evaluated a brief engagement measure with two Canadian samples of youth (Sample 1, N = 290, mean age = 16.9 years, 62% female; Sample 2, N = 1827, mean age = 13.1 years, 54% female). We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis with structural equation modeling to examine the hypothesized structure of the model. We also assessed the measure's validity by testing relations between engagement and both perceived outcomes and positive features of activity settings. Psychological engagement was best captured by three latent cognitive, affective, and relational/spiritual factors and a second-order latent factor. Also, as anticipated, psychological engagement was associated with features of the activity setting and perceived impact.

  17. Messages to promote physical activity: Are descriptors of required duration and intensity related to intentions to be more active?

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Emily C. L.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Taylor, Ian M.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.; Webb, Oliver J.; Sherar, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Mass-media campaigns such as, “Change4Life’ in the UK and “get active America” in the US, promote physical activity (PA) recommendations of at least 150 min/week of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). We investigated whether different messages used in MVPA campaigns were associated with intention to engage in more MVPA. Materials and Methods: Theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs; subjective norms, affective attitudes, instrumental attitudes and perceived behavioral control (PBC) were applied to explain the associations between campaign messages and intentions to engage in more MVPA. Results: A total of 1412 UK adults completed an online survey on MVPA and TPB. The sample was 70% female and 93% white with 23% reporting meeting PA guidelines. Participants received one of three messages: A walking message either with or without the 150 min/week threshold (WalkT; WalkNT); a physiological description of MVPA with the 150 min/week threshold (PhysT). ANCOVA examined group differences in intention. Path analysis evaluated mediation by TPB variables. ANCOVA identified lower intentions to increase MVPA in group PhysT relative to WalkT and WalkNT (P < 0.001). PBC mediated this relationship in WalkT (β = 0.014, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.004–0.028) whereas affective attitudes mediated this relationship in WalkNT (β = 0.059, 95% CI = 0.006–0.113). Conclusions: Campaigns promoting MVPA guidelines need to choose their messages carefully. Messages which exemplified MVPA through walking were associated with higher intentions to increase MVPA than messages using a physiological description. Further, PBC was enhanced when the 150 min/week threshold was promoted alongside the walking exemplar. Future exemplars should be investigated to inform adults how to meet MVPA guidelines. PMID:27462619

  18. Young People's Perceptions of the Mathematics Involved in Everyday Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Amanda; Ruthven, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    English secondary students were shown pictures of everyday activities and interviewed about whether math was involved. They were aware of daily math and did not have difficulties identifying math in practical or traditionally female activities. However, they restricted math to activities involving single-solution problems and formal rather than…

  19. Motivational considerations in physical activity involvement.

    PubMed

    Lewthwaite, R

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine movement science research on personal and social-environmental motivational influences in physical activity contexts. Motivation is defined as a process in which internal and external factors direct and energize thoughts, feelings, and actions. Motivation is described as a consequence of meaning, which is derived from a combination of personal and social factors, including personal goals or incentives, expectations of personal efficacy, movement-related perceptual and affective experiences, and social and physical features of the environment. Recent literature from sport and exercise psychology is presented on these variables, their determinants, and their consequences for choice, effort, persistence, and performance behavior in exercise and sport contexts.

  20. "Knowledge Is Acting": Working-Class Parents' Intentional Acts of Positioning within the Discursive Practice of Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Positioning theory provides a lens through which to view the narrative accounts of working-class parents as dynamic, intentional acts of positioning intended to gain the recognition of school personnel as full partners in the education of their children. Knowing that school personnel will not treat them with the kind of respect given middle-class…

  1. 40 CFR 26.1203 - Prohibition of research involving intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant woman (and therefore her fetus), a nursing woman... Pesticide of Human Subjects who are Children or Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.1203 Prohibition of research... nursing woman, or a child. Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, under no circumstances...

  2. 40 CFR 26.1203 - Prohibition of research involving intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant woman (and therefore her fetus), a nursing woman... Exposure of Human Subjects who are Children or Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.1203 Prohibition of research... nursing woman, or a child. Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, under no circumstances...

  3. 40 CFR 26.1703 - Prohibition of reliance on research involving intentional exposure of human subjects who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...), nursing women, or children. 26.1703 Section 26.1703 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... intentional exposure of human subjects who are pregnant women (and therefore their fetuses), nursing women, or... therefore her fetus), a nursing woman, or a child....

  4. 40 CFR 26.1703 - Prohibition of reliance on research involving intentional exposure of human subjects who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), nursing women, or children. 26.1703 Section 26.1703 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... intentional exposure of human subjects who are pregnant women (and therefore their fetuses), nursing women, or... therefore her fetus), a nursing woman, or a child....

  5. 40 CFR 26.1203 - Prohibition of research involving intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant woman (and therefore her fetus), a nursing woman... Exposure of Human Subjects who are Children or Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.1203 Prohibition of research... nursing woman, or a child. Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, under no circumstances...

  6. 40 CFR 26.1203 - Prohibition of research involving intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant woman (and therefore her fetus), a nursing woman... Pesticide of Human Subjects who are Children or Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.1203 Prohibition of research... nursing woman, or a child. Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, under no circumstances...

  7. 40 CFR 26.1203 - Prohibition of research involving intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant woman (and therefore her fetus), a nursing woman... Exposure of Human Subjects who are Children or Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.1203 Prohibition of research... nursing woman, or a child. Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, under no circumstances...

  8. 40 CFR 26.1703 - Prohibition of reliance on research involving intentional exposure of human subjects who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...), nursing women, or children. 26.1703 Section 26.1703 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... intentional exposure of human subjects who are pregnant women (and therefore their fetuses), nursing women, or... therefore her fetus), a nursing woman, or a child....

  9. Translating good intentions into physical activity: older adults with low prospective memory ability profit from planning.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Julia K; Warner, Lisa M; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wurm, Susanne; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to perform an intended action in the future and is necessary for regular physical activity (PA). For older adults with declining PM, planning strategies may help them to act upon their intentions. This study investigates PM as a moderator in a mediation process: intention predicting PA via planning. A mediated moderation was estimated with longitudinal data of older adults (M = 70 years). Intentions (T1) predicted PA (T3) via action and coping planning (T2). PM was included as moderator on the planning-PA association. Both planning strategies were significant partial mediators (action planning: b = 0.17, 95 % CI [0.10, 0.29]; coping planning: b = 0.08, 95 % CI [0.02, 0.18]). For individuals with lower PM, the indirect effect via coping planning was stronger than with higher PM (b = 0.06, 95 % CI [0.01, 0.16]). Action planning is important for PA in old age regardless of PM performance, whereas older adults with lower PM benefitted most from coping planning. Intervention studies for older adults should consider training PM and promote planning skills.

  10. Influence of attitudes on the intention to use condoms in Quebec sexually active male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, M N; Saucier, J F; Pica, L A

    1994-05-01

    The authors surveyed between April and June 1989, 1328 males from six secondary schools in grades 7-11 in Laval, Quebec, to determine the influence of attitudes and other variables on their intentions to use condoms. Findings are based upon survey feedback from the 433 students who reported being sexually active. Although they ranged in age from 12 to 19 years, 91.9% were aged 13-17. Laval is a mainly French-speaking middle-class white suburb immediately north of Montreal and is the second most populous city in the province of Quebec with a population of 314,398. Condom use at first intercourse was greatest among 14 year olds at 72.7%, compared to only 51.2% of 17 year olds. Older adolescents depended more upon their female partners' use of oral contraceptives. In younger adolescents, the intention to use condoms was significantly associated with supportive parental attitudes about sexuality and contraception. Information on condoms provided by parents, peers, schools, and the media had no positive effect upon subjects' intentions to use condoms. The young men seemed instead to be more affected by their personal attitudes about condoms. The authors suggest exposing young men to programs designed to prevent unwanted pregnancy, HIV infection, and other sexually transmitted diseases early in their lives. Parents should also be encouraged to take a greater role in sex education.

  11. Effects of Epstein's TARGET on adolescents' intentions to be physically active and leisure-time physical activity.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Jose A; Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Mendez-Gimenez, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Epstein's TARGET strategies on adolescents' intentions to be physically active and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) levels. A total of 447 secondary education students (193 females and 254 males), range age 12-17 years, were divided in two groups: control (N = 224) and experimental (N = 223). Epstein's TARGET strategies were applied by especially trained teachers only to the experimental group in their physical education (PE) classes during 12 consecutive weeks. Participants' intentions to be physically active and their LTPA levels were assessed prior to the intervention (pre), at the end of it (post-1) and 3 months after the intervention (post-2). Significant increases were observed only in the experimental group in post-1 and post-2 on both variables. PE interventions based on TARGET strategies seem to be effective increasing adolescents' intentions to be physically active, as well as time spent in LTPA. As most adolescents participate in PE, these interventions could lead to substantial public health benefits.

  12. Correlates of the intention to implement a tailored physical activity intervention: perceptions of intermediaries.

    PubMed

    Peels, Denise; Mudde, Aart; Bolman, Catherine; Golsteijn, Rianne; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2014-02-10

    The public health impact of health behaviour interventions is highly dependent on large-scale implementation. Intermediaries-intervention providers-determine to a large extent whether an intervention reaches the target population, and hence its impact on public health. A cross-sectional study was performed to identify the correlates of intermediaries' intention to implement a computer-tailored physical activity intervention. According to theory, potential correlates are intervention characteristics, organisational characteristics, socio-political characteristics and intermediary characteristics. This study investigated whether intermediary characteristics mediated the association between the intervention, organisational and socio-political characteristics and intention to implement the intervention. Results showed that intervention characteristics (i.e., observability (B = 0.53; p = 0.006); relative advantage (B = 0.79; p = 0.020); complexity (B = 0.80; p < 0.001); compatibility (B = 0.70; p < 0.001)), organisational characteristics (i.e., type of organization (B = 0.38; p = 0.002); perceived task responsibility (B = 0.66; p ≤ 0.001); capacity (B = 0.83; p < 0.001)), and the social support received by intermediary organisations (B = 0.81; p < 0.001) were associated with intention to implement the intervention. These factors should thus be targeted by an implementation strategy. Since self-efficacy and social norms perceived by the intermediary organisations partially mediated the effects of other variables on intention to implement the intervention (varying between 29% and 84%), these factors should be targeted to optimise the effectiveness of the implementation strategy.

  13. The compatibility of general managers' activities and intentions in managing change in the NHS.

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, P; Barwell, F

    1990-03-01

    As Hales (1986) has observed, the problem of much of the managerial research to date has been the reluctance to ask why managers behave in the way they do. The behaviour of general managers in tackling organisational change in the NHS needs to be viewed not only with respect to what is done but also with respect to how personal and organisational objectives are construed. In other words, the implementation of organisational change ultimately rests on how general managers perceive the nature of this change and their role in structuring their own personal and organisational objectives into appropriate activities. Examining the compatibility of managerial activities and the underlying values and intentions which support them is of critical importance in any cognitively-based approach. These intentions provide an important link between perceptions (i.e. how the organisation is construed) and behaviour (i.e. what activities managers choose to perform). Understanding the conceptual frameworks which underpin managerial activities could have profound implications for assessing the performance of general managers.

  14. The compatibility of general managers' activities and intentions in managing change in the NHS.

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, P; Barwell, F

    1990-03-01

    As Hales (1986) has observed, the problem of much of the managerial research to date has been the reluctance to ask why managers behave in the way they do. The behaviour of general managers in tackling organisational change in the NHS needs to be viewed not only with respect to what is done but also with respect to how personal and organisational objectives are construed. In other words, the implementation of organisational change ultimately rests on how general managers perceive the nature of this change and their role in structuring their own personal and organisational objectives into appropriate activities. Examining the compatibility of managerial activities and the underlying values and intentions which support them is of critical importance in any cognitively-based approach. These intentions provide an important link between perceptions (i.e. how the organisation is construed) and behaviour (i.e. what activities managers choose to perform). Understanding the conceptual frameworks which underpin managerial activities could have profound implications for assessing the performance of general managers. PMID:10104281

  15. Exploring Extension Involvement in Farm to School Program Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here examined Extension professionals' involvement in farm-to-school program activities. Results of an online survey distributed to eight state Extension systems indicate that on average, Extension professionals are involved with one farm to school program activity, with most supporting school or community garden programs.…

  16. Intention to adopt clinical decision support systems in a developing country: effect of Physician’s perceived professional autonomy, involvement and belief: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Computer-based clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are regarded as a key element to enhance decision-making in a healthcare environment to improve the quality of medical care delivery. The concern of having new CDSS unused is still one of the biggest issues in developing countries for the developers and implementers of clinical IT systems. The main objectives of this study are to determine whether (1) the physician’s perceived professional autonomy, (2) involvement in the decision to implement CDSS and (3) the belief that CDSS will improve job performance increase the intention to adopt CDSS. Four hypotheses were formulated and tested. Methods A questionnaire-based survey conducted between July 2010 and December 2010. The study was conducted in seven public and five private hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Before contacting the hospitals, necessary permission was obtained from the Ministry of Health, Malaysia and the questionnaire was vetted by the ethics committee of the ministry. Physicians working in 12 hospitals from 10 different specialties participated in the study. The sampling method used was stratified random sampling and the physicians were stratified based on the specialty. A total of 450 physicians were selected using a random number generator. Each of these physicians was given a questionnaire and out of 450 questionnaires, 335 (response rate – 74%) were returned and 309 (69%) were deemed usable. Results The hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Salient results are: (1) Physicians’ perceived threat to professional autonomy lowers the intention to use CDSS (p < 0.01); (2) Physicians involvement in the planning, design and implementation increases their intention to use CDSS (p < 0.01); (3) Physicians belief that the new CDSS will improve his/her job performance increases their intention to use CDSS (p < 0.01). Conclusion The proposed model with the three main constructs (physician’s professional

  17. Psychological factors related to physical education classes as predictors of students' intention to partake in leisure-time physical activity.

    PubMed

    Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Ponce-de-León-Elizondo, Ana; Sanz-Arazuri, Eva; Valdemoros-San-Emeterio, María de Los Ángeles; Martínez-Molina, Marina

    2016-04-01

    In view of the rise in sedentary lifestyle amongst young people, knowledge regarding their intention to partake in physical activity can be decisive when it comes to instilling physical activity habits to improve the current and future health of school students. Therefore, the object of this study was to find a predictive model of the intention to partake in leisure- time physical activity based on motivation, satisfaction and competence. The sample consisted of 347 Spanish, male, high school students and 411 female students aged between 13 and 18 years old. We used a questionnaire made up of the Sport Motivation Scale, Sport Satisfaction Instrument, and the competence factor in the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale and Intention to Partake in Leisure-Time Physical Activity, all of them adapted to school Physical Education. We carried out confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation models. The intention to partake in leisure-time physical activity was predicted by competence and the latter by satisfaction/fun. Intrinsic motivation was revealed to be the best predictor of satisfaction/fun. Intrinsic motivation should be enhanced in order to predict an intention to partake in physical activity in Physical Education students. PMID:27076009

  18. Changing ideas about others’ intentions: updating prior expectations tunes activity in the human motor system

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Pierre O.; Roy, Alice C.; Chambon, Valérian; Borghi, Anna M.; Salemme, Roméo; Farnè, Alessandro; Reilly, Karen T.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting intentions from observing another agent’s behaviours is often thought to depend on motor resonance – i.e., the motor system’s response to a perceived movement by the activation of its stored motor counterpart, but observers might also rely on prior expectations, especially when actions take place in perceptually uncertain situations. Here we assessed motor resonance during an action prediction task using transcranial magnetic stimulation to probe corticospinal excitability (CSE) and report that experimentally-induced updates in observers’ prior expectations modulate CSE when predictions are made under situations of perceptual uncertainty. We show that prior expectations are updated on the basis of both biomechanical and probabilistic prior information and that the magnitude of the CSE modulation observed across participants is explained by the magnitude of change in their prior expectations. These findings provide the first evidence that when observers predict others’ intentions, motor resonance mechanisms adapt to changes in their prior expectations. We propose that this adaptive adjustment might reflect a regulatory control mechanism that shares some similarities with that observed during action selection. Such a mechanism could help arbitrate the competition between biomechanical and probabilistic prior information when appropriate for prediction. PMID:27243157

  19. Mediating relationship between body mass index and the direct measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour on physical activity intention.

    PubMed

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Duncan, Mitch J; Mummery, Kerry; Steele, Rebekah; Schofield, Grant

    2008-03-01

    This research examines (a) the interrelationships between body mass index (BMI), the direct measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and physical activity intention and (b) the potential mediation effects of the direct measures of the TPB in the relationship between BMI and physical activity intention in a sample of Australian adults. A total sample of 1,062 respondents participated in a computer-assisted telephone-interview (CATI) survey comprised of a standardised introduction; questions regarding TPB and physical activity; and standard demographic questions. BMI for each participant was calculated from self-reported height and weight. Separate regression analyses were performed to examine the mediating effects of each of the direct measures of the TPB on the predictive relationship between the BMI and physical activity intention, as proposed by Baron and Kenny (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173 - 1182, 1986). Findings indicated that the direct measure of attitude and perceived behavioural control mediated the relationship between BMI and physical activity intention. However, the direct measure of subjective norm failed to act as a mediating mechanism. To date there has been no research that has examined the mechanism by which body mass may affect physical activity behaviour. Given the current focus for health promotion specialists on promoting physical activity as a strategy for reducing overweight and obesity, a theoretical understanding of weight-related barriers to physical activity may aid in the development of future interventions and community physical activity programs, particularly those targeting overweight and obese populations.

  20. The influence of autonomous and controlling motives on physical activity intentions within the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S.; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.

    2002-09-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine how general motives from self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985) influence intentions to engage in physical activity within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1985). It was hypothesized that the general motives will influence intentions only when mediated by the specific cognitions of attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) from the TPB. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study assessing psychological variables from two theoretical perspectives. METHOD: Self-report questionnaires were administered to 1088 children aged 12-14 years. The children's intentions, attitudes, subjective norms and PBC towards participating in physical activity were assessed using a TPB questionnaire. A modified verson of Ryan and Connell's (1989) perceived locus of causality (PLOC) inventory was used to measure controlling and autonomous motives for participating in physical activity. RESULTS: These data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The resulting well-fitting model demonstrated that attitude and PBC mediated the influence of autonomous motives to perform physical activity on physical activity intentions. The presence of autonomous motives resulted in the effects of the controlling motives being attenuated to zero. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicate that general autonomous motives to participate in physical activity act as sources of information when childen make their judgments regarding their specific attitudes and PBC. Attitudes and PBC are necessary to translate these general motives from SDT into intentions in the TPB. In terms of targets for intervention, practitioners may positively influence intentions by providing a choice of physical activities to foster increased autonomy in children.

  1. The influence of autonomous and controlling motives on physical activity intentions within the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S.; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.

    2002-09-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine how general motives from self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985) influence intentions to engage in physical activity within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1985). It was hypothesized that the general motives will influence intentions only when mediated by the specific cognitions of attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) from the TPB. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study assessing psychological variables from two theoretical perspectives. METHOD: Self-report questionnaires were administered to 1088 children aged 12-14 years. The children's intentions, attitudes, subjective norms and PBC towards participating in physical activity were assessed using a TPB questionnaire. A modified verson of Ryan and Connell's (1989) perceived locus of causality (PLOC) inventory was used to measure controlling and autonomous motives for participating in physical activity. RESULTS: These data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The resulting well-fitting model demonstrated that attitude and PBC mediated the influence of autonomous motives to perform physical activity on physical activity intentions. The presence of autonomous motives resulted in the effects of the controlling motives being attenuated to zero. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicate that general autonomous motives to participate in physical activity act as sources of information when childen make their judgments regarding their specific attitudes and PBC. Attitudes and PBC are necessary to translate these general motives from SDT into intentions in the TPB. In terms of targets for intervention, practitioners may positively influence intentions by providing a choice of physical activities to foster increased autonomy in children. PMID:12614501

  2. Effects of Exergaming and Message Framing in School Environments on Physical Activity Attitudes and Intentions of Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lwin, May O; Ho, Shirley S; Younbo, Jung; Leng, Theng Yin; Wardoyo, Reidinar J; Jung, Kim Hyo

    2016-09-01

    Although interventions targeting the health of students in schools are becoming common, few studies have examined how health messages operate at the group level in school environments. This study examines the effects of message-based health interventions (extrinsic vs. intrinsic goal framing) in group environments (exergame competitive vs. exergame noncompetitive) on eliciting attitudes and intentions toward physical activity among children and adolescents. We conducted a 7-week school-based intervention program involving 336 children and 259 adolescents in Singapore in which pre- and post-intervention responses were recorded. Our findings revealed the difference in responses between child and adolescent groups. Children who participated in noncompetitive exergames with extrinsically framed health messages and those who participated in competitive exergames with intrinsically framed health messages demonstrated more favorable attitudes toward physical activity. However, the same effects were absent in our adolescent group. These findings suggest that the integration of exergames into competitive and noncompetitive environments can serve as a gateway to traditional physical activity in schools when strategically combined with intrinsically and extrinsically framed messages. Practical and theoretical implications for schools and health educators are discussed. PMID:27565187

  3. Is anybody doing it? An experimental study of the effect of normative messages on intention to do physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study explores whether messages about the physical activity levels of the majority (i.e., normative messages) affect young adults' intention to engage in regular physical activity. An experimental survey among 16- to 24-year-olds in Bulgaria, Croatia, and Romania (n=1200) was conducted in March ...

  4. Impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity and sedentary behaviors, but not reflective intentions, prospectively predict non-exercise activity thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cheval, Boris; Sarrazin, Philippe; Pelletier, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the determinants of non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is crucial, given its extensive health benefits. Some scholars have assumed that a proneness to react differently to environmental cues promoting sedentary versus active behaviors could be responsible for inter-individual differences in NEAT. In line with this reflection and grounded on the Reflective-Impulsive Model, we test the assumption that impulsive processes related to sedentary and physical activity behaviors can prospectively predict NEAT, operationalized as spontaneous effort exerted to maintain low intensity muscle contractions within the release phases of an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. Participants (n = 91) completed a questionnaire assessing their intentions to adopt physical activity behaviors and a manikin task to assess impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity behaviors (IAPA) and sedentary behaviors (IASB). Participants were then instructed to perform a maximal handgrip strength task and an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. As hypothesized, multilevel regression analyses revealed that spontaneous effort was (a) positively predicted by IAPA, (b) negatively predicted by IASB, and (c) was not predicted by physical activity intentions, after controlling for some confounding variables such as age, sex, usual PA level and average force provided during the maximal-contraction phases of the task. These effects remained constant throughout all the phases of the task. This study demonstrated that impulsive processes may play a unique role in predicting spontaneous physical activity behaviors. Theoretically, this finding reinforces the utility of a motivational approach based on dual-process models to explain inter-individual differences in NEAT. Implications for health behavior theories and behavior change interventions are outlined. PMID:25526596

  5. Empirical Evidence or Intuition? An Activity Involving the Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overway, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Students need to have basic understanding of scientific method during their introductory science classes and for this purpose an activity was devised which involved a game based on famous Monty Hall game problem. This particular activity allowed students to banish or confirm their intuition based on empirical evidence.

  6. A Profile of Latino School-Based Extracurricular Activity Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peguero, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    Participation in school-based extracurricular activities influences educational success. Thus, it is important to depict a profile of school-based extracurricular activity involvement for a Latino student population that is marginalized in schools. This research uses the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 and logistic regression analyses to…

  7. Neural substrates underlying intentional empathy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang; Yang, Xuedong; Wang, Xiaoying; Northoff, Georg; Han, Shihui

    2012-01-01

    Although empathic responses to stimuli with emotional contents may occur automatically, humans are capable to intentionally empathize with other individuals. Intentional empathy for others is even possible when they do not show emotional expressions. However, little is known about the neuronal mechanisms of this intentionally controlled empathic process. To investigate the neuronal substrates underlying intentional empathy, we scanned 20 healthy Chinese subjects, using fMRI, when they tried to feel inside the emotional states of neutral or angry faces of familiar (Asian) and unfamiliar (Caucasian) models. Skin color evaluation of the same stimuli served as a control task. Compared to a baseline condition, the empathy task revealed a network of established empathy regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral inferior frontal cortex and bilateral anterior insula. The contrast of intentional empathy vs skin color evaluation, however, revealed three regions: the bilateral inferior frontal cortex, whose hemodynamic responses were independent of perceived emotion and familiarity and the right-middle temporal gyrus, whose activity was modulated by emotion but not by familiarity. These findings extend our understanding of the role of the inferior frontal cortex and the middle temporal gyrus in empathy by demonstrating their involvement in intentional empathy. PMID:21511824

  8. The intention to conceal activates the right prefrontal cortex: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Izumi; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies on deception have shown that a late positive potential (LPP), a component of event-related brain potentials, is elicited when a participant wishes to conceal recognition of the eliciting stimulus. The LPP occurs about 500 ms after stimulus onset and has an occipital scalp distribution with concurrent negativity at frontal sites. The present study investigated the cortical sources of the LPP associated with the intention to conceal. Standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis was applied on previously published concealment-related LPP data (Matsuda, Nittono, and Ogawa, 2013, N=30). The cortical sources of the LPP were estimated in the right middle frontal gyrus and the right inferior frontal gyrus, which fits well with the findings of fMRI studies. Previous research suggests that activities in the middle frontal gyrus and the right inferior frontal gyrus are associated with cognitive control and that greater relative right than left frontal activities are associated with withdrawal motivation. On the basis of these findings, it is concluded that the LPP may reflect cognitive control with withdrawal motivation that is recruited by the participants' goal of concealing their recognition and avoiding disclosure. A positive potential at occipital sites can be a sign of the activation in the prefrontal cortex.

  9. The Effects of an Infant-Feeding Classroom Activity on the Breast-Feeding Knowledge and Intentions of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Audrey; Moseley, Jane; Jackson, Winston

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of an infant-feeding classroom activity on the breast-feeding knowledge and intentions of adolescents living in Nova Scotia, Canada. One hundred twenty-one students attending two high schools were administered one pretest and two posttest questionnaires. Students were arbitrarily assigned to a control or intervention…

  10. Goal striving strategies and effort mobilization: When implementation intentions reduce effort-related cardiac activity during task performance.

    PubMed

    Freydefont, Laure; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments investigate the influence of goal and implementation intentions on effort mobilization during task performance. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of setting goals and making plans on performance, the effects of goals and plans on effort-related cardiac activity and especially the cardiac preejection period (PEP) during goal striving have not yet been addressed. According to the Motivational Intensity Theory, participants should increase effort mobilization proportionally to task difficulty as long as success is possible and justified. Forming goals and making plans should allow for reduced effort mobilization when participants perform an easy task. However, when the task is difficult, goals and plans should differ in their effect on effort mobilization. Participants who set goals should disengage, whereas participants who made if-then plans should stay in the field showing high effort mobilization during task performance. As expected, using an easy task in Experiment 1, we observed a lower cardiac PEP in both the implementation intention and the goal intention condition than in the control condition. In Experiment 2, we varied task difficulty and demonstrated that while participants with a mere goal intention disengaged from difficult tasks, participants with an implementation intention increased effort mobilization proportionally with task difficulty. These findings demonstrate the influence of goal striving strategies (i.e., mere goals vs. if-then plans) on effort mobilization during task performance.

  11. The moderating impact of temporal separation on the association between intention and physical activity: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Máirtín S; Sharma, Rajeev; Andrews, Megan; Akter, Shahriar; Iverson, Donald; Caputi, Peter; Coltman, Tim; Safadi, Murad

    2016-07-01

    Previous meta-analyses have estimated that the intention-behaviour association in physical activity (PA) is large in magnitude. However, these prior meta-analyses have also revealed a large degree of heterogeneity, suggesting the presence of moderating variables. This study examines the impact of one such moderator, testing the hypothesis that the magnitude of the association between intention and behaviour decreases as the temporal separation between the two increases. A systematic literature search was used to identify published and unpublished studies that met the inclusion criteria. A random-effects meta-regression was conducted to test the study hypothesis. A total of 78 journal articles and 11 unpublished dissertations were identified, yielding 109 effect sizes. The mean number of weeks between the measurement of intention and behaviour was 5.4 (SD = 6.6, range = .43, 26). The average correlation between intention and behaviour was r = 0.51. In line with theoretical predictions, temporal separation was a significant moderator of the intention-behaviour correlation (B = -.014, p < .001) and explained 24% of the between-study variance. This result remained unchanged when entered simultaneously with several control variables. The results of this analysis have important implications both for researchers and for intervention designers aiming to increase rates of PA. PMID:26325473

  12. Bringing Person-Centeredness and Active Involvement into Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torenholt, Rikke; Engelund, Gitte; Willaing, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the use and applicability of cultural probes--an explorative participatory method to gain insights into a person's life and thoughts--to achieve person-centeredness and active involvement in self-management education for people with chronic illness. Design/methodology/approach: An education toolkit…

  13. Moon Watch: A Parental-Involvement Homework Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter; Gonzalez-Jensen, Margarita; Moy, Tracy

    2000-01-01

    Presents the goals, philosophy, and methods of the SPLASH (Student-Parent Laboratories Achieving Science at Home) program. Describes an at-home, parental-involvement activity called Moon Watch in which students and their parents observe how the phases of the moon and the moon's position in the sky change over a two-week period. (WRM)

  14. Adolescent Involvement in Extracurricular Activities: Influences on Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Donna; Dyk, Patricia Hyjer; Jones, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Study examined adolescents' participation in sports, school, and community extracurricular activities to assess the influence of different involvement roles and adult support on leadership skills. The study found that males and females who perceived their adult support more positively had more positive perceptions of their leadership skills.…

  15. Detecting false intent using eye blink measures

    PubMed Central

    Marchak, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    Eye blink measures have been shown to be diagnostic in detecting deception regarding past acts. Here we examined—across two experiments with increasing degrees of ecological validity—whether changes in eye blinking can be used to determine false intent regarding future actions. In both experiments, half of the participants engaged in a mock crime and then transported an explosive device with the intent of delivering it to a “contact” that would use it to cause a disturbance. Eye blinking was measured for all participants when presented with three types of questions: relevant to intent to transport an explosive device, relevant to intent to engage in an unrelated illegal act, and neutral questions. Experiment 1 involved standing participants watching a video interviewer with audio presented ambiently. Experiment 2 involved standing participants questioned by a live interviewer. Across both experiments, changes in blink count during and immediately following individual questions, total number of blinks, and maximum blink time length differentiated those with false intent from truthful intent participants. In response to questions relevant to intent to deliver an explosive device vs. questions relevant to intent to deliver illegal drugs, those with false intent showed a suppression of blinking during the questions when compared to the 10 s period after the end of the questions, a lower number of blinks, and shorter maximum blink duration. The results are discussed in relation to detecting deception about past activities as well as to the similarities and differences to detecting false intent as described by prospective memory and arousal. PMID:24130546

  16. Computational State Space Models for Activity and Intention Recognition. A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Frank; Nyolt, Martin; Yordanova, Kristina; Hein, Albert; Kirste, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Computational state space models (CSSMs) enable the knowledge-based construction of Bayesian filters for recognizing intentions and reconstructing activities of human protagonists in application domains such as smart environments, assisted living, or security. Computational, i. e., algorithmic, representations allow the construction of increasingly complex human behaviour models. However, the symbolic models used in CSSMs potentially suffer from combinatorial explosion, rendering inference intractable outside of the limited experimental settings investigated in present research. The objective of this study was to obtain data on the feasibility of CSSM-based inference in domains of realistic complexity. Methods A typical instrumental activity of daily living was used as a trial scenario. As primary sensor modality, wearable inertial measurement units were employed. The results achievable by CSSM methods were evaluated by comparison with those obtained from established training-based methods (hidden Markov models, HMMs) using Wilcoxon signed rank tests. The influence of modeling factors on CSSM performance was analyzed via repeated measures analysis of variance. Results The symbolic domain model was found to have more than states, exceeding the complexity of models considered in previous research by at least three orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, if factors and procedures governing the inference process were suitably chosen, CSSMs outperformed HMMs. Specifically, inference methods used in previous studies (particle filters) were found to perform substantially inferior in comparison to a marginal filtering procedure. Conclusions Our results suggest that the combinatorial explosion caused by rich CSSM models does not inevitably lead to intractable inference or inferior performance. This means that the potential benefits of CSSM models (knowledge-based model construction, model reusability, reduced need for training data) are available without performance

  17. Engaging in activities involving information technology: dimensions, modes, and flow.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Henry; Sharafi, Parvaneh; Hedman, Leif R

    2004-01-01

    An engagement mode involves a subject (e.g., a user of information technology, or IT) who is engaged in an activity with an object in a certain manner (the mode). The purpose of this study is to develop a general model of engagement modes that may be used for understanding how IT-related activities are shaped by properties of the user and the IT object. A questionnaire involving items on IT engagement and the experience of flow was administered to 300 participants. The results supported an engagement mode (EM) model involving 5 different engagement modes (enjoying/acceptance, ambition/curiosity, avoidance/hesitation, frustration/ anxiety, and efficiency/productivity) characterized on 3 dimensions (evaluation of object, locus of control between subject and object, and intrinsic or extrinsic focus of motivation). The flow experience follows from a balance between enjoying/ acceptance and efficiency/productivity propelled by ambition/curiosity. The EM model could provide a platform for considering how IT users, IT applications, and IT environments should work together to yield both enjoyment and efficiency. Actual or potential applications of this research include designing IT training programs on different levels of specificity. PMID:15359681

  18. The Theory of Active Involvement: Processes Underlying Interventions that Engage Adolescents in Message Planning and/or Production

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased risk-taking and recent intervention strategies have included adolescents planning or producing anti-risk messages for their peers. Although these projects may generate enthusiasm, we know little about message planning or production as a strategy for changing adolescent decision-making and behavior. The paper articulates the Theory of Active Involvement (TAI) to describe and explain the processes through which these active involvement interventions influence adolescents. TAI is based on social cognitive theory’s notion of self-regulation and examines multiple perspective-taking and activating the self-reflection processes. The theory specifically describes the process of cognitive changes experienced by participants in active involvement interventions. The sequence is conceptualized as starting when engagement with the intervention (arousal and involvement) produces skill and knowledge gains (immediate outcomes) that lead to reflection (perceived discrepancy) and then other cognitions (expectancies, norms, intentions), with the ultimate outcome being behavior change. Engaging the target audience in a process of self-reflection is conceptualized as the crucial ingredient for meaningful and sustainable change in cognitions and behavior. This paper provides valuable insight into how active involvement strategies function and how to best design these interventions, particularly those targeting adolescents. PMID:23980581

  19. The theory of active involvement: processes underlying interventions that engage adolescents in message planning and/or production.

    PubMed

    Greene, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased risk taking, and recent intervention strategies have included adolescents planning or producing antirisk messages for their peers. Although these projects may generate enthusiasm, we know little about message planning or production as a strategy for changing adolescent decision-making and behavior. This article articulates the Theory of Active Involvement (TAI) to describe and explain the processes through which these active involvement interventions influence adolescents. TAI is based on social cognitive theory's notion of self-regulation and examines multiple perspective taking and activating the self-reflection processes. The theory specifically describes the process of cognitive changes experienced by participants in active involvement interventions. The sequence is conceptualized as starting when engagement with the intervention (arousal and involvement) produces skill and knowledge gains (immediate outcomes) that lead to reflection (perceived discrepancy) and then other cognitions (expectancies, norms, intentions), with the ultimate outcome being behavior change. Engaging the target audience in a process of self-reflection is conceptualized as the crucial ingredient for meaningful and sustainable change in cognitions and behavior. This article provides valuable insight into how active involvement strategies function and how to best design these interventions, particularly those targeting adolescents.

  20. Potentiation of antidepressant-like activity with lithium: mechanism involved.

    PubMed

    Chenu, Franck; Bourin, Michel

    2006-02-01

    In the last decade, many augmentation strategies have been developed to increase the activity of antidepressant drugs or to reduce their long onset of action by acting on different targets. One of the first augmentation strategy used in psychiatric disorders is coadministration of lithium and antidepressant drugs. However, the underlaying mechanism of action involved in the potentiatory effect of lithium is still unclear and many hypotheses have been suggested such as activity on BDNF, ACTH, thyroid hormones and serotonin neurotransmission. All these systems being embedded in each other, we focused on the 5-HT neurotransmission-increase induced by lithium treatment. Based on neurobiochemical and behavioral results we tried to better understand its mechanism of action and we concluded that effect of lithium on 5-HT neurotransmission could be linked to a partial agonist activity on 5-HT1B autoreceptors, or to a modulatory activity on these receptors, located in the cortical area in the case of a short term treatment, or in the hippocampus in the case of a long term treatment. We also suggested that the anti-manic effect of lithium was linked to this activity on 5-HT1B receptors, occurring this time on 5-HT1B postsynaptic (heteroreceptors on dopaminergic pathways) receptors levels.

  1. The effects of persuasive communication and planning on intentions to be more physically active and on physical activity behaviour among low-active adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Damien; Sarrazin, Philippe; Nicaise, Virginie; Dupont, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine, using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) combined with a self-regulatory behaviour change approach, whether persuasive communication based on adolescents' salient beliefs (SBCondition) and planning (PCondition) could promote the intention and physical activity (PA) behaviour of low-active adolescents participating in less than 1 h/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The protocol tested the effectiveness of two strategies used separately (i.e. SBC or PC) or in combination (i.e. CC = NSBC-SBC-PC) compared to a group receiving a message based on non-salient beliefs (NSBCondition). The 116 low-active students from ten 10th and 11th grade classes were assigned, using a cluster randomisation, into one of the four conditions (i.e. NSBC, SBC, PC and CC). Baseline data were collected two weeks before the intervention. The post-test data collection occurred directly after the intervention, and the follow-up took place two weeks later. Results showed that (1) the NSBC was the least effective strategy, (2) the SBC had no significant effect on PA behaviour and the TPB variables, (3) the PC had no significant effect on PA behaviour but increased the intention and perceived behavioural control and (4) the effects of the PC and the CC were not significantly different. PMID:25493545

  2. The effects of persuasive communication and planning on intentions to be more physically active and on physical activity behaviour among low-active adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Damien; Sarrazin, Philippe; Nicaise, Virginie; Dupont, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine, using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) combined with a self-regulatory behaviour change approach, whether persuasive communication based on adolescents' salient beliefs (SBCondition) and planning (PCondition) could promote the intention and physical activity (PA) behaviour of low-active adolescents participating in less than 1 h/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The protocol tested the effectiveness of two strategies used separately (i.e. SBC or PC) or in combination (i.e. CC = NSBC-SBC-PC) compared to a group receiving a message based on non-salient beliefs (NSBCondition). The 116 low-active students from ten 10th and 11th grade classes were assigned, using a cluster randomisation, into one of the four conditions (i.e. NSBC, SBC, PC and CC). Baseline data were collected two weeks before the intervention. The post-test data collection occurred directly after the intervention, and the follow-up took place two weeks later. Results showed that (1) the NSBC was the least effective strategy, (2) the SBC had no significant effect on PA behaviour and the TPB variables, (3) the PC had no significant effect on PA behaviour but increased the intention and perceived behavioural control and (4) the effects of the PC and the CC were not significantly different.

  3. Professional Student Organizations and Experiential Learning Activities: What Drives Student Intentions to Participate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Laura; Miller, Richard; Poole, Sonja Martin

    2016-01-01

    Experiential learning theory has been referenced as a possible method for attracting and retaining members in student organizations. In a survey, undergraduate students evaluated a variety of organizational features pertaining to their intention to participate in professional student organizations. The study found that students value activities…

  4. 76 FR 59664 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement For Divert Activities and Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Activities and Exercises, Guam and Commomwealth of The Northern Mariana Islands AGENCY: Headquarters Pacific... Divert Activities and Exercises, Guam and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The proposed divert activities and exercises would involve airfield improvements designed to provide additional...

  5. Pontine respiratory activity involved in inspiratory/expiratory phase transition

    PubMed Central

    Mörschel, Michael; Dutschmann, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Control of the timing of the inspiratory/expiratory (IE) phase transition is a hallmark of respiratory pattern formation. In principle, sensory feedback from pulmonary stretch receptors (Breuer–Hering reflex, BHR) is seen as the major controller for the IE phase transition, while pontine-based control of IE phase transition by both the pontine Kölliker–Fuse nucleus (KF) and parabrachial complex is seen as a secondary or backup mechanism. However, previous studies have shown that the BHR can habituate in vivo. Thus, habituation reduces sensory feedback, so the role of the pons, and specifically the KF, for IE phase transition may increase dramatically. Pontine-mediated control of the IE phase transition is not completely understood. In the present review, we discuss existing models for ponto-medullary interaction that may be involved in the control of inspiratory duration and IE transition. We also present intracellular recordings of pontine respiratory units derived from an in situ intra-arterially perfused brainstem preparation of rats. With the absence of lung inflation, this preparation generates a normal respiratory pattern and many of the recorded pontine units demonstrated phasic respiratory-related activity. The analysis of changes in membrane potentials of pontine respiratory neurons has allowed us to propose a number of pontine-medullary interactions not considered before. The involvement of these putative interactions in pontine-mediated control of IE phase transitions is discussed. PMID:19651653

  6. Care staff intentions to support adults with an intellectual disability to engage in physical activity: an application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emma; McKenzie, Karen; Newman, Emily; Bowden, Keith; Morris, Paul Graham

    2011-01-01

    Researchers suggest that people with an intellectual disability (ID) undertake less physical activity than the general population and many rely, to some extent, on others to help them to access activities. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) model was previously found to significantly predict the intention of care staff to facilitate a healthy diet in those they supported. The present study examined whether the TPB was useful in predicting the intentions of 78 Scottish care staff to support people with ID to engage in physical activity. Regression analyses indicated that perceived behavioural control was the most significant predictor of both care staff intention to facilitate physical activity and reported physical activity levels of the people they supported. Attitudes significantly predicted care staff intention to support physical activity, but this intention was not itself significantly predictive of reported activity levels. Increasing carers' sense of control over their ability to support clients' physical activity may be more effective in increasing physical activity than changing their attitudes towards promoting activity.

  7. Care staff intentions to support adults with an intellectual disability to engage in physical activity: an application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emma; McKenzie, Karen; Newman, Emily; Bowden, Keith; Morris, Paul Graham

    2011-01-01

    Researchers suggest that people with an intellectual disability (ID) undertake less physical activity than the general population and many rely, to some extent, on others to help them to access activities. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) model was previously found to significantly predict the intention of care staff to facilitate a healthy diet in those they supported. The present study examined whether the TPB was useful in predicting the intentions of 78 Scottish care staff to support people with ID to engage in physical activity. Regression analyses indicated that perceived behavioural control was the most significant predictor of both care staff intention to facilitate physical activity and reported physical activity levels of the people they supported. Attitudes significantly predicted care staff intention to support physical activity, but this intention was not itself significantly predictive of reported activity levels. Increasing carers' sense of control over their ability to support clients' physical activity may be more effective in increasing physical activity than changing their attitudes towards promoting activity. PMID:21803540

  8. How Curriculum Leaders Can Involve the Right Brain in Active Reading and Writing Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinatra, Richard; Stahl-Gemake, Josephine

    Curriculum leaders, program specialists, and teachers can intentionally arouse the activation of one hemisphere of the brain over the other through the use of right brain strategies in language learning. While most functions of the left hemisphere are concerned with convergent production (getting the right answer), functions of the right…

  9. Hydrogen peroxide is involved in collagen-induced platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Pignatelli, P; Pulcinelli, F M; Lenti, L; Gazzaniga, P P; Violi, F

    1998-01-15

    In this study, we investigated whether (1) collagen-induced platelet aggregation is associated with a burst of H2O2, (2) this oxidant species is involved in the activation of platelets, and (3) the pathways of platelet activation are stimulated by H2O2. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation was associated with production of H2O2, which was abolished by catalase, an enzyme that destroys H2O2. H2O2 production was not observed when ADP or thrombin were used as agonists. Catalase inhibited dose-dependently thromboxane A2 production, release of arachidonic acid from platelet membrane, and Inositol 1,4,5P3 (IP3) formation. In aspirin-treated platelets stimulated with high concentrations of collagen, catalase inhibited platelet aggregation, calcium mobilization, and IP3 production. This study suggests that collagen-induced platelet aggregation is associated with a burst of H2O2 that acts as a second messenger by stimulating the arachidonic acid metabolism and phospholipase C pathway.

