Science.gov

Sample records for activity learners follow

  1. Language Learning Activities of Distance EFL Learners in the Turkish Open Education System as the Indicator of Their Learner Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altunay, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the noncompulsory language learning activities performed by a group of distance EFL learners in the Turkish Open Education System. Performance of these activities has been considered as an indicator of their learner autonomy. The data were collected through an online questionnaire and interviews. The study shows that in…

  2. Interactions between and among Heritage Language Learners and Second Language Learners during Collaborative Writing Activities: How Learners Attend to Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamics in the Spanish classroom between heritage language learner (HLL) dyads, second language learner (L2L) dyads, and mixed HLL-L2L dyads. Specifically, it examines oral, written and embodied discourse that informs our understanding of how learners attend to language. Analysis for this dissertation examined…

  3. Young Children: Active Learners in a Technological Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, June L., Ed.; Shade, Daniel D., Ed.

    This book addresses the issues of appropriate use of computers with young children and how children and early childhood educators interact with the computer in early childhood settings. Part 1, "Young Children as Active Learners," contains chapter 1: "Listen to the Children: Observing Young Children's Discoveries with the Microcomputer" (June L.…

  4. Learner-Interface Interaction for Technology-Enhanced Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Neelu; Khreisat, Laila; Sharma, Kiron

    2009-01-01

    Neelu Sinha, Laila Khreisat, and Kiron Sharma describe how learner-interface interaction promotes active learning in computer science education. In a pilot study using technology that combines DyKnow software with a hardware platform of pen-enabled HP Tablet notebook computers, Sinha, Khreisat, and Sharma created dynamic learning environments by…

  5. Facebook Activities and the Investment of L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafie, Latisha Asmaak; Yaacob, Aizan; Singh, Paramjit Kaur Karpal

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the investment of L2 learners in the English language on Facebook that they portrayed through their Facebook activities. It studied four informants consisted of diploma students in a Malaysian university. The study consisted of 14 weeks of online observation and semi-structured interviews. Data were collected from online…

  6. Does Translation Contribute to Learners' Free Active Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiyaban, Amir R.; Bagheri, Mohammad S.

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to find out whether or not using "translation" technique in vocabulary teaching would have any positive effects on the "free active" vocabulary of Iranian learners of English. To carry out the research, eighty-eight intermediate male and female students were chosen. The participants were divided into four "male…

  7. Methods for Evaluating Learner Activities with New Technologies: Guidelines for the Lab@Future Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwanza-Simwami, Daisy; Engestrom, Yrjo; Amon, Tomaz

    2009-01-01

    The task of evaluating learner activities with new technologies is becoming increasingly complex because traditional evaluation strategies do not adequately consider the unique and often dynamic characteristics of learners and activities carried out. Learner activities are largely driven by motives and relationships that exist in the context in…

  8. Acquisition of Mathematical Language: Suggestions and Activities for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirillo, Michelle; Bruna, Katherine Richardson; Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we describe aspects of mathematical language that could be problematic to English-language learners, provide recommendations for teaching English-language learners, and suggest activities intended to foster language development in mathematics. (Contains 1 figure.)

  9. Older Adult Learners: A Comparison of Active and Non-Active Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a 2004 follow-up study conducted in partnership with the University of Manitoba Continuing Education Division and local senior's organizations. The partnership was formed in 2002-03 to promote applied research on lifelong learning and older adults, develop new and complement existing educational activities, and explore new…

  10. Discovering Me: Music Activities for Special Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith P.; And Others

    The book contains information on musical activities which were field tested in Project PASE (Program in the Arts for Special Education, Pennsylvania) classrooms with a wide range of exceptionalities from preschool age to adolescence. Activities are seen to help children become more aware of their bodies, feelings, and themselves; feel important…

  11. A Follow-Up Study of the Facebook Project for Japanese University Students: Has It Been Enhancing Student Interaction, Learner Autonomy, and English Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamada, Mayumi

    2014-01-01

    This is a follow-up study of the Facebook (FB) project conducted from October 2011 to January 2013. The purpose of the project was to investigate how FB can help Japanese university students improve their English, and determine whether FB can facilitate student interaction and learner autonomy by integrating FB activities into English lessons. In…

  12. Promoting Physics Among Female Learners in the Western Cape Through Active Engagement (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendse, Gillian J.

    2009-04-01

    In 2006 the author organized a one-day intervention aimed at promoting physics among female learners at the University of Stellenbosch. The activities included an interactive lecture demonstration promoting active engagement, a hands-on session, and short presentations by female physicists addressing issues such as balancing family and career, breaking the stereotypes, and launching a successful career in physics. Each learner was expected to evaluate the program. In 2007 the author joined forces with Hip2B2 (Shuttleworth Foundation) to host a competition among grade-10 learners with the theme, ``promoting creativity through interactivity.'' The author was tasked by the Hip2B2-team to assist with a program for female learners planned for August 2008, coinciding with our national celebration of Women's Day. The event targeted 160 learners and took place in Durban, East London, Cape Town, and Johannesburg. The author shares some of the learners' experiences and personal triumphs.

  13. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-03-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals. PMID:22138311

  14. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-03-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals.

  15. The Child as an Active Learner: Views, Practices, and Barriers in Chinese Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengling

    2006-01-01

    The Chinese view of the child is in the process of changing from the dependent child of traditional Chinese society to the child as an active learner in contemporary China. The view of the child as an active learner forces early childhood practitioners to rethink the features of the child's learning and development, individuality, and needs and…

  16. How Do Distance Learners Use Activities in Self-Instructional Materials?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Sanjaya; Gaba, Ashok Kumar

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of a study on the use of learning activities in self-instructional materials by distance learners of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). It shows that learners make use of the activities extensively as they have positive perceptions about benefits of Self-Assessment Questions and Terminal Questions given in the…

  17. Beginning Learners' Development of Interactional Competence: Alignment Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tecedor, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the development of interactional competence (Hall, 1993; He & Young, 1998) by beginning learners of Spanish as indexed by their use of alignment moves. Discourse analysis techniques and quantitative data analysis were used to explore how 52 learners expressed alignment and changes in participation patterns in two sets of…

  18. Training Learners to Use Quizlet Vocabulary Activities on Mobile Phones in Vietnam with Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone ownership among university students in Vietnam has reached almost 100%, exceeding that of Internet-capable desktop computers. This has made them increasingly popular to allow learners to carry out learning activities outside of the classroom, but some studies have suggested that learners are not always willing to engage in activities…

  19. Investigating Learner Attitudes toward E-Books as Learning Tools: Based on the Activity Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of e-books as learning tools in terms of learner satisfaction, usefulness, behavioral intention, and learning effectiveness. Based on the activity theory approach, this research develops a research model to understand learner attitudes toward e-books in two physical sizes: 10? and 7?. Results suggest that screen…

  20. Learners' Interpersonal Beliefs and Generated Feedback in an Online Role-Playing Peer-Feedback Activity: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Yu-Hui; Hsu, Yu-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Peer feedback affords interaction and critical thinking opportunities for learners in online courses. However, various factors prevent learners from taking advantage of these promising benefits. This study explored learners' perceptions of the interpersonal factors in a role-playing peer-feedback activity, and examined the types of peer feedback…

  1. Active Ageing and Universities: Engaging Older Learners. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Chris; Ogg, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews the engagement of older learners (defined as those aged 50 and over) in education and training with particular reference to their involvement in higher education. The ageing of populations was one of the most important trends in the 20th century and will raise major challenges in this century. Appended are: (1) Selected UK…

  2. A Development of Game-Based Learning Environment to Activate Interaction among Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, Ryo; Shimokawa, Masayuki; Okamoto, Toshio

    Many studies and systems that incorporate elements such as “pleasure” and “fun” in the game to improve a learner's motivation have been developed in the field of learning environments. However, few are the studies of situations where many learners gather at a single computer and participate in a game-based learning environment (GBLE), and where the GBLE designs the learning process by controlling the interactions between learners such as competition, collaboration, and learning by teaching. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a framework of educational control that induces and activates interaction between learners intentionally to create a learning opportunity that is based on the knowledge understanding model of each learner. In this paper, we explain the design philosophy and the framework of our GBLE called “Who becomes the king in the country of mathematics?” from a game viewpoint and describe the method of learning support control in the learning environment. In addition, we report the results of the learning experiment with our GBLE, which we carried out in a junior high school, and include some comments by a principal and a teacher. From the results of the experiment and some comments, we noticed that a game may play a significant role in weakening the learning relationship among students and creating new relationships in the world of the game. Furthermore, we discovered that learning support control of the GBLE has led to activation of the interaction between learners to some extent.

  3. Matrix of Basic Learner Outcomes for Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partners in Career Education, Arlington, TX.

    The document provides a means of organizing the career education learner outcomes for Texas students into a scope and sequence to be used as a framework for continued development of learner activities. The 177 learner outcomes (objectives) are presented in the following nine categories: career planning and decision making, career and occupational…

  4. The Impact of Spoken Instructions on Learner Behavior Following Multimedia Tutorial Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Howard

    2004-01-01

    The choice of what to include in educational software is an issue with which instructional designers are regularly concerned. Multimedia capacity, standard on today's desktop computers, gives designers the opportunity to provide learners a more exciting learning experience than simply looking, clicking, and then looking some more. One feature that…

  5. Learner-Centered Activities from the DVD-Format "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Yun

    This paper demonstrates how Taiwanese English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) college teachers and students collaborate and negotiate to design various learner-centered activities based on the Chinese film, "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon." These activities are intended to enhance students' listening and speaking abilities. The paper demonstrates eight…

  6. Inclusive Instructional Design: Creating a "Learner" Version of Instructional Design That Fosters Active Learner Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gropper, George L.

    2015-01-01

    The author notes: "A personal anecdote is an apt opening to this article. An assignment I once had called for assessing texts in a pre-med curriculum. In reviewing a calculus text, a subject in which I had no expertise then or now, I had trouble following an "explanation." I was able to identify where and why the text let me down.…

  7. Learners in Action, Winter 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This Winter 2005 issue of "Learners in Action" contains the following: (1) Proud Dad Turns Family Life Around (Nick Prince); (2) Learners Make a Great Impression at Conference; (3) The Story behind the Story; and (4) Learner Resources.

  8. A "Dialogic" Approach to the Design of a Transcultural Communication Classroom Activity for Multilingual Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Celia Helen

    2011-01-01

    When preparing teaching materials about communication between people from different linguistic backgrounds, many factors require consideration; these include theoretical orientation, purpose, context, educational needs, study level, as well as the cultural backgrounds of the teachers and their target learners. The classroom activity described in…

  9. Cross-Language Activation in Children's Speech Production: Evidence from Second Language Learners, Bilinguals, and Trilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals,…

  10. Active Learning for Discovery and Innovation in Criminology with Chinese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jessica C. M.; Wu, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Whereas a great deal of literature based upon the context of Western societies has concluded criminology is an ideal discipline for active learning approach, it remains uncertain if this learning approach is applicable to Chinese learners in the discipline of criminology. This article describes and provides evidence of the benefits of using active…

  11. Flipping the Classroom for English Language Learners to Foster Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Hsiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a structured attempt to integrate flip teaching into language classrooms using a WebQuest active learning strategy. The purpose of this study is to examine the possible impacts of flipping the classroom on English language learners' academic performance, learning attitudes, and participation levels. Adopting a…

  12. Investigating the Use of Inquiry & Web-Based Activities with Inclusive Biology Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Waller, Patricia L.; Edwards, Lana; Darlene Kale, Santoro

    2007-01-01

    A Web-integrated biology program is used to explore how to best assist inclusive high school students to learn biology with inquiry-based activities. Classroom adaptations and instructional strategies teachers may use to assist in promoting biology learning with inclusive learners are discussed.

  13. Synthesizing Technology Adoption and Learners' Approaches towards Active Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kevin; Cheung, George; Wan, Kelvin; Brown, Ian; Luk, Green

    2015-01-01

    In understanding how active and blended learning approaches with learning technologies engagement in undergraduate education, current research models tend to undermine the effect of learners' variations, particularly regarding their styles and approaches to learning, on intention and use of learning technologies. This study contributes to further…

  14. Fashion Design: Designing a Learner-Active, Multi-Level High School Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Diane

    2009-01-01

    A high school fashion design teacher has much in common with the ringmaster of a three-ring circus. The challenges of teaching a hands-on course are to facilitate the entire class and to meet the needs of individual students. When teaching family and consumer sciences, the goal is to have a learner-active classroom. Revamping the high school's…

  15. 78 FR 11965 - Agency Information Collection (Learner's Perception (LP) Survey) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Learner's Perception (LP) Survey) Activities Under OMB Review...'s Perception (LP) Survey, VA Form 10-0439. OMB Control Number: 2900-0691. Type of Review: Extension... trainees perception of their clinical experience with VA versus non-VA facilities. VA will use the data...

  16. An Emergent Language Program Framework: Actively Involving Learners in Needs Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, William; Storer, Graeme

    1992-01-01

    Relates the experience of the staff of an aquaculture outreach program in Northeast Thailand in implementing an English for special purposes program. By actively involving learners in both the needs analysis and program design, teachers were able to adapt the program content to the requirements of the students. (15 references) (JL)

  17. Synergy between Authentic Assessment Activities and Learner Autonomy: How Does This Promote Shared Authenticity in Online Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gikandi, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether and how authentic assessment activities and learner autonomy converged to productively engage both the teacher and learners in shared authenticity. The study employed case study methodology to investigate the phenomena within an online course in ICT designed for continuing professionals in…

  18. Popular Culture, English Out-of-Class Activities, and Learner Autonomy among Highly Proficient Secondary Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Hoi Wing

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on how and why proficient learners of English in Hong Kong participated in popular culture, out-of-class activities, with an emphasis on their development of learner autonomy. Autonomy in language learning is defined as an individual's ability and responsibility to take charge of his or her own learning [1]. Out-of-class…

  19. Fluency-dependent cortical activation associated with speech production and comprehension in second language learners.

    PubMed

    Shimada, K; Hirotani, M; Yokokawa, H; Yoshida, H; Makita, K; Yamazaki-Murase, M; Tanabe, H C; Sadato, N

    2015-08-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the brain regions underlying language task performance in adult second language (L2) learners. Specifically, we identified brain regions where the level of activation was associated with L2 fluency levels. Thirty Japanese-speaking adults participated in the study. All participants were L2 learners of English and had achieved varying levels of fluency, as determined by a standardized L2 English proficiency test, the Versant English Test (Pearson Education Inc., 2011). When participants performed the oral sentence building task from the production tasks administered, the dorsal part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (dIFG) showed activation patterns that differed depending on the L2 fluency levels: The more fluent the participants were, the more dIFG activation decreased. This decreased activation of the dIFG might reflect the increased automaticity of a syntactic building process. In contrast, when participants performed an oral story comprehension task, the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) showed increased activation with higher fluency levels. This suggests that the learners with higher L2 fluency were actively engaged in post-syntactic integration processing supported by the left pSTG. These data imply that L2 fluency predicts neural resource allocation during language comprehension tasks as well as in production tasks. This study sheds light on the neural underpinnings of L2 learning by identifying the brain regions recruited during different language tasks across different modalities (production vs. comprehension). PMID:26026679

  20. Fluency-dependent cortical activation associated with speech production and comprehension in second language learners.

    PubMed

    Shimada, K; Hirotani, M; Yokokawa, H; Yoshida, H; Makita, K; Yamazaki-Murase, M; Tanabe, H C; Sadato, N

    2015-08-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the brain regions underlying language task performance in adult second language (L2) learners. Specifically, we identified brain regions where the level of activation was associated with L2 fluency levels. Thirty Japanese-speaking adults participated in the study. All participants were L2 learners of English and had achieved varying levels of fluency, as determined by a standardized L2 English proficiency test, the Versant English Test (Pearson Education Inc., 2011). When participants performed the oral sentence building task from the production tasks administered, the dorsal part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (dIFG) showed activation patterns that differed depending on the L2 fluency levels: The more fluent the participants were, the more dIFG activation decreased. This decreased activation of the dIFG might reflect the increased automaticity of a syntactic building process. In contrast, when participants performed an oral story comprehension task, the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) showed increased activation with higher fluency levels. This suggests that the learners with higher L2 fluency were actively engaged in post-syntactic integration processing supported by the left pSTG. These data imply that L2 fluency predicts neural resource allocation during language comprehension tasks as well as in production tasks. This study sheds light on the neural underpinnings of L2 learning by identifying the brain regions recruited during different language tasks across different modalities (production vs. comprehension).

  1. Learning by Doing: Engaging Students through Learner-Centered Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Karl L.; Csapo, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    With a shift of focus from teaching to learning in higher education, teachers often look for strategies to involve students actively in the learning process, especially since numerous studies have demonstrated that a student's active involvement in the learning process enhances learning. Active learning has resulted in positive learning outcomes.…

  2. We are what we do: Examining learner-generated content in the anatomy laboratory through the lens of activity theory.

    PubMed

    Doubleday, Alison F; Wille, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Video and photography are often used for delivering content within the anatomical sciences. However, instructors typically produce these resources to provide instructional or procedural information. Although the benefits of learner-generated content have been explored within educational research, virtually no studies have investigated the use of learner-generated video and photograph content within anatomy dissection laboratories. This study outlines an activity involving learner-generated video diaries and learner-generated photograph assignments produced during anatomy laboratory sessions. The learner-generated photographs and videos provided instructors with a means of formative assessment and allowed instructors to identify evidence of collaborative behavior in the laboratory. Student questionnaires (n = 21) and interviews (n = 5), as well as in-class observations, were conducted to examine student perspectives on the laboratory activities. The quantitative and qualitative data were examined using the framework of activity theory to identify contradictions between student expectations of, and engagement with, the activity and the actual experiences of the students. Results indicate that learner-generated photograph and video content can act as a rich source of data on student learning processes and can be used for formative assessment, for observing collaborative behavior, and as a starting point for class discussions. This study stresses the idea that technology choice for activities must align with instructional goals. This research also highlights the utility of activity theory as a framework for assessing classroom and laboratory activities, demonstrating that this approach can guide the development of laboratory activities.

