Science.gov

Sample records for activity key words

  1. "Journal of Geography" Key Words: Trends and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jerry T.; Brysch, Carmen P.; Collins, Larianne

    2015-01-01

    The "Journal of Geography" has used key words since 1990 to help readers and researchers seek out work of particular interest. Key words generally supplement article titles and are hopefully chosen with care. The focus of this article is the "Journal of Geography" key word, its presence, timing, and frequency. Using a…

  2. Key Words and the Analysis of Exploratory Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrlitz-Biró, Linda; Elbers, Ed; de Haan, Mariëtte

    2013-01-01

    The count of key words indicating the quality of reasoning has been used as a method to observe exploratory talk. However, reasoning in talk does not necessarily contain key words. The analysis of key words leaves unattended other aspects of exploratory talk, such as collaborative processes. The question is: to what extent can the analysis of key…

  3. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions. PMID:25593407

  4. Key Words in Instruction. WebQuests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Annette

    2004-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, educators began exploring ways to make effective use of the vast information resources that were rapidly emerging on the Internet. Rather than using these new Web-based materials for low-level scavenger-hunt types of activities, school library media specialists sought ways to promote higher-order thinking through authentic…

  5. Strategic Key Word Instruction: Increasing Fluency in Connected Expository Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Gail; Lambert, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of preteaching key words on fluency in connected text were examined with three third-grade general education participants. Researchers used a multiple base-line design (i.e., Baseline and Wordlist Intervention) and found that preteaching increased fluency in connected text written above the participant's instructional level of reading…

  6. Phantom Word Activation in L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broersma, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

    2008-01-01

    L2 listening can involve the phantom activation of words which are not actually in the input. All spoken-word recognition involves multiple concurrent activation of word candidates, with selection of the correct words achieved by a process of competition between them. L2 listening involves more such activation than L1 listening, and we report two…

  7. Some Factors in Children's Identification of Key Words in Written Passages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruning, Roger; Kennedy, Dale

    For this study of children's selection of key words, children in the first, third, sixth, ninth and twelfth grades were asked to identify which words, in their judgment, were key words in written materials. Relationship of these choices to skilled readers, to words derived from passage analysis, and to random selections of hypothetical subjects…

  8. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  9. 2015: "key word" for wound care business success.

    PubMed

    Schaum, Kathleen D

    2015-01-01

    Wound care professionals should consider all this attention to the key word documentation as your 2015 "heads-up." You should conduct a self-audit and request an external audit of your own documentation against all the regulations, LCDs, Policy Articles, newsletters, and educational programs that CMS and your MACs are providing. You should also embrace the questioning and assistance, pertaining to your documentation, which you may receive from your coders and billers. These coding and billing professionals should be your "best friends" to help you improve your clinical documentation as soon as possible. You cannot afford to be one of the professionals who are requested to repay for services you actually provided just because you did not take the time to document your excellent wound care work. PMID:25502970

  10. Jail Participants Actively Study Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Donita Massengill; Berg, Margaret A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of a word study literacy approach on the spelling ability and self-efficacy of adults in a county jail. Forty-four inmates participated in the word study intervention that provided them with hands-on learning. The word study intervention was conducted in four separate sessions (September,…

  11. 40 CFR 370.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 370.3 Section 370.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... definitions of the key words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 370.66. It is important to read the definitions for key words because the definition explains the...

  12. 40 CFR 370.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 370.3 Section 370.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... definitions of the key words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 370.66. It is important to read the definitions for key words because the definition explains the...

  13. 40 CFR 370.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 370.3 Section 370.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... definitions of the key words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 370.66. It is important to read the definitions for key words because the definition explains the...

  14. 40 CFR 370.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 370.3 Section 370.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... definitions of the key words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 370.66. It is important to read the definitions for key words because the definition explains the...

  15. 40 CFR 370.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 370.3 Section 370.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... definitions of the key words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 370.66. It is important to read the definitions for key words because the definition explains the...

  16. Functional Specificity of the Visual Word Form Area: General Activation for Words and Symbols but Specific Network Activation for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Karen; Fernandes, Myra; Schwindt, Graeme; O'Craven, Kathleen; Grady, Cheryl L.

    2008-01-01

    The functional specificity of the brain region known as the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) was examined using fMRI. We explored whether this area serves a general role in processing symbolic stimuli, rather than being selective for the processing of words. Brain activity was measured during a visual 1-back task to English words, meaningful symbols…

  17. Video Feedback in Key Word Signing Training for Preservice Direct Support Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rombouts, Ellen; Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Research has demonstrated that formal training is essential for professionals to learn key word signing. Yet, the particular didactic strategies have not been studied. Therefore, this study compared the effectiveness of verbal and video feedback in a key word signing training for future direct support staff. Method: Forty-nine future…

  18. Fluency: A Key Link between Word Identification and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashir, Anthony S.; Hook, Pamela E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to respond to A. G. Kamhi's (2007) challenge to consider two points of view on reading--the broad and the narrow. Each point of view includes a component of the reading process; namely, comprehension and word recognition. Taken separately, each point of view is insufficient for our understanding of the…

  19. 40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.2831 Section 63.2831 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... key words used in this subpart? You can find definitions of key words used in this subpart in §...

  20. 40 CFR 355.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 355.3 Section 355.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PLANNING AND NOTIFICATION General Information § 355.3 Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 355.61. It is...

  1. 40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.2831 Section 63.2831 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... key words used in this subpart? You can find definitions of key words used in this subpart in §...

  2. 40 CFR 355.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 355.3 Section 355.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PLANNING AND NOTIFICATION General Information § 355.3 Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 355.61. It is...

  3. 40 CFR 355.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 355.3 Section 355.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PLANNING AND NOTIFICATION General Information § 355.3 Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 355.61. It is...

  4. 40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.2831 Section 63.2831 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... key words used in this subpart? You can find definitions of key words used in this subpart in §...

  5. 40 CFR 355.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 355.3 Section 355.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PLANNING AND NOTIFICATION General Information § 355.3 Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 355.61. It is...

  6. 40 CFR 355.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 355.3 Section 355.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PLANNING AND NOTIFICATION General Information § 355.3 Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 355.61. It is...

  7. Key Words to Reading: The Language Experience Approach Begins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veatch, Jeannette; And Others

    The classroom use of the key vocabulary, developed by Sylvia Ashton-Warner as a reading approach--rather than as a reading method--which utilizes the child's actual experience, is the major concern of this book. Materials used and tested for a number of years present examples, outlines, and various methods for eliciting children's dramas through…

  8. Patience: A Key Word when Talking with Teachers and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Christy D.

    2012-01-01

    Summer activities have grown old. Going swimming has lost its allure, and boredom has set in. No matter how well parents have planned interesting and educational activities for the summer months or how much they have enjoyed the freedom from stricter schedules and more rigid bedtimes, it is time to transition back to the routines of the school…

  9. Beginning Readers Activate Semantics from Sub-Word Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Kate; Cocksey, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments assessed whether 7-year-old children activate semantic information from sub-word orthography. Children made category decisions to visually-presented words, some of which contained an embedded word (e.g., "hip" in s"hip"). In Experiment 1 children were slower and less accurate to classify words if they contained an embedded word…

  10. Quality evaluation of extra high quality images based on key assessment word

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, Masashi; Hayashi, Hidehiko; Akamatsu, Shigeru; Miyahara, Makoto M.

    2001-06-01

    An all encompassing goal of our research is to develop an extra high quality imaging system which is able to convey a high level artistic impression faithfully. We have defined a high order sensation as such a high level artistic impression, and it is supposed that the high order sensation is expressed by the combination of the psychological factor which can be described by plural assessment words. In order to pursue the quality factors that are important for the reproduction of the high order sensation, we have focused on the image quality evaluation of the extra high quality images using the assessment words considering the high order sensation. In this paper, we have obtained the hierarchical structure between the collected assessment words and the principles of European painting based on the conveyance model of the high order sensation, and we have determined a key assessment word 'plasticity' which is able to evaluate the reproduction of the high order sensation more accurately. The results of the subjective assessment experiments using the prototype of the developed extra high quality imaging system have shown that the obtained key assessment word 'plasticity' is the most appropriate assessment word to evaluate the image quality of the extra high quality images quasi-quantitatively.

  11. How Can Book Reading Close the Word Gap? Five Key Practices from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Emily K.; Hindman, Annemarie H.; Wasik, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary development is critical for children's ability to learn to read and their success at school. Vocabulary has also been identified as a key factor in the achievement gap, with children from low-income families knowing significantly fewer words when they enter school. Although book reading has long been celebrated as an effective way for…

  12. 40 CFR 370.66 - How are key words in this part defined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are key words in this part defined? 370.66 Section 370.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... substance listed in Appendices A and B of 40 CFR part 355. Facility means all buildings,...

  13. JPKWIC - General key word in context and subject index report generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jirka, R.; Kabashima, N.; Kelly, D.; Plesset, M.

    1968-01-01

    JPKWIC computer program is a general key word in context and subject index report generator specifically developed to help nonprogrammers and nontechnical personnel to use the computer to access files, libraries and mass documentation. This program is designed to produce a KWIC index, a subject index, an edit report, a summary report, and an exclusion list.

  14. Librarians Look at Bibliography: Title and Key Word Index to Small Business Administration Bibliography Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Robert Ellis

    1972-01-01

    Since the U.S. Small Business Administration bibliography series'' is without an index and/or table-of-contents, this librarian has compiled a complete-title and key words index to this collection for all types of business and industrial libraries. (Author/NH)

  15. 40 CFR 63.1176 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.1176 Section 63.1176 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Production § 63.1176 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? The definitions of...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1176 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.1176 Section 63.1176 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Production § 63.1176 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? The definitions of...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1176 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.1176 Section 63.1176 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Production § 63.1176 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? The definitions of...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1176 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.1176 Section 63.1176 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Production § 63.1176 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? The definitions of...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1176 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.1176 Section 63.1176 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Production § 63.1176 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? The definitions of...

  20. An Activation-Verification Model for Letter and Word Recognition: The Word-Superiority Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paap, Kenneth R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    An encoding algorithm uses empirically determined confusion matrices to activate units in an alphabetum and a lexicon to predict performance of word, orthographically regular nonword, or irregular nonword recognition. Performance is enhanced when decisions are based on lexical information which constrains test letter identity. Word prediction…

  1. Improving Correct and Error Rate and Reading Comprehension Using Key Words and Previewing: A Case Report with a Language Minority Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Patricia; Weber, Kimberly P.; McLaughlin, T. F.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of key words and previewing on the rate of words read correctly and the reading comprehension of a language minority student (age 10) were analyzed. The student read more words correctly and answered more comprehension questions accurately after the material was previewed and key words were discussed. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  2. Reading Clinic: A Word-Building Activity to Boost Decoding Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    Presents word building activities to boost elementary students' decoding skills. Building Toward a Secret Word helps K-3 students learn decoding skills by building words from the letters in one secret word. Sort Words, Transfer Sounds has students in grades 1-3 use sounds from words they know to figure out new words that rhyme. (SM)

  3. Teaching Generalized Reading of Product Warning Labels to Adolescents with Mental Disabilities through the Use of Key Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Belva C.; Stinson, Dawn M.

    1995-01-01

    Key words from product warning labels were taught to four adolescents with moderate mental disabilities using flash cards and a progressive time-delay procedure. Although students mastered the words in a relatively short time with minimal errors, generalization probe data with actual products across settings revealed the need for instruction to…

  4. Elevating Baseline Activation Does Not Facilitate Reading of Unattended Words

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Kouchi, Scott; Ruthruff, Eric; Lachter, Joel B.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have disagreed the extent to which people extract meaning from words presented outside the focus of spatial attention. The present study, examined a possible explanation for such discrepancies, inspired by attenuation theory: unattended words can be read more automatically when they have a high baseline level of activation (e.g., due to frequent repetition or due to being expected in a given context). We presented a brief prime word in lowercase, followed by a target word in uppercase. Participants indicated whether the target word belonged to a particular category (e.g., "sport"). When we drew attention to the prime word using a visual cue, the prime produced substantial priming effects on target responses (i.e., faster responses when the prime and target words were identical or from the same category than when they belonged to different categories). When prime words were not attended, however, they produced no priming effects. This finding replicated even when there were only 4 words, each repeated 160 times during the experiment. Even with a very high baseline level of activation, it appears that very little word processing is possible without spatial attention.

  5. Decoding and disrupting left midfusiform gyrus activity during word reading.

    PubMed

    Hirshorn, Elizabeth A; Li, Yuanning; Ward, Michael J; Richardson, R Mark; Fiez, Julie A; Ghuman, Avniel Singh

    2016-07-19

    The nature of the visual representation for words has been fiercely debated for over 150 y. We used direct brain stimulation, pre- and postsurgical behavioral measures, and intracranial electroencephalography to provide support for, and elaborate upon, the visual word form hypothesis. This hypothesis states that activity in the left midfusiform gyrus (lmFG) reflects visually organized information about words and word parts. In patients with electrodes placed directly in their lmFG, we found that disrupting lmFG activity through stimulation, and later surgical resection in one of the patients, led to impaired perception of whole words and letters. Furthermore, using machine-learning methods to analyze the electrophysiological data from these electrodes, we found that information contained in early lmFG activity was consistent with an orthographic similarity space. Finally, the lmFG contributed to at least two distinguishable stages of word processing, an early stage that reflects gist-level visual representation sensitive to orthographic statistics, and a later stage that reflects more precise representation sufficient for the individuation of orthographic word forms. These results provide strong support for the visual word form hypothesis and demonstrate that across time the lmFG is involved in multiple stages of orthographic representation. PMID:27325763

  6. Decoding and disrupting left midfusiform gyrus activity during word reading

    PubMed Central

    Hirshorn, Elizabeth A.; Ward, Michael J.; Fiez, Julie A.; Ghuman, Avniel Singh

    2016-01-01

    The nature of the visual representation for words has been fiercely debated for over 150 y. We used direct brain stimulation, pre- and postsurgical behavioral measures, and intracranial electroencephalography to provide support for, and elaborate upon, the visual word form hypothesis. This hypothesis states that activity in the left midfusiform gyrus (lmFG) reflects visually organized information about words and word parts. In patients with electrodes placed directly in their lmFG, we found that disrupting lmFG activity through stimulation, and later surgical resection in one of the patients, led to impaired perception of whole words and letters. Furthermore, using machine-learning methods to analyze the electrophysiological data from these electrodes, we found that information contained in early lmFG activity was consistent with an orthographic similarity space. Finally, the lmFG contributed to at least two distinguishable stages of word processing, an early stage that reflects gist-level visual representation sensitive to orthographic statistics, and a later stage that reflects more precise representation sufficient for the individuation of orthographic word forms. These results provide strong support for the visual word form hypothesis and demonstrate that across time the lmFG is involved in multiple stages of orthographic representation. PMID:27325763

  7. Tempting food words activate eating simulations

    PubMed Central

    Papies, Esther K.

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that tempting food words activate simulations of eating the food, including simulations of the taste and texture of the food, simulations of eating situations, and simulations of hedonic enjoyment. In a feature listing task, participants generated features that are typically true of four tempting foods (e.g., chips) and four neutral foods (e.g., rice). The resulting features were coded as features of eating simulations if they referred to the taste, texture, and temperature of the food (e.g., “crunchy”; “sticky”), to situations of eating the food (e.g., “movie”; “good for Wok dishes”), and to the hedonic experience when eating the food (e.g., “tasty”). Based on the grounded cognition perspective, it was predicted that tempting foods are more likely to be represented in terms of actually eating them, so that participants would list more features referring to eating simulations for tempting than for neutral foods. Confirming this hypothesis, results showed that eating simulation features constituted 53% of the features for tempting food, and 26% of the features for neutral food. Visual features, in contrast, were mentioned more often for neutral foods (45%) than for tempting foods (19%). Exploratory analyses revealed that the proportion of eating simulation features for tempting foods was positively correlated with perceived attractiveness of the foods, and negatively with participants’ dieting concerns, suggesting that eating simulations may depend on individuals’ goals with regard to eating. These findings are discussed with regard to their implications for understanding the processes guiding eating behavior, and for interventions designed to reduce the consumption of attractive, unhealthy food. PMID:24298263

  8. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Identification Is Robust but Constrained: Evidence from the Picture-Word Interference Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Davis, Colin J.; Mattys, Sven L.; Damian, Markus F.; Hanley, Derek

    2009-01-01

    Three picture-word interference (PWI) experiments assessed the extent to which embedded subset words are activated during the identification of spoken superset words (e.g., "bone" in "trombone"). Participants named aloud pictures (e.g., "brain") while spoken distractors were presented. In the critical condition, superset distractors contained a…

  9. Making a Bigger Deal of the Smaller Words: Function Words and Other Key Items in Research Writing by Chinese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, David Y. W.; Chen, Sylvia Xiao

    2009-01-01

    In many mainland Chinese universities, undergraduate students specializing in English language and applied linguistics are required to write a dissertation, in English, of about 5000 words exploring some aspect of original research. This is a task which is of considerable difficulty not only at the genre or discourse level but also at the…

  10. How Do Deaf Children With and Without Cochlear Implants Manage to Read Sentences: The Key Word Strategy.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Ana-Belén; Carrillo, María-Soledad; González, Virginia; Alegria, Jesús

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mechanisms used by deaf children with and without cochlear implants (CIs) to read sentences and the linguistic bases (vocabulary and syntax) underlying those reading mechanisms. Previous studies have shown that deaf persons read sentences using the key word strategy (KWS), which consists of identifying some frequent content words and ignoring the function words. The present results show that deaf children, including those wearing CIs from an early age, do use the KWS. It is also shown that this tendency is related with a linguistic deficiency, especially with a poor ability to deal with function words. Furthermore, the age of implantation, and the degree of hearing loss for children without CIs, plays an important role in using the KWS. Some pedagogical consequences of this situation are considered. PMID:27151899

  11. Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Muses on the power of words and how they shape people's lives. Relates stories from the author's life illustrating this, and relates the author's (a writer of novels for children and young adults) struggles and rewards as she works with words. (SR)

  12. 40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.2831 Section 63.2831 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  13. Access to General Education Curriculum: The Effect of Preteaching Key Words Upon Fluency and Accuracy in Expository Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Gail A.; Lambert, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of preteaching key words on accuracy and fluency in connected text were examined with three fifth-grade participants identified with learning disability and reading two grade levels below their same age peers. Researchers incorporated a multiple baseline design (i.e., Baseline and Wordlist Intervention) and found that preteaching…

  14. How Do Deaf Children with and without Cochlear Implants Manage to Read Sentences: The Key Word Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domínguez, Ana-Belén; Carrillo, María-Soledad; González, Virginia; Alegria, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mechanisms used by deaf children with and without cochlear implants (CIs) to read sentences and the linguistic bases (vocabulary and syntax) underlying those reading mechanisms. Previous studies have shown that deaf persons read sentences using the key word strategy (KWS), which consists of identifying some…

  15. 40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.2831 Section 63.2831 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  16. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: An ESL Textbook/Workbook [In Four Volumes]: (1) Teaching Guide; (2) Edition A. Key Vocabulary Words Translated into 6 Languages: Hmong, Laotian, Korean, Cambodian, Vietnamese, Chinese; (3) Edition B. Key Vocabulary Words Translated into 6 Languages: Spanish, Somali, Russian, Farsi, Bosnian, Arabic; (4) Edition C. Key Vocabulary Words Translated in 6 Languages: Spanish, Russian, Bosnian, Somali, Vietnamese, Hmong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRue, Charles

    Each of these three separately-published textbook/workbook editions on the topic of recycling presents key vocabulary words relating to this topic for English as a Second Language students in six languages. These books are designed to increase students' understanding of what the most typical local recycling rules are, why complying with them is…

  17. The KEY to the ROCK: Near-Homophony in Nonnative Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Haywood, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that native language (L1) phonology can affect the lexical representations of nonnative words, a visual semantic-relatedness decision task in English was given to native speakers and nonnative speakers whose L1 was Japanese or Arabic. In the critical conditions, the word pair contained a homophone or near-homophone of a…

  18. Teaching Generalized Reading of Cooking Product Labels to Adolescents with Mental Disabilities through the Use of Key Words Taught by Peer Tutors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Belva C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Four adolescents with moderate mental disabilities were taught by peers to read key words from labels of cooking products using constant time delay. Students mastered the reading of target key words in a relatively short amount of time with minimal errors, acquired some incidental learning of cooking definitions, and were able to generalize the…

  19. Phonological Activation of Word Meanings in Grade 5 Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Ashby, Jane; Agauas, Stephen J.; Levy, Betty Ann

    2016-01-01

    Three experiments examined the role of phonology in the activation of word meanings in Grade 5 students. In Experiment 1, homophone and spelling control errors were embedded in a story context and participants performed a proofreading task as they read for meaning. For both good and poor readers, more homophone errors went undetected than spelling…

  20. Word Length and Lexical Activation: Longer Is Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, Mark A.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2006-01-01

    Many models of spoken word recognition posit the existence of lexical and sublexical representations, with excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms used to affect the activation levels of such representations. Bottom-up evidence provides excitatory input, and inhibition from phonetically similar representations leads to lexical competition. In such a…

  1. Picturing words? Sensorimotor cortex activation for printed words in child and adult readers

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Tessa M.; Mareschal, Denis; Johnson, Mark H.; Sereno, Martin I.

    2014-01-01

    Learning to read involves associating abstract visual shapes with familiar meanings. Embodiment theories suggest that word meaning is at least partially represented in distributed sensorimotor networks in the brain (Barsalou, 2008; Pulvermueller, 2013). We explored how reading comprehension develops by tracking when and how printed words start activating these “semantic” sensorimotor representations as children learn to read. Adults and children aged 7–10 years showed clear category-specific cortical specialization for tool versus animal pictures during a one-back categorisation task. Thus, sensorimotor representations for these categories were in place at all ages. However, co-activation of these same brain regions by the visual objects’ written names was only present in adults, even though all children could read and comprehend all presented words, showed adult-like task performance, and older children were proficient readers. It thus takes years of training and expert reading skill before spontaneous processing of printed words’ sensorimotor meanings develops in childhood. PMID:25463817

  2. Prominences: The Key to Understanding Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, Judy T.

    2011-01-01

    Prominences are spectacular manifestations of both quiescent and eruptive solar activity. The largest examples can be seen with the naked eye during eclipses, making prominences among the first solar features to be described and catalogued. Steady improvements in temporal and spatial resolution from both ground- and space-based instruments have led us to recognize how complex and dynamic these majestic structures really are. Their distinguishing characteristics - cool knots and threads suspended in the hot corona, alignment along inversion lines in the photospheric magnetic field within highly sheared filament channels, and a tendency to disappear through eruption - offer vital clues as to their origin and dynamic evolution. Interpreting these clues has proven to be contentious, however, leading to fundamentally different models that address the basic questions: What is the magnetic structure supporting prominences, and how does so much cool, dense plasma appear in the corona? Despite centuries of increasingly detailed observations, the magnetic and plasma structures in prominences are poorly known. Routine measurements of the vector magnetic field in and around prominences have become possible only recently, while long-term monitoring of the underlying filament-channel formation process also remains scarce. The process responsible for prominence mass is equally difficult to establish, although we have long known that the chromosphere is the only plausible source. As I will discuss, however, the motions and locations of prominence material can be used to trace the coronal field, thus defining the magnetic origins of solar eruptions. A combination of observations, theory, and numerical modeling must be used to determine whether any of the competing theories accurately represents the physics of prominences. I will discuss the criteria for a successful prominence model, compare the leading models, and present in detail one promising, comprehensive scenario for

  3. Implicit Statistical Learning in Language Processing: Word Predictability is the Key

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Christopher M.; Baurnschmidt, Althea; Huang, Sean; Pisoni, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental learning abilities related to the implicit encoding of sequential structure have been postulated to underlie language acquisition and processing. However, there is very little direct evidence to date supporting such a link between implicit statistical learning and language. In three experiments using novel methods of assessing implicit learning and language abilities, we show that sensitivity to sequential structure -- as measured by improvements to immediate memory span for structurally-consistent input sequences -- is significantly correlated with the ability to use knowledge of word predictability to aid speech perception under degraded listening conditions. Importantly, the association remained even after controlling for participant performance on other cognitive tasks, including short-term and working memory, intelligence, attention and inhibition, and vocabulary knowledge. Thus, the evidence suggests that implicit learning abilities are essential for acquiring long-term knowledge of the sequential structure of language -- i.e., knowledge of word predictability – and that individual differences on such abilities impact speech perception in everyday situations. These findings provide a new theoretical rationale linking basic learning phenomena to specific aspects of spoken language processing in adults, and may furthermore indicate new fruitful directions for investigating both typical and atypical language development. PMID:19922909

  4. Cross-Linguistic Activation in Bilingual Sentence Processing: The Role of Word Class Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baten, Kristof; Hofman, Fabrice; Loeys, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how categorial (word class) semantics influences cross-linguistic interactions when reading in L2. Previous homograph studies paid little attention to the possible influence of different word classes in the stimulus material on cross-linguistic activation. The present study examines the word recognition performance of…

  5. Modeling of Word Translation: Activation Flow from Concepts to Lexical Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Ardi; Dijkstra, Ton; Gerakaki, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Whereas most theoretical and computational models assume a continuous flow of activation from concepts to lexical items in spoken word production, one prominent model assumes that the mapping of concepts onto words happens in a discrete fashion (Bloem & La Heij, 2003). Semantic facilitation of context pictures on word translation has been taken to…

  6. Phonological activation of word meanings in grade 5 readers.

    PubMed

    Jared, Debra; Ashby, Jane; Agauas, Stephen J; Levy, Betty Ann

    2016-04-01

    Three experiments examined the role of phonology in the activation of word meanings in Grade 5 students. In Experiment 1, homophone and spelling control errors were embedded in a story context and participants performed a proofreading task as they read for meaning. For both good and poor readers, more homophone errors went undetected than spelling control errors. In Experiments 2 and 3, homophone and spelling control errors were in sentence contexts. Experiment 2 used an online sentence verification task, and found that both good and poor readers were less accurate when sentences contained a homophone error than a spelling control error. Furthermore, a difference between the 2 types of sentences was observed even when participants were concurrently performing an articulation task. In Experiment 3, initial reading times were shorter on homophone errors than on spelling controls, and participants were less likely to make a regression from homophone errors than spelling controls. These experiments provide clear evidence that phonology makes an important contribution to the activation of word meanings in Grade 5 readers. PMID:26436634

  7. Word Processors and Writing Activities for the Elementary Grades. A MicroSIFT Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batey, Anne; Ricketts, Dick

    Intended to help educators choose the most appropriate word processing products for elementary school writing instruction, this report provides information about 12 word processor software products and 13 writing activity products. These products and the writing activities they use are as follows: (1) Bank Street Writer III (Activity Files,…

  8. The origin of word-related motor activity.

    PubMed

    Papeo, Liuba; Lingnau, Angelika; Agosta, Sara; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Battelli, Lorella; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2015-06-01

    Conceptual processing of verbs consistently recruits the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (lpMTG). The left precentral motor cortex also responds to verbs, with higher activity for action than nonaction verbs. The early timing of this effect has suggested that motor features of words' meaning are accessed directly, bypassing access to conceptual representations in lpMTG. An alternative hypothesis is that the retrieval of conceptual representations in lpMTG is necessary to drive more specific, motor-related representations in the precentral gyrus. To test these hypotheses, we first showed that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the verb-preferring lpMTG site selectively impoverished the semantic processing of verbs. In a second experiment, rTMS perturbation of lpMTG, relative to no stimulation (no-rTMS), eliminated the action-nonaction verb distinction in motor activity, as indexed by motor-evoked potentials induced in peripheral muscles with single-pulse TMS over the left primary motor cortex. rTMS pertubation of an occipital control site, relative to no-rTMS, did not affect the action-nonaction verb distinction in motor activity, but the verb contrast did not differ reliably from the lpMTG effect. The results show that lpMTG carries core semantic information necessary to drive the activation of specific (motor) features in the precentral gyrus. PMID:24421174

  9. A Developmental, Interactive Activation Model of the Word Superiority Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Christopher H.; Tallal, Paula

    1990-01-01

    Examined effects of orthographic context on the letter recognition skills of dyslexic children, comparing their performance to that of adults and of chronological and reading age-matched groups. Results showed that the two matched groups showed strong word superiority effect (WSE) for words and pseudowords over nonwords. Dyslexic readers did not…

  10. As Far As Words Go: Activities for Understanding Ambiguous Language and Humor, Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Cecile Cyrul

    2009-01-01

    Understanding ambiguous words, phrases, and sentences is an important part of reading well, communicating skillfully, and enjoying humor based on word play. With this seven-unit activity book--filled with creative, ready-to-use activities based on jokes and puns--students will learn how to decipher the language ambiguities they encounter inside…

  11. One Key LOGO and Hands-On Activity Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Chuck; And Others

    Developed to assist primary school teachers who wish to implement LOGO and One-Key LOGO (OKL) in their schools, this document consists of a LOGO resource manual and 92 color-coded activity cards designed to guide a pre-reader or primary child through a series of problem solving steps. After a brief introduction, which contains computer terminology…

  12. Exploring Key Sustainable Development Themes through Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruickshank, Heather; Fenner, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to examine how a number of key themes are introduced in the Master's programme in Engineering for Sustainable Development, at Cambridge University, through student-centred activities. These themes include dealing with complexity, uncertainty, change, other disciplines, people, environmental limits, whole life…

  13. Written distractor words influence brain activity during overt picture naming

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Michele T.; Hogstrom, Larson J.; Zhuang, Jie; Voyvodic, James T.; Johnson, Micah A.; Camblin, C. Christine

    2014-01-01

    Language production requires multiple stages of processing (e.g., semantic retrieval, lexical selection), each of which may involve distinct brain regions. Distractor words can be combined with picture naming to examine factors that influence language production. Phonologically-related distractors have been found to speed picture naming (facilitation), while slower response times and decreased accuracy (interference) generally occur when a distractor is categorically related to the target image. However, other types of semantically-related distractors have been reported to produce a facilitative effect (e.g., associative, part-whole). The different pattern of results for different types of semantically-related distractors raises the question about how the nature of the semantic relation influences the effect of the distractor. To explore the nature of these semantic effects further, we used functional MRI to examine the influence of four types of written distractors on brain activation during overt picture naming. Distractors began with the same sound, were categorically-related, part of the object to be named, or were unrelated to the picture. Phonologically-related trials elicited greater activation than both semantic conditions (categorically-related and part-whole) in left insula and bilateral parietal cortex, regions that have been attributed to phonological aspects of production and encoding, respectively. Semantic conditions elicited greater activation than phonological trials in left posterior MTG, a region that has been linked to concept retrieval and semantic integration. Overall, the two semantic conditions did not differ substantially in their functional activation which suggests a similarity in the semantic demands and lexical competition across these two conditions. PMID:24715859

  14. Investigation of Pre-Service English Language Teachers' Cognitive Structures about Some Key Concepts in Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching Course through Word Association Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersanli, Ceylan Yangin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to map the cognitive structure of pre-service English language (EL) teachers about three key concepts related to approaches and methods in language teaching so as to discover their learning process and misconceptions. The study involves both qualitative and quantitative data. The researcher administrated a Word Association Test…

  15. Active Adjectives: A Word Is Worth a Thousand Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamplin de Poinsot, Nan

    2010-01-01

    Graphic art can be a tough subject approach with seventh- and eighth-graders, but by mixing a little language arts into the studio lesson, they can have fun with the art of words in a whole new way. In this article, the author describes how students created a graphic design using a word. The purpose of the graphic art is to educate--to teach an…

  16. Acquisition of Compound Words in Chinese-English Bilingual Children: Decomposition and Cross-Language Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chenxi; Wang, Min; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated compound processing and cross-language activation in a group of Chinese-English bilingual children, and they were divided into four groups based on the language proficiency levels in their two languages. A lexical decision task was designed using compound words in both languages. The compound words in one language contained…

  17. Evidence for an Activation Locus of the Word-Frequency Effect in Lexical Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Philip A.; Smith, Albert F.; Lien, Mei-Ching; Grabbe, Jeremy; Murphy, Martin D.

    2005-01-01

    The authors report a lexical decision experiment designed to determine whether activation is the locus of the word-frequency effect. K. R. Paap and L. S. Johansen (1994) reported that word frequency did not affect lexical decisions when exposure durations were brief; they accounted for this by proposing that data-limited conditions prevented…

  18. Phonological and Semantic Activation in Reading Two-Kanji Compound Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Aiko; Matsuda, Fumiko

    2000-01-01

    Examined whether phonological information was activated automatically in processing two kanji compound words. In one experiment, participants judged whether pairs of words were homophones, while others judged whether pairs were synonyms. In the second, participants were asked to make one of the two judgments, as in experiment one. Findings support…

  19. Task-Dependent Modulations of Prefrontal and Hippocampal Activity during Intrinsic Word Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Carin; Weis, Susanne; Krings, Timo; Huber, Walter; Grossman, Murray; Kircher, Tilo

    2009-01-01

    Functional imaging studies of single word production have consistently reported activation of the lateral prefrontal and cingulate cortex. Its contribution has been shown to be sensitive to task demands, which can be manipulated by the degree of response specification. Compared with classical verbal fluency, free word association relies less on…

  20. Welcome to WordPerfect 4.2. Learning Activity Packets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Lanita; And Others

    These 14 learning activity packets (LAPs) are self-paced study lessons that allow students to proceed along a course of study for WordPerfect 4.2 word processing at their own pace. Lessons are presented in a "read and do" format. A review concludes each lesson. The lessons cover getting started; underline, bold, centering, auto indent, reveal…

  1. Learning Computers, Speaking English: Cooperative Activities for Learning English and Basic Word Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quann, Steve; Satin, Diana

    This textbook leads high-beginning and intermediate English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students through cooperative computer-based activities that combine language learning with training in basic computer skills and word processing. Each unit concentrates on a basic concept of word processing while also focusing on a grammar topic. Skills are…

  2. Active magnetic radiation shielding system analysis and key technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washburn, S. A.; Blattnig, S. R.; Singleterry, R. C.; Westover, S. C.

    2015-01-01

    Many active magnetic shielding designs have been proposed in order to reduce the radiation exposure received by astronauts on long duration, deep space missions. While these designs are promising, they pose significant engineering challenges. This work presents a survey of the major systems required for such unconfined magnetic field design, allowing the identification of key technologies for future development. Basic mass calculations are developed for each system and are used to determine the resulting galactic cosmic radiation exposure for a generic solenoid design, using a range of magnetic field strength and thickness values, allowing some of the basic characteristics of such a design to be observed. This study focuses on a solenoid shaped, active magnetic shield design; however, many of the principles discussed are applicable regardless of the exact design configuration, particularly the key technologies cited.

  3. Active magnetic radiation shielding system analysis and key technologies.

    PubMed

    Washburn, S A; Blattnig, S R; Singleterry, R C; Westover, S C

    2015-01-01

    Many active magnetic shielding designs have been proposed in order to reduce the radiation exposure received by astronauts on long duration, deep space missions. While these designs are promising, they pose significant engineering challenges. This work presents a survey of the major systems required for such unconfined magnetic field design, allowing the identification of key technologies for future development. Basic mass calculations are developed for each system and are used to determine the resulting galactic cosmic radiation exposure for a generic solenoid design, using a range of magnetic field strength and thickness values, allowing some of the basic characteristics of such a design to be observed. This study focuses on a solenoid shaped, active magnetic shield design; however, many of the principles discussed are applicable regardless of the exact design configuration, particularly the key technologies cited. PMID:26177618

  4. Lost for emotion words: what motor and limbic brain activity reveals about autism and semantic theory.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Rachel L; Shtyrov, Yury; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by deficits in understanding and expressing emotions and are frequently accompanied by alexithymia, a difficulty in understanding and expressing emotion words. Words are differentially represented in the brain according to their semantic category and these difficulties in ASC predict reduced activation to emotion-related words in limbic structures crucial for affective processing. Semantic theories view 'emotion actions' as critical for learning the semantic relationship between a word and the emotion it describes, such that emotion words typically activate the cortical motor systems involved in expressing emotion actions such as facial expressions. As ASC are also characterised by motor deficits and atypical brain structure and function in these regions, motor structures would also be expected to show reduced activation during emotion-semantic processing. Here we used event-related fMRI to compare passive processing of emotion words in comparison to abstract verbs and animal names in typically-developing controls and individuals with ASC. Relatively reduced brain activation in ASC for emotion words, but not matched control words, was found in motor areas and cingulate cortex specifically. The degree of activation evoked by emotion words in the motor system was also associated with the extent of autistic traits as revealed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient. We suggest that hypoactivation of motor and limbic regions for emotion word processing may underlie difficulties in processing emotional language in ASC. The role that sensorimotor systems and their connections might play in the affective and social-communication difficulties in ASC is discussed. PMID:25278250

  5. Lost for emotion words: What motor and limbic brain activity reveals about autism and semantic theory

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Shtyrov, Yury; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by deficits in understanding and expressing emotions and are frequently accompanied by alexithymia, a difficulty in understanding and expressing emotion words. Words are differentially represented in the brain according to their semantic category and these difficulties in ASC predict reduced activation to emotion-related words in limbic structures crucial for affective processing. Semantic theories view ‘emotion actions’ as critical for learning the semantic relationship between a word and the emotion it describes, such that emotion words typically activate the cortical motor systems involved in expressing emotion actions such as facial expressions. As ASC are also characterised by motor deficits and atypical brain structure and function in these regions, motor structures would also be expected to show reduced activation during emotion-semantic processing. Here we used event-related fMRI to compare passive processing of emotion words in comparison to abstract verbs and animal names in typically-developing controls and individuals with ASC. Relatively reduced brain activation in ASC for emotion words, but not matched control words, was found in motor areas and cingulate cortex specifically. The degree of activation evoked by emotion words in the motor system was also associated with the extent of autistic traits as revealed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient. We suggest that hypoactivation of motor and limbic regions for emotion word processing may underlie difficulties in processing emotional language in ASC. The role that sensorimotor systems and their connections might play in the affective and social-communication difficulties in ASC is discussed. PMID:25278250

  6. A comparison of brain activity evoked by single content and function words: An fMRI investigation of implicit word processing

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Michele T.; McCarthy, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Content and function words have different roles in language and differ greatly in their semantic content. Although previous research has suggested that these different roles may be mediated by different neural substrates, the neuroimaging literature on this topic is particularly scant. Moreover, fMRI studies that have investigated differences between content and function words have utilized tasks that focus the subjects’ attention on the differences between these word types. It is possible, then, that task-related differences in attention, working memory, and decision-making contribute to the differential patterns of activation observed. Here, subjects were engaged in a continuous working memory cover task while single, task-irrelevant content and function words were infrequently and irregularly presented. Nonword letter strings were displayed in black font at a fast rate (2/sec). Subjects were required to either remember or retrieve occasional nonwords that were presented in colored fonts. Incidental and irrelevant to the memory task, content and function words were interspersed among nonwords at intervals of 12 to 15 sec. Both word types strongly activated temporal-parietal cortex, middle and anterior temporal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and orbital frontal cortex. Activations were more extensive in the left hemisphere. Content words elicited greater activation than function words in middle and anterior temporal cortex, a sub-region of orbital frontal cortex, and the parahippocampal region. Words also evoked extensive deactivation, most notably in brain regions previously associated with working memory and attention. PMID:19465009

  7. Brain activation to briefly presented emotional words: effects of stimulus awareness.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Marius; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Straube, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    It is unknown to what extent briefly presented emotional words can be processed without awareness. By means of two independent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, using either a block or an event-related design, we investigated brain activation to very briefly presented threat related and neutral words during two backward masking conditions (with and without gap between target and mask). In both experiments, emotional words were perceived during the supraliminal "with gap" condition, but they were not recognized during the subliminal "without gap" condition, as indicated by signal detection theory analysis. Imaging results of both experiments showed increased activation of the amygdala, the medial prefrontal cortex and language-processing cortical areas to negative versus neutral words during supraliminal but not subliminal conditions. These results suggest that even very briefly presented emotional words are capable of triggering increased cortical and subcortical processing; however, only when awareness of these stimuli is given. PMID:25324170

  8. Key gravity-sensitive signaling pathways drive T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Boonyaratanakornkit, J B; Cogoli, A; Li, C-F; Schopper, T; Pippia, P; Galleri, G; Meloni, M A; Hughes-Fulford, M

    2005-12-01

    Returning astronauts have experienced altered immune function and increased vulnerability to infection during spaceflights dating back to Apollo and Skylab. Lack of immune response in microgravity occurs at the cellular level. We analyzed differential gene expression to find gravity-dependent genes and pathways. We found inhibited induction of 91 genes in the simulated freefall environment of the random positioning machine. Altered induction of 10 genes regulated by key signaling pathways was verified using real-time RT-PCR. We discovered that impaired induction of early genes regulated primarily by transcription factors NF-kappaB, CREB, ELK, AP-1, and STAT after crosslinking the T-cell receptor contributes to T-cell dysfunction in altered gravity environments. We have previously shown that PKA and PKC are key early regulators in T-cell activation. Since the majority of the genes were regulated by NF-kappaB, CREB, and AP-1, we studied the pathways that regulated these transcription factors. We found that the PKA pathway was down-regulated in vg. In contrast, PI3-K, PKC, and its upstream regulator pLAT were not significantly down-regulated by vectorless gravity. Since NF-kappaB, AP-1, and CREB are all regulated by PKA and are transcription factors predicted by microarray analysis to be involved in the altered gene expression in vectorless gravity, the data suggest that PKA is a key player in the loss of T-cell activation in altered gravity. PMID:16210397

  9. Effect of Word and Syllable Frequency on Activation During Lexical Decision and Reading Aloud

    PubMed Central

    Carreiras, Manuel; Mechelli, Andrea; Price, Cathy J

    2006-01-01

    This functional MRI (fMRI) study investigated the effect of lexical and syllable frequency on visual word processing during lexical decision and reading aloud. Previous research has shown a dissociation of syllable and word frequency effects in Spanish using behavioral and electrophysiological measures, suggesting that sublexical (syllabic) representations are computed and mediate the firing of lexical candidates. Here, we characterize the neuroanatomical basis of these lexical and sublexical manipulations and their dependence on task. During lexical decision, words with low vs. high lexical frequency increased activation in left frontal, anterior cingulate, supplemental motor area (SMA), and pre-SMA regions; while words with high vs. low syllable frequency increased activation in a left anterior inferior temporal region. In contrast, when the words were read aloud those with low vs. high syllable frequency increased activation in the left anterior insula, with no other significant effects. On the basis of the neuroanatomy, we propose that the contrasting effects of syllable frequency during lexical decision and reading aloud reflect two different cognitive processes in visual word processing. Specifically, words with high-frequency syllables may increase lexical competition in the inferior temporal lobe while facilitating articulatory planning in the left anterior insula. Hum Brain Mapp, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:16628608

  10. Orthographic Activation in L2 Spoken Word Recognition Depends on Proficiency: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Veivo, Outi; Järvikivi, Juhani; Porretta, Vincent; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    The use of orthographic and phonological information in spoken word recognition was studied in a visual world task where L1 Finnish learners of L2 French (n = 64) and L1 French native speakers (n = 24) were asked to match spoken word forms with printed words while their eye movements were recorded. In Experiment 1, French target words were contrasted with competitors having a longer ( vs. ) or a shorter word initial phonological overlap ( vs. ) and an identical orthographic overlap. In Experiment 2, target words were contrasted with competitors of either longer ( vs. ) or shorter word initial orthographic overlap ( vs. ) and of an identical phonological overlap. A general phonological effect was observed in the L2 listener group but not in the L1 control group. No general orthographic effects were observed in the L2 or L1 groups, but a significant effect of proficiency was observed for orthographic overlap over time: higher proficiency L2 listeners used also orthographic information in the matching task in a time-window from 400 to 700 ms, whereas no such effect was observed for lower proficiency listeners. These results suggest that the activation of orthographic information in L2 spoken word recognition depends on proficiency in L2. PMID:27512381

  11. A Vocabulary Flood: Making Words "Sticky" with Computer-Response Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labbo, Linda D.; Love, Mary S.; Ryan, Tammy

    2007-01-01

    Children's literature is a primary source for introducing young children to new words at home and at school, and children's early vocabulary knowledge is a key component of oral language, which is essential for comprehension. This column is focused on children from low socioeconomic backgrounds who frequently find themselves in a vocabulary…

  12. Automatic activation of addition facts in arithmetic word problems.

    PubMed

    Orrantia, Josetxu; Rodriguez, Laura; Vicente, Santiago

    2010-02-01

    Studies of mental arithmetic have shown that adults solve simple arithmetic problems by retrieving an answer automatically from a network of stored associations. However, most studies have been limited to single-digit addition and multiplication problems. In this article, we examine whether retrieval is also automatic in the context of more complex arithmetic tasks, such as arithmetic word problems. To test this hypothesis, we used a priming procedure with a target-naming task, in which the primes were the numbers included in two sentences containing the numerical information of an arithmetic word problem (e.g., 3 and 2 in "Joe had 3 marbles. Then Tom gave him 2 marbles"), and the targets were either congruent (e.g., 5) or incongruent (e.g., 8) with the prime. A neutral prime was also used replacing the numbers of the problem by capital letters (e.g., X and Y). Manipulating the relationship between the prime and the target and the duration of time that separates these two events, the overall results revealed shorter times in naming the congruent target than in a neutral condition and longer times in naming the incongruent target, even though mental arithmetic was completely irrelevant to the task. These results support the notion that automaticity of arithmetic-fact retrieval is not limited to simple addition, but it is also possible in other tasks, such as arithmetic word problems, which demand more cognitive resources than single-digit addition. PMID:19440930

  13. Broca's region and Visual Word Form Area activation differ during a predictive Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Skakkebæk, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Competing theories attempt to explain the function of Broca's area in single word processing. Studies have found the region to be more active during processing of pseudo words than real words and during infrequent words relative to frequent words and during Stroop (incongruent) color words compared to Non-Stroop (congruent) words. Two related theories explain these findings as reflecting either "cognitive control" processing in the face of conflicting input or a linguistic prediction error signal, based on a predictive coding approach. The latter implies that processing cost refers to violations of expectations based on the statistical distributions of input. In this fMRI experiment we attempted to disentangle single word processing cost originating from cognitive conflict and that stemming from predictive expectation violation. Participants (N = 49) responded to whether the words "GREEN" or "RED" were displayed in green or red (incongruent vs congruent colors). One of the colors, however, was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and frequency effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying "GREEN" or "RED" had the same distribution, making it possible to study frequency effects across modalities. We found significant behavioral effects of both incongruency and frequency. A significant effect (p < .05 FWE) of incongruency was found in Broca's region, but no effect of frequency was observed and no interaction. Conjoined effects of incongruency and frequency were found in parietal regions as well as in the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA). No interaction between perceptual modality and frequency was found in VWFA suggesting that the region is not strictly visual. These findings speak against a strong version of the prediction error processing hypothesis in Broca's region. They support the idea that prediction error processes in the intermediate timeframe are allocated to more posterior parts of the brain. PMID:26478962

  14. Active listening: The key of successful communication in hospital managers

    PubMed Central

    Jahromi, Vahid Kohpeima; Tabatabaee, Seyed Saeed; Abdar, Zahra Esmaeili; Rajabi, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the important causes of medical errors and unintentional harm to patients is ineffective communication. The important part of this skill, in case it has been forgotten, is listening. The objective of this study was to determine whether managers in hospitals listen actively. Methods This study was conducted between May and June 2014 among three levels of managers at teaching hospitals in Kerman, Iran. Active Listening skill among hospital managers was measured by self-made Active Listening Skill Scale (ALSS), which consists of the key elements of active listening and has five subscales, i.e., Avoiding Interruption, Maintaining Interest, Postponing Evaluation, Organizing Information, and Showing Interest. The data were analyzed by IBM-SPSS software, version 20, and the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, the chi-squared test, and multiple linear regressions. Results The mean score of active listening in hospital managers was 2.32 out of 3.The highest score (2.27) was obtained by the first-level managers, and the top managers got the lowest score (2.16). Hospital mangers were best in showing interest and worst in avoiding interruptions. The area of employment was a significant predictor of avoiding interruption and the managers’ gender was a strong predictor of skill in maintaining interest (p < 0.05). The type of management and education can predict postponing evaluation, and the length of employment can predict showing interest (p < 0.05). Conclusion There is a necessity for the development of strategies to create more awareness among the hospital managers concerning their active listening skills. PMID:27123221

  15. Parallel language activation and cognitive control during spoken word recognition in bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of bilingual cognitive advantages suggest an associative link between cross-linguistic competition and inhibitory control. We investigate this link by examining English-Spanish bilinguals’ parallel language activation during auditory word recognition and nonlinguistic Stroop performance. Thirty-one English-Spanish bilinguals and 30 English monolinguals participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants heard words in English (e.g., comb) and identified corresponding pictures from a display that included pictures of a Spanish competitor (e.g., conejo, English rabbit). Bilinguals with higher Spanish proficiency showed more parallel language activation and smaller Stroop effects than bilinguals with lower Spanish proficiency. Across all bilinguals, stronger parallel language activation between 300–500ms after word onset was associated with smaller Stroop effects; between 633–767ms, reduced parallel language activation was associated with smaller Stroop effects. Results suggest that bilinguals who perform well on the Stroop task show increased cross-linguistic competitor activation during early stages of word recognition and decreased competitor activation during later stages of word recognition. Findings support the hypothesis that cross-linguistic competition impacts domain-general inhibition. PMID:24244842

  16. Parallel language activation and cognitive control during spoken word recognition in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K; Marian, Viorica

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of bilingual cognitive advantages suggest an associative link between cross-linguistic competition and inhibitory control. We investigate this link by examining English-Spanish bilinguals' parallel language activation during auditory word recognition and nonlinguistic Stroop performance. Thirty-one English-Spanish bilinguals and 30 English monolinguals participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants heard words in English (e.g., comb) and identified corresponding pictures from a display that included pictures of a Spanish competitor (e.g., conejo, English rabbit). Bilinguals with higher Spanish proficiency showed more parallel language activation and smaller Stroop effects than bilinguals with lower Spanish proficiency. Across all bilinguals, stronger parallel language activation between 300-500ms after word onset was associated with smaller Stroop effects; between 633-767ms, reduced parallel language activation was associated with smaller Stroop effects. Results suggest that bilinguals who perform well on the Stroop task show increased cross-linguistic competitor activation during early stages of word recognition and decreased competitor activation during later stages of word recognition. Findings support the hypothesis that cross-linguistic competition impacts domain-general inhibition. PMID:24244842

  17. Automatic ultrarapid activation and inhibition of cortical motor systems in spoken word comprehension.

    PubMed

    Shtyrov, Yury; Butorina, Anna; Nikolaeva, Anastasia; Stroganova, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    To address the hotly debated question of motor system involvement in language comprehension, we recorded neuromagnetic responses elicited in the human brain by unattended action-related spoken verbs and nouns and scrutinized their timecourse and neuroanatomical substrates. We found that already very early on, from ∼80 ms after disambiguation point when the words could be identified from the available acoustic information, both verbs and nouns produced characteristic somatotopic activations in the motor strip, with words related to different body parts activating the corresponding body representations. Strikingly, along with this category-specific activation, we observed suppression of motor-cortex activation by competitor words with incompatible semantics, documenting operation of the neurophysiological principles of lateral/surround inhibition in neural word processing. The extremely early onset of these activations and deactivations, their emergence in the absence of attention, and their similar presence for words of different lexical classes strongly suggest automatic involvement of motor-specific circuits in the perception of action-related language. PMID:24753617

  18. Locality and Word Order in Active Dependency Formation in Bangla

    PubMed Central

    Chacón, Dustin A.; Imtiaz, Mashrur; Dasgupta, Shirsho; Murshed, Sikder M.; Dan, Mina; Phillips, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Research on filler-gap dependencies has revealed that there are constraints on possible gap sites, and that real-time sentence processing is sensitive to these constraints. This work has shown that comprehenders have preferences for potential gap sites, and immediately detect when these preferences are not met. However, neither the mechanisms that select preferred gap sites nor the mechanisms used to detect whether these preferences are met are well-understood. In this paper, we report on three experiments in Bangla, a language in which gaps may occur in either a pre-verbal embedded clause or a post-verbal embedded clause. This word order variation allows us to manipulate whether the first gap linearly available is contained in the same clause as the filler, which allows us to dissociate structural locality from linear locality. In Experiment 1, an untimed ambiguity resolution task, we found a global bias to resolve a filler-gap dependency with the first gap linearly available, regardless of structural hierarchy. In Experiments 2 and 3, which use the filled-gap paradigm, we found sensitivity to disruption only when the blocked gap site is both structurally and linearly local, i.e., the filler and the gap site are contained in the same clause. This suggests that comprehenders may not show sensitivity to the disruption of all preferred gap resolutions. PMID:27610090

  19. Locality and Word Order in Active Dependency Formation in Bangla.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Dustin A; Imtiaz, Mashrur; Dasgupta, Shirsho; Murshed, Sikder M; Dan, Mina; Phillips, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Research on filler-gap dependencies has revealed that there are constraints on possible gap sites, and that real-time sentence processing is sensitive to these constraints. This work has shown that comprehenders have preferences for potential gap sites, and immediately detect when these preferences are not met. However, neither the mechanisms that select preferred gap sites nor the mechanisms used to detect whether these preferences are met are well-understood. In this paper, we report on three experiments in Bangla, a language in which gaps may occur in either a pre-verbal embedded clause or a post-verbal embedded clause. This word order variation allows us to manipulate whether the first gap linearly available is contained in the same clause as the filler, which allows us to dissociate structural locality from linear locality. In Experiment 1, an untimed ambiguity resolution task, we found a global bias to resolve a filler-gap dependency with the first gap linearly available, regardless of structural hierarchy. In Experiments 2 and 3, which use the filled-gap paradigm, we found sensitivity to disruption only when the blocked gap site is both structurally and linearly local, i.e., the filler and the gap site are contained in the same clause. This suggests that comprehenders may not show sensitivity to the disruption of all preferred gap resolutions. PMID:27610090

  20. Embodiment and second-language: automatic activation of motor responses during processing spatially associated L2 words and emotion L2 words in a vertical Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence suggests that understanding our first-language (L1) results in reactivation of experiential sensorimotor traces in the brain. Surprisingly, little is known regarding the involvement of these processes during second-language (L2) processing. Participants saw L1 or L2 words referring to entities with a typical location (e.g., star, mole) (Experiment 1 & 2) or to an emotion (e.g., happy, sad) (Experiment 3). Participants responded to the words' ink color with an upward or downward arm movement. Despite word meaning being fully task-irrelevant, L2 automatically activated motor responses similar to L1 even when L2 was acquired rather late in life (age >11). Specifically, words such as star facilitated upward, and words such as root facilitated downward responses. Additionally, words referring to positive emotions facilitated upward, and words referring to negative emotions facilitated downward responses. In summary our study suggests that reactivation of experiential traces is not limited to L1 processing. PMID:24681402

  1. Words, Words, Words: English, Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Barbara

    The Quinmester course on words gives the student the opportunity to increase his proficiency by investigating word origins, word histories, morphology, and phonology. The course includes the following: dictionary skills and familiarity with the "Oxford,""Webster's Third," and "American Heritage" dictionaries; word derivations from other languages;…

  2. Automatic Evaluation Stimuli - The Most Frequently Used Words to Describe Physical Activity and the Pleasantness of Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Rebar, Amanda L; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Alley, Stephanie J; Short, Camille E; Dimmock, James A; Jackson, Ben; Conroy, David E; Rhodes, Ryan E; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is partially regulated by non-conscious processes including automatic evaluations - the spontaneous affective reactions we have to physical activity that lead us to approach or avoid physical activity opportunities. A sound understanding of which words best represent the concepts of physical activity and pleasantness (as associated with physical activity) is needed to improve the measurement of automatic evaluations and related constructs (e.g., automatic self-schemas, attentional biases). The first aim of this study was to establish population-level evidence of the most common word stimuli for physical activity and pleasantness. Given that response latency measures have been applied to assess automatic evaluations of physical activity and exercise, the second aim was to determine whether people use the same behavior and pleasant descriptors for physical activity and exercise. Australian adults (N = 1,318; 54.3% women; 48.9% aged 55 years or older) were randomly assigned to one of two groups, through a computer-generated 1:1 ratio allocation, to be asked to list either five behaviors and pleasant descriptors of physical activity (n = 686) or of exercise (n = 632). The words were independently coded twice as to whether they were novel words or the same as another (i.e., same stem or same meaning). Intercoder reliability varied between moderate and strong (agreement = 50.1 to 97.8%; κ = 0.48 to 0.82). A list of the 20 most common behavior and pleasantness words were established based on how many people reported them, weighted by the ranking (1-5) people gave them. The words people described as physical activity were mostly the same as those people used to describe exercise. The most common behavior words were 'walking,' 'running,' 'swimming,' 'bike riding,' and 'gardening'; and the most common pleasant descriptor words were 'relaxing,' 'happiness,' 'enjoyment,' 'exhilarating,' 'exhausting,' and 'good.' These sets of stimuli can be utilized as

  3. Automatic Evaluation Stimuli – The Most Frequently Used Words to Describe Physical Activity and the Pleasantness of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rebar, Amanda L.; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Alley, Stephanie J.; Short, Camille E.; Dimmock, James A.; Jackson, Ben; Conroy, David E.; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is partially regulated by non-conscious processes including automatic evaluations – the spontaneous affective reactions we have to physical activity that lead us to approach or avoid physical activity opportunities. A sound understanding of which words best represent the concepts of physical activity and pleasantness (as associated with physical activity) is needed to improve the measurement of automatic evaluations and related constructs (e.g., automatic self-schemas, attentional biases). The first aim of this study was to establish population-level evidence of the most common word stimuli for physical activity and pleasantness. Given that response latency measures have been applied to assess automatic evaluations of physical activity and exercise, the second aim was to determine whether people use the same behavior and pleasant descriptors for physical activity and exercise. Australian adults (N = 1,318; 54.3% women; 48.9% aged 55 years or older) were randomly assigned to one of two groups, through a computer-generated 1:1 ratio allocation, to be asked to list either five behaviors and pleasant descriptors of physical activity (n = 686) or of exercise (n = 632). The words were independently coded twice as to whether they were novel words or the same as another (i.e., same stem or same meaning). Intercoder reliability varied between moderate and strong (agreement = 50.1 to 97.8%; κ = 0.48 to 0.82). A list of the 20 most common behavior and pleasantness words were established based on how many people reported them, weighted by the ranking (1–5) people gave them. The words people described as physical activity were mostly the same as those people used to describe exercise. The most common behavior words were ‘walking,’ ‘running,’ ‘swimming,’ ‘bike riding,’ and ‘gardening’; and the most common pleasant descriptor words were ‘relaxing,’ ‘happiness,’ ‘enjoyment,’ ‘exhilarating,’ ‘exhausting,’ and

  4. Action relevance in linguistic context drives word-induced motor activity

    PubMed Central

    Aravena, Pia; Courson, Mélody; Frak, Victor; Cheylus, Anne; Paulignan, Yves; Deprez, Viviane; Nazir, Tatjana A.