  10. Promoting the translation of intentions into action by implementation intentions: behavioral effects and physiological correlates

    PubMed Central

    Wieber, Frank; Thürmer, J. Lukas; Gollwitzer, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    The present review addresses the physiological correlates of planning effects on behavior. Although intentions to act qualify as predictors of behavior, accumulated evidence indicates that there is a substantial gap between even strong intentions and subsequent action. One effective strategy to reduce this intention–behavior gap is the formation of implementation intentions that specify when, where, and how to act on a given goal in an if-then format (“If I encounter situation Y, then I will initiate action Z!”). It has been proposed that implementation intentions render the mental representation of the situation highly accessible and establish a strong associative link between the mental representations of the situation and the action. These process assumptions have been examined in behavioral research, and in physiological research, a field that has begun to investigate the temporal dynamics of and brain areas involved in implementation intention effects. In the present review, we first summarize studies on the cognitive processes that are central to the strategic automation of action control by implementation intentions. We then examine studies involving critical samples with impaired self-regulation. Lastly, we review studies that have applied physiological measures such as heart rate, cortisol level, and eye movement, as well as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on the neural correlates of implementation intention effects. In support of the assumed processes, implementation intentions increased goal attainment in studies on cognitive processes and in critical samples, modulated brain waves related to perceptual and decision processes, and generated less activity in brain areas associated with effortful action control. In our discussion, we reflect on the status quo of physiological research on implementation intentions, methodological and conceptual issues, related research, and propose future

  11. Intentional replantation.

    PubMed

    Madison, S

    1986-12-01

    Intentional replantation is an accepted endodontic procedure for treating teeth in cases in which intracanal and/or surgical endodontic treatments are not recommended. Although not a frequently used technique, intentional replantation is a treatment option that dentists should consider. An unusual case is described in which intentional replantation was required to maintain the tooth in the dentition. A 31 month follow-up evaluation revealed an asymptomatic, functional tooth with no radiographic signs of pathosis.

  12. Intentional replantation.

    PubMed

    Dryden, J A

    1989-01-01

    When conventional endodontic treatment or retreatment and surgery are not feasible, a clinician may choose to replant the defective tooth. Intentional replantation consists of extracting the tooth, finding and correcting the defect, and replanting the tooth in its socket. This article describes five case reports in which intentional replantation was used as a last resort. Four (80%) of the five patients were successfully treated.

  13. Shared Intentionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasello, Michael; Carpenter, Malinda

    2007-01-01

    We argue for the importance of processes of shared intentionality in children's early cognitive development. We look briefly at four important social-cognitive skills and how they are transformed by shared intentionality. In each case, we look first at a kind of individualistic version of the skill--as exemplified most clearly in the behavior of…

  14. Head Start Parent Involvement Activities: Measuring the Effect of School Based Parent Involvement Activities on Parent Efficacy in Early Childhood Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quadri, Khadijat O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this position paper was to examine the impact of school based parent involvement activities on parent efficacy. Methodology: The paper explores research studies into school based activities on long term parent efficacy. Conclusions: Most schools are involving parents in school-based activities in a variety of ways but the…

  15. Collaborative partner or social tool? New evidence for young children's understanding of joint intentions in collaborative activities.

    PubMed

    Warneken, Felix; Gräfenhain, Maria; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Some children's social activities are structured by joint goals. In previous research, the criterion used to determine this was relatively weak: if the partner stopped interacting, did the child attempt to re-engage her? But re-engagement attempts could easily result from the child simply realizing that she needs the partner to reach her own goal in the activity (social tool explanation). In two experiments, 21- and 27-month-old children interacted with an adult in games in which they either did or did not physically need the partner to reach a concrete goal. Moreover, when the partner stopped interacting, she did so because she was either unwilling to continue (breaking off from the joint goal) or unable to continue (presumably still maintaining the joint goal). Children of both age groups encouraged the recalcitrant partner equally often whether she was or was not physically needed for goal attainment. In addition, they did so more often when the partner was unable to continue than when she was unwilling to continue. These findings suggest that young children do not just view their collaborative partners as mindless social tools, but rather as intentional, cooperative agents with whom they must coordinate intentional states. PMID:22251292

  16. The Neural Correlates of Emotion Regulation by Implementation Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Hallam, Glyn P.; Webb, Thomas L.; Sheeran, Paschal; Miles, Eleanor; Wilkinson, Iain D.; Hunter, Michael D.; Barker, Anthony T.; Woodruff, Peter W. R.; Totterdell, Peter; Lindquist, Kristen A.; Farrow, Tom F. D.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the neural basis of effortful emotion regulation (ER) but the neural basis of automatic ER has been less comprehensively explored. The present study investigated the neural basis of automatic ER supported by ‘implementation intentions’. 40 healthy participants underwent fMRI while viewing emotion-eliciting images and used either a previously-taught effortful ER strategy, in the form of a goal intention (e.g., try to take a detached perspective), or a more automatic ER strategy, in the form of an implementation intention (e.g., “If I see something disgusting, then I will think these are just pixels on the screen!”), to regulate their emotional response. Whereas goal intention ER strategies were associated with activation of brain areas previously reported to be involved in effortful ER (including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), ER strategies based on an implementation intention strategy were associated with activation of right inferior frontal gyrus and ventro-parietal cortex, which may reflect the attentional control processes automatically captured by the cue for action contained within the implementation intention. Goal intentions were also associated with less effective modulation of left amygdala, supporting the increased efficacy of ER under implementation intention instructions, which showed coupling of orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. The findings support previous behavioural studies in suggesting that forming an implementation intention enables people to enact goal-directed responses with less effort and more efficiency. PMID:25798822

  17. Involving Hispanic Parents in Educational Activities through Collaborative Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Alicia Salinas

    1997-01-01

    A literature review of effective strategies for involving Hispanic families explores some basic misunderstandings; discusses logistical, attitudinal, and expectations barriers to involving Hispanic parents, particularly those who are migrants or immigrants; and presents strategies that resulted in successful experiences with these parents.…

  18. Cues to Parent Involvement in Drug Prevention and School Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Ellen J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Guided by the Health Belief Model, focus groups identified strategies to promote parent involvement with their children's substance abuse education. Low-income parents and school personnel identified cues to action and necessary requirements (child care, transportation, incentives) as important in promoting parent involvement. Children's…

  19. The functional neuroanatomy of spontaneous retrieval and strategic monitoring of delayed intentions.

    PubMed

    Beck, Stefanie M; Ruge, Hannes; Walser, Moritz; Goschke, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    An intention stored in prospective memory (PM) for later execution can be retrieved either strategically through preparatory attentional processes such as active monitoring for PM targets or spontaneously through automatic retrieval processes when encountering a relevant cue. Using functional MRI to identify distinct brain areas involved in spontaneous retrieval of intentions and to dissociate them from monitoring-related processes, we compared brain activity in PM blocks in which subjects had to maintain and execute an intention in response to rarely occurring PM cues with blocks in which the previous intention had been completed. Although the PM task incurred performance costs in the ongoing task and was associated with increased block-related activation in the rostro-lateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC), performance costs and RLPFC activation were no longer observed after the intention had been completed, providing further evidence for an involvement of RLPFC in strategic monitoring during PM tasks. By contrast, event-related activation induced by PM cues was observed in the ventral parietal cortex (VPC), precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex even after the intention was completed. These activations are consistent with the notion of spontaneous intention retrieval possibly mediated through a bottom-up driven re-activation of intention representations still persisting in a heightened state of activation in episodic memory. In conclusion, the results highlight the functional relevance of VPC and precuneus in prospective memory retrieval, possibly reflecting spontaneous, cue-based processes as opposed to top-down controlled strategic monitoring.

  20. Intentionality to Learn, in an Academic Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulikowich, Jonna M.; Alexander, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: All human activity, beyond the simplest of reflexes or biological reactions, is a manifestation of intentions. When those intentions are directed toward changes in one's understanding or performance, they can be labeled "intentionality to learn". In this article, we overview particular premises about intentionality to learn and…

  1. Organized Activity Involvement among Rural Youth: Gender Differences in Associations between Activity Type and Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Kaitlyn A.; Oosterhoff, Benjamin; Metzger, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined associations between organized activity involvement, academic achievement, and problem behavior in a sample of youth from a non-agricultural based rural community (M[subscript age] = 15.26, Age range = 11-19 years, N = 456). Analyses examined whether associations varied as a function of adolescent gender and age.…

  2. Distinct iEEG activity patterns in temporal-limbic and prefrontal sites induced by emotional intentionality.

    PubMed

    Singer, Neomi; Podlipsky, Ilana; Esposito, Fabrizio; Okon-Singer, Hadas; Andelman, Fani; Kipervasser, Svetlana; Neufeld, Miri Y; Goebel, Rainer; Fried, Itzhak; Hendler, Talma

    2014-11-01

    Our emotions tend to be directed towards someone or something. Such emotional intentionality calls for the integration between two streams of information; abstract hedonic value and its associated concrete content. In a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we found that the combination of these two streams, as modeled by short emotional music excerpts and neutral film clips, was associated with synergistic activation in both temporal-limbic (TL) and ventral-lateral PFC (vLPFC) regions. This additive effect implies the integration of domain-specific 'affective' and 'cognitive' processes. Yet, the low temporal resolution of the fMRI limits the characterization of such cross-domain integration. To this end, we complemented the fMRI data with intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) recordings from twelve patients with intractable epilepsy. As expected, the additive fMRI activation in the amygdala and vLPFC was associated with distinct spatio-temporal iEEG patterns among electrodes situated within the vicinity of the fMRI activation foci. On the one hand, TL channels exhibited a transient (0-500 msec) increase in gamma power (61-69 Hz), possibly reflecting initial relevance detection or hedonic value tagging. On the other hand, vLPFC channels showed sustained (1-12 sec) suppression of low frequency power (2.3-24 Hz), possibly mediating changes in gating, enabling an on-going readiness for content-based processing of emotionally tagged signals. Moreover, an additive effect in delta-gamma phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) was found among the TL channels, possibly reflecting the integration between distinct domain specific processes. Together, this study provides a multi-faceted neurophysiological signature for computations that possibly underlie emotional intentionality in humans.

  3. Care Staff Intentions to Support Adults with an Intellectual Disability to Engage in Physical Activity: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Emma; McKenzie, Karen; Newman, Emily; Bowden, Keith; Morris, Paul Graham

    2011-01-01

    Researchers suggest that people with an intellectual disability (ID) undertake less physical activity than the general population and many rely, to some extent, on others to help them to access activities. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) model was previously found to significantly predict the intention of care staff to facilitate a healthy…

  4. The intentionality bias in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Peyroux, Elodie; Strickland, Brent; Tapiero, Isabelle; Franck, Nicolas

    2014-11-30

    The tendency to over-interpret events of daily life as resulting from voluntary or intentional actions is one of the key aspects of schizophrenia with persecutory delusions. Here, we ask whether this characteristic may emerge from the abnormal activity of a basic cognitive process found in healthy adults and children: the intentionality bias, which refers to the implicit and automatic inclination to interpret human actions as intentional (Rosset, 2008, Cognition 108, 771-780). In our experiment, patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls were shown sentences describing human actions in various linguistic contexts, and were asked to indicate whether the action was intentional or not. The results indicated that people with schizophrenia exhibited a striking bias to over attribute intentionality regardless of linguistic context, contrary to healthy controls who did not exhibit such a general intentionality bias. Moreover, this study provides some insight into the cognitive mechanisms underlying this bias: an inability to inhibit the automatic attribution of intentionality.

  5. 5 CFR 1215.24 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Claims involving criminal activity or... PROCEDURES DEBT MANAGEMENT Claims Collection § 1215.24 Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. (a) A debtor whose indebtedness involves criminal activity such as fraud, embezzlement, theft, or...

  6. Modeling the effects of involvement and attitudes on energy industry pursuit intentions: A systems analysis of the university-industry environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Jordan M.

    The energy industry's struggle to attract and retain qualified employees continues to threaten the nation's economy, global competitiveness, and national security. Given the nationwide skills and labor shortage in the energy industry, this study was conducted in response to a need to identify causes of person-environment fit and its effects on engineering students' intentions to work in the energy industry after graduation. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships between student inputs, environmental factors, and career-related outcomes. Two models were compared using data collected from 381 undergraduate engineering students from across the country. Results suggest that students who gained knowledge about professions in the energy industry from participating in an internship or co-op at an energy-related company perceived greater fit with the goals and values of the energy industry. In addition, this study found that students who perceive high levels of fit with the energy industry also have high industry attraction, which directly affects their energy industry pursuit intentions. Overall, this research indicates that high quality internships have the potential to increase students' perceived industry fit, which is closely tied to their career intentions. Outcomes of this study are expected to provide stakeholders with new insights to improve practices within the university-industry environment that will educate, promote, and sustain a strong energy workforce for years to come.

  7. Antithrombin Regulates Matriptase Activity Involved in Plasmin Generation, Syndecan Shedding, and HGF Activation in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-Wen; Xu, Zhenghong; Baksh, Adrienne N. H.; Wang, Jehng-Kang; Chen, Chiu-Yuan; Swanson, Richard; Olson, Steve T.; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Johnson, Michael D.; Lin, Chen-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Matriptase, a membrane-associated serine protease, plays an essential role in epidermal barrier function through activation of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored serine protease prostasin. The matriptase-prostasin proteolytic cascade is tightly regulated by hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI)-1 such that matriptase autoactivation and prostasin activation occur simultaneously and are followed immediately by the inhibition of both enzymes by HAI-1. However, the mechanisms whereby matriptase acts on extracellular substrates remain elusive. Here we report that some active matriptase can escape HAI-1 inhibition by being rapidly shed from the cell surface. In the pericellular environment, shed active matriptase is able to activate hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), accelerate plasminogen activation, and shed syndecan 1. The amount of active matriptase shed is inversely correlated with the amount of antithrombin (AT) bound to the surface of the keratinocytes. Binding of AT to the surface of keratinocytes is dependent on a functional heparin binding site, Lys-125, and that the N-glycosylation site Asn-135 be unglycosylated. This suggests that β-AT, and not α-AT, is responsible for regulation of pericellular matriptase activity in keratinocytes. Keratinocytes appear to rely on AT to regulate the level of pericellular active matriptase much more than breast and prostate epithelial cells in which AT regulation of matriptase activity occurs at much lower levels than keratinocytes. These results suggest that keratinocytes employ two distinct serine protease inhibitors to control the activation and processing of two different sets of matriptase substrates leading to different biological events: 1) HAI-1 for prostasin activation/inhibition, and 2) AT for the pericellular proteolysis involved in HGF activation, accelerating plasminogen activation, and shedding of syndecans. PMID:23675430

  8. Patterns of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in people following curative intent treatment for non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cavalheri, Vinicius; Jenkins, Sue; Cecins, Nola; Phillips, Martin; Sanders, Lucas H; Hill, Kylie

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to compare patterns of sedentary behaviour (SB) and physical activity (PA) in people following curative intent treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with healthy controls. Participants 6-10 weeks following lobectomy for NSCLC and healthy controls wore two activity monitors for 7 days. Waking hours were divided into time spent in SB (<1.5 metabolic equivalent of tasks (METs)), light intensity PA (LIPA ≥ 1.5 to <3.0METs) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (≥3.0METs). Daily steps were also recorded. Data were available in 20 participants with NSCLC (13 females; 68 ± 10 years) and 20 healthy controls (13 females; 69 ± 5 years). The NSCLC group accumulated a greater percentage of time in SB in uninterrupted bouts ≥30 minutes (49% vs. 42%; p = 0.048). Further, the NSCLC group spent a lower percentage of waking hours in LIPA (21 ± 9% vs. 26 ± 8%; p = 0.04) and accumulated a lower percentage of time in this domain in uninterrupted bouts ≥10 minutes (13% vs. 19%; p = 0.025). The NSCLC group also had a lower daily step count (8863 ± 3737 vs. 11,856 ± 3024 steps/day; p = 0.009). Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA was similar in both groups (p = 0.92). People following curative intent treatment for NSCLC spend more time in prolonged bouts of SB at the expense of LIPA. PMID:26721792

  9. 101 Activities for Building More Effective School-Community Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Dorothy; Mattox, Beverly

    This booklet contains a collection of more than 100 activities designed to promote school-home and school-community relations. Activities are organized into seven categories: (1) communicating word from home to school, (2) people to people, (3) educational events, (4) volunteers--hands on in the classroom, (5) utilizing community resources, (6)…

  10. Radiation protection in radiologic technology: Apathy versus active involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, K.H.

    1982-11-01

    The lack of active participation in radiation protection is a serious problem in Radiologic Technology today. Underlying the problem is professional apathy. An overview of the historical changes, as well as various recent developments in radiology, accentuate the importance of necessary changes in technologists' attitudes and activities. 22 references.

  11. Extracurricular Activity Involvement and Adolescent Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Structured extracurricular activity participation has been linked to self-esteem and other indicators of positive youth development. This article describes the theoretical basis for this relationship, centering on extracurricular activities as a location for identity development. A summary of the empirical evidence points to the importance of…

  12. A Rolling Stone Gathers No Moss–The Long Way from Good Intentions to Physical Activity Mediated by Planning, Social Support, and Self-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Paech, Juliane; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although many people know that an active lifestyle contributes to health they fail to translate their intentions into action. This has been explained by deficits in self-management and resources, such as enabling social support, planning, and self-regulation in the face of barriers. The present study examines the role of perceived social support, planning, and self-regulation in facilitating physical activity. Methods: In a prospective online study, intention was assessed at baseline (Time 1), planning and social support at 4-week follow-up (Time 2), self-regulation and physical activity at 6-month follow-up (Time 3). A path analysis was conducted to shed light on mediating psychological mechanisms contributing to maintenance of physical activity. Results: Perceived support (Time 2), planning (Time 2), and self-regulation (Time 3) mediated the link from intention (Time 1) to physical activity (Time 3); the specific and total indirect effects were significant. Conclusions: Findings suggest that perceived social support, planning, and self-regulation can bridge the intention-behavior gap. Behavior change interventions should target those mechanisms in vulnerable individuals. PMID:27458417

  13. Fifteen months follow-up of a hopeless tooth treated with two-step procedure involving intentional replantation and free gingival graft

    PubMed Central

    Keceli, Huseyin Gencay; Hendek, Meltem Karsiyaka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the report is to document 15-month results of mucogingival surgery applied following intentional replantation (IntR). A mandibular left lateral incisor with severe periodontitis and malposition was replanted and splinted following root canal treatment. Three months after IntR, a free gingival graft (FGG) was placed. Fifteen months follow-up of the case demonstrated significant improvement in periodontal healing parameters and significant bone fill was detected around the root apex. As a conclusion, IntR may be speculated as a convenient alternative to keep the periodontally hopeless teeth and supportive approaches such as FGGs may improve the outcomes following IntR. PMID:25512741

  14. Fifteen months follow-up of a hopeless tooth treated with two-step procedure involving intentional replantation and free gingival graft.

    PubMed

    Keceli, Huseyin Gencay; Hendek, Meltem Karsiyaka

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the report is to document 15-month results of mucogingival surgery applied following intentional replantation (IntR). A mandibular left lateral incisor with severe periodontitis and malposition was replanted and splinted following root canal treatment. Three months after IntR, a free gingival graft (FGG) was placed. Fifteen months follow-up of the case demonstrated significant improvement in periodontal healing parameters and significant bone fill was detected around the root apex. As a conclusion, IntR may be speculated as a convenient alternative to keep the periodontally hopeless teeth and supportive approaches such as FGGs may improve the outcomes following IntR.

  15. Artificial masculinization in tilapia involves androgen receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Golan, Matan; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2014-10-01

    Estrogens have a pivotal role in natural female sexual differentiation of tilapia while lack of steroids results in testicular development. Despite the fact that androgens do not participate in natural sex differentiation, synthetic androgens, mainly 17-α-methyltestosterone (MT) are effective in the production of all-male fish in aquaculture. The sex inversion potency of synthetic androgens may arise from their androgenic activity or else as inhibitors of aromatase activity. The current study is an attempt to differentiate between the two alleged activities in order to evaluate their contribution to the sex inversion process and aid the search for novel sex inversion agents. In the present study, MT inhibited aromatase activity, when applied in vitro as did the non-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In comparison, exposure to fadrozole, a specific aromatase inhibitor, was considerably more effective. Androgenic activity of MT was evaluated by exposure of Sciaenochromis fryeri fry to the substance and testing for the appearance of blue color. Flutamide, an androgen antagonist, administered concomitantly with MT, reduced the appearance of the blue color and the sex inversion potency of MT in a dose-dependent manner. In tilapia, administration of MT, fadrozole or DHT resulted in efficient sex inversion while flutamide reduced the sex inversion potency of all three compounds. In the case of MT and DHT the decrease in sex inversion efficiency caused by flutamide is most likely due to the direct blocking of the androgen binding to its cognate receptor. The negative effect of flutamide on the efficiency of the fadrozole treatment may indicate that the masculinizing activity of fadrozole may be attributed to excess, un-aromatized, androgens accumulated in the differentiating gonad. The present study shows that when androgen receptors are blocked, there is a reduction in the efficiency of sex inversion treatments. Our results suggest that in contrast to

  16. Social Work with Religious Volunteers: Activating and Sustaining Community Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Diana R.; Myers, Dennis M.; Wolfer, Terry A.

    2008-01-01

    Social workers in diverse community practice settings recruit and work with volunteers from religious congregations. This article reports findings from two surveys: 7,405 congregants in 35 Protestant congregations, including 2,570 who were actively volunteering, and a follow-up survey of 946 volunteers. It compares characteristics of congregation…

  17. Getting Students Involved: Classroom Activities Which Promote Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, G. Ronald; And Others

    Three essays concerning second language classroom activities that promote learning of communication skills are presented. In "From Manipulation to Communication" (Renate A. Schulz), the importance of establishing minimal communicative objectives for classroom instruction skills is discussed, specifying situations in which students have to…

  18. 78 FR 6079 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Sediment Dredging Activities at John...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... (sediment removal and disposal) activities by the State of Kansas at John Redmond Dam and Reservoir, Kansas... Dredging Activities at John Redmond Dam and Reservoir, KS AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps... removal of excessive accumulated sediment from John Redmond Reservoir for the purpose of at...

  19. Understanding physical activity intentions among French Canadians with type 2 diabetes: an extension of Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, François; Godin, Gaston

    2009-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity is considered a cornerstone for managing type 2 diabetes. However, in Canada, most individuals with type 2 diabetes do not meet national physical activity recommendations. When designing a theory-based intervention, one should first determine the key determinants of physical activity for this population. Unfortunately, there is a lack of information on this aspect among adults with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to fill this gap using an extended version of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as reference. Methods A total of 501 individuals with type 2 diabetes residing in the Province of Quebec (Canada) completed the study. Questionnaires were sent and returned by mail. Results Multiple hierarchical regression analyses indicated that TPB variables explained 60% of the variance in intention. The addition of other psychosocial variables in the model added 7% of the explained variance. The final model included perceived behavioral control (β = .38, p < .0001), moral norm (β = .29, p < .0001), and attitude (β = .14, p < .01). Conclusion The findings suggest that interventions aimed at individuals with type 2 diabetes should ensure that people have the necessary resources to overcome potential obstacles to behavioral performance. Interventions should also favor the development of feelings of personal responsibility to exercise and promote the advantages of exercising for individuals with type 2 diabetes. PMID:19531261

  20. Plasmin is involved in inflammation via protease-activated receptor-1 activation in human dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Kamio, Naoto; Hashizume, Hideki; Nakao, Sumi; Matsushima, Kiyoshi; Sugiya, Hiroshi

    2008-05-15

    Plasmin is a proteolytic enzyme produced from plasminogen by plasminogen activators. We investigated the function of plasmin in human dental pulp fibroblast-like cells. Plasmin induced an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in a concentration-dependent manner. Expression of mRNA for protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) was detected, and the PAR-1 activating peptide SFLLRN induced an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in the cells. The plasmin-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was inhibited in the presence of the PAR-1 antagonist SCH79797. Plasmin stimulated the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA and prostaglandin E(2) release, which are involved in inflammation. These effects of plasmin on expression of IL-8 mRNA and prostaglandin E(2) release were inhibited in the presence of the PAR-1 antagonist SCH79797. These results suggest that plasmin activates PAR-1 and is involved in inflammation in human dental pulp. PMID:18384756

  1. A Model of Contextual Motivation in Physical Education: Using Constructs from Self-Determination and Achievement Goal Theories To Predict Physical Activity Intentions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standage, Martyn; Duda, Joan L.; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2003-01-01

    Examines a study of student motivation in physical education that incorporated constructs from achievement goal and self-determination theories. Self-determined motivation was found to positively predict, whereas amotivation was a negative predictor of leisure-time physical activity intentions. (Contains 86 references and 3 tables.) (GCP)

  2. Determinants of intentions of Junior High School students to become sexually active and use condoms: implications for reduction and prevention of AIDS risk.

    PubMed

    Epstein, J A; Dusenbury, L; Botvin, G J; Diaz, T

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with young adolescents' increased risk for AIDS. A multiethnic sample of 303 seventh-grade students in three schools in the greater New York area completed questionnaires assessing their basic demographic characteristics (gender and ethnicity), AIDS knowledge, substance use (cigarette smoking, alcohol use), and decision-making skills. AIDS knowledge, substance use, decision-making skills, gender, and ethnicity predicted intentions to engage in sexual behavior in the future. Relevant knowledge of AIDS was associated with lower intentions to engage in sexual behavior in the future. More frequent substance use, less frequent use of decision-making skills, and being male increased intentions to engage in sexual behavior in the future. Our findings are discussed in terms of their implications for education and prevention of adolescent sexual activity and AIDS-risk reduction. PMID:7862778

  3. The Prediction of Physical Activity Intention and Behavior in Elderly Male Residents of a Nursing Home: A Comparison of Two Behavioral Theories

    PubMed Central

    Ghahremani, Leila; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Nazari, Mahin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity is ranked as a leading health indicator. Despite the extensive benefits of physical activity, elder people are much less active than desired. Using Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the self-efficacy construct, this study examined the prediction of physical activity intention and behavior in a sample of elderly male resident of a nursing home. Methods: In a cross-sectional study of the residents of Kahrizak Nursing Home in Tehran, Iran, elderly men who were 60 years or older, capable of independent living, mobility, and verbal communication were asked to complete measures of the TPB, self-efficacy and physical activity behavior. Results: A hierarchical step-wise multiple regression analysis indicated that affective/instrumental attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) explained 32.8% of the variance in physical activity intention, and self-efficacy provided an additional 2.7%. In a reverse step regression, the TPB variables explained an additional 12.2% of physical activity intention. In a multiple regression analysis on physical activity behavior, affective/instrumental attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control (PBC) and intention explained 15.7% of the variance in physical activity behavior while self-efficacy contributed an additional 5.6%. In the reverse step regression, TPB predictors contributed an additional 3.0% in explaining the variance in physical activity behavior. Conclusion: The results indicate that in addition to the TPB, self-efficacy may also play an important role in the prediction of behavior, and should be included in the design of physical activity programs for elderly men of nursing home residents. PMID:23115427

  4. Antibacterial activity of Thai herbal extracts on acne involved microorganism.

    PubMed

    Niyomkam, P; Kaewbumrung, S; Kaewnpparat, S; Panichayupakaranant, P

    2010-04-01

    Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 18 Thai medicinal plants were investigated for their antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes, Stapylococcus aureus, and S. epidermidis. Thirteen plant extracts were capable of inhibiting the growth of P. acnes and S. epidermidis, while 14 plant extracts exhibited an inhibitory effect on S. aureus. Based on the broth dilution method, the ethyl acetate extract of Alpinia galanga (L.) Wild. (Zingiberaceae) rhizome showed the strongest antibacterial effect against P. acnes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 156.0 and 312.0 microg/mL, respectively. On the basis of bioassay-guided purification, the ethyl acetate extract was isolated to afford the antibacterial active compound, which was identified as 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (1'-ACA). 1'-ACA had a strong inhibitory effect on P. acnes with MIC and MBC values of 62.0 and 250.0 microg/mL, respectively. Thus, 1'-ACA was used as an indicative marker for standardization of A. galanga extract using high performance liquid chromatography. These results suggest that A. galanga extract could be an interesting agent for further studies on an alternative treatment of acne.

  5. [Intentional replantation].

    PubMed

    Brouwer, T J; Raghoebar, G M

    1990-01-01

    In case of an unsuccessful endodontic treatment apicectomy often may cure the periapical inflammation. If for technical reasons periapical surgery is not possible, many of these teeth can be preserved by means of intentional replantation. The indications and contra-indications, the technical procedure and two case histories are described.

  6. Understanding the intentions behind man-made products elicits neural activity in areas dedicated to mental state attribution.

    PubMed

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Koelsch, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    Trying to understand others is the most pervasive aspect of successful social interaction. To date there is no evidence on whether human products, which signal the workings of a mind in the absence of an explicit agent, also reliably engage neural structures typically associated with mental state attribution. By means of functional magnetic resonance imaging the present study shows that when subjects believe they are listening to a piece of music that was written by a composer (i.e., human product) as opposed to generated by a computer (i.e., nonhuman product), activations in the cortical network typically reported for mental state attribution (anterior medial frontal cortex [aMFC]), superior temporal sulcus, and temporal poles) were observed. The activation in the aMFC correlated highly with the extent to which subjects had engaged in attributing the expression of intentions to the composed pieces, as indicated in a postimaging questionnaire. We interpret these findings as indicative of automatic mechanisms, which reflect mental state attribution in the face of any stimulus that potentially signals the working of another mind and conclude that even in the absence of a socially salient stimulus, our environment is still populated by the indirect social signals inherent to human artifacts.

  7. Laboratory activities involving transmissible spongiform encephalopathy causing agents

    PubMed Central

    Leunda, Amaya; Van Vaerenbergh, Bernadette; Baldo, Aline; Roels, Stefan; Herman, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Since the appearance in 1986 of epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a new form of neurological disease in cattle which also affected human beings, many diagnostic and research activities have been performed to develop detection and therapeutic tools. A lot of progress was made in better identifying, understanding and controlling the spread of the disease by appropriate monitoring and control programs in European countries. This paper reviews the recent knowledge on pathogenesis, transmission and persistence outside the host of prion, the causative agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) in mammals with a particular focus on risk (re)assessment and management of biosafety measures to be implemented in diagnostic and research laboratories in Belgium. Also, in response to the need of an increasing number of European diagnostic laboratories stopping TSE diagnosis due to a decreasing number of TSE cases reported in the last years, decontamination procedures and a protocol for decommissioning TSE diagnostic laboratories is proposed. PMID:24055928

  8. Organized activity involvement, depressive symptoms, and social adjustment in adolescents: ethnicity and socioeconomic status as moderators.

    PubMed

    Randall, Edin T; Bohnert, Amy M

    2009-10-01

    The current cross-sectional study investigated the links between various dimensions of organized activity involvement and depressive symptoms, loneliness, and peer victimization in an ethnically and economically diverse sample of adolescents (N = 152; 58% female). Results indicate that adolescents who were involved in organized activities for more years also reported lower levels of loneliness. There was evidence of diminishing returns when adolescents were very highly involved in organized activities; those who were either under- or over-involved reported the highest levels of depressive symptoms. Conversely, findings indicate that adolescents who participated in a narrow or wide range of activity contexts reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms. In addition, results suggested that the relation between organized activity involvement and adjustment differs among adolescents from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Findings from the current study also underscore the importance of considering multiple indices of activity involvement when assessing its association with adjustment.

  9. 77 FR 66819 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Intent To Extend Collection 3038-0098...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... (``Cross-Border Interpretive Guidance'') on the application of the CEA's swap provisions and the implementing Commission regulations to cross-border activities and transactions.\\4\\ On July 12, 2012, the... Order.\\5\\ \\4\\ See Cross-Border Application of Certain Swaps Provisions of the Commodity Exchange Act,...

  10. Activity of capryloyl collagenic acid against bacteria involved in acne.

    PubMed

    Fourniat, J; Bourlioux, P

    1989-12-01

    Synopsis Capryloyl collagenic acid (Lipacide C8Co) has similar bacteriostatic activity in vitro to that of benzoyl peroxide towards the bacteria found in acne lesions (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes) (MIC between 1 and 4 mg ml(-1) for C8Co, and between 0.5 and 5 mg ml(-1) for benzoyl peroxide). The presence of Emulgine M8 did not affect the bacteriostatic activity of C8Co. A 4% w/v solution of C8Co (incorporating Emulgine M8) fulfilled the criteria for an antiseptic preparation as laid down by the French Pharmacopoeia (10th Edition), and had a spectrum 5 bactericidal activity according to the French Standard AFNOR NF T 72-151. The excellent cutaneous tolerance of capryloyl collagenic acid would indicate that an aqueous solution might be of value for topical treatment of the bacterial component of acne. Résumé Activité antibactérienne de l'acide capryloyl-collagénique vis à vis des bactéries impliquées dans l'etiologie de l'acné L'acide capryloyl-collagénique (Lipacide C8Co) et le peroxyde de benzoyle présentent une activité bactériostatique in-vitroéquivalente vis à vis des espèces bactériennes retrouvées au niveau des lésions acnéiques (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis et Propionibacterium acnes) (CMI comprise entre 1 et 4 mg ml(-1) pour le lipoaminoacide, et 0,5 et 5 mg ml(-1) pour le peroxyde de benzoyle). La mise en solution aqueuse de l'acide capryloyl-collagénique en présence d'Emulgine M8 ne modifie pas son activité bactériostatique. Une telle solution, à 4% m/V d'acide capryloyl-collagénique et 5% m/V d'Emulgine M8, satisfait à l'essai d'activité des préparations antiseptiques décrit à la Pharmacopée Française (Xème Ed.) (concentration minimale antiseptique: 10% v/V, pour un temps de contact de 5 min à 32 degrees C entre les germes tests et la solution diluée en eau distillée), et posséde une activité bactéricide antiseptique spectre 5 conforme à la norme AFNOR NF T

  11. The effects of video-based and activity-based instruction on high school students' knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions related to seat belt use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Tudor Griffith, III

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of video-based science instruction and accompanying activity-based instruction on the knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions of high school students' use of seat belts. Secondarily, the purpose was to determine order effects and interactions between the two treatments used in the study: video-based instruction and hands-on activity-based instruction. The study used Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action to investigate the factors influencing high school students' behavioral intentions regarding seat belt use. This study used a pretest-posttest-posttest treatment design. Data were collected on 194 students in high school introductory biology and chemistry classes in Gainesville, Florida. Ten intact high school science classes (eight treatment and two control) took pretests and posttests measuring physics knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward seat belt use prior to and after participating in the two treatments. The treatment group students participated in at least 500 minutes of instructional time divided among five lessons over 10 instructional days. All participants were pretested on physics knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward seat belt use prior to two treatments. Treatment A was defined as participating in one 50-minute video-based instructional lesson. Treatment B was defined as participating in four hands-on science activities regarding crash-related physics concepts. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was used for analysis of the researcher-designed instruments, and ANOVA was used to analyze the data. The results of the analyses (p < .004) revealed that students who participated in either treatment showed significant differences in knowledge gains on 75% of the test items. The sequence of treatments did not produce significant differences in groups' posttest 2 knowledge mean scores. Combining the treatments resulted in higher mean knowledge scores than either

  12. Anticancer Activity of Metal Complexes: Involvement of Redox Processes

    PubMed Central

    Jungwirth, Ute; Kowol, Christian R.; Keppler, Bernhard K.; Hartinger, Christian G.; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Cells require tight regulation of the intracellular redox balance and consequently of reactive oxygen species for proper redox signaling and maintenance of metal (e.g., of iron and copper) homeostasis. In several diseases, including cancer, this balance is disturbed. Therefore, anticancer drugs targeting the redox systems, for example, glutathione and thioredoxin, have entered focus of interest. Anticancer metal complexes (platinum, gold, arsenic, ruthenium, rhodium, copper, vanadium, cobalt, manganese, gadolinium, and molybdenum) have been shown to strongly interact with or even disturb cellular redox homeostasis. In this context, especially the hypothesis of “activation by reduction” as well as the “hard and soft acids and bases” theory with respect to coordination of metal ions to cellular ligands represent important concepts to understand the molecular modes of action of anticancer metal drugs. The aim of this review is to highlight specific interactions of metal-based anticancer drugs with the cellular redox homeostasis and to explain this behavior by considering chemical properties of the respective anticancer metal complexes currently either in (pre)clinical development or in daily clinical routine in oncology. PMID:21275772

  13. Children's Understanding of Drivers' Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foot, Hugh C.; Thomson, James A.; Tolmie, Andrew K.; Whelan, Kirstie M.; Morrison, Sheila; Sarvary, Penelope

    2006-01-01

    To become more skilled as pedestrians, children need to acquire a view of the traffic environment as one in which road users are active agents with different intentions and objectives. This paper describes a simulation study designed to explore children's understanding of drivers' intentions. It also investigated the effect of training children's…

  14. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1,040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model tested longitudinal paths between three categories of involvement (team sports, school clubs and activities, and religious activities, measured at baseline and 15 months), problem peer associations (baseline and 15 months), and cigarette smoking behavior (baseline and 24 months). Multi-group analyses indicated pathways differed by type of activity and adolescent gender. Boys’ baseline team sports and religious involvement predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via continued activity involvement at 15 months. Girls’ involvement in school clubs and activities and religious activities indirectly predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via reduced exposure to problem peers at 15 months. PMID:21603061

  15. Predicting involvement in prison gang activity: street gang membership, social and psychological factors.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jane L; Alleyne, Emma; Mozova, Katarina; James, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether street gang membership, psychological factors, and social factors such as preprison experiences could predict young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Data were collected via individual interviews with 188 young offenders held in a Young Offenders Institution in the United Kingdom. Results showed that psychological factors such as the value individuals attached to social status, a social dominance orientation, and antiauthority attitudes were important in predicting young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Further important predictors included preimprisonment events such as levels of threat, levels of individual delinquency, and levels of involvement in group crime. Longer current sentences also predicted involvement in prison gang activity. However, street gang membership was not an important predictor of involvement in prison gang activity. These findings have implications for identifying prisoners involved in prison gang activity and for considering the role of psychological factors and group processes in gang research.

  16. 40 CFR 13.5 - Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct. 13.5 Section 13.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS General § 13.5 Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct. (a) The...

  17. 40 CFR 13.5 - Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct. 13.5 Section 13.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS General § 13.5 Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct. (a) The...

  18. 40 CFR 13.5 - Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct. 13.5 Section 13.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS General § 13.5 Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct. (a) The Administrator will refer cases of...

  19. 5 CFR 1215.24 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. 1215.24 Section 1215.24 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES DEBT MANAGEMENT Claims Collection § 1215.24 Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct....

  20. 5 CFR 1215.24 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. 1215.24 Section 1215.24 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES DEBT MANAGEMENT Claims Collection § 1215.24 Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct....

  1. 5 CFR 1215.24 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. 1215.24 Section 1215.24 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES DEBT MANAGEMENT Claims Collection § 1215.24 Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct....

  2. Physical activity attitudes, intentions and behaviour among 18–25 year olds: A mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Young people (18–25 years) during the adolescence/adulthood transition are vulnerable to weight gain and notoriously hard to reach. Despite increased levels of overweight/obesity in this age group, physical activity behaviour, a major contributor to obesity, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore physical activity (PA) behaviour among 18–25 year olds with influential factors including attitudes, motivators and barriers. Methods An explanatory mixed method study design, based on health Behaviour Change Theories was used. Those at university/college and in the community, including those Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET) were included. An initial self reported quantitative questionnaire survey underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory was conducted. 1313 questionnaires were analysed. Results from this were incorporated into a qualitative phase also grounded in these theories. Seven focus groups were conducted among similar young people, varying in education and socioeconomic status. Exploratory univariate analysis was followed by multi staged modelling to analyse the quantitative data. ‘Framework Analysis’ was used to analyse the focus groups. Results Only 28% of 18–25 year olds achieved recommended levels of PA which decreased with age. Self-reported overweight/obesity prevalence was 22%, increasing with age, particularly in males. Based on the statistical modelling, positive attitudes toward PA were strong predictors of physical activity associated with being physically active and less sedentary. However, strong intentions to do exercise, was not associated with actual behaviour. Interactive discussions through focus groups unravelled attitudes and barriers influencing PA behaviour. Doing PA to feel good and to enjoy themselves was more important for young people than the common assumptions of ‘winning’ and ‘pleasing others’. Further this age group saw

  3. The Effect of Food Label Cues on Perceptions of Quality and Purchase Intentions among High-Involvement Consumers with Varying Levels of Nutrition Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Amber; Long, Marilee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether differences in nutrition knowledge affected how women (a high-involvement group) interpreted intrinsic cues (ingredient list) and extrinsic cues ("all natural" label) on food labels. Methods: A 2 (intrinsic cue) x 2 (extrinsic cue) x 2 (nutrition knowledge expert vs novice) within-subject factorial design was used.…

  4. The Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire: evaluation of a brief questionnaire to measure physical activity, dietary control, maintenance of a healthy weight, and psychological antecedents

    PubMed Central

    Traina, Shana B; Mathias, Susan D; Colwell, Hilary H; Crosby, Ross D; Abraham, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed measurement properties of the 17-item Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire (DIAB-Q), which measures intention to engage in self-care behaviors, including following a diabetes diet and engaging in appropriate physical activity. Methods The DIAB-Q includes questions based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Items were developed using published literature, input from health care professionals, and qualitative research findings in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In Stage I of the study, 23 adults with T2DM were interviewed to evaluate the content and clarity of the DIAB-Q. In Stage II 1,015 individuals with T2DM completed the DIAB-Q and supplemental questionnaires, including the Short Form-36 acute (SF-36), section III of the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities questionnaire, and self-administered items relevant to the treatment and management of T2DM (eg, blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c]) at baseline and 3–7 days later. Once the DIAB-Q scale structure was determined, its test–retest reliability, construct validity, and known-groups validity were evaluated, and minimal clinically important change was estimated. Results In Stage I, the 23 respondents surveyed generally reported that the DIAB-Q was clear and comprehensive and endorsed questions as relevant to their intentions to engage in diabetes-related self-care activities. Most subjects in Stage II were male, Caucasian, and married. Mean age was 63 years. Factor analysis revealed six psychological constructs (Behavior, Planning, Intention, Perceived Behavioral Control, Attitude, and Subjective Norm). Test–retest reliability was acceptable (≥0.70) for all scales, except Perceived Behavioral Control. Construct validity was demonstrated based on correlations with diabetes-specific items/scales and the SF-36. Known-groups validity was confirmed for Behavior, Planning, and

  5. Intent Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1995-01-01

    We have been investigating the implications of using abstractions based on intent rather than the aggregation and information-hiding abstractions commonly used in software en- gineering: Cognitive psychologists have shown that intent abstraction is consistent with human problem-solving processes. We believe that new types of specifications and designs based on this concept can assist in understanding and specifying requirements, capturing the most important design rationale information in an efficient and economical way, and supporting the process of identifying and analyzing required changes to minimize the introduction of errors. The goal of hierarchical abstraction is to allow both top-down and bottom-up reasoning about a complex system. In computer science, we have made much use of (1) part-whole abstractions where each level of a hierarchy represents an aggregation of the components at a lower level and of (2) information-hiding abstractions where each level contains the same conceptual information but hides some details about the concepts, that is, each level is a refinement of the information at a higher level.

  6. Student Characteristics and Activity Choices of College Freshmen and Their Intent to Persist in Religiously Affiliated Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burks, Stephen A.; Barrett, T. Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Persistence and retention have been studied extensively in higher education, but little research has been conducted on these areas in religiously affiliated institutions. The present study was designed to examine factors that influence the intentions of students to persist from their freshmen to sophomore year in private, religiously affiliated,…

  7. 48 CFR 3452.224-72 - Research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... human subjects covered under 34 CFR part 97: Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a... establish and maintain procedures for the protection of human subjects. The definitions in 34 CFR 97.102... approved by the IRB. (34 CFR 97.103(f).) No covered research involving human subjects shall be...

  8. 48 CFR 3452.224-72 - Research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... human subjects covered under 34 CFR part 97: Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a... establish and maintain procedures for the protection of human subjects. The definitions in 34 CFR 97.102... approved by the IRB. (34 CFR 97.103(f).) No covered research involving human subjects shall be...

  9. 48 CFR 3452.224-72 - Research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... human subjects covered under 34 CFR part 97: Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a... establish and maintain procedures for the protection of human subjects. The definitions in 34 CFR 97.102... approved by the IRB. (34 CFR 97.103(f).) No covered research involving human subjects shall be...

  10. 48 CFR 3452.224-71 - Notice about research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... children, the exemption at 34 CFR 97.101(b)(2) (i.e., research involving the use of educational tests....101(b)(2) continues to apply, unmodified by 34 CFR 97.401(b), to— (i) Educational tests; and (ii... 34 CFR part 97: Notice About Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a)...

  11. 48 CFR 3452.224-71 - Notice about research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... children, the exemption at 34 CFR 97.101(b)(2) (i.e., research involving the use of educational tests....101(b)(2) continues to apply, unmodified by 34 CFR 97.401(b), to— (i) Educational tests; and (ii... 34 CFR part 97: Notice About Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 13.5 - Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... That office has the responsibility for investigating or referring the matter, where appropriate, to the... activities which should be referred are matters involving fraud, anti-trust violations, embezzlement,...