  3. Sharing a Small World: Environmental Activities for Young Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains a collection of activities developed for pre-K through second grade students. All of the activities in this teacher's guide use an interdisciplinary approach and explore the human connection with all living things and their environment. Contents include: (1) "Sharing Space and Working Together"; (2) "Sharing Resources and…

  4. The Slow Learner in Mathematics: Aids and Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maletsky, Evan M.

    1973-01-01

    Specific examples of effective use of multisensory aids are given. All can easily and inexpensively be made by the teacher or the students. Examples are grouped under the following major headings: number patterns, arithmetic skills, geometric concepts, algebraic concepts, and models. (LS)

  5. The effect of curricular activities on learner autonomy: the perspective of undergraduate mechanical engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, M.; Leite, C.; Mouraz, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study researches how first-year engineering students perceived the influence of curricular activities on their own learning autonomy, measured with an adaptation of the Personal Responsibility Orientation to Self-direction in Learning Scale (PRO-SDLS). Participants were questioned to assess the influence of the teacher's role. The results indicate that learners' characteristics (motivation and self-efficacy) contribute more to learner autonomy (LA) than the teaching-learning transaction (control and initiative), as in the original PRO-SDLS validation. The most autonomous learners presented higher values in all LA components and dimensions, but the differences were greater in motivation and initiative. The participants with higher LA were not as dependent on the teacher, regarding assessment, the completion of classroom tasks and deadlines. Regardless of the degree of autonomy in learning, all participants viewed teachers as the main source of information. Therefore, LA plays an important role in teaching activities planning. Suggestions for adjustments and more flexible learning scenarios are formulated.

  6. Open-Ended Activities: Differentiation through Learner Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, Nancy B.

    Open-ended activities have been advocated in the literature of gifted education as a way to allow students who are identified as gifted to work in their own interest areas, in their own learning styles, and at their own ability levels. They are recommended as a means to differentiate instruction, but little research documents this recommended…

  7. Total Participation Techniques: Making Every Student an Active Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himmele, Persida; Himmele, William

    2011-01-01

    Yes, there are easy-to-use and incredibly effective alternatives to the "stand and deliver" approach to teaching that causes so many students to tune out--or even drop out. Here's your opportunity to explore dozens of ways to engage K-12 students in active learning and allow them to demonstrate the depth of their knowledge and understanding. The…

  8. Model Eliciting Activities: Fostering 21st Century Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohlmann, Micah

    2013-01-01

    Real world mathematical modeling activities can develop needed and valuable 21st century skills. The knowledge and skills to become adept at mathematical modeling need to develop over time and students in the elementary grades should have experiences with mathematical modeling. For this to occur elementary teachers need to have positive…

  9. One-Year Follow-Up Outcomes of Spanish and English Interventions for English Language Learners at Risk for Reading Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirino, Paul T.; Vaughn, Sharon; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Cardenas-Hagan, Elsa; Fletcher, Jack M.; Francis, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report 1-year follow-up data from 215 English language learners with reading difficulties who received a supplemental first grade reading intervention in the language of their core reading instruction. The researchers provided no intervention or boosters in second grade. The Spanish study revealed significant differences favoring…

  10. Active Lessons for Active Brains: Teaching Boys and Other Experiential Learners, Grades 3-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Abigail Norfleet; Allison, Sandra Boyd; McKenzie, Caitlin Zimmerman

    2011-01-01

    If you're tired of repeating yourself to students who aren't listening, try a little less talk and a lot more action. The authors follow the best-selling "Teaching the Male Brain and Teaching the Female Brain" with this ready-to-use collection of mathematics, language arts, science, and classroom management strategies. Designed for active,…

  11. Innovative Strategies for Empowering Your Students to Become Active, Responsible Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, B.

    2011-09-01

    The economy continues to sputter along, and the repercussions are now hitting hard at publicly-funded colleges and universities, with enrollment increasing and funding decreasing. Funding agencies are starting to look at retention and completion rates as a way to allocate scarce dollars. Improving these rates is also one way to increase the future stream of tuition; students who can't pass introductory classes like ASTRO101 won't enroll and pay tuition for the next level, and they won't complete their degree. So what can you, a mere professor of astronomy, do? Tired of the "What do you want me to know?" questions? Provide your students with learner-centered structures to help them learn more deeply. Do your students resist active-engagement techniques and hate group work? Share empowerment strategies for helping students become active, responsible learners who can thrive in a learner-centered environment. Do you think that it's wrong for the freshman classes to be over-crowded, yet your sophomore classes don't get enough students or don't even exist? After using the proven curriculum of On Course, college and universities across the country have improved their retention across a wide range of disciplines (http://www.OnCourseWorkshop.com/Data.htm). Experience a sample of the fun and engaging activities developed over two decades to help students (1) accept personal responsibility, (2) discover self motivation, (3) master self-management, (4) use interdependence, (5) gain self-awareness, (6) adopt lifelong learning, (7) develop emotional intelligence, and (8) believe in themselves. Since this is only a one-hour workshop, we will focus on choices one and four: to be successful, students need to see themselves as the primary cause of their outcomes and experiences and to build mutually supportive relationships in our classroom and labs. Outcomes: (1) one ASTRO101 Course-ready activity to help students accept personal responsibility; (2) one ASTRO101 Course

  12. Activation of Complement Following Total Hip Replacement.

    PubMed

    Thordardottir, S; Vikingsdottir, T; Bjarnadottir, H; Jonsson, H; Gudbjornsson, B

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether complement activation, via the classical and alternative pathways, occurs following a cemented total hip replacement (THR) surgery due to osteoarthritis. Blood samples were collected systematically from 12 patients - six male and six women, with a median age of 75 (range: 59-90 years) - preoperatively, 6 h post-operatively and on the first, second and third post-operative day. Total function of classical (CH50) and alternative pathways (AH50) was evaluated, along with the determination of serum concentrations of the complement proteins C3, C4, C3d, the soluble terminal complement complex (sTCC) sC5b-9, as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin. Measurements of CRP and albumin levels elucidated a marked inflammatory response following the operation. The CH50, AH50 and C3 and C4 levels were significantly lower 6 h after the surgery compared with the preoperative levels, but elevated above the preoperative levels during the following 3 days. The complement activation product C3d levels increased continually during the whole observation period, from 13.5 AU/ml (range: 8-19 AU/ml) preoperative to 20 AU/ml (range: 12-34 AU/ml) on the third post-operative day. Furthermore, we observed an increase in the sC5b-9 levels between the preoperative and the third post-operative day. These results demonstrate a significant activation of the complement system following cemented THR. Further studies are needed to elucidate the time frame and the pathogenic role of this observed complement activation.

  13. Microbial activity in soils following steam treatment.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Ruth E; James, C Andrew; Bhupathiraju, Vishvesh K; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Steam enhanced extraction (SEE) is an aquifer remediation technique that can be effective at removing the bulk of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination from the subsurface, particularly highly volatile contaminants. However, low volatility compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are less efficiently removed by this process. This research evaluated the effects of steam injection on soil microbial activity, community structure, and the potential for biodegradation of contaminants following steam treatment. Three different soils were evaluated: a laboratory-prepared microbially-enriched soil, soil from a creosote contaminated field site, and soil from a chlorinated solvent and waste oil contaminated field site. Results from field-scale steaming are also presented. Microbial activity before and after steam treatment was evaluated using direct epifluorescent microscopy (DEM) using the respiratory activity dye 5-cyano-2,3, ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) in conjunction with the fluorochrome 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazinyl) aminofluorescein (DTAF) to yield a quantitative assessment of active and total microbial numbers. DEM results indicate that steamed soils that were analyzed while still hot exhibited microbial activity levels that were below detection. However, soil samples that were slowly cooled, more closely reflecting the conditions of applied SEE, exhibited microbial activity levels that were comparable to presteamed soils. Samples from a field-site where steam was applied continuously for 6 weeks also showed high levels of microbial activity following cooling. The metabolic capabilities of the steamed communities were investigated by measuring cell growth in enrichment cultures on various substrates. These studies provided evidence that organisms capable of biodegradation were among the mesophilic populations that survived steam treatment. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the soils with domain-level rRNA probes suggest

  14. Development of Reading Skills from K-3 in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners Following Three Programs of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamoto, Jonathan; Lindsey, Kim A.; Manis, Franklin R.

    2012-01-01

    The development of English and Spanish reading and oral language skills from kindergarten to third grade was examined with a sample of 502 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) enrolled in three instructional programs. The students in the transitional bilingual and dual-language programs had significantly higher scores than the…

  15. Identifying and Enhancing the Strengths of Gifted Learners, K-8: Easy-to-Use Activities and Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maccagnano, Ann Marie

    2007-01-01

    Educators can identify children's strengths early on and gain insight into each student's unique abilities by using the numerous ideas and informal assessments in this exciting guide. Gifted and talented specialist Ann Maccagnano offers K-8 teachers challenging activities and engaging lessons to develop and nurture gifted learners' talents.…

  16. Comparison of the Effects of Reflection and Contemplation Activities on Service-Learners' Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Trae; Alrutz, Megan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which service-learners' mindfulness is affected by engagement in reflection (e.g., dialogue) and contemplation activities (e.g., labyrinth tracing). The results are compared within and between treatment groups, while covarying for participants' initial levels of mindfulness. While both dialogue and…

  17. When Are Powerful Learning Environments Effective? The Role of Learner Activities and of Students' Conceptions of Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerjets, Peter H.; Hesse, Friedrich W.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to outline a theoretical and empirical perspective on how learners' conceptions of educational technology might influence their learning activities and thereby determine the power of computer-based learning environments. Starting with an introduction to the concept of powerful learning environments we outline how recent…

  18. The Impact of Vocabulary Enhancement Activities on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention among Male and Female EFL Learners in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Raftari, Shohreh; Bijami, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    In general, incidental vocabulary acquisition is represented as the "picking up" of new vocabularies when students are engaged in a variety of reading, listening, speaking, or writing activities. Research has shown when learners read extensively incidental vocabulary acquisition happens. Many EFL students cannot be involved in reading…

  19. From Passive to Active Learners: The "Lived Experience" of Nurses in a Specialist Nephrology Nursing Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridger, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the lived experience of learning for a group of staff nurses in the Middle East, who undertook a post-registration nursing education programme in the speciality of nephrology nursing (the NNP) between 2001 and 2002. The broad-based curriculum seeks to develop the staff nurses into active learners, able to…

  20. MAI (Multi-Dimensional Activity Based Integrated Approach): A Strategy for Cognitive Development of the Learners at the Elementary Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basantia, Tapan Kumar; Panda, B. N.; Sahoo, Dukhabandhu

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive development of the learners is the prime task of each and every stage of our school education and its importance especially in elementary state is quite worth mentioning. Present study investigated the effectiveness of a new and innovative strategy (i.e., MAI (multi-dimensional activity based integrated approach)) for the development of…

  1. The Lifelong Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Ronald

    Designed to provide a general guide and stimuli for lifelong learning, this book examines all the positive factors of independent study. Lifelong learning is defined as self-directed growth free from the traditional schooling procedures. Chapters discuss the following: the lifelong learner; profiles of such learners in action; how to be…

  2. Elastase and suppressor active peptide activity following burn injury.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, A N; Pinney, E; Hoyt, D B; Ninnemann, J; Hansbrough, J

    1988-02-01

    Proteolytic enzyme activity following trauma and inflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of injury. The precise mechanisms involved in the induction of protease release has not been determined. We show here that sera from burn patients with greater than 40% TBSA have significantly elevated levels of active elastase which correspond with significantly increased levels of suppressor active peptide (SAP) and suppression of neutrophil chemotaxis. The elastase inhibitory capacity of serum from burned or blunt trauma patients was within normal range, suggesting that the primary elastase inhibitor, alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor, is functionally active. Additionally, granulocytes exposed to suppressor active peptide in vitro resulted in a markedly elevated release of elastase into the culture supernatants. These data suggest that the suppressor peptide is capable of not only suppressing immune function but is also a potent mediator for the induction of proteolytic enzyme release from leukocytes.

  3. Cardiovascular function following reduced aerobic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raven, P. B.; Welch-O'Connor, R. M.; Shi, X.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a sustained reduction of physical activity (deconditioning) would alter the cardiovascular regulatory function. METHODS: Nineteen young, healthy volunteers participated in physical deconditioning for a period of 8 wk. Before (pre) and following (post) physical deconditioning, the responses of heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP, measured by Finapres), central venous pressure (CVP), stroke volume (SV, Doppler), and forearm blood flow (FBF, plethysmography) were determined during lower body negative pressure (LBNP). The carotid baroreflex (CBR) function was assessed using a train of pulsatile neck pressure (NP) and suction, and the aortic baroreflex control of HR was assessed during steady-state phenylephrine (PE) infusion superimposed by LBNP and NP to counteract the PE increased CVP and carotid sinus pressure, respectively. RESULTS: Active physical deconditioning significantly decreased maximal oxygen uptake (-7%) and LBNP tolerance (-13%) without a change in baseline hemodynamics. Plasma volume (-3% at P = 0.135), determined by Evans Blue dilution, and blood volume (-4% at P = 0.107) were not significantly altered. During LBNP -20 to -50 torr, there was a significantly greater drop of SV per unit decrease in CVP in the post- (14.7 +/- 1.6%/mm Hg) than predeconditioning (11.2 +/- 0.7%/mm Hg) test accompanied by a greater tachycardia. Deconditioning increased the aortic baroreflex sensitivity (pre vs post: -0.61 +/- 0.12 vs -0.84 +/- 0.14 bpm.mm-1 Hg, P = 0.009) and the slope of forearm vascular resistance (calculated from [MAP-CVP]/FBF) to CVP (-2.75 +/- 0.26 vs -4.94 +/- 0.97 PRU/mm Hg, P = 0.086). However, neither the CBR-HR (-0.28 +/- 0.03 VS -0.39 +/- 0.10 bpm.mm-1 Hg) nor the CBR-MAP (-0.37 +/- 0.16 vs -0.25 +/- 0.07 mm Hg/mm Hg) gains were statistically different between pre- and postdeconditioning. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the functional modification of the cardiac pressure

  4. Investigative Research: How It Changes Learner Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Brian

    1993-01-01

    What matters about an educational activity is how learners respond to it. This article examines a program concerned with the learners' needs, through the expression of learners' own meanings, and advances the concept of investigative research as a suitable vehicle for more autonomous learning, through a change in learner status. (26 references)…

  5. Air Activation Following an Atmospheric Explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2013-03-13

    In addition to thermal radiation and fission products, nuclear explosions result in a very high flux of unfissioned neutrons. Within an atmospheric nuclear explosion, these neutrons can activate the various elemental components of natural air, potentially adding to the radioactive signature of the event as a whole. The goal of this work is to make an order-of-magnitude estimate of the total amount of air activation products that can result from an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

  6. Enhanced interleukin activity following asbestos inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, D P; Georgian, M M; Oghiso, Y; Kagan, E

    1984-01-01

    Asbestos inhalation can cause pulmonary fibrosis and is associated with a variety of immunological abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of asbestos inhalation on interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in a rodent model. Two groups of rats were exposed, by intermittent inhalation, to either amphibole (crocidolite) or serpentine (chrysotile) asbestos. A third (control) group of rats was sham exposed to clean air. Animals from the three exposure groups were thereafter immunized (or not immunized) with fetal calf serum antigens. In order to assay interleukin activity, supernatants were generated from cultures containing alveolar macrophages and autologous splenic lymphocytes, and from cultures containing alveolar macrophages alone. Using assay systems designed to detect IL-1 and IL-2 functional activity, the supernatants were evaluated for their capacity to stimulate lymphoproliferation and fibroblast DNA synthesis. Macrophage-lymphocyte co-culture supernatants, when obtained from immunized, asbestos exposed rats, contained greater IL-1 and IL-2 activity than identical supernatants from immunized, sham exposed animals. These between group differences were not, however, observed in supernatants from unimmunized rats, or when supernatants were generated in the absence of immune lymphocytes. These observations suggest that asbestos exposure is associated with enhanced activation of lymphocytes by antigens. The possible relevance of these findings to asbestos related fibrogenesis and immunological stimulation is discussed. PMID:6608427

  7. An Analysis of Spanish L2 Learners' Orientation through Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tocaimaza-Hatch, C. Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Orientation is defined as the way in which individuals view a task and the means they devise to fulfill it (Appel & Lantolf, 1994; Roebuck, 2000). This study investigated the orientation of twelve learners enrolled in a fourth-semester Spanish L2 university course through the analysis of their interactions during a collaborative…

  8. Mathematics Learning with Multiple Solution Methods: Effects of Types of Solutions and Learners' Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Große, Cornelia S.

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly suggested to mathematics teachers to present learners different methods in order to solve one problem. This so-called "learning with multiple solution methods" is also recommended from a psychological point of view. However, existing research leaves many questions unanswered, particularly concerning the effects of…

  9. The effects of data-driven learning activities on EFL learners' writing development.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qinqin

    2016-01-01

    Data-driven learning has been proved as an effective approach in helping learners solve various writing problems such as correcting lexical or grammatical errors, improving the use of collocations and generating ideas in writing, etc. This article reports on an empirical study in which data-driven learning was accomplished with the assistance of the user-friendly BNCweb, and presents the evaluation of the outcome by comparing the effectiveness of BNCweb and a search engine Baidu which is most commonly used as reference resource by Chinese learners of English as a foreign language. The quantitative results about 48 Chinese college students revealed that the experimental group which used BNCweb performed significantly better in the post-test in terms of writing fluency and accuracy, as compared with the control group which used the search engine Baidu. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of writing complexity. The qualitative results about the interview revealed that learners generally showed a positive attitude toward the use of BNCweb but there were still some problems of using corpora in the writing process, thus the combined use of corpora and other types of reference resource was suggested as a possible way to counter the potential barriers for Chinese learners of English. PMID:27536538

  10. Activities for Challenging Gifted Learners by Increasing Complexity in the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeone, Alyssa; Caruso, Lenora; Bettle, Kailyn; Chase, Ashley; Bryson, Bridget; Schneider, Jean S.; Rule, Audrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Gifted learners need opportunities for critical and creative thinking to stretch their minds and imaginations. Strategies for increasing complexity in the four core areas of language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies were addressed using the Common Core and Iowa Core Standards through several methods. Descriptive adjective object…

  11. Impact of Consciousness-Raising Activities on Young English Language Learners' Grammar Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatemipour, Hamidreza; Hemmati, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Grammar Consciousness-Raising (GCR) is an approach to teaching of grammar which learners instead of being taught the given rules, experience language data. The data challenge them to rethink, restructure their existing mental grammar and construct an explicit rule to describe the grammatical feature which the data illustrate (Ellis, 2002). And…

  12. Fostering Active Processing of Instructional Explanations of Learners with High and Low Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acuna, Santiago R.; Garcia Rodicio, Hector; Sanchez, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential advantages of instructional explanations, evidence indicates that they are usually ineffective. Subsequent work has shown that in order to make instructional explanations effective indeed, one successful strategy is to combine them with indications of the limitations in learners' understanding that they are intended to…

  13. The effects of data-driven learning activities on EFL learners' writing development.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qinqin

    2016-01-01

    Data-driven learning has been proved as an effective approach in helping learners solve various writing problems such as correcting lexical or grammatical errors, improving the use of collocations and generating ideas in writing, etc. This article reports on an empirical study in which data-driven learning was accomplished with the assistance of the user-friendly BNCweb, and presents the evaluation of the outcome by comparing the effectiveness of BNCweb and a search engine Baidu which is most commonly used as reference resource by Chinese learners of English as a foreign language. The quantitative results about 48 Chinese college students revealed that the experimental group which used BNCweb performed significantly better in the post-test in terms of writing fluency and accuracy, as compared with the control group which used the search engine Baidu. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of writing complexity. The qualitative results about the interview revealed that learners generally showed a positive attitude toward the use of BNCweb but there were still some problems of using corpora in the writing process, thus the combined use of corpora and other types of reference resource was suggested as a possible way to counter the potential barriers for Chinese learners of English.