    2014-01-01

    Many neurocognitive studies on the role of motor structures in action-language processing have implicitly adopted a “dictionary-like” framework within which lexical meaning is constructed on the basis of an invariant set of semantic features. The debate has thus been centered on the question of whether motor activation is an integral part of the lexical semantics (embodied theories) or the result of a post-lexical construction of a situation model (disembodied theories). However, research in psycholinguistics show that lexical semantic processing and context-dependent meaning construction are narrowly integrated. An understanding of the role of motor structures in action-language processing might thus be better achieved by focusing on the linguistic contexts under which such structures are recruited. Here, we therefore analyzed online modulations of grip force while subjects listened to target words embedded in different linguistic contexts. When the target word was a hand action verb and when the sentence focused on that action (John signs the contract) an early increase of grip force was observed. No comparable increase was detected when the same word occurred in a context that shifted the focus toward the agent's mental state (John wants to sign the contract). There mere presence of an action word is thus not sufficient to trigger motor activation. Moreover, when the linguistic context set up a strong expectation for a hand action, a grip force increase was observed even when the tested word was a pseudo-verb. The presence of a known action word is thus not required to trigger motor activation. Importantly, however, the same linguistic contexts that sufficed to trigger motor activation with pseudo-verbs failed to trigger motor activation when the target words were verbs with no motor action reference. Context is thus not by itself sufficient to supersede an “incompatible” word meaning. We argue that motor structure activation is part of a dynamic process

  5. Increase in physical activities in kindergarten children with cerebral palsy by employing MaKey-MaKey-based task systems.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Chang, Yu-Ming

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we employed Flash- and Scratch-based multimedia by using a MaKey-MaKey-based task system to increase the motivation level of children with cerebral palsy to perform physical activities. MaKey MaKey is a circuit board that converts physical touch to a digital signal, which is interpreted by a computer as a keyboard message. In this study, we used conductive materials to control this interaction. This study followed single-case design using ABAB models in which A indicated the baseline and B indicated the intervention. The experiment period comprised 1 month and a half. The experimental results demonstrated that in the case of two kindergarten children with cerebral palsy, their scores were considerably increased during the intervention phrases. The developmental applications of the results are also discussed. PMID:24864049

  6. The Effects of Word Walls and Word Wall Activities on the Reading Fluency of First Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasmine, Joanne; Schiesl, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Reading fluency is the ability to read orally with speed and efficiency, including word recognition, decoding, and comprehension (Chard & Pikulski, 2005). Able readers achieve fluency as they recognize words with speed and build upon them to aid in comprehension (Pumfrey & Elliott, 1990). One way to help students achieve fluency is through the use…

  7. Phonological Activation during Visual Word Recognition in Deaf and Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Hendriks, Angelique; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Phonological activation during visual word recognition was studied in deaf and hearing children under two circumstances: (a) when the use of phonology was not required for task performance and might even hinder it and (b) when the use of phonology was critical for task performance. Method: Deaf children mastering written Dutch and Sign…

  8. The Activation and Monitoring of Memories Produced by Words and Pseudohomophones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortese, Michael J.; Khanna, Maya M.; White, Katherine K.; Veljkovic, Ilija; Drumm, Geoffery

    2008-01-01

    Using the DRM paradigm, our experiments examined the activation and monitoring of memories in semantic and phonological networks. Participants viewed lists of words and/or pseudohomophones (e.g., "dreem"). In Experiment 1, participants verbally recalled lists of semantic associates or attempted to write them as they appeared during study. False…

  9. The Evocative Power of Words: Activation of Concepts by Verbal and Nonverbal Means

    PubMed Central

    Lupyan, Gary; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    A major part of learning a language is learning to map spoken words onto objects in the environment. An open question is what are the consequences of this learning for cognition and perception? Here, we present a series of experiments that examine effects of verbal labels on the activation of conceptual information as measured through picture verification tasks. We find that verbal cues, such as the word “cat,” lead to faster and more accurate verification of congruent objects and rejection of incongruent objects than do either nonverbal cues, such as the sound of a cat meowing, or words that do not directly refer to the object, such as the word “meowing.” This label advantage does not arise from verbal labels being more familiar or easier to process than other cues, and it does extends to newly learned labels and sounds. Despite having equivalent facility in learning associations between novel objects and labels or sounds, conceptual information is activated more effectively through verbal means than through non-verbal means. Thus, rather than simply accessing nonverbal concepts, language activates aspects of a conceptual representation in a particularly effective way. We offer preliminary support that representations activated via verbal means are more categorical and show greater consistency between subjects. These results inform the understanding of how human cognition is shaped by language and hint at effects that different patterns of naming can have on conceptual structure. PMID:21928923

  10. Bilingual Word Recognition in Deaf and Hearing Signers: Effects of Proficiency and Language Dominance on Cross-Language Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morford, Jill P.; Kroll, Judith F.; Piñar, Pilar; Wilkinson, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that American Sign Language (ASL) signs are active during print word recognition in deaf bilinguals who are highly proficient in both ASL and English. In the present study, we investigate whether signs are active during print word recognition in two groups of unbalanced bilinguals: deaf ASL-dominant and hearing…

  11. Word tones cueing morphosyntactic structure: Neuroanatomical substrates and activation time-course assessed by EEG and fMRI.

    PubMed

    Roll, Mikael; Söderström, Pelle; Mannfolk, Peter; Shtyrov, Yury; Johansson, Mikael; van Westen, Danielle; Horne, Merle

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies distinguish between right hemisphere-dominant processing of prosodic/tonal information and left-hemispheric modulation of grammatical information as well as lexical tones. Swedish word accents offer a prime testing ground to better understand this division. Although similar to lexical tones, word accents are determined by words' morphosyntactic structure, which enables listeners to use the tone at the beginning of a word to predict its grammatical ending. We recorded electrophysiological and hemodynamic brain responses to words where stem tones matched or mismatched inflectional suffixes. Tones produced brain potential effects after 136 ms, correlating with subject variability in average BOLD in left primary auditory cortex, superior temporal gyrus, and inferior frontal gyrus. Invalidly cued suffixes activated the left inferior parietal lobe, arguably reflecting increased processing cost of their meaning. Thus, interaction of word accent tones with grammatical morphology yielded a rapid neural response correlating in subject variability with activations in predominantly left-hemispheric brain areas. PMID:26291769

  12. Category-specific activations during word generation reflect experiential sensorimotor modalities

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Kai; Palmer, Erica D.; Basho, Surina; Zadra, Jonathan R.; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2009-01-01

    According to the sensorimotor theory of lexicosemantic organization, semantic representations are neurally distributed and anatomically linked to category-specific sensory areas. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated category specificity in lexicosemantic representations. However, little evidence is available from word generation paradigms, which provide access to semantic representations while minimizing confounds resulting from low-level perceptual features of stimulus presentation. In this study, 13 healthy young adults underwent fMRI scanning while performing a word generation task, generating exemplars to nine different semantic categories. Each semantic category was assigned to one of three superordinate category types, based upon sensorimotor modalities (visual, motor, somatosensory) presumed to predominate in lexical acquisition. For word generation overall, robust activation was seen in left inferior frontal cortex. Analyses by sensorimotor modality categories yielded activations in brain regions related to perceptual and motor processing: Visual categories activated extrastriate cortex, motor categories activated the intraparietal sulcus and posterior middle temporal cortex, and somatosensory categories activated postcentral and inferior parietal regions. Our results are consistent with the sensorimotor theory, according to which lexicosemantic representations are distributed across brain regions participating in sensorimotor processing associated with the experiential components of lexicosemantic acquisition. PMID:19559802

  13. CONSIDERATION OF REACTION INTERMEDIATES IN STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS: A KEY TO UNDERSTANDING AND PREDICTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration of Reaction Intermediates in Structure- Activity Relationships: A Key to Understanding and Prediction

    A structure-activity relationship (SAR) represents an empirical means for generalizing chemical information relative to biological activity, and is frequent...

  14. Product Descriptions; Word Processors and Writing Activities for the Elementary Grades. A MicroSIFT Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batey, Anne; Ricketts, Dick

    Intended to help educators choose the most appropriate word processing products for elementary school writing instruction, this report provides extensive information on 12 word processor and 13 writing activity software products. A list of components, general descriptions, comments and evaluations are included for each product. The products…

  15. Key role of tissue plasminogen activator in neurovascular coupling

    PubMed Central

    Park, Laibaik; Gallo, Eduardo F.; Anrather, Josef; Wang, Gang; Norris, Erin H.; Paul, Justin; Strickland, Sidney; Iadecola, Costantino

    2008-01-01

    The increase in blood flow evoked by synaptic activity is essential for normal brain function and underlies functional brain imaging signals. Nitric oxide, a vasodilator released by NMDA receptor activation, is critical for the flow increase, but the factors linking NMDA receptor activity to nitric oxide-dependent hyperemia are poorly understood. Here, we show that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine protease implicated in NMDA receptor signaling, is required for the flow increase evoked by somatosensory stimulation. tPA acts by facilitating neuronal nitric oxide release, but this effect does not involve enhancement of NMDA currents or the associated intracellular Ca2+ rise. Rather, the evidence suggests that tPA controls NMDA-dependent nitric oxide synthesis by influencing the phosphorylation state of neuronal nitric oxide synthase. These findings unveil a previously unrecognized role of tPA in vital homeostatic mechanisms coupling NMDA receptor signaling with nitric oxide synthesis and local cerebral perfusion. PMID:18195371

  16. A Dual-Route Perspective on Brain Activation in Response to Visual Words: Evidence for a Length by Lexicality Interaction in the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA)

    PubMed Central

    Schurz, Matthias; Sturm, Denise; Richlan, Fabio; Kronbichler, Martin; Ladurner, Gunther; Wimmer, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Based on our previous work, we expected the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) in the left ventral visual pathway to be engaged by both whole-word recognition and by serial sublexical coding of letter strings. To examine this double function, a phonological lexical decision task (i.e., “Does xxx sound like an existing word?”) presented short and long letter strings of words, pseudohomophones, and pseudowords (e.g., Taxi, Taksi and Tazi). Main findings were that the length effect for words was limited to occipital regions and absent in the VWFA. In contrast, a marked length effect for pseudowords was found throughout the ventral visual pathway including the VWFA, as well as in regions presumably engaged by visual attention and silent-articulatory processes. The length by lexicality interaction on brain activation corresponds to well-established behavioral findings of a length by lexicality interaction on naming latencies and speaks for the engagement of the VWFA by both lexical and sublexical processes. PMID:19896538

  17. A dual-route perspective on brain activation in response to visual words: evidence for a length by lexicality interaction in the visual word form area (VWFA).

    PubMed

    Schurz, Matthias; Sturm, Denise; Richlan, Fabio; Kronbichler, Martin; Ladurner, Gunther; Wimmer, Heinz

    2010-02-01

    Based on our previous work, we expected the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) in the left ventral visual pathway to be engaged by both whole-word recognition and by serial sublexical coding of letter strings. To examine this double function, a phonological lexical decision task (i.e., "Does xxx sound like an existing word?") presented short and long letter strings of words, pseudohomophones, and pseudowords (e.g., Taxi, Taksi and Tazi). Main findings were that the length effect for words was limited to occipital regions and absent in the VWFA. In contrast, a marked length effect for pseudowords was found throughout the ventral visual pathway including the VWFA, as well as in regions presumably engaged by visual attention and silent-articulatory processes. The length by lexicality interaction on brain activation corresponds to well-established behavioral findings of a length by lexicality interaction on naming latencies and speaks for the engagement of the VWFA by both lexical and sublexical processes. PMID:19896538

  18. Reading as active sensing: a computational model of gaze planning in word recognition.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Marcello; Ognibene, Dimitri; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Pirrelli, Vito

    2010-01-01

    WE OFFER A COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF GAZE PLANNING DURING READING THAT CONSISTS OF TWO MAIN COMPONENTS: a lexical representation network, acquiring lexical representations from input texts (a subset of the Italian CHILDES database), and a gaze planner, designed to recognize written words by mapping strings of characters onto lexical representations. The model implements an active sensing strategy that selects which characters of the input string are to be fixated, depending on the predictions dynamically made by the lexical representation network. We analyze the developmental trajectory of the system in performing the word recognition task as a function of both increasing lexical competence, and correspondingly increasing lexical prediction ability. We conclude by discussing how our approach can be scaled up in the context of an active sensing strategy applied to a robotic setting. PMID:20577589

  19. Word wins over face: emotional Stroop effect activates the frontal cortical network.

    PubMed

    Ovaysikia, Shima; Tahir, Khalid A; Chan, Jason L; DeSouza, Joseph F X

    2011-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in higher order cognitive control of behavior. Sometimes such control is executed through suppression of an unwanted response in order to avoid conflict. Conflict occurs when two simultaneously competing processes lead to different behavioral outcomes, as seen in tasks such as the anti-saccade, go/no-go, and the Stroop task. We set out to examine whether different types of stimuli in a modified emotional Stroop task would cause similar interference effects as the original Stroop-color/word, and whether the required suppression mechanism(s) would recruit similar regions of the medial PFC (mPFC). By using emotional words and emotional faces in this Stroop experiment, we examined the two well-learned automatic behaviors of word reading and recognition of face expressions. In our emotional Stroop paradigm, words were processed faster than face expressions with incongruent trials yielding longer reaction times and larger number of errors compared to the congruent trials. This novel Stroop effect activated the anterior and inferior regions of the mPFC, namely the anterior cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus as well as the superior frontal gyrus. Our results suggest that prepotent behaviors such as reading and recognition of face expressions are stimulus-dependent and perhaps hierarchical, hence recruiting distinct regions of the mPFC. Moreover, the faster processing of word reading compared to reporting face expressions is indicative of the formation of stronger stimulus-response associations of an over-learned behavior compared to an instinctive one, which could alternatively be explained through the distinction between awareness and selective attention. PMID:21258644

  20. Activeness as a key to counter democratic balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Shen; Liu, Yijun; Galam, Serge

    2015-08-01

    According to the classic Galam model of opinion dynamics, each agent participates at each update of an opinion interaction. While the scheme gives everyone the same chance to influence others, in reality, social activity and influence vary considerably from one agent to another. To account for such a feature, we introduce a new individual attribute-"activeness"-which makes some agents more inclined than others at engaging in local discussions. To enhance the corresponding effect, opinion updates are shifted from all-out agent interaction cycles to few agent interaction cycles. Using dynamic analysis and simulations the resulting model is found to exhibit a "Minority Counteroffensive" phenomenon, which under some initial conditions makes the minority to win the opinion competition despite a threshold tipping point at fifty percent. The associated probabilistic phenomenon persists in the case "activeness" is held equal for all agents. The effect of "opinion leaders" is also investigated. Indeed, a leader is an inflexible agent, i.e., an agent who does not change opinion. The results reveal that two opinion leaders with moderate social influence may have a stronger effect than one opinion leader with a strong social influence. The model may shed a new light to the understanding of opinion formation and public voting.

  1. Keys to active ageing: new communication technologies and lifelong learning.

    PubMed

    Díaz-López, M Del Pilar; López-Liria, Remedios; Aguilar-Parra, José M; Padilla-Góngora, David

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the creation and implementation of an ICT education program for the elderly in various Active Participation Centers in Almería (Spain), assessing its impact on quality of life. From a randomized sample of 200 individuals over the age of 55. Results reveal a high degree of participant satisfaction (76.6 %), as well as improvements in quality of life as compared to the control group after the 3 month program health factor: p = 0.004; leisure and activity factor: p = 0.001; Satisfaction with Life Factor: p < 0.001. The analysis conducted to determine the influence of age and gender on quality of life indicates that there are statistically significant differences in regards to age (the younger groups had higher scores) and gender (the males). This study may serve to facilitate similar works that promotes on-going education in different locations and across the lifespan. PMID:27386254

  2. Language experience differentiates prefrontal and subcortical activation of the cognitive control network in novel word learning

    PubMed Central

    King, Kelly E.; Hernandez, Arturo E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive control mechanisms in adult English speaking monolinguals compared to early sequential Spanish-English bilinguals during the initial stages of novel word learning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during a lexico-semantic task after only two hours of exposure to novel German vocabulary flashcards showed that monolinguals activated a broader set of cortical control regions associated with higher-level cognitive processes, including the supplementary motor area (SMA), anterior cingulate (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as the caudate, implicated in cognitive control of language. However, bilinguals recruited a more localized subcortical network that included the putamen, associated more with motor control of language. These results suggest that experience managing multiple languages may differentiate the learning strategy and subsequent neural mechanisms of cognitive control used by bilinguals compared to monolinguals in the early stages of novel word learning. PMID:23194816

  3. Sustained meaning activation for polysemous but not homonymous words: evidence from EEG.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Lucy J; Bouwsema, Jennifer; Klepousniotou, Ekaterini

    2015-02-01

    Theoretical linguistic accounts of lexical ambiguity distinguish between homonymy, where words that share a lexical form have unrelated meanings, and polysemy, where the meanings are related. The present study explored the psychological reality of this theoretical assumption by asking whether there is evidence that homonyms and polysemes are represented and processed differently in the brain. We investigated the time-course of meaning activation of different types of ambiguous words using EEG. Homonyms and polysemes were each further subdivided into two: unbalanced homonyms (e.g., "coach") and balanced homonyms (e.g., "match"); metaphorical polysemes (e.g., "mouth") and metonymic polysemes (e.g., "rabbit"). These four types of ambiguous words were presented as primes in a visual single-word priming delayed lexical decision task employing a long ISI (750 ms). Targets were related to one of the meanings of the primes, or were unrelated. ERPs formed relative to the target onset indicated that the theoretical distinction between homonymy and polysemy was reflected in the N400 brain response. For targets following homonymous primes (both unbalanced and balanced), no effects survived at this long ISI indicating that both meanings of the prime had already decayed. On the other hand, for polysemous primes (both metaphorical and metonymic), activation was observed for both dominant and subordinate senses. The observed processing differences between homonymy and polysemy provide evidence in support of differential neuro-cognitive representations for the two types of ambiguity. We argue that the polysemous senses act collaboratively to strengthen the representation, facilitating maintenance, while the competitive nature of homonymous meanings leads to decay. PMID:25576909

  4. 5 CFR 591.241 - What are the key activities of the COLA Advisory Committees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the key activities of the COLA Advisory Committees? 591.241 Section 591.241 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Areas Program Administration § 591.241 What are the key activities of the COLA Advisory Committees?...

  5. 5 CFR 591.241 - What are the key activities of the COLA Advisory Committees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What are the key activities of the COLA Advisory Committees? 591.241 Section 591.241 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Areas Program Administration § 591.241 What are the key activities of the COLA Advisory Committees?...

  6. 5 CFR 591.241 - What are the key activities of the COLA Advisory Committees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What are the key activities of the COLA Advisory Committees? 591.241 Section 591.241 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Areas Program Administration § 591.241 What are the key activities of the COLA Advisory Committees?...

  7. 5 CFR 591.241 - What are the key activities of the COLA Advisory Committees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the key activities of the COLA Advisory Committees? 591.241 Section 591.241 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Areas Program Administration § 591.241 What are the key activities of the COLA Advisory Committees?...

  8. 5 CFR 591.241 - What are the key activities of the COLA Advisory Committees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the key activities of the COLA Advisory Committees? 591.241 Section 591.241 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Areas Program Administration § 591.241 What are the key activities of the COLA Advisory Committees?...

  9. Brain activation and lexical learning: the impact of learning phase and word type.

    PubMed

    Raboyeau, G; Marcotte, K; Adrover-Roig, D; Ansaldo, A I

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the neural correlates of second-language lexical acquisition in terms of learning phase and word type. Ten French-speaking participants learned 80 Spanish words-40 cognates, 40 non-cognates-by means of a computer program. The learning process included the early learning phase, which comprised 5 days, and the consolidation phase, which lasted 2 weeks. After each phase, participants performed an overt naming task during an er-fMRI scan. Naming accuracy was better for cognates during the early learning phase only. However, cognates were named faster than non-cognates during both phases. The early learning phase was characterized by activations in the left iFG and Broca's area, which were associated with effortful lexical retrieval and phonological processing, respectively. Further, the activation in the left ACC and DLPFC suggested that monitoring may be involved during the early phases of lexical learning. During the consolidation phase, the activation in the left premotor cortex, the right supramarginal gyrus and the cerebellum indicated that articulatory planning may contribute to the consolidation of second-language phonetic representations. No dissociation between word type and learning phase could be supported. However, a Fisher r-to-z test showed that successful cognate retrieval was associated with activations in Broca's area, which could reflect the adaptation of known L1 phonological sequences. Moreover, successful retrieval of non-cognates was associated with activity in the anterior-medial left fusiform and right posterior cingulate cortices, suggesting that their successful retrieval may rely upon the access to semantic and lexical information, and even on the greater likelihood of errors. PMID:19837173

  10. A brain electrical signature of left-lateralized semantic activation from single words.

    PubMed

    Koppehele-Gossel, Judith; Schnuerch, Robert; Gibbons, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Lesion and imaging studies consistently indicate a left-lateralization of semantic language processing in human temporo-parietal cortex. Surprisingly, electrocortical measures, which allow a direct assessment of brain activity and the tracking of cognitive functions with millisecond precision, have not yet been used to capture this hemispheric lateralization, at least with respect to posterior portions of this effect. Using event-related potentials, we employed a simple single-word reading paradigm to compare neural activity during three tasks requiring different degrees of semantic processing. As expected, we were able to derive a simple temporo-parietal left-right asymmetry index peaking around 300ms into word processing that neatly tracks the degree of semantic activation. The validity of this measure in specifically capturing verbal semantic activation was further supported by a significant relation to verbal intelligence. We thus posit that it represents a promising tool to monitor verbal semantic processing in the brain with little technological effort and in a minimal experimental setup. PMID:27156035

  11. Reduced neural activity of the prefrontal cognitive control circuitry during response inhibition to negative words in people with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Vercammen, Ans; Morris, Richard; Green, Melissa J.; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Kulkarni, Jayashri; Carr, Vaughan J.; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Weickert, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is characterized by deficits in executive control and impairments in emotion processing. This study assessed the nature and extent of potential alterations in the neural substrates supporting the interaction between cognitive control mechanisms and emotion attribution processes in people with schizophrenia. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed during a verbal emotional go/no-go task. People with schizophrenia and healthy controls responded to word stimuli of a prespecified emotional valence (positive, negative or neutral) while inhibiting responses to stimuli of a different valence. Results We enrolled 20 people with schizophrenia and 23 controls in the study. Healthy controls activated an extensive dorsal prefrontal–parietal network while inhibiting responses to negative words compared to neutral words, but showed deactivation of the midcingulate cortex while inhibiting responses to positive words compared to neutral words. People with schizophrenia failed to activate this network during response inhibition to negative words, whereas during response inhibition to positive words they did not deactivate the cingulate, but showed increased responsivity in the frontal cortex. Limitations Sample heterogeneity is characteristic of studies of schizophrenia and may have contributed to more variable neural responses in the patient sample despite the care taken to control for potentially confounding variables. Conclusion Our results showed that schizophrenia is associated with aberrant modulation of neural responses during the interaction between cognitive control and emotion processing. Failure of the frontal circuitry to regulate goal-directed behaviour based on emotion attributions may contribute to deficits in psychosocial functioning in daily life. PMID:22617625

  12. Key Words in Instruction. Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    "Parents: the Anti-Drug" is a public service campaign developed on the premise that parents are the most influential adults in a child's life, at any age. Action is the operative term in these announcements. The parent is not influential in a quiet, reserved role nor as one who moves aside for others to deal with education of the child. The parent…

  13. Key Words in Instruction. Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Two challenging criteria for judging information involve bias and authority. In both cases, judgments may not be clearly possible. In both cases, there may be degrees or levels of acceptability. For students to gain experience and to demonstrate skills in making judgments, they need opportunities to consider a wide spectrum of resources under a…

  14. Key Words for New Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Taeock; Isaac, Frederick

    This paper briefly describes the effects of changes instituted by new library administrators and discusses the roles of both upper and middle level library managers in the process of adapting to change. Suggestions based on the experience of the authors as new middle level managers at a time when extensive changes were occurring in a university…

  15. Key Words in Instruction: Illustrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Defines illustrations and discusses their effective use. Topics include information literacy; statistical graphics; visual literacy; illustrating student term papers; understanding the visual display of information; illustrations that instruct; cognitive processes; and criteria for effective explanatory illustrations. (LRW)

  16. Feature activation during word recognition: action, visual, and associative-semantic priming effects

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kevin J. Y.; Dijkstra, Ton; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Embodied theories of language postulate that language meaning is stored in modality-specific brain areas generally involved in perception and action in the real world. However, the temporal dynamics of the interaction between modality-specific information and lexical-semantic processing remain unclear. We investigated the relative timing at which two types of modality-specific information (action-based and visual-form information) contribute to lexical-semantic comprehension. To this end, we applied a behavioral priming paradigm in which prime and target words were related with respect to (1) action features, (2) visual features, or (3) semantically associative information. Using a Go/No-Go lexical decision task, priming effects were measured across four different inter-stimulus intervals (ISI = 100, 250, 400, and 1000 ms) to determine the relative time course of the different features. Notably, action priming effects were found in ISIs of 100, 250, and 1000 ms whereas a visual priming effect was seen only in the ISI of 1000 ms. Importantly, our data suggest that features follow different time courses of activation during word recognition. In this regard, feature activation is dynamic, measurable in specific time windows but not in others. Thus the current study (1) demonstrates how multiple ISIs can be used within an experiment to help chart the time course of feature activation and (2) provides new evidence for embodied theories of language. PMID:26074836

  17. Electronic Word of Mouth on Twitter About Physical Activity in the United States: Exploratory Infodemiology Study

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Shelly; Janz, Kathleen F; Eckler, Petya; Yang, Jingzhen; Snetselaar, Linda G; Signorini, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    Background Twitter is a widely used social medium. However, its application in promoting health behaviors is understudied. Objective In order to provide insights into designing health marketing interventions to promote physical activity on Twitter, this exploratory infodemiology study applied both social cognitive theory and the path model of online word of mouth to examine the distribution of different electronic word of mouth (eWOM) characteristics among personal tweets about physical activity in the United States. Methods This study used 113 keywords to retrieve 1 million public tweets about physical activity in the United States posted between January 1 and March 31, 2011. A total of 30,000 tweets were randomly selected and sorted based on numbers generated by a random number generator. Two coders scanned the first 16,100 tweets and yielded 4672 (29.02%) tweets that they both agreed to be about physical activity and were from personal accounts. Finally, 1500 tweets were randomly selected from the 4672 tweets (32.11%) for further coding. After intercoder reliability scores reached satisfactory levels in the pilot coding (100 tweets separate from the final 1500 tweets), 2 coders coded 750 tweets each. Descriptive analyses, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Fisher exact tests were performed. Results Tweets about physical activity were dominated by neutral sentiments (1270/1500, 84.67%). Providing opinions or information regarding physical activity (1464/1500, 97.60%) and chatting about physical activity (1354/1500, 90.27%) were found to be popular on Twitter. Approximately 60% (905/1500, 60.33%) of the tweets demonstrated users’ past or current participation in physical activity or intentions to participate in physical activity. However, social support about physical activity was provided in less than 10% of the tweets (135/1500, 9.00%). Users with fewer people following their tweets (followers) (P=.02) and with fewer accounts that they followed (followings) (P=.04

  18. Does viotin activate violin more than viocin? On the use of visual cues during visual-word recognition.

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Panadero, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of neural and computational models of visual-word recognition assume that lexical access is achieved via the activation of abstract letter identities. Thus, a word's overall shape should play no role in this process. In the present lexical decision experiment, we compared word-like pseudowords like viotín (same shape as its base word: violín) vs. viocín (different shape) in mature (college-aged skilled readers), immature (normally reading children), and immature/impaired (young readers with developmental dyslexia) word-recognition systems. Results revealed similar response times (and error rates) to consistent-shape and inconsistent-shape pseudowords for both adult skilled readers and normally reading children - this is consistent with current models of visual-word recognition. In contrast, young readers with developmental dyslexia made significantly more errors to viotín-like pseudowords than to viocín-like pseudowords. Thus, unlike normally reading children, young readers with developmental dyslexia are sensitive to a word's visual cues, presumably because of poor letter representations. PMID:23948388

  19. Can hearing puter activate pupil? Phonological competition and the processing of reduced spoken words in spontaneous conversations.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Susanne; Mitterer, Holger; Huettig, Falk

    2012-01-01

    In listeners' daily communicative exchanges, they most often hear casual speech, in which words are often produced with fewer segments, rather than the careful speech used in most psycholinguistic experiments. Three experiments examined phonological competition during the recognition of reduced forms such as [pjutər] for computer using a target-absent variant of the visual world paradigm. Listeners' eye movements were tracked upon hearing canonical and reduced forms as they looked at displays of four printed words. One of the words was phonologically similar to the canonical pronunciation of the target word, one word was similar to the reduced pronunciation, and two words served as unrelated distractors. When spoken targets were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) and in sentential contexts (Experiment 2), competition was modulated as a function of the target word form. When reduced targets were presented in sentential contexts, listeners were probabilistically more likely to first fixate reduced-form competitors before shifting their eye gaze to canonical-form competitors. Experiment 3, in which the original /p/ from [pjutər] was replaced with a "real" onset /p/, showed an effect of cross-splicing in the late time window. We conjecture that these results fit best with the notion that speech reductions initially activate competitors that are similar to the phonological surface form of the reduction, but that listeners nevertheless can exploit fine phonetic detail to reconstruct strongly reduced forms to their canonical counterparts. PMID:22934784

  20. Word prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Rumelhart, D.E.; Skokowski, P.G.; Martin, B.O.

    1995-05-01

    In this project we have developed a language model based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for use in conjunction with automatic textual search or speech recognition systems. The model can be trained on large corpora of text to produce probability estimates that would improve the ability of systems to identify words in a sentence given partial contextual information. The model uses a gradient-descent learning procedure to develop a metric of similarity among terms in a corpus, based on context. Using lexical categories based on this metric, a network can then be trained to do serial word probability estimation. Such a metric can also be used to improve the performance of topic-based search by allowing retrieval of information that is related to desired topics even if no obvious set of key words unites all the retrieved items.

  1. Identifying Key Features of Effective Active Learning: The Effects of Writing and Peer Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Debra L.; Pangle, Wiline M.; Wyatt, Kevin H.; Powell, Karli N.; Sherwood, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated some of the key features of effective active learning by comparing the outcomes of three different methods of implementing active-learning exercises in a majors introductory biology course. Students completed activities in one of three treatments: discussion, writing, and discussion + writing. Treatments were rotated weekly between…

  2. The activation of segmental and tonal information in visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuchu; Lin, Candise Y; Wang, Min; Jiang, Nan

    2013-08-01

    Mandarin Chinese has a logographic script in which graphemes map onto syllables and morphemes. It is not clear whether Chinese readers activate phonological information during lexical access, although phonological information is not explicitly represented in Chinese orthography. In the present study, we examined the activation of phonological information, including segmental and tonal information in Chinese visual word recognition, using the Stroop paradigm. Native Mandarin speakers named the presentation color of Chinese characters in Mandarin. The visual stimuli were divided into five types: color characters (e.g., , hong2, "red"), homophones of the color characters (S+T+; e.g., , hong2, "flood"), different-tone homophones (S+T-; e.g., , hong1, "boom"), characters that shared the same tone but differed in segments with the color characters (S-T+; e.g., , ping2, "bottle"), and neutral characters (S-T-; e.g., , qian1, "leading through"). Classic Stroop facilitation was shown in all color-congruent trials, and interference was shown in the incongruent trials. Furthermore, the Stroop effect was stronger for S+T- than for S-T+ trials, and was similar between S+T+ and S+T- trials. These findings suggested that both tonal and segmental forms of information play roles in lexical constraints; however, segmental information has more weight than tonal information. We proposed a revised visual word recognition model in which the functions of both segmental and suprasegmental types of information and their relative weights are taken into account. PMID:23400856

  3. Effects of Lexicality and Word Frequency on Brain Activation in Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heim, Stefan; Wehnelt, Anke; Grande, Marion; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the neural basis of lexical access to written stimuli in adult dyslexics and normal readers via the Lexicality effect (pseudowords greater than words) and the Frequency effect (low greater than high frequent words). The participants read aloud German words (with low or high lexical frequency) or pseudowords while being scanned. In…

  4. When Deaf Signers Read English: Do Written Words Activate Their Sign Translations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morford, Jill P.; Wilkinson, Erin; Villwock, Agnes.; Pinar, Pilar; Kroll, Judith F.

    2011-01-01

    Deaf bilinguals for whom American Sign Language (ASL) is the first language and English is the second language judged the semantic relatedness of word pairs in English. Critically, a subset of both the semantically related and unrelated word pairs were selected such that the translations of the two English words also had related forms in ASL. Word…

  5. Activation Patterns throughout the Word Processing Network of L1-dominant Bilinguals Reflect Language Similarity and Language Decisions.

    PubMed

    Oganian, Yulia; Conrad, Markus; Aryani, Arash; Spalek, Katharina; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2015-11-01

    A crucial aspect of bilingual communication is the ability to identify the language of an input. Yet, the neural and cognitive basis of this ability is largely unknown. Moreover, it cannot be easily incorporated into neuronal models of bilingualism, which posit that bilinguals rely on the same neural substrates for both languages and concurrently activate them even in monolingual settings. Here we hypothesized that bilinguals can employ language-specific sublexical (bigram frequency) and lexical (orthographic neighborhood size) statistics for language recognition. Moreover, we investigated the neural networks representing language-specific statistics and hypothesized that language identity is encoded in distributed activation patterns within these networks. To this end, German-English bilinguals made speeded language decisions on visually presented pseudowords during fMRI. Language attribution followed lexical neighborhood sizes both in first (L1) and second (L2) language. RTs revealed an overall tuning to L1 bigram statistics. Neuroimaging results demonstrated tuning to L1 statistics at sublexical (occipital lobe) and phonological (temporoparietal lobe) levels, whereas neural activation in the angular gyri reflected sensitivity to lexical similarity to both languages. Analysis of distributed activation patterns reflected language attribution as early as in the ventral stream of visual processing. We conclude that in language-ambiguous contexts visual word processing is dominated by L1 statistical structure at sublexical orthographic and phonological levels, whereas lexical search is determined by the structure of both languages. Moreover, our results demonstrate that language identity modulates distributed activation patterns throughout the reading network, providing a key to language identity representations within this shared network. PMID:26226076

  6. Oscillatory brain activity in the alpha range is modulated by the content of word-prompted mental imagery

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Felix; Hamuni, Gilava; Miskovic, Vladimir; Lang, Peter J.; Keil, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Mental imagery is a fundamental cognitive process of interest to basic scientists and clinical researchers. This study examined large-scale oscillatory brain activity in the alpha band (8–12 Hz) during language-driven mental imagery using dense-array EEG. Three experiments demonstrated relative increases in alpha amplitude (1) during imagery prompted by words compared to fixation without imagery instruction, (2) during imagery of word content compared to imagery of geometric shapes, and (3) during imagery of emotionally evocative words compared to imagery of less emotionally arousing content. Alpha increases for semantically loaded imagery were observed in parieto-occipital regions, sustained throughout the imagery period. Findings imply that alpha oscillations index active memory and internal cognitive processing, reflecting neural communication in cortical networks representing motor, semantic, and perceptual aspects of the imagined scene. PMID:25616004

  7. Individual differences in oscillatory brain activity in response to varying attentional demands during a word recall and oculomotor dual task

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Gusang; Lim, Sanghyun; Kim, Min-Young; Kwon, Hyukchan; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Eun-Ju; Suh, Minah

    2015-01-01

    Every day, we face situations that involve multi-tasking. How our brain utilizes cortical resources during multi-tasking is one of many interesting research topics. In this study, we tested whether a dual-task can be differentiated in the neural and behavioral responses of healthy subjects with varying degree of working memory capacity (WMC). We combined word recall and oculomotor tasks because they incorporate common neural networks including the fronto-parietal (FP) network. Three different types of oculomotor tasks (eye fixation, Fix-EM; predictive and random smooth pursuit eye movement, P-SPEM and R-SPEM) were combined with two memory load levels (low-load: five words, high-load: 10 words) for a word recall task. Each of those dual-task combinations was supposed to create varying cognitive loads on the FP network. We hypothesize that each dual-task requires different cognitive strategies for allocating the brain’s limited cortical resources and affects brain oscillation of the FP network. In addition, we hypothesized that groups with different WMC will show differential neural and behavioral responses. We measured oscillatory brain activity with simultaneous MEG and EEG recordings and behavioral performance by word recall. Prominent frontal midline (FM) theta (4–6 Hz) synchronization emerged in the EEG of the high-WMC group experiencing R-SPEM with high-load conditions during the early phase of the word maintenance period. Conversely, significant parietal upper alpha (10–12 Hz) desynchronization was observed in the EEG and MEG of the low-WMC group experiencing P-SPEM under high-load conditions during the same period. Different brain oscillatory patterns seem to depend on each individual’s WMC and varying attentional demands from different dual-task combinations. These findings suggest that specific brain oscillations may reflect different strategies for allocating cortical resources during combined word recall and oculomotor dual-tasks. PMID:26175681

  8. Active Inhibition of a Distractor Word: The Distractor Precue Benefit in the Stroop Color-Naming Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Hsuan-Fu

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated attentional control through active inhibition of the identity of the distractor. Adapting a Stroop paradigm, the distractor word was presented in advance and made to disappear, followed by the presentation of a Stroop stimulus. Participants were instructed to inhibit the distractor in order to reduce its…

  9. The Relationship between Interaction with the Caregiver and the Emergence of Play Activities During the One-Word Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zukow, Patricia Goldring

    The relationship between interaction with the caregiver and the emergence of play activities during the one-word period was examined. In particular, investigation centered on Vygotsky's views regarding the importance of social interaction as the source of the child's knowledge of the world. To empirically examine the role of the caregiver,…

  10. Words Matter: A Semantic Differential Study of Recreation, Leisure, Play, Activity, and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlag, Paul A.; Yoder, Daniel G.; Sheng, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Beyond the standard definitions found in the dictionary, words commonly used in the recreation field have subtle, yet powerful connotations of which senders and receivers of information may not be consciously aware. These words elicit different conscious and subconscious reactions that likely bear significant consequences for recreation agencies…

  11. Parafoveal Processing of Transposed-Letter Words and Nonwords: Evidence against Parafoveal Lexical Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rebecca L.; Dunne, Maxine D.

    2012-01-01

    The current experiments explored the parafoveal processing of transposed-letter (TL) neighbors by using an eye-movement-contingent boundary change paradigm. In Experiment 1 readers received a parafoveal preview of a target word (e.g., "calm") that was either (1) identical to the target word ("calm"), (2) a TL-neighbor ("clam"), or (3) a…

  12. Language Non-Selective Activation of Orthography during Spoken Word Processing in Hindi-English Sequential Bilinguals: An Eye Tracking Visual World Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Niharika

    2014-01-01

    Previous psycholinguistic studies have shown that bilinguals activate lexical items of both the languages during auditory and visual word processing. In this study we examined if Hindi-English bilinguals activate the orthographic forms of phonological neighbors of translation equivalents of the non target language while listening to words either…

  13. Feature Statistics Modulate the Activation of Meaning During Spoken Word Processing.

    PubMed

    Devereux, Barry J; Taylor, Kirsten I; Randall, Billi; Geertzen, Jeroen; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2016-03-01

    Understanding spoken words involves a rapid mapping from speech to conceptual representations. One distributed feature-based conceptual account assumes that the statistical characteristics of concepts' features--the number of concepts they occur in (distinctiveness/sharedness) and likelihood of co-occurrence (correlational strength)--determine conceptual activation. To test these claims, we investigated the role of distinctiveness/sharedness and correlational strength in speech-to-meaning mapping, using a lexical decision task and computational simulations. Responses were faster for concepts with higher sharedness, suggesting that shared features are facilitatory in tasks like lexical decision that require access to them. Correlational strength facilitated responses for slower participants, suggesting a time-sensitive co-occurrence-driven settling mechanism. The computational simulation showed similar effects, with early effects of shared features and later effects of correlational strength. These results support a general-to-specific account of conceptual processing, whereby early activation of shared features is followed by the gradual emergence of a specific target representation. PMID:26043761

  14. "Numbers, Numerals, Numeration": Activities Using Numeration Cards with Emphasis on Place Value, 100 Board Activities, and Number Words. (Grades 1-4.) Title I Elementary Mathematics Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxberger, Nancy; Sollenbarger, Sherry

    Mathematics activities and materials for teaching and reinforcing number concepts are presented. The activities, which rely primarily on number cards, are divided into the following sections: (1) sets less than ten; (2) the teen numbers; (3) sets and numerals to 100; (4) numeration; and (5) words that represent numbers (e.g., "one=1"). An…

  15. Experimental demonstration of an active phase randomization and monitor module for quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2012-08-01

    Phase randomization is a very important assumption in the BB84 quantum key distribution (QKD) system with weak coherent source; otherwise, eavesdropper may spy the final key. In this Letter, a stable and monitored active phase randomization scheme for the one-way and two-way QKD system is proposed and demonstrated in experiments. Furthermore, our scheme gives an easy way for Alice to monitor the degree of randomization in experiments. Therefore, we expect our scheme to become a standard part in future QKD systems due to its secure significance and feasibility.

  16. Prediction of Geomagnetic Activity and Key Parameters in High-Latitude Ionosphere-Basic Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyatsky, W.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2007-01-01

    Prediction of geomagnetic activity and related events in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere is an important task of the Space Weather program. Prediction reliability is dependent on the prediction method and elements included in the prediction scheme. Two main elements are a suitable geomagnetic activity index and coupling function -- the combination of solar wind parameters providing the best correlation between upstream solar wind data and geomagnetic activity. The appropriate choice of these two elements is imperative for any reliable prediction model. The purpose of this work was to elaborate on these two elements -- the appropriate geomagnetic activity index and the coupling function -- and investigate the opportunity to improve the reliability of the prediction of geomagnetic activity and other events in the Earth's magnetosphere. The new polar magnetic index of geomagnetic activity and the new version of the coupling function lead to a significant increase in the reliability of predicting the geomagnetic activity and some key parameters, such as cross-polar cap voltage and total Joule heating in high-latitude ionosphere, which play a very important role in the development of geomagnetic and other activity in the Earth s magnetosphere, and are widely used as key input parameters in modeling magnetospheric, ionospheric, and thermospheric processes.

  17. Two Words, One Meaning: Evidence of Automatic Co-Activation of Translation Equivalents

    PubMed Central

    Dimitropoulou, Maria; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Research on the processing of translations offers important insights on how bilinguals negotiate the representation of words from two languages in one mind and one brain. Evidence so far has shown that translation equivalents effectively activate each other as well as their shared concept even when translations lack of any formal overlap (i.e., non-cognates) and even when one of them is presented subliminally, namely under masked priming conditions. In the lexical decision studies testing masked translation priming effects with unbalanced bilinguals a remarkably stable pattern emerges: larger effects in the dominant (L1) to the non-dominant (L2) translation direction, than vice versa. Interestingly, this asymmetry vanishes when simultaneous and balanced bilinguals are tested, suggesting that the linguistic profile of the bilinguals could be determining the pattern of cross-language lexico-semantic activation across the L2 learning trajectory. The present study aims to detect whether L2 proficiency is the critical variable rendering the otherwise asymmetric cross-language activation of translations obtained in the lexical decision task into symmetric. Non-cognate masked translation priming effects were examined with three groups of Greek (L1)–English (L2) unbalanced bilinguals, differing exclusively at their level of L2 proficiency. Although increased L2 proficiency led to improved overall L2 performance, masked translation priming effects were virtually identical across the three groups, yielding in all cases significant but asymmetric effects (i.e., larger effects in the L1 → L2 than in the L2 → L1 translation direction). These findings show that proficiency does not modulate masked translation priming effects at intermediate levels, and that a native-like level of L2 proficiency is needed for symmetric effects to emerge. They furthermore, pose important constraints on the operation of the mechanisms underlying the development of cross

  18. Word frequency affects hypermnesia.

    PubMed

    Macie, K M; Larsen, J D

    1996-12-01

    Hypermnesia, the tendency of participants to recall more items from a list they have studied when they are asked to recall the list several times on a free-recall test, is enhanced by factors that lead to better performance on free-recall tests. This study tested the hypothesis that words which appear with high frequency in the English language would produce hypermnesia but that low frequency words would not. The activity the 57 participants were required to do between repeated recall tests was also manipulated but had no effect on the number of words recalled. High frequency words resulted in hypermnesia but low frequency words did not. PMID:9009796

  19. Impact of changed positive and negative task-related brain activity on word-retrieval in aging

    PubMed Central

    Meinzer, M.; Seeds, L.; Flaisch, T.; Harnish, S.; Cohen, M.L.; McGregor, K.; Conway, T.; Benjamin, M.; Crosson, B.

    2010-01-01

    Previous functional imaging studies that compared activity patterns in older and younger adults during non-linguistic tasks found evidence for two phenomena: older participants usually show more pronounced task-related positive activity in the brain hemisphere that is not dominant for the task and less pronounced negative task-related activity in temporo-parietal and midline brain regions. The combined effects of these phenomena and the impact on word-retrieval, however, have not yet been assessed. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore task-related positive (active task > baseline) and negative activity (baseline > active task) during semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tasks. Increased right-frontal positive activity during the semantic task and reduced negative activity in the right hemisphere during both tasks was associated with reduced performance in older subjects. No substantial relationship between changes in positive and negative activity was observed in the older participants, pointing towards two partially independent but potentially co-occurring processes. Underlying causes of the observed functional network inefficiency during word-retrieval in older adults need to be determined in the future. PMID:20696496

  20. The immune theory of psychiatric diseases: a key role for activated microglia and circulating monocytes.

    PubMed

    Beumer, Wouter; Gibney, Sinead M; Drexhage, Roosmarijn C; Pont-Lezica, Lorena; Doorduin, Janine; Klein, Hans C; Steiner, Johann; Connor, Thomas J; Harkin, Andrew; Versnel, Marjan A; Drexhage, Hemmo A

    2012-11-01

    This review describes a key role for mononuclear phagocytes in the pathogenesis of major psychiatric disorders. There is accumulating evidence for activation of microglia (histopathology and PET scans) and circulating monocytes (enhanced gene expression of immune genes, an overproduction of monocyte/macrophage-related cytokines) in patients with bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia. These data are strengthened by observations in animal models, such as the MIA models, the chronic stress models, and the NOD mouse model. In these animal models of depressive-, anxiety-, and schizophrenia-like behavior, similar activations of microglia and circulating monocytes can be found. These animal models also make in-depth pathogenic studies possible and show that microglia activation impacts neuronal development and function in brain areas congruent with the altered depressive and schizophrenia-like behaviors. PMID:22875882

  1. Identifying Key Features of Effective Active Learning: The Effects of Writing and Peer Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Pangle, Wiline M.; Wyatt, Kevin H.; Powell, Karli N.; Sherwood, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated some of the key features of effective active learning by comparing the outcomes of three different methods of implementing active-learning exercises in a majors introductory biology course. Students completed activities in one of three treatments: discussion, writing, and discussion + writing. Treatments were rotated weekly between three sections taught by three different instructors in a full factorial design. The data set was analyzed by generalized linear mixed-effect models with three independent variables: student aptitude, treatment, and instructor, and three dependent (assessment) variables: change in score on pre- and postactivity clicker questions, and coding scores on in-class writing and exam essays. All independent variables had significant effects on student performance for at least one of the dependent variables. Students with higher aptitude scored higher on all assessments. Student scores were higher on exam essay questions when the activity was implemented with a writing component compared with peer discussion only. There was a significant effect of instructor, with instructors showing different degrees of effectiveness with active-learning techniques. We suggest that individual writing should be implemented as part of active learning whenever possible and that instructors may need training and practice to become effective with active learning. PMID:25185230

  2. Identifying key features of effective active learning: the effects of writing and peer discussion.

    PubMed

    Linton, Debra L; Pangle, Wiline M; Wyatt, Kevin H; Powell, Karli N; Sherwood, Rachel E

    2014-01-01

    We investigated some of the key features of effective active learning by comparing the outcomes of three different methods of implementing active-learning exercises in a majors introductory biology course. Students completed activities in one of three treatments: discussion, writing, and discussion + writing. Treatments were rotated weekly between three sections taught by three different instructors in a full factorial design. The data set was analyzed by generalized linear mixed-effect models with three independent variables: student aptitude, treatment, and instructor, and three dependent (assessment) variables: change in score on pre- and postactivity clicker questions, and coding scores on in-class writing and exam essays. All independent variables had significant effects on student performance for at least one of the dependent variables. Students with higher aptitude scored higher on all assessments. Student scores were higher on exam essay questions when the activity was implemented with a writing component compared with peer discussion only. There was a significant effect of instructor, with instructors showing different degrees of effectiveness with active-learning techniques. We suggest that individual writing should be implemented as part of active learning whenever possible and that instructors may need training and practice to become effective with active learning. PMID:25185230

  3. "Word Power" (Vocabulary Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Roxy

    Containing numerous vocabulary-building activities and exercises, this guidebook is designed to help elementary students learn to manipulate language as they gain concrete experiences with words, increase their "word power," and have fun. The activities described involve dictionary games, synonyms, "saidonyms" (alternatives for the overused word…

  4. Intensive instruction affects brain magnetic activity associated with oral word reading in children with persistent reading disabilities.

    PubMed

    Simos, Panagiotis G; Fletcher, Jack M; Sarkari, Shirin; Billingsley-Marshall, Rebecca; Denton, Carolyn A; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen children ages 7 to 9 years who had persistent reading difficulties despite adequate instruction were provided with intensive tutorial interventions. The interventions targeted deficient phonological processing and decoding skills for 8 weeks (2 hours per day) followed by an 8-week, 1-hour-per-day intervention that focused on the development of reading fluency skills. Spatiotemporal brain activation profiles were obtained at baseline and after each 8-week intervention program using magnetoencephalography during the performance of an oral sight-word reading task. Changes in brain activity were found in the posterior part of the middle temporal gyrus (Brodmann's Area [BA] 21: increased degree of activity and reduced onset latency), the lateral occipitotemporal region (BA 19/37: decreased onset latency of activation), and the premotor cortex (increased onset latency). Overall changes associated with the intervention were primarily normalizing, as indicated by (a) increased activity in a region that is typically involved in lexical--semantic processing (BA 21) and (b) a shift in the relative timing of regional activity in temporal and frontal cortices to a pattern typically seen in unimpaired readers. These findings extend previous results in demonstrating significant changes in the spatiotemporal profile of activation associated with word reading in response to reading remediation. PMID:17274546

  5. The Temporal Dynamics of Ambiguity Resolution: Evidence from Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahan, Delphine; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments examined the dynamics of lexical activation in spoken-word recognition. In both, the key materials were pairs of onset-matched picturable nouns varying in frequency. Pictures associated with these words, plus two distractor pictures were displayed. A gating task, in which participants identified the picture associated with…

  6. Comparison of Hemispheric Activation during Mental Word and Rhyme Generation Using Transcranial Doppler Sonography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krach, Soren; Hartje, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The Wada test is at present the method of choice for preoperative assessment of patients who require surgery close to cortical language areas. It is, however, an invasive test with an attached morbidity risk. By now, an alternative to the Wada test is to combine a lexical word generation paradigm with non-invasive imaging techniques. However,…

  7. Feature Statistics Modulate the Activation of Meaning during Spoken Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devereux, Barry J.; Taylor, Kirsten I.; Randall, Billi; Geertzen, Jeroen; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding spoken words involves a rapid mapping from speech to conceptual representations. One distributed feature-based conceptual account assumes that the statistical characteristics of concepts' features--the number of concepts they occur in ("distinctiveness/sharedness") and likelihood of co-occurrence ("correlational…

  8. Automatic Semantic Activation of Embedded Words: Is There a ''Hat'' in ''That''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, J.S.; Davis, C.J.; Hanley, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Participants semantically categorized target words that contain subsets (Experiment 1; e.g., target=hatch, subset=hat) or that are parts of supersets (Experiment 2; e.g., target=bee, superset=beer). In both experiments, the targets were categorized in a congruent condition (in which the subset-superset was associated with the same response, e.g.,…

  9. The SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme: Current activities and future key tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, A. A.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Decaulne, A.