  13. 40 CFR 13.5 - Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... That office has the responsibility for investigating or referring the matter, where appropriate, to the... activities which should be referred are matters involving fraud, anti-trust violations, embezzlement,...

  14. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging.

  15. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  16. Evil intent and design responsibility.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Bart

    2004-04-01

    Mass casualty attacks in recent years have demonstrated the need to include "evil intent" as a design consideration. Three recent actual or potential weapons of mass destruction (WMD) attacks did not involve nuclear bombs or other devices designed as weapons, but rather benign objects used with evil intent. Just as unplanned events such as hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, and user misuse have been codified into design requirements based on the likelihood and potential impact of the event, "evil intent" has to become part of the design process for buildings, vehicles, equipment, and other items. The endstate should be reasonable additions to existing codes and standards such that it is clear what is and is not designed for. In the absence of specific design guidance, professionals with appropriate expertise can assess potential for "evil intent" and provide recommendations to design out or warn against this potential harm to public safety, particularly when codified requirements are not present.

  17. Distinct electrophysiological potentials for intention in action and prior intention for action.

    PubMed

    Vinding, Mikkel C; Jensen, Mads; Overgaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The role of conscious intention in relation to motoric movements has become a major topic of investigation in neuroscience. Traditionally, reports of conscious intention have been compared to various features of the readiness-potential (RP)--an electrophysiological signal that appears before voluntary movements. Experiments, however, tend to study intentions in immediate relation to movements (proximal intentions), thus ignoring other aspects of intentions such as planning or deciding in advance of movement (distal intentions). The current study examines the difference in electrophysiological activity between proximal intention and distal intention, using electroencephalography (EEG). Participants had to form an intention to move and then wait 2.5 sec before performing the actual movement. In this way, the electrophysiological activity related to forming a conscious intention was separated from any confounding activity related to automated motor activity. This was compared to conditions in which participants had to act as soon as they had the intention and a condition where participants acted upon an external cue 2.5 sec prior to movement. We examined the RP for the three conditions. No difference was found in early RP, but late RP differed significantly depending on the type of intention. In addition, we analysed signals during a longer time-interval starting before the time of distal intention formation until after the actual movement concluded. Results showed a slow negative electrophysiological "intention potential" above the mid-frontal areas at the time participants formed a distal intention. This potential was only found when the distal intention was self-paced and not when the intention was formed in response to an external cue.

  18. Glutamate activation of Oct-2 in cultured chick Bergmann glia cells: involvement of NFkappaB.

    PubMed

    Méndez, J Alfredo; López-Bayghen, Esther; Ortega, Arturo

    2005-07-01

    Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is critically involved in gene expression regulation at the transcriptional and translational levels. Its activity through ionotropic as well as metabotropic receptors modifies the protein repertoire in neurons and glial cells. In avian cerebellar Bergmann glia cells, glutamate receptors trigger a diverse array of signaling cascades that include activity-dependent transcription factors such as the activator protein-1, the cAMP response-element binding protein, and Oct-2. We analyze the upstream regulatory elements involved in Oct-2 activation. Our results demonstrate that Ca2+ influx, protein kinase C, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, Src, and nuclear factor (NF)kappaB are involved in this signaling pathway. Our findings link alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor activation to a negative phase of chkbp gene regulation, controlled by NFkappaB.

  19. Brief Report: Understanding Intention to Be Physically Active and Physical Activity Behaviour in Adolescents from a Low Socio-Economic Status Background: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael J.; Rivis, Amanda; Jordan, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this brief report is to report on the utility of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) for predicting the physical activity intentions and behaviour of British adolescents from lower-than-average socio-economic backgrounds. A prospective questionnaire design was employed with 197, 13-14 year olds (76 males, 121 females). At time 1…

  20. Let’s Dance Together: Synchrony, Shared Intentionality and Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Reddish, Paul; Fischer, Ronald; Bulbulia, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the matching of rhythmic behaviour between individuals (synchrony) increases cooperation. Such synchrony is most noticeable in music, dance and collective rituals. As well as the matching of behaviour, such collective performances typically involve shared intentionality: performers actively collaborate to produce joint actions. Over three experiments we examined the importance of shared intentionality in promoting cooperation from group synchrony. Experiment 1 compared a condition in which group synchrony was produced through shared intentionality to conditions in which synchrony or asynchrony were created as a by-product of hearing the same or different rhythmic beats. We found that synchrony combined with shared intentionality produced the greatest level of cooperation. To examinef the importance of synchrony when shared intentionality is present, Experiment 2 compared a condition in which participants deliberately worked together to produce synchrony with a condition in which participants deliberately worked together to produce asynchrony. We found that synchrony combined with shared intentionality produced the greatest level of cooperation. Experiment 3 manipulated both the presence of synchrony and shared intentionality and found significantly greater cooperation with synchrony and shared intentionality combined. Path analysis supported a reinforcement of cooperation model according to which perceiving synchrony when there is a shared goal to produce synchrony provides immediate feedback for successful cooperation so reinforcing the group’s cooperative tendencies. The reinforcement of cooperation model helps to explain the evolutionary conservation of traditional music and dance performances, and furthermore suggests that the collectivist values of such cultures may be an essential part of the mechanisms by which synchrony galvanises cooperative behaviours. PMID:23951106

  1. Getting Involved: Exploring Latino GBT Volunteerism and Activism in AIDS and LGBT Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Vázquez, Raquel; Benjamin, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the community involvement (e.g., volunteerism, activism) of Latino gay and bisexual men and transgender persons (GBT) in two areas: AIDS/GLBT and other general causes. Drawing from volunteering and identity theories, we explore: Who is likely to get involved? What factors affect variation in the levels of involvement? Where do Latino GBT participate and what do they do? Data come from a cross-sectional sample (N=643) of Latino GBT in Chicago and San Francisco. We find high levels of involvement, but primarily focused on AIDS/GLBT. Involvement appears to be driven by income, early involvement, role modeling, and childhood stigmatization of gender nonconformity. PMID:26451081

  2. Novel mechanisms for activated protein C cytoprotective activities involving noncanonical activation of protease-activated receptor 3.

    PubMed

    Burnier, Laurent; Mosnier, Laurent O

    2013-08-01

    The direct cytoprotective activities of activated protein C (APC) on cells convey therapeutic, relevant, beneficial effects in injury and disease models in vivo and require the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1). Thrombin also activates PAR1, but its effects on cells contrast APC's cytoprotective effects. To gain insights into mechanisms for these contrasting cellular effects, protease activated receptor 3 (PAR3) activation by APC and thrombin was studied. APC cleaved PAR3 on transfected and endothelial cells in the presence of EPCR. Remarkably, APC cleaved a synthetic PAR3 N-terminal peptide at Arg41, whereas thrombin cleaved at Lys38. On cells, APC failed to cleave R41Q-PAR3, whereas K38Q-PAR3 was still cleaved by APC but not by thrombin. PAR3 tethered-ligand peptides beginning at amino acid 42, but not those beginning at amino acid 39, conveyed endothelial barrier-protective effects. In vivo, the APC-derived PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide, but not the thrombin-derived PAR3 peptide, blunted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced vascular permeability. These data indicate that PAR3 cleavage by APC at Arg41 can initiate distinctive APC-like cytoprotective effects. These novel insights help explain the differentiation of APC's cytoprotective versus thrombin's proinflammatory effects on cells and suggest a unique contributory role for PAR3 in the complex mechanisms underlying APC cytoprotective effects. PMID:23788139

  3. Understanding Threshold Effects of Organized Activity Involvement in Adolescents: Sex and Family Income as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Edin T.; Bohnert, Amy M.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the curvilinear links between involvement in organized activities (OA) and sport activities specifically and various indicators of psychological and social development. Participants included 150 9th and 10th graders (57% females) from an urban, selective-enrollment high school. Eligibility for admission is based on city…

  4. Involvement of Ral GTPase in v-Src-induced phospholipase D activation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H; Luo, J Q; Urano, T; Frankel, P; Lu, Z; Foster, D A; Feig, L A

    1995-11-23

    An early response to the tyrosine kinase activity of v-Src is an increase in phospholipase D (PLD) activity, which leads to the generation of biologically active lipid second messengers, including phosphatidic acid, lysophosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol. We have recently demonstrated that v-Src-induced PLD activity is mediated by Ras, although Ras involvement was indirect, requiring a cytosolic factor for PLD activation. Ras interacts with and activates Ral-GDS, the exchange factor responsible for the activation of Ral GTPases. Here we report that this newly identified Ras/Ral signalling pathway mediates PLD activation by v-Src. PLD activity could be precipitated from v-Src-transformed cell lysates with immobilized RalA protein and with an anti-Ral antibody. A mutation to the region of RalA analogous to the 'effector domain' of Ras did not reduce the ability of RalA to complex with PLD, although deletion of a Ral-specific amino-terminal region did. Overexpression of RalA potentiated PLD activation by v-Src, and expression of dominant negative RalA mutants inhibited both v-Src- and v-Ras-induced PLD activity. Thus RalA is involved in the tyrosine kinase activation of PLD through its unique N terminus, and that PLD is a downstream target of a Ras/Ral GTPase cascade.

  5. Activities involving aeronautical, space science, and technology support for minority institutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Final Report addressed the activities with which the Interracial Council for Business Opportunity (ICBO) was involved over the past 12 months. ICBO was involved in the design and development of a CARES Student Tracking System Software (CARES). Cares is intended to provide an effective means of maintaining relevant current and historical information on NASA-funded students through a range of educational program initiatives. ICBP was extensively involved in the formation of a minority university consortium amd implementation of collaborative research activities by the consortium as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System. ICBO was involved in the formation of an HBCU/MI Consortium to facilitate technology transfer efforts to the small and minority business community in their respective regions.

  6. Intention Concepts and Brain-Machine Interfacing

    PubMed Central

    Thinnes-Elker, Franziska; Iljina, Olga; Apostolides, John Kyle; Kraemer, Felicitas; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Aertsen, Ad; Ball, Tonio

    2012-01-01

    Intentions, including their temporal properties and semantic content, are receiving increased attention, and neuroscientific studies in humans vary with respect to the topography of intention-related neural responses. This may reflect the fact that the kind of intentions investigated in one study may not be exactly the same kind investigated in the other. Fine-grained intention taxonomies developed in the philosophy of mind may be useful to identify the neural correlates of well-defined types of intentions, as well as to disentangle them from other related mental states, such as mere urges to perform an action. Intention-related neural signals may be exploited by brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that are currently being developed to restore speech and motor control in paralyzed patients. Such BMI devices record the brain activity of the agent, interpret (“decode”) the agent’s intended action, and send the corresponding execution command to an artificial effector system, e.g., a computer cursor or a robotic arm. In the present paper, we evaluate the potential of intention concepts from philosophy of mind to improve the performance and safety of BMIs based on higher-order, intention-related control signals. To this end, we address the distinction between future-, present-directed, and motor intentions, as well as the organization of intentions in time, specifically to what extent it is sequential or hierarchical. This has consequences as to whether these different types of intentions can be expected to occur simultaneously or not. We further illustrate how it may be useful or even necessary to distinguish types of intentions exposited in philosophy, including yes- vs. no-intentions and oblique vs. direct intentions, to accurately decode the agent’s intentions from neural signals in practical BMI applications. PMID:23162504

  7. Brief report: understanding intention to be physically active and physical activity behaviour in adolescents from a low socio-economic status background: an application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Rivis, Amanda; Jordan, Caroline

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this brief report is to report on the utility of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) for predicting the physical activity intentions and behaviour of British adolescents from lower-than-average socio-economic backgrounds. A prospective questionnaire design was employed with 197, 13-14 year olds (76 males, 121 females). At time 1 participant completed standard measures of TPB variables. One week later (Time 2), participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) as a measure of physical activity behaviour. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that attitude and perceived behavioural control jointly accounted for 25% of the variance in intention (p = 0.0001). Perceived behavioural control emerged as the only significant predictor of physical activity behaviour and explained 3.7% of the variance (p = 0.001). Therefore, attitude and PBC successfully predicts intention towards physical activity and PBC predicts physical activity behaviour in British adolescents from lower-than-average socio-economic backgrounds.

  8. Brief report: understanding intention to be physically active and physical activity behaviour in adolescents from a low socio-economic status background: an application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Rivis, Amanda; Jordan, Caroline

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this brief report is to report on the utility of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) for predicting the physical activity intentions and behaviour of British adolescents from lower-than-average socio-economic backgrounds. A prospective questionnaire design was employed with 197, 13-14 year olds (76 males, 121 females). At time 1 participant completed standard measures of TPB variables. One week later (Time 2), participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) as a measure of physical activity behaviour. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that attitude and perceived behavioural control jointly accounted for 25% of the variance in intention (p = 0.0001). Perceived behavioural control emerged as the only significant predictor of physical activity behaviour and explained 3.7% of the variance (p = 0.001). Therefore, attitude and PBC successfully predicts intention towards physical activity and PBC predicts physical activity behaviour in British adolescents from lower-than-average socio-economic backgrounds. PMID:21820730

  9. Addressing Three Common Issues in Research on Youth Activities: An Integrative Approach for Operationalizing and Analyzing Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Youth activity involvement has been operationalized and analyzed using a wide range of approaches. Researchers face the challenges of distinguishing between the effects of involvement versus noninvolvement and intensity of involvement in a particular activity, accounting simultaneously for cumulative effects of involvement, and addressing multiple…

  10. Activation of lexical and semantic representations without intention along GPC-sublexical and orthographic-lexical reading pathways in a Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Anton, Kathryn F; Gould, Layla; Borowsky, Ron

    2014-05-01

    Dual route models of reading suggest there are 2 pathways for reading words: an orthographic-lexical pathway, used to read familiar regular words and exception words, and a grapheme-to-phoneme-conversion-(GPC)-sublexical pathway, used to read unfamiliar regular words, pseudohomophones (PHs), and nonwords. It is unclear, however, whether PHs activate lexical and semantic representations without intention in the GPC-sublexical pathway to the same extent as words along the orthographic-lexical pathway. The present study explored this by introducing a novel condition, color pseudohomophone associates (CPHAs; e.g., "skigh"), in 3 experiments using the Stroop paradigm. Experiment 1 examined 4 types of stimuli: color words (CWs), color word associates (CWAs), color PHs (CPHs), and color PH associates (CPHAs), in a mixed list context. Significant Stroop effects were found for all 4 types of stimuli. To ensure the robustness of this effect, Experiment 2 was conducted using pure list contexts whereby participants received only word stimuli (e.g., CWs, CWAs) or only PH stimuli (e.g., CPHs, CPHAs). The results replicated those of Experiment 1, suggesting that CPHAs activate lexical and semantic representations without intention in the GPC-sublexical pathway. Experiment 3 added 2 novel conditions: color exception word associates (which can only be pronounced correctly using the orthographic-lexical pathway) to compare the effects obtained with color exception PH associates (which rely on the GPC-sublexical pathway for correct pronunciation). Stroop effects of similar magnitude were found for both types of stimuli, suggesting lexical and semantic representations are accessed without intention in either reading pathway to a similar degree. Implications for models of reading are discussed.

  11. Intentional replantation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kahan, R S; Gulabivala, K

    1995-12-01

    Intentional replantation (IR) involves the extraction, extra-oral endodontic treatment and replantation of a tooth. Its use dates back over 1000 years, but it is rarely considered by the modern dental practitioner. This paper describes the treatment of a patient using this technique, and discusses its relative advantages and disadvantages.

  12. Good Intentions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettersen, Larry

    1991-01-01

    A school fund-raising drive for a young cancer victim at Twality Junior High School in Tigard, Oregon, became a legal hassle with the involvement of a professional fund-raising organization being investigated for mishandling funds. Advises making a thorough background check before letting anyone take custody of funds raised through the school.…

  13. Rural intentions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Diane J.; Hakes, Jacquie; Bai, Meera; Tolhurst, Helen; Dickinson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the reasons for family medicine graduates’ career choices. DESIGN Qualitative study using focus groups and one-on-one interviews. SETTING University of Calgary in Alberta. PARTICIPANTS Seventeen male and female second-year family medicine residents, representing a range of ages and areas of origin, enrolled in the 2004 urban and rural south streams of the family medicine residency program at the University of Calgary. METHOD During the final month of training, 2 focus groups were conducted to determine graduating students’ career choices and the reasons for them. After focus-group data were analyzed, a questionnaire was constructed and subsequently administered to participants during face-to-face or telephone interviews. MAIN FINDINGS Most residents initially planned to do urban locums in order to gain experience. In the long term, they planned to open practices in urban areas for lifestyle and family reasons. Many residents from the rural stream had no long-term plans to establish rural practices. Most residents said they felt prepared for practice, but many indicated that an optional third year of paid training, with an emphasis on emergency medicine, obstetrics, and pediatrics, would be desirable. Reasons cited for not practising in rural areas were related to workload, lifestyle issues, family obligations, and perceived lack of medical support in the community. Only 4 female graduates and 1 male graduate intended to practise obstetrics. The main reason residents gave for this was inadequate training in obstetrics during residency. Finances were cited as a secondary reason for many choices, and might in fact be more important than at first apparent. CONCLUSION Despite its intention to recruit family medicine graduates to rural areas and to obstetrics, the University of Calgary residency training program was not successful in recruiting physicians to these areas. The program likely needs to re-examine the effectiveness of

  14. Neuroart: picturing the neuroscience of intentional actions in art and science.

    PubMed

    Siler, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Intentional actions cover a broad spectrum of human behaviors involving consciousness, creativity, innovative thinking, problem-solving, critical thinking, and other related cognitive processes self-evident in the arts and sciences. The author discusses the brain activity associated with action intentions, connecting this activity with the creative process. Focusing on one seminal artwork created and exhibited over a period of three decades, Thought Assemblies (1979-82, 2014), he describes how this symbolic art interprets the neuropsychological processes of intuition and analytical reasoning. It explores numerous basic questions concerning observed interactions between artistic and scientific inquiries, conceptions, perceptions, and representations connecting mind and nature. Pointing to some key neural mechanisms responsible for forming and implementing intentions, he considers why and how we create, discover, invent, and innovate. He suggests ways of metaphorical thinking and symbolic modeling that can help integrate the neuroscience of intentional actions with the neuroscience of creativity, art and neuroaesthetics. PMID:26257629

  15. Neuroart: picturing the neuroscience of intentional actions in art and science

    PubMed Central

    Siler, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Intentional actions cover a broad spectrum of human behaviors involving consciousness, creativity, innovative thinking, problem-solving, critical thinking, and other related cognitive processes self-evident in the arts and sciences. The author discusses the brain activity associated with action intentions, connecting this activity with the creative process. Focusing on one seminal artwork created and exhibited over a period of three decades, Thought Assemblies (1979–82, 2014), he describes how this symbolic art interprets the neuropsychological processes of intuition and analytical reasoning. It explores numerous basic questions concerning observed interactions between artistic and scientific inquiries, conceptions, perceptions, and representations connecting mind and nature. Pointing to some key neural mechanisms responsible for forming and implementing intentions, he considers why and how we create, discover, invent, and innovate. He suggests ways of metaphorical thinking and symbolic modeling that can help integrate the neuroscience of intentional actions with the neuroscience of creativity, art and neuroaesthetics. PMID:26257629

  16. Curcumin-induced recovery from hepatic injury involves induction of apoptosis of activated hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Priya, S; Sudhakaran, P R

    2008-10-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) undergo activation and transdifferentiation to myofibroblast like cells in liver injury, leading to liver fibrosis. During recovery from injury, activated HSCs may either revert back to quiescent state or undergo apoptosis or both. In the present study, we have examined whether recovery from hepatic injury involves apoptosis of activated HSCs and tested whether curcumin (the yellow pigment from Curcuma longa Linn.) promotes recovery from hepatic injury by inducing apoptosis of these cells. Hepatic injury was induced by CCl4 and apoptosis was studied in HSCs isolated from liver by MTT assay, DNA fragmentation, and DAPI and annexin staining. Hepatic recovery was assessed by measuring hepatic marker activities, such as serum GOT, GPT and protein. Hepatic recovery occurred within 4 weeks after inducing injury in untreated control, whereas curcumin treatment caused hepatic recovery within 2 weeks, as evidenced by the reduction of hepatic marker activities to near normal levels. HSCs isolated from liver of animals treated with curcumin showed maximum apoptotic marker activities in 2nd week, whereas in HSCs from untreated control recovering from injury, maximum apoptosis was observed in 4th week. Induction of apoptosis in vivo during hepatic recovery was also suggested by increase in caspase-3 activity. Treatment of isolated HSCs in culture with curcumin caused apoptosis during later stages confirming that curcumin induced apoptosis of activated HSCs and not in unactivated quiescent HSCs. These results suggested that hepatoprotective effect of curcumin causing recovery from injury involved apoptosis of activated HSCs. PMID:19069843

  17. Carbohydrate in the mouth enhances activation of brain circuitry involved in motor performance and sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Turner, Clare E; Byblow, Winston D; Stinear, Cathy M; Gant, Nicholas

    2014-09-01

    The presence of carbohydrate in the human mouth has been associated with the facilitation of motor output and improvements in physical performance. Oral receptors have been identified as a potential mode of afferent transduction for this novel form of nutrient signalling that is distinct from taste. In the current study oral exposure to carbohydrate was combined with a motor task in a neuroimaging environment to identify areas of the brain involved in this phenomenon. A mouth-rinsing protocol was conducted whilst carbohydrate (CHO) and taste-matched placebo (PLA) solutions were delivered and recovered from the mouths of 10 healthy volunteers within a double-blind, counterbalanced design. This protocol eliminates post-oral factors and controls for the perceptual qualities of solutions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was used to identify cortical areas responsive to oral carbohydrate during rest and activity phases of a hand-grip motor task. Mean blood-oxygen-level dependent signal change experienced in the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex was larger for CHO compared with PLA during the motor task when contrasted with a control condition. Areas of activation associated with CHO exclusively were observed over the primary taste cortex and regions involved in visual perception. Regions in the limbic system associated with reward were also significantly more active with CHO. This is the first demonstration that oral carbohydrate signalling can increase activation within the primary sensorimotor cortex during physical activity and enhance activation of neural networks involved in sensory perception.

  18. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active. PMID:27229344

  19. Molecular genetic analysis of activation-tagged transcription factors thought to be involved in photomorphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, Michael M.

    2011-06-23

    This is a final report for Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER15927 entitled “Molecular Genetic Analysis of Activation-Tagged Transcription Factors Thought to be Involved in Photomorphogenesis”. Based on our preliminary photobiological and genetic analysis of the sob1-D mutant, we hypothesized that OBP3 is a transcription factor involved in both phytochrome and cryptochrome-mediated signal transduction. In addition, we hypothesized that OBP3 is involved in auxin signaling and root development. Based on our preliminary photobiological and genetic analysis of the sob2-D mutant, we also hypothesized that a related gene, LEP, is involved in hormone signaling and seedling development.

  20. 48 CFR 3452.224-72 - Research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... human subjects covered under 34 CFR part 97: Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a... establish and maintain procedures for the protection of human subjects. The definitions in 34 CFR 97.102... that is not exempt under 34 CFR 97.101(b) and 97.401(b). (b) If ED determines that proposed...

  1. Student Activism -- and Involvement in the Educational Program. Federation AdHoc Committee Report, January, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Federation of District Boards of Education, Trenton.

    This report notes that (1) activism is preferable to apathy, (2) larger problems loom for schools that fail to involve parents and community, (3) board member and administrator rigidity can cause conflict, and (4) black and Spanish-speaking students have special problems. Recommendations for school administrators and teachers emphasize sincerity…

  2. Structural Model of Employee Involvement in Skill Development Activity: The Role of Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Todd J.; Lippstreu, Michael; Judge, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    We extend prior research on involvement in employee development activity by including prominent individual difference constructs that have been previously ignored in this area of research. These include two important personality characteristics (conscientiousness and openness to experience), mental ability and goal orientation constructs. We…

  3. Involving Parents of Young Children in Science, Math and Literacy Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landerholm, Elizabeth; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a collaborative parent-involvement project for inner-city Hispanic primary students sponsored by the Chicago Community Trust. A university professor, two graduate assistants, the principal, and the school community representative designed a summer program featuring hospitality and support activities, free books, and hands-on science and…

  4. Idle Hands and Empty Pockets?: Youth Involvement in Extracurricular Activities, Social Capital, and Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Amanda M.; Gager, Constance T.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Survey of Adults and Youth, the authors examine the effect of economic status on youths' involvement in both school- and nonschool-related extracurricular activities. Specifically, they assess the association between four alternative measures of economic status--recipiency of food stamps, Aid to Families with Dependent…

  5. 78 FR 57818 - Commission Participation and Commission Employee Involvement in Voluntary Standards Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... the development of voluntary standards (43 FR 19216 (May 4, 1978)). Acknowledging the contribution... Commission Employee Involvement in Voluntary Standards Activities. 54 FR 6646 (Feb. 14, 1989). In 2006, the Commission amended several provisions of part 1031. 71 FR 38754 (July 10, 2006). Among other things, the...

  6. Beyond Participation: The Association between School Extracurricular Activities and Involvement in Violence across Generations of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xin; Peterson, Ruth D.

    2012-01-01

    Participation in extracurricular activities is purported to protect the broad spectrum of youth from a host of behavioral risks. Yet, empirical research on the extent to which this assumption holds for involvement in violence by immigrant youth is limited. Thus, using data for 13,236 (51.8% female) adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study…

  7. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model…

  8. 45 CFR 1177.4 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. 1177.4 Section 1177.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION §...

  9. 45 CFR 1177.4 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. 1177.4 Section 1177.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION §...

  10. 48 CFR 3452.224-71 - Notice about research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” (34 CFR 97.102(d)). If an activity follows a... children, the exemption at 34 CFR 97.101(b)(2) (i.e., research involving the use of educational tests... Sciences confidentiality statute, 20 U.S.C. 9573, are exempt under 34 CFR 97.101(b)(3)(ii). (d) Children...

  11. 48 CFR 3452.224-71 - Notice about research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” (34 CFR 97.102(d)). If an activity follows a... children, the exemption at 34 CFR 97.101(b)(2) (i.e., research involving the use of educational tests... Sciences confidentiality statute, 20 U.S.C. 9573, are exempt under 34 CFR 97.101(b)(3)(ii). (d) Children...

  12. Beyond the Classroom: Involving Students with Disabilities in Extracurricular Activities at Levy Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Pam; And Others

    Six students in a special education classroom at Levy Middle School (Syracuse, New York) became involved in a variety of after-school activities with nondisabled students. The students participated in the school computer club, cross-country skiing, volleyball, stage crew, intramural basketball, the Spanish Club, and after-school programs at two…

  13. INVOLVEMENT OF MICRORNAS IN EMBRYONIC GENOME ACTIVATION AS SHOWN BY DICER EXPRESSION IN RAINBOW TROUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most maternal transcripts including many housekeeping genes are degraded at or around embryonic genome activation as evidenced by our initial studies. This degradation appears to be global but highly regulated. MicroRNAs are naturally occurring small (19-24bp) RNAs that are shown to be involved in m...

  14. 45 CFR 1177.4 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. 1177.4 Section 1177.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION §...

  15. 45 CFR 1177.4 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. 1177.4 Section 1177.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION §...

  16. 45 CFR 1177.4 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. 1177.4 Section 1177.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION §...

  17. An Emergent Language Program Framework: Actively Involving Learners in Needs Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, William; Storer, Graeme

    1992-01-01

    Relates the experience of the staff of an aquaculture outreach program in Northeast Thailand in implementing an English for special purposes program. By actively involving learners in both the needs analysis and program design, teachers were able to adapt the program content to the requirements of the students. (15 references) (JL)

  18. Involving Your Child or Teen with ASD in Integrated Community Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Participating in outside activities and community-based endeavors can be tricky for people with special needs, like Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Families meet more than a few obstacles attempting to integrate their children or teens who have special needs like ASD. Most typical children are highly involved in sports, clubs and camps. If a…

  19. Labdane diterpenes protect against anoxia/reperfusion injury in cardiomyocytes: involvement of AKT activation

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrado, I; Fernández-Velasco, M; Boscá, L; de las Heras, B

    2011-01-01

    Several labdane diterpenes exert anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions; therefore, we have investigated whether these molecules protect cardiomyocytes in an anoxia/reperfusion (A/R) model, establishing the molecular mechanisms involved in the process. The cardioprotective activity of three diterpenes (T1, T2 and T3) was studied in the H9c2 cell line and in isolated rat cardiomyocyte subjected to A/R injury. In both cases, treatment with diterpenes T1 and T2 protected from A/R-induced apoptosis, as deduced by a decrease in the percentage of apoptotic and caspase-3 active positive cells, a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and an increase in the expression of antiapoptotic proteins. Analysis of cell survival signaling pathways showed that diterpenes T1 and T2 added after A/R increased phospho-AKT and phospho-ERK 1/2 levels. These cardioprotective effects were lost when AKT activity was pharmacologically inhibited. Moreover, the labdane-induced cardioprotection involves activation of AMPK, suggesting a role for energy homeostasis in their mechanism of action. Labdane diterpenes (T1 and T2) also exerted cardioprotective effects against A/R-induced injury in isolated cardiomyocytes and the mechanisms involved activation of specific survival signals (PI3K/AKT pathways, ERK1/2 and AMPK) and inhibition of apoptosis. PMID:22071634

  20. Childcare Service Centers’ Preferences and Intentions to Use a Web-Based Program to Implement Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Policies and Practices: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher Michael; Finch, Meghan; Wyse, Rebecca; Jones, Jannah; Freund, Megan; Wiggers, John Henry; Nathan, Nicole; Dodds, Pennie; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity is a significant public health problem that impacts a large number of children globally. Supporting childcare centers to deliver healthy eating and physical activity-promoting policies and practices is a recommended strategy for obesity prevention, given that such services provide access to a substantial proportion of children during a key developmental period. Electronic Web-based interventions represent a novel way to support childcare service providers to implement such policies and practices. Objective This study aimed to assess: (1) childcare centers’ current use of technology, (2) factors associated with intention to use electronic Web-based interventions, and (3) Web-based features that managers rated as useful to support staff with implementing healthy eating and physical activity-promoting policies and practices. Methods A computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) was conducted with service managers from long day care centers and preschools. The CATI assessed the following: (1) childcare center characteristics, (2) childcare centers’ use of electronic devices, (3) intention to use a hypothetical electronic Web-based program—assessed using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) with ratings between 1 (strongly disagree) and 7 (strongly agree), and (4) features rated as useful to include in a Web-based program. Results Overall, 214 service centers out of 277 (77.3%) consented to participate. All service centers except 2 reported using computers (212/214, 99.1%), whereas 40.2% (86/214) used portable tablets. A total of 71.9% (151/210) of childcare service managers reported a score of 6 or more for intention to use a hypothetical electronic Web-based program. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, intention to use the program was significantly associated with perceived ease of use (P=.002, odds ratio [OR] 3.9, 95% CI 1.6-9.2) and perceived usefulness (P<.001, OR 28,95% CI 8.0-95.2). Features reported by

  1. 40 CFR 725.238 - Activities conducted outside a structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Exemptions for Research and Development Activities § 725.238 Activities conducted outside a structure. (a) Exemption. (1) Research and development activities involving intentional testing in the environment...

  2. Morality, Intentionality, and Intergroup Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Killen, Melanie; Rizzo, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Morality is at the core of what it means to be social. Moral judgments require the recognition of intentionality, that is, an attribution of the target’s intentions towards another. Most research on the origins of morality has focused on intragroup morality, which involves applying morality to individuals in one’s own group. Yet, increasingly, there has been new evidence that beginning early in development, children are able to apply moral concepts to members of an outgroup as well, and that this ability appears to be complex. The challenges associated with applying moral judgments to members of outgroups includes understanding group dynamics, the intentions of others who are different from the self, and having the capacity to challenge stereotypic expectations of others who are different from the ingroup. Research with children provides a window into the complexities of moral judgment and raises new questions, which are ripe for investigations into the evolutionary basis of morality. PMID:25717199

  3. Embedding a Recovery Orientation into Neuroscience Research: Involving People with a Lived Experience in Research Activity.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Anthony; Brophy, Lisa; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Robertson, Joanne; Corlett, Philip; Davidson, Larry; Everall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the importance and value of involving people with a lived experience of mental ill health and recovery in neuroscience research activity. In this era of recovery oriented service delivery, involving people with the lived experience of mental illness in neuroscience research extends beyond their participation as "subjects". The recovery paradigm reconceptualises people with the lived experience of mental ill health as experts by experience. To support this contribution, local policies and procedures, recovery-oriented training for neuroscience researchers, and dialogue about the practical applications of neuroscience research, are required.

  4. Beyond human intentions and emotions

    PubMed Central

    Juan, Elsa; Frum, Chris; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Wang, Yi-Wen; Lewis, James W.; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of the neural basis of action observation and intention understanding in the last few decades by studies demonstrating the involvement of a specific brain network (action observation network; AON), these have been largely based on experimental studies in which people have been considered as strictly isolated entities. However, we, as social species, spend much more of our time performing actions interacting with others. Research shows that a person's position along the continuum of perceived social isolation/bonding to others is associated with a variety of physical and mental health effects. Thus, there is a crucial need to better understand the neural basis of intention understanding performed in interpersonal and emotional contexts. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis using of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies over the past decade that examined brain and cortical network processing associated with understanding the intention of others actions vs. those associated with passionate love for others. Both overlapping and distinct cortical and subcortical regions were identified for intention and love, respectively. These findings provide scientists and clinicians with a set of brain regions that can be targeted for future neuroscientific studies on intention understanding, and help develop neurocognitive models of pair-bonding. PMID:23543838

  5. Beyond human intentions and emotions.

    PubMed

    Juan, Elsa; Frum, Chris; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Wang, Yi-Wen; Lewis, James W; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of the neural basis of action observation and intention understanding in the last few decades by studies demonstrating the involvement of a specific brain network (action observation network; AON), these have been largely based on experimental studies in which people have been considered as strictly isolated entities. However, we, as social species, spend much more of our time performing actions interacting with others. Research shows that a person's position along the continuum of perceived social isolation/bonding to others is associated with a variety of physical and mental health effects. Thus, there is a crucial need to better understand the neural basis of intention understanding performed in interpersonal and emotional contexts. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis using of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies over the past decade that examined brain and cortical network processing associated with understanding the intention of others actions vs. those associated with passionate love for others. Both overlapping and distinct cortical and subcortical regions were identified for intention and love, respectively. These findings provide scientists and clinicians with a set of brain regions that can be targeted for future neuroscientific studies on intention understanding, and help develop neurocognitive models of pair-bonding. PMID:23543838

  6. Isolation of genes (nif/hup cosmids) involved in hydrogenase and nitrogenase activities in Rhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed

    Hom, S S; Graham, L A; Maier, R J

    1985-03-01

    Recombinant cosmids containing a Rhizobium japonicum gene involved in both hydrogenase (Hup) and nitrogenase (Nif) activities were isolated. An R. japonicum gene bank utilizing broad-host-range cosmid pLAFR1 was conjugated into Hup- Nif- R. japonicum strain SR139. Transconjugants containing the nif/hup cosmid were identified by their resistance to tetracycline (Tcr) and ability to grow chemoautotrophically (Aut+) with hydrogen. All Tcr Aut+ transconjugants possessed high levels of H2 uptake activity, as determined amperometrically. Moreover, all Hup+ transconjugants tested possessed the ability to reduce acetylene (Nif+) in soybean nodules. Cosmid DNAs from 19 Hup+ transconjugants were transferred to Escherichia coli by transformation. When the cosmids were restricted with EcoRI, 15 of the 19 cosmids had a restriction pattern with 13.2-, 4.0-, 3.0-, and 2.5-kilobase DNA fragments. Six E. coli transformants containing the nif/hup cosmids were conjugated with strain SR139. All strain SR139 transconjugants were Hup+ Nif+. Moreover, one nif/hup cosmid was transferred to 15 other R. japonicum Hup- mutants. Hup+ transconjugants of six of the Hup- mutants appeared at a frequency of 1.0, whereas the transconjugants of the other nine mutants remained Hup-. These results indicate that the nif/hup gene cosmids contain a gene involved in both nitrogenase and hydrogenase activities and at least one and perhaps other hup genes which are exclusively involved in H2 uptake activity.

  7. Difficulty with daily activities involving the lower extremities in people with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Poole, Janet L; Brandenstein, Jane

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of lower extremity impairments in motion and strength in people with systemic sclerosis and the relationships of the impairments to limitations in activities of daily living primarily involving the lower extremities. Participants were 69 persons with SSc who received evaluations of lower extremity joint motion (Keitel function test), strength (timed-stands test), and basic mobility (timed up and go test) and completed a demographic questionnaire regarding symptoms in the lower extremities. Activity limitations were measured by the Rheumatoid and Arthritis Outcome Score (RAOS) which examines functional ability, pain, and quality of life. The participants had difficulty with items requiring external rotation of the hips and lower extremity strength. There were moderate correlations between the impairment measures of joint motion, strength, mobility, and activity limitations. Fair correlations were found between the skin scores and the RAOS sections except for pain. The results of this study show that lower extremity involvement is present in persons with SSc. The findings, regarding strength, mobility, and joint motion are related to the ability to perform everyday activities involving the lower extremities, suggest that these areas should be targeted for intervention in persons with SSc.

  8. Barriers to involvement in physical activities of persons with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Shor, Ron; Shalev, Anat

    2016-03-01

    Participating in physical activities could be essential for reducing the multiple risk factors for health problems that persons with severe mental illness (SMI) may suffer. However, people with SMI are significantly less active than the general population. To develop knowledge about factors related to the perceived barriers hindering this population's participation in physical activities and the benefits this participation would have, a study was conducted in Israel with 86 people with mental illness living in community mental health facilities prior to their participation in a health promotion program. A mixed method was implemented and included: a scale designed to measure participants' perceptions of the barriers to and benefits of involvement in physical activities; instruments focusing on bio-psycho-social factors that may affect the level of barriers experienced; and personal interviews. The findings revealed high ranking for accessibility barriers hindering the participation in physical activities. Bio-psycho-social factors stemming from the participants' mental health, such as level of depression, were correlated with higher ranking of accessibility barriers. Bio-psycho-social factors reflecting positive mental health and health, such as positive appraisal of body weight, were correlated with lower ranking of accessibility barriers. Other barriers may include organizational and broader systemic barriers in the mental health facilities where the participants reside. These findings illuminate the need to consider the unique challenges that persons with mental illness may face in any attempt to advance their involvement in physical activity.

  9. Intentional replantation. A viable alternative for selected cases.

    PubMed

    Dryden, J A; Arens, D E

    1994-04-01

    When conventional endodontic treatment or retreatment is not possible, the operator may choose to intentionally extract and replant the involved tooth. Intentional replantation consists of extracting the tooth, finding and correcting the defect, and replanting the tooth in its socket. This article discusses the indications, contraindications, and recommended techniques for intentional replantation. Several successful case reports are described in which intentional replantation was used as a last resort.

  10. Differential involvement of amygdala and cortical NMDA receptors activation upon encoding in odor fear memory.

    PubMed

    Hegoburu, Chloé; Parrot, Sandrine; Ferreira, Guillaume; Mouly, Anne-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Although the basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a crucial role for the acquisition of fear memories, sensory cortices are involved in their long-term storage in rats. However, the time course of their respective involvement has received little investigation. Here we assessed the role of the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the BLA and olfactory cortex at discrete moments of an odor fear conditioning session. We showed that NMDA receptors in BLA are critically involved in odor fear acquisition during the first association but not during the next ones. In the cortex, NMDA receptor activation at encoding is not necessary for recent odor fear memory while its role in remote memory storage needs further investigation.

  11. Differential involvement of amygdala and cortical NMDA receptors activation upon encoding in odor fear memory.

    PubMed

    Hegoburu, Chloé; Parrot, Sandrine; Ferreira, Guillaume; Mouly, Anne-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Although the basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a crucial role for the acquisition of fear memories, sensory cortices are involved in their long-term storage in rats. However, the time course of their respective involvement has received little investigation. Here we assessed the role of the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the BLA and olfactory cortex at discrete moments of an odor fear conditioning session. We showed that NMDA receptors in BLA are critically involved in odor fear acquisition during the first association but not during the next ones. In the cortex, NMDA receptor activation at encoding is not necessary for recent odor fear memory while its role in remote memory storage needs further investigation. PMID:25403452

  12. Understanding affluent adolescent adjustment: The interplay of parental perfectionism, perceived parental pressure, and organized activity involvement.

    PubMed

    Randall, Edin T; Bohnert, Amy M; Travers, Lea V

    2015-06-01

    This cross-sectional study examined relations between affluent adolescent adjustment and culturally salient factors within parent-child relationship and extracurricular domain. Bootstrapping techniques evaluated mediated effects among parental perfectionism, perceived parental pressure, intensity of organized activity (OA) involvement, and adolescent adjustment (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms, life satisfaction) within a sample of 10th graders and their parents (n = 88 parent-child pairs) from four high schools in affluent communities. Findings indicated that adolescents with more perfectionistic parents perceived more parental pressure and experienced poorer adjustment. Results also demonstrated that affluent adolescents who perceived more parental pressure were more intensely involved in OAs, but that higher OA intensity was linked to better adjustment. Findings highlight the importance of considering parental perfectionism when understanding adolescent behaviors and psychological outcomes, confirm the negative direct effects of parental pressure on adjustment, and corroborate prior research dispelling that highly intense OA involvement is linked to adolescent maladjustment. PMID:25828548

  13. Differential involvement of amygdala and cortical NMDA receptors activation upon encoding in odor fear memory

    PubMed Central

    Hegoburu, Chloé; Parrot, Sandrine; Ferreira, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Although the basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a crucial role for the acquisition of fear memories, sensory cortices are involved in their long-term storage in rats. However, the time course of their respective involvement has received little investigation. Here we assessed the role of the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the BLA and olfactory cortex at discrete moments of an odor fear conditioning session. We showed that NMDA receptors in BLA are critically involved in odor fear acquisition during the first association but not during the next ones. In the cortex, NMDA receptor activation at encoding is not necessary for recent odor fear memory while its role in remote memory storage needs further investigation. PMID:25403452

  14. Intentionality, Representation, and Anticipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Preester, Helena

    2002-09-01

    Both Brentano and Merleau-Ponty have developed an account of intentionality, which nevertheless differ profoundly in the following respect. According to Brentano, intentionality mainly is a matter of mental presentations. This marks the beginning of phenomenology's difficult relation with the nature of the intentional reference. Merleau-Ponty, on the other hand, has situated intentionality on the level of the body, a turn which has important implications for the nature of intentionality. Intentionality no longer is primarily based on having (re)presentations, but is rooted in the dynamics of the living body. To contrast those approaches enables us to make clear in what way intentionality is studied nowadays. On the one hand, intentionality is conceived of as a matter of formal-syntactical causality in cognitive science, and in particular in classical-computational theory. On the other hand, a interactivist approach offers a more Merleau-Ponty-like point of view, in which autonomy, embodiment and interaction are stressed.

  15. Staying in or moving away from structured activities: Explanations involving parents and peers.

    PubMed

    Persson, Andreas; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent participation in structured activities, meaning those with adult leaders, regular meetings, and skill-building activities, is related to good adjustment. Participation in unstructured, unsupervised, peer-oriented activities is related to poor adjustment. Structured activity participation is high in early adolescence and then declines, raising the question of why youths leave structured activities. The authors examined explanations involving parents and peers. They used longitudinal data from 861 youths (ages 13-17 years). Results showed that, compared with youths who stayed in structured activities, those who switched to hanging out on the streets were less likely to have peers in structured activities and had less positive feelings about the home context and more negative interactions with parents. In addition, delinquency predicted switching to hanging out in the streets and never joining structured activities in the first place. The results concerning parents support a theoretical explanation of how parents might unintentionally affect youths' leisure choices. Furthermore, the authors found some indications that positive feelings at home might protect youths who switch from structured activities to hanging out on the streets from increases in delinquency.