  14. Developing Learners' Second Language Communicative Competence through Active Learning: Clickers or Communicative Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of clickers, the communicative approach and the lecture method on the communicative competence development of learners who were taught English a second language (ESL). Ninety nine pupils from three primary schools participated in the study. Quasi-experimental non-randomised pre-test posttest…

  15. Effective Instruction for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sanchez, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or…

  16. Assessing the Impact of Hypertext on Learners' Architecture of Literacy Learning Spaces in Different Disciplines: Follow-Up Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Robert J.; Kieffer, Ron; Whalin, Kathleen; Desai, Laurie; Moss, Antonia Gale; Harris, Jo Ellen; Hopper, John

    1997-01-01

    Two studies (which followed up a 4-year longitudinal study) examined the impact of hypertext on students' learning in science and English classes. The first study compared the impact of HyperCard stacks and regular textbook presentations of ideas in biology on ninth-grade students assigned to study these materials. Students in the second study, 10…

  17. Factors Influencing Chinese Language Learners' Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Ko-Yin

    2011-01-01

    This survey study, which involved 134 language learners enrolled in first-year Chinese as a foreign language classrooms in the US universities, intended to address the research question, "Do learners' strategy use differ based on the following learner differences: (1) gender; (2) home language/culture; and (3) number of other foreign languages…

  18. The Role of Private Speech in Cognitive Regulation of Learners: The Case of English as a Foreign Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarab, Mohamad Reza Anani; Gordani, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Investigations into the use of private speech by adult English foreign language (EFL) learners in regulating their mental activities have been an interesting area of research with a sociocultural framework. Following this line of research, 30 advanced adult EFL learners were selected via the administration of Oxford quick placement test and took a…

  19. Summary of International Guidelines for Physical Activity Following Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Mottola, Michelle F.; Owe, Katrine M.; Rousham, Emily K.; Brown, Wendy J.

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum physical activity can improve mood, maintain cardiorespiratory fitness, improve weight control, promote weight loss, and reduce depression and anxiety. This review summarizes current guidelines for postpartum physical activity worldwide. PubMed (MedLINE) was searched for country-specific government and clinical guidelines on physical activity following pregnancy through the year 2013. Only the most recent guideline was included in the review. An abstraction form facilitated extraction of key details and helped to summarize results. Six guidelines were identified from five countries (Australia, Canada, Norway, United Kingdom, United States). All guidelines were embedded within pregnancy-related physical activity recommendations. All provided physical activity advice related to breastfeeding and three remarked about physical activity following Caesarean delivery. Recommended physical activities mentioned in the guidelines included aerobic (3/6), pelvic floor exercise (3/6), strengthening (2/6), stretching (2/6), and walking (2/6). None of the guidelines discussed sedentary behavior. The guidelines that were identified lacked specificity for physical activity. Greater clarity in guidelines would be more useful to both practitioners and the women they serve. Postpartum physical activity guidelines have the potential to assist women to initiate or resume physical activity following childbirth, so that they can transition to meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Health care providers have a critical role in encouraging women to be active at this time, and the availability of more explicit guidelines may assist them to routinely include physical activity advice in their postpartum care. PMID:25112589

  20. Using What Learners Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Mary; Adams, Sharon

    2000-01-01

    This issue of "TAP into Learning" focuses on technology-assisted learning activities for students, in particular on those that use spreadsheets. Articles include: "Using What Learners Know"; "Activity: Grade 7 and 8 Math, Social Studies and Language Arts"; "Managing Growth: Collaborative Decision-Making in Urban Planning"; "Spreadsheets"; "Getting…

  1. Participatory Multimedia Learning: Engaging Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiili, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a participatory multimedia learning model for use in designing multimedia learning environments that support an active learning process, creative participation, and learner engagement. Participatory multimedia learning can be defined as learning with systems that enable learners to produce part of the…

  2. Adult Learners' Week in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John

    2002-01-01

    Promotional materials and activities for Australia's Adult Learners Week, which are shaped by a variety of stakeholders , include media strategies and a website. Activities are evaluated using a market research company and website and telephone hotline statistics. (SK)

  3. School Learners & Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Jenni, Ed.

    This document presents papers from a conference held in November 1995 in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, convened by the Education Policy Unit (EPU) of the University of Natal as part of research concerning the provision of library-based resources for school learners. Following an introduction are two chapters: "Identifying the Inherited Problems in the…

  4. The Effects of Pragmatic Consciousness-Raising Activities on the Development of Pragmatic Awareness and Use of Hearsay Evidential Markers for Learners of Japanese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narita, Ritsuko

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the effectiveness of pragmatic consciousness-raising (PCR) activities in the L2 pragmatic acquisition of hearsay evidential markers by learners of Japanese as a foreign language (JFL). PCR is essentially an inductive approach to facilitating awareness of how language forms are used appropriately in a given context.…

  5. The Development and Evaluation of an Achievement Test for Measuring the Efficacy of Task-Based Writing Activities to Enhance Iranian EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejad, Ferdows Mohsen; Khosravian, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability of an achievement test to measure the efficacy of task-based writing activities to improve Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension at the intermediate level in a private language institute in Ilam, Iran, namely Alefba language institute. To achieve the goal, the techniques for evaluating reliability…

  6. "Dealing With" Unexpected Learner Contributions in Whole Group Activities: An Examination of Novice Language Teacher Discursive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Drew S.

    2012-01-01

    The current paper examines the discursive practices of one novice English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher "dealing with" learners' unexpected contributions in whole group classroom interactions during teacher- and learner-initiated sequences-of-talk. The study draws from two fields of research: classroom discourse studies…

  7. Immune activation during cerebellar dysfunction following Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    de Silva, H J; Hoang, P; Dalton, H; de Silva, N R; Jewell, D P; Peiris, J B

    1992-01-01

    Evidence for immune activation was investigated in 12 patients with a rare syndrome of self-limiting, delayed onset cerebellar dysfunction following an attack of falciparum malaria which occurred 18-26 d previously. Concentrations of tumour necrosis factor, interleukin 6 and interleukin 2 were all significantly higher in serum samples of patients during cerebellar ataxia than in recovery sera and in the sera of 8 patients who did not develop delayed cerebellar dysfunction following an attack of falciparum malaria. Cytokine concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid were also significantly higher in ataxic patients than in controls. These findings suggest that immunological mechanisms may play a role in delayed cerebellar dysfunction following falciparum malaria.

  8. Exploring Shifts in Middle School Learners' Modeling Activity While Generating Drawings, Animations, and Computational Simulations of Molecular Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson-Jerde, Michelle H.; Gravel, Brian E.; Macrander, Christopher A.

    2015-04-01

    Modeling and using technology are two practices of particular interest to K-12 science educators. These practices are inextricably linked among professionals, who engage in modeling activity with and across a variety of representational technologies. In this paper, we explore the practices of five sixth-grade girls as they generated models of smell diffusion using drawing, stop-motion animation, and computational simulation during a multi-day workshop. We analyze video, student discourse, and artifacts to address the questions: In what ways did learners' modeling practices, reasoning about mechanism, and ideas about smell shift as they worked across this variety of representational technologies? And, what supports enabled them to persist and progress in the modeling activity? We found that the girls engaged in two distinct modeling cycles that reflected persistence and deepening engagement in the task. In the first, messing about, they focused on describing and representing many ideas related to the spread of smell at once. In the second, digging in, they focused on testing and revising specific mechanisms that underlie smell diffusion. Upon deeper analysis, we found these cycles were linked to the girls' invention of "oogtom," a representational object that encapsulated many ideas from the first cycle and allowed the girls to restart modeling with the mechanistic focus required to construct simulations. We analyze the role of activity design, facilitation, and technological infrastructure in this pattern of engagement over the course of the workshop and discuss implications for future research, curriculum design, and classroom practice.

  9. 19 CFR 207.20 - Investigative activity following preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investigative activity following preliminary determination. 207.20 Section 207.20 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM...

  10. Changes in Second-Language Learners' Oral Skills and Socio-Affective Profiles Following Study Abroad: A Mixed-Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardison, Debra M.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the effectiveness of short-term study-abroad (SA) programs for improving oral skills has shown mixed results. In this study, 24 L2 German learners (L1 English) provided pre- and post-SA speech samples addressing a hypothetical situation and completed surveys on cross-cultural interest and adaptability; L2 communication affect,…

  11. Long-Term Follow-Up of Spanish and English Interventions for First-Grade English Language Learners at Risk for Reading Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Cirino, Paul T.; Tolar, Tammy; Fletcher, Jack M.; Cardenas-Hagan, Elsa; Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.

    2008-01-01

    We provide data 3 to 4 years postintervention for four samples of English language learners from two sequential Grade 1 cohorts who received supplemental Grade 1 reading interventions in Spanish or English and for whom the language of instruction for intervention was matched with language of core reading instruction. Participants were 300 students…

  12. Language through the Seasons: Dramatic Play Activities for Early Childhood Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amdur, Judith

    This workbook brings together activities to aid in motivating children to concentrate, listen, respond, think, and learn. The activities rely upon play-like tasks involving drama, music, and other forms of creative expression. The activities are organized by the season in which they are appropriate and include songs, dramatic sequences, stories,…

  13. Activity Based Learning as Self-Accessing Strategy to Promote Learners' Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravi, R.; Xavier, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Activity Based Learning (ABL) is unique and effective to attract out-of -school children to schools. It facilitates readiness for learning, instruction, reinforcement and evaluation. ABL has transformed the classrooms into hubs of activities and meaningful learning. Activity-based learning, naturally leads to cooperative learning. Since group…

  14. Ute Unit: Study Guide and Follow Up Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Conejos School District, Capulin, CO.

    The study guide and follow-up activities were designed primarily to give students a feeling of Ute life in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. The unit begins with six Southern Ute stories about the wolf and coyote, the race between the skunk and the coyote, the frog and the eagle, why the frog croaks, the bear (Que Ye Qat), and the two Indian…

  15. Regional Triggering of Volcanic Activity Following Large Magnitude Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill-Butler, Charley; Blackett, Matthew; Wright, Robert

    2015-04-01

    There are numerous reports of a spatial and temporal link between volcanic activity and high magnitude seismic events. In fact, since 1950, all large magnitude earthquakes have been followed by volcanic eruptions in the following year - 1952 Kamchatka M9.2, 1960 Chile M9.5, 1964 Alaska M9.2, 2004 & 2005 Sumatra-Andaman M9.3 & M8.7 and 2011 Japan M9.0. While at a global scale, 56% of all large earthquakes (M≥8.0) in the 21st century were followed by increases in thermal activity. The most significant change in volcanic activity occurred between December 2004 and April 2005 following the M9.1 December 2004 earthquake after which new eruptions were detected at 10 volcanoes and global volcanic flux doubled over 52 days (Hill-Butler et al. 2014). The ability to determine a volcano's activity or 'response', however, has resulted in a number of disparities with <50% of all volcanoes being monitored by ground-based instruments. The advent of satellite remote sensing for volcanology has, therefore, provided researchers with an opportunity to quantify the timing, magnitude and character of volcanic events. Using data acquired from the MODVOLC algorithm, this research examines a globally comparable database of satellite-derived radiant flux alongside USGS NEIC data to identify changes in volcanic activity following an earthquake, February 2000 - December 2012. Using an estimate of background temperature obtained from the MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) product (Wright et al. 2014), thermal radiance was converted to radiant flux following the method of Kaufman et al. (1998). The resulting heat flux inventory was then compared to all seismic events (M≥6.0) within 1000 km of each volcano to evaluate if changes in volcanic heat flux correlate with regional earthquakes. This presentation will first identify relationships at the temporal and spatial scale, more complex relationships obtained by machine learning algorithms will then be examined to establish favourable

  16. The Structural Challenge: A Simple Design-Based Science Activity to Foster Creativity among Kinaesthetic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Nazir; Subramaniam, R.

    2014-01-01

    A suitable way for teachers to present science content and foster creativity in less academically inclined students is by getting them to engage in design-based science activities and guiding them along the way. This study illustrates how a design-and-make activity was carried out with the aim of getting students to showcase their creativity while…

  17. Learner Uptake and Acquisition in Three Grammar-Oriented Production Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinders, Hayo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of three types of production activities on uptake (operationalized as correct suppliance of the target structure during the treatment) and acquisition of negative adverbs in English. It also investigates the relationship between uptake and acquisition. The three production activities included a dictation, an…

  18. The syndrome of continuous muscle fibre activity following gold therapy.

    PubMed

    Grisold, W; Mamoli, B

    1984-01-01

    A 72-year-old man suffering from arthritis received a total dose of 500 mg sodium aurothiomalate during a period of 5 months. His clinical state then deteriorated and he had to be hospitalized. Upon admission he was bedridden, his level of consciousness was slightly impaired, he was confused and respiration was laboured. Continuous muscle activity was noted on all extremities and at first, erroneously, fasciculations were diagnosed. The EMG exhibited continuous muscle fibre activity consisting of duplets, triplets and multiplets. The discharges occurred in an irregular pattern; when various muscles were examined at the same time no synchronicity could be observed between muscle discharges. In the left m. deltoideus an increased percentage of polyphasic potentials was found, whereas mean duration of motor unit potentials was normal. Spontaneous activity remained unchanged during sleep and administration of intravenous diazepam or phenytoin. Blocking of ulnar nerve at either elbow or wrist level did not stop spontaneous activity in m. abductor digiti quinti. Ischaemia increased the amount of discharges after 7 min. Within 4 months after termination of gold therapy the patient's condition improved and he was discharged from hospital. Regular EMG follow-up after 8 months showed complete cessation of abnormal spontaneous activities. Nerve conduction velocities were normal except for markedly reduced compound action potential in peroneal nerves. Continuous muscle fibre activity as a side-effect of gold therapy is described. PMID:6440953

  19. Objects prompt authentic scientific activities among learners in a museum programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achiam, Marianne; Simony, Leonora; Kramer Lindow, Bent Erik

    2016-04-01

    Although the scientific disciplines conduct practical work in different ways, all consider practical work as the essential way of connecting objects and phenomena with ideas and the abstract. Accordingly, practical work is regarded as central to science education as well. We investigate a practical, object-based palaeontology programme at a natural history museum to identify how palaeontological objects prompt scientific activity among upper secondary school students. We first construct a theoretical framework based on an analysis of the programme's palaeontological content. From this, we build our reference model, which considers the specimens used in the programme, possible palaeontological interpretations of these specimens, and the conditions inherent in the programme. We use the reference model to analyse the activities of programme participants, and illustrate how these activities are palaeontologically authentic. Finally, we discuss our findings, examining the mechanism by which the specimens prompt scientific activities. We also discuss our discipline-based approach, and how it allows us to positively identify participants' activities as authentic. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings.

  20. The Effect of a Timed Reading Activity on EFL Learners: Speed, Comprehension, and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Anna C-S

    2010-01-01

    To develop reading fluency, a 13-week timed reading activity was integrated into a normal curriculum with the aim of improving students' reading rates. Participants were 84 college students divided into an experimental and a control group. The test instruments involved pretests and posttests on reading speed and comprehension. Students'…

  1. Research on the Healthy Lifestyle Model, Active Ageing, and Loneliness of Senior Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Jui-Ying; Lu, Kuo-Song

    2014-01-01

    Taiwan has the fastest ageing population in the world. Thus, the government and local policy makers need to formulate policies not just for the nursing and care needs of the aged. They also need to actively promote the need for lifelong learning among seniors in order to achieve elderly-friendly objectives, such as health promotion and delays in…

  2. The Effect of Curricular Activities on Learner Autonomy: The Perspective of Undergraduate Mechanical Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, M.; Leite, C.; Mouraz, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study researches how first-year engineering students perceived the influence of curricular activities on their own learning autonomy, measured with an adaptation of the Personal Responsibility Orientation to Self-direction in Learning Scale (PRO-SDLS). Participants were questioned to assess the influence of the teacher's role. The results…

  3. Growing into Greatness: A Study of a Local History Group of Active-Retired Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Trudy; Byrne, Brid; Harris, Phyllis; Lalor, Maureen; O'Connor, Maura; O'Reilly, Kathleen; Quinn, Frank; Forde, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Research in Canada on the learning needs of older people looked at such issues as how to cope with changes in society, the need to make a contribution and the need to be influential. The White Paper on Adult Education "Learning for Life" notes that strategies for active ageing stress the critical importance of access to learning as a key tool in…

  4. The Effect of Post-Teaching Activity Type on Vocabulary Learning of Elementary EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Karim; Sharifi, Faranak

    2013-01-01

    Considering the significant role of vocabulary in learning a language, and teachers' great responsibility in providing opportunities to facilitate this learning, many studies have focused on the best means of achieving a good knowledge of vocabulary. This study set out to investigate the effect of four post-teaching activities, namely game,…

  5. Neuroprotective activity of hydroponic Teucrium polium following bilateral ovariectomy.

    PubMed

    Simonyan, K V; Chavushyan, V A

    2015-06-01

    Ovariectomy is known as "surgical menopause" with decreased levels of estrogen in female rodents. Its reported risks and adverse effects include cognitive impairment. The action of hydroponic Teucrium polium on nucleus basalis of Meynert (bnM) neurons following 6 weeks of ovariectomy was carried out. The analysis of spike activity was observed by on-line selection and the use of a software package. Early and late tetanic, - posttetanic potentiation and depression of neurons to high frequency stimulation of hippocampus were studied. The complex averaged peri-event time and frequency histograms were constructed. The histochemical study of the activity of Са(2+)-dependent acid phosphatase was observed. In conditions of hydroponic Teucrium polium administration, positive changes in neurons and gain of metabolism leading to cellular survival were revealed. The administration of Teucrium polium elicited neurodegenerative changes in bnM.