    2012-04-01

    Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G./A.I.G.)SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme was formed in 2005 to address this existing key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD currently has about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international programme is composed of ten scientists from eight different countries: Achim A. Beylich (Chair) (Norway), Armelle Decaulne (Secretary) (France), John C. Dixon (USA), Scott F. Lamoureux (Vice-Chair) (Canada), John F. Orwin (Canada), Jan-Christoph Otto (Austria), Irina Overeem (USA), Thorsteinn Saemundsson (Iceland), Jeff Warburton (UK), Zbigniew Zwolinski (Poland). The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Initially formed as European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX (2004-2006), SEDIBUD has further expanded to a global group of researchers with field research sites located in polar and alpine regions in the northern and southern hemisphere. Research carried out at each of the close to 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by programme, logistics and available resources, but typically represent interdisciplinary collaborations of

  10. Can cognitive models explain brain activation during word and pseudoword reading? A meta-analysis of 36 neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J S H; Rastle, Kathleen; Davis, Matthew H

    2013-07-01

    Reading in many alphabetic writing systems depends on both item-specific knowledge used to read irregular words (sew, yacht) and generative spelling-sound knowledge used to read pseudowords (tew, yash). Research into the neural basis of these abilities has been directed largely by cognitive accounts proposed by the dual-route cascaded and triangle models of reading. We develop a framework that enables predictions for neural activity to be derived from cognitive models of reading using 2 principles: (a) the extent to which a model component or brain region is engaged by a stimulus and (b) how much effort is exerted in processing that stimulus. To evaluate the derived predictions, we conducted a meta-analysis of 36 neuroimaging studies of reading using the quantitative activation likelihood estimation technique. Reliable clusters of activity are localized during word versus pseudoword and irregular versus regular word reading and demonstrate a great deal of convergence between the functional organization of the reading system put forward by cognitive models and the neural systems activated during reading tasks. Specifically, left-hemisphere activation clusters are revealed reflecting orthographic analysis (occipitotemporal cortex), lexical and/or semantic processing (anterior fusiform, middle temporal gyrus), spelling-sound conversion (inferior parietal cortex), and phonological output resolution (inferior frontal gyrus). Our framework and results establish that cognitive models of reading are relevant for interpreting neuroimaging studies and that neuroscientific studies can provide data relevant for advancing cognitive models. This article thus provides a firm empirical foundation from which to improve integration between cognitive and neural accounts of the reading process. PMID:23046391

  11. Phosphatase activity in relation to key litter and soil properties in mature subtropical forests in China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Enqing; Chen, Chengrong; Wen, Dazhi; Liu, Xian

    2015-05-15

    Phosphatase-mediated phosphorus (P) mineralization is one of the critical processes in biogeochemical cycling of P and determines soil P availability in forest ecosystems; however, the regulation of soil phosphatase activity remains elusive. This study investigated the potential extracellular activities of acid phosphomonoesterase (AcPME) and phosphodiesterase (PDE) and how they were related to key edaphic properties in the L horizon (undecomposed litter) and F/H horizon (fermented and humified litter) and the underlying mineral soil at the 0-15cm depth in eight mature subtropical forests in China. AcPME activity decreased significantly in the order of F/H horizon>L horizon>mineral soil horizon, while the order for PDE activity was L horizon=F/H horizon>mineral soil horizon. AcPME (X axis) and PDE (Y axis) activities were positively correlated in all horizons with significantly higher slope in the L and F/H horizons than in the mineral soil horizon. Both AcPME and PDE activities were positively related to microbial biomass C, moisture content and water-holding capacity in the L horizon, and were positively related to soil C:P, N:P and C:N ratios and fine root (diameter≤2mm) biomass in the mineral soil horizon. Both enzyme activities were also interactively affected by forest and horizon, partly due to the interactive effect of forest and horizon on microbial biomass. Our results suggest that modulator(s) of the potential extracellular activity of phosphatases vary with horizon, depending on the relative C, P and water availability of the horizon. PMID:25700362

  12. Same Modulation but Different Starting Points: Performance Modulates Age Differences in Inferior Frontal Cortex Activity during Word-Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Meinzer, Marcus; Flaisch, Tobias; Seeds, Lauren; Harnish, Stacy; Antonenko, Daria; Witte, Veronica; Lindenberg, Robert; Crosson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The neural basis of word-retrieval deficits in normal aging has rarely been assessed and the few previous functional imaging studies found enhanced activity in right prefrontal areas in healthy older compared to younger adults. However, more pronounced right prefrontal recruitment has primarily been observed during challenging task conditions. Moreover, increased task difficulty may result in enhanced activity in the ventral inferior frontal gyrus (vIFG) bilaterally in younger participants as well. Thus, the question arises whether increased activity in older participants represents an age-related phenomenon or reflects task difficulty effects. In the present study, we manipulated task difficulty during overt semantic and phonemic word-generation and used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess activity patterns in the vIFG in healthy younger and older adults (N = 16/group; mean age: 24 vs. 69 years). Both groups produced fewer correct responses during the more difficult task conditions. Overall, older participants produced fewer correct responses and showed more pronounced task-related activity in the right vIFG. However, increased activity during the more difficult conditions was found in both groups. Absolute degree of activity was correlated with performance across groups, tasks and difficulty levels. Activity modulation (difficult vs. easy conditions) was correlated with the respective drop in performance across groups and tasks. In conclusion, vIFG activity levels and modulation of activity were mediated by performance accuracy in a similar way in both groups. Group differences in the right vIFG activity were explained by performance accuracy which needs to be considered in future functional imaging studies of healthy and pathological aging. PMID:22438970

  13. Same modulation but different starting points: performance modulates age differences in inferior frontal cortex activity during word-retrieval.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, Marcus; Flaisch, Tobias; Seeds, Lauren; Harnish, Stacy; Antonenko, Daria; Witte, Veronica; Lindenberg, Robert; Crosson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The neural basis of word-retrieval deficits in normal aging has rarely been assessed and the few previous functional imaging studies found enhanced activity in right prefrontal areas in healthy older compared to younger adults. However, more pronounced right prefrontal recruitment has primarily been observed during challenging task conditions. Moreover, increased task difficulty may result in enhanced activity in the ventral inferior frontal gyrus (vIFG) bilaterally in younger participants as well. Thus, the question arises whether increased activity in older participants represents an age-related phenomenon or reflects task difficulty effects. In the present study, we manipulated task difficulty during overt semantic and phonemic word-generation and used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess activity patterns in the vIFG in healthy younger and older adults (N = 16/group; mean age: 24 vs. 69 years). Both groups produced fewer correct responses during the more difficult task conditions. Overall, older participants produced fewer correct responses and showed more pronounced task-related activity in the right vIFG. However, increased activity during the more difficult conditions was found in both groups. Absolute degree of activity was correlated with performance across groups, tasks and difficulty levels. Activity modulation (difficult vs. easy conditions) was correlated with the respective drop in performance across groups and tasks. In conclusion, vIFG activity levels and modulation of activity were mediated by performance accuracy in a similar way in both groups. Group differences in the right vIFG activity were explained by performance accuracy which needs to be considered in future functional imaging studies of healthy and pathological aging. PMID:22438970

  14. The time-course of lexical activation in Japanese morphographic word recognition: evidence for a character-driven processing model.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Koji; Libben, Gary; Dijkstra, Ton; Baayen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This lexical decision study with eye tracking of Japanese two-kanji-character words investigated the order in which a whole two-character word and its morphographic constituents are activated in the course of lexical access, the relative contributions of the left and the right characters in lexical decision, the depth to which semantic radicals are processed, and how nonlinguistic factors affect lexical processes. Mixed-effects regression analyses of response times and subgaze durations (i.e., first-pass fixation time spent on each of the two characters) revealed joint contributions of morphographic units at all levels of the linguistic structure with the magnitude and the direction of the lexical effects modulated by readers' locus of attention in a left-to-right preferred processing path. During the early time frame, character effects were larger in magnitude and more robust than radical and whole-word effects, regardless of the font size and the type of nonwords. Extending previous radical-based and character-based models, we propose a task/decision-sensitive character-driven processing model with a level-skipping assumption: Connections from the feature level bypass the lower radical level and link up directly to the higher character level. PMID:23713954

  15. Evidence for the Activation of Sensorimotor Information during Visual Word Recognition: The Body-Object Interaction Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siakaluk, Paul D.; Pexman, Penny M.; Aguilera, Laura; Owen, William J.; Sears, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of sensorimotor experience in two visual word recognition tasks. Body-object interaction (BOI) ratings were collected for a large set of words. These ratings assess perceptions of the ease with which a human body can physically interact with a word's referent. A set of high BOI words (e.g., "mask") and a set of low BOI…

  16. Parvoviruses Cause Nuclear Envelope Breakdown by Activating Key Enzymes of Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Porwal, Manvi; Cohen, Sarah; Snoussi, Kenza; Popa-Wagner, Ruth; Anderson, Fenja; Dugot-Senant, Nathalie; Wodrich, Harald; Dinsart, Christiane; Kleinschmidt, Jürgen A.; Panté, Nelly; Kann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Disassembly of the nuclear lamina is essential in mitosis and apoptosis requiring multiple coordinated enzymatic activities in nucleus and cytoplasm. Activation and coordination of the different activities is poorly understood and moreover complicated as some factors translocate between cytoplasm and nucleus in preparatory phases. Here we used the ability of parvoviruses to induce nuclear membrane breakdown to understand the triggers of key mitotic enzymes. Nuclear envelope disintegration was shown upon infection, microinjection but also upon their application to permeabilized cells. The latter technique also showed that nuclear envelope disintegration was independent upon soluble cytoplasmic factors. Using time-lapse microscopy, we observed that nuclear disassembly exhibited mitosis-like kinetics and occurred suddenly, implying a catastrophic event irrespective of cell- or type of parvovirus used. Analyzing the order of the processes allowed us to propose a model starting with direct binding of parvoviruses to distinct proteins of the nuclear pore causing structural rearrangement of the parvoviruses. The resulting exposure of domains comprising amphipathic helices was required for nuclear envelope disintegration, which comprised disruption of inner and outer nuclear membrane as shown by electron microscopy. Consistent with Ca++ efflux from the lumen between inner and outer nuclear membrane we found that Ca++ was essential for nuclear disassembly by activating PKC. PKC activation then triggered activation of cdk-2, which became further activated by caspase-3. Collectively our study shows a unique interaction of a virus with the nuclear envelope, provides evidence that a nuclear pool of executing enzymes is sufficient for nuclear disassembly in quiescent cells, and demonstrates that nuclear disassembly can be uncoupled from initial phases of mitosis. PMID:24204256

  17. Identification of key neoculin residues responsible for the binding and activation of the sweet taste receptor

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, Taichi; Terada, Tohru; Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Kojima, Masaki; Koshiba, Seizo; Matsumura, Yoshitaka; Kaneda, Kohei; Asakura, Tomiko; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Abe, Keiko; Misaka, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Neoculin (NCL) is a heterodimeric protein isolated from the edible fruit of Curculigo latifolia. It exerts a taste-modifying activity by converting sourness to sweetness. We previously demonstrated that NCL changes its action on the human sweet receptor hT1R2-hT1R3 from antagonism to agonism as the pH changes from neutral to acidic values, and that the histidine residues of NCL molecule play critical roles in this pH-dependent functional change. Here, we comprehensively screened key amino acid residues of NCL using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and alanine scanning mutagenesis. We found that the mutations of Arg48, Tyr65, Val72 and Phe94 of NCL basic subunit increased or decreased both the antagonist and agonist activities. The mutations had only a slight effect on the pH-dependent functional change. These residues should determine the affinity of NCL for the receptor regardless of pH. Their locations were separated from the histidine residues responsible for the pH-dependent functional change in the tertiary structure. From these results, we concluded that NCL interacts with hT1R2-hT1R3 through a pH-independent affinity interface including the four residues and a pH-dependent activation interface including the histidine residues. Thus, the receptor activation is induced by local structural changes in the pH-dependent interface. PMID:26263392

  18. Brain activation during the perception of stressful word stimuli concerning interpersonal relationships in anorexia nervosa patients with high degrees of alexithymia in an fMRI paradigm.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Onoda, Keiichi; Shirao, Naoko; Okamoto, Yuri; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2012-02-28

    Several studies have reported that anorexia nervosa (AN) patients have high levels of alexithymia. However, relatively little is known about the underlying neurobiological relationships between alexithymia and AN. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the brain responses in 30 AN patients and 20 healthy women during the processing of negative words concerning interpersonal relationships. We investigated the relationship between alexithymia levels and brain activation in AN. AN patients showed significant activation of the orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and medial prefrontal cortex while processing negative words concerning interpersonal relationships, as compared to the processing of neutral words. Moreover, the subjective rating of unpleasantness with negative words and neural activities in the amygdala, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) negatively correlated with the level of alexithymia in AN. Our neuroimaging results suggest that AN patients tend to cognitively process negative words concerning interpersonal relationships, resulting in activation of the prefrontal cortex. Lower activation of the amygdala, PCC and ACC in response to these words may contribute to the impairments of emotional processing that are hallmarks of alexithymia. Functional abnormalities associated with alexithymia may be involved in the emotional processing impairments in AN patients. PMID:22398299

  19. Activity of left inferior frontal gyrus related to word repetition effects: LORETA imaging with 128-channel EEG and individual MRI.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Youn; Lee, Boreom; Shin, Yong Wook; Kwon, Jun Soo; Kim, Myung-Sun

    2006-02-01

    We investigated the brain substrate of word repetition effects on the implicit memory task using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) with high-density 128-channel EEG and individual MRI as a realistic head model. Thirteen right-handed, healthy subjects performed a word/non-word discrimination task, in which the words and non-words were presented visually, and some of the words appeared twice with a lag of one or five items. All of the subjects exhibited word repetition effects with respect to the behavioral data, in which a faster reaction time was observed to the repeated word (old word) than to the first presentation of the word (new word). The old words elicited more positive-going potentials than the new words, beginning at 200 ms and lasting until 500 ms post-stimulus. We conducted source reconstruction using LORETA at a latency of 400 ms with the peak mean global field potentials and used statistical parametric mapping for the statistical analysis. We found that the source elicited by the old words exhibited a statistically significant current density reduction in the left inferior frontal gyrus. This is the first study to investigate the generators of word repetition effects using voxel-by-voxel statistical mapping of the current density with individual MRI and high-density EEG. PMID:16188458

  20. The Power of Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article describes "The Power of Words," a free, online curriculum that explores common labels for ethnic groups, women and sexual minorities. From an activity exploring the roots of slang for immigrants to a lesson on recent attempts by marginalized groups to reclaim pejorative words, the curriculum's 10 lesson plans support content standards…

  1. Chippy's Computer Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willing, Kathlene R.; Girard, Suzanne

    Intended for young children just becoming familiar with computers, this naming book introduces and reinforces new computer vocabulary and concepts. The 20 words are presented alphabetically, along with illustrations, providing room for different activities in which children can match and name the pictures and words. The 20 vocabulary items are…

  2. Src activation by β-adrenoreceptors is a key switch for tumor metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Allen, Julie K.; Cruz, Anthony; Stone, Rebecca L.; Nick, Alpa M.; Lin, Yvonne G.; Han, Liz Y.; Mangala, Lingegowda S.; Villares, Gabriel J.; Vivas-Mejia, Pablo; Rodriguez-Aquayo, Cristian; Nagaraja, Archana S.; Gharpure, Kshipra M.; Wu, Zheng; English, Robert D.; Soman, Kizhake V.; Shazhad, Mian M. K.; Zigler, Maya; Deavers, Michael T.; Zien, Alexander; Soldatos, Theodoros G.; Jackson, David B.; Wiktorowicz, John E.; Torres-Lugo, Madeline; Young, Tom; De Geest, Koen; Gallick, Gary E.; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Cole, Steve W.; Lopez, Gustavo E.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Sood, Anil K.

    2012-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) can modulate multiple cellular functions important for cancer progression; however, how this single extracellular signal regulates such a broad array of cellular processes is unknown. Here, we identify Src as a key regulator of phosphoproteomic signaling networks activated in response to beta-adrenergic signaling in cancer cells. These results also identify a new mechanism of Src phosphorylation that mediates beta-adrenergic/PKA regulation of downstream networks, thereby enhancing tumor cell migration, invasion and growth. In human ovarian cancer samples, high tumoral NE levels were correlated with high pSrcY419 levels. Moreover, among cancer patients, the use of beta blockers was significantly associated with reduced cancer-related mortality. Collectively, these data provide a pivotal molecular target for disrupting neural signaling in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:23360994

  3. Src activation by β-adrenoreceptors is a key switch for tumour metastasis.

    PubMed

    Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N; Allen, Julie K; Cruz, Anthony; Stone, Rebecca L; Nick, Alpa M; Lin, Yvonne G; Han, Liz Y; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Villares, Gabriel J; Vivas-Mejia, Pablo; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Nagaraja, Archana S; Gharpure, Kshipra M; Wu, Zheng; English, Robert D; Soman, Kizhake V; Shahzad, Mian M K; Shazhad, Mian M K; Zigler, Maya; Deavers, Michael T; Zien, Alexander; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Jackson, David B; Wiktorowicz, John E; Torres-Lugo, Madeline; Young, Tom; De Geest, Koen; Gallick, Gary E; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Cole, Steve W; Lopez, Gustavo E; Lutgendorf, Susan K; Sood, Anil K

    2013-01-01

    Noradrenaline can modulate multiple cellular functions important for cancer progression; however, how this single extracellular signal regulates such a broad array of cellular processes is unknown. Here we identify Src as a key regulator of phosphoproteomic signalling networks activated in response to beta-adrenergic signalling in cancer cells. These results also identify a new mechanism of Src phosphorylation that mediates beta-adrenergic/PKA regulation of downstream networks, thereby enhancing tumour cell migration, invasion and growth. In human ovarian cancer samples, high tumoural noradrenaline levels were correlated with high pSrc(Y419) levels. Moreover, among cancer patients, the use of beta blockers was significantly associated with reduced cancer-related mortality. Collectively, these data provide a pivotal molecular target for disrupting neural signalling in the tumour microenvironment. PMID:23360994

  4. The linker connecting the two kringles plays a key role in prothrombin activation

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, Nicola; Chen, Zhiwei; Pelc, Leslie A.; Shropshire, Daniel B.; Di Cera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    The zymogen prothrombin is proteolytically converted by factor Xa to the active protease thrombin in a reaction that is accelerated >3,000-fold by cofactor Va. This physiologically important effect is paradigmatic of analogous cofactor-dependent reactions in the coagulation and complement cascades, but its structural determinants remain poorly understood. Prothrombin has three linkers connecting the N-terminal Gla domain to kringle-1 (Lnk1), the two kringles (Lnk2), and kringle-2 to the C-terminal protease domain (Lnk3). Recent developments indicate that the linkers, and particularly Lnk2, confer on the zymogen significant flexibility in solution and enable prothrombin to sample alternative conformations. The role of this flexibility in the context of prothrombin activation was tested with several deletions. Removal of Lnk2 in almost its entirety (ProTΔ146–167) drastically reduces the enhancement of thrombin generation by cofactor Va from >3,000-fold to 60-fold because of a significant increase in the rate of activation in the absence of cofactor. Deletion of Lnk2 mimics the action of cofactor Va and offers insights into how prothrombin is activated at the molecular level. The crystal structure of ProTΔ146–167 reveals a contorted architecture where the domains are not vertically stacked, kringle-1 comes within 9 Å of the protease domain, and the Gla-domain primed for membrane binding comes in contact with kringle-2. These findings broaden our molecular understanding of a key reaction of the blood coagulation cascade where cofactor Va enhances activation of prothrombin by factor Xa by compressing Lnk2 and morphing prothrombin into a conformation similar to the structure of ProTΔ146–167. PMID:24821807

  5. The Automatic Activation of Emotion and Emotion-Laden Words: Evidence from a Masked and Unmasked Priming Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kazanas, Stephanie A; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    A primed lexical decision task (LDT) was used to determine whether emotion (e.g., love, fear) and emotion-laden (e.g., puppy, hospital) word processing differs, both explicitly and implicitly. Previous experiments have investigated how emotion word processing differs from both abstract and concrete word processing (Altarriba & Bauer, 2004; Altarriba, Bauer, & Benvenuto, 1999). To assess for differences between emotion and emotion-laden word processing, 2 experiments were conducted, the first assessing explicit processing (using an unmasked LDT) and the second assessing automatic processing (using a masked LDT). The prediction that semantic priming would differ between emotion word pairs and emotion-laden word pairs was confirmed in both experiments, with shorter response times for emotion targets and greater priming effects for emotion word pairs than for emotion-laden word pairs. The role of valence is discussed, emphasizing the ways valence affects the speed with which these words are accessed and processed. PMID:26442339

  6. Sustained impact of community-based physical activity interventions: key elements for success

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Compelling evidence supports the cost effectiveness and potential impact of physical activity on chronic disease prevention and health promotion. Quality of evidence is one piece, but certainly not the sole determinant of whether public health interventions, physical activity focused or otherwise, achieve their full potential for impact. Health promotion at both population and community levels must progress beyond health intervention models that isolate individuals from social, environmental, and political systems of influence. We offer a critical evaluation of lessons learned from two successful research initiatives to provide insights as to how health promotion research contributes to sustained impact. We highlight factors key to success including the theoretical and methodological integration of: i) a social ecological approach; ii) participatory action research (PAR) methods; and iii) an interdisciplinary team. Methods To identify and illustrate the key elements of our success we layered an evaluation of steps taken atop a review of relevant literature. Results In the school-based case study (Action Schools! BC), the success of our approach included early and sustained engagement with a broad cross-section of stakeholders, establishing partnerships across sectors and at different levels of government, and team members across multiple disciplines. In the neighbourhood built environment case study, the three domains guided our approach through study design and team development, and the integration of older adults’ perspectives into greenway design plans. In each case study we describe how elements of the domains serve as a guide for our work. Conclusion To sustain and maximize the impact of community-based public health interventions we propose the integration of elements from three domains of research that acknowledge the interplay between social, environmental and poilitical systems of influence. We emphasize that a number of key factors determine

  7. Signal Words

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, and they describe the acute (short-term) toxicity ... red letters on the front panel of the product label. 2,4 Acute Oral LD 50 Inhalation LC ...

  8. Identification of key residues involved in the activation and signaling properties of dopamine D3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Kota, Kokila; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V; Afrasiabi, Milad; Lacy, Brett; Kontoyianni, Maria; Crider, A Michael; Song, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    The dopamine D3 receptor exhibits agonist-dependent tolerance and slow response termination (SRT) signaling properties that distinguish it from the closely-related D2 receptors. While amino acid residues important for D3 receptor ligand binding have been identified, the residues involved in activation of D3 receptor signaling and induction of signaling properties have not been determined. In this paper, we used cis and trans isomers of a novel D3 receptor agonist, 8-OH-PBZI, and site-directed mutagenesis to identify key residues involved in D3 receptor signaling function. Our results show that trans-8-OH-PBZI, but not cis-8-OH-PBZI, elicit the D3 receptor tolerance and SRT properties. We show that while both agonists require a subset of residues in the orthosteric binding site of D3 receptors for activation of the receptor, the ability of the two isomers to differentially induce tolerance and SRT is mediated by interactions with specific residues in the sixth transmembrane helix and third extracellular loop of the D3 receptor. We also show that unlike cis-8-OH-PBZI, which is a partial agonist at the dopamine D2S receptor and full agonist at dopamine D2L receptor, trans-8-OH-PBZI is a full agonist at both D2S and D2L receptors. The different effect of the two isomers on D3 receptor signaling properties and D2S receptor activation correlated with differential effects of the isomers on agonist-induced mouse locomotor activity. The two isomers of 8-OH-PBZI represent novel pharmacological tools for in silico D3 and D2 receptor homology modeling and for determining the role of D3 receptor tolerance and SRT properties in signaling and behavior. PMID:26116441

  9. Key Residues Regulating the Reductase Activity of the Human Mitochondrial Apoptosis Inducing Factor.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Raquel; Ferreira, Patricia; Marcuello, Carlos; Usón, Alejandro; Miramar, M Dolores; Peleato, M Luisa; Lostao, Anabel; Susin, Santos A; Medina, Milagros

    2015-08-25

    The human Apoptosis Inducing Factor (hAIF) is a bifunctional NAD(P)H-dependent flavoreductase involved in both mitochondrial energy metabolism and caspase-independent cell death. Even though several studies indicate that both functions are redox controlled by NADH binding, the exact role of hAIF as a reductase in healthy mitochondria remains unknown. Upon reduction by NADH, hAIF dimerizes and produces very stable flavin/nicotinamide charge transfer complexes (CTC), by stacking of the oxidized nicotinamide moiety of the NAD(+) coenzyme against the re-face of the reduced flavin ring of its FAD cofactor. Such complexes are critical to restrict the hAIF efficiency as a reductase. The molecular basis of the hAIF reductase activity is here investigated by analyzing the role played by residues contributing to the interaction of the FAD isoalloxazine ring and of the nicotinamide moiety of NADH at the active site. Mutations at K177 and E314 produced drastic effects on the hAIF ability to retain the FAD cofactor, indicating that these residues are important to set up the holo-enzyme active site conformation. Characterization of P173G hAIF indicates that the stacking of P173 against the isoalloxazine ring is relevant to determine the flavin environment and to modulate the enzyme affinity for NADH. Finally, the properties of the F310G and H454S hAIF mutants indicate that these two positions contribute to form a compact active site essential for NADH binding, CTC stabilization, and NAD(+) affinity for the reduced state of hAIF. These features are key determinants of the particular behavior of hAIF as a NADH-dependent oxidoreductase. PMID:26237213

  10. Word Links: A Strategy for Developing Word Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, Ruth Helen

    2007-01-01

    Word Links, an effective strategy for developing students' vocabulary, is based on four principles. It provides contextual and definitional information; offers repeated exposure to words and opportunities to practice them; encourages students to think about relationships among word meanings; and involves active engagement in learning tasks. Yopp…

  11. Unlocking Doors without Keys: Activation of Src by Truncated C-terminal Intracellular Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Lacking Tyrosine Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mezquita, Belén; Mezquita, Pau; Pau, Montserrat; Mezquita, Jovita; Mezquita, Cristóbal

    2014-01-01

    One of the best examples of the renaissance of Src as an open door to cancer has been the demonstration that just five min of Src activation is sufficient for transformation and also for induction and maintenance of cancer stem cells [1]. Many tyrosine kinase receptors, through the binding of their ligands, become the keys that unlock the structure of Src and activate its oncogenic transduction pathways. Furthermore, intracellular isoforms of these receptors, devoid of any tyrosine kinase activity, still retain the ability to unlock Src. This has been shown with a truncated isoform of KIT (tr-KIT) and a truncated isoform of VEGFR-1 (i21-VEGFR-1), which are intracellular and require no ligand binding, but are nonetheless able to activate Src and induce cell migration and invasion of cancer cells. Expression of the i21-VEGFR-1 is upregulated by the Notch signaling pathway and repressed by miR-200c and retinoic acid in breast cancer cells. Both Notch inhibitors and retinoic acid have been proposed as potential therapies for invasive breast cancer. PMID:24709904

  12. Autocrine abscisic acid plays a key role in quartz-induced macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Magnone, Mirko; Sturla, Laura; Jacchetti, Emanuela; Scarfì, Sonia; Bruzzone, Santina; Usai, Cesare; Guida, Lucrezia; Salis, Annalisa; Damonte, Gianluca; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2012-03-01

    Inhalation of quartz induces silicosis, a lung disease where alveolar macrophages release inflammatory mediators, including prostaglandin-E(2) (PGE(2)) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Here we report the pivotal role of abscisic acid (ABA), a recently discovered human inflammatory hormone, in silica-induced activation of murine RAW264.7 macrophages and of rat alveolar macrophages (AMs). Stimulation of both RAW264.7 cells and AMs with quartz induced a significant increase of ABA release (5- and 10-fold, respectively), compared to untreated cells. In RAW264.7 cells, autocrine ABA released after quartz stimulation sequentially activates the plasma membrane receptor LANCL2 and NADPH oxidase, generating a Ca(2+) influx resulting in NFκ B nuclear translocation and PGE(2) and TNF-α release (3-, 2-, and 3.5-fold increase, respectively, compared to control, unstimulated cells). Quartz-stimulated RAW264.7 cells silenced for LANCL2 or preincubated with a monoclonal antibody against ABA show an almost complete inhibition of NFκ B nuclear translocation and PGE(2) and TNF-α release compared to controls electroporated with a scramble oligonucleotide or preincubated with an unrelated antibody. AMs showed similar early and late ABA-induced responses as RAW264.7 cells. These findings identify ABA and LANCL2 as key mediators in quartz-induced inflammation, providing possible new targets for antisilicotic therapy. PMID:22042223

  13. CDK6 as a key regulator of hematopoietic and leukemic stem cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Scheicher, Ruth; Hoelbl-Kovacic, Andrea; Bellutti, Florian; Tigan, Anca-Sarmiza; Prchal-Murphy, Michaela; Heller, Gerwin; Schneckenleithner, Christine; Salazar-Roa, María; Zöchbauer-Müller, Sabine; Zuber, Johannes; Malumbres, Marcos; Kollmann, Karoline

    2015-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) and CDK4 have redundant functions in regulating cell-cycle progression. We describe a novel role for CDK6 in hematopoietic and leukemic stem cells (hematopoietic stem cells [HSCs] and leukemic stem cells [LSCs]) that exceeds its function as a cell-cycle regulator. Although hematopoiesis appears normal under steady-state conditions, Cdk6−/− HSCs do not efficiently repopulate upon competitive transplantation, and Cdk6-deficient mice are significantly more susceptible to 5-fluorouracil treatment. We find that activation of HSCs requires CDK6, which interferes with the transcription of key regulators, including Egr1. Transcriptional profiling of HSCs is consistent with the central role of Egr1. The impaired repopulation capacity extends to BCR-ABLp210+ LSCs. Transplantation with BCR-ABLp210+–infected bone marrow from Cdk6−/− mice fails to induce disease, although recipient mice do harbor LSCs. Egr1 knock-down in Cdk6−/− BCR-ABLp210+ LSKs significantly enhances the potential to form colonies, underlining the importance of the CDK6-Egr1 axis. Our findings define CDK6 as an important regulator of stem cell activation and an essential component of a transcriptional complex that suppresses Egr1 in HSCs and LSCs. PMID:25342715

  14. Arctigenic acid, the key substance responsible for the hypoglycemic activity of Fructus Arctii.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhaohui; Gu, Chenchen; Wang, Kai; Ju, Jiaxing; Wang, Haiying; Ruan, Kefeng; Feng, Yi

    2015-01-15

    We have reported the antidiabetic activity of the total lignans from Fructus arctii (TLFA) against alloxan-induced diabetes in mice and rats. In this study, arctigenic acid was found to be the main metabolite in rat plasma detected by UPLC/MS and HPLC/MS/MS after oral administration of TLFA. For the first time, its hypoglycemic activity and acute oral toxicity were evaluated in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a spontaneous type 2 diabetic animal model, and ICR mice respectively. GK rats were orally given arctigenic acid (50 mg/kg) twice daily before each meal for 12 weeks. The treatment reduced the elevated plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and showed significant improvement in glucose tolerance in glucose fed hyperglycemic GK rats. We found that the hypoglycemic effect of arctigenic acid was partly due to the stimulation on insulin secretion, whereas the body weight was not affected by arctigenic acid administration in GK rats. Meanwhile, there was no observable acute toxicity of arctigenic acid treatment at the dosage of 280 mg/kg body weight daily in the acute 14-day toxicity study in mice. This study demonstrates that arctigenic acid may be the main metabolite in the rat serum after oral administration of TLFA, which showed significant hypoglycemic effect in GK rats, and low acute toxicity in ICR mice. The result prompts us that arctigenic acid is the key substance responsible for Fructus Arctii antidiabetic activity and it has a great potential to be further developed as a novel therapeutic agent for diabetes in humans. PMID:25636881

  15. Geology is the Key to Explain Igneous Activity in the Mediterranean Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustrino, M.

    2014-12-01

    Igneous activity in tectonically complex areas can be interpreted in many different ways, producing completely different petrogenetic models. Processes such as oceanic and continental subduction, lithospheric delamination, changes in subduction polarity, slab break-off and mantle plumes have all been advocated as causes for changes in plate boundaries and magma production, including rate and temporal distribution, in the circum-Mediterranean area. This region thus provides a natural laboratory to investigate a range of geodynamic and magmatic processes. Although many petrologic and tectonic models have been proposed, a number of highly controversial questions still remain. No consensus has yet been reached about the capacity of plate-tectonic processes to explain the origin and style of the magmatism. Similarly, there is still not consensus on the ability of geochemical and petrological arguments to reveal the geodynamic evolution of the area. The wide range of chemical and mineralogical magma compositions produced within and around the Mediterranean, from carbonatites to strongly silica-undersaturated silico-carbonatites and melilitites to strongly silica-oversaturated rhyolites, complicate models and usually require a large number of unconstrained assumptions. Can the calcalkaline-sodic alkaline transition be related to any common petrogenetic point? Is igneous activity plate-tectonic- (top-down) or deep-mantle-controlled (bottom-up)? Do the rare carbonatites and carbonate-rich igneous rocks derive from the deep mantle or a normal, CO2-bearing upper mantle? Do ultrapotassic compositions require continental subduction? Understanding chemically complex magmas emplaced in tectonically complex areas require open minds, and avoiding dogma and assumptions. Studying the geology and shallow dynamics, not speculating about the deep lower mantle, is the key to understanding the igneous activity.

  16. Word form Encoding in Chinese Word Naming and Word Typing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Li, Cheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The process of word form encoding was investigated in primed word naming and word typing with Chinese monosyllabic words. The target words shared or did not share the onset consonants with the prime words. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 100 ms or 300 ms. Typing required the participants to enter the phonetic letters of the target word,…

  17. Hydrogenosome Metabolism Is the Key Target for Antiparasitic Activity of Resveratrol against Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Mallo, Natalia; Lamas, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Metronidazole (MDZ) and related 5-nitroimidazoles are the recommended drugs for treatment of trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. However, novel treatment options are needed, as recent reports have claimed resistance to these drugs in T. vaginalis isolates. In this study, we analyzed for the first time the in vitro effects of the natural polyphenol resveratrol (RESV) on T. vaginalis. At concentrations of between 25 and 100 μM, RESV inhibited the in vitro growth of T. vaginalis trophozoites; doses of 25 μM exerted a cytostatic effect, and higher doses exerted a cytotoxic effect. At these concentrations, RESV caused inhibition of the specific activity of a 120-kDa [Fe]-hydrogenase (Tvhyd). RESV did not affect Tvhyd gene expression and upregulated pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (a hydrogenosomal enzyme) gene expression only at a high dose (100 μM). At doses of 50 to 100 μM, RESV also caused overexpression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), a protective protein found in the hydrogenosome of T. vaginalis. The results demonstrate the potential of RESV as an antiparasitic treatment for trichomoniasis and suggest that the mechanism of action involves induction of hydrogenosomal dysfunction. In view of the results, we propose hydrogenosomal metabolism as a key target in the design of novel antiparasitic drugs. PMID:23478970

  18. Acid Is Key to the Radical-Trapping Antioxidant Activity of Nitroxides.

    PubMed

    Haidasz, Evan A; Meng, Derek; Amorati, Riccardo; Baschieri, Andrea; Ingold, Keith U; Valgimigli, Luca; Pratt, Derek A

    2016-04-27

    Persistent dialkylnitroxides (e.g., 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl, TEMPO) play a central role in the activity of hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS)-additives that inhibit the (photo)oxidative degradation of consumer and industrial products. The accepted mechanism of HALS comprises a catalytic cycle involving the rapid combination of a nitroxide with an alkyl radical to yield an alkoxyamine that subsequently reacts with a peroxyl radical to eventually re-form the nitroxide. Herein, we offer evidence in favor of an alternative reaction mechanism involving the acid-catalyzed reaction of a nitroxide with a peroxyl radical to yield an oxoammonium ion followed by electron transfer from an alkyl radical to the oxoammonium ion to re-form the nitroxide. In preliminary work, we showed that TEMPO reacts with peroxyl radicals at diffusion-controlled rates in the presence of acids. Now, we show that TEMPO can be regenerated from its oxoammonium ion by reaction with alkyl radicals. We have determined that this reaction, which has been proposed to be a key step in TEMPO-catalyzed synthetic transformations, occurs with k ∼ 1-3 × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1), thereby enabling it to compete with O2 for alkyl radicals. The addition of weak acids facilitates this reaction, whereas the addition of strong acids slows it by enabling back electron transfer. The chemistry is shown to occur in hydrocarbon autoxidations at elevated temperatures without added acid due to the in situ formation of carboxylic acids, accounting for the long-known catalytic radical-trapping antioxidant activity of TEMPO that prompted the development of HALS. PMID:27023326

  19. Regulation of sucrose metabolism in higher plants: localization and regulation of activity of key enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, H.; Huber, S. C.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc) plays a central role in plant growth and development. It is a major end product of photosynthesis and functions as a primary transport sugar and in some cases as a direct or indirect regulator of gene expression. Research during the last 2 decades has identified the pathways involved and which enzymes contribute to the control of flux. Availability of metabolites for Suc synthesis and 'demand' for products of sucrose degradation are important factors, but this review specifically focuses on the biosynthetic enzyme sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), and the degradative enzymes, sucrose synthase (SuSy), and the invertases. Recent progress has included the cloning of genes encoding these enzymes and the elucidation of posttranslational regulatory mechanisms. Protein phosphorylation is emerging as an important mechanism controlling SPS activity in response to various environmental and endogenous signals. In terms of Suc degradation, invertase-catalyzed hydrolysis generally has been associated with cell expansion, whereas SuSy-catalyzed metabolism has been linked with biosynthetic processes (e.g., cell wall or storage products). Recent results indicate that SuSy may be localized in multiple cellular compartments: (1) as a soluble enzyme in the cytosol (as traditionally assumed); (2) associated with the plasma membrane; and (3) associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Phosphorylation of SuSy has been shown to occur and may be one of the factors controlling localization of the enzyme. The purpose of this review is to summarize some of the recent developments relating to regulation of activity and localization of key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in plants.

  20. Key Factors Influencing Rates of Heterotrophic Sulfate Reduction in Active Seafloor Hydrothermal Massive Sulfide Deposits

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Kiana L.; Rogers, Karyn L.; Rogers, Daniel R.; Johnston, David T.; Girguis, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal vents are thermally and geochemically dynamic habitats, and the organisms therein are subject to steep gradients in temperature and chemistry. To date, the influence of these environmental dynamics on microbial sulfate reduction has not been well constrained. Here, via multivariate experiments, we evaluate the effects of key environmental variables (temperature, pH, H2S, SO42−, DOC) on sulfate reduction rates and metabolic energy yields in material recovered from a hydrothermal flange from the Grotto edifice in the Main Endeavor Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Sulfate reduction was measured in batch reactions across a range of physico-chemical conditions. Temperature and pH were the strongest stimuli, and maximum sulfate reduction rates were observed at 50°C and pH 6, suggesting that the in situ community of sulfate-reducing organisms in Grotto flanges may be most active in a slightly acidic and moderate thermal/chemical regime. At pH 4, sulfate reduction rates increased with sulfide concentrations most likely due to the mitigation of metal toxicity. While substrate concentrations also influenced sulfate reduction rates, energy-rich conditions muted the effect of metabolic energetics on sulfate reduction rates. We posit that variability in sulfate reduction rates reflect the response of the active microbial consortia to environmental constraints on in situ microbial physiology, toxicity, and the type and extent of energy limitation. These experiments help to constrain models of the spatial contribution of heterotrophic sulfate reduction within the complex gradients inherent to seafloor hydrothermal deposits. PMID:26733984

  1. Key Factors Influencing Rates of Heterotrophic Sulfate Reduction in Active Seafloor Hydrothermal Massive Sulfide Deposits.

    PubMed

    Frank, Kiana L; Rogers, Karyn L; Rogers, Daniel R; Johnston, David T; Girguis, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal vents are thermally and geochemically dynamic habitats, and the organisms therein are subject to steep gradients in temperature and chemistry. To date, the influence of these environmental dynamics on microbial sulfate reduction has not been well constrained. Here, via multivariate experiments, we evaluate the effects of key environmental variables (temperature, pH, H2S, [Formula: see text], DOC) on sulfate reduction rates and metabolic energy yields in material recovered from a hydrothermal flange from the Grotto edifice in the Main Endeavor Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Sulfate reduction was measured in batch reactions across a range of physico-chemical conditions. Temperature and pH were the strongest stimuli, and maximum sulfate reduction rates were observed at 50°C and pH 6, suggesting that the in situ community of sulfate-reducing organisms in Grotto flanges may be most active in a slightly acidic and moderate thermal/chemical regime. At pH 4, sulfate reduction rates increased with sulfide concentrations most likely due to the mitigation of metal toxicity. While substrate concentrations also influenced sulfate reduction rates, energy-rich conditions muted the effect of metabolic energetics on sulfate reduction rates. We posit that variability in sulfate reduction rates reflect the response of the active microbial consortia to environmental constraints on in situ microbial physiology, toxicity, and the type and extent of energy limitation. These experiments help to constrain models of the spatial contribution of heterotrophic sulfate reduction within the complex gradients inherent to seafloor hydrothermal deposits. PMID:26733984

  2. Resolving Semantic Interference During Word Production Requires Central Attention

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The semantic picture-word interference task has been used to diagnose how speakers resolve competition while selecting words for production. The attentional demands of this resolution process were assessed in two dual-task experiments (tone classification followed by picture naming). In Experiment 1, when pictures and distractor words were presented simultaneously, semantic interference was not observed when tasks maximally overlapped. This replicates a key finding from the literature that suggested that semantic picture-word interference does not require capacity-limited central attentional resources and occurs prior to lexical selection, an interpretation that runs counter to the claims of all major theories of word production. In another Experiment 1 condition, when distractors were presented 250 ms after pictures, interference emerged when tasks maximally overlapped. Together, these findings support an account in which interference resolution and lexical selection both require central resources, but the activation of lexical representations from written words does not. Subsequent analysis revealed that discrepant results obtained in previous replication attempts may be attributable to differences in phonological (ir)regularity between languages. In Experiment 2, degree of semantic interference was manipulated using the cumulative semantic interference paradigm. Interference was observed regardless of task overlap, confirming that lexical selection requires central resources. Together, these findings indicate that a lexical selection locus of semantic picture-word interference – and models of word production that assume such a locus – may be retained. PMID:23773184

  3. Activation and maintenance of peripheral semantic features of unambiguous words after right hemisphere brain damage in adults

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, Connie A.; Fassbinder, Wiltrud; Scharp, Victoria L.; Meigh, Kimberly M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The right cerebral hemisphere (RH) sustains activation of subordinate, secondary, less common, and/or distantly related meanings of words. Much of the pertinent data come from studies of homonyms, but some evidence also suggests that the RH has a unique maintenance function in relation to unambiguous nouns. In a divided visual field priming study, Atchley, Burgess, and Keeney (1999) reported that only left visual field/RH presentation yielded evidence of continuing activation of peripheral semantic features that were incompatible with the most common image or representation of their corresponding nouns (e.g., rotten for “apple”). Activation for weakly related features that were compatible with the dominant representation (e.g., crunchy) was sustained over time regardless of the visual field/hemisphere of initial stimulus input. Several studies report that unilateral right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) in adults affects the RH’s meaning maintenance function, but this work also has centred on homonyms, and/or more recently metonymic and metaphoric polysemous words. Aims The current investigation examined whether RHD deficits in processing secondary and/or distantly related meanings of words, typically observed in studies of homonyms, would extend to peripheral, weakly related semantic features of unambiguous nouns. Methods & Procedures Participants were 28 adults with unilateral RHD from cerebrovascular accident, and 38 adults without brain damage. Participants listened to spoken sentences that ended with an unambiguous noun. Each sentence was followed by a spoken target phoneme string. Targets included peripheral semantic features of the sentence-final noun that were either compatible or incompatible with the dominant mental images of the noun, and were presented at two intervals after that noun. A lexical decision task was used to gauge both the early activation and maintenance of activation for these weakly related semantic features. Outcomes

  4. How vertical hand movements impact brain activity elicited by literally and metaphorically related words: an ERP study of embodied metaphor

    PubMed Central

    Bardolph, Megan; Coulson, Seana

    2014-01-01

    Embodied metaphor theory suggests abstract concepts are metaphorically linked to more experientially basic ones and recruit sensorimotor cortex for their comprehension. To test whether words associated with spatial attributes reactivate traces in sensorimotor cortex, we recorded EEG from the scalp of healthy adults as they read words while performing a concurrent task involving either upward- or downward- directed arm movements. ERPs were time-locked to words associated with vertical space—either literally (ascend, descend) or metaphorically (inspire, defeat)—as participants made vertical movements that were either congruent or incongruent with the words. Congruency effects emerged 200–300 ms after word onset for literal words, but not until after 500 ms post-onset for metaphorically related words. Results argue against a strong version of embodied metaphor theory, but support a role for sensorimotor simulation in concrete language. PMID:25566041

  5. Effect of urethane, dimethylnitrosamine, paraquat, and butylated hydroxytoluene on the activities of glycolytic key enzymes in mouse lung

    SciTech Connect

    Arany, I.; Rady, P.; Bojan, I.; Kertai, P.

    1981-12-01

    Effects of carcinogens and noncarcinogenic pulmonary toxicants on the activities of glycolytic key enzymes in the mouse lung were investigated. The carcinogens urethane (URTH) and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) permanently enhanced, and the noncarcinogenic pulmonary toxicants paraquat (PAR) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) temporarily, enhanced the activities of hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) in the lungs of mice.

  6. ClueConnect: a word array game to promote student comprehension of key terminology in an introductory anatomy and physiology course.

    PubMed

    Burleson, Kathryn M; Olimpo, Jeffrey T

    2016-06-01

    The sheer amount of terminology and conceptual knowledge required for anatomy and physiology can be overwhelming for students. Educational games are one approach to reinforce such knowledge. In this activity, students worked collaboratively to review anatomy and physiology concepts by creating arrays of descriptive tiles to define a term. Once guessed, students located the structure or process within diagrams of the body. The game challenged students to think about course vocabulary in novel ways and to use their collective knowledge to get their classmates to guess the terms. Comparison of pretest/posttest/delayed posttest data revealed that students achieved statistically significant learning gains for each unit after playing the game, and a survey of student perceptions demonstrated that the game was helpful for learning vocabulary as well as fun to play. The game is easily adaptable for a variety of lower- and upper-division courses. PMID:27105741

  7. Biological activity in Technosols as a key factor of their structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watteau, Françoise; Villemin, Geneviève; Bouchard, Adeline; Monserié, Marie-France; Séré, Geoffroy; Schwartz, Christophe; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2010-05-01

    )availability. HAP also contributed to the aggregation of technogenic constituents in Technosol 1. The biological activity generated by the presence of exogenous organic matter is thus in short (0-2 years) and mean (30 years) terms, a key factor of the structuration and by there of the pedogenesis of Technosols.

  8. Preschool Children's Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning by Embodying Words through Physical Activity and Gesturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toumpaniari, Konstantina; Loyens, Sofie; Mavilidi, Myrto-Foteini; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that physical activity involving gross motor activities can lead to better cognitive functioning and higher academic achievement scores. In addition, research within the theoretical framework of embodied cognition has shown that embodying knowledge through the use of more subtle motor activities, such as task-relevant…

  9. The relation between children’s constructive play activities, spatial ability, and mathematical word problem-solving performance: a mediation analysis in sixth-grade students

    PubMed Central

    Oostermeijer, Meike; Boonen, Anton J. H.; Jolles, Jelle

    2014-01-01

    The scientific literature shows that constructive play activities are positively related to children’s spatial ability. Likewise, a close positive relation is found between spatial ability and mathematical word problem-solving performances. The relation between children’s constructive play and their performance on mathematical word problems is, however, not reported yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether spatial ability acted as a mediator in the relation between constructive play and mathematical word problem-solving performance in 128 sixth-grade elementary school children. This mediating role of spatial ability was tested by utilizing the current mediation approaches suggested by Preacher and Hayes (2008). Results showed that 38.16% of the variance in mathematical word problem-solving performance is explained by children’s constructive play activities and spatial ability. More specifically, spatial ability acted as a partial mediator, explaining 31.58% of the relation between constructive play and mathematical word problem-solving performance. PMID:25101038

  10. Learning to Learn: A Key-Competence for All Adults?!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Learning to learn is important and increasingly vital for people trying to deal with a rapidly changing world! Or, in the words of the European Union, learning to learn is one of the eight "key competences that citizens require for their personal fulfilment, social inclusion, active citizenship and employability in our knowledge-based society."…

  11. Active inhibition of a distractor word: the distractor precue benefit in the Stroop color-naming task.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hsuan-Fu

    2011-06-01

    The current study investigated attentional control through active inhibition of the identity of the distractor. Adapting a Stroop paradigm, the distractor word was presented in advance and made to disappear, followed by the presentation of a Stroop stimulus. Participants were instructed to inhibit the distractor in order to reduce its interference. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that the distractor precue facilitated Stroop color naming by reducing Stroop interference. Experiment 3 demonstrated beneficial effects of the distractor precue when congruent trials were introduced. Experiment 4 showed that the distractor precue benefit was observed when the cue and target were in different forms. Experiment 5 indicated that if the item used as the cue became the target, naming it took longer in order to overcome the inhibitory effect. Experiment 6 demonstrated that the benefit of the distractor precue was not observed when the cue was uninformative. Finally, Experiment 7 demonstrated that active inhibition required working-memory resources to operate. This study suggests that the best explanation for the distractor precue benefit is the active inhibition account. PMID:21480743

  12. High Neuromagnetic Activation in the Left Prefrontal and Frontal Cortices Correlates with Better Memory Performance for Abstract Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Tzu-Ching; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the spatiotemporal characteristics of memory processing for abstract and concrete words. Neuromagnetic responses to memory encoding and recognition tasks of abstract and concrete nouns were obtained in 18 healthy adults using a whole-head neuromagnetometer. During memory encoding, abstract words elicited larger…

  13. Anterior Medial Temporal Lobe Activation during Encoding of Words: FMRI Methods to Optimize Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Michael W.; Haut, Marc W.; Lemieux, Susan K.; Moran, Maria T.; Leach, Sharon G.

    2006-01-01

    The existence of a rostrocaudal gradient of medial temporal lobe (MTL) activation during memory encoding has historically received support from positron emission tomography studies, but less so from functional MRI (FMRI) studies. More recently, FMRI studies have demonstrated that characteristics of the stimuli can affect the location of activation…

  14. Brief Report: Brain Activation to Social Words in a Sedated Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, Dennis P.; Moreno, Rosanne; Mars, Audrey E.; Seshadri, Kapila; Lambert, George H.; Lewis, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was performed on a 4-year-old girl with autism. While sedated, she listened to three utterances (numbers, hello, her own first name) played through headphones. Based on analyses of the fMRI data, the amount of total brain activation varied with the content of the utterance. The greatest volume…

  15. Lecture Is Not a Dirty Word: How to Use Active Lecture to Increase Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Jess L.

    2013-01-01

    Lecture is a much maligned classroom method of instruction. Like any other technique employed by educators, there are both effective and ineffective ways to deliver content through a lecture format. Respecting that the college learner has changed, active lecturing strategies maximize student learning of course content, engaging both modern…

  16. Echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging studies of frontal cortex activation during word generation in humans.

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, G; Blamire, A M; Rothman, D L; Gruetter, R; Shulman, R G

    1993-01-01

    Nine subjects were studied by high-speed magnetic resonance imaging while performing language-based tasks. Subjects were asked either to repeat or to generate verbs associated with nouns read by an experimenter while magnetic resonance images were obtained of the left inferior frontal lobe. The echo-planar imaging sequence was used with a gradient echo time of 70 ms to give an apparent transverse relaxation time weighting (T2* that is sensitive to local hemoglobin levels. Images were acquired every 3 s (repetition time) in series of 32. In plane resolution was 6 x 4.5 mm and slice thickness was 10 mm. An increase in signal accompanied performance of the tasks, with significantly more activation for verb generation than for repeating. The activation effect occurred within 3 s after task onset and could be observed in single images from individual subjects. The primary focus of activation appeared in gray matter along a sulcus anterior to the lateral sulcus that included the anterior insula, Brodmann's area 47, and extending to area 10. Little or no activation of this region was found for a passive listening, covert generation, or mouth-movement control tasks. Significant activation was also found for a homologous region in the right frontal cortex but not for control regions in calcarine cortex. These results are consistent with prior studies that have used positron emission tomography imaging with 15O-labeled water as a blood flow tracer. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8506340

  17. Computational Method for the Systematic Identification of Analog Series and Key Compounds Representing Series and Their Biological Activity Profiles.

    PubMed

    Stumpfe, Dagmar; Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-08-25

    A computational methodology is introduced for detecting all unique series of analogs in large compound data sets, regardless of chemical relationships between analogs. No prior knowledge of core structures or R-groups is required, which are automatically determined. The approach is based upon the generation of retrosynthetic matched molecular pairs and analog networks from which distinct series are isolated. The methodology was applied to systematically extract more than 17 000 distinct series from the ChEMBL database. For comparison, analog series were also isolated from screening compounds and drugs. Known biological activities were mapped to series from ChEMBL, and in more than 13 000 of these series, key compounds were identified that represented substitution sites of all analogs within a series and its complete activity profile. The analog series, key compounds, and activity profiles are made freely available as a resource for medicinal chemistry applications. PMID:27501131

  18. Word Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, Peter

    1982-01-01

    Describes the kinds of computer equipment needed for a personal word processing system. The characteristics and capabilities of specific devices, including keyboards, printers, and disk drives, are discussed. (JL)

  19. Lexical Activation in Bilinguals' Speech Production Is Dynamic: How Language Ambiguous Words Can Affect Cross-Language Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermans, Daan; Ormel, E.; van Besselaar, Ria; van Hell, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Is the bilingual language production system a dynamic system that can operate in different language activation states? Three experiments investigated to what extent cross-language phonological co-activation effects in language production are sensitive to the composition of the stimulus list. L1 Dutch-L2 English bilinguals decided whether or not a…

  20. Active polarization stabilization in optical fibers suitable for quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Wu, Guang; Li, Yao; Wu, E; Zeng, Heping

    2007-12-24

    Polarization feedback control of single-photon pulses has been achieved in long-distance fibers for more than 10 hours, which facilitated "one-way" polarization-encoded quantum key distribution with long-term stabilities. Experimental test of polarization encoding in 75 km fibers demonstrated that the single-photon polarization transformation in long-distance fibers could be controlled to provide a typical QBER of (3.9+/-1.5)% within a long-term operation of 620 minutes. PMID:19551088

  1. The Question of Teaching Vocabulary: Which Words? In What Ways?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of vocabulary for comprehension, Wilhelm asks two key questions: "which words do I teach and how should I teach them?" Through years of trial and error, Wilhelm has adopted these principles to answer "which words": teach "important" words students will see and use again; words necessary to conceptual understanding; words…

  2. Making and Writing Words: Constructivist Word Learning in a Second-Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy; Oswald, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Making and Writing Words (MWW), a variation of the Making Words word study activity by Cunningham and Cunningham (1992), on second-grade students word learning. MWW was implemented daily with a group of second-grade students' over a five-month period. Results indicated that students who received the MWW treatment…

  3. Physical Activity in Child-Care Centers: Do Teachers Hold the Key to the Playground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Kristen A.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Saelens, Brian E.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Sherman, Susan N.