  16. Involving postgraduate's students in undergraduate small group teaching promotes active learning in both

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Ruchi; Modi, Jyoti Nath; Vyas, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lecture is a common traditional method for teaching, but it may not stimulate higher order thinking and students may also be hesitant to express and interact. The postgraduate (PG) students are less involved with undergraduate (UG) teaching. Team based small group active learning method can contribute to better learning experience. Aim: To-promote active learning skills among the UG students using small group teaching methods involving PG students as facilitators to impart hands-on supervised training in teaching and managerial skills. Methodology: After Institutional approval under faculty supervision 92 UGs and 8 PGs participated in 6 small group sessions utilizing the jigsaw technique. Feedback was collected from both. Observations: Undergraduate Feedback (Percentage of Students Agreed): Learning in small groups was a good experience as it helped in better understanding of the subject (72%), students explored multiple reading resources (79%), they were actively involved in self-learning (88%), students reported initial apprehension of performance (71%), identified their learning gaps (86%), team enhanced their learning process (71%), informal learning in place of lecture was a welcome change (86%), it improved their communication skills (82%), small group learning can be useful for future self-learning (75%). Postgraduate Feedback: Majority performed facilitation for first time, perceived their performance as good (75%), it was helpful in self-learning (100%), felt confident of managing students in small groups (100%), as facilitator they improved their teaching skills, found it more useful and better identified own learning gaps (87.5%). Conclusions: Learning in small groups adopting team based approach involving both UGs and PGs promoted active learning in both and enhanced the teaching skills of the PGs. PMID:26380201

  17. Activity and recovery cycles of National Rugby League matches involving higher and lower ranked teams.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the influence of ladder position on ball-in-play and recovery periods in elite National Rugby League (NRL) competitive matches. Video recordings of 192 NRL matches and 18 NRL finals matches played over 2 competitive seasons were coded for activity and recovery cycles. Time when the ball was continuously in play was considered activity, whereas any stoppages during the match (e.g., for scrums, penalties, line drop outs, tries, and video referee decisions) were considered recovery. In comparison to matches involving lower standard teams, there was a greater proportion (effect size [ES] = 0.37-0.67) of long duration (>91 seconds) and a smaller proportion (ES = 0.49-0.68) of short duration (<45 seconds) ball-in-play periods when Top 4 teams were competing against other Top 4 teams. No meaningful differences were found between teams of different ladder positions for the proportion of short (ES = 0.04-0.16) and long (ES = 0.06-0.28) recovery periods. In comparison to fixture matches involving the top 4 teams, finals matches had a smaller proportion (ES = 0.56) of long duration activity periods, and a greater proportion (ES = 0.54) of short duration activity periods. Only small differences were found between finals matches and matches involving the Top 4 teams for the proportion of short (ES = 0.42) and long (ES = 0.41) recovery periods. These findings suggest that the competitive advantage of the best NRL teams is closely linked to their ability to maintain a higher playing intensity than less successful teams. Furthermore, long ball-in-play periods in high-standard fixture matches (i.e., involving the top 4 teams) ensure that players are adequately prepared for the ball-in-play demands of finals matches.

  18. Exposure to violence and intentions to engage in moralistic violence during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Barkin, S; Kreiter, S; DuRant, R H

    2001-12-01

    This study examined young adolescents'intentions to use moralistic violence and their violence exposure, examining male-female differences. Sixth-grade students (n=702) from Georgia middle schools servicing impoverished communities participated. Data were obtained on the students' exposure to violence, family structure and education level, church attendance, gang interest, drug use, and depression status. The dependent variable, intention to use moralistic violence, was measured with an 11-item scale. Linear regression models were run separately for males and females. Males had significantly higher mean intention to use moralistic violence than females (p=0.002). Males reported being exposed to violence more than females, but exposure decreased as attendance to religious services increased. For these 11-12-year-olds, unconventional peer social norms, such as witnessing violence, increased their intention to use violence while involvement in conventional activities, such as church attendance, decreased it. The protective effect was greater for males than females.

  19. Physical, Cognitive, Social, and Emotional Mediators of Activity Involvement and Health in Later Life.

    PubMed

    Matz-Costa, Christina; Carr, Dawn C; McNamara, Tay K; James, Jacquelyn Boone

    2016-10-01

    The current study tests the indirect effect of activity-related physical activity, cognitive activity, social interaction, and emotional exchange on the relationship between activity involvement and health (physical and emotional) in later life. Longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 5,442) were used to estimate a series of linear regression models. We found significant indirect effects for social interaction and benefit to others (emotional exchange) on emotional health (depressive symptoms) and indirect effects for use of body and benefit to others (physical) on physical health (frailty). The most potent indirect effect associated with emotional and physical health was experienced by those engaged in all four domains (use of body, use of mind, social interaction, and benefit to others). While effect sizes are small and results should be interpreted with caution, findings shed light on ways in which public health interventions aimed toward increasing role engagement in later life could be improved.

  20. Physical, Cognitive, Social, and Emotional Mediators of Activity Involvement and Health in Later Life.

    PubMed

    Matz-Costa, Christina; Carr, Dawn C; McNamara, Tay K; James, Jacquelyn Boone

    2016-10-01

    The current study tests the indirect effect of activity-related physical activity, cognitive activity, social interaction, and emotional exchange on the relationship between activity involvement and health (physical and emotional) in later life. Longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 5,442) were used to estimate a series of linear regression models. We found significant indirect effects for social interaction and benefit to others (emotional exchange) on emotional health (depressive symptoms) and indirect effects for use of body and benefit to others (physical) on physical health (frailty). The most potent indirect effect associated with emotional and physical health was experienced by those engaged in all four domains (use of body, use of mind, social interaction, and benefit to others). While effect sizes are small and results should be interpreted with caution, findings shed light on ways in which public health interventions aimed toward increasing role engagement in later life could be improved. PMID:26429863

  1. Insulin and dexamethasone stimulation of cardiac lipoprotein lipase activity involves the actin-based cytoskeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Ewart, H S; Severson, D L

    1999-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in cultured ventricular cardiomyocytes from adult rat hearts was stimulated by the combination of insulin (100 nM) and dexamethasone (100 nM) during an overnight (16 h) incubation. Wortmannin (100 nM), rapamycin (30 ng/ml) or PD98059 (50 microM) did not prevent this stimulation, suggesting that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, p70 S6 kinase and the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade are not involved in transducing the hormonal signal. In contrast, cytochalasin D (2 microM) completely abolished the stimulatory effect of insulin and dexamethasone on both heparin-releasable LPL and total cellular LPL activities. The potential role of the actin cytoskeleton in the stimulation of LPL activity by insulin and dexamethasone appears to be distal to the initial signalling events since cytochalasin D is still effective in preventing the stimulation when added 2 h after the hormones. PMID:10333493

  2. On deception detection in multi-agent systems and deception intent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eugene, Jr.; Li, Deqing; Yuan, Xiuqing

    2008-04-01

    Deception detection plays an important role in the military decision-making process, but detecting deception is a challenging task. The deception planning process involves a number of human factors. It is intent-driven where intentions are usually hidden or not easily observable. As a result, in order to detect deception, any adversary model must have the capability to capture the adversary's intent. This paper discusses deception detection in multi-agent systems and in adversary modeling. We examined psychological and cognitive science research on deception and implemented various theories of deception within our approach. First, in multi-agent expert systems, one detection method uses correlations between agents to predict reasonable opinions/responses of other agents (Santos & Johnson, 2004). We further explore this idea and present studies that show the impact of different factors on detection success rate. Second, from adversary modeling, our detection method focuses on inferring adversary intent. By combining deception "branches" with intent inference models, we can estimate an adversary's deceptive activities and at the same time enhance intent inference. Two major kinds of deceptions are developed in this approach in different fashions. Simulative deception attempts to find inconsistency in observables, while dissimulative deception emphasizes the inference of enemy intentions.

  3. Intentions to Use Virtual Worlds for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Jia; Eder, Lauren B.

    2009-01-01

    Virtual worlds are becoming increasingly sophisticated, showing potential as an effective platform for a variety of collaborative activities, including learning. This study examines students' intentions to use the virtual world Second Life (SL) for education, and explores factors associated with their intentions. Based on the Technology Acceptance…

  4. Biases in rhythmic sensorimotor coordination: effects of modality and intentionality.

    PubMed

    Debats, Nienke B; Ridderikhoff, Arne; de Boer, Betteco J; Peper, C Lieke E

    2013-08-01

    Sensorimotor biases were examined for intentional (tracking task) and unintentional (distractor task) rhythmic coordination. The tracking task involved unimanual tracking of either an oscillating visual signal or the passive movements of the contralateral hand (proprioceptive signal). In both conditions the required coordination patterns (isodirectional and mirror-symmetric) were defined relative to the body midline and the hands were not visible. For proprioceptive tracking the two patterns did not differ in stability, whereas for visual tracking the isodirectional pattern was performed more stably than the mirror-symmetric pattern. However, when visual feedback about the unimanual hand movements was provided during visual tracking, the isodirectional pattern ceased to be dominant. Together these results indicated that the stability of the coordination patterns did not depend on the modality of the target signal per se, but on the combination of sensory signals that needed to be processed (unimodal vs. cross-modal). The distractor task entailed rhythmic unimanual movements during which a rhythmic visual or proprioceptive distractor signal had to be ignored. The observed biases were similar as for intentional coordination, suggesting that intentionality did not affect the underlying sensorimotor processes qualitatively. Intentional tracking was characterized by active sensory pursuit, through muscle activity in the passively moved arm (proprioceptive tracking task) and rhythmic eye movements (visual tracking task). Presumably this pursuit afforded predictive information serving the coordination process.

  5. The spectrum of enzymes involved in activation of 2-aminoanthracene varies with the metabolic system applied.

    PubMed

    Veres, Zsuzsa; Török, Géza; Tóth, Eva; Vereczkey, László; Jemnitz, Katalin

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the involvement of cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in the metabolic activation of 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) by use of metabolic systems such as liver S9 or hepatocytes from untreated and beta-naphthoflavone (BNF)- or phenobarbital (PB)-treated rats. Metabolic activation was determined in the Salmonella reverse mutation assay (Ames test). Unexpectedly, both enzyme inducers, BNF and PB, significantly decreased the mutagenicity of 2AA activated by S9 fractions. 2AA mutagenicity was detected in the presence of cytochrome P450 inhibitors such as alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF), clotrimazole and N-benzylimidazole to study the contribution of CYP isoenzymes to the activation process. ANF significantly decreased the activation of 2AA by S9 from untreated rats. In contrast, ANF significantly increased the metabolic activation of 2AA by S9 from BNF- and PB-treated rats. The enhanced mutagenicity was not altered by co-incubation with clotrimazole and ANF. Pre-incubation of 2AA in the presence of N-benzylimidazole significantly increased the activation of 2AA by S9 from BNF- and PB-treated rats, which suggests that CYPs play minor role in 2AA metabolic activation by rat liver S9 fractions. In contrast with the results described above, BNF treatment of rats significantly enhanced the activation of 2AA by hepatocytes. ANF attenuated the extent of this activation suggesting that different enzymes play a major role in the activation processes in these metabolic systems. Our results indicate that identification of mutagenic hazard by use of the Ames test may depend on the metabolic system applied.

  6. Entrepreneurial Intention as Developmental Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva

    2010-01-01

    What predicts adults' entrepreneurial intentions? Utilizing a cross-sectional sample of 496 German scientists, we investigated a path model for the effects of entrepreneurial personality (Big Five profile), control beliefs, and recalled early entrepreneurial competence in adolescence (early inventions, leadership, commercial activities) on two…

  7. Beyond participation: the association between school extracurricular activities and involvement in violence across generations of immigration.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xin; Peterson, Ruth D

    2012-03-01

    Participation in extracurricular activities is purported to protect the broad spectrum of youth from a host of behavioral risks. Yet, empirical research on the extent to which this assumption holds for involvement in violence by immigrant youth is limited. Thus, using data for 13,236 (51.8% female) adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study explores how the relationship between extracurricular activities and youth violence varies by type of extracurricular activity profile (sports alone, non-sports alone, and a combination of sports and non-sports) and by generations of immigration (first, second, and third-plus). The sample is composed of 9.3% (n = 1,233) first-generation youth, 15.7% (n = 2,080) second generation, and 74.9% (n = 9,923) third-plus generation. The results reveal that adolescents from the third-plus generation (i.e., non-immigrant youth) who participate in non-sports alone or sports plus non-sports have lower odds of involvement in violence than adolescents from the same generation who do not participate in extracurricular activities. However, for first- and second-generation adolescents, participation in extracurricular activities is associated with higher rather than lower odds of violence compared to their non-participating counterparts. These findings challenge the viewpoint that participation in mainstream extracurricular activities as afforded by US schools is equally beneficial for all youth. They also call for additional research that explores why immigrant youth are less likely than non-immigrant youth to gain violence-reducing benefits when they participate in extracurricular activities.

  8. Involvement of cannabinoid receptor-1 activation in mitochondrial depolarizing effect of lipopolysaccharide in human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Barbonetti, A; Vassallo, M R C; Costanzo, M; Battista, N; Maccarrone, M; Francavilla, S; Francavilla, F

    2014-07-01

    Gram-negative bacteria frequently involved in urogenital tract infections release the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS); its receptor, toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), has been recently identified in human spermatozoa, and its direct activation has been suggested in mediating adverse effects of LPS on human spermatozoa. However, the underlying signal transduction remains to be clarified. In other cell types, LPS induces the generation of endocannabinoids, which are involved in mediating endotoxin effects. In human spermatozoa, which exhibit a completely functional endocannabinoid system, the activation of cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) inhibited sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). In this study, we tested the hypothesis of a contribution of CB1 activation by sperm-generated endocannabinoids in the adverse effects exerted by LPS on human spermatozoa. The exposure of motile sperm suspensions to E. coli LPS produced a significant decrease in sperm ΔΨm, assessed at flow cytometry with JC-1, similar to that induced by Metanandamide (Met-AEA), a non-hydrolyzable analogue of the endocannabinoid AEA. The LPS-induced inhibition of ΔΨm was prevented by the selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, SR141716. However, the inhibition of ΔΨm induced by either LPS or Met-AEA did not affect sperm motility. Consistent with this finding, the CB1-mediated inhibition of ΔΨm was neither associated to mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species as evaluated by flow cytometry with MytoSox Red nor to apoptosis pathway activation as evaluated with cytoflorimetric assay for activated caspase-9 and caspase-3. Any oxidative genomic damage was also ruled out with the cytoflorimetric quantification of the oxidized base adduct 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. In conclusion, E. coli LPS inhibited sperm ΔΨm through the activation of CB1, but this effect was not accompanied to the activation of mitochondrial dysfunction-related apoptotic/oxidative mechanisms, which could

  9. The spectrum of nasal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus and its association with the disease activity.

    PubMed

    Kusyairi, K A; Gendeh, B S; Sakthiswary, R; Shaharir, S S; Haizlene, A H; Yusof, K H

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the spectrum of nasal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its association with the disease activity of SLE based on the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). This was a cross-sectional and observational study involving 73 stable SLE patients. All subjects were evaluated for the SLEDAI scores and had nasal endoscopic examination. The most commonly reported symptom was nasal congestion (31.5%) followed by nasal itchiness (26.0%), runny nose (20.5%) and nasal dryness (19.2%). Almost half (42.9%) of the subjects had nasal mucosal abnormalities, which included mucositis, crusting, ulceration, bifid middle turbinate, septal spur, Jacobson's organ, deviated nasal septum, bilateral inferior turbinate hypertrophy, everted uncinate process, nasopharynx cleft and torus palatinus. The median SLEDAI score for subjects with nasal symptoms was significantly higher than subjects without nasal symptoms (p < 0.05). Similarly, subjects with moderate to high activity (SLEDAI scores of 6-19) had a significantly higher frequency of both nasal symptoms and nasal mucosal abnormalities (p < 0.05) compared to subjects with no to mild activity (SLEDAI scores of 0-5).

  10. Ellagic acid: Pharmacological activities and molecular mechanisms involved in liver protection.

    PubMed

    García-Niño, Wylly Ramsés; Zazueta, Cecilia

    2015-07-01

    Traditional drugs or therapies rarely have effects on regression of chronic liver diseases, which result in many cases from sustained oxidative stress. In recent years, ellagic acid (EA) has gained attention due to its multiple biological activities and several molecular targets. This is the first review focused on the pharmacological properties and on the molecular mechanisms activated by EA in terms of liver protection. EA possesses antioxidant, antihepatotoxic, antisteatosic, anticholestatic, antifibrogenic, antihepatocarcinogenic and antiviral properties that improves the hepatic architectural and functions against toxic and pathological conditions. The molecular mechanisms that EA activates include the scavenging of free radicals, regulation of phase I and II enzymes, modulation of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines synthesis, the regulation of biochemical pathways involved in the synthesis and degradation of lipids as well as the maintenance of essential trace elements levels. EA also inhibits hepatic stellate cells and mast cells activation, the proliferation of transformed cells, as well as viral replication by increasing antioxidant response, induction of apoptosis, downregulation of genes involved in cell cycle and angiogenesis, and stimulation of cellular immune response. Despite the enormous therapeutic potential of EA as an innovative pharmacological strategy, the number of phase I and II trials in patients is scarce, precluding its clinical application. In these sense, the use of new delivery systems that enhances EA bioavailability would improve the results already obtained. Also it remains to be determined if treatment with urolithins instead of EA would represent a better strategy in hepatic disease treatment.

  11. Involvement of matrix metalloproteinase activity in hormone-induced mammary tumor regression.

    PubMed

    Simian, Marina; Molinolo, Alfredo; Lanari, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    Proteolytic activity and remodeling of the extracellular matrix are important players in tumor progression. However, to date the role of the extracellular matrix in tumor regression remains unresolved. To address this, we used a progesterone-dependent in vivo mouse mammary tumor line, C4-HD, which regresses in response to hormone therapy. Within the first 72 hours of treatment, massive apoptosis was accompanied by changes in the staining patterns of laminin and collagens I, III, and IV. We thus hypothesized that an increase in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity could be involved in this process. This indeed was the case as the activities of MMP-2, -9, and -3 increased in regressing tumors, coinciding with the peak of apoptosis. Moreover, cell-cell interactions were disrupted during early hours of regression with E-cadherin levels reduced and fragmentation products detected during regression. Analysis of beta-catenin revealed that although total levels within the tissue did not change, this molecule switched from being involved in cell-cell adhesion in the growing tumor to being expressed in the reactive stroma during regression. Our data provide a novel role for proteolytic activity in tumor regression and question the underlying principle for using MMP inhibitors in cancer treatment. PMID:16400029

  12. CD4 ligands inhibit the formation of multifunctional transduction complexes involved in T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Jabado, N; Pallier, A; Le Deist, F; Bernard, F; Fischer, A; Hivroz, C

    1997-01-01

    Ligands binding to the CD4 molecule can inhibit TCR-mediated T cell activation. We have previously reported that transcription factors regulating the expression of the IL-2 gene, NF-AT, NF-kappaB, and AP-1, are targets of this inhibitory effect in an in vitro model using peripheral human CD4+ T cells activated by a CD3 mAb. Two T cell activation pathways involved in the regulation of these transcription factors, calcium flux and the p21ras pathway, were investigated as potential targets. Binding of HIV envelope glycoprotein gp160/gp120 or a CD4 mAb to the CD4+ T cells, prior to TCR/CD3 activation, inhibited the intracellular calcium elevation. This event strongly suggested an inhibition of PLCgamma1 activity. Tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCgamma1, induced by CD3 activation, was not affected, but its association with tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, including a 62-kDa protein, was disrupted. This PLCgamma1-associated p62 was found to be immunoreactive to p62-Sam68 Abs. The activation-induced phosphorylation of two p21ras effectors, Raf-1 and Erk2, was inhibited by the CD4 ligands, indirectly pointing to inhibition of the p21ras activation pathway. In addition, we demonstrate that TCR activation of normal CD4+ T cells induced the formation of p120GAP and PLCgamma1-containing complexes. These complexes also contain other unidentified proteins. CD4 ligand binding induced a defective formation of these transduction complexes. This may result in inefficient signaling, partially accounting for the inhibitory effects of the CD4 ligands on both p21ras and calcium-activation pathways.

  13. Amyloidosis involving the respiratory system: 5-year's experience of a multi-disciplinary group's activity.

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele; Maccari, Uberto; Madioni, Chiara; Venezia, Duccio; La Magra, Lidia Calogera

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidosis may involve the respiratory system with different clinical-radiological-functional patterns which are not always easy to be recognized. A good level of knowledge of the disease, an active integration of the pulmonologist within a multidisciplinary setting and a high level of clinical suspicion are necessary for an early diagnosis of respiratory amyloidosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the number and the patterns of amyloidosis involving the respiratory system. We searched the cases of amyloidosis among patients attending the multidisciplinary rare and diffuse lung disease outpatients' clinic of Pulmonology Unit of the Hospital of Arezzo from 2007 to 2012. Among the 298 patients evaluated during the study period, we identified three cases of amyloidosis with involvement of the respiratory system, associated or not with other extra-thoracic localizations, whose diagnosis was histo-pathologically confirmed after the pulmonologist, the radiologist, and the pathologist evaluation. Our experience of a multidisciplinary team confirms that intra-thoracic amyloidosis is an uncommon disorder, representing 1.0% of the cases of rare and diffuse lung diseases referred to our center. The diagnosis of the disease is not always easy and quick as the amyloidosis may involve different parts of the respiratory system (airways, pleura, parenchyma). It is therefore recommended to remind this orphan disease in the differential diagnosis of the wide clinical scenarios the pulmonologist may intercept in clinical practice.

  14. Activated alveolar macrophage and lymphocyte alveolitis in extrathoracic sarcoidosis without radiological mediastinopulmonary involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Wallaert, B.; Ramon, P.; Fournier, E.C.; Prin, L.; Tonnel, A.B.; Voisin, C.

    1986-01-01

    Cellular characteristics of BAL were investigated in 18 patients with proved extrathoracic sarcoidosis (that is, sarcoidosis that affected the skin, eyes, parotid glands, stomach, nose, kidneys, or meninges) without clinical or radiological mediastinopulmonary involvement. Computed tomography of the thorax was performed on five patients: four patients were normal, and one had enlarged lymph nodes (these enlargements were not detectable on the patient's chest roentgenogram). The results of pulmonary function tests were normal in all patients. The total BAL cell count did not differ significantly between controls and patients. Abnormal percentages of alveolar lymphocytes (from 18 to 87%) were noted in 15 out of 18 patients. SACE levels were normal in 15 patients. No pulmonary gallium uptake was detected. The chemiluminescence of AM's, whether spontaneous or PMA induced, was increased in five out of seven patients. The percentages of T3+ lymphocytes in sarcoidosis patients did not significantly differ from those in controls. The T4+:T8+ ratio was normal in four patients and slightly increased in one. Follow-up of patients showed that alveolar lymphocytosis is as lasting as extrathoracic involvement. Our data demonstrate increased percentages of lymphocytes and activated AM's in the BAL of patients with extrathoracic sarcoidosis. This may be due to the initial involvement of the respiratory tract in extrathoracic sarcoidosis or to the diffusion of activated macrophages and lymphocytes from an extrathoracic site into the lung.

  15. Factors Associated with Tweens' Intentions to Sustain Participation in an Innovative Community-Based Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita D.; McDermott, Robert J.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Bryant, Carol A.; Courtney, Anita H.; Hogeboom, David L.; Nickelson, Jen; Phiilips, Leah M.; Alfonso, Moya L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Participation in free-time play, including individual and group activities, is important during youth as patterns of physical activity established then persist into adulthood. The VERB Summer Scorecard (VSS) intervention is an innovative physical activity promotion initiative that offers tweens (8-13 year-olds) opportunities to be…

  16. Anticancer Activities of Pterostilbene-Isothiocyanate Conjugate in Breast Cancer Cells: Involvement of PPARγ

    PubMed Central

    Nikhil, Kumar; Sharan, Shruti; Singh, Abhimanyu K.; Chakraborty, Ajanta; Roy, Partha

    2014-01-01

    Trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4′-hydroxystilbene (PTER), a natural dimethylated analog of resveratrol, preferentially induces certain cancer cells to undergo apoptosis and could thus have a role in cancer chemoprevention. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a ligand-dependent transcription factor whose activation results in growth arrest and/or apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. Here we investigated the potential of PTER-isothiocyanate (ITC) conjugate, a novel class of hybrid compound (PTER-ITC) synthesized by appending an ITC moiety to the PTER backbone, to induce apoptotic cell death in hormone-dependent (MCF-7) and -independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines and to elucidate PPARγ involvement in PTER-ITC action. Our results showed that when pre-treated with PPARγ antagonists or PPARγ siRNA, both breast cancer cell lines suppressed PTER-ITC-induced apoptosis, as determined by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and cleaved caspase-9 expression. Furthermore, PTER-ITC significantly increased PPARγ mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner and modulated expression of PPARγ-related genes in both breast cancer cell lines. This increase in PPARγ activity was prevented by a PPARγ-specific inhibitor, in support of our hypothesis that PTER-ITC can act as a PPARγ activator. PTER-ITC-mediated upregulation of PPARγ was counteracted by co-incubation with p38 MAPK or JNK inhibitors, suggesting involvement of these pathways in PTER-ITC action. Molecular docking analysis further suggested that PTER-ITC interacted with 5 polar and 8 non-polar residues within the PPARγ ligand-binding pocket, which are reported to be critical for its activity. Collectively, our observations suggest potential applications for PTER-ITC in breast cancer prevention and treatment through modulation of the PPARγ activation pathway. PMID:25119466

  17. Anticancer activities of pterostilbene-isothiocyanate conjugate in breast cancer cells: involvement of PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Nikhil, Kumar; Sharan, Shruti; Singh, Abhimanyu K; Chakraborty, Ajanta; Roy, Partha

    2014-01-01

    Trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxystilbene (PTER), a natural dimethylated analog of resveratrol, preferentially induces certain cancer cells to undergo apoptosis and could thus have a role in cancer chemoprevention. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a ligand-dependent transcription factor whose activation results in growth arrest and/or apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. Here we investigated the potential of PTER-isothiocyanate (ITC) conjugate, a novel class of hybrid compound (PTER-ITC) synthesized by appending an ITC moiety to the PTER backbone, to induce apoptotic cell death in hormone-dependent (MCF-7) and -independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines and to elucidate PPARγ involvement in PTER-ITC action. Our results showed that when pre-treated with PPARγ antagonists or PPARγ siRNA, both breast cancer cell lines suppressed PTER-ITC-induced apoptosis, as determined by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and cleaved caspase-9 expression. Furthermore, PTER-ITC significantly increased PPARγ mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner and modulated expression of PPARγ-related genes in both breast cancer cell lines. This increase in PPARγ activity was prevented by a PPARγ-specific inhibitor, in support of our hypothesis that PTER-ITC can act as a PPARγ activator. PTER-ITC-mediated upregulation of PPARγ was counteracted by co-incubation with p38 MAPK or JNK inhibitors, suggesting involvement of these pathways in PTER-ITC action. Molecular docking analysis further suggested that PTER-ITC interacted with 5 polar and 8 non-polar residues within the PPARγ ligand-binding pocket, which are reported to be critical for its activity. Collectively, our observations suggest potential applications for PTER-ITC in breast cancer prevention and treatment through modulation of the PPARγ activation pathway. PMID:25119466

  18. Secretion of a lysophospholipase D activity by adipocytes: involvement in lysophosphatidic acid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gesta, Stéphane; Simon, Marie-Françoise; Rey, Astrid; Sibrac, David; Girard, Alexia; Lafontan, Max; Valet, Philippe; Saulnier-Blache, Jean Sébastien

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to depict the metabolic pathways involved in extra-cellular production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) by adipocytes. LPA was followed by quantifying the accumulation of LPA in the incubation medium (conditioned medium: CM) of 3T3F442A adipocytes, or human adipose tissue explants, using a radioenzymatic assay. Surprisingly, after separation from the cells, the amount of LPA present in CM could significantly be increased by further incubation at 37°C. This suggested the presence of a LPA-synthesizing activity (LPA-SA) in CM. LPA-SA appeared as a soluble activity which was inhibited by divalent ion chelators: EDTA and phenanthrolin. The effect of EDTA was preferentially reverted by CoCl2, as described for a lysophospholipase D- (lyso-PLD) activity previously identified in rat plasma. LPA concentration could also be increased by treatment with a bacterial PLD, demonstrating the presence of PLD-sensitive LPA-precursors (mainly lysophosphatidylcholine) in adipocyte CM. LPA-SA could be increased by addition of exogenous lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylglycerol, or lyso-platelet activating factor, demonstrating that LPA-SA resulted from the action of a lyso-PLD. LPA-SA was not inhibited, but rather activated, by primary alcohol (ethanol and 1-butanol), suggesting that adipocyte lyso-PLD was not a classical PLD. Finally, LPA-SA was found to be weaker in CM of undifferentiated adipocyte (preadipocytes) as compared to CM of differentiated adipocytes. In conclusion, our results reveal the existence of a secreted lyso-PLD activity regulated during adipocyte-differentiation and involved in extra-cellular production of synthesis of LPA by adipocytes. PMID:12032165

  19. Joint Associations of Residential Density and Neighborhood Involvement With Physical Activity Among a Multiethnic Sample of Urban Adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Schulz, Amy J; Zenk, Shannon N; Israel, Barbara A; Wineman, Jean; Marans, Robert W; Rowe, Zachary

    2015-08-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with improvements in overall health. Although resident involvement in neighborhood social activities is positively associated with physical activity, neighborhood design features, including residential density, have varied associations with physical activity. Using data from a multiethnic sample of 696 adults in Detroit, Michigan, multilevel models were used to examine joint effects of residential density and resident involvement in neighborhood activities in relation to physical activity. We found a marginally significant negative interaction of higher residential density and resident neighborhood involvement. Higher residential density was negatively associated with physical activity, and resident neighborhood involvement was positively associated with physical activity. Our findings suggest that future work incorporate additional neighborhood and individual-level characteristics to understand the complexity of the association between the neighborhood environment, resident social engagement in the neighborhood, and physical activity.

  20. Serotonergic involvement in methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity: a detailed pharmacological study.

    PubMed

    Steed, Emily; Jones, Caitlin A; McCreary, Andrew C

    2011-06-20

    The mechanism by which the psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH) increases locomotor activity may be attributable to indirect activation of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) receptors. In the present study, the ability of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine, 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonists WAY100635, GR127935, M100907 and SB242084, and the 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists WAY163909 and Ro 60-0175 or the 5-HT synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) to alter METH-induced hyperactivity was analysed. Further, for comparative purposes, the involvement of the DA D(1) and D(2) receptor antagonists SCH23390 and haloperidol, D(2) partial agonists terguride, (-)3PPP and aripiprazole and finally clozapine were assessed. Doses of pCPA that attenuated 5-HT levels reduced METH activity. The 5-HT(1B) antagonist GR127935 had no effect on METH-induced locomotor activity but blocked that induced by MDMA. The 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY100635 reduced activity but this did not reach significance. In contrast, M100907 (minimal effective dose; MED=0.125 mg/kg), WAY163909 (MED=3mg/kg), Ro 60-0175 (MED=3mg/kg), haloperidol (MED=0.1mg/kg), clozapine (MED=5mg/kg), aripiprazole (MED=1mg/kg), (-)3PPP (MED=3mg/kg), terguride (MED=0.2mg/kg) and SCH23390 (MED=0.001325 mg/kg) attenuated METH-induced locomotor activity. Administration of 20mg/kg fluvoxamine attenuated, while SB242084 (MED=0.25mg/kg) potentiated METH-induced activity. These results contribute significantly to the understanding of the mechanism of action of this psychostimulant and suggest for the first time, that METH-induced locomotor stimulation is modulated by 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors, but demonstrate that 5-HT(1B) receptors are not directly involved. The involvement of the dopaminergic system was also demonstrated.

  1. Maturation of suprathreshold auditory nerve activity involves cochlear CGRP-receptor complex formation.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Ian M; Bussey-Gaborski, Rhiannon; Holt, Joseph C; Jordan, Paivi M; Luebke, Anne E

    2016-07-01

    In adult animals, the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is contained in cochlear efferent fibers projecting out to the cochlea, and contributes to increased suprathreshold sound-evoked activity in the adult auditory nerve. Similarly, CGRP applied to the lateral-line organ (hair cell organ) increases afferent nerve activity in adult frogs (post-metamorphic day 30), yet this increase is developmentally delayed from post-metamorphic day 4-30. In this study, we discovered that there was also a developmental delay in increased suprathreshold sound-evoked activity auditory nerve between juvenile and adult mice similar to what had been observed previously in frog. Moreover, juvenile mice with a targeted deletion of the αCGRP gene [CGRP null (-/-)] did not show a similar developmental increase in nerve activity, suggesting CGRP signaling is involved. This developmental delay is not due to a delay in CGRP expression, but instead is due to a delay in receptor formation. We observed that the increase in sound-evoked nerve activity is correlated with increased formation of cochlear CGRP receptors, which require three complexed proteins (CLR, RAMP1, RCP) to be functional. CGRP receptor formation in the cochlea was incomplete at 1 month of age (juvenile), but complete by 3 months (adult), which corresponded to the onset of suprathreshold enhancement of sound-evoked activity in wild-type animals. Taken together, these data support a model for cochlear function that is enhanced by maturation of CGRP receptor complexes. PMID:27440744

  2. Tissue factor trafficking in fibroblasts: involvement of protease-activated receptor–mediated cell signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Samir K.; Pendurthi, Usha R.

    2007-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is the cellular receptor for clotting factor VIIa (FVIIa), and the formation of TF-FVIIa complexes on cell surfaces triggers the activation of the coagulation cascade and the cell signaling. Our recent studies have shown that a majority of TF resides in various intracellular compartments, predominantly in the Golgi, and that FVIIa binding to cell surface TF induces TF endocytosis and mobilizes the Golgi TF pool to translocate it to the cell surface. This present study is aimed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in TF endocytosis and its mobilization from the Golgi. Activation of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) and PAR2 by specific peptide agonists and proteases, independent of FVIIa, mobilized TF from the Golgi store and increased the cell surface expression of TF. Blocking PAR2 activation, but not PAR1, with neutralizing antibodies fully attenuated the FVIIa-induced TF mobilization. Consistent with these data, silencing the PAR2 receptor, and not PAR1, abrogated the FVIIa-mediated TF mobilization. In contrast to their effect on TF mobilization, PAR1 and PAR2 activation, in the absence of FVIIa, had no effect on TF endocytosis. However, PAR2 activation is found to be critical for the FVIIa-induced TF endocytosis. Overall the data herein provide novel insights into the role of PARs in regulating cell surface TF expression. PMID:17384202

  3. Possible involvement of thrombin/protease-activated receptor 1 system in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Yasushi; Osuga, Yutaka; Hirata, Tetsuya; Yoshino, Osamu; Koga, Kaori; Harada, Miyuki; Morimoto, Chieko; Nose, Emi; Yano, Tetsu; Tsutsumi, Osamu; Taketani, Yuji

    2005-06-01

    Endometriosis is known to be associated with local inflammatory reactions. Given the emerging concept of thrombin and its specific receptor, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), as important players in inflammation and cell proliferation, we investigated whether thrombin and PAR1 might be involved in the pathophysiology of the disease, using a primary cell culture system of endometriotic tissues. PAR1 mRNA was expressed in primary endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs). Thrombin and SFLLRN (Ser-Phe-Leu-Leu-Arg-Asp), a PAR1 agonist peptide, increased the mRNA expression of IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the protein secretion of IL-8 nd MCP-1 in ESCs. The addition of thrombin inhibitor d-phenylalanyl-l-prolyl-l arginine chloromethyl ketone (PPACK) together with thrombin inhibited the thrombin-induced secretion of IL-8 and MCP-1. Thrombin, but not SFLLRN, activated matrix metalloproteinase-2 in ESCs, and the effect was inhibited by PPACK. Thrombin and SFLLRN increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive ratio of ESCs, indicating their cell proliferation-stimulating effects. The thrombin-induced increase in proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive ratio was diminished by PPACK. These findings imply that the thrombin system might be involved in the pathophysiology of endometriosis, stimulating inflammatory responses of endometriotic cells and their mitogenic activity. PMID:15755869

  4. Zebrafish reporter lines reveal in vivo signaling pathway activities involved in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, Marco; Rampazzo, Elena; Casari, Alessandro; Battilana, Giusy; Persano, Luca; Moro, Enrico; Liu, Shu; Leach, Steve D; Tiso, Natascia; Argenton, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, one of the worst malignancies of the exocrine pancreas, is a solid tumor with increasing incidence and mortality in industrialized countries. This condition is usually driven by oncogenic KRAS point mutations and evolves into a highly aggressive metastatic carcinoma due to secondary gene mutations and unbalanced expression of genes involved in the specific signaling pathways. To examine in vivo the effects of KRAS(G12D) during pancreatic cancer progression and time correlation with cancer signaling pathway activities, we have generated a zebrafish model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in which eGFP-KRAS(G12D) expression was specifically driven to the pancreatic tissue by using the GAL4/UAS conditional expression system. Outcrossing the inducible oncogenic KRAS(G12D) line with transgenic zebrafish reporters, harboring specific signaling responsive elements of transcriptional effectors, we were able to follow TGFβ, Notch, Bmp and Shh activities during tumor development. Zebrafish transgenic lines expressing eGFP-KRAS(G12D) showed normal exocrine pancreas development until 3 weeks post fertilization (wpf). From 4 to 24 wpf we observed several degrees of acinar lesions, characterized by an increase in mesenchymal cells and mixed acinar/ductal features, followed by progressive bowel and liver infiltrations and, finally, highly aggressive carcinoma. Moreover, live imaging analysis of the exocrine pancreatic tissue revealed an increasing number of KRAS-positive cells and progressive activation of TGFβ and Notch pathways. Increase in TGFβ, following KRAS(G12D) activation, was confirmed in a concomitant model of medulloblastoma (MDB). Notch and Shh signaling activities during tumor onset were different between MDB and pancreatic adenocarcinoma, indicating a tissue-specific regulation of cell signaling pathways. Moreover, our results show that a living model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma joined with cell signaling reporters is a suitable tool for

  5. 75 FR 61452 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Military Training Activities at...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Demolition Training Range, construction of a joint range administration/Unmanned Aerial System (UAS... systems, vehicles, and aircraft, in addition to accommodating training activities currently conducted...

  6. Involvement of Microglia Activation in the Lead Induced Long-Term Potentiation Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Shen, Xue-Feng; Che, Hong-Lei; Guo, Yan-Yan; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Chen, Jing-Yuan; Luo, Wen-Jing

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of Lead (Pb), a known neurotoxicant, can impair spatial learning and memory probably via impairing the hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as hippocampal neuronal injury. Activation of hippocampal microglia also impairs spatial learning and memory. Thus, we raised the hypothesis that activation of microglia is involved in the Pb exposure induced hippocampal LTP impairment and neuronal injury. To test this hypothesis and clarify its underlying mechanisms, we investigated the Pb-exposure on the microglia activation, cytokine release, hippocampal LTP level as well as neuronal injury in in vivo or in vitro model. The changes of these parameters were also observed after pretreatment with minocycline, a microglia activation inhibitor. Long-term low dose Pb exposure (100 ppm for 8 weeks) caused significant reduction of LTP in acute slice preparations, meanwhile, such treatment also significantly increased hippocampal microglia activation as well as neuronal injury. In vitro Pb-exposure also induced significantly increase of microglia activation, up-regulate the release of cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in microglia culture alone as well as neuronal injury in the co-culture with hippocampal neurons. Inhibiting the microglia activation with minocycline significantly reversed the above-mentioned Pb-exposure induced changes. Our results showed that Pb can cause microglia activation, which can up-regulate the level of IL-1β, TNF-α and iNOS, these proinflammatory factors may cause hippocampal neuronal injury as well as LTP deficits. PMID:22952811

  7. Getting involved in international development activities: UK initiatives and hidden benefits.

    PubMed

    Cheeseborough, Jackie; Godbolt, Shane; Grant, Maria J

    2015-03-01

    Jackie Cheeseborough and Shane Godbolt describe the role that UK health information professionals have in global health and in supporting colleagues from developing countries to continue to develop as a provision. They give an overview of a range of organisations working to improve access to health information in developing countries and in particular Sub-Saharan Africa including Book Aid International, HIFA, INASP, ITOCA, Phi, TALC, THET and Research4Life. Even in a recession, many UK health librarians are choosing to get involved in international development activities in low-resource countries by volunteering, and discovering hidden benefits for their own organisations, and their own continuing professional development.

  8. BimL involvement in Bax activation during UV irradiation-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Miaojuan; Xing, Da . E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.cn; Chen, Tongsheng; Zhang, Lan

    2007-06-29

    Bax, a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, localizes largely in the cytoplasm but translocates to mitochondria and undergoes oligomerization to induce the release of apoptogenic factors in response to apoptotic stimuli. However, the molecular mechanism of Bax activation is not fully understood. We show here the role of BimL in Bax activation during UV irradiation-induced apoptosis. In this study, GFP-BimL plasmid was constructed. The dynamic interaction between BimL and Bax during UV irradiation-induced apoptosis was observed using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique. Our experimental results showed that BimL translocation to mitochondria occurred before Bax translocation, and that BimL activated Bax indirectly. Moreover, inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activation blocked BimL translocation, delayed and attenuated Bax translocation and subsequent apoptosis. These results demonstrate that BimL is involved in UV irradiation-induced apoptosis by indirectly activating Bax.

  9. GABA neurotransmission in the cerebellar interposed nuclei: involvement in classically conditioned eyeblinks and neuronal activity.

    PubMed

    Aksenov, D; Serdyukova, N; Irwin, K; Bracha, V

    2004-02-01

    The cerebellar interposed nuclei (IN) are an essential part of circuits that control classically conditioned eyeblinks in the rabbit. The function of the IN is under the control of GABAergic projections from Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex. The exact involvement of cerebellar cortical input into the IN during eyeblink expression is not clear. While it is known that the application of gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA(A)) agonists and antagonists affects the performance of classically conditioned eyeblinks, the effects of these drugs on IN neurons in vivo are not known. The purpose of the present study was to measure the effects of muscimol and picrotoxin on the expression of conditioned eyeblinks and the activity of IN cells simultaneously. Injections of muscimol abolished conditioned responses and either silenced or diminished the activity of IN cells. Two injections were administered in each picrotoxin experiment. The first injection of picrotoxin slightly modified the timing and amplitude of the eyeblink, produced mild tonic eyelid closure, increased tonic activity of IN cells, and reduced the amplitude of the neural responses. The second injection of picrotoxin abolished conditioned responses, further increased tonic eyelid closure, dramatically elevated the tonic activity of IN cells, and in most cases, abolished neuronal responses. These results demonstrate that both GABA(A)-mediated inactivation and tonic up-regulation of IN cells can interrupt the expression of conditioned eyeblinks and that this behavioral effect is accompanied by the suppression of the neuronal activity correlates of the conditioned stimulus and response.

  10. Tyrosine phosphorylation and protein degradation control the transcriptional activity of WRKY involved in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Sato, Fumihiko

    2016-01-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIQ) are among the most structurally diverse and pharmaceutically valuable secondary metabolites. A plant-specific WRKY-type transcription factor, CjWRKY1, was isolated from Coptis japonica and identified as a transcriptional activator of BIQ biosynthesis. However, the expression of CjWRKY1 gene alone was not sufficient for the activation of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. Here, we report the importance of post-translational regulation of CjWRKY1 in BIQ biosynthesis. First, we detected the differential accumulation of CjWRKY1 protein in two cell lines with similar CjWRKY1 gene expression but different levels of accumulated alkaloids. Further investigation of the WRKY protein identified the phosphorylation of the WRKYGQK core domain at Y115. The CjWRKY(Y115E) phosphorylation-mimic mutant showed loss of nuclear localization, DNA-binding activity, and transactivation activity compared to wild-type CjWRKY1. Rapid degradation of the CjWRKY1 protein was also confirmed following treatment with inhibitors of the 26S proteasome and protease inhibitors. The existence of two independent degradation pathways as well as protein phosphorylation suggests the fine-tuning of CjWRKY1 activities is involved in the regulation of biosynthesis of BIQs. PMID:27552928

  11. Tyrosine phosphorylation and protein degradation control the transcriptional activity of WRKY involved in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Sato, Fumihiko

    2016-01-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIQ) are among the most structurally diverse and pharmaceutically valuable secondary metabolites. A plant-specific WRKY-type transcription factor, CjWRKY1, was isolated from Coptis japonica and identified as a transcriptional activator of BIQ biosynthesis. However, the expression of CjWRKY1 gene alone was not sufficient for the activation of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. Here, we report the importance of post-translational regulation of CjWRKY1 in BIQ biosynthesis. First, we detected the differential accumulation of CjWRKY1 protein in two cell lines with similar CjWRKY1 gene expression but different levels of accumulated alkaloids. Further investigation of the WRKY protein identified the phosphorylation of the WRKYGQK core domain at Y115. The CjWRKYY115E phosphorylation-mimic mutant showed loss of nuclear localization, DNA-binding activity, and transactivation activity compared to wild-type CjWRKY1. Rapid degradation of the CjWRKY1 protein was also confirmed following treatment with inhibitors of the 26S proteasome and protease inhibitors. The existence of two independent degradation pathways as well as protein phosphorylation suggests the fine-tuning of CjWRKY1 activities is involved in the regulation of biosynthesis of BIQs. PMID:27552928

  12. Possible involvement of 12-lipoxygenase activation in glucose-deprivation/reload-treated neurons.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Kazuki; Kakuda, Taichi; Higashi, Youichirou; Fujimoto, Sadaki

    2007-12-18

    The aim of this study was to clarify whether 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) activation was involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, extensive poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation and neuronal death induced by glucose-deprivation, followed by glucose-reload (GD/R). The decrease of neuronal viability and accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose) induced by GD/R were prevented 3-aminobenzamide, a representative PARP inhibitor, demonstrating this treatment protocol caused the same oxidative stress with the previously reported one. The PARP activation, ROS generation and decrease of neuron viability induced by GD/R treatment were almost completely abolished by an extracellular zinc chelator, CaEDTA. p47(phox), a cytosolic component of NADPH oxidase was translocated the membrane fraction by GD/R, indicating its activation, but it did not generate detectable ROS. Surprisingly, pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase with apocynin and AEBSF further decreased the decreased neuron viability induced by GD/R. On the other hand, AA861, a 12-LOX inhibitor, prevented ROS generation and decrease of neuron viability caused by GD/R. Interestingly, an antioxidant, N-acetyl-l-cysteine rescued the neurons from GD/R-induced oxidative stress, implying effectiveness of antioxidant administration. These findings suggested that activation of 12-LOX, but not NADPH oxidase, following to zinc release might play an important role in ROS generation and decrease of viability in GD/R-treated neurons.