  6. Turning Reluctant Learners into Inspired Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanacore, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Motivation is a key factor in promoting academic success, and intrinsic motivation is especially important for developing autonomous learners. Reluctant learners, in particular, benefit from intrinsic motivation that makes learning relevant to their lives. In this article, the author describes commonalities of reluctant learners and presents…

  7. Imaging brain activity in conscious monkeys following oral MDMA ("ecstasy").

    PubMed

    Brevard, Mathew E; Meyer, Jerrold S; Harder, Josie A; Ferris, Craig F

    2006-07-01

    Recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA;"ecstasy") poses worldwide potential health problems. Clinical studies show that repeated exposure to low oral doses of MDMA has toxic effects on the brain, altering cognitive and psychosocial behavior. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in conscious marmoset monkeys was used to evaluate the sensitivity of the brain to an oral dose of MDMA (1 mg/kg). Following MDMA administration, the midbrain raphe nuclei and substantia nigra, major sources of serotonin and dopamine, were activated as were the hippocampus, hypothalamus and amygdala. The corticostriatal circuit of dorsal thalamus, sensorimotor cortex and basal ganglia showed a robust, coherent activation pattern. Two key reward areas, the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex, and most other cortical regions showed little activation. The visual cortex, however, showed intense activation without applied visual stimuli. These data identify brain areas and functional circuits sensitive to a recreational dose of MDMA, some of which may be vulnerable to long-term intermittent exposure to this drug.

  8. Caregiver Reports of Children's Activity Participation Following Serious Injury.

    PubMed

    Braaf, Sandra; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Teague, Warwick; Jowett, Helen; Gabbe, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric trauma can result in significant levels of on-going disability. The aim of this study was to explore the restrictions on activity participation that children experience following serious injury from the perspective of their caregivers. We performed a thematic analysis of transcripts of semi-structured in-depth interviews with the caregivers of 44 seriously injured children, conducted three-years after the injury, and purposively sampled from a population-based cohort study. Both temporary and on-going restrictions on school, sport, leisure and social activities were identified, some of which were imposed by caregivers, schools, or recommended by health providers. The perceived risk of further injury, physical restrictions, emotional state and fatigue levels were important influences on degrees of activity restriction. Children who were socially less engaged, especially those who were more severely injured, had difficulty making and retaining friends, and exhibited signs of depression or social withdrawal. The activities of pre-school children were strongly regulated by their caregivers, while school age children faced obstacles with participation in aspects such as study, sport, and peer and teacher relationships, affecting learning, school attendance and enjoyment. The findings highlight the need for primary prevention and reducing the impacts of serious injury throughout the continuum of care. PMID:27399741

  9. Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann F. V., Ed.; Strong, Gregory, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation" presents instructional practices that are particularly successful with adults. Adult language learners are goal oriented and direct their learning to fulfill particular needs or demands: to advance their studies, to progress up the career ladder, to follow business opportunities, to pass a driving…

  10. A prospective follow-up study of the effects of chronic aircraft noise exposure on learners' reading comprehension in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Seabi, Joseph; Cockcroft, Kate; Goldschagg, Paul; Greyling, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this epidemiological study was to investigate the long-term effects of exposure to aircraft noise on reading comprehension on a sample of South African children. Given the impairment of reading comprehension found within the noised-exposed group before the relocation of the airport, it was the intention of this study to determine whether the effects of aircraft noise on reading comprehension remained after the relocation of the airport or whether they disappeared. A cohort of 732 learners with a mean age of 11.1 years participated at baseline measurements in 2009 and 650 (mean age=12.3) and 178 (mean age=13.1) learners were reassessed after the relocation of the airport in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The results revealed no significant effect of the groups on reading comprehension across the testing periods, but significant effects of home language were demonstrated on reading comprehension. These findings suggest that exposure to chronic aircraft noise may have a lasting impact on children's reading comprehension functioning. PMID:24169877

  11. A prospective follow-up study of the effects of chronic aircraft noise exposure on learners' reading comprehension in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Seabi, Joseph; Cockcroft, Kate; Goldschagg, Paul; Greyling, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this epidemiological study was to investigate the long-term effects of exposure to aircraft noise on reading comprehension on a sample of South African children. Given the impairment of reading comprehension found within the noised-exposed group before the relocation of the airport, it was the intention of this study to determine whether the effects of aircraft noise on reading comprehension remained after the relocation of the airport or whether they disappeared. A cohort of 732 learners with a mean age of 11.1 years participated at baseline measurements in 2009 and 650 (mean age=12.3) and 178 (mean age=13.1) learners were reassessed after the relocation of the airport in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The results revealed no significant effect of the groups on reading comprehension across the testing periods, but significant effects of home language were demonstrated on reading comprehension. These findings suggest that exposure to chronic aircraft noise may have a lasting impact on children's reading comprehension functioning.

  12. Learner Personas in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude

    2007-01-01

    In examining the titles of this year's conference presentations, the author noticed quite a few papers that focus on learner-specific issues, for instance, papers that address learning styles, learner needs, personality and learning, learner modeling and, more generally, pedagogical issues that deal with individual learner differences in…

  13. Examining Student Cognitive and Affective Engagement and Reading Instructional Activities: Spanish-Speaking English Learners' Reading Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Ana Taboada; Gallagher, Melissa; Smith, Peet; Buehl, Michelle M.; Beck, Jori S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the key role of engagement in helping students succeed in school and beyond. Given the academic struggles that many English learners (ELs) face as they transition to middle school, exploring the facets of engagement in middle school ELs is needed. We established reader profiles for eight sixth grade Hispanic ELs and…

  14. We Are What We Do: Examining Learner-Generated Content in the Anatomy Laboratory through the Lens of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doubleday, Alison F.; Wille, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Video and photography are often used for delivering content within the anatomical sciences. However, instructors typically produce these resources to provide instructional or procedural information. Although the benefits of learner-generated content have been explored within educational research, virtually no studies have investigated the use of…

  15. Teacher-Made Tactile Science Materials with Critical and Creative Thinking Activities for Learners Including Those with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teske, Jolene K.; Gray, Phyllis; Kuhn, Mason A.; Clausen, Courtney K.; Smith, Latisha L.; Alsubia, Sukainah A.; Ghayoorad, Maryam; Rule, Audrey C.; Schneider, Jean Suchsland

    2014-01-01

    Gifted students with visual impairments are twice exceptional learners and may not evidence their advanced science aptitudes without appropriate accommodations for learning science. However, effective tactile science teaching materials may be easily made. Recent research has shown that when tactile materials are used with "all" students…

  16. Morphing into Adolescents: Active Word Learning for English-Language Learners and Their Classmates in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2010-01-01

    Many students arrive at middle school without the academic language skills they need to read sophisticated texts with comprehension. In particular, English language learners and students from low-income backgrounds attending underresourced, urban middle schools lack opportunities to learn the thousands of academic words they need to succeed. To…

  17. Style Shifts among Japanese Learners before and after Study Abroad in Japan: Becoming Active Social Agents in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwasaki, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on L2 Japanese sojourners often reported that learners overuse the plain style or haphazardly mix the plain and polite styles upon return. These styles, which are often associated with formal or informal contexts, also index complex social and situational meanings, and native speakers are reported to shift their styles to create…

  18. Upside-Down Brilliance: The Visual-Spatial Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Linda Kreger

    This book describes the unique characteristics of visual-spatial learners and teaching techniques designed for this population. Following a quiz to identify visual-spatial learners, chapters address: (1) how visual-spatial learners think and the plight of being non-sequential; (2) the power of the right hemisphere, eye movement patterns, and…

  19. An Assessment-Prescriptive-Instructional Packet for Older Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Alice M.

    The purpose of this document is to suggest an assessment/prescriptive/instructional (API) process for working with older learners experiencing reading difficulties. Following a justification for the designing of materials specifically for older learners, the document explains how to collect data about learner's interests, attitudes, and reading…

  20. Over-inhibition of Corticostriatal Activity following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wengang; Nitulescu, Ioana; Lewis, Justin S.; Lemos, Julia C.; Bamford, Ian J.; Posielski, Natasza M.; Storey, Granville P; Phillips, Paul E. M.; Bamford, Nigel S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) can cause persistent neuropsychological and motor abnormalities in affected children, but the physiological consequences of PCE remain unclear. Conclusions drawn from clinical studies can sometimes be confounded by poly-substance abuse and nutritional deprivation. However, existing observations suggest that cocaine exposure in utero, as in adults, increases synaptic dopamine and promotes enduring dopamine-dependent plasticity at striatal synapses, altering behaviors and basal ganglia function. Methods We used a combination of behavioral measures, electrophysiology, optical imaging, and biochemical and electrochemical recordings to examine corticostriatal activity in adolescent mice exposed to cocaine in utero. Results We show that PCE caused abnormal dopamine-dependent behaviors, including heightened excitation following stress and blunted locomotor augmentation to repeated treatment with amphetamine. These abnormal behaviors were consistent with abnormal GABA interneuron function, which promoted a reversible depression in corticostriatal activity. PCE hyperpolarized and reduced tonic GABA currents in both fast-spiking and PLTS-type GABA interneurons to increase tonic inhibition at GABAB receptors on presynaptic corticostriatal terminals. While D2 receptors paradoxically increased glutamate release following PCE, normal corticostriatal modulation by dopamine was reestablished with a GABAAR antagonist. Interpretation The dynamic alterations at corticostriatal synapses that occur in response to PCE parallel the reported effects of repeated psychostimulants in mature animals, but differ in being specifically generated through GABA. Our results indicate that approaches which normalize GABA and D2 receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity may be useful for treating the behavioral effects of PCE and other developmental disorders that are generated through abnormal GABAergic signaling. PMID:23225132

  1. Lurking and L2 Learners on a Facebook Group: The Voices of the Invisibles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafie, Latisha Asmaak; Yaacob, Aizan; Singh, Paramjit Kaur Karpal

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research investigates the practice of lurking among English as a second language (ESL) learners in a Facebook group discussion. Lurking is a term used to describe the activity of following and observing any online discussions or activities without contributing to the discussions. Lurkers are often accused of being invisible and…

  2. Student Perceptions of Learner-Centered Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlfarth, DeDe; Sheras, Daniel; Bennett, Jessica L.; Simon, Bethany; Pimentel, Jody H.; Gabel, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    The learner-centered paradigm departs from traditional teaching models by focusing on students more than teachers and learning more than teaching. Thus, classes are more egalitarian; they emphasize critical thinking, active learning, and real-world assignments. Graduate students in learner-centered classrooms were surveyed about perceptions of…

  3. Engaging Learner Support: An Investigation of Faculty-Library Collaboration to Provide Live Course-Specific Learner Support in the Online Classroom Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration between faculty and learner support can create seamless services for e-learners. Providing access to learning materials and activities with co-located tailored learner support creates an environment in which e-learners can easily access everything they need for an enhanced, supported, and more focused learning experience. The…

  4. The Learners' Mental Models of Television in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumalee, Chaijaroen

    1999-01-01

    Examines the learners' mental models of television in actual media classroom activity by which knowledge was constructed. Findings revealed how media capabilities and the instructional designs that employ them interact with the learners and the task characteristics to influence the formation of the learners' mental models and their learning…

  5. The Development of Expert Learners in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Saemah; Mahmud, Zuria; Yassin, Siti Fatimah Mohd; Amir, Ruslin; Ilias, Khadijah Wan

    2010-01-01

    The term "expert learner" refers to students who are actively engaged with the materials learned and take responsibility for their own learning. Literature reviews suggested the use of metacognitive approach to help develop students to become expert learners. Research on development of expert learners can be traced from movements that…

  6. The Tip of the Iceberg: Factors Affecting Learner Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Teachers' informal discussions of learner motivation often emphasize the need to find ways to motivate learners, most usually through "fun" or "dynamic" activities. This paper starts from the assumption, however, that part of the work of the teacher is to avoid the "demotivation" of learners, and that there is a need to consider the overall…

  7. Shifting Power to the Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Decades of reform have resulted in a system of further education that treats adults like children, with limited control over the qualifications they choose to pursue. This needs to change. Money must follow learners, not government contracts, and so create a genuinely demand-led system. The author proposes new financial and regulatory structures…

  8. Expanded Perspectives on Autonomous Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two general perspectives on autonomous learners: psychological and sociocultural. These perspectives introduce a range of theoretically grounded facets of autonomous learners, facets such as the self-regulated learner, the emotionally intelligent learner, the self-determined learner, the mediated learner, the socioculturally…

  9. Listening to Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    This booklet looks at the role of learner feedback in the quality improvement process. It suggests how adult and community learning (ACL) providers can adapt and improve their practice to meet the needs of learners in the changed policy context. Chapter 1 explores why providers should listen to learners and finds that listening to learners…

  10. Learner and Faculty Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Sharon; Stanford, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This chapter identifies effective ways to address learner and faculty support. It introduces methods for building a successful learner support system by providing sufficient resources and proactively addressing learner motivation. It also addresses effective faculty support through institutional policies, resources, training, and course…

  11. Between the Social and the Selfish: Learner Autonomy in Online Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores what it means to be an autonomous learner in an online social context. Using distinctions originally drawn by Jürgen Habermas, it argues that classic accounts of learner autonomy as teleological action are inadequate to explain learner activity in group settings. It points out that learners in such settings display attitudes…

  12. Intramyocardial activation in early ventricular arrhythmias following coronary artery ligation.

    PubMed

    Kaplinsky, E; Ogawa, S; Kmetzo, J; Balke, C W; Dreifus, L S

    1980-01-01

    Subendocardial, subepicardial and intramyocardial activation in the ischemic zone was investigated in 20 anesthetized open chest dogs 0-30 minutes after the ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Single and composite electrograms and lead 2 of the ECG were recorded. Coronary artery ligation produced marked delay, fragmentation, and reduction in amplitude in the electrical activity of the subepicardial and intramyocardial muscle layers. The activation remained synchronous in the subendocardial muscle layers. Extension of electrical activity in the ischemic subepicardium and intramyocardium beyond the T wave of the surface ECG preceded the onset of immediate ventricular arrhythmias (IVA) during the initial ten minute period after coronary artery ligation. However, a second surge of delayed ventricular arrhythmias (DVA), 10-30 minutes after ligation, was not associated with the appearance of diastolic electrical activity in any of the subepicardial or myocardial layers. It appears that subepicardial as well as intramyocardial reentry could play an important role in the genesis of the immediate ventricular arrhythmias (1-10 minutes after ligation). In contrast, no obvious reentrant activity as evidenced by delayed and fragmented electrical activity could be observed in the electrogram from any of the myocardial electrical activity could be observed in the electrogram from any of the myocardial layers with the appearance of delayed ventricular ectopic activity 10-30 minutes after ligation.

  13. Learning L2 Vocabulary with American TV Drama "From the Learner's Perspective"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Chia

    2012-01-01

    Following the trend of computer assisted language learning (CALL), in Taiwan, most language classes now have equivalent media support for language teachers and learners. Implementing videos into classroom activities is one of the choices. The current study explores the process of implementing American TV drama in L2 vocabulary learning from…

  14. Physical Activity in Adolescents following Treatment for Cancer: Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Wright, Marilyn; Bryans, Angie; Gray, Kaylin; Skinner, Leah; Verhoeve, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels and influencing individual and environmental factors in a group of adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparison group. Methods. The study was conducted using a "mixed methods" design. Quantitative data was collected from 48 adolescent survivors of cancer and 48 comparison adolescents using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Fatigue Scale-Adolescents, and the Amherst Health and Activity Study-Student Survey. Qualitative data was collected in individual semistructured interviews. Results. Reported leisure-time physical activity total scores were not significantly different between groups. Physical activity levels were positively correlated with adult social support factors in the group of adolescent survivors of cancer, but not in the comparison group. Time was the primary barrier to physical activity in both groups. Fatigue scores were higher for the comparison but were not associated with physical activity levels in either group. The qualitative data further supported these findings. Conclusions. Barriers to physical activity were common between adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparative group. Increased knowledge of the motivators and barriers to physical activity may help health care providers and families provide more effective health promotion strategies to adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer.