    2012-01-01

    Many (56%) US children aged 3-5 years are in center-based childcare and are not obtaining recommended levels of physical activity. In order to determine what child-care teachers/providers perceived as benefits and barriers to children's physical activity in child-care centers, we conducted nine focus groups and 13 one-on-one interviews with 49…

  4. An Activity-Based Learning Approach for Key Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Sanjeev Kumar; Tait, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the effect of active learning methods of concepts in geographical information systems where students participated in a series of interlocked learning experiences. These activities spanned several teaching weeks and involved the creation of a hand drawn map that was scanned and geo-referenced with locations' coordinates derived…

  5. Appropriate Content and Learning Activities for Teaching Word Processing in the Two-Year Postsecondary Office Technology Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoufer, Bonita

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the importance of word processing in the postsecondary secretarial science curriculum. Indicates that students must be provided with the background and motivation for job advancement along with the skills, knowledge, and attitudes needed for job entry. (JOW)

  6. Dynamic Transcription Factor Activity Profiles Reveal Key Regulatory Interactions During Megakaryocytic and Erythroid Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Mark T.; Shin, Seungjin; Wu, Jia J.; Mays, Zachary; Weng, Stanley; Bagheri, Neda; Miller, William M.; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2014-01-01

    The directed differentiation toward erythroid (E) or megakaryocytic (MK) lineages by the MK-E progenitor (MEP) could enhance the ex vivo generation of red blood cells and platelets for therapeutic transfusions. The lineage choice at the MEP bifurcation is controlled in large part by activity within the intracellular signal transduction network, the output of which determines the activity of transcription factors (TFs) and ultimately gene expression. Although many TFs have been implicated, E or MK differentiation is a complex process requiring multiple days, and the dynamics of TF activities during commitment and terminal maturation are relatively unexplored. Herein, we applied a living cell array for the large-scale, dynamic quantification of TF activities during MEP bifurcation. A panel of hematopoietic TFs (GATA-1, GATA-2, SCL/TAL1, FLI-1, NF-E2, PU.1, c-Myb) was characterized during E and MK differentiation of bipotent K562 cells. Dynamic TF activity profiles associated with differentiation towards each lineage were identified, and validated with previous reports. From these activity profiles, we show that GATA-1 is an important hub during early hemin- and PMA-induced differentiation, and reveal several characteristic TF interactions for E and MK differentiation that confirm regulatory mechanisms documented in the literature. Additionally, we highlight several novel TF interactions at various stages of E and MK differentiation. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanism by which nicotinamide (NIC) promoted terminal MK maturation using an MK-committed cell line, CHRF-288-11 (CHRF). Concomitant with its enhancement of ploidy, NIC strongly enhanced the activity of three TFs with known involvement in terminal MK maturation: FLI-1, NF-E2, and p53. Dynamic profiling of TF activity represents a novel tool to complement traditional assays focused on mRNA and protein expression levels to understand progenitor cell differentiation. PMID:24853077

  7. Dynamic transcription factor activity profiles reveal key regulatory interactions during megakaryocytic and erythroid differentiation.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Mark T; Shin, Seungjin; Wu, Jia J; Mays, Zachary; Weng, Stanley; Bagheri, Neda; Miller, William M; Shea, Lonnie D

    2014-10-01

    The directed differentiation toward erythroid (E) or megakaryocytic (MK) lineages by the MK-E progenitor (MEP) could enhance the ex vivo generation of red blood cells and platelets for therapeutic transfusions. The lineage choice at the MEP bifurcation is controlled in large part by activity within the intracellular signal transduction network, the output of which determines the activity of transcription factors (TFs) and ultimately gene expression. Although many TFs have been implicated, E or MK differentiation is a complex process requiring multiple days, and the dynamics of TF activities during commitment and terminal maturation are relatively unexplored. Herein, we applied a living cell array for the large-scale, dynamic quantification of TF activities during MEP bifurcation. A panel of hematopoietic TFs (GATA-1, GATA-2, SCL/TAL1, FLI-1, NF-E2, PU.1, c-Myb) was characterized during E and MK differentiation of bipotent K562 cells. Dynamic TF activity profiles associated with differentiation towards each lineage were identified, and validated with previous reports. From these activity profiles, we show that GATA-1 is an important hub during early hemin- and PMA-induced differentiation, and reveal several characteristic TF interactions for E and MK differentiation that confirm regulatory mechanisms documented in the literature. Additionally, we highlight several novel TF interactions at various stages of E and MK differentiation. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanism by which nicotinamide (NIC) promoted terminal MK maturation using an MK-committed cell line, CHRF-288-11 (CHRF). Concomitant with its enhancement of ploidy, NIC strongly enhanced the activity of three TFs with known involvement in terminal MK maturation: FLI-1, NF-E2, and p53. Dynamic profiling of TF activity represents a novel tool to complement traditional assays focused on mRNA and protein expression levels to understand progenitor cell differentiation. PMID:24853077

  8. Transcriptomic Analysis of Musca domestica to Reveal Key Genes of the Prophenoloxidase-Activating System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dianxiang; Liang, Yongli; Wang, Xianwei; Wang, Lei; Qi, Mei; Yu, Yang; Luan, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    The proPO system regulates melanization in arthropods. However, the genes that are involved in the proPO system in housefly Musca domestica remain unclear. Thus, this study analyzed the combined transcriptome obtained from M. domestica larvae, pupae, and adults that were either normal or bacteria-challenged by an Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus mixture. A total of 54,821,138 clean reads (4.93 Gb) were yielded by Illumina sequencing, which were de novo assembled into 89,842 unigenes. Of the 89,842 unigenes, based on a similarity search with known genes in other insects, 24 putative genes related to the proPO system were identified. Eight of the identified genes encoded for peptidoglycan recognition receptors, two encoded for prophenoloxidases, three encoded for prophenoloxidase-activating enzymes, and 11 encoded for serine proteinase inhibitors. The expression levels of these identified genes were investigated by qRT-PCR assay, which were consistent with expected activation process of the proPO system, and their activation functions were confirmed by the measurement of phenoloxidase activity in bacteria-infected larvae after proPO antibody blockage, suggesting these candidate genes might have potentially different roles in the activation of proPO system. Collectively, this study has provided the comprehensive transcriptomic data of an insect and some fundamental basis toward achieving understanding of the activation mechanisms and immune functions of the proPO system in M. domestica. PMID:26156588

  9. Dynamics of activation of semantically similar concepts during spoken word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; Magnuson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Semantic similarity effects provide critical insight into the organization of semantic knowledge and the nature of semantic processing. In the present study, we examined the dynamics of semantic similarity effects by using the visual world eyetracking paradigm. Four objects were shown on a computer monitor, and participants were instructed to click on a named object, during which time their gaze position was recorded. The likelihood of fixating competitor objects was predicted by the degree of semantic similarity to the target concept. We found reliable, graded competition that depended on degree of target–competitor similarity, even for distantly related items for which priming has not been found in previous priming studies. Time course measures revealed a consistently earlier fixation peak for near semantic neighbors relative to targets. Computational investigations with an attractor dynamical model, a spreading activation model, and a decision model revealed that a combination of excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms is required to obtain such peak timing, providing new constraints on models of semantic processing. PMID:19744941

  10. Prediction of Geomagnetic Activity and Key Parameters in High-latitude Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, George V.; Lyatsky, Wladislaw; Tan, Arjun; Ridley, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Prediction of geomagnetic activity and related events in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere are important tasks of US Space Weather Program. Prediction reliability is dependent on the prediction method, and elements included in the prediction scheme. Two of the main elements of such prediction scheme are: an appropriate geomagnetic activity index, and an appropriate coupling function (the combination of solar wind parameters providing the best correlation between upstream solar wind data and geomagnetic activity). We have developed a new index of geomagnetic activity, the Polar Magnetic (PM) index and an improved version of solar wind coupling function. PM index is similar to the existing polar cap PC index but it shows much better correlation with upstream solar wind/IMF data and other events in the magnetosphere and ionosphere. We investigate the correlation of PM index with upstream solar wind/IMF data for 10 years (1995-2004) that include both low and high solar activity. We also have introduced a new prediction function for the predicting of cross-polar-cap voltage and Joule heating based on using both PM index and upstream solar wind/IMF data. As we show such prediction function significantly increase the reliability of prediction of these important parameters. The correlation coefficients between the actual and predicted values of these parameters are approx. 0.9 and higher.

  11. Ultra-rapid access to words in the brain

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Lucy J; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; van Casteren, Maarten; Shtyrov, Yury

    2012-01-01

    Rapid information processing in the human brain is vital to survival in a highly dynamic environment. The key tool humans use to exchange information is spoken language, but the exact speed of the neuronal mechanisms underpinning speech comprehension is still unknown. Here we investigate the time course of neuro-lexical processing by analysing neuromagnetic brain activity elicited in response to psycholinguistically and acoustically matched groups of words and pseudowords. We show an ultra-early dissociation in cortical activation elicited by these stimulus types, emerging ~50 ms after acoustic information required for word identification first becomes available. This dissociation is the earliest brain signature of lexical processing of words so far reported, and may help explain the evolutionary advantage of human spoken language. PMID:22426232

  12. Key amino acid residues for the endo-processive activity of GH74 xyloglucanase.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Saito, Yuji; Yaoi, Katsuro

    2014-05-01

    Unlike endo-dissociative-xyloglucanases, Paenibacillus XEG74 is an endo-processive xyloglucanase that contains four unique tryptophan residues in the negative subsites (W61 and W64) and the positive subsites (W318 and W319), as indicated by three-dimensional homology modelling. Selective replacement of the positive subsite residues with alanine mutations reduced the degree of processive activity and resulted in the more endo-dissociative-activity. The results showed that W318 and W319, which are found in the positive subsites, are essential for processive degradation and are responsible for maintaining binding interactions with xyloglucan polysaccharide through a stacking effect. PMID:24657616

  13. Florida Keys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West.

    This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic

  14. Collaboration with aviation — The key to commercialisation of space activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Patrick; Funatsu, Yoshiyuki

    2000-07-01

    The US government's Commercial Space Act of 1998 and commitment to commercialise the International Space Station's operations have changed the direction of space development in the post-cold-war world definitively. During 1998 also the feasibility and great economic potential of space travel by the general public was acknowledged in publications by NASA, AIAA and the Japanese Keidanren. However, crewed space activities are all taxpayer-funded, primarily for scientific research; they have involved only a few hundred people traveling to space to date; and those involved have no experience of commercial passenger service operations. By contrast, aviation is a global industry, largely commercial, involving the range of activities from engineering design to marketing, and serving more than 1 billion passengers/year. Aviation has very high safety levels developed over decades of experience of carrying billions of passengers. Furthermore, the aviation industry also has extensive experience of operating rocket-powered piloted vehicles: during the 1950s several countries operated such vehicles sufficiently frequently to develop routine operations, maintenance and repair procedures. Consequently, in order to develop safe and profitable passenger travel services to, from and in space, people, companies and organisations with experience of space activities have a great deal to gain from collaboration with all parts of the aviation industry. Due to the potential economic value of this development, and the high cost to taxpayers of space activities today, governments should take steps to start this collaboration as soon as possible.

  15. Physical activity in child-care centers: do teachers hold the key to the playground?

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Kristen A.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Saelens, Brian E.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Sherman, Susan N.

    2012-01-01

    Many (56%) US children aged 3–5 years are in center-based childcare and are not obtaining recommended levels of physical activity. In order to determine what child-care teachers/providers perceived as benefits and barriers to children’s physical activity in child-care centers, we conducted nine focus groups and 13 one-on-one interviews with 49 child-care teachers/providers in Cincinnati, OH. Participants noted physical and socio-emotional benefits of physical activity particular to preschoolers (e.g. gross motor skill development, self-confidence after mastery of new skills and improved mood, attention and napping after exercise) but also noted several barriers including their own personal attitudes (e.g. low self-efficacy) and preferences to avoid the outdoors (e.g. don’t like hot/cold weather, getting dirty, chaos of playground). Because individual teachers determine daily schedules and ultimately make the decision whether to take the children outdoors, they serve as gatekeepers to the playground. Participants discussed a spectrum of roles on the playground, from facilitator to chaperone to physical activity inhibitor. These findings suggest that children could have very different gross motor experiences even within the same facility (with presumably the same environment and policies), based on the beliefs, creativity and level of engagement of their teacher. PMID:21804083

  16. The Key Factors of an Active Learning Method in a Microprocessors Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpeno, A.; Arriaga, J.; Corredor, J.; Hernandez, J.

    2011-01-01

    The creation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) is promoting a change toward a new model of education focused on the student. It is impelling methodological innovation processes in many European universities, leading more teachers to apply methods based on active and cooperative learning in their classrooms. However, the successful…

  17. Key programmatic steps and activities for implementing the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) was enacted based upon findings by Congress that uranium mill tailings located at active and inactive hazard to the public, and that protection of the public health, safety and welfare, and the regulations of interstate commerce, require that every reasonable effort be made to provide for the stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize radon diffusion into the environment and to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings.'' A general understanding of the steps leading to elimination of the hazards associated with designated uranium mill tailings sites, and the parties involved in that effort, are presented in this document. A representative schedule is also presented in this document to show both program sequence and activity interdependence. Those activities that have the most potential to influence program duration, because of the significant amount of additional time that may be required, include identification and selection of a suitable site, field data collection delays due to weather, actual acquisition of the designated or alternate disposal site, construction delays due to weather, and site licensing. This document provides an understanding of the steps, the sequence, the parties involved, and a representative duration of activities leading to remedial action and cleanup at the designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

  19. Physical activity in child-care centers: do teachers hold the key to the playground?

    PubMed

    Copeland, Kristen A; Kendeigh, Cassandra A; Saelens, Brian E; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Sherman, Susan N

    2012-02-01

    Many (56%) US children aged 3-5 years are in center-based childcare and are not obtaining recommended levels of physical activity. In order to determine what child-care teachers/providers perceived as benefits and barriers to children's physical activity in child-care centers, we conducted nine focus groups and 13 one-on-one interviews with 49 child-care teachers/providers in Cincinnati, OH. Participants noted physical and socio-emotional benefits of physical activity particular to preschoolers (e.g. gross motor skill development, self-confidence after mastery of new skills and improved mood, attention and napping after exercise) but also noted several barriers including their own personal attitudes (e.g. low self-efficacy) and preferences to avoid the outdoors (e.g. don't like hot/cold weather, getting dirty, chaos of playground). Because individual teachers determine daily schedules and ultimately make the decision whether to take the children outdoors, they serve as gatekeepers to the playground. Participants discussed a spectrum of roles on the playground, from facilitator to chaperone to physical activity inhibitor. These findings suggest that children could have very different gross motor experiences even within the same facility (with presumably the same environment and policies), based on the beliefs, creativity and level of engagement of their teacher. PMID:21804083

  20. Making Physics Fun: Key Concepts, Classroom Activities, and Everyday Examples, Grades K-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prigo, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Teaching physical science in the elementary and middle grades can be challenging for busy teachers faced with growing science demands and limited classroom resources. Robert Prigo provides fun and engaging activities using safe, available materials that educators can easily incorporate into lesson plans. Extensive examples, sample inquiry…

  1. The time of day differently influences fatigue and locomotor activity: is body temperature a key factor?

    PubMed

    Machado, Frederico Sander Mansur; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the possible interactions between exercise capacity and spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) during the oscillation of core body temperature (Tb) that occurs during the light/dark cycle. Wistar rats (n=11) were kept at an animal facility under a light/dark cycle of 14/10h at an ambient temperature of 23°C and water and food ad libitum. Initially, in order to characterize the daily oscillation in SLA and Tb of the rats, these parameters were continuously recorded for 24h using an implantable telemetric sensor (G2 E-Mitter). The animals were randomly assigned to two progressive exercise test protocols until fatigue during the beginning of light and dark-phases. Fatigue was defined as the moment rats could not keep pace with the treadmill. We assessed the time to fatigue, workload and Tb changes induced by exercise. Each test was separated by 3days. Our results showed that exercise capacity and heat storage were higher during the light-phase (p<0.05). In contrast, we observed that both SLA and Tb were higher during the dark-phase (p<0.01). Notably, the correlation analysis between the amount of SLA and the running capacity observed at each phase of the daily cycle revealed that, regardless of the time of the day, both types of locomotor physical activity have an important inherent component (r=0.864 and r=0.784, respectively, p<0.01) without a direct relationship between them. This finding provides further support for the existence of specific control mechanisms for each type of physical activity. In conclusion, our data indicate that the relationship between the body temperature and different types of physical activity might be affected by the light/dark cycle. These results mean that, although exercise performance and spontaneous locomotor activity are not directly associated, both are strongly influenced by daily cycles of light and dark. PMID:25479573

  2. Active chromatin and transcription play a key role in chromosome partitioning into topologically associating domains

    PubMed Central

    Ulianov, Sergey V.; Khrameeva, Ekaterina E.; Gavrilov, Alexey A.; Flyamer, Ilya M.; Kos, Pavel; Mikhaleva, Elena A.; Penin, Aleksey A.; Logacheva, Maria D.; Imakaev, Maxim V.; Chertovich, Alexander; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Shevelyov, Yuri Y.; Razin, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances enabled by the Hi-C technique have unraveled many principles of chromosomal folding that were subsequently linked to disease and gene regulation. In particular, Hi-C revealed that chromosomes of animals are organized into topologically associating domains (TADs), evolutionary conserved compact chromatin domains that influence gene expression. Mechanisms that underlie partitioning of the genome into TADs remain poorly understood. To explore principles of TAD folding in Drosophila melanogaster, we performed Hi-C and poly(A)+ RNA-seq in four cell lines of various origins (S2, Kc167, DmBG3-c2, and OSC). Contrary to previous studies, we find that regions between TADs (i.e., the inter-TADs and TAD boundaries) in Drosophila are only weakly enriched with the insulator protein dCTCF, while another insulator protein Su(Hw) is preferentially present within TADs. However, Drosophila inter-TADs harbor active chromatin and constitutively transcribed (housekeeping) genes. Accordingly, we find that binding of insulator proteins dCTCF and Su(Hw) predicts TAD boundaries much worse than active chromatin marks do. Interestingly, inter-TADs correspond to decompacted inter-bands of polytene chromosomes, whereas TADs mostly correspond to densely packed bands. Collectively, our results suggest that TADs are condensed chromatin domains depleted in active chromatin marks, separated by regions of active chromatin. We propose the mechanism of TAD self-assembly based on the ability of nucleosomes from inactive chromatin to aggregate, and lack of this ability in acetylated nucleosomal arrays. Finally, we test this hypothesis by polymer simulations and find that TAD partitioning may be explained by different modes of inter-nucleosomal interactions for active and inactive chromatin. PMID:26518482

  3. Bilingual Reading of Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong; Wang, Min; Kim, Say Young

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English…

  4. First Words and First Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Catriona M.; Conway, Martin A.

    2010-01-01

    In two experiments autobiographical memories from childhood were recalled to cue words naming common objects, locations, activities and emotions. Participants recalled their earliest specific memory associated with each word and dated their age at the time of the remembered event. A striking and specific finding emerged: age of earliest memory was…

  5. Effect of feed starvation on side-stream anammox activity and key microbial populations.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Petra J; Mouilleron, Irina; Chuang, Hui-Ping; Thwaites, Ben; Hyde, Kylie; Dinesh, Nirmala; Krampe, Joerg; Lin, Tsair-Fuh; van den Akker, Ben

    2016-04-15

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process is widely acknowledged to be susceptible to a wide range of environmental factors given the slow growth rate of the anammox bacteria. Surprisingly there is limited experimental data regarding the susceptibility of the anammox process to feed starvations which may be encountered in full-scale applications. Therefore, a study was established to investigate the impact of feed starvations on nitritation and anammox activity in a demonstration-scale sequencing batch reactor. Three starvation periods were trialled, lasting one fortnight (15 d), one month (33 d) and two months (62 d). Regardless of the duration of the starvation period, assessment of the ammonia removal performance demonstrated nitritation and anammox activity were reinstated within one day of recovery operation. Characterisation of the community structure using 16S rRNA and functional genes specific for nitrogen-related microbes showed there was no clear impact or shift in the microbial populations between starvation and recovery phases. PMID:26861222

  6. Is Nox4 a key regulator of the activated state of fibroblasts in systemic sclerosis?

    PubMed

    Böhm, Markus; Dosoki, Heba; Kerkhoff, Claus

    2014-09-01

    The family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases consists of phagocytic gp91(phox) and six-related isoforms. Recent evidence indicates that the NADPH oxidase isoform Nox4 controls vascular, renal and pulmonary injury. We propose that Nox4 is an intrinsic regulator of the activated state of dermal fibroblasts in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Profibrotic cytokines on the one hand and antifibrogenic factors such as α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone on the other hand may target Nox4 as an intracellular nodal point. Via increased or decreased generation of reactive oxygen species and/or hydrogen peroxide, Nox4 could orchestrate collagen synthesis, differentiation of dermal fibroblasts into a profibrotic myofibroblast phenotype and thus dermal fibrosis. Confirmation of this hypothesis will have important consequences in our understanding of the activated state of dermal fibroblasts in SSc. Based on the availability of clinically useful Nox4 inhibitors, novel antifibrotic therapies of SSc can be envisioned. PMID:25040787

  7. Identification of key residues that confer Rhodobacter sphaeroides LPS activity at horse TLR4/MD-2.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Katherine L; Gangloff, Monique; Walsh, Catherine M; Spring, David R; Gay, Nicholas J; Bryant, Clare E

    2014-01-01

    The molecular determinants underpinning how hexaacylated lipid A and tetraacylated precursor lipid IVa activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are well understood, but how activation is induced by other lipid A species is less clear. Species specificity studies have clarified how TLR4/MD-2 recognises different lipid A structures, for example tetraacylated lipid IVa requires direct electrostatic interactions for agonism. In this study, we examine how pentaacylated lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RSLPS) antagonises human TLR4/MD-2 and activates the horse receptor complex using a computational approach and cross-species mutagenesis. At a functional level, we show that RSLPS is a partial agonist at horse TLR4/MD-2 with greater efficacy than lipid IVa. These data suggest the importance of the additional acyl chain in RSLPS signalling. Based on docking analysis, we propose a model for positioning of the RSLPS lipid A moiety (RSLA) within the MD-2 cavity at the TLR4 dimer interface, which allows activity at the horse receptor complex. As for lipid IVa, RSLPS agonism requires species-specific contacts with MD-2 and TLR4, but the R2 chain of RSLA protrudes from the MD-2 pocket to contact the TLR4 dimer in the vicinity of proline 442. Our model explains why RSLPS is only partially dependent on horse TLR4 residue R385, unlike lipid IVa. Mutagenesis of proline 442 into a serine residue, as found in human TLR4, uncovers the importance of this site in RSLPS signalling; horse TLR4 R385G/P442S double mutation completely abolishes RSLPS activity without its counterpart, human TLR4 G384R/S441P, being able to restore it. Our data highlight the importance of subtle changes in ligand positioning, and suggest that TLR4 and MD-2 residues that may not participate directly in ligand binding can determine the signalling outcome of a given ligand. This indicates a cooperative binding mechanism within the receptor complex, which is becoming increasingly important in TLR

  8. Identification of Key Residues That Confer Rhodobacter sphaeroides LPS Activity at Horse TLR4/MD-2

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Catherine M.; Spring, David R.; Gay, Nicholas J.; Bryant, Clare E.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular determinants underpinning how hexaacylated lipid A and tetraacylated precursor lipid IVa activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are well understood, but how activation is induced by other lipid A species is less clear. Species specificity studies have clarified how TLR4/MD-2 recognises different lipid A structures, for example tetraacylated lipid IVa requires direct electrostatic interactions for agonism. In this study, we examine how pentaacylated lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RSLPS) antagonises human TLR4/MD-2 and activates the horse receptor complex using a computational approach and cross-species mutagenesis. At a functional level, we show that RSLPS is a partial agonist at horse TLR4/MD-2 with greater efficacy than lipid IVa. These data suggest the importance of the additional acyl chain in RSLPS signalling. Based on docking analysis, we propose a model for positioning of the RSLPS lipid A moiety (RSLA) within the MD-2 cavity at the TLR4 dimer interface, which allows activity at the horse receptor complex. As for lipid IVa, RSLPS agonism requires species-specific contacts with MD-2 and TLR4, but the R2 chain of RSLA protrudes from the MD-2 pocket to contact the TLR4 dimer in the vicinity of proline 442. Our model explains why RSLPS is only partially dependent on horse TLR4 residue R385, unlike lipid IVa. Mutagenesis of proline 442 into a serine residue, as found in human TLR4, uncovers the importance of this site in RSLPS signalling; horse TLR4 R385G/P442S double mutation completely abolishes RSLPS activity without its counterpart, human TLR4 G384R/S441P, being able to restore it. Our data highlight the importance of subtle changes in ligand positioning, and suggest that TLR4 and MD-2 residues that may not participate directly in ligand binding can determine the signalling outcome of a given ligand. This indicates a cooperative binding mechanism within the receptor complex, which is becoming increasingly important in TLR

  9. Implicit and Explicit Attention to Pictures and Words: An fMRI-Study of Concurrent Emotional Stimulus Processing.

    PubMed

    Flaisch, Tobias; Imhof, Martin; Schmälzle, Ralf; Wentz, Klaus-Ulrich; Ibach, Bernd; Schupp, Harald T

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural processing of concurrently presented emotional stimuli under varying explicit and implicit attention demands. Specifically, in separate trials, participants indicated the category of either pictures or words. The words were placed over the center of the pictures and the picture-word compound-stimuli were presented for 1500 ms in a rapid event-related design. The results reveal pronounced main effects of task and emotion: the picture categorization task prompted strong activations in visual, parietal, temporal, frontal, and subcortical regions; the word categorization task evoked increased activation only in left extrastriate cortex. Furthermore, beyond replicating key findings regarding emotional picture and word processing, the results point to a dissociation of semantic-affective and sensory-perceptual processes for words: while emotional words engaged semantic-affective networks of the left hemisphere regardless of task, the increased activity in left extrastriate cortex associated with explicitly attending to words was diminished when the word was overlaid over an erotic image. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between Picture Category and Task within dorsal visual-associative regions, inferior parietal, and dorsolateral, and medial prefrontal cortices: during the word categorization task, activation was increased in these regions when the words were overlaid over erotic as compared to romantic pictures. During the picture categorization task, activity in these areas was relatively decreased when categorizing erotic as compared to romantic pictures. Thus, the emotional intensity of the pictures strongly affected brain regions devoted to the control of task-related word or picture processing. These findings are discussed with respect to the interplay of obligatory stimulus processing with task-related attentional control mechanisms. PMID:26733895

  10. Implicit and Explicit Attention to Pictures and Words: An fMRI-Study of Concurrent Emotional Stimulus Processing

    PubMed Central

    Flaisch, Tobias; Imhof, Martin; Schmälzle, Ralf; Wentz, Klaus-Ulrich; Ibach, Bernd; Schupp, Harald T.

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural processing of concurrently presented emotional stimuli under varying explicit and implicit attention demands. Specifically, in separate trials, participants indicated the category of either pictures or words. The words were placed over the center of the pictures and the picture-word compound-stimuli were presented for 1500 ms in a rapid event-related design. The results reveal pronounced main effects of task and emotion: the picture categorization task prompted strong activations in visual, parietal, temporal, frontal, and subcortical regions; the word categorization task evoked increased activation only in left extrastriate cortex. Furthermore, beyond replicating key findings regarding emotional picture and word processing, the results point to a dissociation of semantic-affective and sensory-perceptual processes for words: while emotional words engaged semantic-affective networks of the left hemisphere regardless of task, the increased activity in left extrastriate cortex associated with explicitly attending to words was diminished when the word was overlaid over an erotic image. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between Picture Category and Task within dorsal visual-associative regions, inferior parietal, and dorsolateral, and medial prefrontal cortices: during the word categorization task, activation was increased in these regions when the words were overlaid over erotic as compared to romantic pictures. During the picture categorization task, activity in these areas was relatively decreased when categorizing erotic as compared to romantic pictures. Thus, the emotional intensity of the pictures strongly affected brain regions devoted to the control of task-related word or picture processing. These findings are discussed with respect to the interplay of obligatory stimulus processing with task-related attentional control mechanisms. PMID:26733895

  11. Cell proliferation is a key determinant of the outcome of FOXO3a activation

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, Raewyn C. Carr, Andrew J.; Hulley, Philippa A.

    2015-06-19

    The FOXO family of forkhead transcription factors have a pivotal role in determining cell fate in response to oxidative stress. FOXO activity can either promote cell survival or induce cell death. Increased FOXO-mediated cell death has been implicated in the pathogenesis of degenerative diseases affecting musculoskeletal tissues. The aim of this study was to determine the conditions under which one member of the FOXO family, FOXO3a, promotes cell survival as opposed to cell death. Treatment of primary human tenocytes with 1 pM hydrogen peroxide for 18 h resulted in increased protein levels of FOXO3a. In peroxide-treated cells cultured in low serum media, FOXO3a inhibited cell proliferation and protected against apoptosis. However in peroxide treated cells cultured in high serum media, cell proliferation was unchanged but level of apoptosis significantly increased. Similarly, in tenocytes transduced to over-express FOXO3a, cell proliferation was inhibited and level of apoptosis unchanged in cells cultured in low serum. However there was a robust increase in cell death in FOXO3a-expressing cells cultured in high serum. Inhibition of cell proliferation in either peroxide-treated or FOXO3a-expressing cells cultured in high serum protected against apoptosis induction. Conversely, addition of a Chk2 inhibitor to peroxide-treated or FOXO3a-expressing cells overrode the inhibitory effect of FOXO3a on cell proliferation and led to increased apoptosis in cells cultured in low serum. This study demonstrates that proliferating cells may be particularly susceptible to the apoptosis-inducing actions of FOXO3a. Inhibition of cell proliferation by FOXO3a may be a critical event in allowing the pro-survival rather than the pro-apoptotic activity of FOXO3a to prevail. - Highlights: • FOXO3a activity can result in either promotion of cell survival or apoptosis. • The outcome of FOXO3a activation differs in proliferating compared to non-proliferating cells. • Proliferating

  12. Estrogen-related receptor gamma is a key regulator of muscle mitochondrial activity and oxidative capacity.

    PubMed

    Rangwala, Shamina M; Wang, Xiaomei; Calvo, Jennifer A; Lindsley, Loren; Zhang, Yunyu; Deyneko, Galina; Beaulieu, Valerie; Gao, Jiaping; Turner, Gordon; Markovits, Judit

    2010-07-16

    Estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRgamma) regulates the perinatal switch to oxidative metabolism in the myocardium. We wanted to understand the significance of induction of ERRgamma expression in skeletal muscle by exercise. Muscle-specific VP16ERRgamma transgenic mice demonstrated an increase in exercise capacity, mitochondrial enzyme activity, and enlarged mitochondria despite lower muscle weights. Furthermore, peak oxidative capacity was higher in the transgenics as compared with control littermates. In contrast, mice lacking one copy of ERRgamma exhibited decreased exercise capacity and muscle mitochondrial function. Interestingly, we observed that increased ERRgamma in muscle generates a gene expression profile that closely overlays that of red oxidative fiber-type muscle. We further demonstrated that a small molecule agonist of ERRbeta/gamma can increase mitochondrial function in mouse myotubes. Our data indicate that ERRgamma plays an important role in causing a shift toward slow twitch muscle type and, concomitantly, a greater capacity for endurance exercise. Thus, the activation of this nuclear receptor provides a potential node for therapeutic intervention for diseases such as obesity, which is associated with reduced oxidative metabolism and a lower type I fiber content in skeletal muscle. PMID:20418374

  13. Estrogen-related Receptor γ Is a Key Regulator of Muscle Mitochondrial Activity and Oxidative Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Rangwala, Shamina M.; Wang, Xiaomei; Calvo, Jennifer A.; Lindsley, Loren; Zhang, Yunyu; Deyneko, Galina; Beaulieu, Valerie; Gao, Jiaping; Turner, Gordon; Markovits, Judit

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) regulates the perinatal switch to oxidative metabolism in the myocardium. We wanted to understand the significance of induction of ERRγ expression in skeletal muscle by exercise. Muscle-specific VP16ERRγ transgenic mice demonstrated an increase in exercise capacity, mitochondrial enzyme activity, and enlarged mitochondria despite lower muscle weights. Furthermore, peak oxidative capacity was higher in the transgenics as compared with control littermates. In contrast, mice lacking one copy of ERRγ exhibited decreased exercise capacity and muscle mitochondrial function. Interestingly, we observed that increased ERRγ in muscle generates a gene expression profile that closely overlays that of red oxidative fiber-type muscle. We further demonstrated that a small molecule agonist of ERRβ/γ can increase mitochondrial function in mouse myotubes. Our data indicate that ERRγ plays an important role in causing a shift toward slow twitch muscle type and, concomitantly, a greater capacity for endurance exercise. Thus, the activation of this nuclear receptor provides a potential node for therapeutic intervention for diseases such as obesity, which is associated with reduced oxidative metabolism and a lower type I fiber content in skeletal muscle. PMID:20418374

  14. Mitochondrial ClpX activates a key enzyme for heme biosynthesis and erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Kardon, Julia R.; Yien, Yvette Y.; Huston, Nicholas C.; Branco, Diana S.; Hildick-Smith, Gordon J.; Rhee, Kyu Y.; Paw, Barry H.; Baker, Tania A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The mitochondrion maintains and regulates its proteome with chaperones primarily inherited from its bacterial endosymbiont ancestor. Among these chaperones is the AAA+ unfoldase ClpX, an important regulator of prokaryotic physiology with poorly defined function in the eukaryotic mitochondrion. We observed phenotypic similarity in S. cerevisiae genetic interaction data between mitochondrial ClpX (mtClpX) and genes contributing to heme biosynthesis, an essential mitochondrial function. Metabolomic analysis revealed that 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), the first heme precursor, is five-fold reduced in yeast lacking mtClpX activity, and total heme is reduced by half. mtClpX directly stimulates ALA synthase in vitro by catalyzing incorporation of its cofactor, pyridoxal phosphate. This activity is conserved in mammalian homologs; additionally, mtClpX depletion impairs vertebrate erythropoiesis, which requires massive upregulation of heme biosynthesis to supply hemoglobin. mtClpX therefore is a widely conserved stimulator of an essential biosynthetic pathway, and employs a previously unrecognized mechanism for AAA+ unfoldases. PMID:25957689

  15. Key amino acids of arabidopsis VKOR in the activity of phylloquinone reduction and disulfide bond formation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Jian; Cui, Hao-Ran; Yu, Zhi-Bo; Du, Jia-Jia; Xu, Jia-Ning; Wang, Xiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Many proteins in chloroplast are regulated through the disulfide bond/thiol transformation to realize their activities. A homologue of VKOR (Vitamin K epoxide reductase) in Arabidopsis chloroplast is found to catalyze the disulfide bond formation in vivo and to mediate the specific phylloquinone reduction in vitro. It is also called LTO1 (Lumen Thiol Oxidoreductase 1). Investigations about functions and essential amino acid residues of AtVKOR have important theoretical significance to clarify the chloroplast redox regulation mechanism. In this study, several amino acids in the VKOR domain of AtVKOR were identified to be involved in binding of phylloquinone. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to study the function of these positions. The results suggested that residues Ser77, Leu87, Phe137 and Leu141 were quite important in the binding and catalyzing the reduction of phylloquinone. These residues were also involved in the electron transferring and disulfide bond formation of substrate proteins by motility assays in vivo, suggesting that the binding of phylloquinone not only affected the delivery of electrons to phylloquinone but also affected the whole electron transfer process. The conserved cysteines in the AtVKOR domain also played critical roles in phylloquinone reduction. When each of the four conserved cysteines was mutated to alanine, the mutants lost reduction activity entirely, suggesting that the four conserved cysteines played crucial roles in the electron transfer process. PMID:25267254

  16. Sarbalap! Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantu, Virginia, Comp.; And Others

    Prepared by bilingual teacher aide students, this glossary provides the Spanish translation of about 1,300 English words used in the bilingual classroom. Intended to serve as a handy reference for teachers, teacher aides, and students, the glossary can also be used in teacher training programs as a vocabulary builder for future bilingual teachers…

  17. Magical Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauch-Nelson, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Prompted by a parent's comment that indicated a desire for her elementary-age children to learn the elements and principles of design in their art class, the author set out to enrich her own understanding and appreciation of the language used in the art room. Looking at word origins helps students appreciate the significance of art and craft in…

  18. Word Problem Wizardry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack

    1991-01-01

    Presents suggestions for teaching math word problems to elementary students. The strategies take into consideration differences between reading in math and reading in other areas. A problem-prediction game and four self-checking activities are included along with a magic password challenge. (SM)

  19. National Low-Level Waste Management Program final summary report of key activities and accomplishments for fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Rittenberg, R.B.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 to assist states and compacts in their siting and licensing efforts for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) is the element of the DOE that performs the key support activities under the Act. The NLLWMP`s activities are driven by the needs of the states and compacts as they prepare to manage their low-level waste under the Act. Other work is added during the fiscal year as necessary to accommodate new requests brought on by status changes in states` and compacts` siting and licensing efforts. This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the NLLWMP during FY 1997.

  20. Activities of Daily Living in Mexican American Caregivers: The Key to Continuing Informal Care

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bronwynne C.; Belyea, Michael J.; Coon, David W.; Ume, Ebere

    2013-01-01

    La familia drives elder care in Mexican–American (MA) families, but nursing home placement can result from day-to-day caregiving demands that increase caregiver difficulty with activities of daily living (ADLs). Using life course perspective, this article describes the initial data wave of 31 MA caregivers from a descriptive, longitudinal, mixed-methods study of 110 MA caregivers and care recipients over 15 months in their caregiving trajectories. Fifteen of 31 caregivers consistently indicated “no help needed” on the Katz ADL, whereas all but one reported “help needed” during semistructured interviews with cultural brokers. In addition to the discrepancy between results on the Katz ADL and interviews, findings include consideration of nursing home placement by moderately acculturated caregivers and minimization of their illnesses by caregivers. Additional methods of MA caregiver assessment may be needed due to the questionable accuracy of the Katz ADL; additional research should explore minimization and acculturation in MA caregivers. PMID:22740307

  1. The flavonoid paradox: conjugation and deconjugation as key steps for the biological activity of flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco; Duarte, Juan; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2012-07-01

    Flavonoids have been proposed to exert beneficial effects in the prevention of a large number of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Paradoxically, despite the most representative flavonoid--quercetin--exerting biologically demonstrable systemic effects, it is not found in plasma after oral administration and its circulating metabolites show weak activity in vitro. The current available evidence indicates that quercetin is extensively metabolized into methylated and glucurono- and sulfo-conjugated metabolites, which are the plasma circulating forms; and glucurono-, but not sulfo-conjugates, can be hydrolyzed at the vascular level, yielding the parent aglycone which accumulates in tissues. Thus conjugation is a reversible process and, at least regarding the vasodilator and antihypertensive effects, the conjugation-deconjugation cycle appears to be an absolute requirement. Glucuronidated derivatives transport quercetin and its methylated form, and deliver to the tissues the free aglycone, which is the final effector. PMID:22555950

  2. Words are not things

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J.

    2000-01-01

    On a traditional view, words are the fundamental units of verbal behavior. They are independent, autonomous things that symbolically represent or refer to other independent, autonomous things, often in some other dimension. Ascertaining what those other things are constitutes determining the meaning of a word. On a behavior-analytic view, verbal behavior is ongoing, functional operant activity occasioned by antecedent factors and reinforced by its consequences, particularly consequences that are mediated by other members of the same verbal community. Functional relations rather than structure select the response unit. The behavior-analytic point of view clarifies such important contemporary issues in psychology as (a) the role of scientific theories and explanations, (b) educational practices, and (c) equivalence classes, so that there is no risk of strengthening the traditional view that words are things that symbolically represent other things. PMID:22477219

  3. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-04

    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  4. Analysis of the key active subsites of glycoside hydrolase 13 family members.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikash

    2010-05-01

    alpha-Amylase, pullulanase, neopullulanase, cyclomaltodextrinase (CDase), cyclomaltodextin glucanotransferase (CGTase), etc. are some of the amylolytic enzymes that act on polysaccharides. These enzymes differ from each other with respect to substrate and linkage specificities. These enzymes have been grouped into the GH13 (GH, Glycoside Hydrolase) family in the CAZy database on the basis of similarity in amino acid sequence. Members of this family share three domains viz., A, B, and C, which have several binding subsites to accommodate monomeric units of the polysaccharide substrate. Among these subsites, -2, -1, +1, and +2 subsites are the most critical subsites for catalytic activity. In the present study, the substrate analog-, inhibitor-, or product-bound 3-D structures of 24 members of GH13 family have been analyzed to identify the features of the -2, -1, +1, and +2 subsites shared by all the members for recognition of the common substrate. It is found that neither the number nor the nature of the potential hydrogen bond-forming residues is conserved with the exception of the presence of tyrosine as a stacking residue in the -1 subsite. The relative spatial disposition of the conserved subsite residues are conserved as judged by distance matrices. The backbone of the -2, -1, +1, and +2 subsites does not undergo conformational change for the recognition of the substrate. This analysis suggests that these enzymes recognize their substrate on the basis of shape of the substrate rather than on the basis of specific interactions within the binding site. PMID:20227065

  5. Key Role of Active-Site Water Molecules in Bacteriorhodopsin Proton-Transfer Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bondar, A.N.; Baudry, Jerome Y; Suhai, Sandor; Fischer, S.; Smith, Jeremy C

    2008-10-01

    The functional mechanism of the light-driven proton pump protein bacteriorhodopsin depends on the location of water molecules in the active site at various stages of the photocycle and on their roles in the proton-transfer steps. Here, free energy computations indicate that electrostatic interactions favor the presence of a cytoplasmic-side water molecule hydrogen bonding to the retinal Schiff base in the state preceding proton transfer from the retinal Schiff base to Asp85. However, the nonequilibrium nature of the pumping process means that the probability of occupancy of a water molecule in a given site depends both on the free energies of insertion of the water molecule in this and other sites during the preceding photocycle steps and on the kinetic accessibility of these sites on the time scale of the reaction steps. The presence of the cytoplasmic-side water molecule has a dramatic effect on the mechanism of proton transfer: the proton is channeled on the Thr89 side of the retinal, whereas the transfer on the Asp212 side is hindered. Reaction-path simulations and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the presence of the cytoplasmic-side water molecule permits a low-energy bacteriorhodopsin conformer in which the water molecule bridges the twisted retinal Schiff base and the proton acceptor Asp85. From this low-energy conformer, proton transfer occurs via a concerted mechanism in which the water molecule participates as an intermediate proton carrier.

  6. A Detailed Data-Driven Network Model of Prefrontal Cortex Reproduces Key Features of In Vivo Activity.

    PubMed

    Hass, Joachim; Hertäg, Loreen; Durstewitz, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    The prefrontal cortex is centrally involved in a wide range of cognitive functions and their impairment in psychiatric disorders. Yet, the computational principles that govern the dynamics of prefrontal neural networks, and link their physiological, biochemical and anatomical properties to cognitive functions, are not well understood. Computational models can help to bridge the gap between these different levels of description, provided they are sufficiently constrained by experimental data and capable of predicting key properties of the intact cortex. Here, we present a detailed network model of the prefrontal cortex, based on a simple computationally efficient single neuron model (simpAdEx), with all parameters derived from in vitro electrophysiological and anatomical data. Without additional tuning, this model could be shown to quantitatively reproduce a wide range of measures from in vivo electrophysiological recordings, to a degree where simulated and experimentally observed activities were statistically indistinguishable. These measures include spike train statistics, membrane potential fluctuations, local field potentials, and the transmission of transient stimulus information across layers. We further demonstrate that model predictions are robust against moderate changes in key parameters, and that synaptic heterogeneity is a crucial ingredient to the quantitative reproduction of in vivo-like electrophysiological behavior. Thus, we have produced a physiologically highly valid, in a quantitative sense, yet computationally efficient PFC network model, which helped to identify key properties underlying spike time dynamics as observed in vivo, and can be harvested for in-depth investigation of the links between physiology and cognition. PMID:27203563

  7. A Detailed Data-Driven Network Model of Prefrontal Cortex Reproduces Key Features of In Vivo Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hass, Joachim; Hertäg, Loreen; Durstewitz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is centrally involved in a wide range of cognitive functions and their impairment in psychiatric disorders. Yet, the computational principles that govern the dynamics of prefrontal neural networks, and link their physiological, biochemical and anatomical properties to cognitive functions, are not well understood. Computational models can help to bridge the gap between these different levels of description, provided they are sufficiently constrained by experimental data and capable of predicting key properties of the intact cortex. Here, we present a detailed network model of the prefrontal cortex, based on a simple computationally efficient single neuron model (simpAdEx), with all parameters derived from in vitro electrophysiological and anatomical data. Without additional tuning, this model could be shown to quantitatively reproduce a wide range of measures from in vivo electrophysiological recordings, to a degree where simulated and experimentally observed activities were statistically indistinguishable. These measures include spike train statistics, membrane potential fluctuations, local field potentials, and the transmission of transient stimulus information across layers. We further demonstrate that model predictions are robust against moderate changes in key parameters, and that synaptic heterogeneity is a crucial ingredient to the quantitative reproduction of in vivo-like electrophysiological behavior. Thus, we have produced a physiologically highly valid, in a quantitative sense, yet computationally efficient PFC network model, which helped to identify key properties underlying spike time dynamics as observed in vivo, and can be harvested for in-depth investigation of the links between physiology and cognition. PMID:27203563

  8. Strong Nonadditivity as a Key Structure–Activity Relationship Feature: Distinguishing Structural Changes from Assay Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nonadditivity in protein–ligand affinity data represents highly instructive structure–activity relationship (SAR) features that indicate structural changes and have the potential to guide rational drug design. At the same time, nonadditivity is a challenge for both basic SAR analysis as well as many ligand-based data analysis techniques such as Free-Wilson Analysis and Matched Molecular Pair analysis, since linear substituent contribution models inherently assume additivity and thus do not work in such cases. While structural causes for nonadditivity have been analyzed anecdotally, no systematic approaches to interpret and use nonadditivity prospectively have been developed yet. In this contribution, we lay the statistical framework for systematic analysis of nonadditivity in a SAR series. First, we develop a general metric to quantify nonadditivity. Then, we demonstrate the non-negligible impact of experimental uncertainty that creates apparent nonadditivity, and we introduce techniques to handle experimental uncertainty. Finally, we analyze public SAR data sets for strong nonadditivity and use recourse to the original publications and available X-ray structures to find structural explanations for the nonadditivity observed. We find that all cases of strong nonadditivity (ΔΔpKi and ΔΔpIC50 > 2.0 log units) with sufficient structural information to generate reasonable hypothesis involve changes in binding mode. With the appropriate statistical basis, nonadditivity analysis offers a variety of new attempts for various areas in computer-aided drug design, including the validation of scoring functions and free energy perturbation approaches, binding pocket classification, and novel features in SAR analysis tools. PMID:25760829

  9. Does "Word Coach" Coach Words?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Tom; Horst, Marlise

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the design and testing of an integrated suite of vocabulary training games for Nintendo[TM] collectively designated "My Word Coach" (Ubisoft, 2008). The games' design is based on a wide range of learning research, from classic studies on recycling patterns to frequency studies of modern corpora. Its general usage and learning…

  10. Word Sorts for General Music Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2015-01-01

    Word sorts are standard practice for aiding children in acquiring skills in English language arts. When included in the general music classroom, word sorts may aid students in acquiring a working knowledge of music vocabulary. The author shares a word sort activity drawn from vocabulary in John Lithgow's children's book "Never Play…

  11. Mitochondrial Activity and Cyr1 Are Key Regulators of Ras1 Activation of C. albicans Virulence Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Grahl, Nora; Demers, Elora G.; Lindsay, Allia K.; Harty, Colleen E.; Willger, Sven D.; Piispanen, Amy E.; Hogan, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is both a major fungal pathogen and a member of the commensal human microflora. The morphological switch from yeast to hyphal growth is associated with disease and many environmental factors are known to influence the yeast-to-hyphae switch. The Ras1-Cyr1-PKA pathway is a major regulator of C. albicans morphogenesis as well as biofilm formation and white-opaque switching. Previous studies have shown that hyphal growth is strongly repressed by mitochondrial inhibitors. Here, we show that mitochondrial inhibitors strongly decreased Ras1 GTP-binding and activity in C. albicans and similar effects were observed in other Candida species. Consistent with there being a connection between respiratory activity and GTP-Ras1 binding, mutants lacking complex I or complex IV grew as yeast in hypha-inducing conditions, had lower levels of GTP-Ras1, and Ras1 GTP-binding was unaffected by respiratory inhibitors. Mitochondria-perturbing agents decreased intracellular ATP concentrations and metabolomics analyses of cells grown with different respiratory inhibitors found consistent perturbation of pyruvate metabolism and the TCA cycle, changes in redox state, increased catabolism of lipids, and decreased sterol content which suggested increased AMP kinase activity. Biochemical and genetic experiments provide strong evidence for a model in which the activation of Ras1 is controlled by ATP levels in an AMP kinase independent manner. The Ras1 GTPase activating protein, Ira2, but not the Ras1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Cdc25, was required for the reduction of Ras1-GTP in response to inhibitor-mediated reduction of ATP levels. Furthermore, Cyr1, a well-characterized Ras1 effector, participated in the control of Ras1-GTP binding in response to decreased mitochondrial activity suggesting a revised model for Ras1 and Cyr1 signaling in which Cyr1 and Ras1 influence each other and, together with Ira2, seem to form a master-regulatory complex necessary to integrate

  12. Morphing into Adolescents: Active Word Learning for English-Language Learners and Their Classmates in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2010-01-01

    Many students arrive at middle school without the academic language skills they need to read sophisticated texts with comprehension. In particular, English language learners and students from low-income backgrounds attending underresourced, urban middle schools lack opportunities to learn the thousands of academic words they need to succeed. To…

  13. Regional Changes in Word-Production Laterality after a Naming Treatment Designed to Produce a Rightward Shift in Frontal Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Bruce; Moore, Anna Bacon; McGregor, Keith M.; Chang, Yu-Ling; Benjamin, Michelle; Gopinath, Kaundinya; Sherod, Megan E.; Wierenga, Christina E.; Peck, Kyung K.; Briggs, Richard W.; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; White, Keith D.

    2009-01-01

    Five nonfluent aphasia patients participated in a picture-naming treatment that used an intention manipulation (opening a box and pressing a button on a device in the box with the left hand) to initiate naming trials and was designed to re-lateralize word production mechanisms from the left to the right frontal lobe. To test the underlying…

  14. Where's the Noise? Key Features of Spontaneous Activity and Neural Variability Arise through Learning in a Deterministic Network.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christoph; Lazar, Andreea; Nessler, Bernhard; Triesch, Jochen

    2015-12-01

    Even in the absence of sensory stimulation the brain is spontaneously active. This background "noise" seems to be the dominant cause of the notoriously high trial-to-trial variability of neural recordings. Recent experimental observations have extended our knowledge of trial-to-trial variability and spontaneous activity in several directions: 1. Trial-to-trial variability systematically decreases following the onset of a sensory stimulus or the start of a motor act. 2. Spontaneous activity states in sensory cortex outline the region of evoked sensory responses. 3. Across development, spontaneous activity aligns itself with typical evoked activity patterns. 4. The spontaneous brain activity prior to the presentation of an ambiguous stimulus predicts how the stimulus will be interpreted. At present it is unclear how these observations relate to each other and how they arise in cortical circuits. Here we demonstrate that all of these phenomena can be accounted for by a deterministic self-organizing recurrent neural network model (SORN), which learns a predictive model of its sensory environment. The SORN comprises recurrently coupled populations of excitatory and inhibitory threshold units and learns via a combination of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) and homeostatic plasticity mechanisms. Similar to balanced network architectures, units in the network show irregular activity and variable responses to inputs. Additionally, however, the SORN exhibits sequence learning abilities matching recent findings from visual cortex and the network's spontaneous activity reproduces the experimental findings mentioned above. Intriguingly, the network's behaviour is reminiscent of sampling-based probabilistic inference, suggesting that correlates of sampling-based inference can develop from the interaction of STDP and homeostasis in deterministic networks. We conclude that key observations on spontaneous brain activity and the variability of neural responses can be

  15. Where’s the Noise? Key Features of Spontaneous Activity and Neural Variability Arise through Learning in a Deterministic Network

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Christoph; Lazar, Andreea; Nessler, Bernhard; Triesch, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Even in the absence of sensory stimulation the brain is spontaneously active. This background “noise” seems to be the dominant cause of the notoriously high trial-to-trial variability of neural recordings. Recent experimental observations have extended our knowledge of trial-to-trial variability and spontaneous activity in several directions: 1. Trial-to-trial variability systematically decreases following the onset of a sensory stimulus or the start of a motor act. 2. Spontaneous activity states in sensory cortex outline the region of evoked sensory responses. 3. Across development, spontaneous activity aligns itself with typical evoked activity patterns. 4. The spontaneous brain activity prior to the presentation of an ambiguous stimulus predicts how the stimulus will be interpreted. At present it is unclear how these observations relate to each other and how they arise in cortical circuits. Here we demonstrate that all of these phenomena can be accounted for by a deterministic self-organizing recurrent neural network model (SORN), which learns a predictive model of its sensory environment. The SORN comprises recurrently coupled populations of excitatory and inhibitory threshold units and learns via a combination of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) and homeostatic plasticity mechanisms. Similar to balanced network architectures, units in the network show irregular activity and variable responses to inputs. Additionally, however, the SORN exhibits sequence learning abilities matching recent findings from visual cortex and the network’s spontaneous activity reproduces the experimental findings mentioned above. Intriguingly, the network’s behaviour is reminiscent of sampling-based probabilistic inference, suggesting that correlates of sampling-based inference can develop from the interaction of STDP and homeostasis in deterministic networks. We conclude that key observations on spontaneous brain activity and the variability of neural responses can be

  16. Disk-driven hydromagnetic winds as a key ingredient of active galactic nuclei unification schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konigl, Arieh; Kartje, John F.