  13. The benefits of in-group contact through physical activity involvement for health and well-being among Korean immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Heo, Jinmoo; Kim, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study is designed to examine the benefits of physical activity involvement with members of the same ethnic group. For this study, Korean immigrants who were members of Korean physical activity clubs such as badminton and tennis were selected as participants. Using a constructive grounded theory methodology, three themes were identified as benefits of physical activity involvement: (1) the experience of psychological well-being, (2) the creation of a unique cultural world, and (3) the facilitation of physical activity involvement. The findings of this study suggest that Korean immigrant participants gained various social, cultural, and psychological benefits by engaging in activities with other Korean immigrants. PMID:24875239

  14. Predicting Changes in Physical Activity among Adolescents: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Intention, Action Planning and Coping Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo-Soares, Vera; McIntyre, Teresa; Sniehotta, Falko F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to test the direct predictors of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), action planning and coping planning as predictors of changes in physical activity (PA) in 157 adolescents (mean age: 12). TPB measures, the Action Planning and Coping Planning Scales (APCPS) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaires were measured…

  15. Transmembrane myosin chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation produced in Dictyostelium is active.

    PubMed

    Schönitzer, Veronika; Eichner, Norbert; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Weiss, Ingrid M

    2011-12-01

    Several mollusc shells contain chitin, which is formed by a transmembrane myosin motor enzyme. This protein could be involved in sensing mechanical and structural changes of the forming, mineralizing extracellular matrix. Here we report the heterologous expression of the transmembrane myosin chitin synthase Ar-CS1 of the bivalve mollusc Atrina rigida (2286 amino acid residues, M.W. 264 kDa/monomer) in Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism for myosin motor proteins. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy (CLSM), chitin binding GFP detection of chitin on cells and released to the cell culture medium, and a radiochemical activity assay of membrane extracts revealed expression and enzymatic activity of the mollusc chitin synthase in transgenic slime mold cells. First high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of Ar-CS1 transformed cellulose synthase deficient D. discoideumdcsA(-) cell lines are shown.

  16. DNA methylation, riboswitches, and transcription factor activity: fundamental mechanisms of gene-nutrient interactions involving vitamins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Janet; Vieira, Amandio

    2006-12-01

    Nutrient-gene interactions occur with a variety of nutrients including some minerals, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and other lipids. Fundamental molecular mechanisms that underlie many of the effects of nutrients on gene expression are presented herein. Two of the mechanisms described influence gene transcription: DNA methylation and transcription factor activation. Another mechanism, riboswitching, can regulate gene expression at different levels, for example, at the mRNA translation level. The first two mechanisms are widely distributed across animal phyla. Riboswitches are documented primarily in more primitive organisms, but may prove to be of wider relevance. Riboswitches are known for several vitamins; those involving thiamine are presented here. The role of folates and retinoids in DNA methylation and transcriptional factor (nuclear retinoid receptor) activities, respectively, is presented in the context of cell proliferation and differentiation, and related physiological or pathological effects during embryogenesis and cancer.

  17. NRF2 activation is involved in ozonated human serum upregulation of HO-1 in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pecorelli, Alessandra; Bocci, Velio; Acquaviva, Alessandra; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Gardi, Concetta; Virgili, Fabio; Ciccoli, Lucia; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2013-02-15

    During the last decade, it has been shown that the activation of NRF2 and the binding to electrophile-responsive element (EpREs), stimulates the expression of a great number of genes responsible for the synthesis of phase I and phase II proteins, including antioxidants enzymes and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This critical cell response occurs in cardiovascular, degenerative and chronic infective diseases aggravated by a chronic oxidative stress. In our previous reports we have shown that ozonated plasma is able to up-regulate HO-1 expression in endothelial cells. In the present work we investigated a candidate mechanism involved in this process. After treatment with increasing doses of ozonated serum (20, 40 and 80 μg/mL O{sub 3} per mL of serum), a clear dose dependent activation of NRF2 and the subsequent induction of HO-1 and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1) was observed. This effect was also present when cells were treated with serum and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) or serum and 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE). Moreover, the treatment with ozonated serum was associated with a dose-dependent activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) and p38 MAP kinases (p38), not directly involved in NRF2 activation. These data, provide a new insight on the mechanism responsible for the induction of HO-1 expression by ozonated serum in the endothelium, and have a practical importance as an expedient approach to the treatment of patients with both effective orthodox drugs and ozonated autohemotherapy, targeted to the restoration of redox homeostasis. - Highlights: ► Endothelial HO1 is upregulated by ozonated plasma ► This activation is induced by NRF2 and it is ERK independent. ► 4HNE and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} are the main molecules involved in this process. ► Ozonated plasma induced a hormetic effect ► Combination of orthodox medicine and ozonated plasma can be a useful treatment.

  18. Is interaction of amyloid β-peptides with metals involved in cognitive activity?

    PubMed

    Tamano, Haruna; Takeda, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    Metal ions, i.e., Zn(2+) and Cu(2+), are released from neuron terminals in the hippocampus, which plays important roles in spatial and declarative memory, and may serve as a signal factor. Synaptic homeostasis of metal ions is critical for cognitive activity in the hippocampus. Amyloid-β (Aβ) is a causative candidate for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Aβ-induced synapse dysfunction is easy to emerge along with normal aging and leads to the cognitive decline and memory loss in the pre-dementia stage of AD. Because Aβ interacts with Zn(2+) and Cu(2+), it is likely that these metal ions are involved in the Aβ-induced modification of the synaptic function. There is evidence to indicate that the inhibition of the interaction of Aβ with Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) may ameliorate the pathophysiology of AD. Interaction of extracellular Zn(2+) with Aβ in the hippocampus is involved in transiently Aβ-induced cognition deficits, while the interaction of extracellular Cu(2+) reduces bioavailability of intracellular Cu(2+), followed by an increase in oxidative stress, which may lead to cognitive deficits. It is likely that Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) play as a key-mediating factor in pathophysiology of the synaptic dysfunction in which Aβ is involved. Based on the idea that understating Aβ-induced changes in synaptic plasticity is important to prevent AD, the present paper summarizes the interaction of Aβ with metal ions in cognition. PMID:25959547

  19. Cissus sicyoides: Pharmacological Mechanisms Involved in the Anti-Inflammatory and Antidiarrheal Activities

    PubMed Central

    Beserra, Fernando Pereira; de Cássia Santos, Raquel; Périco, Larissa Lucena; Rodrigues, Vinicius Peixoto; de Almeida Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo; Saldanha, Luiz Leonardo; Pupo, André Sampaio; da Rocha, Lúcia Regina Machado; Dokkedal, Anne Lígia; Vilegas, Wagner; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological mechanisms involved in anti-inflammatory and antidiarrheal actions of hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the leaves of Cissus sicyoides (HECS). The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by oral administration of HECS against acute model of edema induced by xylene, and the mechanisms of action were analysed by involvement of arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The antidiarrheal effect of HECS was observed and we analyzed the motility and accumulation of intestinal fluid. We also analyzed the antidiarrheal mechanisms of action of HECS by evaluating the role of the opioid receptor, α2 adrenergic receptor, muscarinic receptor, nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2. The oral administration of HECS inhibited the edema induced by xylene and AA and was also able to significantly decrease the levels of PGE2. The extract also exhibited significant anti-diarrheal activity by reducing motility and intestinal fluid accumulation. This extract significantly reduced intestinal transit stimulated by muscarinic agonist and intestinal secretion induced by PGE2. Our data demonstrate that the mechanism of action involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of HECS is related to PGE2. The antidiarrheal effect of this extract may be mediated by inhibition of contraction by acting on the intestinal smooth muscle and/or intestinal transit. PMID:26805827

  20. Online Sellers’ Website Quality Influencing Online Buyers’ Purchase Intention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea Lee, Tan; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Zakuan, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Zameri Mat Saman, Muhamad

    2016-05-01

    The increase adoption of Internet among young users in Malaysia provides high prospect for online seller. Young users aged between 18 and 25 years old are important to online sellers because they are actively involved in online purchasing and this group of online buyers is expected to dominate future online market. Therefore, examining online sellers’ website quality and online buyers’ purchase intention is crucial. Based on the Theory of planned behavior (TPB), a conceptual model of online sellers’ website quality and purchase intention of online buyers was developed. E-tailQ instrument was adapted in this study which composed of website design, reliability/fulfillment, security, privacy & trust, and customer service. Using online questionnaire and convenience sampling procedure, primary data were obtained from 240 online buyers aged between 18 to 25 years old. It was discovered that website design, website reliability/fulfillment, website security, privacy & trust, and website customer service positively and significantly influence intention of online buyers to continuously purchase via online channels. This study concludes that online sellers’ website quality is important in predicting online buyers’ purchase intention. Recommendation and implication of this study were discussed focusing on how online sellers should improve their website quality to stay competitive in online business.

  1. Involvement of trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (medullary dorsal horn) in craniofacial nociceptive reflex activity.

    PubMed

    Tsai, C M; Chiang, C Y; Yu, X M; Sessle, B J

    1999-05-01

    We have previously shown that an increase in electromyographic (EMG) activity of digastric (DIG) and masseter (MASS) muscles can be reflexly evoked by injection into the rat's temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region of the small-fibre excitant and inflammatory irritant mustard oil (MO). Since the trigeminal (V) subnucleus caudalis (Vc, i.e. medullary dorsal horn) has traditionally been viewed as an essential brainstem relay site of nociceptive information from craniofacial tissues, an EMG study was carried out in 45 anaesthetized rats to determine if Vc is involved in the MO-evoked increases in jaw muscle EMG activity. The effects of histologically confirmed surgical or chemical lesions of Vc on this evoked EMG activity were tested in different groups of rats. MO injection into the left TMJ region of intact rats evoked bilateral increases in EMG activity of DIG and MASS which could be significantly reduced by surgical transection of the left caudal brainstem at the obex level; MO injection into the right TMJ region in these same rats still readily evoked increases in EMG activity. A sagittal section medial to Vc or transection at the level of the second cervical spinal segment did not produce any significant reduction in the reflexly evoked EMG activity. Neurones in Vc, as opposed to fibres of passage, appear to be important for the MO-evoked EMG activity, since injection into Vc of the neurotoxic chemical ibotenic acid significantly reduced the mustard oil-evoked EMG activity. The Vc also appears to play a role in the activation of contralateral V motoneurons, as evidenced by the activation of the contralateral DIG and MASS muscles by the injection of MO into the left TMJ region of intact rats and by the reduction of this evoked EMG activity in the contralateral DIG and MASS of rats with a surgical transection or ibotenic acid lesion of the left Vc. These findings suggest that Vc may be a critical element in the neural pathways underlying the reflex responses evoked

  2. Testing Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory models of trait activity, industriousness, exercise social cognitions, exercise intentions, and physical activity in a representative U.S. sample.

    PubMed

    Vo, Phuong T; Bogg, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Prior research identified assorted relations between trait and social cognition models of personality and engagement in physical activity. Using a representative U.S. sample (N = 957), the goal of the present study was to test two alternative structural models of the relationships among the extraversion-related facet of activity, the conscientiousness-related facet of industriousness, social cognitions from the Theory of Planned Behavior (perceived behavioral control, affective attitudes, subjective norms, intentions), Social Cognitive Theory (self-efficacy, outcome expectancies), and the Transtheoretical Model (behavioral processes of change), and engagement in physical activity. Path analyses with bootstrapping procedures were used to model direct and indirect effects of trait and social cognition constructs on physical activity through two distinct frameworks - the Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory. While both models showed good internal fit, comparative model information criteria showed the Theory-of-Planned-Behavior-informed model provided a better fit. In the model, social cognitions fully mediated the relationships from the activity facet and industriousness to intentions for and engagement in physical activity, such that the relationships were primarily maintained by positive affective evaluations, positive expected outcomes, and confidence in overcoming barriers related to physical activity engagement. The resultant model - termed the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model- is proposed as a useful framework for organizing and integrating personality trait facets and social cognitions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate the expression of health-related behaviors, such as physical activity. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of extending the application of the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model to longitudinal and intervention designs for physical activity engagement.

  3. Testing Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory models of trait activity, industriousness, exercise social cognitions, exercise intentions, and physical activity in a representative U.S. sample

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Phuong T.; Bogg, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Prior research identified assorted relations between trait and social cognition models of personality and engagement in physical activity. Using a representative U.S. sample (N = 957), the goal of the present study was to test two alternative structural models of the relationships among the extraversion-related facet of activity, the conscientiousness-related facet of industriousness, social cognitions from the Theory of Planned Behavior (perceived behavioral control, affective attitudes, subjective norms, intentions), Social Cognitive Theory (self-efficacy, outcome expectancies), and the Transtheoretical Model (behavioral processes of change), and engagement in physical activity. Path analyses with bootstrapping procedures were used to model direct and indirect effects of trait and social cognition constructs on physical activity through two distinct frameworks – the Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory. While both models showed good internal fit, comparative model information criteria showed the Theory-of-Planned-Behavior-informed model provided a better fit. In the model, social cognitions fully mediated the relationships from the activity facet and industriousness to intentions for and engagement in physical activity, such that the relationships were primarily maintained by positive affective evaluations, positive expected outcomes, and confidence in overcoming barriers related to physical activity engagement. The resultant model – termed the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model– is proposed as a useful framework for organizing and integrating personality trait facets and social cognitions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate the expression of health-related behaviors, such as physical activity. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of extending the application of the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model to longitudinal and intervention designs for physical activity engagement. PMID:26300811

  4. Testing Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory models of trait activity, industriousness, exercise social cognitions, exercise intentions, and physical activity in a representative U.S. sample.

    PubMed

    Vo, Phuong T; Bogg, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Prior research identified assorted relations between trait and social cognition models of personality and engagement in physical activity. Using a representative U.S. sample (N = 957), the goal of the present study was to test two alternative structural models of the relationships among the extraversion-related facet of activity, the conscientiousness-related facet of industriousness, social cognitions from the Theory of Planned Behavior (perceived behavioral control, affective attitudes, subjective norms, intentions), Social Cognitive Theory (self-efficacy, outcome expectancies), and the Transtheoretical Model (behavioral processes of change), and engagement in physical activity. Path analyses with bootstrapping procedures were used to model direct and indirect effects of trait and social cognition constructs on physical activity through two distinct frameworks - the Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory. While both models showed good internal fit, comparative model information criteria showed the Theory-of-Planned-Behavior-informed model provided a better fit. In the model, social cognitions fully mediated the relationships from the activity facet and industriousness to intentions for and engagement in physical activity, such that the relationships were primarily maintained by positive affective evaluations, positive expected outcomes, and confidence in overcoming barriers related to physical activity engagement. The resultant model - termed the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model- is proposed as a useful framework for organizing and integrating personality trait facets and social cognitions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate the expression of health-related behaviors, such as physical activity. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of extending the application of the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model to longitudinal and intervention designs for physical activity engagement. PMID:26300811

  5. 22 CFR 40.25 - Certain aliens involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain aliens involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution. 40.25 Section 40.25 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF... involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution....

  6. 22 CFR 40.25 - Certain aliens involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution. 40.25 Section 40.25 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF... involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution....

  7. 22 CFR 40.25 - Certain aliens involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain aliens involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution. 40.25 Section 40.25 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF... involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution....

  8. 22 CFR 40.25 - Certain aliens involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain aliens involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution. 40.25 Section 40.25 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF... involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution....

  9. 22 CFR 40.25 - Certain aliens involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain aliens involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution. 40.25 Section 40.25 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF... involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution....

  10. 15 CFR 712.1 - Round to zero rule that applies to activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals. 712.1 Section 712.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.1 Round to...

  11. 15 CFR 712.1 - Round to zero rule that applies to activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals. 712.1 Section 712.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.1 Round to...

  12. 15 CFR 712.1 - Round to zero rule that applies to activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals. 712.1 Section 712.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.1 Round to...

  13. 15 CFR 712.1 - Round to zero rule that applies to activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals. 712.1 Section 712.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.1 Round to...

  14. 15 CFR 712.1 - Round to zero rule that applies to activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals. 712.1 Section 712.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.1 Round to...

  15. Developmental changes in brain activation involved in the production of novel speech sounds in children.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sugiura, Motoaki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-08-01

    Older children are more successful at producing unfamiliar, non-native speech sounds than younger children during the initial stages of learning. To reveal the neuronal underpinning of the age-related increase in the accuracy of non-native speech production, we examined the developmental changes in activation involved in the production of novel speech sounds using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Healthy right-handed children (aged 6-18 years) were scanned while performing an overt repetition task and a perceptual task involving aurally presented non-native and native syllables. Productions of non-native speech sounds were recorded and evaluated by native speakers. The mouth regions in the bilateral primary sensorimotor areas were activated more significantly during the repetition task relative to the perceptual task. The hemodynamic response in the left inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis (IFG pOp) specific to non-native speech sound production (defined by prior hypothesis) increased with age. Additionally, the accuracy of non-native speech sound production increased with age. These results provide the first evidence of developmental changes in the neural processes underlying the production of novel speech sounds. Our data further suggest that the recruitment of the left IFG pOp during the production of novel speech sounds was possibly enhanced due to the maturation of the neuronal circuits needed for speech motor planning. This, in turn, would lead to improvement in the ability to immediately imitate non-native speech.

  16. CIPK23 is involved in iron acquisition of Arabidopsis by affecting ferric chelate reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qiuying; Zhang, Xinxin; Yang, An; Wang, Tianzuo; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2016-05-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the major limiting factors affecting quality and production of crops in calcareous soils. Numerous signaling molecules and transcription factors have been demonstrated to play a regulatory role in adaptation of plants to iron deficiency. However, the mechanisms underlying the iron deficiency-induced physiological processes remain to be fully dissected. Here, we demonstrated that the protein kinase CIPK23 was involved in iron acquisition. Lesion of CIPK23 rendered Arabidopsis mutants hypersensitive to iron deficiency, as evidenced by stronger chlorosis in young leaves and lower iron concentration than wild-type plants under iron-deficient conditions by down-regulating ferric chelate reductase activity. We found that iron deficiency evoked an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and the elevated Ca(2+) would bind to CBL1/CBL9, leading to activation of CIPK23. These novel findings highlight the involvement of calcium-dependent CBL-CIPK23 complexes in the regulation of iron acquisition. Moreover, mutation of CIPK23 led to changes in contents of mineral elements, suggesting that CBL-CIPK23 complexes could be as "nutritional sensors" to sense and regulate the mineral homeostasis in Arabisopsis.

  17. An update on renal involvement in hemophagocytic syndrome (macrophage activation syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Esmaili, Haydarali; Mostafidi, Elmira; Mehramuz, Bahareh; Ardalan, Mohammadreza; Mohajel-Shoja, Mohammadali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is mainly characterized by massive infiltration of bone marrow by activated macrophages and often presents with pancytopenia. Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is also present with thrombocytopenia and renal involvement. Both conditions could coexist with each other and complicate the condition. Evidence Acquisition: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO, and Web of Science with keywords relevant to; Hemophagocytic syndrome, macrophage activation syndrome, interferon-gamma and thrombotic microangiopathy, have been searched. Results: Viral infection, rheumatologic disease and malignancies are the main underlying causes for secondary HPS. calcineurin inhibitors and viral infections are also the main underlying causes of TMA in transplant recipients. In this review, we discussed a 39-year-old male who presented with pancytopenia and renal allograft dysfunction. With the diagnosis of HPS induced TMA his renal condition and pancytopenia improved after receiving intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and plasmapheresis therapy. Conclusions: HPS is an increasingly recognized disorder in the realm of different medical specialties. Renal involvement complicates the clinical picture of the disease, and this condition even is more complex in renal transplant recipients. We should consider the possibility of HPS in any renal transplant recipient with pancytopenia and allograft dysfunction. The combination of HPS with TMA future increases the complexity of the situation. PMID:27047804

  18. Selective increase of intention-based economic decisions by noninvasive brain stimulation to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Nihonsugi, Tsuyoshi; Ihara, Aya; Haruno, Masahiko

    2015-02-25

    The intention behind another's action and the impact of the outcome are major determinants of human economic behavior. It is poorly understood, however, whether the two systems share a core neural computation. Here, we investigated whether the two systems are causally dissociable in the brain by integrating computational modeling, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and transcranial direct current stimulation experiments in a newly developed trust game task. We show not only that right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity is correlated with intention-based economic decisions and that ventral striatum and amygdala activity are correlated with outcome-based decisions, but also that stimulation to the DLPFC selectively enhances intention-based decisions. These findings suggest that the right DLPFC is involved in the implementation of intention-based decisions in the processing of cooperative decisions. This causal dissociation of cortical and subcortical backgrounds may indicate evolutionary and developmental differences in the two decision systems. PMID:25716841

  19. Selective increase of intention-based economic decisions by noninvasive brain stimulation to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Nihonsugi, Tsuyoshi; Ihara, Aya; Haruno, Masahiko

    2015-02-25

    The intention behind another's action and the impact of the outcome are major determinants of human economic behavior. It is poorly understood, however, whether the two systems share a core neural computation. Here, we investigated whether the two systems are causally dissociable in the brain by integrating computational modeling, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and transcranial direct current stimulation experiments in a newly developed trust game task. We show not only that right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity is correlated with intention-based economic decisions and that ventral striatum and amygdala activity are correlated with outcome-based decisions, but also that stimulation to the DLPFC selectively enhances intention-based decisions. These findings suggest that the right DLPFC is involved in the implementation of intention-based decisions in the processing of cooperative decisions. This causal dissociation of cortical and subcortical backgrounds may indicate evolutionary and developmental differences in the two decision systems.

  20. Shrinkage activates a nonselective conductance: involvement of a Walker-motif protein and PKC.

    PubMed

    Nelson, D J; Tien, X Y; Xie, W; Brasitus, T A; Kaetzel, M A; Dedman, J R

    1996-01-01

    The ability of all cells to maintain their volume during an osmotic challenge is dependent on the regulated movement of salt and water across the plasma membrane. We demonstrate the phosphorylation-dependent gating of a nonselective conductance in Caco-2 cells during cellular shrinkage. Intracellular application of exogenous purified rat brain protein kinase C (PKC) resulted in the activation of a current similar to that activated during shrinkage with a Na(+)-to-Cl- permeability ratio of approximately 1.7:1. To prevent possible PKC- and/or shrinkage-dependent activation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), which is expressed at high levels in Caco-2 cells, a functional anti-peptide antibody, anti-CFTR505-511, was introduced into the cells via the patch pipette. Anti-CFTR505-511, which is directed against the Walker motif in the first nucleotide binding fold of CFTR, prevented the PKC/shrink-age current activation. The peptide CFTR505-511 also induced current inhibition, suggesting the possible involvement of a regulatory element in close proximity to the channel that shares sequence homology with the first nucleotide binding fold of CFTR and whose binding to the channel is required for channel gating. PMID:8772443

  1. Dura-evoked neck muscle activity involves purinergic and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yao, Dongyuan; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Sessle, Barry J

    2015-12-16

    We have previously demonstrated that noxious stimulation of craniofacial tissues including the frontal dura reflexly evokes significant increases in neck muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether purinergic receptor mechanisms may be involved in these EMG effects, and whether N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor processes modulate the purinergic mechanisms. Application of the P2X1, P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor agonist α,β-methylene ATP (but not vehicle) to the dural surface evoked a significant (P<0.05) increase in ipsilateral neck EMG activity that could be suppressed by dural or intrathecal application of the selective P2X1, P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor antagonist 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) ATP (TNP-ATP) but not by vehicle; the intrathecal application of 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, an NMDA receptor antagonist, also significantly reduced the neck EMG activity evoked by dural application of α,β-methylene ATP. These data suggest that purinergic receptor mechanisms contribute to the increased neck activity that can be reflexly evoked by noxious stimulation of the frontal dura, and that NMDA as well as purinergic receptor mechanisms in the medulla may modulate these purinergic-related effects. PMID:26559728

  2. Effects of negative air ions on activity of neural substrates involved in autonomic regulation in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Satoko; Yanagita, Shinya; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Kato, Yumi; Kubota, Natsuko; Ryushi, Tomoo; Kita, Ichiro

    2008-07-01

    The neural mechanism by which negative air ions (NAI) mediate the regulation of autonomic nervous system activity is still unknown. We examined the effects of NAI on physiological responses, such as blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) as well as neuronal activity, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), locus coeruleus (LC), nucleus ambiguus (NA), and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) with c-Fos immunohistochemistry in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. In addition, we performed cervical vagotomy to reveal the afferent pathway involved in mediating the effects of NAI on autonomic regulation. NAI significantly decreased BP and HR, and increased HF power of the HRV spectrum. Significant decreases in c-Fos positive nuclei in the PVN and LC, and enhancement of c-Fos expression in the NA and NTS were induced by NAI. After vagotomy, these physiological and neuronal responses to NAI were not observed. These findings suggest that NAI can modulate autonomic regulation through inhibition of neuronal activity in PVN and LC as well as activation of NA neurons, and that these effects of NAI might be mediated via the vagus nerves.

  3. A novel enzyme activity involving the demethylation of specific partially methylated oligogalacturonides.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Martin A K; Benen, Jacques A E

    2002-01-01

    Studies of the enzymic digestion of pectic substrates using different polygalacturonase (PG) preparations have revealed evidence for a previously unreported enzyme activity carried out by a contaminating enzyme in one of the preparations. This observed activity involves the demethylation of specific oligogalacturonides, namely 2-methyltrigalacturonic acid and 2,3-dimethyltetragalacturonic acid. However, no large-scale demethylation of highly methylated polymeric substrates is found, demonstrating that the enzyme responsible is not a conventional pectin methylesterase (PME). Furthermore, it has been shown that a commercial sample of fungal PME from Aspergillus niger demethylates all of the oligogalacturonides present as primary products of endo-PG digestion, in contrast with the activity observed here. On the basis of the known methyl ester distribution of the endo-PG-generated fragments and knowledge of which of these oligogalacturonides are demethylated, it is concluded that the observed activity can be explained by the existence of an exo-acting methylesterase that attacks the non-reducing end of the oligogalacturonide molecules. PMID:12097140

  4. Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the toxic activity of boric acid against Saprolegnia.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shimaa E; Thoen, Even; Evensen, Øystein; Wiik-Nielsen, Jannicke; Gamil, Amr A A; Skaar, Ida

    2014-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the incidence of Saprolegnia infections over the past decades, especially after the banning of malachite green. Very often these infections are associated with high economic losses in salmonid farms and hatcheries. The use of boric acid to control the disease has been investigated recently both under in vitro and in vivo conditions, however its possible mode of action against fish pathogenic Saprolegnia is not known. In this study, we have explored the transformation in Saprolegnia spores/hyphae after exposure to boric acid (1 g/L) over a period 4-24 h post treatment. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), early changes in Saprolegnia spores were detected. Mitochondrial degeneration was the most obvious sign observed following 4 h treatment in about 20% of randomly selected spores. We also investigated the effect of the treatment on nuclear division, mitochondrial activity and function using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Fluorescence microscopy was also used to test the effect of treatment on mitochondrial membrane potential and formation of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the viability and proliferation of treated spores that correlated to mitochondrial enzymatic activity were tested using an MTS assay. All obtained data pointed towards changes in the mitochondrial structure, membrane potential and enzymatic activity following treatment. We have found that boric acid has no effect on the integrity of membranes of Saprolegnia spores at concentrations tested. It is therefore likely that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the toxic activity of boric acid against Saprolegnia spp.

  5. Nerolidol exhibits antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity: involvement of the GABAergic system and proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Fonsêca, Diogo V; Salgado, Paula R R; de Carvalho, Fabíola L; Salvadori, Mirian Graciela S S; Penha, Antônia Rosângela S; Leite, Fagner C; Borges, Clóvis José S; Piuvezam, Marcia R; Pordeus, Liana Clébia de Morais; Sousa, Damião P; Almeida, Reinaldo N

    2016-02-01

    Nerolidol, an acyclic sesquiterpene found as a major constituent of several essential oils, has several pharmacological activities, but its action in pain processes has never been studied. The purpose of our research was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of nerolidol, as well as possible mechanisms of action, in experimental mouse models of pain. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing test, the formalin test, and the hot-plate test. The nerolidol-treated group showed lesser acetic acid-induced abdominal contractions than the control group in all of the three doses tested (200, 300, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.). The formalin test doses of 300 and 400 mg/kg p.o. inhibited licking time, in both the first phase and the second phase. In the hot-plate test, nerolidol did not alter latency at any of the observed time points. Motor coordination, evaluated through the rotarod test, was not hindered in animals treated with nerolidol. Regarding the mechanism of action, the antinociceptive activity of nerolidol is related to the GABAergic system, and not to the opioidergic or ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Treatment with nerolidol reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema. In the model of carrageenan-induced peritonitis, nerolidol decreased the influx of polymorphonuclear cells and also reduced levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in peritoneal lavage. Nerolidol reduced production of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) in LPS-stimulated, peritoneal macrophages. Thus, these results showed that nerolidol has antinociceptive activity with possible involvement of the GABAergic system, and anti-inflammatory activity, attributed to the suppression of TNF-α and IL-1β proinflammatory cytokines.

  6. Joint Associations of Residential Density and Neighborhood Involvement with Physical Activity among a Multiethnic Sample of Urban Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Schulz, Amy J.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Israel, Barbara A.; Wineman, Jean; Marans, Robert W.; Rowe, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with improvements in overall health. Although resident involvement in neighborhood social activities is positively associated with physical activity, neighborhood design features, including residential density, have varied associations with physical activity. Using data from a multiethnic sample of 696…

  7. Tissue plasminogen activator involvement in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis: aggravation and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Gur-Wahnon, Devorah; Mizrachi, Tehila; Wald-Altman, Shane; Al-Roof Higazi, Abd; Brenner, Talma

    2014-08-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a component of the PA/plasmin system, is elevated in inflammatory areas and plays a role in inflammatory neurological disorders. In the present study we explored the involvement of tPA and the potential immunomodulatory activity of tPA in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). Mice deficient in tPA (tPA(-/-)) present with a markedly more severe disease than wild type EAMG mice. In an attempt to treat EAMG with an 18aa peptide derived from the PA system inhibitor (PAI-1), designed to tether out the endogenous inhibitor, a significant suppression of disease severity was demonstrated. The more severe disease in tPA(-/-) mice was accompanied by a higher level of anti-AChR antibodies and increased expression of B-cell markers. In view of the essential role of B-cell activating factor (BAFF) in B-cell maturation, the expression of BAFF family components was tested. An increase in BAFF and BAFF receptor was observed in EAMG tPA(-/-) mice, whereas BCMA expression was reduced, consistent with the increased level of pathogenic antibodies and the more severe disease. Given the importance of T regulatory cells (Tregs) in EAMG, they were evaluated and their number was reduced in tPA(-/-) mice, in which EAMG was aggravated, whereas following PAI-1dp treatment, Tregs were replenished and the disease was ameliorated. The results show the involvement of tPA in EAMG, implying a protective role for tPA in EAMG pathogenesis. The amelioration of EAMG by PAI-1dp treatment suggests that the PA system may be considered a potential site for therapeutic intervention in neuroimmune diseases.

  8. Activation dependent expression of MMPs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells involves protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Saja, K; Chatterjee, Urmimala; Chatterjee, B P; Sudhakaran, P R

    2007-02-01

    Monocyte/Macrophages are integral cellular components of inflammation. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) produced by these cells play a crucial role in every aspect of inflammation. Results of the investigations on activation dependent upregulation of MMPs in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in culture using different lectins as an in vitro model system to mimic inflammatory monocytes are presented. Under normal physiological conditions the monocytes produced only very low amount of MMPs in an indomethacin insensitive PG/cAMP independent manner. Zymographic analysis and ELISA showed that treatment of monocyte with lectins like concanavalin A (ConA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Artocarpus lakoocha agglutinin (ALA) caused upregulation of MMPs and the maximum effect was produced by ALA. ALA significantly upregulated MMP-9 in a concentration and time dependent manner. Immunoblot analysis and RT-PCR confirmed ALA mediated upregulation of MMP-9 production. Inhibition of ALA effect by indomethacin and reversal of the indomethacin effect by Bt(2)cAMP indicated involvement of cAMP dependent signaling pathway. Further support for the prostaglandin mediated effect was obtained by the upregulation of cyclooxygenase by ALA. H-89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA), inhibited the expression of MMP-9 indicating that ALA mediated upregulation of MMP-9 is mediated through PKA pathway. Increase in MMP production and increase in cyclooxygenase activity and inhibition of the effect of ALA on MMP production by indomethacin suggested that the ALA activated monocytes in culture can be used as an in vitro model system to study the intracellular signaling process involved in the mediation of inflammatory response.

  9. Determination of Dehydrogenase Activities Involved in D-Glucose Oxidation in Gluconobacter and Acetobacter Strains

    PubMed Central

    Sainz, Florencia; Jesús Torija, María; Matsutani, Minenosuke; Kataoka, Naoya; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Mas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are known for rapid and incomplete oxidation of an extensively variety of alcohols and carbohydrates, resulting in the accumulation of organic acids as the final products. These oxidative fermentations in AAB are catalyzed by PQQ- or FAD- dependent membrane-bound dehydrogenases. In the present study, the enzyme activity of the membrane-bound dehydrogenases [membrane-bound PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase (mGDH), D-gluconate dehydrogenase (GADH) and membrane-bound glycerol dehydrogenase (GLDH)] involved in the oxidation of D-glucose and D-gluconic acid (GA) was determined in six strains of three different species of AAB (three natural and three type strains). Moreover, the effect of these activities on the production of related metabolites [GA, 2-keto-D-gluconic acid (2KGA) and 5-keto-D-gluconic acid (5KGA)] was analyzed. The natural strains belonging to Gluconobacter showed a high mGDH activity and low activity in GADH and GLDH, whereas the Acetobacter malorum strain presented low activity in the three enzymes. Nevertheless, no correlation was observed between the activity of these enzymes and the concentration of the corresponding metabolites. In fact, all the tested strains were able to oxidize D-glucose to GA, being maximal at the late exponential phase of the AAB growth (24 h), which coincided with D-glucose exhaustion and the maximum mGDH activity. Instead, only some of the tested strains were capable of producing 2KGA and/or 5KGA. In the case of Gluconobacter oxydans strains, no 2KGA production was detected which is related to the absence of GADH activity after 24 h, while in the remaining strains, detection of GADH activity after 24 h resulted in a high accumulation of 2KGA. Therefore, it is possible to choose the best strain depending on the desired product composition. Moreover, the sequences of these genes were used to construct phylogenetic trees. According to the sequence of gcd, gene coding for mGDH, Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter

  10. Determination of Dehydrogenase Activities Involved in D-Glucose Oxidation in Gluconobacter and Acetobacter Strains.

    PubMed

    Sainz, Florencia; Jesús Torija, María; Matsutani, Minenosuke; Kataoka, Naoya; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Mas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are known for rapid and incomplete oxidation of an extensively variety of alcohols and carbohydrates, resulting in the accumulation of organic acids as the final products. These oxidative fermentations in AAB are catalyzed by PQQ- or FAD- dependent membrane-bound dehydrogenases. In the present study, the enzyme activity of the membrane-bound dehydrogenases [membrane-bound PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase (mGDH), D-gluconate dehydrogenase (GADH) and membrane-bound glycerol dehydrogenase (GLDH)] involved in the oxidation of D-glucose and D-gluconic acid (GA) was determined in six strains of three different species of AAB (three natural and three type strains). Moreover, the effect of these activities on the production of related metabolites [GA, 2-keto-D-gluconic acid (2KGA) and 5-keto-D-gluconic acid (5KGA)] was analyzed. The natural strains belonging to Gluconobacter showed a high mGDH activity and low activity in GADH and GLDH, whereas the Acetobacter malorum strain presented low activity in the three enzymes. Nevertheless, no correlation was observed between the activity of these enzymes and the concentration of the corresponding metabolites. In fact, all the tested strains were able to oxidize D-glucose to GA, being maximal at the late exponential phase of the AAB growth (24 h), which coincided with D-glucose exhaustion and the maximum mGDH activity. Instead, only some of the tested strains were capable of producing 2KGA and/or 5KGA. In the case of Gluconobacter oxydans strains, no 2KGA production was detected which is related to the absence of GADH activity after 24 h, while in the remaining strains, detection of GADH activity after 24 h resulted in a high accumulation of 2KGA. Therefore, it is possible to choose the best strain depending on the desired product composition. Moreover, the sequences of these genes were used to construct phylogenetic trees. According to the sequence of gcd, gene coding for mGDH, Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter

  11. Determination of Dehydrogenase Activities Involved in D-Glucose Oxidation in Gluconobacter and Acetobacter Strains.

    PubMed

    Sainz, Florencia; Jesús Torija, María; Matsutani, Minenosuke; Kataoka, Naoya; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Mas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are known for rapid and incomplete oxidation of an extensively variety of alcohols and carbohydrates, resulting in the accumulation of organic acids as the final products. These oxidative fermentations in AAB are catalyzed by PQQ- or FAD- dependent membrane-bound dehydrogenases. In the present study, the enzyme activity of the membrane-bound dehydrogenases [membrane-bound PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase (mGDH), D-gluconate dehydrogenase (GADH) and membrane-bound glycerol dehydrogenase (GLDH)] involved in the oxidation of D-glucose and D-gluconic acid (GA) was determined in six strains of three different species of AAB (three natural and three type strains). Moreover, the effect of these activities on the production of related metabolites [GA, 2-keto-D-gluconic acid (2KGA) and 5-keto-D-gluconic acid (5KGA)] was analyzed. The natural strains belonging to Gluconobacter showed a high mGDH activity and low activity in GADH and GLDH, whereas the Acetobacter malorum strain presented low activity in the three enzymes. Nevertheless, no correlation was observed between the activity of these enzymes and the concentration of the corresponding metabolites. In fact, all the tested strains were able to oxidize D-glucose to GA, being maximal at the late exponential phase of the AAB growth (24 h), which coincided with D-glucose exhaustion and the maximum mGDH activity. Instead, only some of the tested strains were capable of producing 2KGA and/or 5KGA. In the case of Gluconobacter oxydans strains, no 2KGA production was detected which is related to the absence of GADH activity after 24 h, while in the remaining strains, detection of GADH activity after 24 h resulted in a high accumulation of 2KGA. Therefore, it is possible to choose the best strain depending on the desired product composition. Moreover, the sequences of these genes were used to construct phylogenetic trees. According to the sequence of gcd, gene coding for mGDH, Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter

  12. Determination of Dehydrogenase Activities Involved in D-Glucose Oxidation in Gluconobacter and Acetobacter Strains

    PubMed Central

    Sainz, Florencia; Jesús Torija, María; Matsutani, Minenosuke; Kataoka, Naoya; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Mas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are known for rapid and incomplete oxidation of an extensively variety of alcohols and carbohydrates, resulting in the accumulation of organic acids as the final products. These oxidative fermentations in AAB are catalyzed by PQQ- or FAD- dependent membrane-bound dehydrogenases. In the present study, the enzyme activity of the membrane-bound dehydrogenases [membrane-bound PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase (mGDH), D-gluconate dehydrogenase (GADH) and membrane-bound glycerol dehydrogenase (GLDH)] involved in the oxidation of D-glucose and D-gluconic acid (GA) was determined in six strains of three different species of AAB (three natural and three type strains). Moreover, the effect of these activities on the production of related metabolites [GA, 2-keto-D-gluconic acid (2KGA) and 5-keto-D-gluconic acid (5KGA)] was analyzed. The natural strains belonging to Gluconobacter showed a high mGDH activity and low activity in GADH and GLDH, whereas the Acetobacter malorum strain presented low activity in the three enzymes. Nevertheless, no correlation was observed between the activity of these enzymes and the concentration of the corresponding metabolites. In fact, all the tested strains were able to oxidize D-glucose to GA, being maximal at the late exponential phase of the AAB growth (24 h), which coincided with D-glucose exhaustion and the maximum mGDH activity. Instead, only some of the tested strains were capable of producing 2KGA and/or 5KGA. In the case of Gluconobacter oxydans strains, no 2KGA production was detected which is related to the absence of GADH activity after 24 h, while in the remaining strains, detection of GADH activity after 24 h resulted in a high accumulation of 2KGA. Therefore, it is possible to choose the best strain depending on the desired product composition. Moreover, the sequences of these genes were used to construct phylogenetic trees. According to the sequence of gcd, gene coding for mGDH, Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter

  13. Molecular Genetic Analysis of Activation-tagged Transcription Factors Thought to be Involved in Photomorphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, Michael

    2011-06-23

    Plants utilize light as a source of information via families of photoreceptors such as the red/far-red absorbing phytochromes (PHY) and the blue/UVA absorbing cryptochromes (CRY). The main goal of the Neff lab is to use molecular-genetic mutant screens to elucidate signaling components downstream of these photoreceptors. Activation-tagging mutagenesis led to the identification of two putative transcription factors that may be involved in both photomorphogenesis and hormone signaling pathways. sob1-D (suppressor of phyB-dominant) mutant phenotypes are caused by the over-expression of a Dof transcription factor previously named OBP3. Our previous studies indicate that OBP3 is a negative regulator of light-mediated cotyledon expansion and may be involved in modulating responsiveness to the growth-regulating hormone auxin. The sob2-D mutant uncovers a role for LEP, a putative AP2/EREBP-like transcription factor, in seed germination, hypocotyl elongation and responsiveness to the hormone abscisic acid. Based on photobiological and genetic analysis of OBP3-knockdown and LEP-null mutations, we hypothesize that these transcription factors are involved in both light-mediated seedling development and hormone signaling. To examine the role that these genes play in photomorphogenesis we will: 1) Further explore the genetic role of OBP3 in cotyledon/leaf expansion and other photomorphogenic processes as well as examine potential physical interactions between OBP3 and CRY1 or other signaling components that genetically interact with this transcription factor 2) Test the hypothesis that OBP3 is genetically involved in auxin signaling and root development as well as examine the affects of this hormone and light on OBP3 protein accumulation. 3) Test the hypothesis that LEP is involved in seed germination, seedling photomorphogenesis and hormone signaling. Together these experiments will lead to a greater understanding of the complexity of interactions between photoreceptors and DNA

  14. Bakuchiol Is a Phenolic Isoprenoid with Novel Enantiomer-selective Anti-influenza A Virus Activity Involving Nrf2 Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Masaki; Arakaki, Yumie; Esumi, Tomoyuki; Kohnomi, Shuntaro; Yamamoto, Chihiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Takahashi, Etsuhisa; Konishi, Shiro; Kido, Hiroshi; Kuzuhara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Influenza represents a substantial threat to human health and requires novel therapeutic approaches. Bakuchiol is a phenolic isoprenoid compound present in Babchi (Psoralea corylifolia L.) seeds. We examined the anti-influenza viral activity of synthetic bakuchiol using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. We found that the naturally occurring form, (+)-(S)-bakuchiol, and its enantiomer, (−)-(R)-bakuchiol, inhibited influenza A viral infection and growth and reduced the expression of viral mRNAs and proteins in these cells. Furthermore, these compounds markedly reduced the mRNA expression of the host cell influenza A virus-induced immune response genes, interferon-β and myxovirus-resistant protein 1. Interestingly, (+)-(S)-bakuchiol had greater efficacy than (−)-(R)-bakuchiol, indicating that chirality influenced anti-influenza virus activity. In vitro studies indicated that bakuchiol did not strongly inhibit the activities of influenza surface proteins or the M2 ion channel, expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Analysis of luciferase reporter assay data unexpectedly indicated that bakuchiol may induce some host cell factor(s) that inhibited firefly and Renilla luciferases. Next generation sequencing and KeyMolnet analysis of influenza A virus-infected and non-infected cells exposed to bakuchiol revealed activation of transcriptional regulation by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf), and an Nrf2 reporter assay showed that (+)-(S)-bakuchiol activated Nrf2. Additionally, (+)-(S)-bakuchiol up-regulated the mRNA levels of two Nrf2-induced genes, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 and glutathione S-transferase A3. These findings demonstrated that bakuchiol had enantiomer-selective anti-influenza viral activity involving a novel effect on the host cell oxidative stress response. PMID:26446794

  15. Collaborative Partner or Social Tool? New Evidence for Young Children's Understanding of Joint Intentions in Collaborative Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warneken, Felix; Grafenhain, Maria; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Some children's social activities are structured by joint goals. In previous research, the criterion used to determine this was relatively weak: if the partner stopped interacting, did the child attempt to re-engage her? But re-engagement attempts could easily result from the child simply realizing that she needs the partner to reach her own goal…

  16. Perception and Intention in Relation to Engineering: A Gendered Study Based on a One-Day Outreach Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina-Gaudo, Pilar; Baldassarri, S.; Villarroya-Gaudo, M.; Cerezo, E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores both how male and female high school pupils (15-16 years old) perceive the engineering profession and their willingness to pursue a career in this area. A study was performed around a one-day outreach activity, Girls' Day, organized for the first time in Spain. During Girls' Day, students were exposed to specific activities…

  17. Improving the active involvement of stakeholders and the public in flood risk management - tools of an involvement strategy and case study results from Austria, Germany and Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhauer, M.; Greiving, S.; Flex, F.; Scheibel, M.; Stickler, T.; Sereinig, N.; Koboltschnig, G.; Malvati, P.; Vitale, V.; Grifoni, P.; Firus, K.