  15. SNAPPS: a learner-centered model for outpatient education.

    PubMed

    Wolpaw, Terry M; Wolpaw, Daniel R; Papp, Klara K

    2003-09-01

    The unique character of medical education in the outpatient setting has created challenges in teaching and learning that cannot be solved by the adaptation of traditional inpatient approaches. Previous work and the authors' own observational study describe a relatively passive learner focused on reporting history and physical examination data to the preceptor. Based on the work of Bordage in cognitive learning, and that of Osterman and Kottkamp on reflective practice for educators, the authors have developed a collaborative model for case presentations in the outpatient setting that links learner initiation and preceptor facilitation in an active learning conversation. This learner-centered model for case presentations to the preceptor follows a mnemonic called SNAPPS consisting of six steps: (1) Summarize briefly the history and findings; (2) Narrow the differential to two or three relevant possibilities; (3) Analyze the differential by comparing and contrasting the possibilities; (4) Probe the preceptor by asking questions about uncertainties, difficulties, or alternative approaches; (5) Plan management for the patient's medical issues; and (6) Select a case-related issue for self-directed learning. The authors conducted a pilot study of SNAPPS, introducing the model to both third-year medical students and their preceptors. Feedback was enthusiastic and underscored the importance of the paired approach. SNAPPS represents a paradigm shift in ambulatory education that engages the learner and creates a collaborative learning conversation in the context of patient care. PMID:14507619

  16. Spontaneous olfactory receptor neuron activity determines follower cell response properties

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Joby; Dunn, Felice A.; Stopfer, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Noisy or spontaneous activity is common in neural systems and poses a challenge to detecting and discriminating signals. Here we use the locust to answer fundamental questions about noise in the olfactory system: Where does spontaneous activity originate? How is this activity propagated or reduced throughout multiple stages of neural processing? What mechanisms favor the detection of signals despite the presence of spontaneous activity? We found that spontaneous activity long observed in the secondary projection neurons (PNs) originates almost entirely from the primary olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) rather than from spontaneous circuit interactions in the antennal lobe, and that spontaneous activity in ORNs tonically depolarizes the resting membrane potentials of their target PNs and local neurons (LNs), and indirectly tonically depolarizes tertiary Kenyon cells (KCs). However, because these neurons have different response thresholds, in the absence of odor stimulation, ORNs and PNs display a high spontaneous firing rate but KCs are nearly silent. Finally, we used a simulation of the olfactory network to show that discrimination of signal and noise in the KCs is best when threshold levels are set so that baseline activity in PNs persists. Our results show how the olfactory system benefits from making a signal detection decision after a point of maximal information convergence, e.g., after KCs pool inputs from many PNs. PMID:22357872

  17. Medicinal chemistry of drugs with active metabolites following conjugation.

    PubMed

    Kalász, Huba; Petroianu, Georg; Hosztafi, Sándor; Darvas, Ferenc; Csermely, Tamás; Adeghate, Ernest; Siddiq, Afshan; Tekes, Kornélia

    2013-10-01

    Authorities of Drug Administration in the United States of America approved about 5000 drugs for use in the therapy or management of several diseases. About two hundred of these drugs have active metabolites and the knowledge of their medicinal chemistry is important both in medical practice and pharmaceutical research. This review gives a detailed description of the medicinal chemistry of drugs with active metabolites generated after conjugation. This review focused on glucuronide-, acetyl-, sulphate- and phosphate-conjugation of drugs, converting the drug into an active metabolite. This conversion essentially changed the lipophilicity of the drug.

  18. Retrotransposon activation followed by rapid repression in introgressed rice plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Wendel, J F

    2000-10-01

    Plant retrotransposons are largely inactive during normal development, but may be activated by stresses. Both copia-like and gypsy-like retrotransposons of rice were activated by introgression of DNA from the wild species Zizania latifolia Griseb. The copy number increase was associated with cytosine methylation changes of the elements. Activity of the elements was ephemeral, as evidenced by nearly identical genomic Southern hybridization patterns among randomly chosen individuals both within and between generations for a given line, and the absence of transcripts based on Northern analysis. DNA hypermethylation, internal sequence deletion, and possibly other mechanisms are likely responsible for the rapid element repression. Implications of the retroelement dynamics on plant genome evolution are discussed. PMID:11081978

  19. Localised mitogenic activity in horses following infection with Streptococcus equi.

    PubMed

    McLean, R; Rash, N L; Robinson, C; Waller, A S; Paillot, R

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) is the causative agent of strangles, a highly contagious upper respiratory disease of equids. Streptococcus equi produces superantigens (sAgs), which are thought to contribute to strangles pathogenicity through non-specific T-cell activation and pro-inflammatory response. Streptococcus equi infection induces abscesses in the lymph nodes of the head and neck. In some individuals, some abscess material remains into the guttural pouch and inspissates over time to form chondroids which can harbour live S. equi. The aim of this study was to determine the sites of sAg production during infection and therefore improve our understanding of their role. Abscess material, chondroids and serum collected from Equidae with signs of strangles were tested in mitogenic assays. Mitogenic sAg activity was only detected in abscess material and chondroids. Our data support the localised in vivo activity of sAg during both acute and carrier phases of S. equi infection.

  20. Learner Development in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenden, Anita L.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on learner development, a learner-centered innovation in foreign language-second language instruction that responds to learner diversity by aiming to improve the language learner's ability to learn a language. Describes various ideas that shaped early practice in learner development, and provides an evaluation of the theory and practice in…

  1. Tissue plasminogen activator prevents white matter damage following stroke

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Fernando; Gauberti, Maxime; Parcq, Jérôme; Macrez, Richard; Hommet, Yannick; Obiang, Pauline; Hernangómez, Miriam; Montagne, Axel; Liot, Géraldine; Guaza, Carmen; Maubert, Eric; Ali, Carine; Vivien, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only available treatment for acute stroke. In addition to its vascular fibrinolytic action, tPA exerts various effects within the brain, ranging from synaptic plasticity to control of cell fate. To date, the influence of tPA in the ischemic brain has only been investigated on neuronal, microglial, and endothelial fate. We addressed the mechanism of action of tPA on oligodendrocyte (OL) survival and on the extent of white matter lesions in stroke. We also investigated the impact of aging on these processes. We observed that, in parallel to reduced levels of tPA in OLs, white matter gets more susceptible to ischemia in old mice. Interestingly, tPA protects murine and human OLs from apoptosis through an unexpected cytokine-like effect by the virtue of its epidermal growth factor–like domain. When injected into aged animals, tPA, although toxic to the gray matter, rescues white matter from ischemia independently of its proteolytic activity. These studies reveal a novel mechanism of action of tPA and unveil OL as a target cell for cytokine effects of tPA in brain diseases. They show overall that tPA protects white matter from stroke-induced lesions, an effect which may contribute to the global benefit of tPA-based stroke treatment. PMID:21576385

  2. Activation of bone marrow phagocytes following benzene treatment of mice.

    PubMed Central

    Laskin, D L; MacEachern, L; Snyder, R

    1989-01-01

    Techniques in flow cytometry/cell sorting were used to characterize the effects of benzene and its metabolites on subpopulations of bone marrow cells. Treatment of male Balb/c mice with benzene (880 mg/kg) or a combination of its metabolites, hydroquinone and phenol (50 mg/kg), resulted in a 30 to 40% decrease in bone marrow cellularity. Flow cytometric analysis revealed two subpopulations of bone marrow cells that could be distinguished by their size and density or granularity. The larger, more dense subpopulation was found to consist predominantly of macrophages and granulocytes as determined by monoclonal antibody binding and by cell sorting. Benzene treatment had no selective cytotoxic effects on subpopulations of bone marrow cells. To determine if benzene treatment activated bone marrow phagocytes, we quantified production of hydrogen peroxide by these cells using the fluorescent indicator dye, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. We found that macrophages and granulocytes from bone marrow of treated mice produced 50% more hydrogen peroxide in response to the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate than did cells from control animals. It is hypothesized that phagocyte activation and production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen intermediates may contribute to hematotoxicity induced by benzene. PMID:2676504

  3. Learner Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Carola

    2011-01-01

    This article presents first results of an ethnographic research project in a Luxembourgish primary school that accompanied the development of a school project by children from the fifth grade. Analysing the data children themselves collected with Kodak Zi8 cameras in order to document their project activities, it investigates their possibilities…

  4. Monitoring contractile dermal lymphatic activity following uniaxial mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Gray, R J; Worsley, P R; Voegeli, D; Bader, D L

    2016-09-01

    It is proposed that direct mechanical loading can impair dermal lymphatic function, contributing to the causal pathway of pressure ulcers. The present study aims to investigate the effects of loading on human dermal lymphatic vessels. Ten participants were recruited with ages ranging from 24 to 61 years. Participants had intradermal Indocyanine Green injections administrated between left finger digits. Fluorescence was imaged for 5min sequences with an infra-red camera prior to lymph vessel loading, immediately after axial loading (60mmHg) and following a recovery period. Image processing was employed to defined transient lymph packets and compare lymph function between each test phase. The results revealed that between 1-8 transient events (median=4) occurred at baseline, with a median velocity of 8.1mm/sec (range 4.1-20.1mm/sec). Immediately post-loading, there was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in velocity (median=6.4, range 2.2-13.5mm/sec), although the number of transient lymph packages varied between participants. During the recovery period the number (range 1-7) and velocity (recovery median=9.6mm/sec) of transient packets were largely restored to basal values. The present study revealed that some individuals present with impaired dermal lymphatic function immediately after uniaxial mechanical loading. More research is needed to investigate the effects of pressure and shear on lymphatic vessel patency. PMID:27245749

  5. Plasma catecholamines and renin activity in wrestlers following vigorous swimming.

    PubMed

    Vigas, M; Celko, J; Juránková, E; Jezová, D; Kvetnanský, R

    1998-01-01

    Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to exercise in a physically fit and an untrained group of young healthy subjects were compared to study the significance of physical fitness for performance in a discipline for which the athletes were not trained. Ten wrestlers of national rank prepared for an international competition (age 18 years) and 9 untrained healthy males (age 21 years). Exercise consisted of 27-min swimming, freestyle, in water of 29 degrees C, with last 3 min increased to maximal effort. The blood pressure, heart rate and sublingual temperature were measured and blood samples were withdrawn before exercise, immediately after and after a 30 min period of rest. Catecholamines were analyzed by radioenzymatic method and plasma renin activity (PRA) using commercial kits. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate after swimming were increased comparably in the two groups, diastolic pressure was unchanged in the controls and decreased in the wrestlers. Plasma cortisol remained unchanged. Plasma glucose tended to increase in the controls and so decrease in wrestlers, with a significant difference between them after swimming (p < 0.05). However, plasma adrenaline was concomitantly increased in both groups (p < 0.01). Noradrenaline and PRA were increased after swimming in both the control and trained group. The increments of noradrenaline and PRA in wrestlers were significantly reduced compared to the control group (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). Higher physical fitness in athletes significantly reduced plasma noradrenaline and angiotensin responses to maximal exercise demanding special skill in work performance which had not been included in their training program. Training of wrestlers did not cause an exaggerated plasma adrenaline response to exercise. PMID:9803484

  6. Grading Exceptional Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers often grapple with the challenge of giving report card grades to students with learning disabilities and English language learners. The authors offer a five-step model that "offers a fair, accurate, and legal way to adapt the grading process for exceptional learners." The model begins with a high-quality reporting system for all students…

  7. A Learner Centered Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Florence N.

    This paper proposes a learner-centered educational system, focusing on aspects that are intrinsically associated with the modern educational system, such as the curriculum, school community, parents, learners, and educational support personnel. It examines: primary level preparation (literacy, numeracy, and basic knowledge; examination and…

  8. Learner-Centered Teaching Techniques in Astronomy 101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L. V.; Marschall, L. A.; Prather, E.

    2003-12-01

    We present preliminary results of studies done on learner-centered teaching techniques with students in Astronomy 101. Results for two classes taught at Gettysburg College this fall will be presented. One class used learner-centered activities, the other did not. A diagnostic survey was given to both classes before and after. Specific newly designed activities were tested as well.

  9. Learner-Content-Interface as an Approach for Self-Reliant and Student-Centered Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolay, Robin; Schwennigcke, Bastian; Sahl, Sarah; Martens, Alke

    2015-01-01

    Conceptualization and implementation of computer supported teaching and training is currently not tailored to the paradigm of learner centration. Many technical solutions lack transparency and consistency regarding the supported learner activities. An insight into learners activities correlated to learning tasks is needed. In this paper we outline…

  10. Irish Adult Learners' Perceptions of Classroom Environment: Some Empirical Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Fathaigh, Mairtin

    1997-01-01

    Adult learners (n=532) at University College Cork (Ireland) identified the following features of a positive affective learning environment: teacher's key role in class organization and pace, healthy interpersonal interaction among students, and focused cognitive environment. Older learners were particularly sensitive to six of seven dimensions of…

  11. Biography and Young Gifted Learners: Connecting to Commercially Available Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Ann; Cotabish, Alicia

    2005-01-01

    Biographies are an important resource for extending and differentiating the curriculum for high-ability learners. To include biography in curriculum, educators need answers to the following four questions: (1) How are commercially available biographies located?; (2) What criteria are useful in selecting biographies for high-ability learners?; (3)…

  12. Higher Education and Lifelong Learners: International Perspectives on Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Hans G., Ed.; Slowey, Maria, Ed.

    This book contains 11 papers on higher education and lifelong learners. The following papers are included: "Traditions and New Directions in Higher Education: A Comparative Perspective on Non-Traditional Students and Lifelong Learners" (Hans G. Schuetze, Maria Slowey); "Austria: The Enduring Myth of the Full-Time Student: An Exploration of the…

  13. Instructional Models and Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moughamian, Ani C.; Rivera, Mabel O.; Francis, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This publication seeks to offer educators and policy-makers guidance on strategies that have been effective in instructing English language learners (ELLs). The authors begin by outlining key contextual factors that decision-makers should take into account when making instructional choices for English language learners, then follow with a brief…

  14. Adult Learners in Postsecondary Education. Practice Application Brief No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    Research on various facets of adult learners' experiences in postsecondary education has established the following facts: (1) instructors who help adult learners connect their real-world experiences and what they already know to what they are learning in the classroom are perceived as most helpful and motivating; (2) adult undergraduates generally…

  15. Sensitizing Young English Language Learners Towards Environmental Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Rigoberto; Rojas, María del Pilar

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an action research study aimed at understanding how to sensitize young English language learners towards caring for the environment. The pedagogical intervention in a 5th grade class consisted in the use of creative writing strategies to express learners' ideas. Three stages were followed: "recognizing facts,"…

  16. Learner Corpora: The Missing Link in EAP Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilquin, Gaetanelle; Granger, Sylviane; Paquot, Magali

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the place of learner corpora, i.e. corpora containing authentic language data produced by learners of a foreign/second language, in English for academic purposes (EAP) pedagogy and sets out to demonstrate that they have a valuable contribution to make to the field. Following an initial brief introduction to corpus-based…

  17. English Learners: Reaching the Highest Level of English Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Gilbert C., Ed.

    This collection of papers examines the critical literacy development of English learners, focusing on English reading instruction in an immersion setting, English language development, and cultural issues pertaining to English learners in and out of the classroom. The 16 papers include the following: (1) "Reading and the Bilingual Student: Fact…

  18. Predictors of Reading Literacy for First and Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netten, Andrea; Droop, Mienke; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    In this study an attempt was made to construct a multi-factor model predicting the development of reading literacy in the upper grades of primary school in the Netherlands for subgroups of 729 first language (L1) learners and 93 second language (L2) learners. Following a longitudinal design, it was explored to what extent the variation in reading…

  19. Idiomobile for Learners of English: A Study of Learners' Usage of a Mobile Learning Application for Learning Idioms and Collocations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amer, Mahmoud Atiah

    2010-01-01

    This study explored how four groups of English learners used a mobile software application developed by the researcher for learning idiomatic expressions and collocations. A total of 45 learners in the study used the application for a period of one week. Data for this study was collected from a questionnaire, the application, and follow-up…

  20. Digitally Distanced Learning: A Study of International Distance Learners' (Non)Use of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selwyn, Neil

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the uses and non-uses of digital technology by international distance learners. It draws upon data from in-depth interviews with 60 learners from around the world following distance education degree courses provided by a large UK federal university. The article focuses firstly on learners' descriptions of technology's role…

  1. Chinese Learners' Acquisition of English Verbs: A Corpus-Driven Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Linxiao; Jo, Hie-myung

    2012-01-01

    Limited research has investigated advanced language learners' acquisition of English verbs. The current study examines and compares the acquisition pattern of English verbs among Chinese second language (L2) learners at both intermediate and advanced levels to answer the following questions: (1) Do L2 learners acquire regular verbs and irregular…

  2. Engaging Black Learners in Adult and Community Education. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lenford

    This guide explains how adult and community education (ACE) providers across Great Britain can engage black learners in ACE by making their learning programs relevant, challenging, and appropriate to adult learners from black and minority groups. The following topics are discussed: (1) the importance of engaging black and minority learners in ACE;…

  3. Schoolyard Inquiry for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westervelt, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    This article presents outdoor inquiry activities to help English Language Learner (ELL) students learn life science concepts. As a public high school ELL science teacher, the author of this article use these place-based and scaffolded inquiry activities outside to reinforce concepts she teaches in the classroom all year long. Through inductive…

  4. Factors Driving Learner Success in Online Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vu, Phu; Cao, Vien; Vu, Lan; Cepero, Jude

    2014-01-01

    This study examined factors that contributed to the success of online learners in an online professional development course. Research instruments included an online survey and learners' activity logs in an online professional development course for 512 in-service teachers. The findings showed that there were several factors affecting online…

  5. Practices and Prospects of Learner Autonomy: Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Asmari, AbdulRahman

    2013-01-01

    Language learning process works through the learners' own reflection on how they learn and it makes learners active in the sense that they learn to analyze their learning strategies. So they start making decisions, e.g., whether to improve them or not, and in which way. Generally, this trait is missing in traditional language teaching process and…

  6. Immediate Web-Based Essay Critiquing System Feedback and Teacher Follow-Up Feedback on Young Second Language Learners' Writings: An Experimental Study in a Hong Kong Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cynthia; Cheung, William Kwok Wai; Wong, Kelvin Chi Kuen; Lee, Fion Sau Ling

    2013-01-01

    This article is an effort to add to computer-assisted language learning by extending a study on an essay critiquing system (ECS) feedback to secondary school language learners' writing. The study compared two groups of participants' performance, namely the treatment group which received both the system feedback and teacher feedback (i.e., blended…

  7. Similar English Learner Students, Different Results: Why Do Some Schools Do Better? A Follow-Up Analysis, Based upon a Large-Scale Survey of California Elementary Schools Serving High Proportions of Low-Income and EL Students. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Trish; Perry, Mary; Oregon, Isabel; Brazil, Noli; Hakuta, Kenji; Haertel, Edward; Kirst, Michael; Levin, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    In spring 2006 California released its first ever school-level Academic Performance Index (API) scores for English Learners (ELs). These EL-API scores were based on California Standards Tests taken in the spring of 2005, and make it possible to identify how well schools were doing with this student population. It is not unexpected that elementary…

  8. Exploring Shifts in Middle School Learners' Modeling Activity While Generating Drawings, Animations, and Computational Simulations of Molecular Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson-Jerde, Michelle H.; Gravel, Brian E.; Macrander, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Modeling and using technology are two practices of particular interest to K-12 science educators. These practices are inextricably linked among professionals, who engage in modeling activity with and across a variety of representational technologies. In this paper, we explore the practices of five sixth-grade girls as they generated models of…

  9. You Can Be in a Group and Still Not Cooperate. Collaborative Approaches and Cooperative Learning Activities for Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parma City School District, OH.