    1994-01-01

    Centrifugally driven winds from the surfaces of magnetized accretion disks have been recognized as an attractive mechanism of removing the angular momentum of the accreted matter and of producing the bipolar outflows and jets that are often associated with compact astronomical objects. As previously suggested in the context of young stellar objects, such winds have unique observational manifestations stemming from their highly stratified density and velocity structure and from their exposure to the strong continuum radiation field of the compact object. We have applied this scenario to active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and investigated the properties of hydromagnetic outflows that originate within approximately 10(M(sub 8)) pc of the central 10(exp 8)(M(sub 8)) solar mass black hole. On the basis of our results, we propose that hydromagnetic disk-driven winds may underlie the classification of broad-line and narrow-line AGNs (e.g., the Seyfert 1/Seyfert 2 dichotomy) as well as the apparent dearth of luminous Seyfert 2 galaxies. More generally, we demonstrate that such winds could strongly influence the spectral characteristics of Seyfert galaxies, QSOs, and BL Lac objects (BLOs). In our picture, the torus is identified with the outer regions of the wind where dust uplifted from the disk surfaces by gas-grain collisions is embedded in the outflow. Using an efficient radiative transfer code, we show that the infrared emission of Seyfert galaxies and QSOs can be attributed to the reprocessing of the UV/soft X-ray AGN continuum by the dust in the wind and the disk. We demonstrate that the radiation pressure force flattens the dust distribution in objects with comparatively high (but possibly sub-Eddington) bolometric luminosities, and we propose this as one likely reason for the apparent paucity of narrow-line objects among certain high-luminosity AGNs. Using the XSTAR photoionization code, we show that the inner regions of the wind could naturally account for the warm

  17. Surface Snowpack Key to Bromine Activation in a Changing Arctic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Kerri; Custard, Kyle; Shepson, Paul; Douglas, Thomas; Pöhler, Denis; Stephan, General; Zielcke, Johannes; Simpson, William; Platt, Ulrich; von Glasow, Roland; Tanner, David; Huey, L. Gregory; Carlsen, Mark; Stirm, Brian

    2013-04-01

    Arctic sea ice is rapidly declining and transforming from a multiyear ice pack to thinner, more saline, seasonal ice, which has important implications for Arctic atmospheric composition. Following springtime polar sunrise, "ozone depletion events", attributed to bromine chemistry, lead to episodic decreases in lower tropospheric ozone concentrations to near zero, concurrent with mercury depletion and deposition. Despite our increasing understanding of the spatial variability of BrO and possible reaction pathways based on laboratory studies, important questions remain regarding the most efficient sources of and mechanisms for Arctic halogen activation. During the March-April 2012 BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX) in Barrow, Alaska, outdoor chamber experiments with snow and ice samples were conducted. Ozone was added as the precursor oxidant, and the samples were investigated with and without ambient sunlight. Samples included first-year sea ice, brine icicles, several layers of snow above first-year sea ice, and seasonal snow above the tundra. Chemical ionization mass spectrometry was utilized to monitor Br2 production. Tundra snow and surface snow above sea ice produced the most Br2, with no production resulting from sea ice and basal snow directly above sea ice. Overall, the most efficient Br2 production was observed from snow samples characterized by lower pH and higher bromide/chloride ratios. Br2 was only observed in the presence of sunlight, indicating the role of snowpack photochemical reactions and the hydroxyl radical in its production. Br2 production via the surface snowpack explains previously-observed BrO enhancements above sea ice, as well as observations of inland tundra hotspots in measured BrO by aircraft-based nadir MAX-DOAS (Multi Axis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) measurements, conducted during BROMEX. The findings indicate that atmospherically processed snow is likely a major source of Arctic bromine release, which

  18. Avoidance and activation as keys to depression: adaptation of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale in a Spanish sample.

    PubMed

    Barraca, Jorge; Pérez-Alvarez, Marino; Lozano Bleda, José Héctor

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we present the adaptation of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS), developed by Kanter, Mulick, Busch, Berlin, and Martell (2007), in a Spanish sample. The psychometric properties were tested in a sample of 263 participants (124 clinical and 139 non-clinical). The results show that, just as in the original English version, the Spanish BADS is a valid and internally consistent scale. Construct validity was examined by correlation with the BDI-II, AAQ, ATQ, MCQ-30, STAI and EROS. Factor analysis justified the four-dimensions of the original instrument (Activation, Avoidance/Rumination, Work/School Impairment and Social Impairment), although with some differences in the factor loadings of the items. Further considerations about the usefulness of the BADS in the clinical treatment of depressed patients are also suggested. PMID:22059343

  19. Implicit phonological priming during visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Lisa B.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E.; Rojas, Donald C.

    2011-01-01

    Phonology is a lower-level structural aspect of language involving the sounds of a language and their organization in that language. Numerous behavioral studies utilizing priming, which refers to an increased sensitivity to a stimulus following prior experience with that or a related stimulus, have provided evidence for the role of phonology in visual word recognition. However, most language studies utilizing priming in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have focused on lexical-semantic aspects of language processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the automatic, implicit stages of phonological processing. While undergoing fMRI, eighteen individuals performed a lexical decision task (LDT) on prime-target pairs including word-word homophone and pseudoword-word pseudohomophone pairs with a prime presentation below perceptual threshold. Whole-brain analyses revealed several cortical regions exhibiting hemodynamic response suppression due to phonological priming including bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG), middle temporal gyri (MTG), and angular gyri (AG) with additional region of interest (ROI) analyses revealing response suppression in left lateralized supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Homophone and pseudohomophone priming also resulted in different patterns of hemodynamic responses relative to one another. These results suggest that phonological processing plays a key role in visual word recognition. Furthermore, enhanced hemodynamic responses for unrelated stimuli relative to primed stimuli were observed in midline cortical regions corresponding to the default-mode network (DMN) suggesting that DMN activity can be modulated by task requirements within the context of an implicit task. PMID:21159322

  20. Promiscuous words

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Promiscuity is frequently used to describe animal mating behaviour, and especially to describe multiple mating by females. Yet this use of the term is incorrect, perhaps reflecting an erroneous adoption of common language to pique reader interest. We evaluated the patterns of use and misuse of the word ‘promiscuity’ in a representative journal of animal behaviour. This survey highlights how inappropriately the term is used, and how it can conceal critical features of animal mating strategies with intriguing evolutionary significance. Further analysis of the scientific impact of papers identified by the term promiscuous or polyandrous revealed that the former were cited less frequently. We argue that using promiscuity to describe animal mating strategies is anthropomorphic, inaccurate, and potentially misleading. Consistent with other biological disciplines, the word promiscuity should be used to describe indiscriminate mating behaviour only, and that polygyny and polyandry should be used to describe male and female mating frequency respectively. PMID:24209457

  1. Cortical dynamics of word recognition.

    PubMed

    Mainy, Nelly; Jung, Julien; Baciu, Monica; Kahane, Philippe; Schoendorff, Benjamin; Minotti, Lorella; Hoffmann, Dominique; Bertrand, Olivier; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe

    2008-11-01

    While functional neuroimaging studies have helped elucidate major regions implicated in word recognition, much less is known about the dynamics of the associated activations or the actual neural processes of their functional network. We used intracerebral electroencephalography recordings in 10 patients with epilepsy to directly measure neural activity in the temporal and frontal lobes during written words' recognition, predominantly in the left hemisphere. The patients were presented visually with consonant strings, pseudo-words, and words and performed a hierarchical paradigm contrasting semantic processes (living vs. nonliving word categorization task), phonological processes (rhyme decision task on pseudo-words), and visual processes (visual analysis of consonant strings). Stimuli triggered a cascade of modulations in the gamma-band (>40 Hz) with reproducible timing and task-sensitivity throughout the functional reading network: the earliest gamma-band activations were observed for all stimuli in the mesial basal temporal lobe at 150 ms, reaching the word form area in the mid fusiform gyrus at 200 ms, evidencing a superiority effect for word-like stimuli. Peaks of gamma-band activations were then observed for word-like stimuli after 400 ms in the anterior and middle portion of the superior temporal gyrus (BA 38 and BA 22 respectively), in the pars triangularis of Broca's area for the semantic task (BAs 45 and 47), and in the pars opercularis for the phonological task (BA 44). Concurrently, we observed a two-pronged effect in the prefrontal cortex (BAs 9 and 46), with nonspecific sustained dorsal activation related to sustained attention and, more ventrally, a strong reflex deactivation around 500 ms, possibly due to semantic working memory reset. PMID:17712785

  2. Nitrogen transformations as inferred from the activities of key enzymes in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shailaja, M. S.; Narvekar, P. V.; Alagarsamy, R.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2006-06-01

    Vertical distributions of the potential activities of some key enzymes mediating nitrification and denitrification were investigated within the oxygen (O 2) minimum zone of the Arabian Sea at a number of locations between latitudes 17°N and 21°N and longitudes 63°E and 68°E so as to get an insight into the predominant biochemical mode(s) of production and consumption of nitrous oxide (N 2O). Results revealed that the dissimilatory nitrate (NO -3) reduction activity was generally very low or absent within the σ θ range 26.6-26.8, which corresponds to the Persian Gulf Watermass (PGW). Depth profiles of nitrate reductase (NaR), nitrite reductase (NiR) and ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) activities were compared with those of O 2, NO -3, nitrite (NO -2) and N 2O, and it is concluded that nitrifier denitrification rather than heterotrophic denitrification is active within the core of PGW. The presence of multiple peaks of AMO activity coinciding with distinct maxima in the O 2 profile and with a trend opposite to that of NaR activity indicates that the two processes, viz., classical and nitrifier denitrification, occur in discrete layers, probably determined by the variations in the ambient O 2 concentrations at various depths surrounding the PGW core. Further, it appears that at the depths where nitrifier denitrification is active in the absence of heterotrophic denitrification, N 2O builds up as its consumption may be inhibited by O 2. Possible reasons for the occurrence of appreciable nitrate deficit within the core of PGW, where dissimilatory NO -3 reduction is lacking, are discussed.

  3. The importance of delineating networks by activity type in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Cedar Key, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Gazda, Stefanie; Iyer, Swami; Killingback, Timothy; Connor, Richard; Brault, Solange

    2015-01-01

    Network analysis has proved to be a valuable tool for studying the behavioural patterns of complex social animals. Often such studies either do not distinguish between different behavioural states of the organisms or simply focus attention on a single behavioural state to the exclusion of all others. In either of these approaches it is impossible to ascertain how the behavioural patterns of individuals depend on the type of activity they are engaged in. Here we report on a network-based analysis of the behavioural associations in a population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Cedar Key, Florida. We consider three distinct behavioural states—socializing, travelling and foraging—and analyse the association networks corresponding to each activity. Moreover, in constructing the different activity networks we do not simply record a spatial association between two individuals as being either present or absent, but rather quantify the degree of any association, thus allowing us to construct weighted networks describing each activity. The results of these weighted activity networks indicate that networks can reveal detailed patterns of bottlenose dolphins at the population level; dolphins socialize in large groups with preferential associations; travel in small groups with preferential associates; and spread out to forage in very small, weakly connected groups. There is some overlap in the socialize and travel networks but little overlap between the forage and other networks. This indicates that the social bonds maintained in other activities are less important as they forage on dispersed, solitary prey. The overall network, not sorted by activity, does not accurately represent any of these patterns. PMID:26064611

  4. The importance of delineating networks by activity type in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Cedar Key, Florida.

    PubMed

    Gazda, Stefanie; Iyer, Swami; Killingback, Timothy; Connor, Richard; Brault, Solange

    2015-03-01

    Network analysis has proved to be a valuable tool for studying the behavioural patterns of complex social animals. Often such studies either do not distinguish between different behavioural states of the organisms or simply focus attention on a single behavioural state to the exclusion of all others. In either of these approaches it is impossible to ascertain how the behavioural patterns of individuals depend on the type of activity they are engaged in. Here we report on a network-based analysis of the behavioural associations in a population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Cedar Key, Florida. We consider three distinct behavioural states-socializing, travelling and foraging-and analyse the association networks corresponding to each activity. Moreover, in constructing the different activity networks we do not simply record a spatial association between two individuals as being either present or absent, but rather quantify the degree of any association, thus allowing us to construct weighted networks describing each activity. The results of these weighted activity networks indicate that networks can reveal detailed patterns of bottlenose dolphins at the population level; dolphins socialize in large groups with preferential associations; travel in small groups with preferential associates; and spread out to forage in very small, weakly connected groups. There is some overlap in the socialize and travel networks but little overlap between the forage and other networks. This indicates that the social bonds maintained in other activities are less important as they forage on dispersed, solitary prey. The overall network, not sorted by activity, does not accurately represent any of these patterns. PMID:26064611

  5. The Feeling Words Curriculum: The Missing Link.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Marvin

    The Feeling Words Curriculum, a curriculum that integrates the cognitive and affective domains in one course of study, is described in this paper. The opening sections explain how "feeling words," key vocabulary terms, are used to provide the missing link from one person's life to another's. Stressing the importance of helping students to develop…

  6. Structural Dissection of the Active Site of Thermotoga maritima β-Galactosidase Identifies Key Residues for Transglycosylating Activity.

    PubMed

    Talens-Perales, David; Polaina, Julio; Marín-Navarro, Julia

    2016-04-13

    Glycoside hydrolases, specifically β-galactosidases, can be used to synthesize galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) due to the transglycosylating (secondary) activity of these enzymes. Site-directed mutagenesis of a thermoresistant β-galactosidase from Thermotoga maritima has been carried out to study the structural basis of transgalactosylation and to obtain enzymatic variants with better performance for GOS biosynthesis. Rational design of mutations was based on homologous sequence analysis and structural modeling. Analysis of mutant enzymes indicated that residue W959, or an alternative aromatic residue at this position, is critical for the synthesis of β-3'-galactosyl-lactose, the major GOS obtained with the wild-type enzyme. Mutants W959A and W959C, but not W959F, showed an 80% reduced synthesis of this GOS. Other substitutions, N574S, N574A, and F571L, increased the synthesis of β-3'-galactosyl-lactose about 40%. Double mutants F571L/N574S and F571L/N574A showed an increase of about 2-fold. PMID:26998654

  7. Spaceflight and simulated microgravity cause a significant reduction of key gene expression in early T-cell activation.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Emily M; Yoshida, Miya C; Candelario, Tara Lynne T; Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    2015-03-15

    Healthy immune function depends on precise regulation of lymphocyte activation. During the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Apollo and Shuttle eras, multiple spaceflight studies showed depressed lymphocyte activity under microgravity (μg) conditions. Scientists on the ground use two models of simulated μg (sμg): 1) the rotating wall vessel (RWV) and 2) the random positioning machine (RPM), to study the effects of altered gravity on cell function before advancing research to the true μg when spaceflight opportunities become available on the International Space Station (ISS). The objective of this study is to compare the effects of true μg and sμg on the expression of key early T-cell activation genes in mouse splenocytes from spaceflight and ground animals. For the first time, we compared all three conditions of microgravity spaceflight, RPM, and RWV during immune gene activation of Il2, Il2rα, Ifnγ, and Tagap; moreover, we confirm two new early T-cell activation genes, Iigp1 and Slamf1. Gene expression for all samples was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results demonstrate significantly increased gene expression in activated ground samples with suppression of mouse immune function in spaceflight, RPM, and RWV samples. These findings indicate that sμg models provide an excellent test bed for scientists to develop baseline studies and augment true μg in spaceflight experiments. Ultimately, sμg and spaceflight studies in lymphocytes may provide insight into novel regulatory pathways, benefiting both future astronauts and those here on earth suffering from immune disorders. PMID:25568077

  8. Occupancy by key transcription factors is a more accurate predictor of enhancer activity than histone modifications or chromatin accessibility

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Nergiz; Wu, Weisheng; Morrissey, Christapher S.; Chen, Kuan-Bei; Stonestrom, Aaron; Long, Maria; Keller, Cheryl A.; Cheng, Yong; Jain, Deepti; Visel, Axel; Pennacchio, Len A.; Weiss, Mitchell J.; Blobel, Gerd A.; Hardison, Ross C.

    2015-04-23

    Regulated gene expression controls organismal development, and variation in regulatory patterns has been implicated in complex traits. Thus accurate prediction of enhancers is important for further understanding of these processes. Genome-wide measurement of epigenetic features, such as histone modifications and occupancy by transcription factors, is improving enhancer predictions, but the contribution of these features to prediction accuracy is not known. Given the importance of the hematopoietic transcription factor TAL1 for erythroid gene activation, we predicted candidate enhancers based on genomic occupancy by TAL1 and measured their activity. Contributions of multiple features to enhancer prediction were evaluated based on the results of these and other studies. Results: TAL1-bound DNA segments were active enhancers at a high rate both in transient transfections of cultured cells (39 of 79, or 56%) and transgenic mice (43 of 66, or 65%). The level of binding signal for TAL1 or GATA1 did not help distinguish TAL1-bound DNA segments as active versus inactive enhancers, nor did the density of regulation-related histone modifications. A meta-analysis of results from this and other studies (273 tested predicted enhancers) showed that the presence of TAL1, GATA1, EP300, SMAD1, H3K4 methylation, H3K27ac, and CAGE tags at DNase hypersensitive sites gave the most accurate predictors of enhancer activity, with a success rate over 80% and a median threefold increase in activity. Chromatin accessibility assays and the histone modifications H3K4me1 and H3K27ac were sensitive for finding enhancers, but they have high false positive rates unless transcription factor occupancy is also included. Conclusions: Occupancy by key transcription factors such as TAL1, GATA1, SMAD1, and EP300, along with evidence of transcription, improves the accuracy of enhancer predictions based on epigenetic features.

  9. Occupancy by key transcription factors is a more accurate predictor of enhancer activity than histone modifications or chromatin accessibility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dogan, Nergiz; Wu, Weisheng; Morrissey, Christapher S.; Chen, Kuan-Bei; Stonestrom, Aaron; Long, Maria; Keller, Cheryl A.; Cheng, Yong; Jain, Deepti; Visel, Axel; et al

    2015-04-23

    Regulated gene expression controls organismal development, and variation in regulatory patterns has been implicated in complex traits. Thus accurate prediction of enhancers is important for further understanding of these processes. Genome-wide measurement of epigenetic features, such as histone modifications and occupancy by transcription factors, is improving enhancer predictions, but the contribution of these features to prediction accuracy is not known. Given the importance of the hematopoietic transcription factor TAL1 for erythroid gene activation, we predicted candidate enhancers based on genomic occupancy by TAL1 and measured their activity. Contributions of multiple features to enhancer prediction were evaluated based on the resultsmore » of these and other studies. Results: TAL1-bound DNA segments were active enhancers at a high rate both in transient transfections of cultured cells (39 of 79, or 56%) and transgenic mice (43 of 66, or 65%). The level of binding signal for TAL1 or GATA1 did not help distinguish TAL1-bound DNA segments as active versus inactive enhancers, nor did the density of regulation-related histone modifications. A meta-analysis of results from this and other studies (273 tested predicted enhancers) showed that the presence of TAL1, GATA1, EP300, SMAD1, H3K4 methylation, H3K27ac, and CAGE tags at DNase hypersensitive sites gave the most accurate predictors of enhancer activity, with a success rate over 80% and a median threefold increase in activity. Chromatin accessibility assays and the histone modifications H3K4me1 and H3K27ac were sensitive for finding enhancers, but they have high false positive rates unless transcription factor occupancy is also included. Conclusions: Occupancy by key transcription factors such as TAL1, GATA1, SMAD1, and EP300, along with evidence of transcription, improves the accuracy of enhancer predictions based on epigenetic features.« less

  10. Spaceflight and simulated microgravity cause a significant reduction of key gene expression in early T-cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Emily M.; Yoshida, Miya C.; Candelario, Tara Lynne T.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy immune function depends on precise regulation of lymphocyte activation. During the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Apollo and Shuttle eras, multiple spaceflight studies showed depressed lymphocyte activity under microgravity (μg) conditions. Scientists on the ground use two models of simulated μg (sμg): 1) the rotating wall vessel (RWV) and 2) the random positioning machine (RPM), to study the effects of altered gravity on cell function before advancing research to the true μg when spaceflight opportunities become available on the International Space Station (ISS). The objective of this study is to compare the effects of true μg and sμg on the expression of key early T-cell activation genes in mouse splenocytes from spaceflight and ground animals. For the first time, we compared all three conditions of microgravity spaceflight, RPM, and RWV during immune gene activation of Il2, Il2rα, Ifnγ, and Tagap; moreover, we confirm two new early T-cell activation genes, Iigp1 and Slamf1. Gene expression for all samples was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results demonstrate significantly increased gene expression in activated ground samples with suppression of mouse immune function in spaceflight, RPM, and RWV samples. These findings indicate that sμg models provide an excellent test bed for scientists to develop baseline studies and augment true μg in spaceflight experiments. Ultimately, sμg and spaceflight studies in lymphocytes may provide insight into novel regulatory pathways, benefiting both future astronauts and those here on earth suffering from immune disorders. PMID:25568077

  11. 57 Word Attack Skill Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mara, Patricia; Sorenson, Juanita

    These 57 game cards were developed to help teachers build their resource files for word-attack skills. Cards are keyed to skills suggested by the Wisconsin Design for Reading Skill Development and are color-coded according to their appropriateness for children in kindergarten through grade three. The front of each card gives the name of the skill,…

  12. Customize Your Word Processor Keyboard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, H. Bradford

    1983-01-01

    Use of a translator and an interrupt handler to generate Escape (ESC) sequences without losing characters is discussed. The system (focusing on use of WordStar with a Zenith/Heath Z-19/H-19) allows assignment to single keys entire sequences of editor instructions and small routines. Program listings are included. (JN)

  13. Distinguishing Target From Distractor in Stroop, Picture-Word, and Word-Word Interference Tasks.

    PubMed

    Schmalz, Xenia; Treccani, Barbara; Mulatti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Lexical selection-both during reading aloud and speech production-involves selecting an intended word, while ignoring irrelevant lexical activation. This process has been studied by the use of interference tasks. Examples are the Stroop task, where participants ignore the written color word and name the color of the ink, picture-word interference tasks, where participants name a picture while ignoring a super-imposed written word, or word-word interference (WWI) tasks, where two words are presented and the participants need to respond to only one, based on an pre-determined visual feature (e.g., color, position). Here, we focus on the WWI task: it is theoretically impossible for existing models to explain how the cognitive system can respond to one stimulus and block the other, when they are presented by the same modality (i.e., they are both words). We describe a solution that can explain performance on the WWI task: drawing on the literature on visual attention, we propose that the system creates an object file for each perceived object, which is continuously updated with increasingly complete information about the stimulus, such as the task-relevant visual feature. Such a model can account for performance on all three tasks. PMID:26696927

  14. Word, Words, Words: Ellul and the Mediocritization of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Franz; Foltz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    The authors explore how technique via propaganda has replaced the word with images creating a mass society and limiting the ability of people to act as individuals. They begin by looking at how words affect human society and how they have changed over time. They explore how technology has altered the meaning of words in order to create a more…

  15. Screening Active Components from Yu-Ping-Feng-San for Regulating Initiative Key Factors in Allergic Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhijie; Yu, Xi; Liu, Hailiang; Wang, Huizhu; Fan, Hongwei; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Guorong; Hong, Min

    2014-01-01

    Yu-ping-feng-san (YPFS) is a Chinese medical formula that is used clinically for allergic diseases and characterized by reducing allergy relapse. Our previous studies demonstrated that YPFS efficiently inhibited T helper 2 cytokines in allergic inflammation. The underlying mechanisms of action of YPFS and its effective components remain unclear. In this study, it was shown that YPFS significantly inhibited production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an epithelial cell-derived initiative factor in allergic inflammation, in vitro and in vivo. A method of human bronchial epithelial cell (16HBE) binding combined with HPLC-MS (named 16HBE-HPLC-MS) was established to explore potential active components of YPFS. The following five components bound to 16HBE cells: calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, claycosin, sec-o-glucosylhamaudol and formononetin. Serum from YPFS-treated mice was analyzed and three major components were detected claycosin, formononetin and cimifugin. Among these, claycosin and formononetin were detected by 16HBE-HPLC-MS and in the serum of YPFS-treated mice. Claycosin and formononetin decreased the level of TSLP markedly at the initial stage of allergic inflammation in vivo. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB, a key transcription factor in TSLP production, was also inhibited by claycosin and formononetin, either in terms of transcriptional activation or its nuclear translocation in vitro. Allergic inflammation was reduced by claycosin and formononetin when they are administered only at the initial stage in a murine model of atopic contact dermatitis. Thus, epithelial cell binding combined with HPLC-MS is a valid method for screening active components from complex mixtures of Chinese medicine. It was demonstrated that the compounds screened from YPFS significantly attenuated allergic inflammation probably by reducing TSLP production via regulating NF-κB activation. PMID:25198676

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Tomato Flower Pedicel Tissues Reveals Abscission Zone-Specific Modulation of Key Meristem Activity Genes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiuli; Zhang, Rongzhi; Wu, Liang; Liang, Yanchun; Mao, Long

    2013-01-01

    Tomato flower abscises at the anatomically distinct abscission zone that separates the pedicel into basal and apical portions. During abscission, cell separation occurs only at the abscission zone indicating distinctive molecular regulation in its cells. We conducted a transcriptome analysis of tomato pedicel tissues during ethylene promoted abscission. We found that the abscission zone was the most active site with the largest set of differentially expressed genes when compared with basal and apical portions. Gene Ontology analyses revealed enriched transcription regulation and hydrolase activities in the abscission zone. We also demonstrate coordinated responses of hormone and cell wall related genes. Besides, a number of ESTs representing homologs of key Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem activity genes were found to be preferentially expressed in the abscission zone, including WUSCHEL (WUS), KNAT6, LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN PROTEIN 1(LBD1), and BELL-like homeodomain protein 1 (BLH1), as well as tomato axillary meristem genes BLIND (Bl) and LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (Ls). More interestingly, the homologs of WUS and the potential functional partner OVATE FAMILIY PROTEIN (OFP) were subsequently down regulated during abscission while Bl and AGL12 were continuously and specifically induced in the abscission zone. The expression patterns of meristem activity genes corroborate the idea that cells of the abscission zone confer meristem-like nature and coincide with the course of abscission and post-abscission cell differentiation. Our data therefore propose a possible regulatory scheme in tomato involving meristem genes that may be required not only for the abscission zone development, but also for abscission. PMID:23390523

  17. Transcriptome analysis of tomato flower pedicel tissues reveals abscission zone-specific modulation of key meristem activity genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Liu, Danmei; Li, Aili; Sun, Xiuli; Zhang, Rongzhi; Wu, Liang; Liang, Yanchun; Mao, Long

    2013-01-01

    Tomato flower abscises at the anatomically distinct abscission zone that separates the pedicel into basal and apical portions. During abscission, cell separation occurs only at the abscission zone indicating distinctive molecular regulation in its cells. We conducted a transcriptome analysis of tomato pedicel tissues during ethylene promoted abscission. We found that the abscission zone was the most active site with the largest set of differentially expressed genes when compared with basal and apical portions. Gene Ontology analyses revealed enriched transcription regulation and hydrolase activities in the abscission zone. We also demonstrate coordinated responses of hormone and cell wall related genes. Besides, a number of ESTs representing homologs of key Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem activity genes were found to be preferentially expressed in the abscission zone, including WUSCHEL (WUS), KNAT6, LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN PROTEIN 1(LBD1), and BELL-like homeodomain protein 1 (BLH1), as well as tomato axillary meristem genes BLIND (Bl) and LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (Ls). More interestingly, the homologs of WUS and the potential functional partner OVATE FAMILIY PROTEIN (OFP) were subsequently down regulated during abscission while Bl and AGL12 were continuously and specifically induced in the abscission zone. The expression patterns of meristem activity genes corroborate the idea that cells of the abscission zone confer meristem-like nature and coincide with the course of abscission and post-abscission cell differentiation. Our data therefore propose a possible regulatory scheme in tomato involving meristem genes that may be required not only for the abscission zone development, but also for abscission. PMID:23390523

  18. Active Pin1 is a key target of all-trans retinoic acid in acute promyelocytic leukemia and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shuo; Kozono, Shingo; Kats, Lev; Nechama, Morris; Li, Wenzong; Guarnerio, Jlenia; Luo, Manli; You, Mi-Hyeon; Yao, Yandan; Kondo, Asami; Hu, Hai; Bozkurt, Gunes; Moerke, Nathan J.; Cao, Shugeng; Reschke, Markus; Chen, Chun-Hau; Rego, Eduardo M.; LoCoco, Francesco; Cantley, Lewis; Lee, Tae Ho; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Yan; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Zhou, Xiao Zhen; Lu, Kun Ping

    2015-01-01

    A common key regulator of oncogenic signaling pathways in multiple tumor types is the unique isomerase Pin1. However, available Pin1 inhibitors lack the required specificity and potency. Using mechanism-based screening, here we find that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)--a therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) that is considered the first example of targeted therapy in cancer, but its drug target remains elusive--inhibits and degrades active Pin1 selectively in cancer cells by directly binding to the substrate phosphate- and proline-binding pockets in the Pin1 active site. ATRA-induced Pin1 ablation degrades the fusion oncogene PML-RARα and treats APL in cell and animal models and human patients. ATRA-induced Pin1 ablation also inhibits triple negative breast cancer cell growth in human cells and in animal models by acting on many Pin1 substrate oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Thus, ATRA simultaneously blocks multiple Pin1-regulated cancer-driving pathways, an attractive property for treating aggressive and drug-resistant tumors. PMID:25849135

  19. A Unique Combination of Nutritionally Active Ingredients Can Prevent Several Key Processes Associated with Atherosclerosis In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Joe W. E.; Davies, Thomas S.; Garaiova, Iveta; Plummer, Sue F.; Michael, Daryn R.; Ramji, Dipak P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease that leads to more global mortalities each year than any other ailment. Consumption of active food ingredients such as phytosterols, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and flavanols are known to impart beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease although the combined actions of such agents in atherosclerosis is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to screen a nutritional supplement containing each of these active components for its anti-atherosclerotic effect on macrophages in vitro. Results The supplement attenuated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 in human and murine macrophages at physiologically relevant doses. The migratory capacity of human monocytes was also hindered, possibly mediated by eicosapentaenoic acid and catechin, while the ability of foam cells to efflux cholesterol was improved. The polarisation of murine macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype was also attenuated by the supplement. Conclusion The formulation was able to hinder multiple key steps of atherosclerosis development in vitro by inhibiting monocyte recruitment, foam cell formation and macrophage polarisation towards an inflammatory phenotype. This is the first time a combination these ingredients has been shown to elicit such effects and supports its further study in preclinical in vivo models. PMID:26950833

  20. Word imageability and N400 in an incidental memory paradigm.

    PubMed

    Nittono, Hiroshi; Suehiro, Maki; Hori, Tadao

    2002-06-01

    High imagery words are memorized better than low imagery words. To examine how these words are processed at encoding, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in an incidental memory paradigm. Frequency-matched high and low imagery words (45 words each) were presented in a random order on a computer screen. Twelve university students were asked to rate the imageability of a word's referent on a five-point scale. High imagery words elicited a larger N400 than low imagery words did. The N400 was more left-lateralized for low imagery words than for high imagery words, suggesting that some neural generators (probably in the right hemisphere) were not involved in the processing of low imagery words. Difference waveforms showed that the N400 was followed by a second negativity (N800), which was also larger for high imagery words and had a scalp distribution similar to that of the N400. Subsequent free recall showed a classical imagery effect that high imagery words were recalled better than low imagery words. These results suggest that the superiority of high imagery words over low imagery words in incidental memory results from more extensive activation of a semantic network distributed across the left and right hemispheres, the latter of which probably deals with imagery-related information that is not activated by low imagery words. PMID:12031296

  1. Word recognition using ideal word patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Sheila X.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1994-03-01

    The word shape analysis approach to text recognition is motivated by discoveries in psychological studies of the human reading process. It attempts to describe and compare the shape of the word as a whole object without trying to segment and recognize the individual characters, so it bypasses the errors committed in character segmentation and classification. However, the large number of classes and large variation and distortion expected in all patterns belonging to the same class make it difficult for conventional, accurate, pattern recognition approaches. A word shape analysis approach using ideal word patterns to overcome the difficulty and improve recognition performance is described in this paper. A special word pattern which characterizes a word class is extracted from different sample patterns of the word class and stored in memory. Recognition of a new word pattern is achieved by comparing it with the special pattern of each word class called ideal word pattern. The process of generating the ideal word pattern of each word class is proposed. The algorithm was tested on a set of machine printed gray scale word images which included a wide range of print types and qualities.

  2. Semantic organisation and handedness: mixed-handedness is associated with more diffuse activation of ambiguous word associates.

    PubMed

    Sontam, Varalakshmi; Christman, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that there are individual differences in the flexibility and ease with which one retrieves and uses concepts stored in memory. Based on prior research suggesting that mixed-handedness is associated with greater cognitive flexibility, it was hypothesised that mixed-handers have access to a relatively diffuse associative network, where link strengths for closely related and distantly related concepts are not as disparate as in the case of strong-handers. This idea was explored using ambiguous words for stimuli, as ambiguous words are known to have both strong (concepts related via dominant meaning) and weak associates (concepts related via subordinate meaning). Consistent with the prediction, mixed-handers showed equal ease in accessing both strongly and weakly related concepts. In Experiment 1 mixed-handers exhibited equivalent priming for dominant and subordinate associates, while strong-handers exhibited priming for dominant associates only. In Experiment 2 ratings of strength of association for dominant versus subordinate associates were examined. Mixed-handedness was associated with lesser disparity of dominant and subordinate association ratings. PMID:21598173

  3. Neuromagnetic brain activities associated with perceptual categorization and sound-content incongruency: a comparison between monosyllabic words and pitch names

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chen-Gia; Chen, Chien-Chung; Wen, Ya-Chien; Chou, Tai-Li

    2015-01-01

    In human cultures, the perceptual categorization of musical pitches relies on pitch-naming systems. A sung pitch name concurrently holds the information of fundamental frequency and pitch name. These two aspects may be either congruent or incongruent with regard to pitch categorization. The present study aimed to compare the neuromagnetic responses to musical and verbal stimuli for congruency judgments, for example a congruent pair for the pitch C4 sung with the pitch name do in a C-major context (the pitch-semantic task) or for the meaning of a word to match the speaker’s identity (the voice-semantic task). Both the behavioral data and neuromagnetic data showed that congruency detection of the speaker’s identity and word meaning was slower than that of the pitch and pitch name. Congruency effects of musical stimuli revealed that pitch categorization and semantic processing of pitch information were associated with P2m and N400m, respectively. For verbal stimuli, P2m and N400m did not show any congruency effect. In both the pitch-semantic task and the voice-semantic task, we found that incongruent stimuli evoked stronger slow waves with the latency of 500–600 ms than congruent stimuli. These findings shed new light on the neural mechanisms underlying pitch-naming processes. PMID:26347638

  4. Neuromagnetic brain activities associated with perceptual categorization and sound-content incongruency: a comparison between monosyllabic words and pitch names.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chen-Gia; Chen, Chien-Chung; Wen, Ya-Chien; Chou, Tai-Li

    2015-01-01

    In human cultures, the perceptual categorization of musical pitches relies on pitch-naming systems. A sung pitch name concurrently holds the information of fundamental frequency and pitch name. These two aspects may be either congruent or incongruent with regard to pitch categorization. The present study aimed to compare the neuromagnetic responses to musical and verbal stimuli for congruency judgments, for example a congruent pair for the pitch C4 sung with the pitch name do in a C-major context (the pitch-semantic task) or for the meaning of a word to match the speaker's identity (the voice-semantic task). Both the behavioral data and neuromagnetic data showed that congruency detection of the speaker's identity and word meaning was slower than that of the pitch and pitch name. Congruency effects of musical stimuli revealed that pitch categorization and semantic processing of pitch information were associated with P2m and N400m, respectively. For verbal stimuli, P2m and N400m did not show any congruency effect. In both the pitch-semantic task and the voice-semantic task, we found that incongruent stimuli evoked stronger slow waves with the latency of 500-600 ms than congruent stimuli. These findings shed new light on the neural mechanisms underlying pitch-naming processes. PMID:26347638

  5. Structure–activity relationships of the N-terminus of calcitonin gene-related peptide: key roles of alanine-5 and threonine-6 in receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Debbie L; Harris, Paul WR; Kowalczyk, Renata; Brimble, Margaret A; Rathbone, Dan L; Barwell, James; Conner, Alex C; Poyner, David R

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The N-terminus of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is important for receptor activation, especially the disulphide-bonded ring (residues 1–7). However, the roles of individual amino acids within this region have not been examined and so the molecular determinants of agonism are unknown. This study has examined the role of residues 1, 3–6 and 8–9, excluding Cys-2 and Cys-7. Experimental Approach: CGRP derivatives were substituted with either cysteine or alanine; further residues were introduced at position 6. Their affinity was measured by radioligand binding and their efficacy by measuring cAMP production in SK-N-MC cells and β-arrestin 2 translocation in CHO-K1 cells at the CGRP receptor. Key Results: Substitution of Ala-5 by cysteine reduced affinity 270-fold and reduced efficacy for production of cAMP in SK-N-MCs. Potency at β-arrestin translocation was reduced by ninefold. Substitution of Thr-6 by cysteine destroyed all measurable efficacy of both cAMP and β-arrestin responses; substitution with either alanine or serine impaired potency. Substitutions at positions 1, 4, 8 and 9 resulted in approximately 10-fold reductions in potency at both responses. Similar observations were made at a second CGRP-activated receptor, the AMY1(a) receptor. Conclusions and Implications: Ala-5 and Thr-6 are key determinants of agonist activity for CGRP. Ala-5 is also very important for receptor binding. Residues outside of the 1–7 ring also contribute to agonist activity. PMID:24125506

  6. Immediate lexical integration of novel word forms

    PubMed Central

    Kapnoula, Efthymia C.; McMurray, Bob

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that familiar words inhibit each other during spoken word recognition. However, we do not know how and under what circumstances newly learned words become integrated with the lexicon in order to engage in this competition. Previous work on word learning has highlighted the importance of offline consolidation (Gaskell & Dumay, 2003) and meaning (Leach & Samuel, 2007) to establish this integration. In two experiments we test the necessity of these factors by examining the inhibition between newly learned items and familiar words immediately after learning. Participants learned a set of nonwords without meanings in active (Exp 1) or passive (Exp 2) exposure paradigms. After training, participants performed a visual world paradigm task to assess inhibition from these newly learned items. An analysis of participants’ fixations suggested that the newly learned words were able to engage in competition with known words without any consolidation. PMID:25460382

  7. Waste-Activated Sludge Fermentation for Polyacrylamide Biodegradation Improved by Anaerobic Hydrolysis and Key Microorganisms Involved in Biological Polyacrylamide Removal

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaohu; Luo, Fan; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Lingling; Chen, Yinguang; Dong, Bin

    2015-01-01

    During the anaerobic digestion of dewatered sludge, polyacrylamide (PAM), a chemical conditioner, can usually be consumed as a carbon and nitrogen source along with other organic matter (e.g., proteins and carbohydrates in the sludge). However, a significant accumulation of acrylamide monomers (AMs) was observed during the PAM biodegradation process. To improve the anaerobic hydrolysis of PAM, especially the amide hydrolysis process, and to avoid the generation of the intermediate product AM, a new strategy is reported herein that uses an initial pH of 9, 200 mg COD/L of PAM and a fermentation time of 17 d. First, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize PAM removal in the anaerobic digestion of the sludge. The biological hydrolysis of PAM reached 86.64% under the optimal conditions obtained from the RSM. Then, the mechanisms for the optimized parameters that significantly improved the biological hydrolysis of PAM were investigated by the synergistic effect of the main organic compounds in the sludge, the floc size distribution, and the enzymatic activities. Finally, semi-continuous-flow experiments for a microbial community study were investigated based on the determination of key microorganisms involved in the biological hydrolysis of PAM. PMID:26144551

  8. Waste-Activated Sludge Fermentation for Polyacrylamide Biodegradation Improved by Anaerobic Hydrolysis and Key Microorganisms Involved in Biological Polyacrylamide Removal.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaohu; Luo, Fan; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Lingling; Chen, Yinguang; Dong, Bin

    2015-01-01

    During the anaerobic digestion of dewatered sludge, polyacrylamide (PAM), a chemical conditioner, can usually be consumed as a carbon and nitrogen source along with other organic matter (e.g., proteins and carbohydrates in the sludge). However, a significant accumulation of acrylamide monomers (AMs) was observed during the PAM biodegradation process. To improve the anaerobic hydrolysis of PAM, especially the amide hydrolysis process, and to avoid the generation of the intermediate product AM, a new strategy is reported herein that uses an initial pH of 9, 200 mg COD/L of PAM and a fermentation time of 17 d. First, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize PAM removal in the anaerobic digestion of the sludge. The biological hydrolysis of PAM reached 86.64% under the optimal conditions obtained from the RSM. Then, the mechanisms for the optimized parameters that significantly improved the biological hydrolysis of PAM were investigated by the synergistic effect of the main organic compounds in the sludge, the floc size distribution, and the enzymatic activities. Finally, semi-continuous-flow experiments for a microbial community study were investigated based on the determination of key microorganisms involved in the biological hydrolysis of PAM. PMID:26144551

  9. Niche as a Determinant of Word Fate in Online Groups

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, Eduardo G.; Pierrehumbert, Janet B.; Motter, Adilson E.

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of word use both reflect and influence a myriad of human activities and interactions. Like other entities that are reproduced and evolve, words rise or decline depending upon a complex interplay between their intrinsic properties and the environments in which they function. Using Internet discussion communities as model systems, we define the concept of a word niche as the relationship between the word and the characteristic features of the environments in which it is used. We develop a method to quantify two important aspects of the size of the word niche: the range of individuals using the word and the range of topics it is used to discuss. Controlling for word frequency, we show that these aspects of the word niche are strong determinants of changes in word frequency. Previous studies have already indicated that word frequency itself is a correlate of word success at historical time scales. Our analysis of changes in word frequencies over time reveals that the relative sizes of word niches are far more important than word frequencies in the dynamics of the entire vocabulary at shorter time scales, as the language adapts to new concepts and social groupings. We also distinguish endogenous versus exogenous factors as additional contributors to the fates of words, and demonstrate the force of this distinction in the rise of novel words. Our results indicate that short-term nonstationarity in word statistics is strongly driven by individual proclivities, including inclinations to provide novel information and to project a distinctive social identity. PMID:21589910

  10. Temporospatial analysis of explicit and implicit processing of negative content during word comprehension.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, J A; Albert, J; López-Martín, S; Carretié, L

    2014-06-01

    Although divergences between explicit and implicit processing of affective content during word comprehension have been reported, the underlying nature of those differences remains in dispute. Prior studies focused on either the timing or the spatial location of the effects. The present study examined the precise dynamics of the processing of negative words when attention is directed to affective content or to non-emotional properties by capitalizing on fine temporal resolution of the event-related potentials (ERPs) and recent advances in source localization. Tasks were used that required accessing knowledge about different semantic properties of negative and neutral words. In the direct task, participants' attention was directed towards emotional information. By contrast, subjects had to decide whether the words' referent could be touched or not in the indirect task. Regardless of being processed explicitly or implicitly, negative compared to neutral words were associated with more errors and greater key pressure responses. Electrophysiologically, affective processing was reflected in larger amplitudes to negative words in a late positive component (LPC) at the scalp level, and in increased activity in the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) at the voxel level. Interestingly, an interaction between emotion and type of task was observed. Negative words were associated with more errors, larger anterior distributed LPC amplitudes and increased activity in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in the direct compared to the indirect task. This LPC effect was modulated by the concreteness of the words. Finally, a task effect was found in a posterior negativity around 220ms, with enhanced amplitudes to words in the direct compared to the indirect task. The present results suggest that negative information contained in written language is processed irrespective of controlled attention is directed to it or not, but that this processing is reinforced in the former case

  11. Starting Right: Using "Biophilia," Organism Cards, & Key Themes in Biology to Introduce Student-Centered Active-Learning Strategies at the Beginning of a Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Kelsey

    2013-01-01

    To create rich learning experiences, it is important to engage students from the very beginning of a course and lay the foundation for constructing a community of active learners. The activities described here using "organism cards" connect students' previous knowledge to course goals and address key themes in biology while initiating…

  12. Acidosis Is a key regulator of osteoblast ecto‐nucleotidase pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) expression and activity

    PubMed Central

    Key, Michelle L.; Hajjawi, Mark O.R.; Millán, José L.; Arnett, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has shown that acidosis prevents bone nodule formation by osteoblasts in vitro by inhibiting mineralisation of the collagenous matrix. The ratio of phosphate (Pi) to pyrophosphate (PPi) in the bone microenvironment is a fundamental regulator of bone mineralisation. Both Pi and PPi, a potent inhibitor of mineralisation, are generated from extracellular nucleotides by the actions of ecto‐nucleotidases. This study investigated the expression and activity of ecto‐nucleotidases by osteoblasts under normal and acid conditions. We found that osteoblasts express mRNA for a number of ecto‐nucleotidases including NTPdase 1–6 (ecto‐nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase) and NPP1‐3 (ecto‐nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase). The rank order of mRNA expression in differentiating rat osteoblasts (day 7) was Enpp1 > NTPdase 4 > NTPdase 6 > NTPdase 5 > alkaline phosphatase > ecto‐5‐nucleotidase > Enpp3 > NTPdase 1 > NTPdase 3 > Enpp2 > NTPdase 2. Acidosis (pH 6.9) upregulated NPP1 mRNA (2.8‐fold) and protein expression at all stages of osteoblast differentiation compared to physiological pH (pH 7.4); expression of other ecto‐nucleotidases was unaffected. Furthermore, total NPP activity was increased up to 53% in osteoblasts cultured in acid conditions (P < 0.001). Release of ATP, one of the key substrates for NPP1, from osteoblasts, was unaffected by acidosis. Further studies showed that mineralised bone formation by osteoblasts cultured from NPP1 knockout mice was increased compared with wildtypes (2.5‐fold, P < 0.001) and was partially resistant to the inhibitory effect of acidosis. These results indicate that increased NPP1 expression and activity might contribute to the decreased mineralisation observed when osteoblasts are exposed to acid conditions. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 3049–3056, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  13. Visual cortex activation in late-onset, Braille naive blind individuals: An fMRI study during semantic and phonological tasks with heard words

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Harold; McLaren, Donald G.

    2013-01-01

    Visual cortex activity in the blind has been shown in Braille literate people, which raise the question of whether Braille literacy influences cross-modal reorganization. We used fMRI to examine visual cortex activation during semantic and phonological tasks with auditory presentation of words in two late-onset blind individuals who lacked Braille literacy. Multiple visual cortical regions were activated in the Braille naive individuals. Positive BOLD responses were noted in lower tier visuotopic (e.g., V1, V2, VP, and V3) and several higher tier visual areas (e.g., V4v, V8, and BA 37). Activity was more extensive and cross-correlation magnitudes were greater during the semantic compared to the phonological task. These results with Braille naive individuals plausibly suggest that visual deprivation alone induces visual cortex reorganization. Cross-modal reorganization of lower tier visual areas may be recruited by developing skills in attending to selected non-visual inputs (e.g., Braille literacy, enhanced auditory skills). Such learning might strengthen remote connections with multisensory cortical areas. Of necessity, the Braille naive participants must attend to auditory stimulation for language. We hypothesize that learning to attend to non-visual inputs probably strengthens the remaining active synapses following visual deprivation, and thereby, increases cross-modal activation of lower tier visual areas when performing highly demanding non-visual tasks of which reading Braille is just one example. PMID:16198053

  14. Words, Kids, and Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillet, Jean Wallace; Kita, M. Jane

    The word sort is a technique which capitalizes upon a child's natural feature analysis abilities. In a word sort the learner physically arranges words printed on small cards into groups. This technique can be used in many ways to help children draw conclusions about how words are related. There are two types of sorts: in "closed sorts" the…

  15. Transfer of Word Meanings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Nancy E.; And Others

    Two studies investigated the degree to which the content of initial learning of a word facilitated transfer of the word meaning to other representations that were near or far, relative to the originally learned form of the word. Subjects in the first study were 40 undergraduate students, who were tested on a list of 13 uncommon words. Results…

  16. Jasper Johns' Painted Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinger, Esther

    1989-01-01

    States that the painted words in Jasper Johns' art act in two different capacities: concealed words partake in the artist's interrogation of visual perception; and visible painted words question classical representation. Argues that words are Johns' means of critiquing modernism. (RS)

  17. Unstressed Words in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hualde, Jose Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the prosodic nature of unstressed function words in Spanish. I defend the hypothesis that these words, like all other words in the language, have a syllable that is lexically designated as stressed. I suggest that the essential property of these words is that they are subject to a rule of prosodic merger with following…

  18. Representing Microbial Dormancy in Soil Decomposition Models Improves Model Performance and Reveals Key Ecosystem Controls on Microbial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y.; Yang, J.; Zhuang, Q.; Wang, G.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Climate feedbacks from soils can result from environmental change and subsequent responses of plant and microbial communities and nutrient cycling. Explicit consideration of microbial life history traits and strategy may be necessary to predict climate feedbacks due to microbial physiology and community changes and their associated effect on carbon cycling. In this study, we developed an explicit microbial-enzyme decomposition model and examined model performance with and without representation of dormancy at six temperate forest sites with observed soil efflux ranged from 4 to 10 years across different forest types. We then extrapolated the model to all temperate forests in the Northern Hemisphere (25-50°N) to investigate spatial controls on microbial and soil C dynamics. Both models captured the observed soil heterotrophic respiration (RH), yet no-dormancy model consistently exhibited large seasonal amplitude and overestimation in microbial biomass. Spatially, the total RH from temperate forests based on dormancy model amounts to 6.88PgC/yr, and 7.99PgC/yr based on no-dormancy model. However, no-dormancy model notably overestimated the ratio of microbial biomass to SOC. Spatial correlation analysis revealed key controls of soil C:N ratio on the active proportion of microbial biomass, whereas local dormancy is primarily controlled by soil moisture and temperature, indicating scale-dependent environmental and biotic controls on microbial and SOC dynamics. These developments should provide essential support to modeling future soil carbon dynamics and enhance the avenue for collaboration between empirical soil experiment and modeling in the sense that more microbial physiological measurements are needed to better constrain and evaluate the models.

  19. Is active management the key to the conservation of saproxylic biodiversity? Pollarding promotes the formation of tree hollows.

    PubMed

    Sebek, Pavel; Altman, Jan; Platek, Michal; Cizek, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    Trees with hollows are key features sustaining biodiversity in wooded landscapes. They host rich assemblages of often highly specialised organisms. Hollow trees, however, have become rare and localised in Europe. Many of the associated biota is thus declining or endangered. The challenge of its conservation, therefore, is to safeguard the presence of hollow trees in sufficient numbers. Populations of numerous species associated with tree hollows and dead wood are often found in habitats that were formed by formerly common traditional silvicultural practices such as coppicing, pollarding or pasture. Although it has been occasionally mentioned that such practices increase the formation of hollows and the availability of often sun-exposed dead wood, their effect has never been quantified. Our study examined the hollow incidence in pollard and non-pollard (unmanaged) willows and the effect of pollarding on incremental growth rate by tree ring analysis. The probability of hollow occurrence was substantially higher in pollard than in non-pollard trees. Young pollards, especially, form hollows much more often than non-pollards; for instance, in trees of 50 cm DBH, the probability of hollow ocurrence was ∼0.75 in pollards, but only ∼0.3 in non-pollards. No difference in growth rate was found. Pollarding thus leads to the rapid formation of tree hollows, a habitat usually associated with old trees. It is therefore potentially a very important tool in the restoration of saproxylic habitats and conservation of hollow-dependent fauna. If applied along e.g. roads and watercourses, pollarding could also be used to increase landscape connectivity for saproxylic organisms. In reserves where pollarding was formerly practiced, its restoration would be necessary to prevent loss of saproxylic biodiversity. Our results point to the importance of active management measures for maintaining availability, and spatial and temporal continuity of deadwood microhabitats. PMID:23544142

  20. Addressing key concepts in physical geography through interactive learning activities in an online geo-ICT environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraeten, Gert; Steegen, An; Martens, Lotte

    2016-04-01

    The increasing number of geospatial datasets and free online geo-ICT tools offers new opportunities for education in Earth Sciences. Geospatial technology indeed provides an environment through which interactive learning can be introduced in Earth Sciences curricula. However, the effectiveness of such e-learning approaches in terms of learning outcomes has rarely been addressed. Here, we present our experience with the implementation of digital interactive learning activities within an introductory Physical Geography course attended by 90 undergraduate students in Geography, Geology, Biology and Archaeology. Two traditional lectures were replaced by interactive sessions (each 2 h) in a flexible classroom where students had to work both in team and individually in order to explore some key concepts through the integrated use of geospatial data within Google EarthTM. A first interactive lesson dealt with the classification of river systems and aimed to examine the conditions under which rivers tend to meander or to develop a braided pattern. Students were required to collect properties of rivers (river channel pattern, channel slope, climate, discharge, lithology, vegetation, etc). All these data are available on a global scale and have been added as separate map layers in Google EarthTM. Each student collected data for at least two rivers and added this information to a Google Drive Spreadsheet accessible to the entire group. This resulted in a database of more than one hundred rivers spread over various environments worldwide. In a second phase small groups of students discussed the potential relationships between river channel pattern and its controlling factors. Afterwards, the findings of each discussion group were presented to the entire audience. The same set-up was followed in a second interactive session to explore spatial variations in ecosystem properties such as net primary production and soil carbon content. The qualitative evaluation of both interactive

  1. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Bilingual Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Matthew K.; Brown, Timothy T.; Travis, Katherine E.; Gharapetian, Lusineh; Hagler, Donald J.; Dale, Anders M.; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Halgren, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Studies with monolingual adults have identified successive stages occurring in different brain regions for processing single written words. We combined magnetoencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging to compare these stages between the first (L1) and second (L2) languages in bilingual adults. L1 words in a size judgment task evoked a typical left-lateralized sequence of activity first in ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOT: previously associated with visual word-form encoding), and then ventral frontotemporal regions (associated with lexico-semantic processing). Compared to L1, words in L2 activated right VOT more strongly from ~135 ms; this activation was attenuated when words became highly familiar with repetition. At ~400ms, L2 responses were generally later than L1, more bilateral, and included the same lateral occipitotemporal areas as were activated by pictures. We propose that acquiring a language involves the recruitment of right hemisphere and posterior visual areas that are not necessary once fluency is achieved. PMID:20004256

  2. Phonological processing dynamics in bilingual word naming.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Deanna C; Jared, Debra; Haigh, Corinne A

    2014-09-01

    The current study investigated phonological processing dynamics in bilingual word naming. English-French and French-English bilinguals named interlingual heterophonic homographs (i.e., words that share orthography but not meaning or pronunciation across languages), heterophonic cognates (i.e., words that share both orthography and meaning across languages, but not pronunciations), interlingual homophones (i.e., words that share pronunciation, but not orthography or meaning across languages), and single-language matched control words in both English and French naming tasks. Cross-language phonological activation was strongest in bilinguals' second language. The results provided evidence for feedforward activation of phonological representations in the nontarget language, as well as feedback activation of these phonological representations from semantic representations. Results are interpreted within the more recent Bilingual Interactive Activation (BIA+) framework. PMID:25383476

  3. Word segmentation of overlapping ambiguous strings during Chinese reading

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Guojie; Li, Xingshan; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    In three experiments, we tested three possible mechanisms for segmenting overlapping ambiguous strings in Chinese reading. The first two characters and the last two characters in a 3-character ambiguous string could both constitute a word in the reported studies. The left-priority hypothesis assumes that the word on the left has an advantage in the competition and the other word cannot be processed until the word on the left is recognized. The independent processing hypothesis assumes that words in different positions are processed simultaneously and independently, and the word segmentation ambiguity cannot be settled without the help of sentence context. The competition hypothesis assumes that all of the words compete for a single winner. The results support a competition account that the characters in the perceptual span activate all of the words they can constitute, and any word can win the competition if its activation is high enough. PMID:24417292

  4. Word segmentation of overlapping ambiguous strings during Chinese reading.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guojie; Li, Xingshan; Rayner, Keith

    2014-06-01

    In 3 experiments, we tested 3 possible mechanisms for segmenting overlapping ambiguous strings in Chinese reading. The first 2 characters and the last 2 characters in a 3-character ambiguous string could both constitute a word in the reported studies. The left-priority hypothesis assumes that the word on the left has an advantage in the competition and the other word cannot be processed until the word on the left is recognized. The independent processing hypothesis assumes that words in different positions are processed simultaneously and independently, and the word segmentation ambiguity cannot be settled without the help of sentence context. The competition hypothesis assumes that all of the words compete for a single winner. The results support a competition account that the characters in the perceptual span activate all of the words they can constitute, and any word can win the competition if its activation is high enough. PMID:24417292

  5. A Few Words about Words | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ken Michaels, Guest Writer In Shakepeare’s play “Hamlet,” Polonius inquires of the prince, “What do you read, my lord?” Not at all pleased with what he’s reading, Hamlet replies, “Words, words, words.”1 I have previously described the communication model in which a sender encodes a message and then sends it via some channel (or medium) to a receiver, who decodes the message and, ideally, understands what was sent. Surely the most common way of encoding a message is in choosing the most appropriate words for the listener or reader.