    2012-09-01

    The EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC aims at an active involvement of interested parties in the setting up of flood risk management plans and thus calls for more governance-related decision-making. This requirement has two perspectives. On the one hand, there is (1) the question of how decision-makers can improve the quality of their governance process. On the other hand, there is (2) the question of how the public shall be appropriately informed and involved. These questions were the centre of the ERA-Net CRUE-funded project IMRA (integrative flood risk governance approach for improvement of risk awareness) that aimed at an optimisation of the flood risk management process by increasing procedural efficiency with an explicit involvement strategy. To reach this goal, the IMRA project partners developed two new approaches that were implemented in three case study areas for the first time in flood risk management: 1. risk governance assessment tool: An indicator-based benchmarking and monitoring tool was used to evaluate the performance of a flood risk management system in regard to ideal risk governance principles; 2. social milieu approach: The concept of social milieus was used to gain a picture of the people living in the case study regions to learn more about their lifestyles, attitudes and values and to use this knowledge to plan custom-made information and participation activities for the broad public. This paper presents basic elements and the application of two innovative approaches as a part of an "involvement strategy" that aims at the active involvement of all interested parties (stakeholders) for assessing, reviewing and updating flood risk management plans, as formulated in the EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC.

  18. A quantitative account of the activation steps involved in phototransduction in amphibian photoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, T D; Pugh, E N

    1992-01-01

    1. We have undertaken a theoretical analysis of the steps contributing to the phototransduction cascade in vertebrate photoreceptors. We have explicitly considered only the activation steps, i.e. we have not dealt with the inactivation reactions. 2. From the theoretical analysis we conclude that a single photoisomerization leads to activation of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) with a time course which approximates a delayed ramp; the delay is contributed by several short first-order delay stages. 3. We derive a method for extracting the time course of PDE activation from the measured electrical response, and we apply this method to recordings of the photoresponse from salamander rods. The results confirm the prediction that the time course of PDE activation is a delayed ramp, with slope proportional to light intensity; the initial delay is about 10-20 ms. 4. We derive approximate analytical solutions for the electrical response of the photoreceptor to light, both for bright flashes (isotropic conditions) and for single photons (involving longitudinal diffusion of cyclic GMP in the outer segment). The response to a brief flash is predicted to follow a delayed Gaussian function of time, i.e. after an initial short delay the response should begin rising in proportion to t2. Further, the response-intensity relation is predicted to obey an exponential saturation. 5. These predictions are compared with experiment, and it is shown that the rising phase of the flash response is accurately described over a very wide range of intensities. We conclude that the model provides a comprehensive description of the activation steps of phototransduction at a molecular level. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1326052

  19. atRA-induced apoptosis of mouse embryonic palate mesenchymal cells involves activation of MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Zengli . E-mail: yuzengli@263.net; Xing Ying . E-mail: xingy@zzu.edu.cn

    2006-08-15

    Our previous studies have shown that atRA treatment resulted in cell-cycle block and growth inhibition in mouse embryonic palatal mesenchymal (MEPM). In the current study, gestation day (GD) 13 MEPM cells were used to test the hypothesis that the growth inhibition by atRA is due to apoptosis. The effects of atRA on apoptosis were assessed by performing MTT assay, Cell Death Detection ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. Data analysis confirmed that atRA treatment induced apoptosis-like cell death, as shown by decreased cell viability and increased fragmented DNA and sub-G1 fraction. atRA-induced apoptosis was associated with upregulation of bcl-2, translocation of bax protein to the mitochondria from the cytosol, activation of caspase-3 and cytochrome c release into cytosol. atRA-induced apoptosis was abrogated by z-DEVD-fmk, a caspase-3 specific inhibitor, and z-VAD-fmk, a general caspase inhibitor, suggesting that the atRA-induced cell death of MEPM cells occurs through the cytochrome c- and caspase-3-dependent pathways. In addition, atRA treatment caused a strong and sustained activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase (p38), as well as an early but transient activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Importantly, atRA-induced DNA fragmentation and capase-3 activation were prevented by pretreatment with the JNK inhibitor (SP600125) and the p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB202190), but not by pretreatment with MEK inhibitor (U0126). From these results, we suggest that mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathways is involved in the atRA-induced apoptosis of MEPM cells.

  20. Bacillus subtilis polynucleotide phosphorylase 3'-to-5' DNase activity is involved in DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Paula P; Carrasco, Begoña; Sanchez, Humberto; Deikus, Gintaras; Bechhofer, David H; Alonso, Juan C

    2009-07-01

    In the presence of Mn(2+), an activity in a preparation of purified Bacillus subtilis RecN degrades single-stranded (ss) DNA with a 3' --> 5' polarity. This activity is not associated with RecN itself, because RecN purified from cells lacking polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) does not show the exonuclease activity. We show here that, in the presence of Mn(2+) and low-level inorganic phosphate (P(i)), PNPase degrades ssDNA. The limited end-processing of DNA is regulated by ATP and is inactive in the presence of Mg(2+) or high-level P(i). In contrast, the RNase activity of PNPase requires Mg(2+) and P(i), suggesting that PNPase degradation of RNA and ssDNA occur by mutually exclusive mechanisms. A null pnpA mutation (DeltapnpA) is not epistatic with Delta recA, but is epistatic with DeltarecN and Delta ku, which by themselves are non-epistatic. The addA5, Delta recO, Delta recQ (Delta recJ), Delta recU and Delta recG mutations (representative of different epistatic groups), in the context of DeltapnpA, demonstrate gain- or loss-of-function by inactivation of repair-by-recombination, depending on acute or chronic exposure to the damaging agent and the nature of the DNA lesion. Our data suggest that PNPase is involved in various nucleic acid metabolic pathways, and its limited ssDNA exonuclease activity plays an important role in RecA-dependent and RecA-independent repair pathways. PMID:19433509

  1. RNA silencing of genes involved in Alzheimer's disease enhances mitochondrial function and synaptic activity.

    PubMed

    Manczak, Maria; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2013-12-01

    An age-dependent increase in mRNA levels of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), the microtubule-associated protein Tau, and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) genes are reported to be toxic to neurons affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying toxic nature of these genes is not completely understood. The purpose of our study was to determine the effects of RNA silencing of APP, Tau, and VDAC1 genes in AD pathogenesis. Using human neuroblastoma (SHSY5Y) cells, we first silenced RNA for APP, Tau, and VDAC1 genes, and then performed real-time RT-PCR analysis to measure mRNA levels of 34 genes that are involved in AD pathogenesis. Using biochemical assays, we also assessed mitochondrial function by measuring levels of H2O2 production, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome c oxidase activity, ATP production, and GTPase enzymatic activity. We found that increased mRNA expression of synaptic function and mitochondrial fission genes, and reduced levels of mitochondrial fusion genes in RNA silenced the SHSY5Y cells for APP, Tau and VDAC1 genes relative to the control SHSY5Y cells. In addition, RNA-silenced APP, Tau, and VDAC1 genes in SHSY5Y cells showed reduced levels of H2O2 production, lipid peroxidation, fission-linked GTPase activity, and increased cytochrome oxidase activity and ATP production. These findings suggest that a reduction of human APP, Tau, and VDAC1 may enhance synaptic activity, may improve mitochondrial maintenance and function, and may protect against toxicities of AD-related genes. Thus, these findings also suggest that the reduction of APP, Tau, and VDAC1 mRNA expressions may have therapeutic value for patients with AD.

  2. Influenza A Virus Panhandle Structure Is Directly Involved in RIG-I Activation and Interferon Induction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, GuanQun; Park, Hong-Su; Pyo, Hyun-Mi; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is an important innate immune sensor that recognizes viral RNA in the cytoplasm. Its nonself recognition largely depends on the unique RNA structures imposed by viral RNA. The panhandle structure residing in the influenza A virus (IAV) genome, whose primary function is to serve as the viral promoter for transcription and replication, has been proposed to be a RIG-I agonist. However, this has never been proved experimentally. Here, we employed multiple approaches to determine if the IAV panhandle structure is directly involved in RIG-I activation and type I interferon (IFN) induction. First, in porcine alveolar macrophages, we demonstrated that the viral genomic coding region is dispensable for RIG-I-dependent IFN induction. Second, using in vitro-synthesized hairpin RNA, we showed that the IAV panhandle structure could directly bind to RIG-I and stimulate IFN production. Furthermore, we investigated the contributions of the wobble base pairs, mismatch, and unpaired nucleotides within the wild-type panhandle structure to RIG-I activation. Elimination of these destabilizing elements within the panhandle structure promoted RIG-I activation and IFN induction. Given the function of the panhandle structure as the viral promoter, we further monitored the promoter activity of these panhandle variants and found that viral replication was moderately affected, whereas viral transcription was impaired dramatically. In all, our results indicate that the IAV panhandle promoter region adopts a nucleotide composition that is optimal for balanced viral RNA synthesis and suboptimal for RIG-I activation. IMPORTANCE The IAV genomic panhandle structure has been proposed to be an RIG-I agonist due to its partial complementarity; however, this has not been experimentally confirmed. Here, we provide direct evidence that the IAV panhandle structure is competent in, and sufficient for, RIG-I activation and IFN induction. By constructing

  3. Evidence for ACD5 ceramide kinase activity involvement in Arabidopsis response to cold stress.

    PubMed

    Dutilleul, Christelle; Chavarria, Heidy; Rézé, Nathalie; Sotta, Bruno; Baudouin, Emmanuel; Guillas, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Although sphingolipids emerged as important signals for plant response to low temperature, investigations have been limited so far to the function of long-chain base intermediates. The formation and function of ceramide phosphates (Cer-Ps) in chilled Arabidopsis were explored. Cer-Ps were analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) following in vivo metabolic radiolabelling. Ceramide kinase activity, gene expression and growth phenotype were determined in unstressed and cold-stressed wild type (WT) and Arabidopsis ceramide kinase mutant acd5. A rapid and transient formation of Cer-P occurs in cold-stressed WT Arabidopsis plantlets and cultured cells, which is strongly impaired in acd5 mutant. Although concomitant, Cer-P formation is independent of long-chain base phosphate (LCB-P) formation. No variation of ceramide kinase activity was measured in vitro in WT plantlets upon cold stress but the activity in acd5 mutant was further reduced by cold stress. At the seedling stage, acd5 response to cold was similar to that of WT. Nevertheless, acd5 seed germination was hypersensitive to cold and abscisic acid (ABA), and ABA-dependent gene expression was modified in acd5 seeds when germinated at low temperature. Our data involve for the first time Cer-P and ACD5 in low temperature response and further underline the complexity of sphingolipid signalling operating during cold stress.

  4. Flagellin-induced NADPH oxidase 4 activation is involved in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinoh; Seo, Misun; Kim, Su Kyung; Bae, Yun Soo

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that bacterial infection-mediated inflammation facilitates development of atherosclerosis by activating toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling system. We reasoned that NADPH oxidases (Nox), required for TLR-mediated inflammatory response, are involved in atherogenesis. Here, we show that the activation of Nox4 through TLR5 regulates the inflammation of the endothelium and in atherogenesis. Flagellin-induced interaction between the COOH region of Nox4 and the TIR domain of TLR5 led to H2O2 generation, which in turn promoted the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-8, as well as the expression of ICAM-1 in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Knockdown of the Nox4 in HAECs resulted in attenuated expressions of IL-8 and ICAM-1 leading to a reduction in the adhesion and trans-endothelial migration of monocytes. Challenge of recombinant FliC (rFliC) to the ApoE KO mice with high-fat diet (HFD) resulted in significantly increased atherosclerotic plaque sizes compared to the saline-injected mice. However, an injection of rFliC into the Nox4ApoE DKO mice with HFDs failed to generate atherosclerotic plaque, suggesting that Nox4 deficiency resulted in significant protections against rFliC-mediated atherogenesis. We conclude that TLR5-dependent Nox4 activation and subsequent H2O2 generation play critical roles for the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:27146088

  5. Flagellin-induced NADPH oxidase 4 activation is involved in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinoh; Seo, Misun; Kim, Su Kyung; Bae, Yun Soo

    2016-05-05

    It is widely accepted that bacterial infection-mediated inflammation facilitates development of atherosclerosis by activating toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling system. We reasoned that NADPH oxidases (Nox), required for TLR-mediated inflammatory response, are involved in atherogenesis. Here, we show that the activation of Nox4 through TLR5 regulates the inflammation of the endothelium and in atherogenesis. Flagellin-induced interaction between the COOH region of Nox4 and the TIR domain of TLR5 led to H2O2 generation, which in turn promoted the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-8, as well as the expression of ICAM-1 in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Knockdown of the Nox4 in HAECs resulted in attenuated expressions of IL-8 and ICAM-1 leading to a reduction in the adhesion and trans-endothelial migration of monocytes. Challenge of recombinant FliC (rFliC) to the ApoE KO mice with high-fat diet (HFD) resulted in significantly increased atherosclerotic plaque sizes compared to the saline-injected mice. However, an injection of rFliC into the Nox4ApoE DKO mice with HFDs failed to generate atherosclerotic plaque, suggesting that Nox4 deficiency resulted in significant protections against rFliC-mediated atherogenesis. We conclude that TLR5-dependent Nox4 activation and subsequent H2O2 generation play critical roles for the development of atherosclerosis.

  6. Activation of PPAR{gamma} is not involved in butyrate-induced epithelial cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, S.; Waechtershaeuser, A.; Loitsch, S.; Knethen, A. von; Bruene, B.; Stein, J. . E-mail: j.stein@em.uni-frankfurt.de

    2005-10-15

    Histone deacetylase-inhibitors affect growth and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells by inducing expression of several transcription factors, e.g. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) or vitamin D receptor (VDR). While activation of VDR by butyrate mainly seems to be responsible for cellular differentiation, the activation of PPAR{gamma} in intestinal cells remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PPAR{gamma} in butyrate-induced cell growth inhibition and differentiation induction in Caco-2 cells. Treatment with PPAR{gamma} ligands ciglitazone and BADGE (bisphenol A diglycidyl) enhanced butyrate-induced cell growth inhibition in a dose- and time-dependent manner, whereas cell differentiation was unaffected after treatment with PPAR{gamma} ligands rosiglitazone and MCC-555. Experiments were further performed in dominant-negative PPAR{gamma} mutant cells leading to an increase in cell growth whereas butyrate-induced cell differentiation was again unaffected. The present study clearly demonstrated that PPAR{gamma} is involved in butyrate-induced inhibition of cell growth, but seems not to play an essential role in butyrate-induced cell differentiation.

  7. Analysis of Chlamydia caviae entry sites and involvement of Cdc42 and Rac activity.

    PubMed

    Subtil, Agathe; Wyplosz, Benjamin; Balañá, María Eugenia; Dautry-Varsat, Alice

    2004-08-01

    In epithelial cells, endocytic activity is mostly dedicated to nutrient and macromolecule uptake. To invade these cells, Chlamydiaceae, like other pathogens, have evolved strategies that utilise the existing endocytic machineries and signalling pathways, but little is known about the host cell molecules involved. In this report, we show that within five minutes of infection of HeLa cells by Chlamydia caviae GPIC strain several events take place in the immediate vicinity of invasive bacteria: GM1-containing microdomains cluster, tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins accumulate, and intense actin polymerization occurs. We show that actin polymerization is controlled by the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac, which become activated upon infection. Expression of dominant negative forms of these GTPases inhibits C. caviae entry and leads to abnormal actin polymerization. In contrast, the small GTPase Rho does not seem essential for bacterial entry. Finally, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity is also required for internalization of C. caviae, probably downstream of the other molecular events reported here. We present the first scheme of the events occurring at the sites of invasion of epithelial cells by a member of the Chlamydiaceae family.

  8. Neuropeptide Y effects on murine natural killer activity: changes with ageing and cAMP involvement.

    PubMed

    De la Fuente, M; Del Río, M; Víctor, V M; Medina, S

    2001-09-15

    Changes in the bidirectional interaction between the nervous and the immune systems have been proposed as a cause of ageing. Neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), could show different effects on immune function with age. In the present work, we have studied the in vitro action of a wide range of NPY concentrations, i.e. from 10(-13) to 10(-7) M, on natural killer (NK) activity, a function which decreases with age. Spleen, axillary nodes, thymus and peritoneum leukocytes from mice of different ages: young (12+/-2 weeks), adult (24+/-2 weeks), mature (50+/-2 weeks) and old (72+/-2 weeks) were used. Stimulation by NPY of NK activity was observed in adult and mature animals in axillary nodes and thymus, and an inhibition in the spleen from young mice. The specificity of the NPY effect on cytotoxic activity was confirmed using a C-terminal fragment of NPY. Furthermore, cAMP levels in leukocytes were found to be decreased by NPY in adult mice, suggesting an involvement of this messenger system in the NK modulation by this neuropeptide.

  9. Transmembrane myosin chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation produced in Dictyostelium is active

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenitzer, Veronika; Eichner, Norbert; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Weiss, Ingrid M.

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dictyostelium produces the 264 kDa myosin chitin synthase of bivalve mollusc Atrina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitin synthase activity releases chitin, partly associated with the cell surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membrane extracts of transgenic slime molds produce radiolabeled chitin in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitin producing Dictyostelium cells can be characterized by atomic force microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This model system enables us to study initial processes of chitin biomineralization. -- Abstract: Several mollusc shells contain chitin, which is formed by a transmembrane myosin motor enzyme. This protein could be involved in sensing mechanical and structural changes of the forming, mineralizing extracellular matrix. Here we report the heterologous expression of the transmembrane myosin chitin synthase Ar-CS1 of the bivalve mollusc Atrina rigida (2286 amino acid residues, M.W. 264 kDa/monomer) in Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism for myosin motor proteins. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy (CLSM), chitin binding GFP detection of chitin on cells and released to the cell culture medium, and a radiochemical activity assay of membrane extracts revealed expression and enzymatic activity of the mollusc chitin synthase in transgenic slime mold cells. First high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of Ar-CS1 transformed cellulose synthase deficient D. discoideumdcsA{sup -} cell lines are shown.

  10. Potent Cardioprotective Effect of the 4-Anilinoquinazoline Derivative PD153035: Involvement of Mitochondrial KATP Channel Activation

    PubMed Central

    Rocco, Silvana A.; Cerqueira, Fernanda M.; Caldeira da Silva, Camille C.; Rittner, Roberto; Kowaltowski, Alicia J.; Vercesi, Anibal E.; Franchini, Kleber G.; Castilho, Roger F.

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of the 4-anilinoquinazoline derivative PD153035 on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion and mitochondrial function. Methodology/Principal Findings Perfused rat hearts and cardiac HL-1 cells were used to determine cardioprotective effects of PD153035. Isolated rat heart mitochondria were studied to uncover mechanisms of cardioprotection. Nanomolar doses of PD153035 strongly protect against heart and cardiomyocyte damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion and cyanide/aglycemia. PD153035 did not alter oxidative phosphorylation, nor directly prevent Ca2+ induced mitochondrial membrane permeability transition. The protective effect of PD153035 on HL-1 cells was also independent of AKT phosphorylation state. Interestingly, PD153035 activated K+ transport in isolated mitochondria, in a manner prevented by ATP and 5-hydroxydecanoate, inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channels (mitoKATP). 5-Hydroxydecanoate also inhibited the cardioprotective effect of PD153035 in cardiac HL-1 cells, demonstrating that this protection is dependent on mitoKATP activation. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that PD153035 is a potent cardioprotective compound and acts in a mechanism involving mitoKATP activation. PMID:20498724

  11. The perceived intentionality of groups.

    PubMed

    Bloom, P; Veres, C

    1999-05-01

    Heider and Simmel [Heider, F., Simmel, M., 1944. An experimental study of apparent behavior. American Journal of Psychology 57, 243-259] found that people spontaneously describe depictions of simple moving objects in terms of purposeful and intentional action. Not all intentional beings are objects, however, and people often attribute purposeful activity to non-object individuals such as countries, basketball teams, and families. This raises the question of whether the same effect found by Heider and Simmel would hold for non-object individuals such as groups. We replicate and extend the original study, using both objects and groups as stimuli, and introducing two control conditions with groups that are not engaged in structured movement. We found that under the condition that best promoted the attribution of intentionality, moving groups are viewed as purposeful and goal-directed entities to the same extent that moving objects are. These results suggest that the psychological distinction between the notion of 'intentional entity' and the notion of 'object' can be found even in the perception of moving geometrical figures.

  12. Occupational Styrene Exposure Induces Stress-Responsive Genes Involved in Cytoprotective and Cytotoxic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Strafella, Elisabetta; Bracci, Massimo; Staffolani, Sara; Manzella, Nicola; Giantomasi, Daniele; Valentino, Matteo; Amati, Monica; Tomasetti, Marco; Santarelli, Lory

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of a panel of genes involved in toxicology in response to styrene exposure at levels below the occupational standard setting. Methods Workers in a fiber glass boat industry were evaluated for a panel of stress- and toxicity-related genes and associated with biochemical parameters related to hepatic injury. Urinary styrene metabolites (MA+PGA) of subjects and environmental sampling data collected for air at workplace were used to estimate styrene exposure. Results Expression array analysis revealed massive upregulation of genes encoding stress-responsive proteins (HSPA1L, EGR1, IL-6, IL-1β, TNSF10 and TNFα) in the styrene-exposed group; the levels of cytokines released were further confirmed in serum. The exposed workers were then stratified by styrene exposure levels. EGR1 gene upregulation paralleled the expression and transcriptional protein levels of IL-6, TNSF10 and TNFα in styrene exposed workers, even at low level. The activation of the EGR1 pathway observed at low-styrene exposure was associated with a slight increase of hepatic markers found in highly exposed subjects, even though they were within normal range. The ALT and AST levels were not affected by alcohol consumption, and positively correlated with urinary styrene metabolites as evaluated by multiple regression analysis. Conclusion The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα are the primary mediators of processes involved in the hepatic injury response and regeneration. Here, we show that styrene induced stress responsive genes involved in cytoprotection and cytotoxicity at low-exposure, that proceed to a mild subclinical hepatic toxicity at high-styrene exposure. PMID:24086524

  13. Protein Folding Activity of the Ribosome is involved in Yeast Prion Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Blondel, Marc; Soubigou, Flavie; Evrard, Justine; Nguyen, Phu hai; Hasin, Naushaba; Chédin, Stéphane; Gillet, Reynald; Contesse, Marie-Astrid; Friocourt, Gaëlle; Stahl, Guillaume; Jones, Gary W.; Voisset, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    6AP and GA are potent inhibitors of yeast and mammalian prions and also specific inhibitors of PFAR, the protein-folding activity borne by domain V of the large rRNA of the large subunit of the ribosome. We therefore explored the link between PFAR and yeast prion [PSI+] using both PFAR-enriched mutants and site-directed methylation. We demonstrate that PFAR is involved in propagation and de novo formation of [PSI+]. PFAR and the yeast heat-shock protein Hsp104 partially compensate each other for [PSI+] propagation. Our data also provide insight into new functions for the ribosome in basal thermotolerance and heat-shocked protein refolding. PFAR is thus an evolutionarily conserved cell component implicated in the prion life cycle, and we propose that it could be a potential therapeutic target for human protein misfolding diseases. PMID:27633137

  14. Implicit trustworthiness ratings of self-resembling faces activate brain centers involved in reward.

    PubMed

    Platek, Steven M; Krill, Austen L; Wilson, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of Hamilton's (Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behavior I, II. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 17-52) theory of inclusive fitness, self-facial resemblance is hypothesized as a mechanism for self-referent phenotypic matching by which humans can detect kin. To understand the mechanisms underlying pro-sociality toward self-resembling faces, we investigated the neural correlates of implicit trustworthiness ratings for self-resembling faces. Here we show that idiosyncratic trustworthiness ratings of self-resembling faces predict brain activation in the ventral inferior, middle and medial frontal gyri, substrates involved in reward processing. These findings demonstrate that neural reward centers are implicated in evaluating implicit pro-social behaviors toward self-resembling faces. These findings suggest that humans have evolved to use neurocomputational architecture dedicated to face processing and reward evaluation for the differentiation of kin, which drives implicit idiosyncratic affectively regulated social interactions.

  15. Protein Folding Activity of the Ribosome is involved in Yeast Prion Propagation.

    PubMed

    Blondel, Marc; Soubigou, Flavie; Evrard, Justine; Nguyen, Phu Hai; Hasin, Naushaba; Chédin, Stéphane; Gillet, Reynald; Contesse, Marie-Astrid; Friocourt, Gaëlle; Stahl, Guillaume; Jones, Gary W; Voisset, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    6AP and GA are potent inhibitors of yeast and mammalian prions and also specific inhibitors of PFAR, the protein-folding activity borne by domain V of the large rRNA of the large subunit of the ribosome. We therefore explored the link between PFAR and yeast prion [PSI(+)] using both PFAR-enriched mutants and site-directed methylation. We demonstrate that PFAR is involved in propagation and de novo formation of [PSI(+)]. PFAR and the yeast heat-shock protein Hsp104 partially compensate each other for [PSI(+)] propagation. Our data also provide insight into new functions for the ribosome in basal thermotolerance and heat-shocked protein refolding. PFAR is thus an evolutionarily conserved cell component implicated in the prion life cycle, and we propose that it could be a potential therapeutic target for human protein misfolding diseases. PMID:27633137

  16. The neural correlates of movement intentions: A pilot study comparing hypnotic and simulated paralysis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Vera U; Seitz, Jochen; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos; Höse, Annett; Abler, Birgit; Hole, Günter; Goebel, Rainer; Walter, Henrik

    2015-09-01

    The distinct feeling of wanting to act and thereby causing our own actions is crucial to our self-perception as free human agents. Disturbances of the link between intention and action occur in several disorders. Little is known, however, about the neural correlates of wanting or intending to act. To investigate these for simple voluntary movements, we used a paradigm involving hypnotic paralysis and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Eight healthy women were instructed to sequentially perform left and right hand movements during a normal condition, as well as during simulated weakness, simulated paralysis and hypnotic paralysis of the right hand. Right frontopolar cortex was selectively hypoactivated for attempted right hand movement during simulated paralysis while it was active in all other conditions. Since simulated paralysis was the only condition lacking an intention to move, the activation in frontopolar cortex might be related to the intention or volition to move. PMID:26036837

  17. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, María J; Alquézar, Berta; Alós, Enriqueta; Medina, Víctor; Carmona, Lourdes; Bruno, Mark; Al-Babili, Salim; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2013-11-01

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly β-citraurin (3-hydroxy-β-apo-8'-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and Mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of β-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in β-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7',8' double bond in zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7',8' double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration.

  18. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, María J.; Alquézar, Berta; Al-Babili, Salim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly β-citraurin (3-hydroxy-β-apo-8′-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of β-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in β-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7′,8′ double bond in zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7′,8′ double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. PMID:24006419

  19. Active efflux and diffusion are involved in transport of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cell-to-cell signals.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J P; Van Delden, C; Iglewski, B H

    1999-02-01

    Many gram-negative bacteria communicate by N-acyl homoserine lactone signals called autoinducers (AIs). In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cell-to-cell signaling controls expression of extracellular virulence factors, the type II secretion apparatus, a stationary-phase sigma factor (sigmas), and biofilm differentiation. The fact that a similar signal, N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone, freely diffuses through Vibrio fischeri and Escherichia coli cells has led to the assumption that all AIs are freely diffusible. In this work, transport of the two P. aeruginosa AIs, N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL) (formerly called PAI-1) and N-butyryl homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) (formerly called PAI-2), was studied by using tritium-labeled signals. When [3H]C4-HSL was added to cell suspensions of P. aeruginosa, the cellular concentration reached a steady state in less than 30 s and was nearly equal to the external concentration, as expected for a freely diffusible compound. In contrast, [3H]3OC12-HSL required about 5 min to reach a steady state, and the cellular concentration was 3 times higher than the external level. Addition of inhibitors of the cytoplasmic membrane proton gradient, such as azide, led to a strong increase in cellular accumulation of [3H]3OC12-HSL, suggesting the involvement of active efflux. A defined mutant lacking the mexA-mexB-oprM-encoded active-efflux pump accumulated [3H]3OC12-HSL to levels similar to those in the azide-treated wild-type cells. Efflux experiments confirmed these observations. Our results show that in contrast to the case for C4-HSL, P. aeruginosa cells are not freely permeable to 3OC12-HSL. Instead, the mexA-mexB-oprM-encoded efflux pump is involved in active efflux of 3OC12-HSL. Apparently the length and/or degree of substitution of the N-acyl side chain determines whether an AI is freely diffusible or is subject to active efflux by P. aeruginosa.

  20. Functional responses and molecular mechanisms involved in histone-mediated platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Carestia, A; Rivadeneyra, L; Romaniuk, M A; Fondevila, C; Negrotto, S; Schattner, M

    2013-11-01

    Histones are highly alkaline proteins found in cell nuclei and they can be released by either dying or inflammatory cells. The recent observations that histones are major components of neutrophil extracellular traps and promote platelet aggregation and platelet-dependent thrombin generation have shown that these proteins are potent prothrombotic molecules. Because the mechanism(s) of platelet activation by histones are not completely understood, we explored the ability of individual recombinant human histones H1, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 to induce platelet activation as well as the possible molecular mechanisms involved. All histones were substrates for platelet adhesion and spreading and triggered fibrinogen binding, aggregation, von Willebrand factor release, P-selectin and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and the formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates; however, H4 was the most potent. Histone-mediated fibrinogen binding, P-selectin and PS exposure and the formation of mixed aggregates were potentiated by thrombin. Histones induced the activation of ERK, Akt, p38 and NFκB. Accordingly, histone-induced platelet activation was significantly impaired by pretreatment of platelets with inhibitors of ERK (U 0126), PI3K/Akt (Ly 294002), p38 (SB 203580) and NFκB (BAY 11-7082 and Ro 106-9920). Preincubation of platelets with either aspirin or dexamethasone markedly decreased fibrinogen binding and the adhesion mediated by histones without affecting P-selectin exposure. Functional platelet responses induced by H3 and H4, but not H1, H2A and H2B, were partially mediated through interaction with Toll-like receptors -2 and -4. Our data identify histones as important triggers of haemostatic and proinflammatory platelet responses, and only haemostatic responses are partially inhibited by anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:23965842

  1. Functional responses and molecular mechanisms involved in histone-mediated platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Carestia, A; Rivadeneyra, L; Romaniuk, M A; Fondevila, C; Negrotto, S; Schattner, M

    2013-11-01

    Histones are highly alkaline proteins found in cell nuclei and they can be released by either dying or inflammatory cells. The recent observations that histones are major components of neutrophil extracellular traps and promote platelet aggregation and platelet-dependent thrombin generation have shown that these proteins are potent prothrombotic molecules. Because the mechanism(s) of platelet activation by histones are not completely understood, we explored the ability of individual recombinant human histones H1, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 to induce platelet activation as well as the possible molecular mechanisms involved. All histones were substrates for platelet adhesion and spreading and triggered fibrinogen binding, aggregation, von Willebrand factor release, P-selectin and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and the formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates; however, H4 was the most potent. Histone-mediated fibrinogen binding, P-selectin and PS exposure and the formation of mixed aggregates were potentiated by thrombin. Histones induced the activation of ERK, Akt, p38 and NFκB. Accordingly, histone-induced platelet activation was significantly impaired by pretreatment of platelets with inhibitors of ERK (U 0126), PI3K/Akt (Ly 294002), p38 (SB 203580) and NFκB (BAY 11-7082 and Ro 106-9920). Preincubation of platelets with either aspirin or dexamethasone markedly decreased fibrinogen binding and the adhesion mediated by histones without affecting P-selectin exposure. Functional platelet responses induced by H3 and H4, but not H1, H2A and H2B, were partially mediated through interaction with Toll-like receptors -2 and -4. Our data identify histones as important triggers of haemostatic and proinflammatory platelet responses, and only haemostatic responses are partially inhibited by anti-inflammatory drugs.

  2. Involvement of tissue plasminogen activator in stress responsivity during acute cocaine withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Maiya, Rajani; Norris, Erin H; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Strickland, Sidney

    2010-11-01

    There is evidence that increased release of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) contributes to stress responsivity during cocaine withdrawal (WD). Recent studies suggest that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the CeA is a downstream effector protein for CRF after acute "binge" cocaine administration. The purpose of this study was to determine if tPA modulates cocaine WD-induced stress responsivity. Wild-type (WT) and tPA-deficient (tPA - / - ) mice were subjected to chronic (14 days) "binge" cocaine (45 mg/kg per day) or its acute (1 day) WD. Extracellular tPA activity, CRF mRNA levels, and plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels were measured in tPA - / -  and WT mice. Extracellular tPA activity was reduced by 50% in the CeA and medial amygdala of WT mice after chronic cocaine and returned to basal levels after acute WD. Unlike WT mice, tPA - / -  mice did not display elevated amygdalar CRF mRNA levels during cocaine WD. In comparison to WT mice, tPA - / -  mice showed a blunted plasma CORT response during acute WD. These results demonstrate that tPA activity in the amygdala (Amy) is altered by chronic cocaine exposure, and further suggest an involvement of tPA in modulating amygdalar CRF stress responsive system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to acute cocaine WD.

  3. Involvement of ER stress and activation of apoptotic pathways in fisetin induced cytotoxicity in human melanoma.

    PubMed

    Syed, Deeba N; Lall, Rahul K; Chamcheu, Jean Christopher; Haidar, Omar; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-12-01

    The prognosis of malignant melanoma remains poor in spite of recent advances in therapeutic strategies for the deadly disease. Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid is currently being investigated for its growth inhibitory properties in various cancer models. We previously showed that fisetin inhibited melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Here, we evaluated the molecular basis of fisetin induced cytotoxicity in metastatic human melanoma cells. Fisetin treatment induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in highly aggressive A375 and 451Lu human melanoma cells, as revealed by up-regulation of ER stress markers including IRE1α, XBP1s, ATF4 and GRP78. Time course analysis indicated that the ER stress was associated with activation of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Fisetin treated 2-D melanoma cultures displayed autophagic response concomitant with induction of apoptosis. Prolonged treatment (16days) with fisetin in a 3-D reconstituted melanoma model resulted in inhibition of melanoma progression with significant apoptosis, as evidenced by increased staining of cleaved Caspase-3 in the treated constructs. However, no difference in the expression of autophagic marker LC-3 was noted between treated and control groups. Fisetin treatment to 2-D melanoma cultures resulted in phosphorylation and activation of the multifunctional AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including autophagy and apoptosis. Silencing of AMPK failed to prevent cell death indicating that fisetin induced cytotoxicity is mediated through both AMPK-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Taken together, our studies confirm apoptosis as the primary mechanism through which fisetin inhibits melanoma cell growth and that activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways contributes to fisetin induced cytotoxicity.

  4. Involvement of tissue plasminogen activator in stress responsivity during acute cocaine withdrawal in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Maiya, Rajani; Norris, Erin H.; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Strickland, Sidney

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that increased release of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) contributes to stress responsivity during cocaine withdrawal (WD). Recent studies suggest that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the CeA is a downstream effector protein for CRF after acute “binge” cocaine administration. The purpose of this study was to determine if tPA modulates cocaine WD-induced stress responsivity. Wild-type (WT) and tPA-deficient (tPA −/−) mice were subjected to chronic (14 days) “binge” cocaine (45 mg/kg per day) or its acute (1 day) WD. Extracellular tPA activity, CRF mRNA levels, and plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels were measured in tPA −/− and WT mice. Extracellular tPA activity was reduced by 50% in the CeA and medial amygdala of WT mice after chronic cocaine and returned to basal levels after acute WD. Unlike WT mice, tPA −/− mice did not display elevated amygdalar CRF mRNA levels during cocaine WD. In comparison to WT mice, tPA −/− mice showed a blunted plasma CORT response during acute WD. These results demonstrate that tPA activity in the amygdala (Amy) is altered by chronic cocaine exposure, and further suggest an involvement of tPA in modulating amygdalar CRF stress responsive system and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis in response to acute cocaine WD. PMID:20666641

  5. Kinetic analysis of a general model of activation of aspartic proteinase zymogens involving a reversible inhibitor. I. Kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-López, A; Sotos-Lomas, A; Arribas, E; Masia-Perez, J; Garcia-Molina, F; García-Moreno, M; Varon, R

    2007-04-01

    Starting from a simple general reaction mechanism of activation of aspartic proteinases zymogens involving a uni- and a bimolecular simultaneous activation route and a reversible inhibition step, the time course equation of the zymogen, inhibitor and activated enzyme concentrations have been derived. Likewise, expressions for the time required for any reaction progress and the corresponding mean activation rates as well as the half-life of the global zymogen activation have been derived. An experimental design and kinetic data analysis is suggested to estimate the kinetic parameters involved in the reaction mechanism proposed.

  6. Intentional replantation of periodontally compromised hopeless tooth.

    PubMed

    Nagappa, G; Aspalli, Shivanand; Devanoorkar, Archana; Shetty, Sudhir; Parab, Prachi

    2013-09-01

    Aesthetic considerations have influenced the management of dental maladies in varying degrees for many years. Even single tooth mal-alignment makes the patient to approach a dentist. Intentional replantation is a procedure in which an intentional tooth extraction is performed followed by reinsertion of the extracted tooth. Many authors agree that it should be reserved as the last resort to save a tooth after other procedures have failed or would likely to fail. The main reason of failure in replanted teeth is root resorption, specifically ankylosis or replacement resorption. Although the success rate is not always high, intentional replantation may be a treatment alternative that deserves consideration to maintain the natural dentition and avoid extraction of the tooth. Here is case report of a patient desiring alignment of malpositioned periodontally involved anterior single tooth due to various causes treated by intentional replantation.

  7. Intentional replantation of periodontally compromised hopeless tooth

    PubMed Central

    Nagappa, G.; Aspalli, Shivanand; Devanoorkar, Archana; Shetty, Sudhir; Parab, Prachi

    2013-01-01

    Aesthetic considerations have influenced the management of dental maladies in varying degrees for many years. Even single tooth mal-alignment makes the patient to approach a dentist. Intentional replantation is a procedure in which an intentional tooth extraction is performed followed by reinsertion of the extracted tooth. Many authors agree that it should be reserved as the last resort to save a tooth after other procedures have failed or would likely to fail. The main reason of failure in replanted teeth is root resorption, specifically ankylosis or replacement resorption. Although the success rate is not always high, intentional replantation may be a treatment alternative that deserves consideration to maintain the natural dentition and avoid extraction of the tooth. Here is case report of a patient desiring alignment of malpositioned periodontally involved anterior single tooth due to various causes treated by intentional replantation. PMID:24174765

  8. Language and motor cortex response to comprehending accidental and intentional action sentences.

    PubMed

    Kana, Rajesh K; Ammons, Carla J; Doss, Constance F; Waite, Megan E; Kana, Bhumika; Herringshaw, Abbey J; Ver Hoef, Lawrence

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the meaning of others' actions involves mentally simulating those actions by oneself. Embodied theories of language espouse a prominent role for motor simulation in reading comprehension, especially when words, sentences, or narratives portray everyday actions. Inherent in these actions is the level of agency of the actor. Motor cortex activity in response to processing action verbs has been relatively well-established. What has been less explored, however, are: (1) the neural bases of determining whether an action is intentional or accidental (agency); and (2) whether agency influences level of motor simulation. This functional MRI study investigated how language and motor areas of the brain respond to sentences depicting intentional versus accidental action. 25 healthy adults read a series of sentences in the MRI scanner and determined whether the actions described were accidental or intentional. The main results include: (1) left hemisphere language areas (left inferior frontal gyrus, LIFG; left superior temporal gyrus, LSTG), premotor cortex (PM), and presupplementary motor area (pSMA) were strongly activated by both sentence types; (2) processing accidental action, relative to intentional action, elicited greater activity in LIFG, medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), and left amygdala; no statistically significant activity was found in the opposite contrast; and (3) greater percent signal change was observed in LIFG while processing accidental action and in right precentral gyrus for intentional action. The results of this study support language and motor region involvement in action sentence comprehension in accordance with embodiment theories. Additionally, it provides new insight into the linguistic, integrative, and emotional demands of comprehending accidental action, its underlying neural circuitry, and its relationship to intentionality bias: the predisposition to ascribe purpose to action. PMID:26300387

  9. Identification of furin pro-region determinants involved in folding and activation.

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette, Lyne; Charest, Gabriel; Longpré, Jean-Michel; Lavigne, Pierre; Leduc, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The pro-region of the subtilisin-like convertase furin acts early in the biosynthetic pathway as an intramolecular chaperone to enable proper folding of the zymogen, and later on as an inhibitor to constrain the activity of the enzyme until it reaches the trans -Golgi network. To identify residues that are important for pro-region function, we initially identified amino acids that are conserved among the pro-regions of various mammalian convertases. Site-directed mutagenesis of 17 selected amino acids within the 89-residue pro-region and biosynthetic labelling revealed that I60A-furin and H66A-furin were rapidly degraded in a proteasome-dependent manner, while W34A-furin and F67A-furin did not show any autocatalytic activation. Intriguingly, the latter mutants proteolytically cleaved pro-von Willebrand factor precursor to the mature polypeptide, suggesting that the mutations permitted proper folding, but did not allow the pro-region to exercise its role in inhibiting the enzyme. Homology modelling of furin's pro-region revealed that residues Ile-60 and His-66 might be crucial in forming the binding interface with the catalytic domain, while residues Trp-34 and Phe-67 might be involved in maintaining a hydrophobic core within the pro-region itself. These results provide structural insights into the dual role of furin's pro-region. PMID:14741044

  10. Involvement of BimL activation in apoptosis induced by lysosomal photodamage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Xianwang; Li, Hui

    2008-12-01

    Lysosomal photosensitizers have been used in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Combination of such photosensitizers and light causes lysosomal photodamage, inducing cell death. The lysosomal disruption can lead to apoptosis but its signaling pathways remain to be elucidated. In this study, we selected N-aspartyl chlorin e6 (NPe6), an effective photosensitizer which preferentially accumulates in lysosomes, to study the mechanism of apoptosis caused by lysosomal photodamage. Apoptosis in living human lung adenocarcinoma cells treated by NPe6-PDT was studied using real-time single-cell analysis. Confocal imaging of cells transfected with BimL-GFP demonstrated that BimL translocated to mitochondria after NPe6-PDT treatment for about 150 min, and then sequestered into clusters associated with the mitochondira within 30 min. The activation of BimL proved to be an important event in the apoptotic machinery, as demonstrated by the significant protection of cell death in samples suppressed the expression level of endogenous BimL. This study demonstrates that BimL activation was involved in the cell death induced by PDT with lysosomal photosensitizer.

  11. Genes Involved in Interleukin-1 Receptor Type II Activities Are Associated With Asthmatic Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Madore, Anne-Marie; Vaillancourt, Vanessa T.; Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Sarnowski, Chloé; Monier, Florent; Dizier, Marie-Hélène; Demenais, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Interleukin-1 (IL-1) plays a key role in inflammation and immunity and its decoy receptor, IL-1R2, has been implicated in transcriptomic and genetic studies of asthma. Methods Two large asthma family collections, the French-Canadian Saguenay—Lac-St-Jean (SLSJ) study and the French Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA), were used to investigate the association of SNPs in 10 genes that modulate IL-1R2 activities with asthma, allergic asthma, and atopy. Gene-gene interactions were also tested. Results One SNP in BACE2 was associated with allergic asthma in the SLSJ study and replicated in the EGEA study before statistical correction for multiple testing. Additionally, two SNPs in the MMP2 gene were replicated in both studies prior to statistical correction and reached significance in the combined analysis. Moreover, three gene-gene interactions also survived statistical correction in the combined analyses (BACE1-IL1RAP in asthma and allergic asthma and IL1R1-IL1RAP in atopy). Conclusions Our results highlight the relevance of genes involved in the IL-1R2 activity in the context of asthma and asthma-related traits. PMID:27334786

  12. Trichoderma mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling is involved in induction of plant systemic resistance.