    This handbook defines and describes the benefits of both collaborative approaches and cooperative techniques. An introduction uses watercolor marbling as a metaphor for collaborative approaches and cooperative activities. Section I provides research results regarding problems of adult literacy programs, skills employers want, and Bloom's taxonomy.…

  10. Comparing Learner Community Behavior in Multiple Presentations of a Massive Open Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Silvia Elena; Savage, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) can create large scale communities of learners who collaborate, interact and discuss learning materials and activities. MOOCs are often delivered multiple times with similar content to different cohorts of learners. However, research into the differences of learner communication, behavior and expectation between…

  11. The Effect of Reading on Second-Language Learners' Production in Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collentine, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Tasks provide engaging ways to involve learners in meaningful, real-world activities with the foreign language (FL). Yet selecting classroom tasks suitable to learners' linguistic readiness is challenging, and task-based research is exploring the relationship between learners' overall abilities (e.g., reading, grammatical) and the complexity and…

  12. Learner Autonomy as a Predictor of Course Success and Final Grades in Community College Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Cherng-Jyh; Liu, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This study employed a quantitative research design to examine the predictive relationships between: (a) learner autonomy and course success; and (b) learner autonomy and final grades in community college online courses. Learner autonomy was defined as the characteristic of an individual who exhibited intentional behavior in learning activities.…

  13. Coaching Teachers of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Alma D.; Abrego, Michele H.; Rubin, Renee

    2014-01-01

    The following qualitative study examined how Reading First Literacy Coaches refined their literacy coaching to meet the cultural and linguistic needs of Hispanic English language learners (ELLs) in 30 elementary schools located along the US Mexico Border. Data were gathered from the coaches through written surveys and a focus group. Findings from…

  14. Tussle Over English-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade, Harrisonburg, Virginia, has become a magnet for immigrant families drawn to jobs in the poultry and construction industries. More than 1,600 of the school district's 4,400 students are English-learners. The largest group of newcomers are Latinos, followed by Kurdish and Russian refugees. In this article, the author discusses a…

  15. EFL Learner Collaborative Interaction in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the task-based interaction of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners in the 3D multiuser virtual environment (MUVE) Second Life. The discussion first explores research on the precursors of MUVEs, text-based 2D virtual worlds known as MOOs. This is followed by an examination of studies on the use of MUVEs in Computer…

  16. Attenuation of microglial and neuronal activation in the brain by ICV minocycline following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Dworak, Melissa; Stebbing, Martin; Kompa, Andrew R; Rana, Indrajeetsinh; Krum, Henry; Badoer, Emilio

    2014-10-01

    Following myocardial infarction, microglia, the immune cells in the central nervous system, become activated in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) suggesting inflammation in this nucleus. Little is known about other brain nuclei. In the present study, we investigated whether the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and the periaqueductal grey (PAG), regions known to have important cardiovascular regulatory functions, also show increased microglial activation and whether this coincides with increased neuronal activity. We also investigated whether minocycline inhibited microglial activation and whether this also affected neuronal activity and cardiac function. Compared to controls there was a significant increase in the proportion of activated microglia and neuronal activation in the PVN, RVLM, NTS and PAG, 12weeks following myocardial infarction (P<0.001). Intracebroventricular infusion of minocycline (beginning one week prior to infarction) significantly attenuated the increase in microglial activation by at least 50% in the PVN, RVLM, PAG and NTS, and neuronal activation was significantly reduced by 50% in the PVN and virtually abolished in the PAG, RVLM and NTS. Cardiac function (percent fractional shortening) was significantly reduced by 55% following myocardial infarction but this was not ameliorated by minocycline treatment. The results suggest that following myocardial infarction, inflammation occurs in brain nuclei that play key roles in cardiovascular regulation and that attenuation of this inflammation may not be sufficient to ameliorate cardiac function.

  17. Young Adult Follow-Up of Hyperactive Children: Antisocial Activities and Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Fischer, Mariellen; Smallish, Lori; Fletcher, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Background: Hyperactive/ADHD children are believed to be a greater risk for adolescent and young adult antisocial activity and drug use/abuse, particularly that subset having comorbid conduct problems/disorder. Method: We report on the lifetime antisocial activities and illegal drug use self-reported at young adult follow-up (mean age 20-21 years;…

  18. A Novel Method for Learner Assessment Based on Learner Annotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noorbehbahani, Fakhroddin; Samani, Elaheh Biglar Beigi; Jazi, Hossein Hadian

    2013-01-01

    Assessment is one of the most essential parts of any instructive learning process which aims to evaluate a learner's knowledge about learning concepts. In this work, a new method for learner assessment based on learner annotations is presented. The proposed method exploits the M-BLEU algorithm to find the most similar reference annotations…

  19. Morphological Family Size Effects in Young First and Second Language Learners: Evidence of Cross-Language Semantic Activation in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zeeuw, Marlies; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined to what extent young second language (L2) learners showed morphological family size effects in L2 word recognition and whether the effects were grade-level related. Turkish-Dutch bilingual children (L2) and Dutch (first language, L1) children from second, fourth, and sixth grade performed a Dutch lexical decision task on words…

  20. Teaching English to Less-Able Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gefen, Raphael

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the "less-able" student via a description of the strategies used by the good language learner. Such strategies include a positive, active, and tolerant approach to learning the language, with a willingness to practice the language. The less-able needs a constant sense of achievement to continue. (PJM)

  1. Goals, the Learner, and the Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers, principals, and supervisors need to determine the kinds of learners being taught in the school/class setting. Are pupils good by nature, bad, or neutral? Concepts held pertaining to each pupil assist in determining objectives, learning activities, and evaluation techniques. The Puritans believed that individuals were born evil or sinful.…

  2. Effective Strategies for Engaging Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Phillips, Kathleen M.; Jessee, Tammy; McCabe, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    Innovative methods in teaching should be used in every college classroom to enhance student engagement, support any teaching environment and encourage inquiry among learners. Adults learn best by participation in relevant experiences and utilization of practical information. When adult students are active in their learning they are able to develop…

  3. Workplace Learning in Malaysia: The Learner's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Idris, Khairuddin

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers a scenario of workplace learning as practiced in Malaysia. Based on survey research, the article describes learner profiles, learning provision and pattern. The analysis shows that Malaysians participate in formal workplace learning as part of their employment activities. Workplace learning in Malaysia is contextual, promoted by…

  4. Motivating Literacy Learners in Today's World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, J., Ed.; Parkhill, F., Ed.; Gillon, G., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Motivating Literacy Learners in Today's World" provides insights into a broad spectrum of children's literacy learning. Motivation is the key theme and the authors show how this can be achieved through reading for pleasure; in writing activities at a number of levels; and through oral language development. Chapters include: (1) Motivating…

  5. Supporting a Learner Community with Software Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taurisson, Neil; Tchounikine, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-agent approach that aims at supporting learners involved in a collective activity. We consider pedagogical situations where students have to explicitly define the articulation of their collective work and then achieve the different tasks they have defined. Our objective is to support these students by taking some of…

  6. [DNA depolymerase activity in rat spleen following flight on the "Kosmos-605= satellite].

    PubMed

    Makeeva, V F; Komolova, G S; Serova, L V; Belikova, E V; Egorov, I A

    1976-01-01

    The activity of enzymes involved in DNA disintegration (acid and alkaline DNA-ases) was measured in the spleen of rats flown onboard the Cosmos-605 biosatellite for 22 days. The activity of alkaline DNA-ase remained unaltered whereas that of acid DNA-ase increased more than twice. The activity of acid DNA-ase returned to the normal 26 days postflight. The study of characteristic viscosity (eta) of native and denatured DNA showed that enzyme activation was not followed by degradation changes in the DNA molecule.

  7. Force enhancement during and following muscle stretch of maximal voluntarily activated human quadriceps femoris.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Daniel; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2007-08-01

    Force enhancement during and following muscle stretch has been observed for electrically and voluntarily activated human muscle. However, especially for voluntary contractions, the latter observation has only been made for adductor pollicis and the ankle joint muscles, but not for large muscles like quadriceps femoris. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of active muscle stretch on force production for maximal voluntary contractions of in vivo human quadriceps femoris (n = 15). Peak torques during and torques at the end of stretch, torques following stretch, and passive torques following muscle deactivation were compared to the isometric torques at corresponding muscle length. In addition, muscle activation of rectus femoris, vastus medialis and vastus lateralis was obtained using surface EMG. Stretches with different amplitudes (15, 25 and 35 degrees at a velocity of 60 degrees s(-1)) were performed on the plateau region and the descending limb of the force-length relation in a random order. Data analysis showed four main results: (1) peak torques did not occur at the end of the stretch, but torques at the end of the stretch exceeded the corresponding isometric torque; (2) there was no significant force enhancement following muscle stretch, but a small significant passive force enhancement persisted for all stretch conditions; (3) forces during and following stretch were independent of stretch amplitude; (4) muscle activation during and following muscle stretch was significantly reduced. In conclusion, although our results showed passive force enhancement, we could not provide direct evidence that there is active force enhancement in voluntarily activated human quadriceps femoris.

  8. Gastrointestinal acetylcholinesterase activity following endotracheal microinstillation inhalation exposure to sarin in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Soma; Song, Jian; Rezk, Peter; Sabnekar, Praveena; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Sciuto, Alfred M; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2010-09-01

    The goal of this study was to assess acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition at different regions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract following inhalation exposure to nerve agent sarin. Seven major regions of the GI tract were removed from saline control animals (n=3) and 677.4 mg/m(3) sarin-exposed animals at 4h (n=4) and 24h (n=4) post-exposure. AChE activity was determined in blood and homogenized tissue supernatant by specific Ellman's assay using Iso-OMPA, a BChE inhibitor, and expressed as activity/optical density of hemoglobin for blood and activity/mg protein for tissues. Our data showed that the AChE activity was significantly decreased for groups both 4h and 24h post-sarin exposure. Among the seven chosen regions of the guinea pig GI tract, duodenum showed the highest AChE activity in control animals. The AChE activity was significantly decreased in the stomach (p=0.03), duodenum (p=0.029), jejunum (p=0.006), and ileum (p=0.006) 4h following sarin exposure. At 24h post-sarin exposure the AChE activity of duodenum (p=0.029) and ileum (p=0.006) was significantly inhibited. Esophagus showed no inhibition following sarin exposure at both 4h and 24h groups. These results suggest that the AChE activity is different in different regions of the GI tract and highest levels of AChE inhibition following sarin exposure were seen in regions exhibiting higher overall AChE activity and cholinergic function.

  9. Fragile Identities: Exploring Learner Identity, Learner Autonomy and Motivation through Young Learners' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Terry Eric

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in the fields of motivation and learner autonomy in language learning has begun to explore their relationships to the construct of identity. This article builds on this through the voices of a group of six learners of French or German in a secondary school in England, over a two-year period. These young learners initially reveal a…

  10. Doing Your Part To Help Your Child Become SMART (Successful, Motivated, Autonomous, Responsible, Thoughtful): Six Workshops on Parenting SMART Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattes, Beth; Walsh, Jackie; Hickman, Mickey

    A SMART Learner is a lifelong learner who can adapt to rapid change and who possesses characteristics associated with success in and out of school. These workshop materials to help parents help their children become SMART learners provide: information from current research and best practice; learning activities that will actively engage parents in…

  11. Sports activity following total knee arthroplasty in patients older than 60 years.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Hermann O; Reinhold, Maik; Bernstein, Anke; Suedkamp, Norbert P; Stoehr, Amelie

    2015-01-01

    In a retrospective study with a population over 65 years, sports activity was conducted 6 years after cruciate retaining (CR) total condylar knee arthroplasty (TKA) with rotating platform (RP). Eighty-one Patients (71.8±5.4years) were examined at follow-up 6.4±0.9 years postoperative. Sport was practiced 5.3 hours every week in mean. Patients were active in sports 3.5times per week. Twenty-five percent performed high impact sports, 47% medium impact sports and 52% low impact sports at follow-up. In KOOS sports 60±28 was reached, in WOMAC 12.1±15.1. It can be concluded that in this population 50% of patients were active in medium and low impact sport 6 years after surgery. However, a quarter of patients were also active in high impact sports.

  12. Teachers as Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiman-Nemser, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    In "Teachers as Learners", a collection of landmark essays, noted teacher educator and scholar Sharon Feiman-Nemser shines a light on teacher learning. Arguing that serious and sustained teacher learning is a necessary condition for ambitious student learning, she examines closely how teachers acquire, generate, and use knowledge about teaching…

  13. The Transliterate Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Thomas et al. have defined transliteracy as "the ability to read, write and interact across a range of platforms, tools and media from signing and orality through handwriting, print, TV, radio and film, to digital social networks" (Transliteracy Research Group). The learner who is transliterate builds knowledge, communicates, and interacts across…

  14. Gender and Learner Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindal, Huda; Reid, Norman; Whitehead, Rex

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that girls and boys perform differently in traditional examinations in most countries. This study looks at a sample of 754 school students in Kuwait (aged about 13) and explores how boys and girls differ in the performance in a range of tests related to learner characteristics. The fundamental question is how boys and girls…

  15. Serving the Online Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettcher, Judith V.

    2007-01-01

    Systems and services for recruiting, advising, and support of online students have seldom been at the top of the list when planning online and distance learning programs. That is now changing: Forces pushing advising and support services into the foreground include recognition of the student learner as "customer" and the increasing expectations…

  16. of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashidi, Nasser; Mortazavi, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of Iranian university EFL students. Participants in the present study were a total of 67 EFL learners, studying at Shiraz Azad University as senior English Translation students. The instruments utilized for data collection were three tests: A…

  17. Novice Learners in Cyberspace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youn, Soonkyoung

    2004-01-01

    Since the Internet was introduced in the field of Educational Technology, it has predominantly been seen as an instructional tool. A number of educational technologists point out that the Internet can be a powerful instructional tool that encourages learners to be involved in problem-solving by using a great deal of information and to enlarge and…

  18. California's English Learner Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    English Learner (EL) students in California's schools are numerous and diverse, and they lag behind their native-English-speaking peers. Closing the achievement gap for EL students has been a long-standing goal for California educators, and there are some signs of success. Now that EL funding and curriculum issues are receiving a fresh level of…

  19. Libraries and Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josey, E. J., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Of the 13 essays presented in this special issue on libraries and adult education, 8 focus on programs and services from the public library for adult learners. These essays provide information on: (1) an Education Information Centers Program (EIC) designed to complement employment skills training provided under the Comprehensive Employment and…

  20. Empowering Leaders & Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umphrey, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Trevor Greene, the 2013 MetLife/NASSP National High School Principal of the Year, empowers staff members and students to be the best teachers and learners they can be and provides the community resources to support them. In this article, Greene, principal of Toppenish High School in Washington, shares his biggest motivator as a school leader and…

  1. Learner Autonomy Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illes, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article explores whether the perception of learner autonomy that is promoted in language pedagogy is suitable for preparing students to perform successfully in the changed circumstances of the use of English. Recent developments, which include the growing role of English as a lingua franca and computer-mediated communication (CMC), give rise…

  2. Helping Young Hispanic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E.; Jensen, Bryant

    2007-01-01

    Hispanics are the largest and youngest ethnic group in the United States. Moreover, young Hispanic children make up approximately 80 percent of the U.S. English language learner population. They are a heterogeneous group, born both inside and outside the United States and having origins in Mexico, Cuba, Central America, South America, and the…

  3. The Savvy Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dealtry, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This article defines the cultural nature and scale of change in learning consciousness that has to take place when the organizationally-based adult learner makes the transition from formal prescriptive learning practice to self-owned, self-directed learning. It articulates some of the learning-to-learn process models that introduce, accelerate,…

  4. Analysis of Germline Stem Cell Differentiation Following Loss of GLP-1 Notch Activity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Paul M.; Schedl, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells generate the differentiated progeny cells of adult tissues. Stem cells in the Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite germline are maintained within a proliferative zone of ∼230 cells, ∼20 cell diameters in length, through GLP-1 Notch signaling. The distal tip cell caps the germline and supplies GLP-1-activating ligand, and the distal-most germ cells that occupy this niche are likely self-renewing stem cells with active GLP-1 signaling. As germ cells are displaced from the niche, GLP-1 activity likely decreases, yet mitotically cycling germ cells are found throughout the proliferative zone prior to overt meiotic differentiation. Following loss of GLP-1 activity, it remains unclear whether stem cells undergo transit-amplifying (TA) divisions or more directly enter meiosis. To distinguish between these possibilities we employed a temperature-sensitive (ts) glp-1 mutant to manipulate GLP-1 activity. We characterized proliferative zone dynamics in glp-1(ts) mutants at permissive temperature and then analyzed the kinetics of meiotic entry of proliferative zone cells after loss of GLP-1. We found that entry of proliferative zone cells into meiosis following loss of GLP-1 activity is largely synchronous and independent of their distal-proximal position. Furthermore, the majority of cells complete only a single mitotic division before entering meiosis, independent of their distal-proximal position. We conclude that germ cells do not undergo TA divisions following loss of GLP-1 activity. We present a model for the dynamics of the proliferative zone that utilizes cell cycle rate and proliferative zone size and output and incorporates the more direct meiotic differentiation of germ cells following loss of GLP-1 activity. PMID:26158953

  5. Erythropoietin Modulates Cerebral and Serum Degradation Products from Excess Calpain Activation following Prenatal Hypoxia-Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Jantzie, Lauren L; Winer, Jesse L; Corbett, Christopher J; Robinson, Shenandoah

    2016-01-01

    Preterm infants suffer central nervous system (CNS) injury from hypoxia-ischemia and inflammation - termed encephalopathy of prematurity. Mature CNS injury activates caspase and calpain proteases. Erythropoietin (EPO) limits apoptosis mediated by activated caspases, but its role in modulating calpain activation has not yet been investigated extensively following injury to the developing CNS. We hypothesized that excess calpain activation degrades developmentally regulated molecules essential for CNS circuit formation, myelination and axon integrity, including neuronal potassium-chloride co-transporter (KCC2), myelin basic protein (MBP) and phosphorylated neurofilament (pNF), respectively. Further, we predicted that post-injury EPO treatment could mitigate CNS calpain-mediated degradation. Using prenatal transient systemic hypoxia-ischemia (TSHI) in rats to mimic CNS injury from extreme preterm birth, and postnatal EPO treatment with a clinically relevant dosing regimen, we found sustained postnatal excess cortical calpain activation following prenatal TSHI, as shown by the cleavage of alpha II-spectrin (αII-spectrin) into 145-kDa αII-spectrin degradation products (αII-SDPs) and p35 into p25. Postnatal expression of the endogenous calpain inhibitor calpastatin was also reduced following prenatal TSHI. Calpain substrate expression following TSHI, including cortical KCC2, MBP and NF, was modulated by postnatal EPO treatment. Calpain activation was reflected in serum levels of αII-SDPs and KCC2 fragments, and notably, EPO treatment also modulated KCC2 fragment levels. Together, these data indicate that excess calpain activity contributes to the pathogenesis of encephalopathy of prematurity. Serum biomarkers of calpain activation may detect ongoing cerebral injury and responsiveness to EPO or similar neuroprotective strategies. PMID:26551007

  6. Analysis of Germline Stem Cell Differentiation Following Loss of GLP-1 Notch Activity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Fox, Paul M; Schedl, Tim

    2015-09-01

    Stem cells generate the differentiated progeny cells of adult tissues. Stem cells in the Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite germline are maintained within a proliferative zone of ∼230 cells, ∼20 cell diameters in length, through GLP-1 Notch signaling. The distal tip cell caps the germline and supplies GLP-1-activating ligand, and the distal-most germ cells that occupy this niche are likely self-renewing stem cells with active GLP-1 signaling. As germ cells are displaced from the niche, GLP-1 activity likely decreases, yet mitotically cycling germ cells are found throughout the proliferative zone prior to overt meiotic differentiation. Following loss of GLP-1 activity, it remains unclear whether stem cells undergo transit-amplifying (TA) divisions or more directly enter meiosis. To distinguish between these possibilities we employed a temperature-sensitive (ts) glp-1 mutant to manipulate GLP-1 activity. We characterized proliferative zone dynamics in glp-1(ts) mutants at permissive temperature and then analyzed the kinetics of meiotic entry of proliferative zone cells after loss of GLP-1. We found that entry of proliferative zone cells into meiosis following loss of GLP-1 activity is largely synchronous and independent of their distal-proximal position. Furthermore, the majority of cells complete only a single mitotic division before entering meiosis, independent of their distal-proximal position. We conclude that germ cells do not undergo TA divisions following loss of GLP-1 activity. We present a model for the dynamics of the proliferative zone that utilizes cell cycle rate and proliferative zone size and output and incorporates the more direct meiotic differentiation of germ cells following loss of GLP-1 activity.