  6. Near-instant automatic access to visually presented words in the human neocortex: neuromagnetic evidence.

    PubMed

    Shtyrov, Yury; MacGregor, Lucy J

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient processing of external information by the brain is vital to survival in a highly dynamic environment. The key channel humans use to exchange information is language, but the neural underpinnings of its processing are still not fully understood. We investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of neural access to word representations in the brain by scrutinising the brain's activity elicited in response to psycholinguistically, visually and phonologically matched groups of familiar words and meaningless pseudowords. Stimuli were briefly presented on the visual-field periphery to experimental participants whose attention was occupied with a non-linguistic visual feature-detection task. The neural activation elicited by these unattended orthographic stimuli was recorded using multi-channel whole-head magnetoencephalography, and the timecourse of lexically-specific neuromagnetic responses was assessed in sensor space as well as at the level of cortical sources, estimated using individual MR-based distributed source reconstruction. Our results demonstrate a neocortical signature of automatic near-instant access to word representations in the brain: activity in the perisylvian language network characterised by specific activation enhancement for familiar words, starting as early as ~70 ms after the onset of unattended word stimuli and underpinned by temporal and inferior-frontal cortices. PMID:27217080

  7. Near-instant automatic access to visually presented words in the human neocortex: neuromagnetic evidence

    PubMed Central

    Shtyrov, Yury; MacGregor, Lucy J.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient processing of external information by the brain is vital to survival in a highly dynamic environment. The key channel humans use to exchange information is language, but the neural underpinnings of its processing are still not fully understood. We investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of neural access to word representations in the brain by scrutinising the brain’s activity elicited in response to psycholinguistically, visually and phonologically matched groups of familiar words and meaningless pseudowords. Stimuli were briefly presented on the visual-field periphery to experimental participants whose attention was occupied with a non-linguistic visual feature-detection task. The neural activation elicited by these unattended orthographic stimuli was recorded using multi-channel whole-head magnetoencephalography, and the timecourse of lexically-specific neuromagnetic responses was assessed in sensor space as well as at the level of cortical sources, estimated using individual MR-based distributed source reconstruction. Our results demonstrate a neocortical signature of automatic near-instant access to word representations in the brain: activity in the perisylvian language network characterised by specific activation enhancement for familiar words, starting as early as ~70 ms after the onset of unattended word stimuli and underpinned by temporal and inferior-frontal cortices. PMID:27217080

  8. Key Nutrients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Lessons written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in the Food and Nutrition Program are presented in this booklet. The key nutrients discussed in the 10 lessons are protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, iron, iodine, and Vitamins A, B, C, and D. the format of each lesson is as follows: Purpose, Presentation, Application…

  9. Sight-Word Practice in a Flash!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Robin W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    For learners who need sight-word practice, including young students and struggling readers, digital flash cards may promote automatic word recognition when used as a supplemental activity to regular reading instruction. A novel use of common presentation software efficiently supports this practice strategy.

  10. My World of Words: Building Vocabulary Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MarcoPolo Education Foundation.

    This lesson uses students' areas of interest both in and out of school to generate personalized vocabulary lists. Working in small groups, grade 3 to 5 students select their own vocabulary words and research their meanings. In a culminating activity that uses text and illustration, each student will create a "My World of Words Journal." During…

  11. Putting Flow Theory into Educational Practice: The Key School's Flow Activities Room. Report to the Benton Center for Curriculum and Instruction, University of Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Samuel P.; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    The Key School in Indianapolis, an experimental elementary school, was founded by eight experienced teachers who believed that schools can be enjoyable as well as rigorous. This report focuses on one feature of the school, the Flow Activities Room (FAR). The development of the FAR was based on the school's commitment to the theories of multiple…

  12. A Comparison of Word Learning in 3-Year-Old Children At-Risk for Language and Literacy Difficulties in Two Conditions: Dialogic Reading and Activity-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Naomi L.

    2013-01-01

    Existing research suggests a need for an intervention that can accelerate vocabulary acquisition for young children at-risk due to poverty. An adapted alternating treatments design was used to examine the effects of Dialogic Reading and Activity-Based Intervention (ABI) on participants' production of target words. Participants were three…

  13. Scientific Word Processors Proliferate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Analytical Chemistry, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Briefly describes most of the currently available scientific word processing software packages. Unless noted, these products (including Molecular Presentation Graphics, ProofWriter, Spellbinder Scientific, Volkswriter Scientific, and WordMARC) run on the IBM PC family of microcomputers. (JN)

  14. Understanding Medical Words

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Medical Words Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... Medicine that teaches you about many of the words related to your health care Do you have ...

  15. KEY COMPARISON: Measurement of activity concentration of radionuclide Cs-137 in a solution (COOMET Project no 386/RU/06)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharitonov, I. A.; Zanevsky, A. V.; Milevski, V.; Ivaniukovich, A.; Oropesa Verdecia, P.; Moreno León, Y.; Svec, A.

    2008-01-01

    A COOMET.RI(II)-K2.Cs-137 comparison of the measurement of a standardized solution of Cs-137 has enabled three national metrology institutes in the COOMET to demonstrate their traceability to the SI. The results of the comparison will be used to evaluate degrees of equivalence for these institutes through the measurements of the linking laboratory in the key comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Cs-137. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section II, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  16. Acquired prosopagnosia without word recognition deficits.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Tirta; Wright, Victoria; Tree, Jeremy J; Duchaine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    It has long been suggested that face recognition relies on specialized mechanisms that are not involved in visual recognition of other object categories, including those that require expert, fine-grained discrimination at the exemplar level such as written words. But according to the recently proposed many-to-many theory of object recognition (MTMT), visual recognition of faces and words are carried out by common mechanisms [Behrmann, M., & Plaut, D. C. ( 2013 ). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 210-219]. MTMT acknowledges that face and word recognition are lateralized, but posits that the mechanisms that predominantly carry out face recognition still contribute to word recognition and vice versa. MTMT makes a key prediction, namely that acquired prosopagnosics should exhibit some measure of word recognition deficits. We tested this prediction by assessing written word recognition in five acquired prosopagnosic patients. Four patients had lesions limited to the right hemisphere while one had bilateral lesions with more pronounced lesions in the right hemisphere. The patients completed a total of seven word recognition tasks: two lexical decision tasks and five reading aloud tasks totalling more than 1200 trials. The performances of the four older patients (3 female, age range 50-64 years) were compared to those of 12 older controls (8 female, age range 56-66 years), while the performances of the younger prosopagnosic (male, 31 years) were compared to those of 14 younger controls (9 female, age range 20-33 years). We analysed all results at the single-patient level using Crawford's t-test. Across seven tasks, four prosopagnosics performed as quickly and accurately as controls. Our results demonstrate that acquired prosopagnosia can exist without word recognition deficits. These findings are inconsistent with a key prediction of MTMT. They instead support the hypothesis that face

  17. Spatial representations of words and nonwords.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, R; Umiltà, C; Mapelli, D

    1992-06-01

    The first two experiments investigated whether the representations of words, besides being unitary, are also spatial in nature. Subjects were required to search for target letters in either five-letter words or five-letter nonwords. They were instructed to press the right-side key for one target and the left-side key for the other target. The center item of the letter string was always at fixation. Targets appeared one at a time, located at the second (left side) or the fourth (right side) position within the letter string. The results showed that: a) responses to targets within words were faster than responses to targets within nonwords (the word-superiority effect); b) responses to compatible stimulus-response pairings were faster than responses to incompatible stimulus-response pairings (the spatial compatibility, or, more precisely, the Simon effect); and c) in Experiment 2, left-side targets were responded to faster than right-side targets within nonwords (the left-right scanning effect). It was concluded that representations of both words and nonwords are spatial in nature. Experiment 3 was aimed at testing whether the spatial layout of the representations of words is always along the left-right horizontal dimension, regardless of the topographic transformation of the stimulus. The same words and nonwords used in the previous experiments were shown vertically and the subjects were required to make left-right discriminative responses to upper and lower target letters. The results showed the word-superiority effect but no spatial compatibility effects. It was concluded that the representation of a vertically presented word is vertically arranged. PMID:1499303

  18. Is there pain in champagne? Semantic involvement of words within words during sense-making.

    PubMed

    van Alphen, Petra M; van Berkum, Jos J A

    2010-11-01

    In an ERP experiment, we examined whether listeners, when making sense of spoken utterances, take into account the meaning of spurious words that are embedded in longer words, either at their onsets (e.g., pie in pirate) or at their offsets (e.g., pain in champagne). In the experiment, Dutch listeners heard Dutch words with initial or final embeddings presented in a sentence context that did or did not support the meaning of the embedded word, while equally supporting the longer carrier word. The N400 at the carrier words was modulated by the semantic fit of the embedded words, indicating that listeners briefly relate the meaning of initial- and final-embedded words to the sentential context, even though these words were not intended by the speaker. These findings help us understand the dynamics of initial sense-making and its link to lexical activation. In addition, they shed new light on the role of lexical competition and the debate concerning the lexical activation of final-embedded words. PMID:19702463

  19. In a Word, History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohan, Mary Helen

    1977-01-01

    Understanding words like "bionics" will open the mind to the horizons of another time when words like "railroad" evoked wonder and "to fly to the moon" was a metaphor for the impossible dream. Suggests that history teachers and English teachers should join together in using words to teach both subjects. (Editor/RK)

  20. New word needed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, Marcia

    I wish to report and protest the theft of a word. The numerical modelers have stolen the word “data” from the experimentalists and are using it for purposes for which it was never intended. They should give it back and go find or invent their own word.

  1. Interactive Word Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Narvaez, Rose

    2013-01-01

    It is common to see word walls displaying the vocabulary that students have learned in class. Word walls serve as visual scaffolds and are a classroom strategy used to reinforce reading and language arts instruction. Research shows a strong relationship between student word knowledge and academic achievement (Stahl and Fairbanks 1986). As a…

  2. Activating the Meaning of a Word Facilitates the Integration of Orthography: Evidence from Spelling Exercises in Beginning Spellers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilte, Maartje; Reitsma, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of activating the connection between meaning and phonology in spelling exercises in second-grade spellers (n=41; 8 years and 3 months). In computer-based exercises in a within-subject design, semantic and neutral descriptions were contrasted and provided either before the process of spelling or in feedback.…

  3. Reduced prefrontal cortex activation in the color-word Stroop task for Chinese dyslexic children: a near-infrared spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jinyan; Zhai, Jiahuan; Song, Ranran; Zou, Li; Gong, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral studies have investigated the performance of children with developmental dyslexia in conflict resolution, a function connected with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) closely. However, little is known about the prefrontal activation in conflict resolution for dyslexic children. In the present study, the involvement of the PFC in resolving conflict was evaluated for Chinese dyslexic children by means of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The NIRS instrument is a portable, continuous-wave system and can measure concentration changes of hemodynamic parameters (including oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin). Considering better sensitivity, the oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) was chosen to indicate the prefrontal activation. Ten dyslexic children and 11 normal children were recruited to perform the Chinese-character color-word Stroop task, which included the neutral and color (incongruent) tasks. In behavioral performance, both groups showed significant Stroop effect, longer response time or higher error rate for the color task. In particular, the Stroop interference effect was marginally larger for dyslexic children than normal children in response time. What's more, the two groups showed distinct pattern of oxy-Hb activation during the Stroop tasks. The normal group recruited the bilateral PFC to perform the tasks, while the dyslexic group couldn't activate the bilateral PFC in the difficult color task. Moreover, significantly less color Stroop effect was found in the left PFC for the dyslexic group, showing their disability in coping with the Stroop interference. These findings suggest that the PFC is dysfunctional in conflict resolution for Chinese dyslexic children and that NIRS can be an effective tool in neurological research and clinical application.

  4. Do handwritten words magnify lexical effects in visual word recognition?

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Gil-López, Cristina; Beléndez, Victoria; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    An examination of how the word recognition system is able to process handwritten words is fundamental to formulate a comprehensive model of visual word recognition. Previous research has revealed that the magnitude of lexical effects (e.g., the word-frequency effect) is greater with handwritten words than with printed words. In the present lexical decision experiments, we examined whether the quality of handwritten words moderates the recruitment of top-down feedback, as reflected in word-frequency effects. Results showed a reading cost for difficult-to-read and easy-to-read handwritten words relative to printed words. But the critical finding was that difficult-to-read handwritten words, but not easy-to-read handwritten words, showed a greater word-frequency effect than printed words. Therefore, the inherent physical variability of handwritten words does not necessarily boost the magnitude of lexical effects. PMID:26340587

  5. Word Detectives: Morphological Instruction That Supports Academic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Perkins, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This study describes an intervention that uses morphology to support word learning within comprehension instruction of content-specific texts. The intervention is detailed such that the morphological understandings used to support word choice and word learning activities are clear and can be replicated by researchers and educators. Six main…

  6. Testing the Theory of Embodied Cognition with Subliminal Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansorge, Ulrich; Kiefer, Marcus; Khalid, Shah; Grassl, Sylvia; Konig, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we tested the embodied cognition theory (ECT). The ECT postulates mandatory sensorimotor processing of words when accessing their meaning. We test that prediction by investigating whether invisible (i.e., subliminal) spatial words activate responses based on their long-term and short-term meaning. Masking of the words is used…

  7. Modelling the Effects of Semantic Ambiguity in Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodd, Jennifer M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

    2004-01-01

    Most words in English are ambiguous between different interpretations; words can mean different things in different contexts. We investigate the implications of different types of semantic ambiguity for connectionist models of word recognition. We present a model in which there is competition to activate distributed semantic representations. The…

  8. Three Languages, One ECHO: Cognate Effects in Trilingual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemhofer, Kristin; Dijkstra, Ton; Michel, Marije C.

    2004-01-01

    Research on bilingual word recognition suggests that lexical access is non-selective with respect to language, i.e., that word representations of both languages become active during recognition. One piece of evidence is that bilinguals recognise cognates (words that are identical or similar in form and meaning in two languages) faster than…

  9. Word generalization by a dog (Canis familiaris): is shape important?

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Emile; Zulch, Helen; Mills, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the presence of a key feature of human word comprehension in a five year old Border Collie: the generalization of a word referring to an object to other objects of the same shape, also known as shape bias. Our first experiment confirmed a solid history of word learning in the dog, thus making it possible for certain object features to have become central in his word comprehension. Using an experimental paradigm originally employed to establish shape bias in children and human adults we taught the dog arbitrary object names (e.g. dax) for novel objects. Two experiments showed that when briefly familiarized with word-object mappings the dog did not generalize object names to object shape but to object size. A fourth experiment showed that when familiarized with a word-object mapping for a longer period of time the dog tended to generalize the word to objects with the same texture. These results show that the dog tested did not display human-like word comprehension, but word generalization and word reference development of a qualitatively different nature compared to humans. We conclude that a shape bias for word generalization in humans is due to the distinct evolutionary history of the human sensory system for object identification and that more research is necessary to confirm qualitative differences in word generalization between humans and dogs. PMID:23185321

  10. Word Generalization by a Dog (Canis familiaris): Is Shape Important?

    PubMed Central

    van der Zee, Emile; Zulch, Helen; Mills, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the presence of a key feature of human word comprehension in a five year old Border Collie: the generalization of a word referring to an object to other objects of the same shape, also known as shape bias. Our first experiment confirmed a solid history of word learning in the dog, thus making it possible for certain object features to have become central in his word comprehension. Using an experimental paradigm originally employed to establish shape bias in children and human adults we taught the dog arbitrary object names (e.g. dax) for novel objects. Two experiments showed that when briefly familiarized with word-object mappings the dog did not generalize object names to object shape but to object size. A fourth experiment showed that when familiarized with a word-object mapping for a longer period of time the dog tended to generalize the word to objects with the same texture. These results show that the dog tested did not display human-like word comprehension, but word generalization and word reference development of a qualitatively different nature compared to humans. We conclude that a shape bias for word generalization in humans is due to the distinct evolutionary history of the human sensory system for object identification and that more research is necessary to confirm qualitative differences in word generalization between humans and dogs. PMID:23185321

  11. p38 MAPK Is Activated but Does Not Play a Key Role during Apoptosis Induction by Saturated Fatty Acid in Human Pancreatic β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Šrámek, Jan; Němcová-Fürstová, Vlasta; Balušíková, Kamila; Daniel, Petr; Jelínek, Michael; James, Roger F.; Kovář, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Saturated stearic acid (SA) induces apoptosis in the human pancreatic β-cells NES2Y. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are unclear. We showed that apoptosis-inducing concentrations of SA activate the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in these cells. Therefore, we tested the role of p38 MAPK signaling pathway activation in apoptosis induction by SA in NES2Y cells. Crosstalk between p38 MAPK pathway activation and accompanying ERK pathway inhibition after SA application was also tested. The inhibition of p38 MAPK expression by siRNA silencing resulted in a decrease in MAPKAPK-2 activation after SA application, but it had no significant effect on cell viability or the level of phosphorylated ERK pathway members. The inhibition of p38 MAPK activity by the specific inhibitor SB202190 resulted in inhibition of MAPKAPK-2 activation and noticeable activation of ERK pathway members after SA treatment but in no significant effect on cell viability. p38 MAPK overexpression by plasmid transfection produced an increase in MAPKAPK-2 activation after SA exposure but no significant influence on cell viability or ERK pathway activation. The activation of p38 MAPK by the specific activator anisomycin resulted in significant activation of MAPKAPK-2. Concerning the effect on cell viability, application of the activator led to apoptosis induction similar to application of SA (PARP cleavage and caspase-7, -8, and -9 activation) and in inhibition of ERK pathway members. We demonstrated that apoptosis-inducing concentrations of SA activate the p38 MAPK signaling pathway and that this activation could be involved in apoptosis induction by SA in the human pancreatic β-cells NES2Y. However, this involvement does not seem to play a key role. Crosstalk between p38 MAPK pathway activation and ERK pathway inhibition in NES2Y cells seems likely. Thus, the ERK pathway inhibition by p38 MAPK activation does not also seem to be essential for SA-induced apoptosis. PMID:26861294

  12. Which Words Shall They Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Cheryl L.; Feinburg, Phil

    To devise a list of functional sight vocabulary words, a search was made of numerous curriculum guides and books, school district curricula, and several commercial materials purporting to teach such words. This search provided 16 word lists with a total of 466 different words and symbols. The word lists ranged from as few as five words to as many…

  13. Depth keying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvili, Ronen; Kaplan, Amir; Ofek, Eyal; Yahav, Giora

    2003-05-01

    We present a new solution to the known problem of video keying in a natural environment. We segment foreground objects from background objects using their relative distance from the camera, which makes it possible to do away with the use of color for keying. To do so, we developed and built a novel depth video camera, capable of producing RGB and D signals, where D stands for the distance to each pixel. The new RGBD camera enables the creation of a whole new gallery of effects and applications such as multi-layer background substitutions. This new modality makes the production of real time mixed reality video possible, as well as post-production manipulation of recorded video. We address the problem of color spill -- in which the color of the foreground object is mixed, along its boundary, with the background color. This problem prevents an accurate separation of the foreground object from its background, and it is most visible when compositing the foreground objects to a new background. Most existing techniques are limited to the use of a constant background color. We offer a novel general approach to the problem with enabling the use of the natural background, based upon the D channel generated by the camera.

  14. Identification of Key Residues for pH Dependent Activation of Violaxanthin De-Epoxidase from Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Fufezan, Christian; Simionato, Diana; Morosinotto, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Plants are often exposed to saturating light conditions, which can lead to oxidative stress. The carotenoid zeaxanthin, synthesized from violaxanthin by Violaxanthin De-Epoxidase (VDE) plays a major role in the protection from excess illumination. VDE activation is triggered by a pH reduction in the thylakoids lumen occurring under saturating light. In this work the mechanism of the VDE activation was investigated on a molecular level using multi conformer continuum electrostatic calculations, site directed mutagenesis and molecular dynamics. The pKa values of residues of the inactive VDE were determined to identify target residues that could be implicated in the activation. Five such target residues were investigated closer by site directed mutagenesis, whereas variants in four residues (D98, D117, H168 and D206) caused a reduction in enzymatic activity indicating a role in the activation of VDE while D86 mutants did not show any alteration. The analysis of the VDE sequence showed that the four putative activation residues are all conserved in plants but not in diatoms, explaining why VDE in these algae is already activated at higher pH. Molecular dynamics showed that the VDE structure was coherent at pH 7 with a low amount of water penetrating the hydrophobic barrel. Simulations carried out with the candidate residues locked into their protonated state showed instead an increased amount of water penetrating the barrel and the rupture of the H121–Y214 hydrogen bond at the end of the barrel, which is essential for VDE activation. These results suggest that VDE activation relies on a robust and redundant network, in which the four residues identified in this study play a major role. PMID:22558195

  15. [The referral of infectious diseases is a key activity for infectious diseases departments and units, as well as for the hospital].

    PubMed

    Cisneros, José Miguel; Palomino-Nicás, Julián; Pachón-Diaz, Jerónimo

    2014-12-01

    Infectious diseases referrals (IDR) is a core activity of infectious diseases departments, and is certainly the one with the greatest potential impact on the hospital due to their cross-sectional nature, and with the emergence of a bacterial resistance and antimicrobial crisis. However, there is no standard model for IDR, no official training, and evaluation is merely descriptive. Paradoxically IDR are at risk in a health system that demands more quality and efficiency. The aim of this review is to assess what is known about IDR, its definition, key features, objectives, method, and the evaluation of results, and to suggest improvements to this key activity for the infectious diseases departments and the hospital. PMID:23726832

  16. The Relationships among Cognitive Correlates and Irregular Word, Non-Word, and Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; University, Mu'tah; Urso, Annmarie; Mather, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explored four hypotheses: (a) the relationships among rapid automatized naming (RAN) and processing speed (PS) to irregular word, non-word, and word reading; (b) the predictive power of various RAN and PS measures, (c) the cognitive correlates that best predicted irregular word, non-word, and word reading, and (d) reading performance of…

  17. Attracting Non-Traditional Students to Campus Activities and Leadership Programs: Providing Links to Academics, Persistence Are Key.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Marcie S.

    2003-01-01

    Explores some strategies to attract non-traditional students to campus activities, highlights a model program that integrates scholarship support and leadership programs, explores new ways of marketing to these students, and offers some suggestions for continued development. (EV)

  18. AMP-activated protein kinase: a key regulator of energy balance with many roles in human disease.

    PubMed

    Grahame Hardie, D

    2014-12-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that regulates cellular and whole-body energy balance. A recently reported crystal structure has illuminated the complex regulatory mechanisms by which AMP and ADP cause activation of AMPK, involving phosphorylation by the upstream kinase LKB1. Once activated by falling cellular energy status, AMPK activates catabolic pathways that generate ATP whilst inhibiting anabolic pathways and other cellular processes that consume ATP. A role of AMPK is implicated in many human diseases. Mutations in the γ2 subunit cause heart disease due to excessive glycogen storage in cardiac myocytes, leading to ventricular pre-excitation. AMPK-activating drugs reverse many of the metabolic defects associated with insulin resistance, and recent findings suggest that the insulin-sensitizing effects of the widely used antidiabetic drug metformin are mediated by AMPK. The upstream kinase LKB1 is a tumour suppressor, and AMPK may exert many of its antitumour effects. AMPK activation promotes the oxidative metabolism typical of quiescent cells, rather than the aerobic glycolysis observed in tumour cells and cells involved in inflammation, explaining in part why AMPK activators have both antitumour and anti-inflammatory effects. Salicylate (the major in vivo metabolite of aspirin) activates AMPK, and this could be responsible for at least some of the anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin. In addition to metformin and salicylates, novel drugs that modulate AMPK are likely to enter clinical trials soon. Finally, AMPK may be involved in viral infection: downregulation of AMPK during hepatitis C virus infection appears to be essential for efficient viral replication. PMID:24824502

  19. Total Synthesis of cis-Clavicipitic Acid from Asparagine via Ir-Catalyzed C-H bond Activation as a Key Step.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Yu-ki; Ito, Mamoru; Kanyiva, Kyalo Stephen; Shibata, Takanori

    2015-08-01

    4-Substituted tryptophan derivatives and the total synthesis of cis-clavicipitic acid were achieved in reactions in which Ir-catalyzed C-H bond activation was a key step. The starting material for these reactions is asparagine, which is a cheap natural amino acid. The reductive amination step from the 4-substituted tryptophan derivative gave cis-clavicipitic acid with perfect diastereoselectivity. PMID:26178075

  20. Acetate Activation in Methanosaeta thermophila: Characterization of the Key Enzymes Pyrophosphatase and Acetyl-CoA Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Stefanie; Welte, Cornelia; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The thermophilic methanogen Methanosaeta thermophila uses acetate as sole substrate for methanogenesis. It was proposed that the acetate activation reaction that is needed to feed acetate into the methanogenic pathway requires the hydrolysis of two ATP, whereas the acetate activation reaction in Methanosarcina sp. is known to require only one ATP. As these organisms live at the thermodynamic limit that sustains life, the acetate activation reaction in Mt. thermophila seems too costly and was thus reevaluated. It was found that of the putative acetate activation enzymes one gene encoding an AMP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetase was highly expressed. The corresponding enzyme was purified and characterized in detail. It catalyzed the ATP-dependent formation of acetyl-CoA, AMP, and pyrophosphate (PPi) and was only moderately inhibited by PPi. The breakdown of PPi was performed by a soluble pyrophosphatase. This enzyme was also purified and characterized. The pyrophosphatase hydrolyzed the major part of PPi (KM = 0.27 ± 0.05 mM) that was produced in the acetate activation reaction. Activity was not inhibited by nucleotides or PPi. However, it cannot be excluded that other PPi-dependent enzymes take advantage of the remaining PPi and contribute to the energy balance of the cell. PMID:22927778

  1. Changes in the activities of key enzymes of glycolysis during the cell cycle in yeast: a rectification.

    PubMed

    de Koning, W; Groeneveld, K; Oehlen, L J; Berden, J A; van Dam, K

    1991-04-01

    Activities of glycolytic enzymes were determined in elutriation fractionated cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on different carbon sources. Almost pure fractions of single cells at the G1 state of cell division were obtained for some of the growth conditions tested, whereas other stages were enriched in particular fractions. Specific activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase were found to be constant during the cell cycle, as reported by van Doorn et al. (1988a), Journal of Bacteriology 170, 4808-4815, and (1988b), Journal of General Microbiology 134, 785-790. In contrast to the earlier reports, the activities of hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase and trehalase were also constant in different states of the cell cycle. For hexokinase and phosphofructokinase it was shown that the apparent specific activity in a cell-free extract strongly diminished when extracts contained less that 0.5-1 mg protein ml-1. In the experiments of van Doorn et al. (1988a) the protein content of the outer fractions was up to 20 times lower than that of the central fractions, suggesting an alternative explanation for the observed changes in enzyme activities during the cell cycle. Therefore, we want to rectify the observations presented by van Doorn et al. (1988a), and conclude that the activities of the glycolytic enzymes do not vary greatly during the cell cycle of S. cervisiae. PMID:1856683

  2. The Internet Alert Project: spreading the word about high-risk sexual activities advertised on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Kachur, R E

    2004-11-01

    The Internet is an emerging venue for facilitating high-risk sexual behavior; in particular, use of the Internet to seek out sex partners has been shown to be associated with high-risk sexual behaviors, such as an increase in number of sexual partners and an increase in anal sex, which can increase the risk of contracting and transmitting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including HIV. In an effort to assist health departments around the country, the Internet Alert Project was developed to provide Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) project officers and field staff with information about Internet-advertised, high-risk sexual activities in areas that do not have access to sexually explicit material on the Internet. An evaluation was conducted to determine the utility of the Internet Alert Project, its effect on knowledge and awareness of recipients and on public health efforts. Results of the evaluation show the alerts are a useful and valuable tool. The alerts have helped to increase knowledge about sexually-related uses of the Internet and have also driven public health efforts in the field. The results also indicate the need for project areas to access information found on the Internet in order to keep up with the ever-changing behaviors of at-risk populations. PMID:15511729

  3. Perinucleolar relocalization and nucleolin as crucial events in the transcriptional activation of key genes in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Allinne, Jeanne; Pichugin, Andrei; Iarovaia, Olga; Klibi, Manel; Barat, Ana; Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz, Ewa; Markozashvili, Diana; Petrova, Natalia; Camara-Clayette, Valérie; Ioudinkova, Elena; Wiels, Joëlle; Razin, Sergey V; Ribrag, Vincent; Lipinski, Marc; Vassetzky, Yegor S

    2014-03-27

    In mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), one allele of the cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) gene is translocated from its normal localization on chromosome 11 to chromosome 14. This is considered as the crucial event in the transformation process of a normal naive B-cell; however, the actual molecular mechanism leading to Ccnd1 activation remains to be deciphered. Using a combination of three-dimensional and immuno-fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments, the radial position of the 2 Ccnd1 alleles was investigated in MCL-derived cell lines and malignant cells from affected patients. The translocated Ccnd1 allele was observed significantly more distant from the nuclear membrane than its nontranslocated counterpart, with a very high proportion of IgH-Ccnd1 chromosomal segments localized next to a nucleolus. These perinucleolar areas were found to contain active RNA polymerase II (PolII) clusters. Nucleoli are rich in nucleolin, a potent transcription factor that we found to bind sites within the Ccnd1 gene specifically in MCL cells and to activate Ccnd1 transcription. We propose that the Ccnd1 transcriptional activation in MCL cells relates to the repositioning of the rearranged IgH-Ccnd1-carrying chromosomal segment in a nuclear territory with abundant nucleolin and active PolII molecules. Similar transforming events could occur in Burkitt and other B-cell lymphomas. PMID:24452204

  4. Ischemia/reperfusion activates myocardial innate immune response: the key role of the toll-like receptor

    PubMed Central

    Vilahur, Gemma; Badimon, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Recent data have indicated that the myocardium may act as an immune organ initiating cardiac innate immune response and inflammation. It has been suggested that activation of the immune system occurs upon the interaction of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) generated and released during ischemic damage with pattern recognition receptors (Toll like receptors; TLR) present in cardiac cells. Among TLRs, TLR4, and TLR2 are the ones mostly expressed in cardiac tissue. Whereas TLR4 has shown to play a detrimental role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, the effect elicited by TLR2 activation remains controversial. Once activated, TLR signaling may occur via the Myd88- and Trif- dependent pathways leading to NFκB and IFN-3 activation, respectively, and subsequent stimulation of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokine gene expression. Cytokine release contributes to neutrophils activation, recruitment, adhesion and infiltration to the site of cardiac injury further perpetuating the inflammatory process. This mini-review will focus on the current knowledge regarding the role of the heart in inducing and coordinating the innate inflammatory response via the TLR signaling pathway in myocardial I/R injury. PMID:25566092

  5. Biochemical and toxicological evaluation of nano-heparins in cell functional properties, proteasome activation and expression of key matrix molecules.

    PubMed

    Piperigkou, Zoi; Karamanou, Konstantina; Afratis, Nikolaos A; Bouris, Panagiotis; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Belmiro, Celso L R; Pavão, Mauro S G; Vynios, Dimitrios H; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2016-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan heparin and its derivatives act strongly on blood coagulation, controlling the activity of serine protease inhibitors in plasma. Nonetheless, there is accumulating evidence highlighting different anticancer activities of these molecules in numerous types of cancer. Nano-heparins may have great biological significance since they can inhibit cell proliferation and invasion as well as inhibiting proteasome activation. Moreover, they can cause alterations in the expression of major modulators of the tumor microenvironment, regulating cancer cell behavior. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of two nano-heparin formulations: one isolated from porcine intestine and the other from the sea squirt Styela plicata, on a breast cancer cell model. We determined whether these nano-heparins are able to affect cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion, as well as proteasome activity and the expression of extracellular matrix molecules. Specifically, we observed that nano-Styela compared to nano-Mammalian analogue has higher inhibitory role on cell proliferation, invasion and proteasome activity. Moreover, nano-Styela regulates cell apoptosis, expression of inflammatory molecules, such as IL-6 and IL-8 and reduces the expression levels of extracellular matrix macromolecules, such as the proteolytic enzymes MT1-MMP, uPA and the cell surface proteoglycans syndecan-1 and -2, but not on syndecan-4. The observations reported in the present article indicate that nano-heparins and especially ascidian heparin are effective agents for heparin-induced effects in critical cancer cell functions, providing an important possibility in pharmacological targeting. PMID:26476401

  6. Semantic access to embedded words? Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence from Spanish and English.

    PubMed

    Macizo, Pedro; Van Petten, Cyma; O'Rourke, Polly L

    2012-11-01

    Many multisyllabic words contain shorter words that are not semantic units, like the CAP in HANDICAP and the DURA (hard) in VERDURA (vegetable). The spaces between printed words identify word boundaries, but spurious identification of these embedded words is a potentially greater challenge for spoken language comprehension, a challenge that is handled by different mechanisms in different models of auditory word recognition. Subphonemic acoustic differences--subtle differences in pronunciation--often differentiate embedded words from genuine words. We examined semantic access to embedded words in two languages with different phonology by presenting carrier words followed by targets related to the embedded words and recording event-related potentials and lexical decision times in 34 Spanish/English bilinguals. No evidence of embedded word access was observed in brain activity or behavior, and this could not be attributed to subphonemic acoustic factors. The data place constraints on models of speech segmentation. PMID:22925681

  7. Examining the Central and Peripheral Processes of Written Word Production Through Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Jeremy J.; Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Eden, Guinevere F.; Rapp, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Producing written words requires “central” cognitive processes (such as orthographic long-term and working memory) as well as more peripheral processes responsible for generating the motor actions needed for producing written words in a variety of formats (handwriting, typing, etc.). In recent years, various functional neuroimaging studies have examined the neural substrates underlying the central and peripheral processes of written word production. This study provides the first quantitative meta-analysis of these studies by applying activation likelihood estimation (ALE) methods (Turkeltaub et al., 2002). For alphabet languages, we identified 11 studies (with a total of 17 experimental contrasts) that had been designed to isolate central and/or peripheral processes of word spelling (total number of participants = 146). Three ALE meta-analyses were carried out. One involved the complete set of 17 contrasts; two others were applied to subsets of contrasts to distinguish the neural substrates of central from peripheral processes. These analyses identified a network of brain regions reliably associated with the central and peripheral processes of word spelling. Among the many significant results, is the finding that the regions with the greatest correspondence across studies were in the left inferior temporal/fusiform gyri and left inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, although the angular gyrus (AG) has traditionally been identified as a key site within the written word production network, none of the meta-analyses found it to be a consistent site of activation, identifying instead a region just superior/medial to the left AG in the left posterior intraparietal sulcus. These meta-analyses and the discussion of results provide a valuable foundation upon which future studies that examine the neural basis of written word production can build. PMID:22013427

  8. The Uncertainty of Word Meanings Found in Nursery Rhyme Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruss, Linda C.

    A study examined how many of 11 key words in 4 famous Mother Goose nursery rhymes were understood by parents of first graders. The first questionnaire (designed to determine if context clues were helpful in deciphering what words meant) was returned by 37 parents in an urban school district and by 49 parents in a suburban school district. The…

  9. Improving Reading across Subject Areas with Word Generation. CREATE Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Joshua F.; White, Claire; Snow, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    This brief describes a quasi-experimental study of Word Generation, conducted in public middle schools in Boston. Word Generation is a robust vocabulary intervention that is implemented across key subject areas. The purpose of the program is to enhance students' vocabulary in support of improved reading comprehension. The brief outlines the…

  10. Functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of glutamate in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder: anterior cingulate activity during a color-word Stroop task

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Reggie; Neufeld, Richard W J; Schaefer, Betsy; Densmore, Maria; Rajakumar, Nagalingam; Osuch, Elizabeth A; Williamson, Peter C; Théberge, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glutamate abnormalities have been suggested to be associated with symptoms of schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-fMRS), it is possible to monitor glutamate dynamically in the activated brain areas, which has yet to be reported in schizophrenia. It was hypothesized that subjects with schizophrenia would have weaker glutamatergic responses in the anterior cingulate to a color-word Stroop Task. AIMS: The aim of this study was to gain insight into the health of GLU neurotransmission and the GLU-GLN cycle in SZ using a 1H-fMRS protocol. Methods: Spectra were acquired from the anterior cingulate of 16 participants with schizophrenia, 16 healthy controls and 16 participants with major depressive disorder (MDD) while performing the Stroop task in a 7T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. 1H-fMRS spectra were acquired for 20 min in which there were three 4-min blocks of cross fixation interleaved with two 4-min blocks of the Stroop paradigm. Results: A repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a main effect of time for glutamate concentrations of all groups (P<0.001). The healthy control group increased glutamate concentrations in the first run of the Stroop task (P=0.006) followed by a decrease in the recovery period (P=0.007). Neither the schizophrenia (P=0.107) nor MDD (P=0.081) groups had significant glutamate changes in the first run of the task, while the schizophrenia group had a significant increase in glutamine (P=0.005). The MDD group decreased glutamate concentrations in the second run of the task (P=0.003), as did all the groups combined (P=0.003). Conclusions: 1H-fMRS data were successfully acquired from psychiatric subjects with schizophrenia and mood disorder using a cognitive paradigm for the first time. Future study designs should further elucidate the glutamatergic response to functional activation in schizophrenia. PMID:27336037

  11. Direct Synthesis of Protoberberine Alkaloids by Rh-Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation as the Key Step.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Jayachandran; Cheng, Chien-Hong

    2016-01-26

    A one-pot reaction of substituted benzaldehydes with alkyne-amines by a Rh-catalyzed C-H activation and annulation to afford various natural and unnatural protoberberine alkaloids is reported. This reaction provides a convenient route for the generation of a compound library of protoberberine salts, which recently have attracted great attention because of their diverse biological activities. In addition, pyridinium salt derivatives can also be formed in good yields from α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and amino-alkynes. This reaction proceeds with excellent regioselectivity and good functional group compatibility under mild reaction conditions by using O2 as the oxidant. PMID:26689172

  12. Motivational Activities for High School Economics, Keyed to the New York State Syllabus "Economics and Economic Decision Making."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, George G.

    This manual provides secondary school teachers with ideas for relating economics to student needs, interests, and experiences. The tentative syllabus "Economics and Economic Decision Making," designed for 12th grade social studies by the New York State Education Department in 1987, is used as a guide. Motivational activities for the 18 topics in…

  13. Testing Models: A Key Aspect to Promote Teaching Activities Related to Models and Modelling in Biology Lessons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krell, Moritz; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated biology teachers' (N = 148) understanding of models and modelling (MoMo), their model-related teaching activities and relations between the two. A framework which distinguishes five aspects of MoMo in science ("nature of models," "multiple models," "purpose of models," "testing…

  14. Macrolones Are a Novel Class of Macrolide Antibiotics Active against Key Resistant Respiratory Pathogens In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Čipčić Paljetak, Hana; Verbanac, Donatella; Padovan, Jasna; Dominis-Kramarić, Miroslava; Kelnerić, Željko; Perić, Mihaela; Banjanac, Mihailo; Ergović, Gabrijela; Simon, Nerrisa; Broskey, John; Holmes, David J; Eraković Haber, Vesna

    2016-09-01

    As we face an alarming increase in bacterial resistance to current antibacterial chemotherapeutics, expanding the available therapeutic arsenal in the fight against resistant bacterial pathogens causing respiratory tract infections is of high importance. The antibacterial potency of macrolones, a novel class of macrolide antibiotics, against key respiratory pathogens was evaluated in vitro and in vivo MIC values against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Haemophilus influenzae strains sensitive to macrolide antibiotics and with defined macrolide resistance mechanisms were determined. The propensity of macrolones to induce the expression of inducible erm genes was tested by the triple-disk method and incubation in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of compounds. In vivo efficacy was assessed in a murine model of S. pneumoniae-induced pneumonia, and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles in mice were determined. The in vitro antibacterial profiles of macrolones were superior to those of marketed macrolide antibiotics, including the ketolide telithromycin, and the compounds did not induce the expression of inducible erm genes. They acted as typical protein synthesis inhibitors in an Escherichia coli transcription/translation assay. Macrolones were characterized by low to moderate systemic clearance, a large volume of distribution, a long half-life, and low oral bioavailability. They were highly efficacious in a murine model of pneumonia after intraperitoneal application even against an S. pneumoniae strain with constitutive resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B antibiotics. Macrolones are the class of macrolide antibiotics with an outstanding antibacterial profile and reasonable PK parameters resulting in good in vivo efficacy. PMID:27353268

  15. Key changes in wine aroma active compounds during bottle storage of Spanish red wines under different oxygen levels.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vicente; Bueno, Mónica; Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Culleré, Laura; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2014-10-15

    Samples from 16 Spanish red wines have been stored for 6 months at 25 °C under different levels of oxygen (0-56 mg/L). Amino acids, metals, and phenolic compounds were analyzed and related to the production or depletion of key oxidation- and reduction-related aroma compounds. Oxidation brings about sensory-relevant increases in Strecker aldehydes, 1-octen-3-one, and vanillin. Formation of Strecker aldehydes correlates to the wine content on the corresponding amino acid precursor, Zn, and caffeic acid ethyl ester and negatively to some flavonols and anthocyanin derivatives. Formation of most carbonyls correlates to wine-combined SO2, suggesting that part of the increments are the result of the release of aldehydes forming bisulfite combinations once SO2 is oxidized. Methanethiol (MeSH) and dimethylsulfide (DMS), but not H2S levels, increase during storage. MeSH increments correlate to methionine levels and proanthocyanidins and negatively to resveratrol and aluminum. H2S, MeSH, and DMS levels all decreased with oxidation, and for the latter two, there are important effects of Mn and pH, respectively. PMID:25284059

  16. What makes words special? Words as unmotivated cues.

    PubMed

    Edmiston, Pierce; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-10-01

    Verbal labels, such as the words "dog" and "guitar," activate conceptual knowledge more effectively than corresponding environmental sounds, such as a dog bark or a guitar strum, even though both are unambiguous cues to the categories of dogs and guitars (Lupyan & Thompson-Schill, 2012). We hypothesize that this advantage of labels emerges because word-forms, unlike other cues, do not vary in a motivated way with their referent. The sound of a guitar cannot help but inform a listener to the type of guitar making it (electric, acoustic, etc.). The word "guitar" on the other hand, can leave the type of guitar unspecified. We argue that as a result, labels gain the ability to cue a more abstract mental representation, promoting efficient processing of category members. In contrast, environmental sounds activate representations that are more tightly linked to the specific cause of the sound. Our results show that upon hearing environmental sounds such as a dog bark or guitar strum, people cannot help but activate a particular instance of a category, in a particular state, at a particular time, as measured by patterns of response times on cue-picture matching tasks (Exps. 1-2) and eye-movements in a task where the cues are task-irrelevant (Exp. 3). In comparison, labels activate concepts in a more abstract, decontextualized way-a difference that we argue can be explained by labels acting as "unmotivated cues". PMID:26117488

  17. NADPH Oxidase Activity in Cerebral Arterioles Is a Key Mediator of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease—Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), a common feature of brain aging, is characterized by lacunar infarcts, microbleeds, leukoaraiosis, and a leaky blood-brain barrier. Functionally, it is associated with cognitive decline, dementia, depression, gait abnormalities, and increased risk for stroke. Cerebral arterioles in this syndrome tend to hypertrophy and lose their capacity for adaptive vasodilation. Rodent studies strongly suggest that activation of Nox2-dependent NADPH oxidase activity is a crucial driver of these structural and functional derangements of cerebral arterioles, in part owing to impairment of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. This oxidative stress may also contribute to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier seen in SVD. Hypertension, aging, metabolic syndrome, smoking, hyperglycemia, and elevated homocysteine may promote activation of NADPH oxidase in cerebral arterioles. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase with phycocyanobilin from spirulina, as well as high-dose statin therapy, may have potential for prevention and control of SVD, and high-potassium diets merit study in this regard. Measures which support effective eNOS activity in other ways—exercise training, supplemental citrulline, certain dietary flavonoids (as in cocoa and green tea), and capsaicin, may also improve the function of cerebral arterioles. Asian epidemiology suggests that increased protein intakes may decrease risk for SVD; conceivably, arginine and/or cysteine—which boosts tissue glutathione synthesis, and can be administered as N-acetylcysteine—mediate this benefit. Ameliorating the risk factors for SVD—including hypertension, metabolic syndrome, hyperglycemia, smoking, and elevated homocysteine—also may help to prevent and control this syndrome, although few clinical trials have addressed this issue to date.

  18. Copper(II) Ions Increase Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 Dynamics in Key Structural Regions That Govern Stability.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Joel C; Trelle, Morten Beck; McClintock, Carlee S; Qureshi, Tihami; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Peterson, Cynthia B

    2016-08-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) regulates the fibrinolysis pathway by inhibiting the protease activity of plasminogen activators. PAI-1 works in concert with vitronectin (VN), an extracellular protein that aids in localization of active PAI-1 to tissues. The Peterson laboratory demonstrated that Cu(II) and other transition metals modulate the stability of PAI-1, exhibiting effects that are dependent on the presence or absence of the somatomedin B (SMB) domain of VN. The study presented here dissects the changes in molecular dynamics underlying the destabilizing effects of Cu(II) on PAI-1. We utilize backbone amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry to assess PAI-1 dynamics in the presence and absence of Cu(II) ions with and without the SMB domain of VN. We show that Cu(II) produces an increase in dynamics in regions important for the function and overall stability of PAI-1, while the SMB domain elicits virtually the opposite effect. A mutant form of PAI-1 lacking two N-terminal histidine residues at positions 2 and 3 exhibits similar increases in dynamics upon Cu(II) binding compared to that of active wild-type PAI-1, indicating that the observed structural effects are not a result of coordination of Cu(II) to these histidine residues. Finally, addition of Cu(II) results in an acceleration of the local unfolding kinetics of PAI-1 presumed to be on pathway to the latency conversion. The effect of ligands on the dynamics of PAI-1 adds another intriguing dimension to the mechanisms for regulation of PAI-1 stability and function. PMID:27416303

  19. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words.

    PubMed

    Stone, M; Ladd, S L; Vaidya, C J; Gabrieli, J D

    1998-06-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study. PMID:9690028

  20. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Vaidya, C. J.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study.

  1. Msn2p/Msn4p act as a key transcriptional activator of yeast cytoplasmic thiol peroxidase II.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung-Keun; Cha, Mee-Kyung; Choi, Yong-Soo; Kim, Won-Cheol; Kim, Il-Han

    2002-04-01

    We observed that the transcription of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytoplasmic thiol peroxidase type II (cTPx II) (YDR453C) is regulated in response to various stresses (e.g. oxidative stress, carbon starvation, and heat-shock). It has been suggested that both transcription-activating proteins, Yap1p and Skn7p, regulate the transcription of cTPx II upon exposure to oxidative stress. However, a dramatic loss of transcriptional response to various stresses in yeast mutant strains lacking both Msn2p and Msn4p suggests that the transcription factors act as a principal transcriptional activator. In addition to two Yap1p response elements (YREs), TTACTAA and TTAGTAA, the presence of two stress response elements (STREs) (CCCCT) in the upstream sequence of cTPx II also suggests that Msn2p/Msn4p could control stress-induced expression of cTPx II. Analysis of the transcriptional activity of site-directed mutagenesis of the putative STREs (STRE1 and STRE2) and YREs (TRE1 and YRE2) in terms of the activity of a lacZ reporter gene under control of the cTPx II promoter indicates that STRE2 acts as a principal binding element essential for transactivation of the cTPx II promoter. The transcriptional activity of the cTPx II promoter was exponentially increased after postdiauxic growth. The transcriptional activity of the cTPx II promoter is greatly increased by rapamycin. Deletion of Tor1, Tor2, Ras1, and Ras2 resulted in a considerable induction when compared with their parent strains, suggesting that the transcription of cTPx II is under negative control of the Ras/cAMP and target of rapamycin signaling pathways. Taken together, these results suggest that cTPx II is a target of Msn2p/Msn4p transcription factors under negative control of the Ras-protein kinase A and target of rapamycin signaling pathways. Furthermore, the accumulation of cTPx II upon exposure to oxidative stress and during the postdiauxic shift suggests an important antioxidant role in stationary phase yeast cells

  2. Plastid Localization of the Key Carotenoid Enzyme Phytoene Synthase Is Altered by Isozyme, Allelic Variation, and Activity[W

    PubMed Central

    Shumskaya, Maria; Bradbury, Louis M.T.; Monaco, Regina R.; Wurtzel, Eleanore T.

    2012-01-01

    Plant carotenoids have unique physiological roles related to specific plastid suborganellar locations. Carotenoid metabolic engineering could enhance plant adaptation to climate change and improve food security and nutritional value. However, lack of fundamental knowledge on carotenoid pathway localization limits targeted engineering. Phytoene synthase (PSY), a major rate-controlling carotenoid enzyme, is represented by multiple isozymes residing at unknown plastid sites. In maize (Zea mays), the three isozymes were transiently expressed and found either in plastoglobuli or in stroma and thylakoid membranes. PSY1, with one to two residue modifications of naturally occurring functional variants, exhibited altered localization, associated with distorted plastid shape and formation of a fibril phenotype. Mutating the active site of the enzyme reversed this phenotype. Discovery of differential PSY locations, linked with activity and isozyme type, advances the engineering potential for modifying carotenoid biosynthesis. PMID:23023170

  3. Activity of key enzymes in microsomal and mitochondrial membranes depends on the redox reactions involving lipid radicals.

    PubMed

    Dmitriev, L F

    2001-07-01

    The work reviews membrane processes, such as monooxygenase reaction and oxidative phosphorylation with special reference to hydroxylation of a xenobiotic benzo(a)pyrene and the effects of the radical scavenger propyl gallate and radical generator Fe2+ ions on the reaction kinetics. A possibility is discussed that tocopherol provides for the activity of the lipid-radical cycles involving cytochrome b5. The lipid-radical cycles protect membrane lipids from oxidation and control the kinetics of membrane processes. The NADPH oxidation energy is transformed into the energy of lipid pulsations and this energy is used for activation of membrane enzymes. To account for the role of lipid pulsations in membrane processes, a new parameter is introduced - the internal temperature. It is supposed that there should be the equilibrium between the pro- and antioxidant factors in the membranes, and the presence of exogenous antioxidants (propyl gallate etc.) should be considered as a negative factor. PMID:11699868

  4. Communication is key: Reducing DEK1 activity reveals a link between cell-cell contacts and epidermal cell differentiation status.