    PubMed

    Viterbo, Ada; Harel, Michal; Horwitz, Benjamin A; Chet, Ilan; Mukherjee, Prasun K

    2005-10-01

    The role of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) TmkA in inducing systemic resistance in cucumber against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. lacrymans was investigated by using tmkA loss-of-function mutants of Trichoderma virens. In an assay where Trichoderma spores were germinated in proximity to cucumber roots, the mutants were able to colonize the plant roots as effectively as the wild-type strain but failed to induce full systemic resistance against the leaf pathogen. Interactions with the plant roots enhanced the level of tmkA transcript in T. virens and its homologue in Trichoderma asperellum. At the protein level, we could detect the activation of two forms reacting to the phospho-p44/42 MAPK antibody. Biocontrol experiments demonstrated that the tmkA mutants retain their biocontrol potential against Rhizoctonia solani in soil but are not effective against Sclerotium rolfsii in reducing disease incidence. Our results show that, unlike in many plant-pathogen interactions, Trichoderma TmkA MAPK is not involved in limited root colonization. Trichoderma, however, needs MAPK signaling in order to induce full systemic resistance in the plant.

  13. Involvement of JNK and Caspase Activation in Hoiamide A-Induced Neurotoxicity in Neocortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhengyu; Li, Xichun; Zou, Xiaohan; Greenwood, Michael; Gerwick, William H.; Murray, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    The frequent occurrence of Moorea producens (formerly Lyngbya majuscula) blooms has been associated with adverse effects on human health. Hoiamide A is a structurally unique cyclic depsipeptide isolated from an assemblage of the marine cyanobacteria M. producens and Phormidium gracile. We examined the influence of hoiamide A on neurite outgrowth in neocortical neurons and found that it suppressed neurite outgrowth with an IC50 value of 4.89 nM. Further study demonstrated that hoiamide A stimulated lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) efflux, nuclear condensation and caspase-3 activity with EC50 values of 3.66, 2.55 and 4.33 nM, respectively. These data indicated that hoiamide A triggered a unique neuronal death profile that involves both necrotic and apoptotic mechanisms. The similar potencies and similar time-response relationships between LDH efflux and caspase-3 activation/nuclear condensation suggested that both necrosis and apoptosis may derive from interaction with a common molecular target. The broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK completely inhibited hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity. Additionally, hoiamide A stimulated JNK phosphorylation, and a JNK inhibitor attenuated hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity. Collectively, these data demonstrate that hoiamide A-induced neuronal death requires both JNK and caspase signaling pathways. The potent neurotoxicity and unique neuronal cell death profile of hoiamide A represents a novel neurotoxic chemotype from marine cyanobacteria. PMID:25675001

  14. Involvement of both PKS and NRPS in antibacterial activity in Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Du, Liangcheng; Liu, Fengquan; Xu, Feifei; Hu, Baishi; Venturi, Vittorio; Qian, Guoliang

    2014-01-01

    Polyketides and nonribosomal peptides represent two large families of natural products (NPs) with diverse structures and important functions. They are synthesized by polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), respectively. Lysobacter enzymogenes is emerging as a novel biocontrol agent against pathogens of crop plants and a new source of bioactive NPs, such as antibacterial antibiotic WAP-8294A2 and antifungal antibiotic HSAF. Genome survey of strain OH11, a Chinese L. enzymogenes isolate, detected four novel PKS, NRPS or hybrid gene clusters, designed as cluster A to D. We further individually mutated five genes (PKS or NRPS) located in these four gene clusters, and showed that a PKS gene in cluster A and an NRPS gene in cluster D were involved in the antibacterial activity via a WAP-8294A2 dependent way. The data also showed that none of the five genes was associated with antifungal activity and the regulation of HSAF biosynthesis. Our results reveal the unusual regulatory role of these PKS and NRPS genes that were discovered from genome mining in L. enzymogenes. PMID:24801439

  15. HSP27 Alleviates Cardiac Aging in Mice via a Mechanism Involving Antioxidation and Mitophagy Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shenglan; Wang, Yana; Zhang, Xiaojin; Kong, Qiuyue; Li, Chuanfu; Li, Yuehua; Ding, Zhengnian

    2016-01-01

    Aging-induced cardiac dysfunction is a prominent feature of cardiac aging. Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) protects cardiac function against ischemia or chemical challenge. We hypothesized that HSP27 attenuates cardiac aging. Transgenic (Tg) mice with cardiac-specific expression of the HSP27 gene and wild-type (WT) littermates were employed in the experiments. Echocardiography revealed a significant decline in the cardiac function of old WT mice compared with young WT mice. In striking contrast, the aging-induced impairment of cardiac function was attenuated in old Tg mice compared with old WT mice. Levels of cardiac aging markers were lower in old Tg mouse hearts than in old WT mouse hearts. Less interstitial fibrosis and lower contents of reactive oxygen species and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins were detected in old Tg hearts than in old WT hearts. Furthermore, old Tg hearts demonstrated lower accumulation of LC3-II and p62 than old WT hearts. Levels of Atg13, Vps34, and Rab7 were also higher in old Tg hearts than in old WT hearts. Additionally, old Tg hearts had higher levels of PINK1 and Parkin than old WT hearts, suggesting that mitophagy was activated in old Tg hearts. Taken together, HSP27 alleviated cardiac aging and this action involved antioxidation and mitophagy activation. PMID:27110324

  16. Are serotonergic neurons involved in the control of anxiety and in the anxiolytic activity of benzodiazepines?

    PubMed

    Thiebot, M H

    1986-05-01

    Several studies have shown that, like benzodiazepines (BZP), treatments able to reduce or block the activity of CNS serotonergic (5-HT) neurons released punished behavior. Therefore, 5-HT mechanisms have been tentatively implicated in the anti-punishment (anxiolytic?) activity of BZP. Numerous data, however, are not in keeping with this hypothesis. Since not responding enables the animals to avoid punishment but also delays the receipt of food-reward, one of these factors could be an alteration of waiting capacities. Indeed, we have shown that diazepam released behavioral suppression in conflict schedules only when the duration of the punished periods exceeded 1 minute. Moreover, in rats allowed to choose in a T-maze between immediate-but-small vs. delayed-but-large reward, BZP significantly decreased the frequency with which the delayed reward was chosen, with 5-HT uptake blockers producing opposite effects. Therefore, one can hypothesize that BZP render the animals less prone than controls to tolerate delay of reward and that 5-HT mechanisms may be involved in this phenomenon. An altered tolerance to delay of reward should be taken into account when interpreting the BZP-induced release of behavioral inhibition in classical conflict procedures. PMID:2873593

  17. Calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, kinases, and transcriptional corepressors involved in T-cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun O.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The second messenger calcium plays an essential role in mediating the TCR signaling pathway leading to cytokine production and T cell clonal expansion. The immunosuppressive drugs cyclosproin A (CsA) and FK506 have served both as therapeutic agents and as molecular probes for unraveling the protein phosphatase calcineurin as a rate-limiting enzyme involved in the transmission of calcium signal from the cytosol into the nucleus to reprogram gene expression. The use of mouse knockout models has helped to verify and further elucidate the functions of different isoforms of calcineurin in both helper T cell activation and thymocyte development. In addition to calcineurin, three other classes of calmodulin-binding proteins have also been shown to play important roles in calcium signaling in T cells. Thus, Cabin1 and class II HDACs have been found to constitute a novel calcium-signaling module in conjunction with the transcription factor myocyte enhance factor family and the transcriptional coactivator p300 to suppress and activate cytokine gene transcription in a calcium-dependent manner. The calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMK) II and IV were also shown to play negative and positive regulatory functions, respectively, in TCR-mediated cytokine production. The crosstalks among these and other signal transducers in T cells form an extensive non-linear signaling network that dictates the final outcome of the TCR signaling pathway. PMID:19290928

  18. Involvement of specific calmodulin isoforms in salicylic acid-independent activation of plant disease resistance responses.

    PubMed

    Heo, W D; Lee, S H; Kim, M C; Kim, J C; Chung, W S; Chun, H J; Lee, K J; Park, C Y; Park, H C; Choi, J Y; Cho, M J

    1999-01-19

    The Ca2+ signal is essential for the activation of plant defense responses, but downstream components of the signaling pathway are still poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that specific calmodulin (CaM) isoforms are activated by infection or pathogen-derived elicitors and participate in Ca2+-mediated induction of plant disease resistance responses. Soybean CaM (SCaM)-4 and SCaM-5 genes, which encode for divergent CaM isoforms, were induced within 30 min by a fungal elicitor or pathogen, whereas other SCaM genes encoding highly conserved CaM isoforms did not show such response. This pathogen-triggered induction of these genes specifically depended on the increase of intracellular Ca2+ level. Constitutive expression of SCaM-4 and SCaM-5 in transgenic tobacco plants triggered spontaneous induction of lesions and induces an array of systemic acquired resistance (SAR)-associated genes. Surprisingly, these transgenic plants have normal levels of endogenous salicylic acid (SA). Furthermore, coexpression of nahG gene did not block the induction of SAR-associated genes in these transgenic plants, indicating that SA is not involved in the SAR gene induction mediated by SCaM-4 or SCaM-5. The transgenic plants exhibit enhanced resistance to a wide spectrum of virulent and avirulent pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and virus. These results suggest that specific CaM isoforms are components of a SA-independent signal transduction chain leading to disease resistance.

  19. 41 CFR 102-74.495 - If a permit involves demonstrations or activities that may lead to civil disturbances, what...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... demonstrations or activities that may lead to civil disturbances, what action must a Federal agency take before... demonstrations or activities that may lead to civil disturbances, what action must a Federal agency take before... with their law enforcement organization if a permit involves demonstrations or activities that may...

  20. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal action. 707.6 Section 707.6..., State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal action. (a) Section 1501.2(d) of the... approval or action to which NEPA applies. Such activities for which early involvement is...

  1. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal action. 707.6 Section 707.6..., State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal action. (a) Section 1501.2(d) of the... approval or action to which NEPA applies. Such activities for which early involvement is...

  2. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal action. 707.6 Section 707.6..., State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal action. (a) Section 1501.2(d) of the... approval or action to which NEPA applies. Such activities for which early involvement is...

  3. Nelfinavir and other protease inhibitors in cancer: mechanisms involved in anticancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Koltai, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To review the mechanisms of anti-cancer activity of nelfinavir and other protease inhibitors (PIs) based on evidences reported in the published literature. Methods: We extensively reviewed the literature concerning nelfinavir (NFV) as an off target anti-cancer drug and other PIs. A classification of PIs based on anti-cancer mode of action was proposed. Controversies regarding nelfinavir mode of action were also addressed. Conclusions: The two main mechanisms involved in anti-cancer activity are endoplasmic reticulum stress-unfolded protein response pathway and Akt inhibition. However there are many other effects, partially dependent and independent of those mentioned, that may be useful in cancer treatment, including MMP-9 and MMP-2 inhibition, down-regulation of CDK-2, VEGF, bFGF, NF-kB, STAT-3, HIF-1 alfa, IGF, EGFR, survivin, BCRP, androgen receptor, proteasome, fatty acid synthase (FAS), decrease in cellular ATP concentration and upregulation of TRAIL receptor DR5, Bax, increased radiosensitivity, and autophagy. The end result of all these effects is slower growth, decreased angiogenesis, decreased invasion and increased apoptosis, which means reduced proliferation and increased cancer cells death. PIs may be classified according to their anticancer activity at clinically achievable doses, in AKT inhibitors, ER stressors and Akt inhibitors/ER stressors. Beyond the phase I trials that have been recently completed, adequately powered and well-designed clinical trials are needed in the various cancer type settings, and specific trials where NFV is tested in association with other known anti-cancer pharmaceuticals should be sought, in order to find an appropriate place for NFV in cancer treatment. The analysis of controversies on the molecular mechanisms of NFV hints to the possibility that NFV works in a different way in tumor cells and in hepatocytes and adipocytes. PMID:26097685

  4. Contrasting early visual cortical activation states causally involved in visual imagery and short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Vecchi, Tomaso; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Silvanto, Juha

    2009-10-01

    Whether visual imagery and visual short-term memory (STM) share the same neural resources, and the extent to which the early visual cortex (V1/V2) is involved in these processes, has been the subject of much debate. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in two separate experiments to contrast the neural states associated with visual imagery and visual STM in the early visual cortex. In Experiment 1, we investigated V1/V2 activation states at the end of the retention phase in a visual imagery and a visual STM task. V1/V2 TMS facilitated performance in both tasks; the finding that imagery and STM interacted with TMS in the same way suggests that the two processes have similar effects on early visual cortical excitability. In Experiment 2, we investigated V1/V2 activation states at the beginning of the retention phase. V1/V2 TMS impaired performance in the visual STM task, whereas it had no effect on the imagery task. Taken together, our findings show that the late phases of the early visual cortical activation state associated with visual imagery and visual STM are similar; differences between the two processes are apparent in the early phases of the tasks. Our results also suggest that the causal role of the early visual cortex in visual STM includes both the initial translation of the visual input into working memory and the subsequent maintenance of the mental representation. Finally, our findings indicate that visual STM sensory recruitment in working memory might act via excitability modulation of V1/V2 neurons.

  5. Involvement of IL-1 in the Maintenance of Masseter Muscle Activity and Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Ko; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Koide, Masashi; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Hattori, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Makoto; Sugawara, Shunji; Kanzaki, Makoto; Endo, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise reportedly stimulates IL-1 production within working skeletal muscles, but its physiological significance remains unknown due to the existence of two distinct IL-1 isoforms, IL-1α and IL-1β. The regulatory complexities of these two isoforms, in terms of which cells in muscles produce them and their distinct/redundant biological actions, have yet to be elucidated. Taking advantage of our masticatory behavior (Restrained/Gnawing) model, we herein show that IL-1α/1β-double-knockout (IL-1-KO) mice exhibit compromised masseter muscle (MM) activity which is at least partially attributable to abnormalities of glucose handling (rapid glycogen depletion along with impaired glucose uptake) and dysfunction of IL-6 upregulation in working MMs. In wild-type mice, masticatory behavior clearly increased IL-1β mRNA expression but no incremental protein abundance was detectable in whole MM homogenates, whereas immunohistochemical staining analysis revealed that both IL-1α- and IL-1β-immunopositive cells were recruited around blood vessels in the perimysium of MMs after masticatory behavior. In addition to the aforementioned phenotype of IL-1-KO mice, we found the IL-6 mRNA and protein levels in MMs after masticatory behavior to be significantly lower in IL-1-KO than in WT. Thus, our findings confirm that the locally-increased IL-1 elicited by masticatory behavior, although present small in amounts, contributes to supporting MM activity by maintaining normal glucose homeostasis in these muscles. Our data also underscore the importance of IL-1-mediated local interplay between autocrine myokines including IL-6 and paracrine cytokines in active skeletal muscles. This interplay is directly involved in MM performance and fatigability, perhaps mediated through maintaining muscular glucose homeostasis. PMID:26599867

  6. The Essence of Conscious Conflict: Subjective Effects of Sustaining Incompatible Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Morsella, Ezequiel; Gray, Jeremy R.; Krieger, Stephen C.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Conflict constitutes one of the fundamental ‘tuggings and pullings’ of the human experience. Yet, the link between the various kinds of conflict in the nervous system and subjective experience remains unexplained. We tested a hypothesis that predicts why both the ‘hot’ conflicts involving self-control and motivation, and the ‘cooler’ response conflicts of the laboratory, lead to changes in subjective experience. From this standpoint, these changes arise automatically from the activation of incompatible skeletomotor intentions, because the primary function of consciousness is to integrate such intentions for adaptive skeletal muscle output. Accordingly, we demonstrated for the first time that merely sustaining incompatible intentions (to move right and left) in a motionless state produces stronger subjective effects than sustaining compatible intentions. The results held equally strongly for two different effector systems involving skeletal muscle: arm movements and finger movements. In contrast, no such effects were found with conflict in a smooth muscle effector system. Together, these findings illuminate aspects of the nature of subjective experience and the role of incompatible intentions in affect and failures of self-control. PMID:19803593

  7. Mothers' and Fathers' Involvement in Home Activities with Their Children: Psychosocial Factors and the Role of Parental Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giallo, Rebecca; Treyvaud, Karli; Cooklin, Amanda; Wade, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Parent involvement in play, learning, and everyday home activities is important for promoting children's cognitive and language development. The aims of the study were to (a) examine differences between mothers' and fathers' self-reported involvement with their children, (b) explore the relationship between child, parent and family factors, and…

  8. Slow motion increases perceived intent.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Eugene M; Burns, Zachary C; Converse, Benjamin A

    2016-08-16

    To determine the appropriate punishment for a harmful action, people must often make inferences about the transgressor's intent. In courtrooms and popular media, such inferences increasingly rely on video evidence, which is often played in "slow motion." Four experiments (n = 1,610) involving real surveillance footage from a murder or broadcast replays of violent contact in professional football demonstrate that viewing an action in slow motion, compared with regular speed, can cause viewers to perceive an action as more intentional. This slow motion intentionality bias occurred, in part, because slow motion video caused participants to feel like the actor had more time to act, even when they knew how much clock time had actually elapsed. Four additional experiments (n = 2,737) reveal that allowing viewers to see both regular speed and slow motion replay mitigates the bias, but does not eliminate it. We conclude that an empirical understanding of the effect of slow motion on mental state attribution should inform the life-or-death decisions that are currently based on tacit assumptions about the objectivity of human perception.

  9. Slow motion increases perceived intent

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Eugene M.; Burns, Zachary C.; Converse, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the appropriate punishment for a harmful action, people must often make inferences about the transgressor’s intent. In courtrooms and popular media, such inferences increasingly rely on video evidence, which is often played in “slow motion.” Four experiments (n = 1,610) involving real surveillance footage from a murder or broadcast replays of violent contact in professional football demonstrate that viewing an action in slow motion, compared with regular speed, can cause viewers to perceive an action as more intentional. This slow motion intentionality bias occurred, in part, because slow motion video caused participants to feel like the actor had more time to act, even when they knew how much clock time had actually elapsed. Four additional experiments (n = 2,737) reveal that allowing viewers to see both regular speed and slow motion replay mitigates the bias, but does not eliminate it. We conclude that an empirical understanding of the effect of slow motion on mental state attribution should inform the life-or-death decisions that are currently based on tacit assumptions about the objectivity of human perception. PMID:27482091

  10. Slow motion increases perceived intent.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Eugene M; Burns, Zachary C; Converse, Benjamin A

    2016-08-16

    To determine the appropriate punishment for a harmful action, people must often make inferences about the transgressor's intent. In courtrooms and popular media, such inferences increasingly rely on video evidence, which is often played in "slow motion." Four experiments (n = 1,610) involving real surveillance footage from a murder or broadcast replays of violent contact in professional football demonstrate that viewing an action in slow motion, compared with regular speed, can cause viewers to perceive an action as more intentional. This slow motion intentionality bias occurred, in part, because slow motion video caused participants to feel like the actor had more time to act, even when they knew how much clock time had actually elapsed. Four additional experiments (n = 2,737) reveal that allowing viewers to see both regular speed and slow motion replay mitigates the bias, but does not eliminate it. We conclude that an empirical understanding of the effect of slow motion on mental state attribution should inform the life-or-death decisions that are currently based on tacit assumptions about the objectivity of human perception. PMID:27482091

  11. Effects of intentional motor actions on embodied language processing.

    PubMed

    Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Lindemann, Oliver; van Rooij, Daan; van Dam, Wessel; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Embodied theories of language processing suggest that this motor simulation is an automatic and necessary component of meaning representation. If this is the case, then language and action systems should be mutually dependent (i.e., motor activity should selectively modulate processing of words with an action-semantic component). In this paper, we investigate in two experiments whether evidence for mutual dependence can be found using a motor priming paradigm. Specifically, participants performed either an intentional or a passive motor task while processing words denoting manipulable and nonmanipulable objects. The performance rates (Experiment 1) and response latencies (Experiment 2) in a lexical-decision task reveal that participants performing an intentional action were positively affected in the processing of words denoting manipulable objects as compared to nonmanipulable objects. This was not the case if participants performed a secondary passive motor action (Experiment 1) or did not perform a secondary motor task (Experiment 2). The results go beyond previous research showing that language processes involve motor systems to demonstrate that the execution of motor actions has a selective effect on the semantic processing of words. We suggest that intentional actions activate specific parts of the neural motor system, which are also engaged for lexical-semantic processing of action-related words and discuss the beneficial versus inhibitory nature of this relationship. The results provide new insights into the embodiment of language and the bidirectionality of effects between language and action processing. PMID:20178948

  12. Cocaine-mediated microglial activation involves the ER stress-autophagy axis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming-Lei; Liao, Ke; Periyasamy, Palsamy; Yang, Lu; Cai, Yu; Callen, Shannon E; Buch, Shilpa

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine abuse leads to neuroinflammation, which, in turn, contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration associated with advanced HIV-1 infection. Autophagy plays important roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the possible functional link between cocaine and autophagy has not been explored before. Herein, we demonstrate that cocaine exposure induced autophagy in both BV-2 and primary rat microglial cells as demonstrated by a dose- and time-dependent induction of autophagy-signature proteins such as BECN1/Beclin 1, ATG5, and MAP1LC3B. These findings were validated wherein cocaine treatment of BV-2 cells resulted in increased formation of puncta in cells expressing either endogenous MAP1LC3B or overexpressing GFP-MAP1LC3B. Specificity of cocaine-induced autophagy was confirmed by treating cells with inhibitors of autophagy (3-MA and wortmannin). Intriguingly, cocaine-mediated induction of autophagy involved upstream activation of 2 ER stress pathways (EIF2AK3- and ERN1-dependent), as evidenced by the ability of the ER stress inhibitor salubrinal to ameliorate cocaine-induced autophagy. In vivo validation of these findings demonstrated increased expression of BECN1, ATG5, and MAP1LC3B-II proteins in cocaine-treated mouse brains compared to untreated animals. Increased autophagy contributes to cocaine-mediated activation of microglia since pretreatment of cells with wortmannin resulted in decreased expression and release of inflammatory factors (TNF, IL1B, IL6, and CCL2) in microglial cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that cocaine exposure results in induction of autophagy that is closely linked with neuroinflammation. Targeting autophagic proteins could thus be considered as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cocaine-related neuroinflammation diseases.

  13. Cocaine-mediated microglial activation involves the ER stress-autophagy axis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming-Lei; Liao, Ke; Periyasamy, Palsamy; Yang, Lu; Cai, Yu; Callen, Shannon E; Buch, Shilpa

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine abuse leads to neuroinflammation, which, in turn, contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration associated with advanced HIV-1 infection. Autophagy plays important roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the possible functional link between cocaine and autophagy has not been explored before. Herein, we demonstrate that cocaine exposure induced autophagy in both BV-2 and primary rat microglial cells as demonstrated by a dose- and time-dependent induction of autophagy-signature proteins such as BECN1/Beclin 1, ATG5, and MAP1LC3B. These findings were validated wherein cocaine treatment of BV-2 cells resulted in increased formation of puncta in cells expressing either endogenous MAP1LC3B or overexpressing GFP-MAP1LC3B. Specificity of cocaine-induced autophagy was confirmed by treating cells with inhibitors of autophagy (3-MA and wortmannin). Intriguingly, cocaine-mediated induction of autophagy involved upstream activation of 2 ER stress pathways (EIF2AK3- and ERN1-dependent), as evidenced by the ability of the ER stress inhibitor salubrinal to ameliorate cocaine-induced autophagy. In vivo validation of these findings demonstrated increased expression of BECN1, ATG5, and MAP1LC3B-II proteins in cocaine-treated mouse brains compared to untreated animals. Increased autophagy contributes to cocaine-mediated activation of microglia since pretreatment of cells with wortmannin resulted in decreased expression and release of inflammatory factors (TNF, IL1B, IL6, and CCL2) in microglial cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that cocaine exposure results in induction of autophagy that is closely linked with neuroinflammation. Targeting autophagic proteins could thus be considered as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cocaine-related neuroinflammation diseases. PMID:26043790

  14. PRESS40: a project for involving students in active seismic risk mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaba, Carla; Contessi, Elisa; Rosa Girardi, Maria

    2016-04-01

    To memorialize the anniversary of the 1976 Friuli earthquake, the Istituto Statale di Istruzione Superiore "Magrini Marchetti" in Gemona del Friuli (NE Italy), with the collaboration of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), has promoted the PRESS40 Project (Prevenzione Sismica nella Scuola a 40 anni dal terremoto del Friuli, that in English sounds like "Seismic Prevention at School 40 years later the Friuli earthquake"). The project has developed in the 2015-2016 school year, starting from the 40th anniversary of the Friuli earthquake, and it aims to disseminate historical memory, seismic culture and awareness of seismic safety in the young generations, too often unconscious of past experiences, as recent seismic hazard perception tests have demonstrated. The basic idea of the PRESS40 Project is to involve the students in experimental activities to be active part of the seismic mitigation process. The Project is divided into two main parts, the first one in which students learn-receive knowledge from researchers, and the second one in which they teach-bring knowledge to younger students. In the first part of the project, 75 students of the "Magrini Marchetti" school acquired new geophysical data, covering the 23 municipalities from which they come from. These municipalities represent a wide area affected by the 1976 Friuli earthquake. In each locality a significant site was examined, represented by a school area. At least, 127 measurements of ambient noise have been acquired. Data processing and interpretation of all the results are still going on, under the supervision of OGS researchers.The second part of the project is planned for the early spring, when the students will present the results of geophysical survey to the younger ones of the monitored schools and to the citizens in occasion of events to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the Friuli earthquake.

  15. Lack of Involvement of CEP Adducts in TLR Activation and in Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gounarides, John; Cobb, Jennifer S.; Zhou, Jing; Cook, Frank; Yang, Xuemei; Yin, Hong; Meredith, Erik; Rao, Chang; Huang, Qian; Xu, YongYao; Anderson, Karen; De Erkenez, Andrea; Liao, Sha-Mei; Crowley, Maura; Buchanan, Natasha; Poor, Stephen; Qiu, Yubin; Fassbender, Elizabeth; Shen, Siyuan; Woolfenden, Amber; Jensen, Amy; Cepeda, Rosemarie; Etemad-Gilbertson, Bijan; Giza, Shelby; Mogi, Muneto; Jaffee, Bruce; Azarian, Sassan

    2014-01-01

    Proteins that are post-translationally adducted with 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) have been proposed to play a pathogenic role in age-related macular degeneration, by inducing angiogenesis in a Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent manner. We have investigated the involvement of CEP adducts in angiogenesis and TLR activation, to assess the therapeutic potential of inhibiting CEP adducts and TLR2 for ocular angiogenesis. As tool reagents, several CEP-adducted proteins and peptides were synthetically generated by published methodology and adduction was confirmed by NMR and LC-MS/MS analyses. Structural studies showed significant changes in secondary structure in CEP-adducted proteins but not the untreated proteins. Similar structural changes were also observed in the treated unadducted proteins, which were treated by the same adduction method except for one critical step required to form the CEP group. Thus some structural changes were unrelated to CEP groups and were artificially induced by the synthesis method. In biological studies, the CEP-adducted proteins and peptides failed to activate TLR2 in cell-based assays and in an in vivo TLR2-mediated retinal leukocyte infiltration model. Neither CEP adducts nor TLR agonists were able to induce angiogenesis in a tube formation assay. In vivo, treatment of animals with CEP-adducted protein had no effect on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Furthermore, in vivo inactivation of TLR2 by deficiency in Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (Myd88) had no effect on abrasion-induced corneal neovascularization. Thus the CEP-TLR2 axis, which is implicated in other wound angiogenesis models, does not appear to play a pathological role in a corneal wound angiogenesis model. Collectively, our data do not support the mechanism of action of CEP adducts in TLR2-mediated angiogenesis proposed by others. PMID:25343517

  16. Cocaine-mediated microglial activation involves the ER stress-autophagy axis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ming-Lei; Liao, Ke; Periyasamy, Palsamy; Yang, Lu; Cai, Yu; Callen, Shannon E; Buch, Shilpa

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine abuse leads to neuroinflammation, which, in turn, contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration associated with advanced HIV-1 infection. Autophagy plays important roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the possible functional link between cocaine and autophagy has not been explored before. Herein, we demonstrate that cocaine exposure induced autophagy in both BV-2 and primary rat microglial cells as demonstrated by a dose- and time-dependent induction of autophagy-signature proteins such as BECN1/Beclin 1, ATG5, and MAP1LC3B. These findings were validated wherein cocaine treatment of BV-2 cells resulted in increased formation of puncta in cells expressing either endogenous MAP1LC3B or overexpressing GFP-MAP1LC3B. Specificity of cocaine-induced autophagy was confirmed by treating cells with inhibitors of autophagy (3-MA and wortmannin). Intriguingly, cocaine-mediated induction of autophagy involved upstream activation of 2 ER stress pathways (EIF2AK3- and ERN1-dependent), as evidenced by the ability of the ER stress inhibitor salubrinal to ameliorate cocaine-induced autophagy. In vivo validation of these findings demonstrated increased expression of BECN1, ATG5, and MAP1LC3B-II proteins in cocaine-treated mouse brains compared to untreated animals. Increased autophagy contributes to cocaine-mediated activation of microglia since pretreatment of cells with wortmannin resulted in decreased expression and release of inflammatory factors (TNF, IL1B, IL6, and CCL2) in microglial cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that cocaine exposure results in induction of autophagy that is closely linked with neuroinflammation. Targeting autophagic proteins could thus be considered as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cocaine-related neuroinflammation diseases. PMID:26043790

  17. Involvement of Trichoderma Trichothecenes in the Biocontrol Activity and Induction of Plant Defense-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Malmierca, M. G.; Cardoza, R. E.; Alexander, N. J.; McCormick, S. P.; Hermosa, R.; Monte, E.

    2012-01-01

    Trichoderma species produce trichothecenes, most notably trichodermin and harzianum A (HA), by a biosynthetic pathway in which several of the involved proteins have significant differences in functionality compared to their Fusarium orthologues. In addition, the genes encoding these proteins show a genomic organization differing from that of the Fusarium tri clusters. Here we describe the isolation of Trichoderma arundinaceum IBT 40837 transformants which have a disrupted or silenced tri4 gene, a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that oxygenates trichodiene to give rise to isotrichodiol, and the effect of tri4 gene disruption and silencing on the expression of other tri genes. Our results indicate that the tri4 gene disruption resulted in a reduced antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani and also in a reduced ability to induce the expression of tomato plant defense-related genes belonging to the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonate (JA) pathways against B. cinerea, in comparison to the wild-type strain, indicating that HA plays an important function in the sensitization of Trichoderma-pretreated plants against this fungal pathogen. Additionally, the effect of the interaction of T. arundinaceum with B. cinerea or R. solani and with tomato seedlings on the expressions of the tri genes was studied. PMID:22562989

  18. Activation of neutral sphingomyelinase is involved in acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Cogolludo, Angel; Moreno, Laura; Frazziano, Giovanna; Moral-Sanz, Javier; Menendez, Carmen; Castañeda, Javier; González, Constancio; Villamor, Eduardo; Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Aims The mechanisms involved in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) are not yet fully defined. The aim of the study was to determine the role of protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ) and neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) in HPV. Methods and results Ceramide content was measured by immunocytochemistry and voltage-gated potassium channel (KV) currents were recorded by the patch clamp technique in isolated rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). Contractile responses were analysed in rat pulmonary arteries mounted in a wire myograph. Pulmonary pressure was recorded in anesthetized open-chest rats. Protein and mRNA expression were measured by western blot and RT–PCR, respectively. We found that hypoxia increased ceramide content in PASMC which was abrogated by inhibition of nSMase, but not acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase). The hypoxia-induced vasoconstrictor response in isolated pulmonary arteries and the inhibition of KV currents were strongly reduced by inhibition of PKCζ or nSMase but not aSMase. The nSMase inhibitor GW4869 prevented HPV in vivo. The vasoconstrictor response to hypoxia was mimicked by exogenous addition of bacterial Smase and ceramide. nSMase2 mRNA expression was ∼10-fold higher in pulmonary compared with mesenteric arteries. In mesenteric arteries, hypoxia failed to increase ceramide but exogenous SMase induced a contractile response. Conclusion nSMase-derived ceramide production and the activation of PKCζ are early and necessary events in the signalling cascade of acute HPV. PMID:19088082

  19. Involvement of plant endogenous ABA in Bacillus megaterium PGPR activity in tomato plants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are naturally occurring soil bacteria which benefit plants by improving plant productivity and immunity. The mechanisms involved in these processes include the regulation of plant hormone levels such as ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA). The aim of the present study was to determine whether the activity of Bacillus megaterium PGPR is affected by the endogenous ABA content of the host plant. The ABA-deficient tomato mutants flacca and sitiens and their near-isogenic wild-type parental lines were used. Growth, stomatal conductance, shoot hormone concentration, competition assay for colonization of tomato root tips, and root expression of plant genes expected to be modulated by ABA and PGPR were examined. Results Contrary to the wild-type plants in which PGPR stimulated growth rates, PGPR caused growth inhibition in ABA-deficient mutant plants. PGPR also triggered an over accumulation of ethylene in ABA-deficient plants which correlated with a higher expression of the pathogenesis-related gene Sl-PR1b. Conclusions Positive correlation between over-accumulation of ethylene and a higher expression of Sl-PR1b in ABA-deficient mutant plants could indicate that maintenance of normal plant endogenous ABA content may be essential for the growth promoting action of B. megaterium by keeping low levels of ethylene production. PMID:24460926

  20. Water-soluble chlorophyll protein is involved in herbivore resistance activation during greening of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2015-06-01

    Water-soluble chlorophyll proteins (WSCPs) constitute a small family of unusual chlorophyll (Chl)-binding proteins that possess a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor domain. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a WSCP has been identified, named AtWSCP, that forms complexes with Chl and the Chl precursor chlorophyllide (Chlide) in vitro. AtWSCP exhibits a quite unexpected expression pattern for a Chl binding protein and accumulated to high levels in the apical hook of etiolated plants. AtWSCP expression was negatively light-regulated. Transgenic expression of AtWSCP fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that AtWSCP is localized to cell walls/apoplastic spaces. Biochemical assays identified AtWSCP as interacting with RD21 (responsive to desiccation 21), a granulin domain-containing cysteine protease implicated in stress responses and defense. Reconstitution experiments showed tight interactions between RD21 and WSCP that were relieved upon Chlide binding. Laboratory feeding experiments with two herbivorous isopod crustaceans, Porcellio scaber (woodlouse) and Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug), identified the apical hook as Achilles' heel of etiolated plants and that this was protected by RD21 during greening. Because Chlide is formed in the apical hook during seedling emergence from the soil, our data suggest an unprecedented mechanism of herbivore resistance activation that is triggered by light and involves AtWSCP. PMID:26016527

  1. The antidepressant activity of inositol in the forced swim test involves 5-HT(2) receptors.

    PubMed

    Einat, H; Clenet, F; Shaldubina, A; Belmaker, R H; Bourin, M

    2001-01-01

    The effect of inositol as an antidepressant was previously demonstrated in both animal models of depression-like behavior and in clinical trials. Unlike most antidepressant drugs, inositol does not have a clear target in the synapse and was not demonstrated to alter monoamine levels in the brain. The present study attempted to draw a psychopharmacological profile of inositol's behavioral effects by exploring the interactions between the drug and specific receptor agonists and antagonists in the forced swim test. Rats received inositol treatment (or control) in combination with the serotonergic metabolism inhibitor PCPA or with the noradrenergic neurotoxin DSP-4. Results indicated that PCPA but not DSP-4 abolished the ability of inositol to cause a reduction in immobility time in the forced swim test. In mice, the specific 5-HT(2A)/5-HT(2C) antagonist ritanserin, but not the 5-HT(1A)/5-HT(1B)/beta adrenergic antagonist pindolol, abolished inositol's effect in the forced swim test. The 5-HT(2A)/5-HT(2C) agonist DOI and the 5-HT(1A) agonist 8-OH-DPAT did not have any significant effects on inositol's activity. The present data indicates that the antidepressant effect of inositol may involve 5-HT(2) receptors. It is thus possible that the effects of reuptake antidepressant drugs and the effects of inositol may have a common final pathway.

  2. Water-soluble chlorophyll protein is involved in herbivore resistance activation during greening of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Water-soluble chlorophyll proteins (WSCPs) constitute a small family of unusual chlorophyll (Chl)-binding proteins that possess a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor domain. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a WSCP has been identified, named AtWSCP, that forms complexes with Chl and the Chl precursor chlorophyllide (Chlide) in vitro. AtWSCP exhibits a quite unexpected expression pattern for a Chl binding protein and accumulated to high levels in the apical hook of etiolated plants. AtWSCP expression was negatively light-regulated. Transgenic expression of AtWSCP fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that AtWSCP is localized to cell walls/apoplastic spaces. Biochemical assays identified AtWSCP as interacting with RD21 (RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION 21), a granulin domain-containing cysteine protease implicated in stress responses and defense. Reconstitution experiments showed tight interactions between RD21 and WSCP that were relieved upon Chlide binding. Laboratory feeding experiments with two herbivorous isopod crustaceans, Porcellio scaber (woodlouse) and Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug), identified the apical hook as Achilles’ heel of etiolated plants and that this was protected by RD21 during greening. Because Chlide is formed in the apical hook during seedling emergence from the soil, our data suggest an unprecedented mechanism of herbivore resistance activation that is triggered by light and involves AtWSCP. PMID:26016527

  3. Nanometer Scale Titanium Surface Texturing Are Detected by Signaling Pathways Involving Transient FAK and Src Activations

    PubMed Central

    Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Bonfante, Estevam A.; Jimbo, Ryo; Hayashi, Mariko; Andersson, Martin; Alves, Gutemberg; Takamori, Esther R.; Beltrão, Paulo J.; Coelho, Paulo G.; Granjeiro, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is known that physico/chemical alterations on biomaterial surfaces have the capability to modulate cellular behavior, affecting early tissue repair. Such surface modifications are aimed to improve early healing response and, clinically, offer the possibility to shorten the time from implant placement to functional loading. Since FAK and Src are intracellular proteins able to predict the quality of osteoblast adhesion, this study evaluated the osteoblast behavior in response to nanometer scale titanium surface texturing by monitoring FAK and Src phosphorylations. Methodology Four engineered titanium surfaces were used for the study: machined (M), dual acid-etched (DAA), resorbable media microblasted and acid-etched (MBAA), and acid-etch microblasted (AAMB). Surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, interferometry, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Thereafter, those 4 samples were used to evaluate their cytotoxicity and interference on FAK and Src phosphorylations. Both Src and FAK were investigated by using specific antibody against specific phosphorylation sites. Principal Findings The results showed that both FAK and Src activations were differently modulated as a function of titanium surfaces physico/chemical configuration and protein adsorption. Conclusions It can be suggested that signaling pathways involving both FAK and Src could provide biomarkers to predict osteoblast adhesion onto different surfaces. PMID:24999733

  4. Neutrophil activation induced by the lectin KM+ involves binding to CXCR2.

    PubMed

    Pereira-da-Silva, Gabriela; Moreno, Andréa N; Marques, Fabiana; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria Célia; Panunto-Castelo, Ademilson; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2006-01-01

    The lectin KM+ from Artocarpus integrifolia, also known as artocarpin, induces neutrophil migration by haptotaxis. The interactions of KM+ with both neutrophils and the extracellular matrix depend on the lectin's ability to recognize mannose-containing glycans. In the present study, we characterized the binding of KM+ to human neutrophils and the responses stimulated by this binding. Exposure to KM+ results in cell polarization, formation of a lamellipodium, and induction of deep ruffles on the cell surface. By fluorescence microscopy, we observed that KM+ is distributed homogeneously over the cell surface. KM+/ligand complexes are rapidly internalized, reaching maximum intracellular concentrations at 120 min, and decreasing thereafter. Furthermore, KM+ binding to the surface of human neutrophils is inhibited by the specific sugars, d-mannose or mannotriose. KM+-induced neutrophil migration is inhibited by pertussis toxin as well as by inhibition of CXCR2 activity. These results suggest that the KM+ ligand on the neutrophil surface is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). The results also suggest that neutrophil migration induced by KM+ involves binding to CXCR2.

  5. Rural Schooling in Georgia: The Experiences of a Minority Community Service Organization Involved in Local School Decision-Making Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Cynthia Louise Altman

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation study was a descriptive case study of a minority community service organization whose members were actively involved in local school decision-making and activities in a rural Northeast Georgia community. Rural schools face unique challenges in light of current educational trends. To address the challenges, rural schools must…

  6. Understanding the Meaning African-American Men Give to Their Student Leadership Involvement and Engagement Activities in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Karl A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore and gain a deeper understanding of the lived experiences and perceptions of African-American (A-A) men who are persisting in college and who demonstrate participation in co-curricular activities defined as student leadership involvement and engagement activities (SLIEA). The…

  7. Neural bases of prospective memory: a meta-analysis and the "Attention to Delayed Intention" (AtoDI) model.

    PubMed

    Cona, Giorgia; Scarpazza, Cristina; Sartori, Giuseppe; Moscovitch, Morris; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia

    2015-05-01

    Remembering to realize delayed intentions is a multi-phase process, labelled as prospective memory (PM), and involves a plurality of neural networks. The present study utilized the activation likelihood estimation method of meta-analysis to provide a complete overview of the brain regions that are consistently activated in each PM phase. We formulated the 'Attention to Delayed Intention' (AtoDI) model to explain the neural dissociation found between intention maintenance and retrieval phases. The dorsal frontoparietal network is involved mainly in the maintenance phase and seems to mediate the strategic monitoring processes, such as the allocation of top-down attention both towards external stimuli, to monitor for the occurrence of the PM cues, and to internal memory contents, to maintain the intention active in memory. The ventral frontoparietal network is recruited in the retrieval phase and might subserve the bottom-up attention captured externally by the PM cues and, internally, by the intention stored in memory. Together with other brain regions (i.e., insula and posterior cingulate cortex), the ventral frontoparietal network would support the spontaneous retrieval processes. The functional contribution of the anterior prefrontal cortex is discussed extensively for each PM phase.

  8. Context-Aware Online Commercial Intention Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Derek Hao; Shen, Dou; Sun, Jian-Tao; Yang, Qiang; Chen, Zheng

    With more and more commercial activities moving onto the Internet, people tend to purchase what they need through Internet or conduct some online research before the actual transactions happen. For many Web users, their online commercial activities start from submitting a search query to search engines. Just like the common Web search queries, the queries with commercial intention are usually very short. Recognizing the queries with commercial intention against the common queries will help search engines provide proper search results and advertisements, help Web users obtain the right information they desire and help the advertisers benefit from the potential transactions. However, the intentions behind a query vary a lot for users with different background and interest. The intentions can even be different for the same user, when the query is issued in different contexts. In this paper, we present a new algorithm framework based on skip-chain conditional random field (SCCRF) for automatically classifying Web queries according to context-based online commercial intention. We analyze our algorithm performance both theoretically and empirically. Extensive experiments on several real search engine log datasets show that our algorithm can improve more than 10% on F1 score than previous algorithms on commercial intention detection.