  7. Tumor necrosis factor gene expression is mediated by protein kinase C following activation by ionizing radiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Hallahan, D. E.; Virudachalam, S.; Sherman, M. L.; Huberman, E.; Kufe, D. W.; Weichselbaum, R. R.; Univ. of Chicago; Dana-Farber Cancer Inst.; Univ. of Chicago

    1991-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production following X-irradiation has been implicated in the biological response to ionizing radiation. Protein kinase C (PKC) is suggested to participate in TNF transcriptional induction and X-ray-mediated gene expression. We therefore studied radiation-mediated TNF expression in HL-60 cells with diminished PKC activity produced by either pretreatment with protein kinase inhibitors or prolonged 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment. Both treatments resulted in attenuation of radiation-mediated TNF induction. Consistent with these results, we found no detectable induction of TNF expression following X-irradiation in the HL-60 variant deficient in PKC-mediated signal transduction. The rapid activation of PKC following {gamma}-irradiation was established using an in vitro assay measuring phosphorylation of a PKC specific substrate. A 4.5-fold increase in PKC activity occurred 15 to 30 s following irradiation, which declined to baseline at 60 s. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of phosphoproteins extracted from irradiated cells demonstrated in vivo phosphorylation of the PKC specific substrate Mr 80,000 protein at 45 s following X-irradiation. These findings indicate that signal transduction via the PKC pathway is required for the induction of TNF gene expression by ionizing radiation.

  8. Mothers' Knowledge of Early Adolescents' Activities following the Middle School Transition and Pubertal Maturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a sequential mediation model to determine whether experiences, social cognitions, or parent-adolescent interactional processes account for lower levels of mothers' knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts and activities following early adolescents' transition into middle school (MS) and pubertal development. Cross-sectional data…

  9. Creatine Kinase Activity Weakly Correlates to Volume Completed Following Upper Body Resistance Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Marco; Willardson, Jeffrey M.; Silva, Dailson P.; Frigulha, Italo C.; Koch, Alexander J.; Souza, Sergio C.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the relationship between serum creatine kinase (CK) activity following upper body resistance exercise with a 1- or 3-min rest between sets. Twenty men performed two sessions, each consisting of four sets with a 10-repetition maximum load. The results demonstrated significantly greater volume for the 3-min…

  10. TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ACTIVATION FOLLOWING EXPOSURE OF AN INTACT LUNG PREPARATION TO METALLIC PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ACTIVATION FOLLOWING EXPOSURE OF AN INTACT LUNG PREPARATION TO METALLIC PARTICULATE MATTER

    James M. Samet1,2, Robert Silbajoris1, Tony Huang1 and Ilona Jaspers3

    1Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laborato...

  11. Toward Local Collaborative Networks for Adult Learners. Final Report of the Adult Learner Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Gerard G.

    The Adult Learner Project was a two-phase program in which a total of 10 community-level projects received funding to develop collaborative agendas that would meet the learning needs of adults in their respective communities. During the second phase of the project, the following community-level collaborative councils were also given $20,000 each:…

  12. Glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activities in blood of patients in early stages following kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zachara, Bronislaw A; Wlodarczyk, Zbigniew; Andruszkiewicz, Jacek; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on glutathione (GSH) level in red blood cells, as well as on glutathione peroxidases (GSH-Px) activities in red blood cells and in plasma of chronic renal failure (CRF) patients following renal transplantation. We want to focus our main attention on plasma GSH-Px, the selenoenzyme that is synthesized primarily in the kidney. In CRF patients, activity of this enzyme is significantly reduced, and the reduction decreases with the progress of the disease, reaching in the end-stage 20% to 30% of the activity of healthy patients. We have shown that following renal transplantation the activity of plasma GSH-Px is restored very rapidly, and 2 weeks after surgery it reached the value of the control group. Red blood cell GSH level is significantly higher in CRF patients, and following transplantation, no significant changes were observed. Red blood cell GSH-Px activity before transplantation was the same as in healthy patients and did not change significantly after surgery. PMID:16350829

  13. Fostering learners' interaction with content: A learner-centered mobile device interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdous, M.

    2015-12-01

    With the ever-increasing omnipresence of mobile devices in student life, leveraging smart devices to foster students' interaction with course content is critical. Following a learner-centered design iterative approach, we designed a mobile interface that may enable learners to access and interact with online course content efficiently and intuitively. Our design process leveraged recent technologies, such as bootstrap, Google's Material Design, HTML5, and JavaScript to design an intuitive, efficient, and portable mobile interface with a variety of built-in features, including context sensitive bookmarking, searching, progress tracking, captioning, and transcript display. The mobile interface also offers students the ability to ask context-related questions and to complete self-checks as they watch audio/video presentations. Our design process involved ongoing iterative feedback from learners, allowing us to refine and tweak the interface to provide learners with a unified experience across platforms and devices. The innovative combination of technologies built around well-structured and well-designed content seems to provide an effective learning experience to mobile learners. Early feedback indicates a high level of satisfaction with the interface's efficiency, intuitiveness, and robustness from both students and faculty.

  14. [What are the recommendations for sport activity following total hip or total knee arthroplasty?].

    PubMed

    Tsur, Azmon; Volpin, Gershon

    2013-11-01

    Total hip and knee arthroplasty are surgical procedures usually performed in older adults aged 65-70 years and more, who suffer from arthritic joint degeneration, in order to relieve pain and improve functioning. In the past decade there have been more and more documentations of younger people, 50-60 years old and even less, who expect to participate in physical activity following these procedures. The trend today is to recommend activities which exert mild pressure on the implants such as swimming, cycling, golf, bowling, walking and cycling. It is not recommended to participate in sports activities that place greater pressure on the implants such as soccer, football, volleyball, handball, basketball, hockey and jogging. Such high-stress activities may cause early loosening of implants, as described in the article by Keren et al. in this issue: "Sport activity after hip and knee arthroplasty". PMID:24416821

  15. [What are the recommendations for sport activity following total hip or total knee arthroplasty?].

    PubMed

    Tsur, Azmon; Volpin, Gershon

    2013-11-01

    Total hip and knee arthroplasty are surgical procedures usually performed in older adults aged 65-70 years and more, who suffer from arthritic joint degeneration, in order to relieve pain and improve functioning. In the past decade there have been more and more documentations of younger people, 50-60 years old and even less, who expect to participate in physical activity following these procedures. The trend today is to recommend activities which exert mild pressure on the implants such as swimming, cycling, golf, bowling, walking and cycling. It is not recommended to participate in sports activities that place greater pressure on the implants such as soccer, football, volleyball, handball, basketball, hockey and jogging. Such high-stress activities may cause early loosening of implants, as described in the article by Keren et al. in this issue: "Sport activity after hip and knee arthroplasty".

  16. Contribution of activation products to occupational exposure following treatment using high-energy photons in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Nina; Krestić-Vesović, Jelena; Stojanović, Darko; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Lazarević, Dorde; Kovacević, Milojko

    2011-01-01

    When high-energy photon beams are used for irradiation in radiotherapy, neutrons that are the result of photonuclear reactions create activation products that affect the occupational dose of radiotherapy staff. For the assessment of activation products in situ gamma spectroscopy was performed parallel to dose-rate measurements following irradiation, by using a high-energy photon beam from a linear accelerator Elekta Precise (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) used in radiotherapy. The major identified activation products were the following radioisotopes: (28)Al, (24)Na, (56)Mn, (54)Mn, (187)W, (64)Cu and (62)Cu. Based on the typical workload and dose-rate measurement, the assessed additional annual occupational dose ranged from 1.7 to 0.25 mSv. As the measured dose rate arising from the activation products rapidly decreases as a function of time, the assessed additional dose is negligible after 10 min following irradiation. To keep the occupational dose as low as reasonably achievable, it is recommended to delay entrance to the therapy room at least 2-4 min, when high-energy photons are used. This would reduce the effective dose by 30%.

  17. Functional Improvement Following Diastasis Rectus Abdominus Repair in an Active Duty Navy Female.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Katerina M; Golberg, Kathy F; Field, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Return to physical activity following childbirth can be a difficult process complicated by structural changes during pregnancy. A common problem is the development of a diastasis of the rectus abdominus (DRA), defined as a horizontal separation of the abdominus muscles at the linea alba. Recent data indicate that the greater the distance of separation of the muscle, the worse the functional ability. We describe a 24-year-old active duty U.S. Navy female G1P2 with a diagnosis of DRA. At 2 months postpartum, she was referred to physical therapy because of back pain and inability to meet baseline activities of daily living. After 4 months of physical therapy, she was unable to complete curl ups as required by U.S. Navy physical fitness standards. Abdominoplasty with imbrication of the abdominal wall diastasis was performed followed by additional physical therapy, after which she returned to baseline functioning. The restoration of functional ability postoperatively suggests there is a therapeutic indication for surgical correction of DRA. In high-functioning military patients with DRA who fail to return to baseline level of activity following a trial of physical therapy, surgical intervention should be considered to obtain the optimal functional ability. PMID:27483541

  18. Sustained postexercise vasodilatation and histamine receptor activation following small muscle-mass exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Kaplon, Rachelle E; Halliwill, John R

    2013-01-01

    A sustained postexercise vasodilatation, which is histamine receptor mediated, has been observed following single bouts of whole-body exercise, but the mechanisms that regulate activation of histamine receptors following exercise are undefined. Exploration of vasodilatation after small muscle-mass dynamic or resistance exercise could provide novel insight into the pathways responsible for histamine receptor activation. We hypothesized that there would be a vasodilatation of the previously exercised limb following small muscle-mass dynamic and resistance exercise, which would be mediated by histamine receptors. We studied men and women before and after single-leg dynamic (n = 9) or resistance knee-extension exercise (n = 12) on control and blockade days (combined oral H(1) and H(2) receptor antagonism with fexofenadine and ranitidine). We measured arterial blood pressure (automated brachial oscillometry) and femoral artery blood flow (Doppler ultrasound). Dynamic exercise elevated leg vascular conductance in the active leg by 27.2 ± 8.4% at 60 min postexercise (P < 0.05 versus pre-exercise), but did not alter conductance in the rested leg (change, 4.6 ± 3.5%; P = 0.8 versus pre-exercise). The rise in conductance was abolished on the blockade day (change, 3.7 ± 5.1%; P = 0.8 versus pre-exercise, P = 0.2 versus control). Resistance exercise did not produce a sustained vasodilatation (change, -4.3 ± 4.7% at 60 min postexercise; P = 0.7 versus pre-exercise). These data indicate that histamine receptors are activated following dynamic, but not resistance, exercise. Furthermore, these data suggest that local factors associated with aerobic exercise, and not systemic factors or factors associated with high muscle force, are responsible for activation of histamine receptors in the previously exercised muscle.

  19. In Search of the Optimal Path: How Learners at Task Use an Online Dictionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Marie-Josee

    2012-01-01

    We have analyzed circa 180 navigation paths followed by six learners while they performed three language encoding tasks at the computer using an online dictionary prototype. Our hypothesis was that learners who follow an "optimal path" while navigating within the dictionary, using its search and look-up functions, would have a high chance of…

  20. Immediate Learner Repair and Its Relationship with Learning Targeted Forms in Dyadic Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between immediate learner repair in response to interactional feedback and learning targeted forms. In particular, the study examined and compared the relationship between two major types of repair: learner-generated self-repair following elicitations and teacher-generated repair following recasts. It also…

  1. Muscle activity amplitudes and co-contraction during stair ambulation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michelle; Stevermer, Catherine A; Gillette, Jason C

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activity amplitudes and co-contraction in those with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction to healthy controls during stair negotiation. Eighteen participants with unilateral ACL reconstruction and 17 healthy controls performed stair ascent and descent while surface electromyography was recorded from knee and hip musculature. During stair ascent, the ACL group displayed higher gluteus maximus activity (1-50% stance, p = 0.02), higher vastus lateralis:biceps femoris co-contraction (51-100% stance, p = 0.01), and higher vastus lateralis:vastus medialis co-contraction (51-100% stance, p = 0.05). During stair descent, the ACL group demonstrated higher gluteus maximus activity (1-50% stance, p = 0.01; 51-100% stance, p < 0.01), lower rectus femoris activity (1-50% stance, p = 0.04), higher semimembranosus activity (1-50% stance, p=0.01), higher gluteus medius activity (51-100% stance, p = 0.01), and higher vastus medialis:semimembranosus co-contraction (1-50% stance, p = 0.02). While the altered muscle activity strategies observed in the ACL group may act to increase joint stability, these strategies may alter joint loading and contribute to post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis often observed in this population. Our results warrant further investigation to determine the longterm effects of altered muscle activity on the knee joint following ACL reconstruction.

  2. Educating elementary-aged English learners in science: Scientists and teachers working together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banuelos, Gloria Rodriguez

    California's K-12 schools contain 40% of the nation's English learners, the majority of them enrolled at the elementary level. Traditionally, English learners in California have difficulty performing at the same level as their native English speaking counterparts on national achievement tests, such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress. In 1998, California voters passed Proposition 227 mandating that English learners be taught "overwhelmingly" in English, thus making teachers, many without expertise, responsible for teaching multilevel English proficient students subject matter. I studied the use of scientist-teacher partnerships as a resource for teachers of English learners. University scientists (graduate students) partnered with local elementary school teachers designed and implemented integrated science and English lessons for classrooms with at least 30% English learners. The study explored two major foci. First, integrated science and language lessons implemented by six scientist-teacher partnerships were investigated. Second, the responsibilities taken on by the team members during the implementation of integrated science and language lessons were examined. Three data sources were analyzed: (1) six lesson sequences comprised of 28 lessons; (2) 18 lesson worksheet; and (3) 24 participant Retrospective interview transcripts (12 scientists and 12 teachers). Lessons across were examined according to four analytical categories which included the following: (1) nature of the science activities (e.g. hands-on); nature of language activities (e.g. speaking); (2) nature of instructional practices (e.g. student grouping); and (3) responsibilities of teachers and scientists (e.g. classroom). A micro level analysis illustrates how one scientist-teacher team innovatively used a children's story, Goldilocks and the Three Bears, to teach the measurement of length and temperature. A macro level analysis identified three characteristics of science activities

  3. Active video games to promote physical activity in children with cancer: a randomized clinical trial with follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity, musculoskeletal morbidity and weight gain are commonly reported problems in children with cancer. Intensive medical treatment and a decline in physical activity may also result in reduced motor performance. Therefore, simple and inexpensive ways to promote physical activity and exercise are becoming an increasingly important part of children’s cancer treatment. Methods The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of active video games in promotion of physical activity in children with cancer. The research is conducted as a parallel randomized clinical trial with follow-up. Patients between 3 and 16 years old, diagnosed with cancer and treated with vincristine in two specialized medical centers are asked to participate. Based on statistical estimates, the target enrollment is 40 patients. The intervention includes playing elective active video games and, in addition, education and consultations for the family. The control group will receive a general recommendation for physical activity for 30 minutes per day. The main outcomes are the amount of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Other outcomes include motor performance, fatigue and metabolic risk factors. The outcomes are examined with questionnaires, diaries, physical examinations and blood tests at baseline and at 2, 6, 12 and 30 months after the baseline. Additionally, the children’s perceptions of the most enjoyable activation methods are explored through an interview at 2 months. Discussion This trial will help to answer the question of whether playing active video games is beneficial for children with cancer. It will also provide further reasoning for physical activity promotion and training of motor skills during treatment. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01748058 (October 15, 2012). PMID:24708773

  4. Descending pathways from activated locus coeruleus/subcoeruleus following unilateral hindpaw inflammation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Masako; Tsuruoka, Masayoshi; Hayashi, Bunsho; Nagasawa, Ikuko; Inoue, Tomio

    2009-03-16

    We have previously shown that the descending pathways from the locus coeruleus (LC)/subcoeruleus (SC) to the spinal cord are activated during peripheral inflammation, and that activation of this coeruleospinal system decreases development of hyperalgesia. Anatomical evidence suggests that the descending modulation system from the LC/SC should be active bilaterally during inflammation when the LC/SC either ipsilateral or contralateral to the site of inflammation is activated. In the present study, the development of hyperalgesia following the induction of unilateral hindpaw inflammation was compared between rats with either bilateral or unilateral lesions of the LC/SC and rats with a sham operation. Four hours after carrageenan injection, in the inflamed paw, paw withdrawal latencies (PWLs) to thermal stimuli of the bilateral LC/SC-lesioned rats were significantly shorter than those of the unilateral LC/SC-lesioned and the sham-operated rats, whereas the decreased PWLs of the unilateral LC/SC-lesioned rats were equivalent to those of the sham-operated rats. A difference in PWL between the bilateral and the unilateral LC/SC-lesioned rats was not observed in the contralateral non-inflamed paw. The result suggests that in the LC/SC both ipsilateral and contralateral to the inflamed paw, only neurons which project to the dorsal horn ipsilateral to the inflamed paw were activated following peripheral inflammation.