    PubMed

    Galletti, Roberta; Ingram, Gwyneth C

    2015-01-01

    Plant epidermis development requires not only the initial acquisition of tissue identity, but also the ability to differentiate specific cell types over time and to maintain these differentiated states throughout the plant life. To set-up and maintain differentiation, plants activate specific transcriptional programs. Interfering with these programs can prevent differentiation and/or force differentiated cells to lose their identity and re-enter a proliferative state. We have recently shown that the Arabidopsis Defective Kernel 1 (DEK1) protein is required both for the differentiation of epidermal cells and for the maintenance of their fully differentiated state. Defects in DEK1 activity lead to a deregulation of the expression of epidermis-specific differentiation-promoting HD-ZIP IV transcription factors. Here we propose a working model in which DEK1, by maintaining cell-cell contacts, and thus communication between neighboring cells, influences HD-ZIP IV gene expression and epidermis differentiation. PMID:27064205

  5. Dogs motivate obese children for physical activity: key elements of a motivational theory of animal-assisted interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wohlfarth, Rainer; Mutschler, Bettina; Beetz, Andrea; Kreuser, Friederike; Korsten-Reck, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is empirical evidence that the presence of a companion animal can have a positive impact on performance. The available evidence can be viewed in terms of differing hypotheses that attempt to explain the mechanisms behind the positive effects. Little attention has been given to motivation as a potential mode of action with regards to human-animal interactions. First we give an overview of evidence that animals might promote motivation. Second we present a study to examine the effect of a therapy dog on exercise performance in children with obesity. Methods: Twelve children, aged 8–12 years old, were randomly assigned to two groups in a crossover design: dog-group and human confederate group. Several types of physical activities via accelerometer and subjective ratings of wellbeing, satisfaction, and motivation were assessed. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance for repeated measures on one factor. Results: The main effect of condition was significant for all performance variables. There was less passive behavior and more physical activity for all performance variables in the presence of the dog than in that of the human confederate. Between dog- and human- condition there was no difference in the subjective rating of motivation, wellbeing, or satisfaction. Discussion: The results demonstrate that the presence of a therapy dog has the potential to increase physical activity in obese children. Task performance as a declarative measure was increased by the presence of the dog in comparison to a human confederate, but self-report measures of motivation, satisfaction or wellbeing did not differ between the two conditions. Therefore, it stands to reason that a dog could trigger implicit motives which enhance motivation for activity. The results of our study indicate the potentially beneficial effect of incorporating dogs into outpatient training for obese children. PMID:24194726

  6. Oocyte-expressed yes-associated protein is a key activator of the early zygotic genome in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chao; Ji, Shu-Yan; Dang, Yu-Jiao; Sha, Qian-Qian; Yuan, Yi-Feng; Zhou, Jian-Jie; Yan, Li-Ying; Qiao, Jie; Tang, Fuchou; Fan, Heng-Yu

    2016-01-01

    In early mammalian embryos, the genome is transcriptionally quiescent until the zygotic genome activation (ZGA) which occurs 2-3 days after fertilization. Despite a long-standing effort, maternal transcription factors regulating this crucial developmental event remain largely elusive. Here, using maternal and paternal mouse models of Yap1 deletion, we show that maternally accumulated yes-associated protein (YAP) in oocyte is essential for ZGA. Maternal Yap1-knockout embryos exhibit a prolonged two-cell stage and develop into the four-cell stage at a much slower pace than the wild-type controls. Transcriptome analyses identify YAP target genes in early blastomeres; two of which, Rpl13 and Rrm2, are required to mediate maternal YAP's effect in conferring developmental competence on preimplantation embryos. Furthermore, the physiological YAP activator, lysophosphatidic acid, can substantially improve early development of wild-type, but not maternal Yap1-knockout embryos in both oviduct and culture. These observations provide insights into the mechanisms of ZGA, and suggest potentials of YAP activators in improving the developmental competence of cultured embryos in assisted human reproduction and animal biotechnology. PMID:26902285

  7. Key Proliferative Activity in the Junction between the Leaf Blade and Leaf Petiole of Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ichihashi, Yasunori; Kawade, Kensuke; Usami, Takeshi; Horiguchi, Gorou; Takahashi, Taku; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    Leaves are the most important, fundamental units of organogenesis in plants. Although the basic form of a leaf is clearly divided into the leaf blade and leaf petiole, no study has yet revealed how these are differentiated from a leaf primordium. We analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern of mitotic activity in leaf primordia of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in detail using molecular markers in combination with clonal analysis. We found that the proliferative zone is established after a short interval following the occurrence of a rod-shaped early leaf primordium; it is separated spatially from the shoot apical meristem and seen at the junction region between the leaf blade and leaf petiole and produces both leaf-blade and leaf-petiole cells. This proliferative region in leaf primordia is marked by activity of the ANGUSTIFOLIA3 (AN3) promoter as a whole and seems to be differentiated into several spatial compartments: activities of the CYCLIN D4;2 promoter and SPATULA enhancer mark parts of it specifically. Detailed analyses of the an3 and blade-on-petiole mutations further support the idea that organogenesis of the leaf blade and leaf petiole is critically dependent on the correct spatial regulation of the proliferative region of leaf primordia. Thus, the proliferative zone of leaf primordia is spatially differentiated and supplies both the leaf-blade and leaf-petiole cells. PMID:21880932

  8. Towards predicting the lung fibrogenic activity of MWCNT: Key role of endocytosis, kinase receptors and ERK 1/2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Vietti, Giulia; Ibouraadaten, Saloua; Palmai-Pallag, Mihaly; Yakoub, Yousof; Piret, Jean-Pascal; Marbaix, Etienne; Lison, Dominique; van den Brule, Sybille

    2016-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been reported to induce lung inflammation and fibrosis in rodents. We investigated the direct and indirect cellular mechanisms mediating the fibrogenic activity of multi-wall (MW) CNT on fibroblasts. We showed that MWCNT indirectly stimulate lung fibroblast (MLg) differentiation, via epithelial cells and macrophages, whereas no direct effect of MWCNT on fibroblast differentiation or collagen production was detected. MWCNT directly stimulated the proliferation of fibroblasts primed with low concentrations of growth factors, such as PDGF, TGF-β or EGF. MWCNT prolonged ERK 1/2 phosphorylation induced by low concentrations of PDGF or TGF-β in fibroblasts. This phenomenon and the proliferative activity of MWCNT on fibroblasts was abrogated by the inhibitors of ERK 1/2, PDGF-, TGF-β- and EGF-receptors. This activity was also reduced by amiloride, an endocytosis inhibitor. Finally, the lung fibrotic response to several MWCNT samples (different in length and diameter) correlated with their in vitro capacity to stimulate the proliferation of fibroblasts and to prolong ERK 1/2 signaling in these cells. Our findings point to a crosstalk between MWCNT, kinase receptors, ERK 1/2 signaling and endocytosis which stimulates the proliferation of fibroblasts. The mechanisms of action identified in this study contribute to predict the fibrogenic potential of MWCNT. PMID:26444902

  9. The effect of dietary bagasse on the activities of some key enzymes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Stanley, J C; Newsholme, E A

    1985-09-01

    The effects of a 100 g/kg diet substitution of bagasse on the body-weight gain, food consumption and faecal dry weight of mice given a high-sucrose diet and on the activities of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC I.I.I.49), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC I.I.I.44), malate dehydrogenase (oxaloacetate-decarboxylating) (NADP+) (EC I.I.I.40), ATP-citrate (pro-3S) lyase (EC 4.I.3.8), 6-phosphofructokinase EC 2.7.I.II), pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.I.40) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.I.3.II) were studied. Bagasse had no effect on body-weight gain, food consumption or faecal dry weight. Bagasse decreased the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and phosphofructokinase expressed on a wet weight basis and on a protein basis. Bagasse decreased the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase expressed on a body-weight basis. These results suggest that bagasse decreases the flux through some pathways of hepatic lipogenesis when mice are given high-sucrose diets. PMID:2998453

  10. Lactic acid bacterial symbionts in honeybees - an unknown key to honey's antimicrobial and therapeutic activities.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Tobias C; Butler, Eile; Markowicz, Pawel; Lindholm, Christina; Larsson, Lennart; Vásquez, Alejandra

    2014-09-01

    Could honeybees' most valuable contribution to mankind besides pollination services be alternative tools against infections? Today, due to the emerging antibiotic-resistant pathogens, we are facing a new era of searching for alternative tools against infections. Natural products such as honey have been applied against human's infections for millennia without sufficient scientific evidence. A unique lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota was discovered by us, which is in symbiosis with honeybees and present in large amounts in fresh honey across the world. This work investigates if the LAB symbionts are the source to the unknown factors contributing to honey's properties. Hence, we tested the LAB against severe wound pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) among others. We demonstrate a strong antimicrobial activity from each symbiont and a synergistic effect, which counteracted all the tested pathogens. The mechanisms of action are partly shown by elucidating the production of active compounds such as proteins, fatty acids, anaesthetics, organic acids, volatiles and hydrogen peroxide. We show that the symbionts produce a myriad of active compounds that remain in variable amounts in mature honey. Further studies are now required to investigate if these symbionts have a potential in clinical applications as alternative tools against topical human and animal infections. PMID:25195876

  11. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Leu3 protein activates expression of GDH1, a key gene in nitrogen assimilation.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Y; Cooper, T G; Kohlhaw, G B

    1995-01-01

    The Leu3 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been shown to be a transcriptional regulator of genes encoding enzymes of the branched-chain amino acid biosynthetic pathways. Leu3 binds to upstream activating sequences (UASLEU) found in the promoters of LEU1, LEU2, LEU4, ILV2, and ILV5. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that activation by Leu3 requires the presence of alpha-isopropylmalate. In at least one case (LEU2), Leu3 actually represses basal-level transcription when alpha-isopropylmalate is absent. Following identification of a UASLEU-homologous sequence in the promoter of GDH1, the gene encoding NADP(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase, we demonstrate that Leu3 specifically interacts with this UASLEU element. We then show that Leu3 is required for full activation of the GDH1 gene. First, the expression of a GDH1-lacZ fusion gene is three- to sixfold lower in a strain lacking the LEU3 gene than in an isogenic LEU3+ strain. Expression is restored to near-normal levels when the leu3 deletion cells are transformed with a LEU3-bearing plasmid. Second, a significant decrease in GDH1-lacZ expression is also seen when the UASLEU of the GDH1-lacZ construct is made nonfunctional by mutation. Third, the steady-state level of GDH1 mRNA decreases about threefold in leu3 null cells. The decrease in GDH1 expression in leu3 null cells is reflected in a diminished specific activity of NADP(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase. We also demonstrate that the level of GDH1-lacZ expression correlates with the cells' ability to generate alpha-isopropylmalate and is lowest in cells unable to produce alpha-isopropylmalate. We conclude that GDH1, which plays an important role in the assimilation of ammonia in yeast cells, is, in part, activated by a Leu3-alpha-isopropylmalate complex. This conclusion suggests that Leu3 participates in transcriptional regulation beyond the branched-chain amino acid biosynthetic pathways. PMID:7799961

  12. HrcT Is a Key Component of the Type III Secretion System in Xanthomonas spp. and Also Regulates the Expression of the Key hrp Transcriptional Activator HrpX

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Yang; Zou, Li-Fang; Xue, Xiao-Bo; Cai, Lu-Lu; Ma, Wen-Xiu; Xiong, Li; Ji, Zhi-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS), encoded by hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) genes in Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacteria, delivers repertoires of T3SS effectors (T3SEs) into plant cells to trigger the hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost or resistant-host plants and promote pathogenicity in susceptible plants. The expression of hrp genes in Xanthomonas is regulated by two key regulatory proteins, HrpG and HrpX. However, the interactions between hrp gene products in directing T3SE secretion are largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that HrcT of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola functions as a T3SS component and positively regulates the expression of hrpX. Transcription of hrcT occurs via two distinct promoters; one (T1) is with the hrpB operon and the second (T3) within hrpB7 Via either promoter T1 or T3, the defect in Hrp phenotype by hrcT deletion was corrected in the presence of hrcT only from Xanthomonas species but not from other phytopathogenic bacteria. An N-terminally truncated HrcT was able to bind the hrpX promoter and activate the expression of hrpX, supporting that HrcT is a positive regulator of hrpX. A revised model showing the regulatory interactions between HrcT, HrpX, and HrpG is proposed. PMID:24747909

  13. Activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is a key physiological determinant of thermotolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Coote, P J; Jones, M V; Seymour, I J; Rowe, D L; Ferdinando, D P; McArthur, A J; Cole, M B

    1994-08-01

    The role of membrane integrity and the membrane ATPase in the mechanism of thermotolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. The resistance to lethal heat of a mutant strain with reduced expression of the membrane ATPase was significantly less than that of the wild-type parent. However, prior exposure to sub-lethal temperatures resulted in the induction of similar levels of thermotolerance in the mutant compared to the parent strain, suggesting that the mechanism of sub-lethal heat-induced thermotolerance is independent of ATPase activity. Supporting this, exposure to sub-lethal heat stress did not result in increased levels of glucose-induced acid efflux at lethal temperatures and there was little correlation between levels of acid efflux and levels of heat resistance. ATPase activity in crude membrane preparations from sub-lethally heat-stressed cells was similar to that in preparations from unstressed cells. Study of net acid flux during heating revealed that pre-stressed cells were able to protect the proton gradient for longer. This may confer an 'advantage' to these cells that results in increased thermotolerance. This was supported by the observation that prior exposure to sub-lethal heat resulted in a transient protection against the large increase in membrane permeability that occurs at lethal temperatures. However, no protection against the large drop in intracellular pH was detected. Sub-lethal heat-induced protection of membrane integrity also occurred to the same extent in the reduced-expression membrane ATPase mutant, further implying that the mechanism of induced thermotolerance is independent of ATPase activity. To conclude, although the membrane ATPase is essential for basal heat resistance, thermotolerance induced by prior exposure to stress is largely conferred by a mechanism that is independent of the enzyme. PMID:7921241

  14. Oxidative stress and hepatic stellate cell activation are key events in arsenic induced liver fibrosis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatak, Subhadip; Biswas, Ayan; Dhali, Gopal Krishna; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Boyer, James L.; Santra, Amal

    2011-02-15

    Arsenic is an environmental toxicant and carcinogen. Exposure to arsenic is associated with development of liver fibrosis and portal hypertension through ill defined mechanisms. We evaluated hepatic fibrogenesis after long term arsenic exposure in a murine model. BALB/c mice were exposed to arsenic by daily gavages of 6 {mu}g/gm body weight for 1 year and were evaluated for markers of hepatic oxidative stress and fibrosis, as well as pro-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic and pro-fibrogenic factors at 9 and 12 months. Hepatic NADPH oxidase activity progressively increased in arsenic exposure with concomitant development of hepatic oxidative stress. Hepatic steatosis with occasional collection of mononuclear inflammatory cells and mild portal fibrosis were the predominant liver lesion observed after 9 months of arsenic exposure, while at 12 months, the changes included mild hepatic steatosis, inflammation, necrosis and significant fibrosis in periportal areas. The pathologic changes in the liver were associated with markers of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation, matrix reorganization and fibrosis including {alpha}-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-{beta}1, PDGF-R{beta}, pro-inflammatory cytokines and enhanced expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and pro({alpha}) collagen type I. Moreover, pro-apoptotic protein Bax was dominantly expressed and Bcl-2 was down-regulated along with increased number of TUNEL positive hepatocytes in liver of arsenic exposed mice. Furthermore, HSCs activation due to increased hepatic oxidative stress observed after in vivo arsenic exposure was recapitulated in co-culture model of isolated HSCs and hepatocytes exposed to arsenic. These findings have implications not only for the understanding of the pathology of arsenic related liver fibrosis but also for the design of preventive strategies in chronic arsenicosis.

  15. Local Inflammation, Dissemination and Coalescence of Lesions Are Key for the Progression toward Active Tuberculosis: The Bubble Model.

    PubMed

    Prats, Clara; Vilaplana, Cristina; Valls, Joaquim; Marzo, Elena; Cardona, Pere-Joan; López, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of a tuberculosis (TB) infection toward active disease is driven by a combination of factors mostly related to the host response. The equilibrium between control of the bacillary load and the pathology generated is crucial as regards preventing the growth and proliferation of TB lesions. In addition, some experimental evidence suggests an important role of both local endogenous reinfection and the coalescence of neighboring lesions. Herein we propose a mathematical model that captures the essence of these factors by defining three hypotheses: (i) lesions grow logistically due to the inflammatory reaction; (ii) new lesions can appear as a result of extracellular bacilli or infected macrophages that escape from older lesions; and (iii) lesions can merge when they are close enough. This model was implemented in Matlab to simulate the dynamics of several lesions in a 3D space. It was also fitted to available microscopy data from infected C3HeB/FeJ mice, an animal model of active TB that reacts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with an exaggerated inflammatory response. The results of the simulations show the dynamics observed experimentally, namely an initial increase in the number of lesions followed by fluctuations, and an exponential increase in the mean area of the lesions. In addition, further analysis of experimental and simulation results show a strong coincidence of the area distributions of lesions at day 21, thereby highlighting the consistency of the model. Three simulation series removing each one of the hypothesis corroborate their essential role in the dynamics observed. These results demonstrate that three local factors, namely an exaggerated inflammatory response, an endogenous reinfection, and a coalescence of lesions, are needed in order to progress toward active TB. The failure of one of these factors stops induction of the disease. This mathematical model may be used as a basis for developing strategies to stop the progression of

  16. Local Inflammation, Dissemination and Coalescence of Lesions Are Key for the Progression toward Active Tuberculosis: The Bubble Model

    PubMed Central

    Prats, Clara; Vilaplana, Cristina; Valls, Joaquim; Marzo, Elena; Cardona, Pere-Joan; López, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of a tuberculosis (TB) infection toward active disease is driven by a combination of factors mostly related to the host response. The equilibrium between control of the bacillary load and the pathology generated is crucial as regards preventing the growth and proliferation of TB lesions. In addition, some experimental evidence suggests an important role of both local endogenous reinfection and the coalescence of neighboring lesions. Herein we propose a mathematical model that captures the essence of these factors by defining three hypotheses: (i) lesions grow logistically due to the inflammatory reaction; (ii) new lesions can appear as a result of extracellular bacilli or infected macrophages that escape from older lesions; and (iii) lesions can merge when they are close enough. This model was implemented in Matlab to simulate the dynamics of several lesions in a 3D space. It was also fitted to available microscopy data from infected C3HeB/FeJ mice, an animal model of active TB that reacts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with an exaggerated inflammatory response. The results of the simulations show the dynamics observed experimentally, namely an initial increase in the number of lesions followed by fluctuations, and an exponential increase in the mean area of the lesions. In addition, further analysis of experimental and simulation results show a strong coincidence of the area distributions of lesions at day 21, thereby highlighting the consistency of the model. Three simulation series removing each one of the hypothesis corroborate their essential role in the dynamics observed. These results demonstrate that three local factors, namely an exaggerated inflammatory response, an endogenous reinfection, and a coalescence of lesions, are needed in order to progress toward active TB. The failure of one of these factors stops induction of the disease. This mathematical model may be used as a basis for developing strategies to stop the progression of

  17. Behavioral Science in Video Games for Children’s Diet and Physical Activity Change: Key Research Needs

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-change procedures in video games, the mechanisms that account for changes obtained, and the groups in which these interventions work best. Such research will permit the optimal design of serious video games for diabetes and obesity prevention in the future. PMID:21527086

  18. Observing large-scale solar surface flows with GONG: Investigation of a key element in solar activity buildup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, John G.; Simon, George W.; Hathaway, David H.

    1996-01-01

    The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) solar telescope network has begun regular operations, and will provide continuous Doppler images of large-scale nearly-steady motions at the solar surface, primarily those due to supergranulation. Not only the Sun's well-known magnetic network, but also flux diffusion, dispersal, and concentration at the surface appear to be controlled by supergranulation. Through such magnetoconvective interactions, magnetic stresses develop, leading to solar activity. We show a Doppler movie made from a 45.5 hr time series obtained 1995 May 9-10 using data from three of the six GONG sites (Learmonth, Tenerife, Tucson), to demonstrate the capability of this system.

  19. Recalling taboo and nontaboo words.

    PubMed

    Jay, Timothy; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; King, Krista

    2008-01-01

    People remember emotional and taboo words better than neutral words. It is well known that words that are processed at a deep (i.e., semantic) level are recalled better than words processed at a shallow (i.e., purely visual) level. To determine how depth of processing influences recall of emotional and taboo words, a levels of processing paradigm was used. Whether this effect holds for emotional and taboo words has not been previously investigated. Two experiments demonstrated that taboo and emotional words benefit less from deep processing than do neutral words. This is consistent with the proposal that memories for taboo and emotional words are a function of the arousal level they evoke, even under shallow encoding conditions. Recall was higher for taboo words, even when taboo words were cued to be recalled after neutral and emotional words. The superiority of taboo word recall is consistent with cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging research. PMID:18437803

  20. Polarization: A Key Difference between Man-made and Natural Electromagnetic Fields, in regard to Biological Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J.; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L.

    2015-10-01

    In the present study we analyze the role of polarization in the biological activity of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). All types of man-made EMFs/EMR - in contrast to natural EMFs/EMR - are polarized. Polarized EMFs/EMR can have increased biological activity, due to: 1) Ability to produce constructive interference effects and amplify their intensities at many locations. 2) Ability to force all charged/polar molecules and especially free ions within and around all living cells to oscillate on parallel planes and in phase with the applied polarized field. Such ionic forced-oscillations exert additive electrostatic forces on the sensors of cell membrane electro-sensitive ion channels, resulting in their irregular gating and consequent disruption of the cell’s electrochemical balance. These features render man-made EMFs/EMR more bioactive than natural non-ionizing EMFs/EMR. This explains the increasing number of biological effects discovered during the past few decades to be induced by man-made EMFs, in contrast to natural EMFs in the terrestrial environment which have always been present throughout evolution, although human exposure to the latter ones is normally of significantly higher intensities/energy and longer durations. Thus, polarization seems to be a trigger that significantly increases the probability for the initiation of biological/health effects.

  1. Polarization: A Key Difference between Man-made and Natural Electromagnetic Fields, in regard to Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J.; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we analyze the role of polarization in the biological activity of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). All types of man-made EMFs/EMR - in contrast to natural EMFs/EMR - are polarized. Polarized EMFs/EMR can have increased biological activity, due to: 1) Ability to produce constructive interference effects and amplify their intensities at many locations. 2) Ability to force all charged/polar molecules and especially free ions within and around all living cells to oscillate on parallel planes and in phase with the applied polarized field. Such ionic forced-oscillations exert additive electrostatic forces on the sensors of cell membrane electro-sensitive ion channels, resulting in their irregular gating and consequent disruption of the cell’s electrochemical balance. These features render man-made EMFs/EMR more bioactive than natural non-ionizing EMFs/EMR. This explains the increasing number of biological effects discovered during the past few decades to be induced by man-made EMFs, in contrast to natural EMFs in the terrestrial environment which have always been present throughout evolution, although human exposure to the latter ones is normally of significantly higher intensities/energy and longer durations. Thus, polarization seems to be a trigger that significantly increases the probability for the initiation of biological/health effects. PMID:26456585

  2. Activation of RARα induces autophagy in SKBR3 breast cancer cells and depletion of key autophagy genes enhances ATRA toxicity.

    PubMed

    Brigger, D; Schläfli, A M; Garattini, E; Tschan, M P

    2015-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a pan-retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonist, is, along with other retinoids, a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of a variety of solid tumors. On the one hand, preclinical studies have shown promising anticancer effects of ATRA in breast cancer; on the other hand, resistances occurred. Autophagy is a cellular recycling process that allows the degradation of bulk cellular contents. Tumor cells may take advantage of autophagy to cope with stress caused by anticancer drugs. We therefore wondered if autophagy is activated by ATRA in mammary tumor cells and if modulation of autophagy might be a potential novel treatment strategy. Indeed, ATRA induces autophagic flux in ATRA-sensitive but not in ATRA-resistant human breast cancer cells. Moreover, using different RAR agonists as well as RARα-knockdown breast cancer cells, we demonstrate that autophagy is dependent on RARα activation. Interestingly, inhibition of autophagy in breast cancer cells by either genetic or pharmacological approaches resulted in significantly increased apoptosis under ATRA treatment and attenuated epithelial differentiation. In summary, our findings demonstrate that ATRA-induced autophagy is mediated by RARα in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy results in enhanced apoptosis. This points to a potential novel treatment strategy for a selected group of breast cancer patients where ATRA and autophagy inhibitors are applied simultaneously. PMID:26313912

  3. Activation of RARα induces autophagy in SKBR3 breast cancer cells and depletion of key autophagy genes enhances ATRA toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brigger, D; Schläfli, A M; Garattini, E; Tschan, M P

    2015-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a pan-retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonist, is, along with other retinoids, a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of a variety of solid tumors. On the one hand, preclinical studies have shown promising anticancer effects of ATRA in breast cancer; on the other hand, resistances occurred. Autophagy is a cellular recycling process that allows the degradation of bulk cellular contents. Tumor cells may take advantage of autophagy to cope with stress caused by anticancer drugs. We therefore wondered if autophagy is activated by ATRA in mammary tumor cells and if modulation of autophagy might be a potential novel treatment strategy. Indeed, ATRA induces autophagic flux in ATRA-sensitive but not in ATRA-resistant human breast cancer cells. Moreover, using different RAR agonists as well as RARα-knockdown breast cancer cells, we demonstrate that autophagy is dependent on RARα activation. Interestingly, inhibition of autophagy in breast cancer cells by either genetic or pharmacological approaches resulted in significantly increased apoptosis under ATRA treatment and attenuated epithelial differentiation. In summary, our findings demonstrate that ATRA-induced autophagy is mediated by RARα in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy results in enhanced apoptosis. This points to a potential novel treatment strategy for a selected group of breast cancer patients where ATRA and autophagy inhibitors are applied simultaneously. PMID:26313912

  4. Photochemical activity of a key donor-acceptor complex can drive stereoselective catalytic α-alkylation of aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arceo, Elena; Jurberg, Igor D.; Álvarez-Fernández, Ana; Melchiorre, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Asymmetric catalytic variants of sunlight-driven photochemical processes hold extraordinary potential for the sustainable preparation of chiral molecules. However, the involvement of short-lived electronically excited states inherent to any photochemical reaction makes it challenging for a chiral catalyst to dictate the stereochemistry of the products. Here, we report that readily available chiral organic catalysts, with well-known utility in thermal asymmetric processes, can also confer a high level of stereocontrol in synthetically relevant intermolecular carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions driven by visible light. A unique mechanism of catalysis is proposed, wherein the catalyst is involved actively in both the photochemical activation of the substrates (by inducing the transient formation of chiral electron donor-acceptor complexes) and the stereoselectivity-defining event. We use this approach to enable transformations that are extremely difficult under thermal conditions, such as the asymmetric α-alkylation of aldehydes with alkyl halides, the formation of all-carbon quaternary stereocentres and the control of remote stereochemistry.

  5. Polarization: A Key Difference between Man-made and Natural Electromagnetic Fields, in regard to Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we analyze the role of polarization in the biological activity of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). All types of man-made EMFs/EMR - in contrast to natural EMFs/EMR - are polarized. Polarized EMFs/EMR can have increased biological activity, due to: 1) Ability to produce constructive interference effects and amplify their intensities at many locations. 2) Ability to force all charged/polar molecules and especially free ions within and around all living cells to oscillate on parallel planes and in phase with the applied polarized field. Such ionic forced-oscillations exert additive electrostatic forces on the sensors of cell membrane electro-sensitive ion channels, resulting in their irregular gating and consequent disruption of the cell's electrochemical balance. These features render man-made EMFs/EMR more bioactive than natural non-ionizing EMFs/EMR. This explains the increasing number of biological effects discovered during the past few decades to be induced by man-made EMFs, in contrast to natural EMFs in the terrestrial environment which have always been present throughout evolution, although human exposure to the latter ones is normally of significantly higher intensities/energy and longer durations. Thus, polarization seems to be a trigger that significantly increases the probability for the initiation of biological/health effects. PMID:26456585

  6. Key Beliefs for Targeted Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children: Analyzing Data from an Extended Version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger-Gravel, A.; Godin, G.

    2010-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children, a better understanding of physical activity behaviour is an important step in intervention planning. This study, based on the theory of planned behaviour, was conducted among 313 fifth graders and their parents. Children completed a computer-based questionnaire to evaluate theoretical constructs and behaviour. Additional information was obtained from parents by means of a questionnaire. Correlates of children's physical activity were intention and self-identity. Determinants of intention were self-efficacy, self-identity, and attitude. Parental variables were mediated through cognitions. Among girls, practicing sedentary activities was an additional negative determinant of intention. Key beliefs of boys and girls were related to time management and difficulties associated with physical activity. For girls, social identification as an active girl was another important belief related to positive intention. This study provides theory-based information for the development of more effective interventions aimed at promoting physical activity among children. PMID:20652005

  7. Cooperative hydration effect causes thermal unfolding of proteins and water activity plays a key role in protein stability in solutions.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Osato; Dozen, Michiko; Hirota, Kaede

    2016-08-01

    The protein unfolding process observed in a narrow temperature range was clearly explained by evaluating the small difference in the enthalpy of hydrogen-bonding between amino acid residues and the hydration of amino acid residue separately. In aqueous solutions, the effect of cosolute on the protein stability is primarily dependent on water activity, aw, the role of which has been long neglected in the literature. The effect of aw on protein stability works as a power law so that a small change in aw is amplified substantially through the cooperative hydration effect. In the present approach, the role of hydrophobic interaction stands behind. This affects protein stability indirectly through the change in solution structure caused by the existence of cosolute. PMID:26896315

  8. NETosis and lack of DNase activity are key factors in Echis carinatus venom-induced tissue destruction

    PubMed Central

    Katkar, Gajanan D.; Sundaram, Mahalingam S.; NaveenKumar, Somanathapura K.; Swethakumar, Basavarajaiah; Sharma, Rachana D.; Paul, Manoj; Vishalakshi, Gopalapura J.; Devaraja, Sannaningaiah; Girish, Kesturu S.; Kemparaju, Kempaiah

    2016-01-01

    Indian Echis carinatus bite causes sustained tissue destruction at the bite site. Neutrophils, the major leukocytes in the early defence process, accumulate at the bite site. Here we show that E. carinatus venom induces neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. The NETs block the blood vessels and entrap the venom toxins at the injection site, promoting tissue destruction. The stability of NETs is attributed to the lack of NETs-degrading DNase activity in E. carinatus venom. In a mouse tail model, mice co-injected with venom and DNase 1, and neutropenic mice injected with the venom, do not develop NETs, venom accumulation and tissue destruction at the injected site. Strikingly, venom-induced mice tail tissue destruction is also prevented by the subsequent injection of DNase 1. Thus, our study suggests that DNase 1 treatment may have a therapeutic potential for preventing the tissue destruction caused by snake venom. PMID:27093631

  9. NETosis and lack of DNase activity are key factors in Echis carinatus venom-induced tissue destruction.

    PubMed

    Katkar, Gajanan D; Sundaram, Mahalingam S; NaveenKumar, Somanathapura K; Swethakumar, Basavarajaiah; Sharma, Rachana D; Paul, Manoj; Vishalakshi, Gopalapura J; Devaraja, Sannaningaiah; Girish, Kesturu S; Kemparaju, Kempaiah

    2016-01-01

    Indian Echis carinatus bite causes sustained tissue destruction at the bite site. Neutrophils, the major leukocytes in the early defence process, accumulate at the bite site. Here we show that E. carinatus venom induces neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. The NETs block the blood vessels and entrap the venom toxins at the injection site, promoting tissue destruction. The stability of NETs is attributed to the lack of NETs-degrading DNase activity in E. carinatus venom. In a mouse tail model, mice co-injected with venom and DNase 1, and neutropenic mice injected with the venom, do not develop NETs, venom accumulation and tissue destruction at the injected site. Strikingly, venom-induced mice tail tissue destruction is also prevented by the subsequent injection of DNase 1. Thus, our study suggests that DNase 1 treatment may have a therapeutic potential for preventing the tissue destruction caused by snake venom. PMID:27093631

  10. A key parameter on the adsorption of diluted aniline solutions with activated carbons: The surface oxygen content.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Beatrice; Ferrer, Nabí; Sempere, Julià; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael

    2016-11-01

    A total of 11 different commercial activated carbons (AC) with well characterized textural properties and oxygen surface content were tested as adsorbents for the removal of aniline as a target water pollutant. The maximum adsorption capacity of aniline for the studied AC was from 138.9 to 257.9 mg g(-1) at 296.15 K and it was observed to be strongly related to the textural properties of the AC, mainly with the BET surface area and the micropore volume. It was not observed any influence of the oxygen surface content of the AC on the maximum adsorption capacity. However, it was found that at low aniline aqueous concentration, the presence of oxygen surface groups plays a dominant role during the adsorption. A high concentration of oxygen surface groups, mainly carboxylic and phenolic groups, decreases the aniline adsorption regardless of the surface area of the AC. PMID:27497348

  11. The Slow Developmental Time Course of Real-Time Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigler, Hannah; Farris-Trimble, Ashley; Greiner, Lea; Walker, Jessica; Tomblin, J. Bruce; McMurray, Bob

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental time course of spoken word recognition in older children using eye tracking to assess how the real-time processing dynamics of word recognition change over development. We found that 9-year-olds were slower to activate the target words and showed more early competition from competitor words than…

  12. IGF-I activity may be a key determinant of stroke risk--a cautionary lesson for vegans.

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    2003-09-01

    IGF-I acts on vascular endothelium to activate nitric oxide synthase, thereby promoting vascular health; there is reason to believe that this protection is especially crucial to the cerebral vasculature, helping to ward off thrombotic strokes. IGF-I may also promote the structural integrity of cerebral arteries, thereby offering protection from hemorrhagic stroke. These considerations may help to explain why tallness is associated with low stroke risk, whereas growth hormone deficiency increases stroke risk--and why age-adjusted stroke mortality has been exceptionally high in rural Asians eating quasi-vegan diets, but has been declining steadily in Asia as diets have become progressively higher in animal products. There is good reason to suspect that low-fat vegan diets tend to down-regulate systemic IGF-I activity; this effect would be expected to increase stroke risk in vegans. Furthermore, epidemiology suggests that low serum cholesterol, and possibly also a low dietary intake of saturated fat--both characteristic of those adopting low-fat vegan diets--may also increase stroke risk. Vegans are thus well advised to adopt practical countermeasures to minimize stroke risk--the most definitive of which may be salt restriction. A high potassium intake, aerobic exercise training, whole grains, moderate alcohol consumption, low-dose aspirin, statin or policosanol therapy, green tea, and supplementation with fish oil, taurine, arginine, and B vitamins--as well as pharmacotherapy of hypertension if warranted--are other practical measures for lowering stroke risk. Although low-fat vegan diets may markedly reduce risk for coronary disease, diabetes, and many common types of cancer, an increased risk for stroke may represent an 'Achilles heel'. Nonetheless, vegans have the potential to achieve a truly exceptional 'healthspan' if they face this problem forthrightly by restricting salt intake and taking other practical measures that promote cerebrovascular health. PMID

  13. Statistical Word Learning at Scale: The Baby's View Is Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurovsky, Daniel; Smith, Linda B.; Yu, Chen

    2013-01-01

    A key question in early word learning is how children cope with the uncertainty in natural naming events. One potential mechanism for uncertainty reduction is cross-situational word learning--tracking word/object co-occurrence statistics across naming events. But empirical and computational analyses of cross-situational learning have made strong…

  14. NLRP3 inflammasome activation by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species plays a key role in long-term cognitive impairment induced by paraquat exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liuji; Na, Ren; Boldt, Erin; Ran, Qitao

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to environmental toxins such as pesticides is implicated in increasing Alzheimer's disease risk. In this study, we investigated the long-term effects of paraquat exposure on cognition of Alzheimer's disease animal model APP/PS1 mice and wild-type (WT) mice. Our results showed that APP/PS1 mice had exacerbated cognition impairment and elevated Aβ levels at 5 months after paraquat exposure, and that WT mice had cognition impairment at 5 and 16 months after paraquat exposure. In addition, increased mitochondrial oxidative stress and augmented brain inflammation were observed in both paraquat-exposed APP/PS1 mice and WT mice. Interestingly, activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, which triggers inflammation in response to mitochondrial stress, was enhanced in paraquat-exposed mice. Moreover, transgenic mice overexpressing Prdx3, a key enzyme in detoxifying mitochondrial H2O2, had suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation, reduced brain inflammation, and attenuated cognition impairment after paraquat exposure. Together, our results indicate that NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species plays a key role in mediating paraquat-induced long-term cognition decline by elevating brain inflammation. PMID:26119225

  15. The Nisi Fault as a key structure for understanding the active deformation of the NW Peloponnese, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zygouri, V.; Koukouvelas, I. K.; Kokkalas, S.; Xypolias, P.; Papadopoulos, G. A.

    2015-05-01

    The previously unknown Nisi Fault in NW Peloponnese was ruptured during the 2008 Movri Mountain earthquake attaining a maximum offset of 25 cm. The fault is interpreted as a branch of a flower structure above a blind strike-slip fault. We investigate the Nisi Fault seismotectonic evolution using morphotectonic analysis in order to determine whether the landscape is affected by tectonic forcing and paleoseismology to determine earthquake recurrence interval and fault slip rates. We applied several geomorphic indices, such as the asymmetry factor (AF), the stream length-gradient index (SL), the valley floor width to valley height ratio (Vf), the mountain-front sinuosity (Smf), the drainage basin shape (Bs) and the hypsometric curve (Hc), in four large drainage basins of the study area. The results show that fault-related vertical motions and the associated tilting influenced the drainage geometry and the landscape development. Values of stream-gradient indices (SL) are relatively high close to the fault trace. Mountain-front sinuosity (Smf) mean values along the fault zones range from 1.12 to 1.23. Valley floor width to valley height ratios (Vf) mean values along the studied fault range between 0.21 and 2.50. Drainage basin shape (BS) mean values along the fault range from 1.04 to 3.72. Lateral fault growth was likely achieved by propagation primarily towards north-northwestward. The paleoseismic history of the fault, investigated by a trench and 14C dating of seven samples, indicates two morphogenic earthquakes in the last 1 kyr. Therefore, we suggest that the Nisi Fault displays a slip rate on the order of 1 mm/yr and a recurrence interval ranging between 300 and 600 years. From a seismotectonic point of view, the fault is classified as high activity rate, with abundant but discontinuous geomorphic evidence of its activity. Other similar faults affecting the western Peloponnese can be envisaged with a similar procedure. Additionally, the seismic history and surface

  16. Late Quaternary reef growth history of Les Saintes submarine plateau: a key to constrain active faulting kinematics in Guadeloupe (FWI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, F.; Feuillet, N.; Deplus, C.; Cabioch, G.; Tapponnier, P.; LeBrun, J.; Bazin, S.; Beauducel, F.; Boudon, G.; Le Friant, A.; De Min, L.; Melezan, D.

    2012-12-01

    hazard. Joint analysis of the aftershocks sequence and the fault map provide a good image of the fault system recent activity. Finally, we deduced fault kinematics with respect to Holocene reef demise timing, and obtained a mean slip rate of several tenth of mm/yr on each fault, comparable to the slip rate of the near active Morne-Piton fault. Thus, the fault system could generate a Mw 6 earthquake every 250 yrs.

  17. Key role of the low molecular size fraction of soil humic acids for fluorescence and photoinductive activity.

    PubMed

    Richard, C; Trubetskaya, O; Trubetskoj, O; Reznikova, O; Afanas'eva, G; Aguer, J P; Guyot, G

    2004-04-01

    The IHSS soil humic acid (HA) standard and two HAs from soils of very different origin (Chernozem and Ranker) were fractionated by tandem size-exclusion chromatography-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. From each HA, three fractions with different molecular sizes (MSs) and electrophoretic mobilities were obtained and investigated for their fluorescence properties and abilityto photoinduce the transformation of 2,4,6-trimethylphenol and herbicide fenuron. Regardless of the source of the HA, the two high MS fractions were found to be very weakly fluorescent. They photoinduced the degradations of fenuron and 2,4,6-trimethylphenol less efficiently than the bulk HA (10-50-fold and 1.4-5.3-fold, respectively). In contrast, the low MS fraction was proved to be fluorescent and to photoinduce the transformation of probes as least as efficiently than the bulk HA. These results show that (i) most of fluorophores and a great part of photoinductive chromophores are located in the low MS fractions of soil HAs and (ii) this distribution of photochemically active constituents may be characteristic across broad soil types. PMID:15112806

  18. Retrieving Images Verbally: No More Key Words and Other Heresies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Jocelyn Penny

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development of a system to retrieve images for an international project that is producing a pictorial dictionary of classical mythology, the Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae. Applications to other types of information are discussed, two classification systems for Art History are described, and design principles for…

  19. Key Words in Instruction. The Student Information Scientist, Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Information literacy standards for student learning, indicators for student performance, and hundreds of collaborative lesson plans around the country give some indication of the skills students are expected to master as effective and efficient users of information. Hopefully the goal is that all involved in information literacy education become…

  20. The Last Word

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Go look it up. That is what students who have questions about words are often told. But where should they go? Depending on the question, some resources are better than others, and some are not very good at all, no matter what the question. Finding the most helpful word resource for students can be a challenge, especially now that search engines…

  1. Words That Encourage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenbach, Brooke B.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers and education leaders are aware that their words can have a significant effect on their students. Words can build them up and encourage them to work hard or tear them down and lead them to despair. The language used in teacher evaluations is no different, says teacher Brooke Eisenbach. In this article, she shares stories of colleagues…

  2. Uiavy sobi: uchnivs'ski zoshyt [and] vidpovidi do uchnivs'koho zoshyta (Just Imagine: Activity Book [and] Answer Key to Student Activity Book). Collage 3: A Ukrainian Language Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boruszczak, Bohdan, Comp.

    This workbook is one of four intermediate- to advanced-level activity books in a series for teaching the Ukrainian language to both native speakers and second language learners. It offers a selection of exercises, vocabulary builders, dialogs, and writing exercises for language skill development. A teacher's answer key to accompany the activity…

  3. I smikh, i plach: uchnivs'ski zoshyt [and] vidpovidi do uchnivs'koho zoshyta (Laughter and Tears: Activity Book [and] Answer Key to Student Activity Book). Collage 3: A Ukrainian Language Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boruszczak, Bohdan, Comp.

    This workbook is one of four intermediate- to advanced-level activity books in a series for teaching the Ukrainian language to both native speakers and second language learners. It offers a selection of exercises, vocabulary builders, dialogs, and writing exercises for language skill development. A teacher's answer key to accompany the activity…

  4. Tsikave: uchnivs'ski zoshyt [and] vidpovidi do uchnivs'koho zoshyta (It's Interesting: Activity Book [and] Answer Key to Student Activity Book). Collage 3: A Ukrainian Language Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boruszczak, Bohdan, Comp.

    This workbook is one of four intermediate- to advanced-level activity books in a series for teaching the Ukrainian language to both native speakers and second language learners. It offers a selection of exercises, vocabulary builders, dialogs, and writing exercises for language skill development. A teacher's answer key to accompany the activity…

  5. Dva shliakhy: uchnivs'ski zoshyt [and] vidpovidi do uchnivs'koho zoshyta (Two Paths: Student Activity Book [and] Answer Key to Student Activity Book). Collage 3: A Ukrainian Language Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boruszczak, Bohdan, Comp.

    This workbook is one of four intermediate- to advanced-level activity books in a series for teaching the Ukrainian language to both native speakers and second language learners. It offers a selection of exercises, vocabulary builders, dialogs, and writing exercises for language skill development. A teacher's answer key to accompany the activity…

  6. Goodnight book: sleep consolidation improves word learning via storybooks

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sophie E.; Horst, Jessica S.

    2014-01-01

    Reading the same storybooks repeatedly helps preschool children learn words. In addition, sleeping shortly after learning also facilitates memory consolidation and aids learning in older children and adults. The current study explored how sleep promotes word learning in preschool children using a shared storybook reading task. Children were either read the same story repeatedly or different stories and either napped after the stories or remained awake. Children's word retention were tested 2.5 h later, 24 h later, and 7 days later. Results demonstrate strong, persistent effects for both repeated readings and sleep consolidation on young children's word learning. A key finding is that children who read different stories before napping learned words as well as children who had the advantage of hearing the same story. In contrast, children who read different stories and remained awake never caught up to their peers on later word learning tests. Implications for educational practices are discussed. PMID:24624111

  7. The Hubble Space Telescope Quasar Absorption Line Key Project. 10: Galactic H I 21 centimeter emission toward 143 quasars and active Galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockman, Felix J.; Savage, Blair D.

    1995-01-01

    Sensitive H I 21 cm emission line spectra have been measured for the directions to 143 quasars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) chosen from the observing lists for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Quasar Absorption Line Key Project. Narrow-band and wide-band data were obtained with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) 43 m radio telescope for each object. The narrow-band data have a velocity resolution of 1 km/s, extend from -220 to +170 km/s, and are corrected for stray 21 cm radiation. The wide-band data have a resolution of 4 km/s and extend from -1000 to +1000 km/s. The data are important for the interpretation of ultraviolet absorption lines near zero redshift in Key Project spectra. Twenty-two percent of the quasars lie behind Galactic high-velocity H I clouds with absolute value of V(sub LSR) greater than 100 km/s whose presence can increase the equivalent width of interstellar absorption lines significantly. This paper contains the emission spectra and measures of the H I velocities and column densities along the sight line to each quasar. We discuss how the measurements can be used to estimate the visual and ultraviolet extinction toward each quasar and to predict the approximate strength of the strong ultraviolet resonance lines of neutral gas species in the HST Key Project spectra.

  8. The large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel holds the key to the conundrum of familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Jo; Kang, Sun-Yang; Yi, Jin Woong; Kim, Seung-Min

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HOKPP) is an autosomal dominant channelopathy characterized by episodic attacks of muscle weakness and hypokalemia. Mutations in the calcium channel gene, CACNA1S, or the sodium channel gene, SCN4A, have been found to be responsible for HOKPP; however, the mechanism that causes hypokalemia remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of this mechanism by investigating the expression of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel genes in HOKPP patients. Methods We measured the intracellular calcium concentration with fura-2-acetoxymethyl ester in skeletal muscle cells of HOKPP patients and healthy individuals. We examined the mRNA and protein expression of KCa channel genes (KCNMA1, KCNN1, KCNN2, KCNN3, and KCNN4) in both cell types. Results Patient cells exhibited higher cytosolic calcium levels than normal cells. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the mRNA levels of the KCa channel genes did not significantly differ between patient and normal cells. However, western blot analysis showed that protein levels of the KCNMA1 gene, which encodes KCa1.1 channels (also called big potassium channels), were significantly lower in the membrane fraction and higher in the cytosolic fraction of patient cells than normal cells. When patient cells were exposed to 50 mM potassium buffer, which was used to induce depolarization, the altered subcellular distribution of BK channels remained unchanged. Conclusion These findings suggest a novel mechanism for the development of hypokalemia and paralysis in HOKPP and demonstrate a connection between disease-associated mutations in calcium/sodium channels and pathogenic changes in nonmutant potassium channels. PMID:25379045

  9. Root hairs play a key role in the endophytic colonization of olive roots by Pseudomonas spp. with biocontrol activity.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Pilar; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Maldonado-González, María Mercedes; Valderrama, Raquel; Barroso-Albarracín, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2011-08-01

    The use of indigenous bacterial root endophytes with biocontrol activity against soil-borne phytopathogens is an environmentally-friendly and ecologically-efficient action within an integrated disease management framework. The earliest steps of olive root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 and Pseudomonas putida PICP2, effective biocontrol agents (BCAs) against Verticillium wilt of olive (Olea europaea L.) caused by the fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb., are here described. A gnotobiotic study system using in vitro propagated olive plants, differential fluorescent-protein tagging of bacteria, and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis have been successfully used to examine olive roots-Pseudomonas spp. interactions at the single-cell level. In vivo simultaneous visualization of PICF7 and PICP2 cells on/in root tissues enabled to discard competition between the two bacterial strains during root colonization. Results demonstrated that both BCAs are able to endophytically colonized olive root tissues. Moreover, results suggest a pivotal role of root hairs in root colonization by both biocontrol Pseudomonas spp. However, colonization of root hairs appeared to be a highly specific event, and only a very low number of root hairs were effectively colonized by introduced bacteria. Strains PICF7 and PICP2 can simultaneously colonize the same root hair, demonstrating that early colonization of a given root hair by one strain did not hinder subsequent attachment and penetration by the other. Since many environmental factors can affect the number, anatomy, development, and physiology of root hairs, colonization competence and biocontrol effectiveness of BCAs may be greatly influenced by root hair's fitness. Finally, the in vitro study system here reported has shown to be a suitable tool to investigate colonization processes of woody plant roots by microorganisms with biocontrol potential. PMID:21347721

  10. The p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase is a key regulator of myelination and remyelination in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Chung, S-H; Biswas, S; Selvaraj, V; Liu, X-B; Sohn, J; Jiang, P; Chen, C; Chmilewsky, F; Marzban, H; Horiuchi, M; Pleasure, D E; Deng, W

    2015-01-01

    The p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is one of the serine/threonine kinases regulating a variety of biological processes, including cell-type specification, differentiation and migration. Previous in vitro studies using pharmacological inhibitors suggested that p38 MAPK is essential for oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and myelination. To investigate the specific roles of p38α MAPK in OL development and myelination in vivo, we generated p38α conditional knockout (CKO) mice under the PLP and nerve/glial antigen 2 (NG2) gene promoters, as these genes are specifically expressed in OL progenitor cells (OPCs). Our data revealed that myelin synthesis was completely inhibited in OLs differentiated from primary OPC cultures derived from the NG2 Cre-p38α CKO mouse brains. Although an in vivo myelination defect was not obvious after gross examination of these mice, electron microscopic analysis showed that the ultrastructure of myelin bundles was severely impaired. Moreover, the onset of myelination in the corpus callosum was delayed in the knockout mice compared with p38α fl/fl control mice. A delay in OL differentiation in the central nervous system was observed with concomitant downregulation in the expression of OPC- and OL-specific genes such as Olig1 and Zfp488 during early postnatal development. OPC proliferation was not affected during this time. These data indicate that p38α is a positive regulator of OL differentiation and myelination. Unexpectedly, we observed an opposite effect of p38α on remyelination in the cuprizone-induced demyelination model. The p38α CKO mice exhibited better remyelination capability compared with p38α fl/fl mice following demyelination. The opposing roles of p38α in myelination and remyelination could be due to a strong anti-inflammatory effect of p38α or a dual reciprocal regulatory action of p38α on myelin formation during development and on remyelination after demyelination. PMID:25950478

  11. We Are What We Eat! But Who Controls Our Choice? An Active Learning Project on Food & Nutrition with Activities for Key Stages 1, 2, 3, and 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Heather

    This activity book is designed to create awareness about all the issues attached to food supply and a healthy diet with factual information. Materials are provided for teachers to teach children about food in its entirety. The nine units include: (1) "Starting Activities: Sorting Foods and Factors Which Control Our Diet"; (2) "Food Likes and…

  12. Cognitive Activity and Hypothesis Formation During a Double Entendre Word Association Test as a Function of Locus of Control and Field Dependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefcourt, Herbert M.; And Others

    Awareness of the presence of sexual double entendres within a word association test was investigated with measures of response time, verbal content of responses, and videotaped facial expressions. Subjects characterized as internal-field independent were found to become aware earlier in the task, to test out their developing hypothesis about the…

  13. Morphological Family Size Effects in Young First and Second Language Learners: Evidence of Cross-Language Semantic Activation in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zeeuw, Marlies; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined to what extent young second language (L2) learners showed morphological family size effects in L2 word recognition and whether the effects were grade-level related. Turkish-Dutch bilingual children (L2) and Dutch (first language, L1) children from second, fourth, and sixth grade performed a Dutch lexical decision task on words…

  14. Comparative studies on the inhibitory activities of selected benzoic acid derivatives against secretory phospholipase A2, a key enzyme involved in the inflammatory pathway.

    PubMed

    Dileep, K V; Remya, C; Cerezo, J; Fassihi, A; Pérez-Sánchez, H; Sadasivan, C

    2015-07-01

    Inflammation is considered to be a key factor in major diseases like cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, etc. For the past few decades, pharmaceutical companies have explored new effective medications against inflammation. As a part of their detailed studies, many drug targets and drugs have been introduced against inflammation. In the present study, the inhibiting capacities of selected benzoic acid derivatives like gallic acid, vannilic acid, syringic acid and protocatechuic acid against secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), a major enzyme involved in the inflammatory pathway, have been investigated. The detailed in vitro, biophysical and in silico studies carried out on these benzoic acid derivatives revealed that all the selected compounds have a uniform mode of binding in the active site of sPLA2 and are inhibitory in micromolar concentrations. The study also focuses on the non-selective inhibitory activity of an NSAID, aspirin, against sPLA2. PMID:25927625

  15. (Un-)expected nocturnal activity in "Diurnal" Lemur catta supports cathemerality as one of the key adaptations of the lemurid radiation.

    PubMed

    Donati, Giuseppe; Santini, Luca; Razafindramanana, Josia; Boitani, Luigi; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    The ability to operate during the day and at night (i.e., cathemerality) is common among mammals but has rarely been identified in primates. Adaptive hypotheses assume that cathemerality represents a stable adaptation in primates, while nonadaptive hypotheses propose that it is the result of an evolutionary disequilibrium arising from human impacts on natural habitats. Madagascar offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of activity patterns as there we find a monophyletic primate radiation that shows nocturnal, diurnal, and cathemeral patterns. However, when and why cathemeral activity evolved in lemurs is the subject of intense debate. Thus far, this activity pattern has been regularly observed in only three lemurid genera but the actual number of lemur species exhibiting this activity is as yet unknown. Here we show that the ring-tailed lemur, Lemur catta, a species previously considered to be diurnal, can in fact be cathemeral in the wild. In neighboring but distinct forest areas these lemurs exhibited either mainly diurnal or cathemeral activity. We found that, as in other cathemeral lemurs, activity was entrained by photoperiod and masked by nocturnal luminosity. Our results confirm the relationship between transitional eye anatomy and physiology and 24-h activity, thus supporting the adaptive scenario. Also, on the basis of the most recent strepsirrhine phylogenetic reconstruction, using parsimony criterion, our findings suggest pushing back the emergence of cathemerality to stem lemurids. Flexible activity over 24-h could thus have been one of the key adaptations of the early lemurid radiation possibly driven by Madagascar's island ecology. PMID:23180596

  16. Exogenous ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) and phospho-ceramide analogue-1 (PCERA-1) regulate key macrophage activities via distinct receptors

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Sebastián; Ernst, Orna; Avni, Dorit; Athamna, Muhammad; Philosoph, Amir; Arana, Lide; Ouro, Alberto; Hoeferlin, L. Alexis; Meijler, Michael M.; Chalfant, Charles E.; Gómez-Muñoz, Antonio; Zor, Tsaffrir

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is an ensemble of tightly regulated steps, in which macrophages play an essential role. Previous reports showed that the natural sphingolipid ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) stimulates macrophages migration, while the synthetic C1P mimic, phospho-ceramide analogue-1 (PCERA-1), suppresses production of the key pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα and amplifies production of the key anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in LPS-stimulated macrophages, via one or more unidentified G-protein coupled receptors. We show that C1P stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages migration via the NFκB pathway and MCP-1 induction, while PCERA-1 neither mimicked nor antagonized these activities. Conversely, PCERA-1 synergistically elevated LPS-dependent IL-10 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages via the cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway, while C1P neither mimicked nor antagonized these activities. Interestingly, both compounds have the capacity to additively inhibit TNFα secretion; PCERA-1, but not C1P, suppressed LPS-induced TNFα expression in macrophages in a CREB-dependent manner, while C1P, but not PCERA-1, directly inhibited recombinant TNFα converting enzyme (TACE). Finally, PCERA-1 failed to interfere with binding of C1P to either the cell surface receptor or to TACE. These results thus indicate that the natural sphingolipid C1P and its synthetic analog PCERA-1 bind and activate distinct receptors expressed in RAW264.7 macrophages. Identification of these receptors will be instrumental for elucidation of novel activities of extra-cellular sphingolipids, and may pave the way for the design of new sphingolipid mimics for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, and pathologies which depend on cell migration, as in metastatic tumors. PMID:26656944

  17. Zinc-finger protein 91 plays a key role in LIGHT-induced activation of non-canonical NF-{kappa}B pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Hong Ri; Jin, Xuejun; Lee, Jung Joon

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} LIGHT induces ZFP91expression and nuclear translocation of p65, p52, and RelB in LT{beta}R signaling. {yields} ZFP91 knock-down abolishes DNA-binding activity of p52 and RelB but not of p65. {yields} ZFP91 regulates LIGHT-induced stabilization and activation of NIK. {yields} ZFP91 is required for the expression of non-canonical NF-{kappa}B target genes. -- Abstract: LIGHT is a member of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, and its function is mediated through lymphotoxin-{beta} receptor (LT{beta}R), which is known to play important roles in inflammatory and immune responses through activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling pathways. However, molecular mechanism of LT{beta}R ligation-induced NF-{kappa}B signaling remains incompletely understood. In this report we demonstrate that a novel zinc-finger protein 91 (ZFP91) is a critical regulator in LIGHT-induced activation of non-canonical NF-{kappa}B pathway. ZFP91 appears to be required for NF-{kappa}B2 (p100) processing to p52, nuclear translocation of p52 and RelB, and DNA-binding activity of NF-{kappa}B in LIGHT-induced activation of non-canonical NF-{kappa}B pathway. Furthermore, ZFP91 knock-down by RNA interference blocks the LIGHT-induced accumulation of NIK and p100 processing, as well as the expression of non-canonical NF-{kappa}B target genes. These data clearly indicate that ZFP91 is a key regulator in LIGHT-induced activation of non-canonical NF-{kappa}B pathway in LT{beta}R signaling.