  9. Enzyme activity alteration by cadmium administration to rats: the possibility of iron involvement in lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Casalino, E; Sblano, C; Landriscina, C

    1997-10-15

    The specific activities of D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) are reduced in the liver and kidney of rats intoxicated with 2.5 mg Cd/kg body wt and sacrificed after 24 h; conversely ketone-body concentration is strongly increased in both of these organs and blood. In the same animals a great stimulation of antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase occurs. The prooxidant state induced by cadmium in liver mitochondria and microsomes is unaffected by superoxide dismutase, catalase, or mannitol, whereas it is completely blocked by vitamin E thus excluding the involvement of reactive oxygen species in this process. The mechanism by which cadmium induces lipid peroxidation has been investigated by measuring the effect of this metal on liposomes. Ninety-minute treatment of liposomes with CdCl2 does not induce any lipid peroxidation. In contrast, Fe2+ ions under the same conditions cause strong liposome peroxidation. It has also been observed that cadmium promotes a time-dependent iron release from biological membranes. When lipid peroxidation is induced by a low concentration (5 microM) of FeCl2, in place of CdCl2, the characteristics of this process and the sensitivity to the various antioxidants used are similar to those observed with Cd. From these results we conclude that the prooxidative effect of cadmium is an indirect one since it is mediated by iron. With regard to the inhibitory effect on BDH and GDH following cadmium intoxication, it does not appear to be imputable to lipid peroxidation since in vitro investigations indicate that the presence of vitamin E does not remove the inhibition at all. PMID:9343363

  10. Mothers' and fathers' involvement with school-age children's care and academic activities in Navajo Indian families.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Ziarat; Anziano, Michael C

    2008-04-01

    This exploratory study examined mothers' and fathers' reports of time involvement in their school-age children's care and academic activities. The study also explored the relationship between parents' socioeconomic status (SES) variables (age, education, income, work hours, and length of marriage) and their relative involvement with children. Mother and father dyads from 34 two-parent Navajo (Diné) Indian families with a second- or third-grade child participated in the study. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that mothers invested significantly more time in children's care on demand and academic activities than fathers, but the differences in maternal and paternal perceptions of time involvement in routine care were not significant. The gender of the child did not influence the amount of time parents invested in children's care and academic activities. Mothers' involvement with children was not related to any of the SES variables. Fathers' involvement was significantly associated with work hours and length of marriage, and work hours produced significant interaction with fathers' involvement with children. Findings are discussed in light of gender role differences in parental involvement with children within Navajo families. PMID:18426283

  11. Dexamethasone enhances necrosis-like neuronal death in ischemic rat hippocampus involving μ-calpain activation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Georg Johannes; Hasseldam, Henrik; Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Johansen, Flemming Fryd

    2014-11-01

    Transient forebrain ischemia (TFI) leads to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell death which is aggravated by glucocorticoids (GC). It is unknown how GC affect apoptosis and necrosis in cerebral ischemia. We therefore investigated the co-localization of activated caspase-3 (casp-3) with apoptosis- and necrosis-like cell death morphologies in CA1 of rats treated with dexamethasone prior to TFI (DPTI). In addition, apoptosis- (casp-9, casp-3, casp-3-cleaved PARP and cleaved α-spectrin 145/150 and 120kDa) and necrosis-related (calpain-specific casp-9 cleavage, μ-calpain upregulation and cleaved α-spectrin 145/150kDa) cell death mechanisms were investigated by Western blot analysis. DPTI expedited CA1 neuronal death from day 4 to day 1 and increased the magnitude of CA1 neuronal death from 66.2% to 91.3% at day 7. Furthermore, DPTI decreased the overall (days 1-7) percentage of dying neurons displaying apoptosis-like morphology from 4.7% to 0.3% and, conversely, increased the percentage of neurons with necrosis-like morphology from 95.3% to 99.7%. In animals subjected to TFI without dexamethasone (ischemia-only), 7.4% of all dying CA1 neurons were casp-3-immunoreactive (IR), of which 3.1% co-localized with apoptosis-like and 4.3% with necrosis-like changes. By contrast, DPTI decreased the percentage of dying neurons with casp-3 IR to 1.4%, of which 0.3% co-localized with apoptosis-like changes and 1.1% with necrosis-like changes. Western blot analysis from DPTI animals showed a significant elevation of μ-calpain, a calpain-produced necrosis-related casp-9 fragment (25kDa) and cleavage of α-spectrin into 145/150kDa fragments at day 4, whereas in ischemia-only animals a significant increase of casp-3-cleaved PARP, cleavage of α-spectrin into 145/150 and 120kDa fragments was detected at day 7. We conclude that DPTI, in addition to augmenting and expediting CA1 neuronal death, causes a shift from apoptosis-like cell death to necrosis involving μ-calpain activation.

  12. Family involvement in music impacts participation of children with cochlear implants in music education and music activities.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Virginia; Gfeller, Kate; Tan, Xueli; See, Rachel L; Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Kanemitsu, Mikiko

    2015-05-01

    Objective Children with cochlear implants (CIs) participate in musical activities in school and daily lives. Considerable variability exists regarding the amount of music involvement and enjoyment. Using the Music Engagement Questionnaire-Preschool/Elementary (MEQ-P/E), we wanted to determine patterns of musical participation and the impact of familial factors on engagement. Methods Parents of 32 children with CIs (16 preschool and 16 elementary) completed a questionnaire regarding the musical involvement of their child with an implant and a normal-hearing (NH) sibling (if one existed). We compared CI children's involvement to that of their NH siblings as well as across groups of children with and without CIs. Correlations between parent ratings of music importance, demographic factors, and involvement of CI and NH children were conducted within and across groups. Results No significant differences were found between children with CIs and NH siblings, meaning children from the same family showed similar levels of musical involvement. When compared at the same developmental stage, no significant differences were found between preschool children with and without CIs. Parents who rated the importance of music as 'low' or 'middle' had children (NH and CI) who were less involved in music activities. Children whose parents rated music importance as 'high' were involved in monthly to weekly music activities with 81.25% reporting daily music listening. Conclusion Despite a less-than-ideal auditory signal for music, preschool and school-aged CI children enjoy and are involved in musical experiences. Families who enjoy and spend a greater amount of time involved in music tend to have children who also engage more actively in music. PMID:25431978

  13. Family involvement in music impacts participation of children with cochlear implants in music education and music activities.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Virginia; Gfeller, Kate; Tan, Xueli; See, Rachel L; Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Kanemitsu, Mikiko

    2015-05-01

    Objective Children with cochlear implants (CIs) participate in musical activities in school and daily lives. Considerable variability exists regarding the amount of music involvement and enjoyment. Using the Music Engagement Questionnaire-Preschool/Elementary (MEQ-P/E), we wanted to determine patterns of musical participation and the impact of familial factors on engagement. Methods Parents of 32 children with CIs (16 preschool and 16 elementary) completed a questionnaire regarding the musical involvement of their child with an implant and a normal-hearing (NH) sibling (if one existed). We compared CI children's involvement to that of their NH siblings as well as across groups of children with and without CIs. Correlations between parent ratings of music importance, demographic factors, and involvement of CI and NH children were conducted within and across groups. Results No significant differences were found between children with CIs and NH siblings, meaning children from the same family showed similar levels of musical involvement. When compared at the same developmental stage, no significant differences were found between preschool children with and without CIs. Parents who rated the importance of music as 'low' or 'middle' had children (NH and CI) who were less involved in music activities. Children whose parents rated music importance as 'high' were involved in monthly to weekly music activities with 81.25% reporting daily music listening. Conclusion Despite a less-than-ideal auditory signal for music, preschool and school-aged CI children enjoy and are involved in musical experiences. Families who enjoy and spend a greater amount of time involved in music tend to have children who also engage more actively in music.

  14. Family involvement in music impacts participation of children with cochlear implants in music education and music activities

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Virginia; Gfeller, Kate; Tan, Xueli; See, Rachel L.; Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Kanemitsu, Mikiko

    2014-01-01

    Objective Children with cochlear implants (CIs) participate in musical activities in school and daily lives. Considerable variability exists regarding the amount of music involvement and enjoyment. Using the Music Engagement Questionnaire-Preschool/Elementary (MEQ-P/E), we wanted to determine patterns of musical participation and the impact of familial factors on engagement. Methods Parents of 32 children with CIs (16 preschool, 16 elementary) completed a questionnaire regarding the musical involvement of their child with an implant and a normal-hearing (NH) sibling (if one existed). We compared CI children's involvement to that of their NH siblings as well as across groups of children with and without CIs. Correlations between parent ratings of music importance, demographic factors, and involvement of CI and NH children were conducted within and across groups. Results No significant differences were found between children with CIs and NH siblings, meaning children from the same family showed similar levels of musical involvement. When compared at the same developmental stage, no significant differences were found between preschool children with and without CIs. Parents who rated the importance of music as “low” or “middle” had children (NH and CI) who were less involved in music activities. Children whose parents rated music importance as “high” were involved in monthly to weekly music activities with 81.25% reporting daily music listening. Conclusion Despite a less-than-ideal auditory signal for music, preschool and school-aged CI children enjoy and are involved in musical experiences. Families who enjoy and spend a greater amount of time involved in music tend to have children who also engage more actively in music. PMID:25431978

  15. Involving Parents of Young Children in Science, Math and Literacy Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landerholm, Elizabeth; And Others

    A summer parent involvement project was set up in a Chicago inner city public school in a Hispanic neighborhood. The eight-session program was intended to help parents: (1) become involved with the school program by becoming comfortable with the school setting; (2) enjoy reading and writing and replicate these experiences with their children; (3)…

  16. Differential Involvement of Amygdala and Cortical NMDA Receptors Activation upon Encoding in Odor Fear Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegoburu, Chloé; Parrot, Sandrine; Ferreira, Guilaume; Mouly, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Although the basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a crucial role for the acquisition of fear memories, sensory cortices are involved in their long-term storage in rats. However, the time course of their respective involvement has received little investigation. Here we assessed the role of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the…

  17. Emotionality and intentionality in bonobo playful communication.

    PubMed

    Demuru, Elisa; Ferrari, Pier F; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Great apes show very complex systems for communicating emotions and intentions. Whereas gestures are intentional signals, facial expressions can disclose both emotions and intentions. The playful context is a good field to explore the possible dichotomy between intentionally and emotionally driven signals as it has been suggested that one of its functions is to learn producing and decoding communicative patterns. To understand how signals are produced during play and how they are modified in the course of ontogeny, we investigated the use of playful facial expressions and gestures in bonobos (Pan paniscus), a tolerant species showing a high propensity to play even as adults. Our results showed that the use of play faces and gestures is strongly influenced by the characteristics of the play session. Both play faces and gestures were more often performed when social play involved physical contact and when the receiver was visually attending, thus suggesting that both signals can be strategically employed when communicating becomes more urgent. Compared to play faces, gestures were more frequent during dyadic than polyadic sessions, when a unique receiver was involved. Being gestures not context specific, they are probably used more selectively by the sender. On the contrary, play faces are context specific and transmit an unequivocal positive message that cannot be misconceived. These features legitimize a broad use of playful facial expressions, independently of the number of playmates. The similarities and differences in the production of these signals are probably linked to the different degree of emotionality and intentionality characterizing them. PMID:25204682

  18. Emotionality and intentionality in bonobo playful communication.

    PubMed

    Demuru, Elisa; Ferrari, Pier F; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Great apes show very complex systems for communicating emotions and intentions. Whereas gestures are intentional signals, facial expressions can disclose both emotions and intentions. The playful context is a good field to explore the possible dichotomy between intentionally and emotionally driven signals as it has been suggested that one of its functions is to learn producing and decoding communicative patterns. To understand how signals are produced during play and how they are modified in the course of ontogeny, we investigated the use of playful facial expressions and gestures in bonobos (Pan paniscus), a tolerant species showing a high propensity to play even as adults. Our results showed that the use of play faces and gestures is strongly influenced by the characteristics of the play session. Both play faces and gestures were more often performed when social play involved physical contact and when the receiver was visually attending, thus suggesting that both signals can be strategically employed when communicating becomes more urgent. Compared to play faces, gestures were more frequent during dyadic than polyadic sessions, when a unique receiver was involved. Being gestures not context specific, they are probably used more selectively by the sender. On the contrary, play faces are context specific and transmit an unequivocal positive message that cannot be misconceived. These features legitimize a broad use of playful facial expressions, independently of the number of playmates. The similarities and differences in the production of these signals are probably linked to the different degree of emotionality and intentionality characterizing them.

  19. Differences between intentional and non-intentional burns in India: implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Mangai

    2014-08-01

    Non-intentional and deliberate burns in India and other developing countries present particular challenges of prevention and treatment. This exploratory study sought improved understanding of burns in order to inform treatment and prevention. It gathered data in 2011/2012 on burns from the hospital registry (N=768) of a government hospital in India and from interviews with women patients (N=60) admitted to the burns ward. Analysis indicated that: (1) the conditions that facilitate intentional and non-intentional burns are similar, but intentional burns involve additional contributory factors; (2) a high proportion of patients subjected to burns are young women in domestic situations; and (3) a higher proportion of their TBSA was burned, with consequent higher mortality than for men. It was concluded that: (1) Haddon's matrix and the situational crime prevention framework of criminology assist in understanding the etiology of intentional burns and in identifying preventive measures; (2) social service and criminal justice agencies have important roles in dealing with victims of intentional burns during and after treatment; (3) full account should be taken of gender-related physical, psychological and family factors in planning treatment; and (4) maintaining careful records of burns cases is vital for estimating the prevalence and incidence of intentional injuries.

  20. Personal involvement is related to increased search motivation and associated with activity in left BA44-a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Michael; Rumpel, Franziska; Sadrieh, Abdolkarim; Reimann, Martin; Denke, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies explore consumer perception of brands in a more or less passive way. This may still be representative for many situations or decisions we make each day. Nevertheless, sometimes we often actively search for and use information to make informed and reasoned choices, thus implying a rational and thinking consumer. Researchers suggested describing this distinction as low relative to high involvement consumer behavior. Although the involvement concept has been widely used to explain consumer behavior, behavioral and neural correlates of this concept are poorly understood. The current study aims to describe a behavioral measure that is associated with high involvement, the length of search behavior. A second aim of this study was to explore brain activations associated with involvement by employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We presented participants information cues for different products and told them that they had to answer questions with respect to these products at the end of the experiment. Participants were free to stop the information search if they think they gathered enough information or to continue with collecting information. Behavioral results confirmed our hypothesis of a relationship between searching behavior and personal involvement by demonstrating that the length of search correlated significantly with the degree of personal involvement of the participants. fMRI data revealed that personal involvement was associated with activation in BA44. Since this brain region is known to be involved in semantic memory, the results of this pilot study suggest that high involvement consumer behavior may be linked to cognitive load and attention towards a product.

  1. 16 CFR 1031.5 - Criteria for Commission involvement in voluntary standards activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... standard so that future Commission investigation can indicate the involvement of such products in accidents... standards will be subjected to a testing and certification (including self-certification) procedure,...

  2. Caffeine in hot drinks elicits cephalic phase responses involving cardiac activity.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Michael K; Whitehouse, Julie M; Shine, Gillian; Whitton, Peter A; Towell, Anthony

    2012-09-01

    Caffeine stimulates both oropharyngeal and gut bitter taste receptors (hTAS2Rs) and so has the potential to elicit reflex autonomic responses. Coffee containing 130 mg caffeine has been reported to increase heart rate for 30 min post-ingestion. Whereas added-caffeine, in doses of 25 to 200 mg, ingested with decaffeinated coffee/tea decreases heart rate 10 to 30 min post-ingestion. This study aimed to clarify caffeine's chemosensory impact. Double-espresso coffees were compared to a placebo-control capsule in a double-blind between-measures design. Coffees tested were regular coffee (130 mg caffeine) and decaffeinated coffee with added-caffeine (0, 67 and 134 mg). Cardiovascular measures from three post-ingestion phases: 1) 0 to 5; 2) 10 to 15; and 3) 25 to 30 min; were compared to pre-ingestion measures. Participants comprised 11 women in the control group and 10 women in the test group. Decaffeinated coffee elicited no changes. Decaffeinated coffee with 67 mg caffeine: decreased dp/dt in Phase 1. Decaffeinated coffee with 134 mg caffeine: increased heart rate in Phases 1 and 2; decreased spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in Phase 1; and increased diastolic pressure in Phases 2 and 3. Regular coffee: increased heart rate in Phases 1 and 2; decreased dp/dt in all phases; and decreased systolic pressure in Phase 1. Caffeine is the substance in regular coffee which elicits chemosensory autonomic reflex responses, which involves heart activity and the baroreflex. Compared to the caffeine in regular coffee, added-caffeine elicits somewhat different chemosensory responses including a more pronounced pressor effect and resetting of the baroreflex. Caffeine in commonly consumed amounts, as well as modulating body processes by blocking adenosine receptors, can elicit reflex autonomic responses during the ingestion of caffeinated drinks. It is plausible that caffeine stimulates hTAS2Rs, during the ingestion of coffee, eliciting cephalic phase responses. These cephalic phase

  3. Caffeine in hot drinks elicits cephalic phase responses involving cardiac activity.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Michael K; Whitehouse, Julie M; Shine, Gillian; Whitton, Peter A; Towell, Anthony

    2012-09-01

    Caffeine stimulates both oropharyngeal and gut bitter taste receptors (hTAS2Rs) and so has the potential to elicit reflex autonomic responses. Coffee containing 130 mg caffeine has been reported to increase heart rate for 30 min post-ingestion. Whereas added-caffeine, in doses of 25 to 200 mg, ingested with decaffeinated coffee/tea decreases heart rate 10 to 30 min post-ingestion. This study aimed to clarify caffeine's chemosensory impact. Double-espresso coffees were compared to a placebo-control capsule in a double-blind between-measures design. Coffees tested were regular coffee (130 mg caffeine) and decaffeinated coffee with added-caffeine (0, 67 and 134 mg). Cardiovascular measures from three post-ingestion phases: 1) 0 to 5; 2) 10 to 15; and 3) 25 to 30 min; were compared to pre-ingestion measures. Participants comprised 11 women in the control group and 10 women in the test group. Decaffeinated coffee elicited no changes. Decaffeinated coffee with 67 mg caffeine: decreased dp/dt in Phase 1. Decaffeinated coffee with 134 mg caffeine: increased heart rate in Phases 1 and 2; decreased spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in Phase 1; and increased diastolic pressure in Phases 2 and 3. Regular coffee: increased heart rate in Phases 1 and 2; decreased dp/dt in all phases; and decreased systolic pressure in Phase 1. Caffeine is the substance in regular coffee which elicits chemosensory autonomic reflex responses, which involves heart activity and the baroreflex. Compared to the caffeine in regular coffee, added-caffeine elicits somewhat different chemosensory responses including a more pronounced pressor effect and resetting of the baroreflex. Caffeine in commonly consumed amounts, as well as modulating body processes by blocking adenosine receptors, can elicit reflex autonomic responses during the ingestion of caffeinated drinks. It is plausible that caffeine stimulates hTAS2Rs, during the ingestion of coffee, eliciting cephalic phase responses. These cephalic phase

  4. Network mechanisms of intentional learning

    PubMed Central

    Hampshire, Adam; Hellyer, Peter J.; Parkin, Beth; Hiebert, Nole; MacDonald, Penny; Owen, Adrian M.; Leech, Robert; Rowe, James

    2016-01-01

    The ability to learn new tasks rapidly is a prominent characteristic of human behaviour. This ability relies on flexible cognitive systems that adapt in order to encode temporary programs for processing non-automated tasks. Previous functional imaging studies have revealed distinct roles for the lateral frontal cortices (LFCs) and the ventral striatum in intentional learning processes. However, the human LFCs are complex; they house multiple distinct sub-regions, each of which co-activates with a different functional network. It remains unclear how these LFC networks differ in their functions and how they coordinate with each other, and the ventral striatum, to support intentional learning. Here, we apply a suite of fMRI connectivity methods to determine how LFC networks activate and interact at different stages of two novel tasks, in which arbitrary stimulus-response rules are learnt either from explicit instruction or by trial-and-error. We report that the networks activate en masse and in synchrony when novel rules are being learnt from instruction. However, these networks are not homogeneous in their functions; instead, the directed connectivities between them vary asymmetrically across the learning timecourse and they disengage from the task sequentially along a rostro-caudal axis. Furthermore, when negative feedback indicates the need to switch to alternative stimulus–response rules, there is additional input to the LFC networks from the ventral striatum. These results support the hypotheses that LFC networks interact as a hierarchical system during intentional learning and that signals from the ventral striatum have a driving influence on this system when the internal program for processing the task is updated. PMID:26658925

  5. Network mechanisms of intentional learning.

    PubMed

    Hampshire, Adam; Hellyer, Peter J; Parkin, Beth; Hiebert, Nole; MacDonald, Penny; Owen, Adrian M; Leech, Robert; Rowe, James

    2016-02-15

    The ability to learn new tasks rapidly is a prominent characteristic of human behaviour. This ability relies on flexible cognitive systems that adapt in order to encode temporary programs for processing non-automated tasks. Previous functional imaging studies have revealed distinct roles for the lateral frontal cortices (LFCs) and the ventral striatum in intentional learning processes. However, the human LFCs are complex; they house multiple distinct sub-regions, each of which co-activates with a different functional network. It remains unclear how these LFC networks differ in their functions and how they coordinate with each other, and the ventral striatum, to support intentional learning. Here, we apply a suite of fMRI connectivity methods to determine how LFC networks activate and interact at different stages of two novel tasks, in which arbitrary stimulus-response rules are learnt either from explicit instruction or by trial-and-error. We report that the networks activate en masse and in synchrony when novel rules are being learnt from instruction. However, these networks are not homogeneous in their functions; instead, the directed connectivities between them vary asymmetrically across the learning timecourse and they disengage from the task sequentially along a rostro-caudal axis. Furthermore, when negative feedback indicates the need to switch to alternative stimulus-response rules, there is additional input to the LFC networks from the ventral striatum. These results support the hypotheses that LFC networks interact as a hierarchical system during intentional learning and that signals from the ventral striatum have a driving influence on this system when the internal program for processing the task is updated.

  6. Structure-function analyses involving palindromic analogs of tritrypticin suggest autonomy of anti-endotoxin and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kanwal J; Sarkar, Pampi; Nagpal, Sushma; Khan, Tarique; Salunke, Dinakar M

    2008-03-01

    Neutralization of invading pathogens by gene-encoded peptide antibiotics has been suggested to manifest in a variety of different modes. Some of these modes require internalization of the peptide through a pathway that involves LPS-mediated uptake of the peptide antibiotics. Many proline/tryptophan-rich cationic peptides for which this mode has been invoked do, indeed, show LPS (endotoxin) binding. If the mechanism of antibiotic action involves the LPS-mediated pathway, a positive correlation ought to manifest between the binding to LPS, its neutralization, and the bacterial killing. No such correlation was evident based on our studies involving minimal active analogs of tritrypticin. The anti-endotoxin activities of these analogs appear not to relate directly to their antibiotic potential. The two palindromic analogs of tritrypticin, NT7 (RRFPWWW) and CT7 (WWWPFRR), showed comparable antibacterial activities. However, while NT7 exhibited anti-endotoxin activity, CT7 did not. The LPS binding of two tritrypticin analogs correlated with their corresponding structures, but the antibacterial activities did not. Further structure-function analysis indicated specific structural implications of the antibacterial activity at the molecular level. Studies involving designed analogs of NT7 incorporating either rigid or flexible linkers between the specifically distanced hydrophobic and cationic clusters modulate the LPS binding. On the other hand, not knowing the target receptor for antibacterial activity is a drawback since the precise epitope for antibacterial activity is not definable. It is apparent that the anti-endotoxin and antibacterial activities represent two independent functions of tritrypticin, consistent with the emerging multifunctionality in the nature of cathelicidins.

  7. Parental Involvement in Active Transport to School Initiatives: A Multi-Site Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyler, Amy; Baldwin, Julie; Carnoske, Cheryl; Nickelson, Jan; Troped, Philip; Steinman, Lesley; Pluto, Delores; Litt, Jill; Evenson, Kelly; Terpstra, Jennifer; Brownson, Ross; Schmid, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background: Increasing physical activity in youth is a recommended approach to curbing the childhood obesity epidemic. One way to help increase children's daily activity is to promote active transportation to and from school (ATS). Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to explore parental perception of, and participation in, ATS initiatives.…

  8. In vitro and vivo antioxidant activities of daylily flowers and the involvement of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Que, Fei; Mao, Linchun; Zheng, Xiaojie

    2007-01-01

    Daylily (Hemerocallis fulva Linn.) flowers were hot air-dried and freeze-dried after harvest. Antioxidant properties of water and ethanol extracts prepared from these dried flowers were evaluated in terms of total antioxidant activity, reducing capacity, and metal chelating activity. Extracts from daylily flowers exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Ethanol was more efficiency to extract antioxidants than water, and freeze-drying preserved higher activities than air-drying. Rutin, (+)-catechin, and gallic acid were identified in the extracts by HPLC, and were highly related to the antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activity was further evaluated by feeding mice with ethanol extract from freeze-dried daylily flowers for 60 days. The results demonstrated that the extract at dosage of 40-225 mg/100 g significantly increased the activity of SOD (superoxide dismutase) and reduced the lipid peroxidation in both blood and liver of rat. PMID:17392104

  9. Three-Year-Olds Hide Their Communicative Intentions in Appropriate Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Gerlind; Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human cooperative communication involves both an informative intention that the recipient understands the content of the signal and also a (Gricean) communicative intention that the recipient recognizes that the speaker has an informative intention. The degree to which children understand this 2-layered nature of communication is the subject of…

  10. Does Changing Behavioral Intentions Engender Behavior Change? A Meta-Analysis of the Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Thomas L.; Sheeran, Paschal

    2006-01-01

    Numerous theories in social and health psychology assume that intentions cause behaviors. However, most tests of the intention- behavior relation involve correlational studies that preclude causal inferences. In order to determine whether changes in behavioral intention engender behavior change, participants should be assigned randomly to a…

  11. Unique Residues Involved in Activation of the Multitasking Protease/Chaperone HtrA from Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Huston, Wilhelmina M.; Tyndall, Joel D. A.; Lott, William B.; Stansfield, Scott H.; Timms, Peter

    2011-01-01

    DegP, a member of the HtrA family of proteins, conducts critical bacterial protein quality control by both chaperone and proteolysis activities. The regulatory mechanisms controlling these two distinct activities, however, are unknown. DegP activation is known to involve a unique mechanism of allosteric binding, conformational changes and oligomer formation. We have uncovered a novel role for the residues at the PDZ1:protease interface in oligomer formation specifically for chaperone substrates of Chlamydia trachomatis HtrA (DegP homolog). We have demonstrated that CtHtrA proteolysis could be activated by allosteric binding and oligomer formation. The PDZ1 activator cleft was required for the activation and oligomer formation. However, unique to CtHtrA was the critical role for residues at the PDZ1:protease interface in oligomer formation when the activator was an in vitro chaperone substrate. Furthermore, a potential in vivo chaperone substrate, the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) from Chlamydia, was able to activate CtHtrA and induce oligomer formation. Therefore, we have revealed novel residues involved in the activation of CtHtrA which are likely to have important in vivo implications for outer membrane protein assembly. PMID:21931748

  12. Unique residues involved in activation of the multitasking protease/chaperone HtrA from Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Huston, Wilhelmina M; Tyndall, Joel D A; Lott, William B; Stansfield, Scott H; Timms, Peter

    2011-01-01

    DegP, a member of the HtrA family of proteins, conducts critical bacterial protein quality control by both chaperone and proteolysis activities. The regulatory mechanisms controlling these two distinct activities, however, are unknown. DegP activation is known to involve a unique mechanism of allosteric binding, conformational changes and oligomer formation. We have uncovered a novel role for the residues at the PDZ1:protease interface in oligomer formation specifically for chaperone substrates of Chlamydia trachomatis HtrA (DegP homolog). We have demonstrated that CtHtrA proteolysis could be activated by allosteric binding and oligomer formation. The PDZ1 activator cleft was required for the activation and oligomer formation. However, unique to CtHtrA was the critical role for residues at the PDZ1:protease interface in oligomer formation when the activator was an in vitro chaperone substrate. Furthermore, a potential in vivo chaperone substrate, the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) from Chlamydia, was able to activate CtHtrA and induce oligomer formation. Therefore, we have revealed novel residues involved in the activation of CtHtrA which are likely to have important in vivo implications for outer membrane protein assembly.

  13. AMPK is involved in mediation of erythropoietin influence on metabolic activity and reactive oxygen species production in white adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Di, Lijun; Noguchi, Constance Tom

    2014-09-01

    Erythropoietin, discovered for its indispensable role during erythropoiesis, has been used in therapy for selected red blood cell disorders in erythropoietin-deficient patients. The biological activities of erythropoietin have been found in animal models to extend to non-erythroid tissues due to the expression of erythropoietin receptor. We previously demonstrated that erythropoietin promotes metabolic activity and white adipocytes browning to increase mitochondrial function and energy expenditure via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and Sirtuin1. Here we report that AMP-activated protein kinase was activated by erythropoietin possibly via Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase in adipocytes as well as in white adipose tissue from diet induced obese mice. Erythropoietin increased cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide via increased AMP-activated protein kinase activity, possibly leading to Sirtuin1 activation. AMP-activated protein kinase knock down reduced erythropoietin mediated increase in cellular oxidative function including the increased oxygen consumption rate, fatty acid utilization and induction of key metabolic genes. Under hypoxia, adipocytes were found to generate more reactive oxygen species, and erythropoietin reduced the reactive oxygen species and increased antioxidant gene expression, suggesting that erythropoietin may provide protection from oxidative stress in adipocytes. Erythropoietin also reversed increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide by hypoxia via increased AMP-activated protein kinase. Additionally, AMP-activated protein kinase is found to be involved in erythropoietin stimulated increase in oxygen consumption rate, fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial gene expression. AMP-activated protein kinase knock down impaired erythropoietin stimulated increases in antioxidant gene expression. Collectively, our findings identify the AMP-activated protein kinase involvement in erythropoietin signaling in

  14. Do a Little Dance: The Impact on Students when Librarians Get Involved in Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasperek, Sheila; Johnson, Amber; Fotta, Katie; Craig, Francis

    2007-01-01

    One hundred fifty-two undergraduate students at Mansfield University of Pennsylvania were surveyed to determine if the involvement of their liaison librarian in theater productions and orchestra had an effect on their relationship with the library. The study shows positive and statistically significant results for students who participated in…

  15. Examining Parent Involvement Activities in Two Immigrant-Impacted Schools: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Amalia

    2012-01-01

    K-12 schools with large immigrant populations face a myriad of challenges, including low academic achievement and high dropout rates of Latino students. Parental involvement is a practical strategy in positively influencing student outcomes along the K-12 continuum. To this end, it is essential that immigrant impacted schools work together with…

  16. Undergraduate Involvement in Extracurricular Activities and Leadership Development in College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Elizabeth A.; Retallick, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe experiences of undergraduate extracurricular involvement that result in increased leadership development. Senior students in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Iowa State University completed an online questionnaire about their extracurricular experiences. Leadership development…

  17. Strategies for Effective Faculty Involvement in Online Activities Aimed at Promoting Critical Thinking and Deep Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul Razzak, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Highly-traditional education systems that mainly offer what is known as "direct instruction" usually result in graduates with a surface approach to learning rather than a deep one. What is meant by deep-learning is learning that involves critical analysis, the linking of ideas and concepts, creative problem solving, and application…

  18. Spatio-temporal dynamics of kind versus hostile intentions in the human brain: An electrical neuroimaging study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwen; Huang, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Zhen; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Neuroscience research suggests that inferring neutral intentions of other people recruits a specific brain network within the inferior fronto-parietal action observation network as well as a putative social network including brain areas subserving theory of mind, such as the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), and also the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Recent studies on harmful intentions have refined this network by showing the specific involvement of the ACC, amygdala, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in early stages (within 200 ms) of information processing. However, the functional dynamics for kind intentions within and among these networks remains unclear. To address this question, we measured electrical brain activity from 18 healthy adult participants while they were performing an intention inference task with three different types of intentions: kind, hostile and non-interactive. Electrophysiological results revealed that kind intentions were characterized by significantly larger peak amplitudes of N2 over the frontal sites than those for hostile and non-interactive intentions. On the other hand, there were no significant differences between hostile and non-interactive intentions at N2. The source analysis suggested that the vicinity of the left cingulate gyrus contributed to the N2 effect by subtracting the kindness condition from the non-interactive condition within 250-350 ms. At a later stage (i.e., during the 270-500 ms epoch), the peak amplitude of the P3 over the parietal sites and the right hemisphere was significantly larger for hostile intentions compared to the kind and non-interactive intentions. No significant differences were observed at P3 between kind and non-interactive intentions. The source analysis showed that the vicinity of the left anterior cingulate cortex contributed to the P3 effect by subtracting the hostility condition from the non-interactive condition within 450-550 ms

  19. Neural networks involved in adolescent reward processing: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Merav H; Jedd, Kelly; Luciana, Monica

    2015-11-15

    Behavioral responses to, and the neural processing of, rewards change dramatically during adolescence and may contribute to observed increases in risk-taking during this developmental period. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies suggest differences between adolescents and adults in neural activation during reward processing, but findings are contradictory, and effects have been found in non-predicted directions. The current study uses an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach for quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies to: (1) confirm the network of brain regions involved in adolescents' reward processing, (2) identify regions involved in specific stages (anticipation, outcome) and valence (positive, negative) of reward processing, and (3) identify differences in activation likelihood between adolescent and adult reward-related brain activation. Results reveal a subcortical network of brain regions involved in adolescent reward processing similar to that found in adults with major hubs including the ventral and dorsal striatum, insula, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Contrast analyses find that adolescents exhibit greater likelihood of activation in the insula while processing anticipation relative to outcome and greater likelihood of activation in the putamen and amygdala during outcome relative to anticipation. While processing positive compared to negative valence, adolescents show increased likelihood for activation in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and ventral striatum. Contrasting adolescent reward processing with the existing ALE of adult reward processing reveals increased likelihood for activation in limbic, frontolimbic, and striatal regions in adolescents compared with adults. Unlike adolescents, adults also activate executive control regions of the frontal and parietal lobes. These findings support hypothesized elevations in motivated activity during adolescence. PMID:26254587

  20. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in the signal-transduction pathways of the soya bean oxidative burst.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, A T; Kim, J; Low, P S

    2001-01-01

    The oxidative burst constitutes one of the most rapid defence responses characterized in the Plant Kingdom. We have observed that four distinct elicitors of the soya bean oxidative burst activate kinases of masses approximately 44 kDa and approximately 47 kDa. Evidence that these kinases regulate production of reactive oxygen species include: (i) their rapid activation by oxidative burst elicitors, (ii) their tight temporal correlation between activation/deactivation of the kinases and activation/deactivation of the oxidative burst, (iii) the identical pharmacological profile of kinase activation and oxidant production for 13 commonly used inhibitors, and (iv) the autologous activation of both kinases and oxidant production by calyculin A and cantharidin, two phosphatase inhibitors. Immunological and biochemical studies reveal that the activated 44 kDa and 47 kDa kinases are mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family members. The kinases prefer myelin basic protein as a substrate, and they phosphorylate primarily on threonine residues. The kinases are themselves phosphorylated on tyrosine residues, and this phosphorylation is required for activity. Finally, both kinases are recognized by an antibody against activated MAP kinase immediately after (but not before) cell stimulation by elicitors. Based on these and other observations, a preliminary sequence of signalling steps linking elicitor stimulation, kinase activation and Ca(2+) entry, to initiation of oxidant production, is proposed. PMID:11311144

  1. Melanosis in Penaeus monodon: Involvement of the Laccase-like Activity of Hemocyanin.

    PubMed

    Bris, Cédric Le; Cudennec, Benoit; Dhulster, Pascal; Drider, Djamel; Duflos, Guillaume; Grard, Thierry

    2016-01-27

    In shrimp, the development of postmortem melanosis resulting from phenoloxidase activities leads to important economic losses. Phenoloxidase enzymes include catechol oxidases, laccases, and tyrosinases, but hemocyanin is also capable of phenoloxidase activities. These activities have been explored in Penaeus monodon, using different substrates. Results highlighted that tyrosinase-specific substrates were little oxidized, whereas hydroquinone (laccase-specific substrate) was more highly oxidized than l-DOPA (nonspecific substrate) in the pereopods and pleopods. Global phenoloxidase activity, assayed with l-DOPA, did not appear thermally stable over time and probably resulted from phenoloxidase enzymes. Conversely, the laccase-like activity assayed with hydroquinone was thermally stable over time, reflecting the thermal stability of hemocyanin. Independently of the anatomical compartment, the temperature, or the substrate, the highest activities were assayed in the cuticular compartments. This study demonstrates the complexity of phenoloxidase activities in P. monodon, and the importance of considering all the activities, including laccase-like activities such as that of hemocyanin. PMID:26671070

  2. Activity-Dependent Dendritic Spine Shrinkage and Growth Involve Downregulation of Cofilin via Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Barbara; Saffin, Jean-Michel; Halpain, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    A current model posits that cofilin-dependent actin severing negatively impacts dendritic spine volume. Studies suggested that increased cofilin activity underlies activity-dependent spine shrinkage, and that reduced cofilin activity induces activity-dependent spine growth. We suggest instead that both types of structural plasticity correlate with decreased cofilin activity. However, the mechanism of inhibition determines the outcome for spine morphology. RNAi in rat hippocampal cultures demonstrates that cofilin is essential for normal spine maintenance. Cofilin-F-actin binding and filament barbed-end production decrease during the early phase of activity-dependent spine shrinkage; cofilin concentration also decreases. Inhibition of the cathepsin B/L family of proteases prevents both cofilin loss and spine shrinkage. Conversely, during activity-dependent spine growth, LIM kinase stimulates cofilin phosphorylation, which activates phospholipase D-1 to promote actin polymerization. These results implicate novel molecular mechanisms and prompt a revision of the current model for how cofilin functions in activity-dependent structural plasticity. PMID:24740405

  3. Parental Involvement in School Activities and Reading Literacy: Findings and Implications from PIRLS 2011 Data. Policy Brief No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirazchiyski, Plamen; Klemencic, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief presents evidence demonstrating a positive association between parental involvement in school activities and student performance in the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2011. This association, which was evident in most of the 54 education systems analyzed, indicates that students enrolled in schools with…

  4. Expectations of Rock Music Consumption for Entertainment and Information Relative to the Active Involvement of the User.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouner, Donna; Noyes, Amy

    Before examining potentially negative effects of rock music on adolescents, it is necessary to demonstrate links between adolescent motivations for consuming rock music and active involvement relative to that use and also to consider how much rock listeners rely on rock music as a source for information about values, beliefs, and social…

  5. Children's Well-Being and Involvement in Physically Active Outdoors Play in a Norwegian Kindergarten: Playful Sharing of Physical Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjørgen, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the conditions of children's level of well-being and their involvement in physically active play during kindergarten outdoors time. Observations of three to five year olds from one kindergarten in central Norway were conducted. The researcher followed the children around the kindergarten's outdoors playground and…

  6. 78 FR 66970 - In the Matter of Michael J. Buhrman; Order Prohibiting Involvement in NRC-Licensed Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing... COMMISSION In the Matter of Michael J. Buhrman; Order Prohibiting Involvement in NRC-Licensed Activities (Effective Immediately) I. Michael J. Buhrman was formerly employed as a senior reactor operator (SRO) at...

  7. 77 FR 39270 - In the Matter of Mr. Timothy Goold; Order Prohibiting Involvement in NRC-Licensed Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139; August 28... COMMISSION In the Matter of Mr. Timothy Goold; Order Prohibiting Involvement in NRC-Licensed Activities I Mr... NRC in an attempt to resolve issues associated with this matter. Mr. Goold provided a written...

  8. 15 CFR 764.7 - Activities involving items that may have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF... the application of § 764.2(e) of this part to activities involving items subject to the EAR that may... Arrangement's Web site (www.wassenaar.org) at the Control Lists web page. Note 1 to paragraph (b)(1)(i):...

  9. Ideas Exchange: Should Students Be Granted a Waiver from Physical Education if They Are Involved in Other Activities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipe, Roberta; Belka, David; Kamla, Jim; Christenson, Robert S.; Magnotta, John; Lorenzi, David G.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the opinions/ideas of professionals who were asked this question: "Should students be granted a waiver from physical education if they are involved in other activities?" These professionals share the pros and cons of the waiver question.

  10. 7 CFR 799.7 - Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval. 799.7 Section 799.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  11. 7 CFR 799.7 - Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval. 799.7 Section 799.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  12. 7 CFR 799.7 - Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval. 799.7 Section 799.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  13. 41 CFR 51-7.2 - Early involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval. (a) 40 CFR 1501.2(d) requires... of 40 CFR 1501.2(d) with respect to these actions, the Committee staff shall consult as required with... requires an environmental assessment as set forth in 40 CFR 1501.4. (c) To facilitate compliance with...

  14. 41 CFR 51-7.2 - Early involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval. (a) 40 CFR 1501.2(d) requires... of 40 CFR 1501.2(d) with respect to these actions, the Committee staff shall consult as required with... requires an environmental assessment as set forth in 40 CFR 1501.4. (c) To facilitate compliance with...

  15. 41 CFR 51-7.2 - Early involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval. (a) 40 CFR 1501.2(d) requires... of 40 CFR 1501.2(d) with respect to these actions, the Committee staff shall consult as required with... requires an environmental assessment as set forth in 40 CFR 1501.4. (c) To facilitate compliance with...

  16. 41 CFR 51-7.2 - Early involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval. (a) 40 CFR 1501.2(d) requires... of 40 CFR 1501.2(d) with respect to these actions, the Committee staff shall consult as required with... requires an environmental assessment as set forth in 40 CFR 1501.4. (c) To facilitate compliance with...

  17. 41 CFR 51-7.2 - Early involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval. (a) 40 CFR 1501.2(d) requires... of 40 CFR 1501.2(d) with respect to these actions, the Committee staff shall consult as required with... requires an environmental assessment as set forth in 40 CFR 1501.4. (c) To facilitate compliance with...

  18. High Inorganic Triphosphatase Activities in Bacteria and Mammalian Cells: Identification of the Enzymes Involved

    PubMed Central

    Lakaye, Bernard; Servais, Anne-Catherine; Scholer, Georges; Fillet, Marianne; Elias, Benjamin; Derochette, Jean-Michel; Crommen, Jacques; Wins, Pierre; Bettendorff, Lucien

    2012-01-01

    Background We recently characterized a specific inorganic triphosphatase (PPPase) from Nitrosomonas europaea. This enzyme belongs to the CYTH superfamily of proteins. Many bacterial members of this family are annotated as predicted adenylate cyclases, because one of the founding members is CyaB adenylate cyclase from A. hydrophila. The aim of the present study is to determine whether other members of the CYTH protein family also have a PPPase activity, if there are PPPase activities in animal tissues and what enzymes are responsible for these activities. Methodology/Principal Findings Recombinant enzymes were expressed and purified as GST- or His-tagged fusion proteins and the enzyme activities were determined by measuring the release of inorganic phosphate. We show that the hitherto uncharacterized E. coli CYTH protein ygiF is a specific PPPase, but it contributes only marginally to the total PPPase activity in this organism, where the main enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of inorganic triphosphate (PPPi) is inorganic pyrophosphatase. We further show that CyaB hydrolyzes PPPi but this activity is low compared to its adenylate cyclase activity. Finally we demonstrate a high PPPase activity in mammalian and quail tissue, particularly in the brain. We show that this activity is mainly due to Prune, an exopolyphosphatase overexpressed in metastatic tumors where it promotes cell motility. Conclusions and General Significance We show for the first time that PPPase activities are widespread in bacteria and animals. We identified the enzymes responsible for these activities but we were unable to detect significant amounts of PPPi in E. coli or brain extracts using ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. The role of these enzymes may be to hydrolyze PPPi, which could be cytotoxic because of its high affinity for Ca2+, thereby interfering with Ca2+ signaling. PMID:22984449

  19. Amino-acid residues involved in the expression of the activity of Escherichia coli TolC.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Hiroyasu; Morisada, Naoyuki; Miyano, Masaya; Tsuge, Hideaki; Shinoda, Sumio; Takahashi, Eizo; Okamoto, Keinosuke

    2004-01-01

    The Escherichia coli TolC, composed of 471 amino-acid residues, functions as a channel tunnel in the transport of various molecules across the outer membrane. We found previously that Leu-412, the 60th amino-acid residue from the carboxy terminal end, was crucial to the transport activity of TolC. Leu-412 is located in a domain which protrudes from the main body of TolC into the periplasm. Subsequent study indicated that the hydrophobicity generated by Leu-412 played an important role in the activity of TolC (H. Yamanaka, T. Nomura, N. Morisada, S. Shinoda, and K. Okamoto, Microb. Pathog. 33: 81-89, 2002). We predicted that other hydrophobic amino-acid residues around Leu-412 were also involved in the expression of the activity of TolC. To test this possibility, we substituted several hydrophobic residues around Leu-412, (Leu-3, Val-6, Leu-212, Leu-213, Leu-223, and Leu-224), with serine and examined the activity of these mutant TolCs. The result showed that Leu-3 is involved in the activity of TolC, but the other residues are not. The involvement of Leu-3 was confirmed by the residue deletion experiment. A subsequent point-mutational analysis of the residue showed that a hydrophobic side chain is required at position 3 for TolC to express its activity. As the distance between the alpha-carbons of Leu-3 and Leu-412 is just 7.45 angstroms, hydrophobic interaction between the two leucine residues might be involved in the activity of TolC. PMID:15502403

  20. Family and Community Involvement in the Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipriani, Kristin; Richardson, Cheryl; Roberts, Georgi

    2012-01-01

    Engaging families and communities in physical activities for the benefit of children is an extension of the role of a physical education instructor. Although it is possible for a physical educator to generate ideas that encourage families and communities to move, a certified director of physical activity (C-DPA) would be better trained to…