  18. Hydathode trichomes actively secreting water from leaves play a key role in the physiology and evolution of root-parasitic rhinanthoid Orobanchaceae

    PubMed Central

    Světlíková, Petra; Hájek, Tomáš; Těšitel, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Root hemiparasites from the rhinanthoid clade of Orobanchaceae possess metabolically active glandular trichomes that have been suggested to function as hydathode trichomes actively secreting water, a process that may facilitate resource acquisition from the host plant’s root xylem. However, no direct evidence relating the trichomes to water secretion exists, and carbon budgets associated with this energy-demanding process have not been determined. Methods Macro- and microscopic observations of the leaves of hemiparasitic Rhinanthus alectorolophus were conducted and night-time gas exchange was measured. Correlations were examined among the intensity of guttation, respiration and transpiration, and analysis of these correlations allowed the carbon budget of the trichome activity to be quantified. We examined the intensity of guttation, respiration and transpiration, correlations among which indicate active water secretion. Key Results Guttation was observed on the leaves of 50 % of the young, non-flowering plants that were examined, and microscopic observations revealed water secretion from the glandular trichomes present on the abaxial leaf side. Night-time rates of respiration and transpiration and the presence of guttation drops were positively correlated, which is a clear indicator of hydathode trichome activity. Subsequent physiological measurements on older, flowering plants indicated neither intense guttation nor the presence of correlations, which suggests that the peak activity of hydathodes is in the juvenile stage. Conclusions This study provides the first unequivocal evidence for the physiological role of the hydathode trichomes in active water secretion in the rhinanthoid Orobanchaceae. Depending on the concentration of organic elements calculated to be in the host xylem sap, the direct effect of water secretion on carbon balance ranges from close to neutral to positive. However, it is likely to be positive in the xylem-only feeding

  19. Word centre is misperceived.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M H

    2000-01-01

    Normal readers were asked to mark the middle of visually presented words. They made systematic errors toward the left, indicating an overestimation of the length of the beginning of a word. The number of characters determines the size of this error. The bias extended to pseudowords, letter strings, and symbols, but not to blocks, dashes, and lines. Finally, the bias was sensitive to typographical errors but not to colour cuing. These findings suggest that special cognitive operations determine the perceived spatial extent of words. Implications for our understanding of perceptual and cognitive processes in reading are discussed. PMID:10889943

  20. Neural pattern similarity underlies the mnemonic advantages for living words.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiaoqian; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui

    2016-06-01

    It has been consistently shown that words representing living things are better remembered than words representing nonliving things, yet the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms have not been clearly elucidated. The present study used both univariate and multivariate pattern analyses to examine the hypotheses that living words are better remembered because (1) they draw more attention and/or (2) they share more overlapping semantic features. Subjects were asked to study a list of living and nonliving words during a semantic judgment task. An unexpected recognition test was administered 30 min later. We found that subjects recognized significantly more living words than nonliving words. Results supported the overlapping semantic feature hypothesis by showing that (a) semantic ratings showed greater semantic similarity for living words than for nonliving words, (b) there was also significantly greater neural global pattern similarity (nGPS) for living words than for nonliving words in the posterior portion of left parahippocampus (LpPHG), (c) the nGPS in the LpPHG reflected the rated semantic similarity, and also mediated the memory differences between two semantic categories, and (d) greater univariate activation was found for living words than for nonliving words in the left hippocampus (LHIP), which mediated the better memory performance for living words and might reflect greater semantic context binding. In contrast, although living words were processed faster and elicited a stronger activity in the dorsal attention network, these differences did not mediate the animacy effect in memory. Taken together, our results provide strong support to the overlapping semantic features hypothesis, and emphasize the important role of semantic organization in episodic memory encoding. PMID:27093349

  1. Sensory experience ratings (SERs) for 1,659 French words: Relationships with other psycholinguistic variables and visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Ferrand, Ludovic; Bugaïska, Aurélia

    2015-09-01

    We collected sensory experience ratings (SERs) for 1,659 French words in adults. Sensory experience for words is a recently introduced variable that corresponds to the degree to which words elicit sensory and perceptual experiences (Juhasz & Yap Behavior Research Methods, 45, 160-168, 2013; Juhasz, Yap, Dicke, Taylor, & Gullick Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 1683-1691, 2011). The relationships of the sensory experience norms with other psycholinguistic variables (e.g., imageability and age of acquisition) were analyzed. We also investigated the degree to which SER predicted performance in visual word recognition tasks (lexical decision, word naming, and progressive demasking). The analyses indicated that SER reliably predicted response times in lexical decision, but not in word naming or progressive demasking. The findings are discussed in relation to the status of SER, the role of semantic code activation in visual word recognition, and the embodied view of cognition. PMID:24993636

  2. Absence of effects of dietary wheat bran on the activities of some key enzymes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in mouse liver and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Stanley, J C; Lambadarios, J A; Newsholme, E A

    1986-03-01

    1. The effects of a 100 g/kg dietary substitution of wheat bran on the body-weight gain, food consumption and faecal dry weight of mice given a high-sucrose diet and on the activities of some key enzymes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue were studied. 2. Wheat bran had no effect on body-weight gain, food consumption or faecal dry weight. 3. Wheat bran had no effect on the activities of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.44), malate dehydrogenase (oxaloacetate-decarboxylating) (NADP+) (EC 1.1.1.40), ATP-citrate (pro-3S)-lyase (EC 4.1.3.8), pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11). The activity of hepatic 6-phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11) increased but only when expressed on a body-weight basis. 4. Wheat bran had no effect on the activities of adipose tissue glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase (oxaloacetate-decarboxylating) (NADP+), ATP-citrate (pro-3S)-lyase, hexokinase (EC 2.7.1.1), 6-phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase. 5. These results suggest that unlike guar gum and bagasse, wheat bran does not change the flux through some pathways of lipogenesis in liver and adipose tissue when mice are given high-sucrose diets. PMID:2823866

  3. Building Technologies Program Key Activities

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    The Building Technologies Program (BTP) employs a balanced approach to making buildings more energy efficient. The three pillars of our program, research and development (R&D), market stimulation, and building and equipment standards, help meet our strategic vision.

  4. Finding Words in a Language that Allows Words without Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Aissati, Abder; McQueen, James M.; Cutler, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Across many languages from unrelated families, spoken-word recognition is subject to a constraint whereby potential word candidates must contain a vowel. This constraint minimizes competition from embedded words (e.g., in English, disfavoring "win" in "twin" because "t" cannot be a word). However, the constraint would be counter-productive in…

  5. Word Superiority and Word Shape Effects in Beginning Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feitelson, Dina; Razel, Micha

    1984-01-01

    Examines the notion that words are sometimes perceived with greater ease than letters and that word shape sometimes plays a role in the perception of words. The data collected from 40 Israeli kindergarteners revealed that beginning readers found it easier to identify single letters than whole words, thus refuting the above notion. (Author/AS)

  6. NKG2D is a Key Receptor for Recognition of Bladder Cancer Cells by IL-2-Activated NK Cells and BCG Promotes NK Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    García-Cuesta, Eva María; López-Cobo, Sheila; Álvarez-Maestro, Mario; Esteso, Gloria; Romera-Cárdenas, Gema; Rey, Mercedes; Cassady-Cain, Robin L.; Linares, Ana; Valés-Gómez, Alejandro; Reyburn, Hugh Thomson; Martínez-Piñeiro, Luis; Valés-Gómez, Mar

    2015-01-01

    Intravesical instillation of bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) is used to treat superficial bladder cancer, either papillary tumors (after transurethral resection) or high-grade flat carcinomas (carcinoma in situ), reducing recurrence in about 70% of patients. Initially, BCG was proposed to work through an inflammatory response, mediated by phagocytic uptake of mycobacterial antigens and cytokine release. More recently, other immune effectors such as monocytes, natural killer (NK), and NKT cells have been suggested to play a role in this immune response. Here, we provide a comprehensive study of multiple bladder cancer cell lines as putative targets for immune cells and evaluated their recognition by NK cells in the presence and absence of BCG. We describe that different bladder cancer cells can express multiple activating and inhibitory ligands for NK cells. Recognition of bladder cancer cells depended mainly on NKG2D, with a contribution from NKp46. Surprisingly, exposure to BCG did not affect the immune phenotype of bladder cells nor increased NK cell recognition of purified IL-2-activated cell lines. However, NK cells were activated efficiently when BCG was included in mixed lymphocyte cultures, suggesting that NK activation after mycobacteria treatment requires the collaboration of various immune cells. We also analyzed the percentage of NK cells in peripheral blood of a cohort of bladder cancer patients treated with BCG. The total numbers of NK cells did not vary during treatment, indicating that a more detailed study of NK cell activation in the tumor site will be required to evaluate the response in each patient. PMID:26106390

  7. Does Temporal Integration Occur for Unrecognizable Words in Visual Crowding?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jifan; Lee, Chia-Lin; Li, Kuei-An; Tien, Yung-Hsuan; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Visual crowding—the inability to see an object when it is surrounded by flankers in the periphery—does not block semantic activation: unrecognizable words due to visual crowding still generated robust semantic priming in subsequent lexical decision tasks. Based on the previous finding, the current study further explored whether unrecognizable crowded words can be temporally integrated into a phrase. By showing one word at a time, we presented Chinese four-word idioms with either a congruent or incongruent ending word in order to examine whether the three preceding crowded words can be temporally integrated to form a semantic context so as to affect the processing of the ending word. Results from both behavioral (Experiment 1) and Event-Related Potential (Experiment 2 and 3) measures showed congruency effect in only the non-crowded condition, which does not support the existence of unconscious multi-word integration. Aside from four-word idioms, we also found that two-word (modifier + adjective combination) integration—the simplest kind of temporal semantic integration—did not occur in visual crowding (Experiment 4). Our findings suggest that integration of temporally separated words might require conscious awareness, at least under the timing conditions tested in the current study. PMID:26890366

  8. Does Temporal Integration Occur for Unrecognizable Words in Visual Crowding?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jifan; Lee, Chia-Lin; Li, Kuei-An; Tien, Yung-Hsuan; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Visual crowding-the inability to see an object when it is surrounded by flankers in the periphery-does not block semantic activation: unrecognizable words due to visual crowding still generated robust semantic priming in subsequent lexical decision tasks. Based on the previous finding, the current study further explored whether unrecognizable crowded words can be temporally integrated into a phrase. By showing one word at a time, we presented Chinese four-word idioms with either a congruent or incongruent ending word in order to examine whether the three preceding crowded words can be temporally integrated to form a semantic context so as to affect the processing of the ending word. Results from both behavioral (Experiment 1) and Event-Related Potential (Experiment 2 and 3) measures showed congruency effect in only the non-crowded condition, which does not support the existence of unconscious multi-word integration. Aside from four-word idioms, we also found that two-word (modifier + adjective combination) integration-the simplest kind of temporal semantic integration-did not occur in visual crowding (Experiment 4). Our findings suggest that integration of temporally separated words might require conscious awareness, at least under the timing conditions tested in the current study. PMID:26890366

  9. Identification of a key regulatory element for the basal activity of the human insulin-like growth factor II gene promoter P3.

    PubMed Central

    Rietveld, L E; Holthuizen, P E; Sussenbach, J S

    1997-01-01

    Transcription of the human insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) gene is under the control of four promoters (P1-P4) that are differentially active during growth and development. Promoter 3 (P3) is the most active promoter during fetal development as well as in most adult tissues. P3 is also the most active promoter in tumour tissues and cell lines expressing IGF-II. Transient transfections of HeLa and Hep3B cells with truncated promoter constructs revealed that the region between -289 and -183 relative to the transcription start site supports basal promoter activity in both cell lines. Footprint experiments showed that the region between positions -192 and -172 (P3-4) is the only element bound by nuclear proteins. P3-4 is bound by five proteins, of which three proteins (proteins 3, 4 and 5) bind specifically and are expressed at the same levels in HeLa and Hep3B cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and differential footprint experiments revealed the presence of two protein-binding regions within the P3-4 element. Proteins 4 and 5 bind box A (-193 to -188), whereas box B (-183 to -172) is bound by protein 3. From transcription experiments in vitro it can be concluded that Box A is essential for P3 activity. Box A is part of a region 11 dG residues long and is protected by proteins 4 and 5 that bind a contiguous set of six dG residues. DNA-binding of proteins 4 and 5 to box A requires the presence of Zn2+ ions. Thus structural and functional analysis reveals that the P3-4 element is a key regulatory element of P3 that contains two separate binding sites for proteins essential for the basal activity of IGF-II P3. PMID:9581544

  10. Lexicon-based word recognition without word segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.K.; Chen, C.H.

    1994-12-31

    We present a word recognition approach that does not rely on explicit word segmentation. It treats the character recognition output as a continuous string of characters instead of first dividing it into words before word-level contextual knowledge is applied. This technique is useful in degraded document images, in which isolation of individual words by purely image- or character-based means is difficult or unreliable. We use a hypothesis generation and verification approach, in which word identities and their positions are hypothesized based on {open_quotes}seed features{close_quotes} (character substrings) extracted from the output of the character recognizer. Verification of the hypotheses consists of comparing the characters in the hypothesized word with candidate characters near the position of the seed feature in the text, and selecting the set of consecutive word hypotheses that are the most mutually consistent. Hence, word segmentation and word recognition are effectively performed in parallel.

  11. Solving Word Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karrison, Joan; Carroll, Margaret Kelly

    1991-01-01

    Students with language and learning disabilities may have difficulty solving mathematics word problems. Use of a sequential checklist, identifying clues and keywords, and illustrating a problem can all help the student identify and implement the correct computational process. (DB)

  12. Words, feelings, and bilingualism

    PubMed Central

    Marian, Viorica; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    Cross-linguistic differences in emotionality of autobiographical memories were examined by eliciting memories of immigration from bilingual speakers. Forty-seven Russian-English bilinguals were asked to recount their immigration experiences in either Russian or English. Bilinguals used more emotion words when describing their immigration experiences in the second language (English) than in the first language (Russian). Bilinguals' immigration narratives contained more negative emotion words than positive emotion words. In addition, language preference (but not language proficiency) influenced results, with emotional expression amplified when speaking in the preferred language. These findings carry implications for organization of the bilingual lexicon and the special status of emotion words within it. We suggest that bilinguals' expression of emotion may vary across languages and that the linguistic and affective systems are interconnected in the bilingual cognitive architecture. PMID:19966924

  13. Developing WordSmith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Mike

    2008-01-01

    WordSmith Tools, since its launch in 1996, has had a rather unusual history and the aim of this paper is to record some of the chief influences on its development. The paper thus presents and discusses the history of WordSmith Tools and its predecessors going back to the early 1980s when processors were much slower, memory very limited and disk…

  14. Decorporation: Officially a word

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    2000-05-01

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition.

  15. Decorporation: officially a word.

    PubMed

    Fisher, D R

    2000-05-01

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition. PMID:10772031

  16. Decorporation: Officially a word

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R. )

    1999-12-01

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition.

  17. Word Production Deficits in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvel, Cherie L.; Schwartz, Barbara L.; Isaacs, Keren L.

    2004-01-01

    Fronto-cerebellar circuitry is implicated in word production. Data suggest that the cerebellum is involved in word "search," whereas the prefrontal cortex underlies the "selection" of words from among competing alternatives. We explored the role of search and selection processes in word production deficits in schizophrenia patients. In Experiment…

  18. Word Recall: Cognitive Performance Within Internet Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Benjamin M; Jim, Heather S

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of online surveys for data collection has increased exponentially, yet it is often unclear whether interview-based cognitive assessments (such as face-to-face or telephonic word recall tasks) can be adapted for use in application-based research settings. Objective The objective of the current study was to compare and characterize the results of online word recall tasks to those of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and determine the feasibility and reliability of incorporating word recall tasks into application-based cognitive assessments. Methods The results of the online immediate and delayed word recall assessment, included within the Women’s Health and Valuation (WHV) study, were compared to the results of the immediate and delayed recall tasks of Waves 5-11 (2000-2012) of the HRS. Results Performance on the WHV immediate and delayed tasks demonstrated strong concordance with performance on the HRS tasks (ρc=.79, 95% CI 0.67-0.91), despite significant differences between study populations (P<.001) and study design. Sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported memory demonstrated similar relationships with performance on both the HRS and WHV tasks. Conclusions The key finding of this study is that the HRS word recall tasks performed similarly when used as an online cognitive assessment in the WHV. Online administration of cognitive tests, which has the potential to significantly reduce participant and administrative burden, should be considered in future research studies and health assessments. PMID:26543924

  19. Words that heal.

    PubMed

    Spurio, Maria Grazia

    2015-09-01

    The value of words in the healing process runs constant to the path of therapeutic treatment, the net of exchanges and relationships between brain chemistry and the right words in order to heal is subtle and intricate. Psychotherapy, a treatment with words, is shown to be a treatment that directly affects the brain and that is able to change it stably, even in its anatomical structure and function. According to Kandel (1999), a leading living scientist and Nobel Prize winner for medicine and physiology, American neurologist and psychiatrist, psychotherapy is a real cure, a biological treatment, as it produces behavioral changes through new words and new experiences. The article offers a brief overview of the use of the fantasy of argument, since the time of the classical rethoric of the sophists up to the new rethoric, to illustrate how the structure of the speech, and the dialectic ability of opposing different thoughts, closely resembles the way of thinking. Consequently the choice of words can be considered an instrument of great impact that is inserted in the stream of thoughts that determines the attitude of a person, and therefore, his/her actions. This happens whenever you communicate voluntarily, and not simply when interacting. The right choice of words remains a turning point in all of our relationships, not only in therapeutic situations, but in every other social relationship in life, family or friends. PMID:26417732

  20. Early Combinations of Words and Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Cecilia

    Previous research has shown a similar starting time for early combinations of words and play actions in children and has suggested that similar cognitive processes underlie the transition to combining activities in language, symbolic play, and manipulative play. A study was undertaken to investigate combining activities in these three domains and…

  1. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Kwon, Young-In; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Shetty, Kalidas

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America were investigated to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension. High phenolic and antioxidant activity-containing medicinal plants and spices such as Chancapiedra (Phyllantus niruri L.), Zarzaparrilla (Smilax officinalis), Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguayensis St-Hil), and Huacatay (Tagetes minuta) had the highest anti-hyperglycemia relevant in vitro alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities with no effect on alpha-amylase. Molle (Schinus molle), Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp), Caigua (Cyclanthera pedata) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) inhibited significantly the hypertension relevant angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). All evaluated pepper (Capsicum) genus exhibited both anti-hyperglycemia and anti-hypertension potential. Major phenolic compounds in Matico (Piper angustifolium R.), Guascas (Galinsoga parviflora) and Huacatay were chlorogenic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. Therefore, specific medicinal plants, herbs and spices from Latin America have potential for hyperglycemia and hypertension prevention associated with Type 2 diabetes. PMID:20185303

  2. Free heme pool and activity of key enzyme of heme synthesis in the rat liver under action of agents affecting reduced glutathione level.

    PubMed

    Barannik, T V; Inshina, N M; Kaliman, P A

    2005-01-01

    The decrease of GSH level in the rat liver was found to be accompanied by an increase of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) heme saturation during first hours after HgCl2, phenylhydrazine (Ph) injection or rhabdomyolysis (the coefficient of correlation -0.978). The activity of the key enzyme of heme synthesis--5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS) was 2.5-fold increased in the first hours after Ph injection and rhabdomyolysis. Glutathione injection in vivo as well as CdCl2 caused the increase of GSH content and the inhibition of ALAS. The coefficient of correlation for GSH content and ALAS activity under the action of agents altering both these parameters (CdCl2, Ph, GSH injection and rhabdomyolysis) is 0.938. Taking into account the presence of heme regulatory motif with conserved cystein in many proteins, including ALAS and TDO (accession number in SwissProt database AAH61793 and P21643, respectively), the link between alterations of GSH content, ALAS activity and heme saturation of TDO in the rat liver could be proposed. The further experiments should be performed in order to elucidate the mechanisms of GSH level influence on free heme pool formation in the liver cells. PMID:16846079

  3. Differential expression of key regulators of Toll-like receptors in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease: a role for Tollip and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma?

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P; MacSharry, J; Darby, T; Fanning, A; Shanahan, F; Houston, A; Brint, E

    2016-03-01

    The innate immune system is currently seen as the probable initiator of events which culminate in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) known to be involved in this disease process. Many regulators of TLRs have been described, and dysregulation of these may also be important in the pathogenesis of IBD. The aim of this study was to perform a co-ordinated analysis of the expression levels of both key intestinal TLRs and their inhibitory proteins in the same IBD cohorts, both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), in order to evaluate the potential roles of these proteins in the pathogenesis of IBD. Of the six TLRs (TLRs 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 9) examined, only TLR-4 was increased significantly in IBD, specifically in active UC. In contrast, differential alterations in expression of TLR inhibitory proteins were observed. A20 and suppressor of cytokine signalling 1 (SOCS1) were increased only in active UC while interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-m) and B cell lymphoma 3 protein (Bcl-3) were increased in both active UC and CD. In contrast, expression of both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and Toll interacting protein (Tollip) was decreased in both active and inactive UC and CD and at both mRNA and protein levels. In addition, expression of both PPARγ and A20 expression was increased by stimulation of a colonic epithelial cell line Caco-2 with both TLR ligands and commensal bacterial strains. These data suggest that IBD may be associated with distinctive changes in TLR-4 and TLR inhibitory proteins, implying that alterations in these may contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD. PMID:26462859

  4. An immunogen containing four tandem 10E8 epitope repeats with exposed key residues induces antibodies that neutralize HIV-1 and activates an ADCC reporter gene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiwu; Zhu, Yun; Wang, Qian; Ye, Ling; Dai, Yanyan; Su, Shan; Yu, Fei; Ying, Tianlei; Yang, Chinglai; Jiang, Shibo; Lu, Lu

    2016-01-01

    After three decades of intensive research efforts, an effective vaccine against HIV-1 remains to be developed. Several broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1, such as 10E8, recognize the membrane proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 gp41 protein. Thus, the MPER is considered to be a very important target for vaccine design. However, the MPER segment has very weak immunogenicity and tends to insert its epitope residues into the cell membrane, thereby avoiding antibody binding. To address this complication in vaccine development, we herein designed a peptide, designated 10E8-4P, containing four copies of the 10E8 epitope as an immunogen. As predicted by structural simulation, 10E8-4P exhibits a well-arranged tandem helical conformation, with the key residues in the 10E8 epitope oriented at different angles, thus suggesting that some of these key residues may be exposed outside of the lipid membrane. Compared with a peptide containing a single 10E8 epitope (10E8-1P), 10E8-4P not only exhibited better antigenicity but also elicited neutralizing antibody response against HIV-1 pseudoviruses, whereas 10E8-1P could not induce detectable neutralizing antibody response. Importantly, antibodies elicited by 10E8-4P also possessed a strong ability to activate an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) reporter gene, thus suggesting that they may have ADCC activity. Therefore, this strategy shows promise for further optimization and application in future HIV-1 vaccine design. PMID:27329850

  5. An immunogen containing four tandem 10E8 epitope repeats with exposed key residues induces antibodies that neutralize HIV-1 and activates an ADCC reporter gene

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhiwu; Zhu, Yun; Wang, Qian; Ye, Ling; Dai, Yanyan; Su, Shan; Yu, Fei; Ying, Tianlei; Yang, Chinglai; Jiang, Shibo; Lu, Lu

    2016-01-01

    After three decades of intensive research efforts, an effective vaccine against HIV-1 remains to be developed. Several broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1, such as 10E8, recognize the membrane proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 gp41 protein. Thus, the MPER is considered to be a very important target for vaccine design. However, the MPER segment has very weak immunogenicity and tends to insert its epitope residues into the cell membrane, thereby avoiding antibody binding. To address this complication in vaccine development, we herein designed a peptide, designated 10E8-4P, containing four copies of the 10E8 epitope as an immunogen. As predicted by structural simulation, 10E8-4P exhibits a well-arranged tandem helical conformation, with the key residues in the 10E8 epitope oriented at different angles, thus suggesting that some of these key residues may be exposed outside of the lipid membrane. Compared with a peptide containing a single 10E8 epitope (10E8-1P), 10E8-4P not only exhibited better antigenicity but also elicited neutralizing antibody response against HIV-1 pseudoviruses, whereas 10E8-1P could not induce detectable neutralizing antibody response. Importantly, antibodies elicited by 10E8-4P also possessed a strong ability to activate an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) reporter gene, thus suggesting that they may have ADCC activity. Therefore, this strategy shows promise for further optimization and application in future HIV-1 vaccine design. PMID:27329850

  6. The word without the tachistoscope.

    PubMed

    Prinzmetal, W; Silvers, B

    1994-03-01

    In experiments with an unlimited viewing time, we were able to isolate specific stimulus factors that lead to the word-superiority effect. We discovered that advantages of words over nonwords, and words over single letters, are caused by different factors. The word-nonword effect was found in a variety of circumstances, such as with small type, low contrast, or a simultaneously present mask. The advantage of words over single letters occurs only when the stimuli are embedded in a mask making it difficult to find a single letter. In addition, we obtained a word-detection effect without a brief exposure: Subjects were more accurate detecting the presence of words than nonwords. However, this effect only occurred when subjects were required to discriminate letters from nonletters. Thus, the word-superiority (word-nonword difference) and word-detection effects both involve letter discrimination and can be explained by similar mechanisms. PMID:8036111

  7. Predicting the birth of a spoken word

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Brandon C.; Frank, Michael C.; DeCamp, Philip; Miller, Matthew; Roy, Deb

    2015-01-01

    Children learn words through an accumulation of interactions grounded in context. Although many factors in the learning environment have been shown to contribute to word learning in individual studies, no empirical synthesis connects across factors. We introduce a new ultradense corpus of audio and video recordings of a single child’s life that allows us to measure the child’s experience of each word in his vocabulary. This corpus provides the first direct comparison, to our knowledge, between different predictors of the child’s production of individual words. We develop a series of new measures of the distinctiveness of the spatial, temporal, and linguistic contexts in which a word appears, and show that these measures are stronger predictors of learning than frequency of use and that, unlike frequency, they play a consistent role across different syntactic categories. Our findings provide a concrete instantiation of classic ideas about the role of coherent activities in word learning and demonstrate the value of multimodal data in understanding children’s language acquisition. PMID:26392523

  8. Predicting the birth of a spoken word.

    PubMed

    Roy, Brandon C; Frank, Michael C; DeCamp, Philip; Miller, Matthew; Roy, Deb

    2015-10-13

    Children learn words through an accumulation of interactions grounded in context. Although many factors in the learning environment have been shown to contribute to word learning in individual studies, no empirical synthesis connects across factors. We introduce a new ultradense corpus of audio and video recordings of a single child's life that allows us to measure the child's experience of each word in his vocabulary. This corpus provides the first direct comparison, to our knowledge, between different predictors of the child's production of individual words. We develop a series of new measures of the distinctiveness of the spatial, temporal, and linguistic contexts in which a word appears, and show that these measures are stronger predictors of learning than frequency of use and that, unlike frequency, they play a consistent role across different syntactic categories. Our findings provide a concrete instantiation of classic ideas about the role of coherent activities in word learning and demonstrate the value of multimodal data in understanding children's language acquisition. PMID:26392523

  9. Glucocerebrosidase 1 deficient Danio rerio mirror key pathological aspects of human Gaucher disease and provide evidence of early microglial activation preceding alpha-synuclein-independent neuronal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Keatinge, Marcus; Bui, Hai; Menke, Aswin; Chen, Yu-Chia; Sokol, Anna M.; Bai, Qing; Ellett, Felix; Da Costa, Marc; Burke, Derek; Gegg, Matthew; Trollope, Lisa; Payne, Thomas; McTighe, Aimee; Mortiboys, Heather; de Jager, Sarah; Nuthall, Hugh; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Fleming, Angeleen; Schapira, Anthony H.V.; Renshaw, Stephen A.; Highley, J. Robin; Chacinska, Agnieszka; Panula, Pertti; Burton, Edward A.; O'Neill, Michael J.; Bandmann, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal recessively inherited glucocerebrosidase 1 (GBA1) mutations cause the lysosomal storage disorder Gaucher's disease (GD). Heterozygous GBA1 mutations (GBA1+/−) are the most common risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies typically focused on the interaction between the reduction of glucocerebrosidase (enzymatic) activity in GBA1+/− carriers and alpha-synuclein-mediated neurotoxicity. However, it is unclear whether other mechanisms also contribute to the increased risk of PD in GBA1+/− carriers. The zebrafish genome does not contain alpha-synuclein (SNCA), thus providing a unique opportunity to study pathogenic mechanisms unrelated to alpha-synuclein toxicity. Here we describe a mutant zebrafish line created by TALEN genome editing carrying a 23 bp deletion in gba1 (gba1c.1276_1298del), the zebrafish orthologue of human GBA1. Marked sphingolipid accumulation was already detected at 5 days post-fertilization with accompanying microglial activation and early, sustained up-regulation of miR-155, a master regulator of inflammation. gba1c.1276_1298del mutant zebrafish developed a rapidly worsening phenotype from 8 weeks onwards with striking reduction in motor activity by 12 weeks. Histopathologically, we observed marked Gaucher cell invasion of the brain and other organs. Dopaminergic neuronal cell count was normal through development but reduced by >30% at 12 weeks in the presence of ubiquitin-positive, intra-neuronal inclusions. This gba1c.1276_1298del zebrafish line is the first viable vertebrate model sharing key pathological features of GD in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissue. Our study also provides evidence for early microglial activation prior to alpha-synuclein-independent neuronal cell death in GBA1 deficiency and suggests upregulation of miR-155 as a common denominator across different neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26376862

  10. Protonation states of the key active site residues and structural dynamics of glmS riboswitch as reveled by molecular dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Banáš, Pavel; Walter, Nils G.

    2010-01-01

    The glmS catalytic riboswitch is part of the 5'-untranslated region of mRNAs encoding glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) synthetase (glmS) in numerous Gram-positive bacteria. Binding of the cofactor GlcN6P induces site-specific self-cleavage of the RNA. However, detailed reaction mechanism as well as protonation state of glmS reactive form remains still elusive. To probe the dominant protonation states of key active site residues, we carried out explicit solvent molecular dynamic simulations involving various protonation states of three crucial active site moieties observed in the available crystal structures: (i) guanine G40 (following the T. tengcongensis numbering), (ii) the GlcN6P amino/ammonium group, and (iii) the GlcN6P phosphate moiety. We found that a deprotonated G40− seems incompatible with the observed glmS active site architecture. Our data suggest that the canonical form of G40 plays a structural role by stabilizing an in-line attack conformation of the cleavage site A-1(2'-OH) nucleophile, rather than a more direct chemical role. In addition, we observe weakened cofactor binding upon protonation of the GlcN6P phosphate moiety, which explains the experimentally observed increase of Km with decreasing pH. Finally, we discuss a possible role of cofactor binding and its interaction with the G65 and G1 purines in structural stabilization of the A-1(2'-OH) in-line attack conformation. Based on the identified dominant protonation state of the reaction precursor, we propose a hypothesis of self-cleavage mechanism, in which A-1(2'-OH) is activated as nucleophile by the G1(pro-Rp) non-bridging oxygen of the scissile phosphate, whereas the ammonium group of GlcN6P acts as the general acid protonating the G1(O5') leaving group. PMID:20536206

  11. Numeracy on the Line. Language Based Numeracy Activities for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marr, Beth; And Others

    This document, which was developed to meet the needs of trainers and workers in Australia's automotive industry for learning activities designed to boost auto workers' numeracy skills, contains a total of 33 learning activities organized into 8 sections. The topics covered in the individual sections are as follows: calculators (key words and…

  12. Secure key storage and distribution

    DOEpatents

    Agrawal, Punit

    2015-06-02

    This disclosure describes a distributed, fault-tolerant security system that enables the secure storage and distribution of private keys. In one implementation, the security system includes a plurality of computing resources that independently store private keys provided by publishers and encrypted using a single security system public key. To protect against malicious activity, the security system private key necessary to decrypt the publication private keys is not stored at any of the computing resources. Rather portions, or shares of the security system private key are stored at each of the computing resources within the security system and multiple security systems must communicate and share partial decryptions in order to decrypt the stored private key.

  13. Probing the Active Site of MIO-dependent Aminomutases, Key Catalysts in the Biosynthesis of amino Acids Incorporated in Secondary Metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, H.; Bruner, S

    2010-01-01

    The tyrosine aminomutase SgTAM produces (S)-{beta}-tyrosine from L-tyrosine in the biosynthesis of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027. This conversion is promoted by the methylideneimidazole-5-one (MIO) prosthetic group. MIO was first identified in the homologous family of ammonia lyases, which deaminate aromatic amino acids to form {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carboxylates. Studies of substrate specificity have been described for lyases but there have been limited reports in altering the substrate specificity of aminomutases. Furthermore, it remains unclear as to what structural properties are responsible for catalyzing the presumed readdition of the amino group into the {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated intermediates to form {beta}-amino acids. Attempts to elucidate specificity and mechanistic determinants of SgTAM have also proved to be difficult as it is recalcitrant to perturbations to the active site via mutagenesis. An X-ray cocrystal structure of the SgTAM mutant of the catalytic base with L-tyrosine verified important substrate binding residues as well as the enzymatic base. Further mutagenesis revealed that removal of these crucial interactions renders the enzyme inactive. Proposed structural determinants for mutase activity probed via mutagenesis, time-point assays and X-ray crystallography revealed a complicated role for these residues in maintaining key quaternary structure properties that aid in catalysis.

  14. Targeted Ablation, Silencing, and Activation Establish Glycinergic Dorsal Horn Neurons as Key Components of a Spinal Gate for Pain and Itch

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Edmund; Wildner, Hendrik; Tudeau, Laetitia; Haueter, Sabine; Ralvenius, William T.; Jegen, Monika; Johannssen, Helge; Hösli, Ladina; Haenraets, Karen; Ghanem, Alexander; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Bösl, Michael; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Summary The gate control theory of pain proposes that inhibitory neurons of the spinal dorsal horn exert critical control over the relay of nociceptive signals to higher brain areas. Here we investigated how the glycinergic subpopulation of these neurons contributes to modality-specific pain and itch processing. We generated a GlyT2::Cre transgenic mouse line suitable for virus-mediated retrograde tracing studies and for spatially precise ablation, silencing, and activation of glycinergic neurons. We found that these neurons receive sensory input mainly from myelinated primary sensory neurons and that their local toxin-mediated ablation or silencing induces localized mechanical, heat, and cold hyperalgesia; spontaneous flinching behavior; and excessive licking and biting directed toward the corresponding skin territory. Conversely, local pharmacogenetic activation of the same neurons alleviated neuropathic hyperalgesia and chloroquine- and histamine-induced itch. These results establish glycinergic neurons of the spinal dorsal horn as key elements of an inhibitory pain and itch control circuit. PMID:25789756

  15. Probing the active site of MIO-dependent aminomutases, key catalysts in the biosynthesis of beta-amino acids incorporated in secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Heather A; Bruner, Steven D

    2010-09-01

    The tyrosine aminomutase SgTAM produces (S)-ss-tyrosine from L-tyrosine in the biosynthesis of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027. This conversion is promoted by the methylideneimidazole-5-one (MIO) prosthetic group. MIO was first identified in the homologous family of ammonia lyases, which deaminate aromatic amino acids to form alpha,ss-unsaturated carboxylates. Studies of substrate specificity have been described for lyases but there have been limited reports in altering the substrate specificity of aminomutases. Furthermore, it remains unclear as to what structural properties are responsible for catalyzing the presumed readdition of the amino group into the alpha,ss-unsaturated intermediates to form ss-amino acids. Attempts to elucidate specificity and mechanistic determinants of SgTAM have also proved to be difficult as it is recalcitrant to perturbations to the active site via mutagenesis. An X-ray cocrystal structure of the SgTAM mutant of the catalytic base with L-tyrosine verified important substrate binding residues as well as the enzymatic base. Further mutagenesis revealed that removal of these crucial interactions renders the enzyme inactive. Proposed structural determinants for mutase activity probed via mutagenesis, time-point assays and X-ray crystallography revealed a complicated role for these residues in maintaining key quaternary structure properties that aid in catalysis. PMID:20577998

  16. Dysfunctional visual word form processing in progressive alexia

    PubMed Central

    Rising, Kindle; Stib, Matthew T.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.; Beeson, Pélagie M.

    2013-01-01

    Progressive alexia is an acquired reading deficit caused by degeneration of brain regions that are essential for written word processing. Functional imaging studies have shown that early processing of the visual word form depends on a hierarchical posterior-to-anterior processing stream in occipito-temporal cortex, whereby successive areas code increasingly larger and more complex perceptual attributes of the letter string. A region located in the left lateral occipito-temporal sulcus and adjacent fusiform gyrus shows maximal selectivity for words and has been dubbed the ‘visual word form area’. We studied two patients with progressive alexia in order to determine whether their reading deficits were associated with structural and/or functional abnormalities in this visual word form system. Voxel-based morphometry showed left-lateralized occipito-temporal atrophy in both patients, very mild in one, but moderate to severe in the other. The two patients, along with 10 control subjects, were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging as they viewed rapidly presented words, false font strings, or a fixation crosshair. This paradigm was optimized to reliably map brain regions involved in orthographic processing in individual subjects. All 10 control subjects showed a posterior-to-anterior gradient of selectivity for words, and all 10 showed a functionally defined visual word form area in the left hemisphere that was activated for words relative to false font strings. In contrast, neither of the two patients with progressive alexia showed any evidence for a selectivity gradient or for word-specific activation of the visual word form area. The patient with mild atrophy showed normal responses to both words and false font strings in the posterior part of the visual word form system, but a failure to develop selectivity for words in the more anterior part of the system. In contrast, the patient with moderate to severe atrophy showed minimal activation of any part

  17. Lexical Configuration and Lexical Engagement: When Adults Learn New Words

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Laura; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2007-01-01

    People know thousands of words in their native language, and each of these words must be learned at some time in the person's lifetime. A large number of these words will be learned when the person is an adult, reflecting the fact that the mental lexicon is continuously changing. We explore how new words get added to the mental lexicon, and provide empirical support for a theoretical distinction between what we call lexical configuration and lexical engagement. Lexical configuration is the set of factual knowledge associated with a word (e.g., the word's sound, spelling, meaning, or syntactic role). Almost all previous research on word learning has focused on this aspect. However it is also critical to understand the process by which a word becomes capable of lexical engagement – the ways in which a lexical entry dynamically interacts with other lexical entries, and with sublexical representations. For example, lexical entries compete with each other during word recognition (inhibition within the lexical level), and they also support the activation of their constituents (top-down lexical-phonemic facilitation, and lexically-based perceptual learning). We systematically vary the learning conditions for new words, and use separate measures of lexical configuration and engagement. Several surprising dissociations in behavior demonstrate the importance of the theoretical distinction between configuration and engagement. PMID:17367775

  18. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action.

    PubMed

    Currie, Richard A; Peffer, Richard C; Goetz, Amber K; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Goodman, Jay I

    2014-07-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  19. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  20. ‘Changing Minds’: determining the effectiveness and key ingredients of an educational intervention to enhance healthcare professionals’ intentions to prescribe physical activity to patients with physical disabilities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare professionals (HCPs) are vital conduits of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) information; however, few discuss LTPA with their patients with disabilities. ‘Changing Minds, Changing Lives’ (CMCL) is a nationwide, theory- and evidence-based seminar aimed at increasing LTPA-discussion among HCPs by enhancing their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control (PBC), and intentions. The purposes of the current study were to: examine the effectiveness and short- and long-term maintenance of a CMCL seminar on HCPs’ social cognitions to discuss LTPA; and explore key implementation variables that predict changes in HCPs’ social cognitions. Methods Prior-to, as well as immediately, one, and six months following a CMCL seminar, 97 HCPs (Mage ± SD = 36.23 ± 10.42; 69.0% female; 97.9% Caucasian; 38.1% rehabilitation therapists; years in profession = 11.56 ± 9.94) from five Canadian provinces completed questionnaires that assessed the Theory of Planned Behaviour constructs with regard to discussing LTPA with their patients with a physical disability. Key presenter characteristics and intervention delivery components were extracted from presenter demographic questionnaires and seminar checklists, respectively. Separate repeated-measures ANOVAs and post-hoc t-tests evaluated changes in HCPs’ social cognitions. Hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to predict intentions and to understand which implementation variables may help explain significant changes in social cognitions. Results Significant increases in HCPs’ social cognitions for discussing LTPA were reported from pre- to post-seminar (ps <0.002); however, increases were not maintained at follow-up. PBC emerged as the strongest predictor of participants’ post-CMCL intentions (β = 0.45, p <0.001). Although several implementation characteristics were related to changes in perceptions, the number of seminars the presenter delivered was the only significant

  1. Beyond Word Frequency: Bursts, Lulls, and Scaling in the Temporal Distributions of Words

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, Eduardo G.; Pierrehumbert, Janet B.; Motter, Adilson E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Zipf's discovery that word frequency distributions obey a power law established parallels between biological and physical processes, and language, laying the groundwork for a complex systems perspective on human communication. More recent research has also identified scaling regularities in the dynamics underlying the successive occurrences of events, suggesting the possibility of similar findings for language as well. Methodology/Principal Findings By considering frequent words in USENET discussion groups and in disparate databases where the language has different levels of formality, here we show that the distributions of distances between successive occurrences of the same word display bursty deviations from a Poisson process and are well characterized by a stretched exponential (Weibull) scaling. The extent of this deviation depends strongly on semantic type – a measure of the logicality of each word – and less strongly on frequency. We develop a generative model of this behavior that fully determines the dynamics of word usage. Conclusions/Significance Recurrence patterns of words are well described by a stretched exponential distribution of recurrence times, an empirical scaling that cannot be anticipated from Zipf's law. Because the use of words provides a uniquely precise and powerful lens on human thought and activity, our findings also have implications for other overt manifestations of collective human dynamics. PMID:19907645

  2. Distinguishing Target From Distractor in Stroop, Picture–Word, and Word–Word Interference Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Schmalz, Xenia; Treccani, Barbara; Mulatti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Lexical selection—both during reading aloud and speech production—involves selecting an intended word, while ignoring irrelevant lexical activation. This process has been studied by the use of interference tasks. Examples are the Stroop task, where participants ignore the written color word and name the color of the ink, picture–word interference tasks, where participants name a picture while ignoring a super-imposed written word, or word–word interference (WWI) tasks, where two words are presented and the participants need to respond to only one, based on an pre-determined visual feature (e.g., color, position). Here, we focus on the WWI task: it is theoretically impossible for existing models to explain how the cognitive system can respond to one stimulus and block the other, when they are presented by the same modality (i.e., they are both words). We describe a solution that can explain performance on the WWI task: drawing on the literature on visual attention, we propose that the system creates an object file for each perceived object, which is continuously updated with increasingly complete information about the stimulus, such as the task-relevant visual feature. Such a model can account for performance on all three tasks. PMID:26696927

  3. Why do non-color words interfere with color naming?

    PubMed

    Burt, Jennifer S

    2002-10-01

    In the non-color-word Stroop task, university students' response latencies were longer for low-frequency than for higher frequency target words. Visual identity primes facilitated color naming in groups reading the prime silently or processing it semantically (Experiment 1) but did not when participants generated a rhyme of the prime (Experiment 3). With auditory identity primes, generating an associate or a rhyme of the prime produced interference (Experiments 2 and 3). Color-naming latencies were longer for nonwords than for words (Experiment 4). There was a small long-term repetition benefit in color naming for low-frequency words that had been presented in the lexical decision task (Experiment 5). Facilitation of word recognition speeds color naming except when phonological activation of the base word increases response competition. PMID:12421053

  4. Learning to See Words

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Skilled reading requires recognizing written words rapidly; functional neuroimaging research has clarified how the written word initiates a series of responses in visual cortex. These responses are communicated to circuits in ventral occipitotemporal (VOT) cortex that learn to identify words rapidly. Structural neuroimaging has further clarified aspects of the white matter pathways that communicate reading signals between VOT and language systems. We review this circuitry, its development, and its deficiencies in poor readers. This review emphasizes data that measure the cortical responses and white matter pathways in individual subjects rather than group differences. Such methods have the potential to clarify why a child has difficulty learning to read and to offer guidance about the interventions that may be useful for that child. PMID:21801018

  5. How Early Does the Brain Distinguish between Regular Words, Irregular Words, and Pseudowords during the Reading Process? Evidence from Neurochronometric TMS.

    PubMed

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Bulnes, Luis Carlo; Devlin, Joseph T; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Morais, José; Goldman, Serge; Kolinsky, Régine

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive theories on reading propose that the characteristics of written stimuli determine how they are processed in the brain. However, whether the brain distinguishes between regular words, irregular words, and pseudowords already at an early stage of the reading process is still subject to debate. Here we used chronometric TMS to address this issue. During the first 140 msec of regular word, irregular word, and pseudoword reading, TMS was used to disrupt the function of the ventral occipitotemporal, posterior middle temporal, and supramarginal gyri, which are key areas involved in orthographic, semantic, and phonological processing, respectively. Early TMS stimulation delivered on posterior middle temporal and supramarginal gyri affected regular and irregular word, but not pseudoword, reading. In contrast, ventral occipitotemporal disruption affected both word and pseudoword reading. We thus found evidence for an early distinction between word and pseudoword processing in the semantic and phonological systems, but not in the orthographic system. PMID:25603024

  6. Reframing the Discussion on Word Problems: A Political Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harouni, Houman

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have attempted to describe the significant place of word problems at the intersection of mathematics, education and real world activity. In this essay the author suggests that the discussion of word problems needs to be reframed within a historical and dialectical conception of "mathematics," "the real world" and…

  7. Improving Language without Words: First Evidence from Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marangolo, Paola; Bonifazi, Silvia; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Craighero, Laila; Coccia, Michela; Altoe, Gianmarco; Provinciali, Leandro; Cantagallo, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The pervasiveness of word-finding difficulties in aphasia has motivated several theories regarding management of the deficit and its effectiveness. Recently, the hypothesis was advanced that instead of simply accompanying speech gestures participate in language production by increasing the semantic activation of words grounded in sensory-motor…

  8. Solving Word Problems: A Case of Modelling? Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravemeijer, Koeno

    1997-01-01

    It is argued that students who appear to ignore common sense and real-world knowledge in their approach to mathematics word problems in school are often behaving sensibly given the situation. The improvement of mathematics word problems for teaching will require changes in teacher beliefs and the use of modelling as an activity of organizing. (SLD)

  9. Mrs. Malaprop's Neighborhood: Using Word Errors to Reveal Neighborhood Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldrick, Matthew; Folk, Jocelyn R.; Rapp, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Many theories of language production and perception assume that in the normal course of processing a word, additional non-target words (lexical neighbors) become active. The properties of these neighbors can provide insight into the structure of representations and processing mechanisms in the language processing system. To infer the properties of…

  10. Task-specific Aspects of Goal-directed Word Generation Identified via Simultaneous EEG-fMRI.

    PubMed

    Shapira-Lichter, Irit; Klovatch, Ilana; Nathan, Dana; Oren, Noga; Hendler, Talma

    2016-09-01

    Generating words according to a given rule relies on retrieval-related search and postretrieval control processes. Using fMRI, we recently characterized neural patterns of word generation in response to episodic, semantic, and phonemic cues by comparing free recall of wordlists, category fluency, and letter fluency [Shapira-Lichter, I., Oren, N., Jacob, Y., Gruberger, M., & Hendler, T. Portraying the unique contribution of the default mode network to internally driven mnemonic processes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 110, 4950-4955, 2013]. Distinct selectivity for each condition was evident, representing discrete aspects of word generation-related memory retrieval. For example, the precuneus, implicated in processing spatiotemporal information, emerged as a key contributor to the episodic condition, which uniquely requires this information. Gamma band is known to play a central role in memory, and increased gamma power has been observed before word generation. Yet, gamma modulation in response to task demands has not been investigated. To capture the task-specific modulation of gamma power, we analyzed the EEG data recorded simultaneously with the aforementioned fMRI, focusing on the activity locked to and immediately preceding word articulation. Transient increases in gamma power were identified in a parietal electrode immediately before episodic and semantic word generation, however, within a different time frame relative to articulation. Gamma increases were followed by an alpha-theta decrease in the episodic condition, a gamma decrease in the semantic condition. This pattern indicates a task-specific modulation of the gamma signal corresponding to the specific demands of each word generation task. The gamma power and fMRI signal from the precuneus were correlated during the episodic condition, implying the existence of a common cognitive construct uniquely required for this task, possibly the reactivation or processing of

  11. Conceptual control across modalities: graded specialisation for pictures and words in inferior frontal and posterior temporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Teige, Catarina; Davey, James; Hymers, Mark; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Controlled semantic retrieval to words elicits co-activation of inferior frontal (IFG) and left posterior temporal cortex (pMTG), but research has not yet established (i) the distinct contributions of these regions or (ii) whether the same processes are recruited for non-verbal stimuli. Words have relatively flexible meanings – as a consequence, identifying the context that links two specific words is relatively demanding. In contrast, pictures are richer stimuli and their precise meaning is better specified by their visible features – however, not all of these features will be relevant to uncovering a given association, tapping selection/inhibition processes. To explore potential differences across modalities, we took a commonly-used manipulation of controlled retrieval demands, namely the identification of weak vs. strong associations, and compared word and picture versions. There were 4 key findings: (1) Regions of interest (ROIs) in posterior IFG (BA44) showed graded effects of modality (e.g., words>pictures in left BA44; pictures>words in right BA44). (2) An equivalent response was observed in left mid-IFG (BA45) across modalities, consistent with the multimodal semantic control deficits that typically follow LIFG lesions. (3) The anterior IFG (BA47) ROI showed a stronger response to verbal than pictorial associations, potentially reflecting a role for this region in establishing a meaningful context that can be used to direct semantic retrieval. (4) The left pMTG ROI also responded to difficulty across modalities yet showed a stronger response overall to verbal stimuli, helping to reconcile two distinct literatures that have implicated this site in semantic control and lexical-semantic access respectively. We propose that left anterior IFG and pMTG work together to maintain a meaningful context that shapes ongoing semantic processing, and that this process is more strongly taxed by word than picture associations. PMID:25726898

  12. Sub-word based Arabic handwriting analysis for writer identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliki, Makki; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Jassim, Sabah

    2013-05-01

    Analysing a text or part of it is key to handwriting identification. Generally, handwriting is learnt over time and people develop habits in the style of writing. These habits are embedded in special parts of handwritten text. In Arabic each word consists of one or more sub-word(s). The end of each sub-word is considered to be a connect stroke. The main hypothesis in this paper is that sub-words are essential reflection of Arabic writer's habits that could be exploited for writer identification. Testing this hypothesis will be based on experiments that evaluate writer's identification, mainly using K nearest neighbor from group of sub-words extracted from longer text. The experimental results show that using a group of sub-words could be used to identify the writer with a successful rate between 52.94 % to 82.35% when top1 is used, and it can go up to 100% when top5 is used based on K nearest neighbor. The results show that majority of writers are identified using 7 sub-words with a reliability confident of about 90% (i.e. 90% of the rejected templates have significantly larger distances to the tested example than the distance from the correctly identified template). However previous work, using a complete word, shows successful rate of at most 90% in top 10.

  13. Processing emotional words in two languages with one brain: ERP and fMRI evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiyao; Lin, Jie; Chen, Bingle; Lu, Chunming; Guo, Taomei

    2015-10-01

    Emotional words in a bilingual's second language (L2) seem to have less emotional impact compared to emotional words in the first language (L1). The present study examined the neural mechanisms of emotional word processing in Chinese-English bilinguals' two languages by using both event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behavioral results show a robust positive word processing advantage in L1 such that responses to positive words were faster and more accurate compared to responses to neutral words and negative words. In L2, emotional words only received higher accuracies than neutral words. In ERPs, positive words elicited a larger early posterior negativity and a smaller late positive component than neutral words in L1, while a trend of reduced N400 component was found for positive words compared to neutral words in L2. In fMRI, reduced activation was found for L1 emotional words in both the left middle occipital gyrus and the left cerebellum whereas increased activation in the left cerebellum was found for L2 emotional words. Altogether, these results suggest that emotional word processing advantage in L1 relies on rapid and automatic attention capture while facilitated semantic retrieval might help processing emotional words in L2. PMID:26143622

  14. Online lexical competition during spoken word recognition and word learning in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Lisa; Weighall, Anna; Brown, Helen; Gaskell, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Lexical competition that occurs as speech unfolds is a hallmark of adult oral language comprehension crucial to rapid incremental speech processing. This study used pause detection to examine whether lexical competition operates similarly at 7-8 years and tested variables that influence "online" lexical activity in adults. Children (n = 20) and adults (n = 17) were slower to detect pauses in familiar words with later uniqueness points. Faster latencies were obtained for words with late uniqueness points in constraining compared with neutral sentences; no such effect was observed for early unique words. Following exposure to novel competitors ("biscal"), children (n = 18) and adults (n = 18) showed competition for existing words with early uniqueness points ("biscuit") after 24 hr. Thus, online lexical competition effects are remarkably similar across development. PMID:23432734

  15. Infants Track Word Forms in Early Word-Object Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamuner, Tania S.; Fais, Laurel; Werker, Janet F.

    2014-01-01

    A central component of language development is word learning. One characterization of this process is that language learners discover objects and then look for word forms to associate with these objects (Mcnamara, 1984; Smith, 2000). Another possibility is that word forms themselves are also important, such that once learned, hearing a familiar…

  16. Distinct neural specializations for learning to read words and name objects.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J S H; Rastle, Kathleen; Davis, Matthew H

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the neural systems that underpin reading acquisition is key if neuroscientific findings are to inform educational practice. We provide a unique window into these systems by teaching 19 adults to read 24 novel words written in unfamiliar letters and to name 24 novel objects while in an MRI scanner. Behavioral performance on trained items was equivalent for the two stimulus types. However, componential letter-sound associations were extracted when learning to read, as shown by correct reading of untrained words, whereas object-name associations were holistic and arbitrary. Activity in bilateral anterior fusiform gyri was greater during object name learning than learning to read, and ROI analyses indicated that left mid-fusiform activity was predictive of success in object name learning but not in learning to read. In contrast, activity in bilateral parietal cortices was predictive of success for both stimulus types but was greater during learning and recall of written word pronunciations relative to object names. We argue that mid-to-anterior fusiform gyri preferentially process whole items and contribute to learning their spoken form associations, processes that are required for skilled reading. In contrast, parietal cortices preferentially process componential visual-verbal mappings, a process that is crucial for early reading development. PMID:24666161

  17. Sparkling and Spinning Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Ruth Kearney

    1964-01-01

    Teachers should foster in children's writing the use of words with "sparkle" and "spin"--"sparkle" implying brightness and vitality, "spin" connoting industry, patience, and painstaking work. By providing creative listening experiences with good children's or adult literature, the teacher can encourage students to broaden their imaginations and…

  18. Offensive Words, Lethal Weapons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Russell

    2007-01-01

    The old childhood ditty "sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never hurt me" has proved wiser than the avalanche of commentary provoked by the recent insults by Don Imus and the killings at Virginia Tech. Our society forbids public name-calling but allows sticks and stones. Anyone can acquire a gun, but everyone must be careful…

  19. Have Words, Will Understand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Shifting the focus from words to concepts--does it work? The author shares his findings from such a project with three primary schools in the UK. Many children aged 7-10 find mastering the language of science difficult and do not make the progress that they could. Encountering complex terminology in the science language causes students to become…

  20. Word Attack Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    A limited analysis of alternative approaches to phonemic-level word attack instruction is provided in this document. The instruction segment begins with training in letter-sound correspondences for which mastery of certain skills is assumed. Instruction ends with the decoding of novel items having a consonant-vowel-consonant construction. Contents…