  5. An Overview of Follow-On Testing Activities of the A-3 Subscale Diffuser Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James E.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of NASA Stennis Space Center's (SSC) A-3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) Project is presented. The original scope of the SDT Project, conducted from April 2007 to January 2008, collected data to support mitigation of risk associated with design and procurement activities of the A-3 Test Stand Project, an effort to construct a simulated altitude test facility at SSC in support of NASA's Constellation Program. Follow-on tests were conducted from May 2008 through August 2009, utilizing the SDT test setup as a testbed for additional risk mitigation activities. Included are descriptions of the Subscale Diffuser (SD) test article, the test facility configuration, and test approaches.

  6. Reduced motor cortex activity during movement preparation following a period of motor skill practice.

    PubMed

    Wright, David J; Holmes, Paul; Di Russo, Francesco; Loporto, Michela; Smith, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Experts in a skill produce movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) of smaller amplitude and later onset than novices. This may indicate that, following long-term training, experts require less effort to plan motor skill performance. However, no longitudinal evidence exists to support this claim. To address this, EEG was used to study the effect of motor skill training on cortical activity related to motor planning. Ten non-musicians took part in a 5-week training study learning to play guitar. At week 1, the MRCP was recorded from motor areas whilst participants played the G Major scale. Following a period of practice of the scale, the MRCP was recorded again at week 5. Results showed that the amplitude of the later pre-movement components were smaller at week 5 compared to week 1. This may indicate that, following training, less activity at motor cortex sites is involved in motor skill preparation. This supports claims for a more efficient motor preparation following motor skill training. PMID:23251647

  7. Preliminary evidence of reduced brain network activation in patients with post-traumatic migraine following concussion.

    PubMed

    Kontos, Anthony P; Reches, Amit; Elbin, R J; Dickman, Dalia; Laufer, Ilan; Geva, Amir B; Shacham, Galit; DeWolf, Ryan; Collins, Michael W

    2016-06-01

    Post-traumatic migraine (PTM) (i.e., headache, nausea, light and/or noise sensitivity) is an emerging risk factor for prolonged recovery following concussion. Concussions and migraine share similar pathophysiology characterized by specific ionic imbalances in the brain. Given these similarities, patients with PTM following concussion may exhibit distinct electrophysiological patterns, although researchers have yet to examine the electrophysiological brain activation in patients with PTM following concussion. A novel approach that may help differentiate brain activation in patients with and without PTM is brain network activation (BNA) analysis. BNA involves an algorithmic analysis applied to multichannel EEG-ERP data that provides a network map of cortical activity and quantitative data during specific tasks. A prospective, repeated measures design was used to evaluate BNA (during Go/NoGo task), EEG-ERP, cognitive performance, and concussion related symptoms at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks post-injury intervals among athletes with a medically diagnosed concussion with PTM (n = 15) and without (NO-PTM) (n = 22); and age, sex, and concussion history matched controls without concussion (CONTROL) (n = 20). Participants with PTM had significantly reduced BNA compared to NO-PTM and CONTROLS for Go and NoGo components at 3 weeks and for NoGo component at 4 weeks post-injury. The PTM group also demonstrated a more prominent deviation of network activity compared to the other two groups over a longer period of time. The composite BNA algorithm may be a more sensitive measure of electrophysiological change in the brain that can augment established cognitive assessment tools for detecting impairment in individuals with PTM.

  8. Language learners restructure their input to facilitate efficient communication.

    PubMed

    Fedzechkina, Maryia; Jaeger, T Florian; Newport, Elissa L

    2012-10-30

    Languages of the world display many structural similarities. We test the hypothesis that some of these structural properties may arise from biases operating during language acquisition that shape languages over time. Specifically, we investigate whether language learners are biased toward linguistic systems that strike an efficient balance between robust information transfer, on the one hand, and effort or resource demands, on the other hand, thereby increasing the communicative utility of the acquired language. In two experiments, we expose learners to miniature artificial languages designed in such a way that they do not use their formal devices (case marking) efficiently to facilitate robust information transfer. We find that learners restructure such languages in ways that facilitate efficient information transfer compared with the input language. These systematic changes introduced by the learners follow typologically frequent patterns, supporting the hypothesis that some of the structural similarities found in natural languages are shaped by biases toward communicatively efficient linguistic systems.

  9. Discomfort and muscle activation during car egress in drivers with hemiplegia following stroke

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Nam-hae; Kim, Hwanhee; Chang, Moonyoung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated and compared the discomfort experienced during car egress with the car door opened at different angles and muscle activation in drivers with hemiplegia following stroke and non-disabled drivers. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were five drivers with hemiplegia and five non-disabled drivers. The discomfort experienced during car egress was measured using the nine-point Likert scale when the door was opened wide and when it was opened 45°. Muscle activation was measured using the TeleMyo 2400T G2 electromyography system. Electromyograph electrodes were placed on the erector spinae, rectus abdominis, and rectus femoris muscles. [Results] In the non-disabled drivers, there was no significant difference in the discomforts they experienced during car egress when the door was opened wide and when it was opened 45°. However, the discomfort experienced by drivers with hemiplegia when the door was opened 45° was significantly higher than that experienced when it was opened wide. There was a significant difference in the activation of the erector spinae, but no difference in the activation of the rectus abdominis or rectus femoris muscles. [Conclusion] This study will help to understand the difficulties experienced by drivers with hemiplegia following stroke during car ingress and egress. PMID:26834350

  10. Discomfort and muscle activation during car egress in drivers with hemiplegia following stroke.

    PubMed

    Jung, Nam-Hae; Kim, Hwanhee; Chang, Moonyoung

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated and compared the discomfort experienced during car egress with the car door opened at different angles and muscle activation in drivers with hemiplegia following stroke and non-disabled drivers. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were five drivers with hemiplegia and five non-disabled drivers. The discomfort experienced during car egress was measured using the nine-point Likert scale when the door was opened wide and when it was opened 45°. Muscle activation was measured using the TeleMyo 2400T G2 electromyography system. Electromyograph electrodes were placed on the erector spinae, rectus abdominis, and rectus femoris muscles. [Results] In the non-disabled drivers, there was no significant difference in the discomforts they experienced during car egress when the door was opened wide and when it was opened 45°. However, the discomfort experienced by drivers with hemiplegia when the door was opened 45° was significantly higher than that experienced when it was opened wide. There was a significant difference in the activation of the erector spinae, but no difference in the activation of the rectus abdominis or rectus femoris muscles. [Conclusion] This study will help to understand the difficulties experienced by drivers with hemiplegia following stroke during car ingress and egress.

  11. Managing urine leakage following laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with active suction of the prevesical space

    PubMed Central

    Stránský, Petr; Klečka, Jiří; Trávníček, Ivan; Ürge, Tomáš; Eret, Viktor; Ferda, Jiří; Petersson, Fredrik; Hes, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urine leakage following laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) is a possible complication that may herald chronic urine incontinence. Intraoperative measures aiming to prevent this is not standardised. Aim Presentation of experience with active suction of the prevesical space in managing postoperative urine leakage. Material and methods At the Department of Urology, where laparoscopy of the upper abdomen and open RP were performed, a protocol for extraperitoneal LRP was established in 8/2008. Until 5/2011, 154 LRPs have been performed. Urine leakage from a suction drain appeared in 9 cases (5.8%). Permanent active suction (with a machine for Büllae thoracic drainage) of the prevesical space with negative pressure of 7-12 cm of H2O was started immediately. Results Urine leakage started after a mean of 0.9 (0-2) days postoperatively and stopped after a mean of 8.1 (15-42) days. Leakage stopped with only suctioning in 7 cases. In one case, open re-anastomosis was performed on the 7th postoperative day (POD). In another case, ineffective active suction was replaced on the 10th POD by needle vented suction without effect and the leakage stopped following gradual shortening of the drain up to the 15th POD. Conclusions Active suction of the prevesical space seems to be an effective intervention to stop postoperative urine leakage after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. PMID:23630554

  12. Differential Activation of Calpain-1 and Calpain-2 following Kainate-Induced Seizure Activity in Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seinfeld, Jeff; Xu, Xiaobo; Bi, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    Systemic injection of kainate produces repetitive seizure activity in both rats and mice. It also results in short-term synaptic modifications as well as delayed neurodegeneration. The signaling cascades involved in both short-term and delayed responses are not clearly defined. The calcium-dependent protease calpain is activated in various brain structures following systemic kainate injection, although the precise involvement of the two major brain calpain isoforms, calpain-1 and calpain-2, remains to be defined. It has recently been reported that calpain-1 and calpain-2 play opposite roles in NMDA receptor-mediated neuroprotection or neurodegeneration, with calpain-1 being neuroprotective and calpain-2 being neurodegenerative. In the present study, we determined the activation pattern of calpain-1 and calpain-2 by analyzing changes in levels of different calpain substrates, including spectrin, drebrin, and PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog; a specific calpain-2 substrate) in both rats, and wild-type and calpain-1 knock-out mice. The results indicate that, while calpain-2 is rapidly activated in pyramidal cells throughout CA1 and CA3, rapid calpain-1 activation is restricted to parvalbumin-positive and to a lesser extent CCK-positive, but not somatostatin-positive, interneurons. In addition, calpain-1 knock-out mice exhibit increased long-term neurodegeneration in CA1, reinforcing the notion that calpain-1 activation is neuroprotective. PMID:27622212

  13. Differential Activation of Calpain-1 and Calpain-2 following Kainate-Induced Seizure Activity in Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seinfeld, Jeff; Xu, Xiaobo; Bi, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    Systemic injection of kainate produces repetitive seizure activity in both rats and mice. It also results in short-term synaptic modifications as well as delayed neurodegeneration. The signaling cascades involved in both short-term and delayed responses are not clearly defined. The calcium-dependent protease calpain is activated in various brain structures following systemic kainate injection, although the precise involvement of the two major brain calpain isoforms, calpain-1 and calpain-2, remains to be defined. It has recently been reported that calpain-1 and calpain-2 play opposite roles in NMDA receptor-mediated neuroprotection or neurodegeneration, with calpain-1 being neuroprotective and calpain-2 being neurodegenerative. In the present study, we determined the activation pattern of calpain-1 and calpain-2 by analyzing changes in levels of different calpain substrates, including spectrin, drebrin, and PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog; a specific calpain-2 substrate) in both rats, and wild-type and calpain-1 knock-out mice. The results indicate that, while calpain-2 is rapidly activated in pyramidal cells throughout CA1 and CA3, rapid calpain-1 activation is restricted to parvalbumin-positive and to a lesser extent CCK-positive, but not somatostatin-positive, interneurons. In addition, calpain-1 knock-out mice exhibit increased long-term neurodegeneration in CA1, reinforcing the notion that calpain-1 activation is neuroprotective.

  14. Differential Activation of Calpain-1 and Calpain-2 following Kainate-Induced Seizure Activity in Rats and Mice.

    PubMed

    Seinfeld, Jeff; Baudry, Neema; Xu, Xiaobo; Bi, Xiaoning; Baudry, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Systemic injection of kainate produces repetitive seizure activity in both rats and mice. It also results in short-term synaptic modifications as well as delayed neurodegeneration. The signaling cascades involved in both short-term and delayed responses are not clearly defined. The calcium-dependent protease calpain is activated in various brain structures following systemic kainate injection, although the precise involvement of the two major brain calpain isoforms, calpain-1 and calpain-2, remains to be defined. It has recently been reported that calpain-1 and calpain-2 play opposite roles in NMDA receptor-mediated neuroprotection or neurodegeneration, with calpain-1 being neuroprotective and calpain-2 being neurodegenerative. In the present study, we determined the activation pattern of calpain-1 and calpain-2 by analyzing changes in levels of different calpain substrates, including spectrin, drebrin, and PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog; a specific calpain-2 substrate) in both rats, and wild-type and calpain-1 knock-out mice. The results indicate that, while calpain-2 is rapidly activated in pyramidal cells throughout CA1 and CA3, rapid calpain-1 activation is restricted to parvalbumin-positive and to a lesser extent CCK-positive, but not somatostatin-positive, interneurons. In addition, calpain-1 knock-out mice exhibit increased long-term neurodegeneration in CA1, reinforcing the notion that calpain-1 activation is neuroprotective. PMID:27622212

  15. Improvements to executive function during exercise training predict maintenance of physical activity over the following year

    PubMed Central

    Best, John R.; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exercise training benefits cognitive, neural, and physical health markers in older adults. It is likely that these positive effects will diminish if participants return to sedentary lifestyles following training cessation. Theory posits that that the neurocognitive processes underlying self-regulation, namely executive function (EF), are important to maintaining positive health behaviors. Therefore, we examined whether better EF performance in older women would predict greater adherence to routine physical activity (PA) over 1 year following a 12-month resistance exercise training randomized controlled trial. The study sample consisted of 125 community-dwelling women aged 65–75 years old. Our primary outcome measure was self-reported PA, as measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), assessed on a monthly basis from month 13 to month 25. Executive function was assessed using the Stroop Test at baseline (month 0) and post-training (month 12). Latent growth curve analyses showed that, on average, PA decreased during the follow-up period but at a decelerating rate. Women who made greater improvements to EF during the training period showed better adherence to PA during the 1-year follow-up period (β = −0.36, p < 0.05); this association was unmitigated by the addition of covariates (β = −0.44, p < 0.05). As expected, EF did not predict changes in PA during the training period (p > 0.10). Overall, these findings suggest that improving EF plays an important role in whether older women maintain higher levels of PA following exercise training and that this association is only apparent after training when environmental support for PA is low. PMID:24904387

  16. Reconstruction of 137Cs activity in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tateda, Yutaka; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Hayami, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    2014-05-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. We reconstructed spatiotemporal variability of 137Cs activity in the ocean by the comparison model simulations and observed data. We employed a regional scale and the North Pacific scale oceanic dispersion models, an atmospheric transport model, a sediment transport model, a dynamic biological compartment model for marine biota and river runoff model to investigate the oceanic contamination. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for more than 2 years after the accident by comparing simulated results and observed activities very close to the site. The estimated total amounts of directly released 137Cs was 3.6±0.7 PBq. Directly release rate of 137Cs decreased exponentially with time by the end of December 2012 and then, was almost constant. The daily release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be 3.0 x 1010 Bq day-1 by the end of September 2013. The activity of directly released 137Cs was detectable only in the coastal zone after December 2012. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of dose rate and air activity of 137Cs over the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Observed 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition in the ocean helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Although there is no observed data of 137Cs activity in the ocean from 11 to 21 March 2011, observed data of

  17. Right anterior superior temporal activation predicts auditory sentence comprehension following aphasic stroke.

    PubMed

    Crinion, Jenny; Price, Cathy J

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that recovery of speech comprehension after left hemisphere infarction may depend on a mechanism in the right hemisphere. However, the role that distinct right hemisphere regions play in speech comprehension following left hemisphere stroke has not been established. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate narrative speech activation in 18 neurologically normal subjects and 17 patients with left hemisphere stroke and a history of aphasia. Activation for listening to meaningful stories relative to meaningless reversed speech was identified in the normal subjects and in each patient. Second level analyses were then used to investigate how story activation changed with the patients' auditory sentence comprehension skills and surprise story recognition memory tests post-scanning. Irrespective of lesion site, performance on tests of auditory sentence comprehension was positively correlated with activation in the right lateral superior temporal region, anterior to primary auditory cortex. In addition, when the stroke spared the left temporal cortex, good performance on tests of auditory sentence comprehension was also correlated with the left posterior superior temporal cortex (Wernicke's area). In distinct contrast to this, good story recognition memory predicted left inferior frontal and right cerebellar activation. The implication of this double dissociation in the effects of auditory sentence comprehension and story recognition memory is that left frontal and left temporal activations are dissociable. Our findings strongly support the role of the right temporal lobe in processing narrative speech and, in particular, auditory sentence comprehension following left hemisphere aphasic stroke. In addition, they highlight the importance of the right anterior superior temporal cortex where the response was dissociated from that in the left posterior temporal lobe.

  18. Cortical activation following chronic passive implantation of a wide-field suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalobos, Joel; Fallon, James B.; Nayagam, David A. X.; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Luu, Chi D.; Allen, Penelope J.; Shepherd, Robert K.; Williams, Chris E.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. The research goal is to develop a wide-field retinal stimulating array for prosthetic vision. This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a suprachoroidal electrode array in evoking visual cortex activity after long term implantation. Approach. A planar silicone based electrode array (8 mm × 19 mm) was implanted into the suprachoroidal space in cats (ntotal = 10). It consisted of 20 platinum stimulating electrodes (600 μm diameter) and a trans-scleral cable terminated in a subcutaneous connector. Three months after implantation (nchronic = 6), or immediately after implantation (nacute = 4), an electrophysiological study was performed. Electrode total impedance was measured from voltage transients using 500 μs, 1 mA pulses. Electrically evoked potentials (EEPs) and multi-unit activity were recorded from the visual cortex in response to monopolar retinal stimulation. Dynamic range and cortical activation spread were calculated from the multi-unit recordings. Main results. The mean electrode total impedance in vivo following 3 months was 12.5 ± 0.3 kΩ. EEPs were recorded for 98% of the electrodes. The median evoked potential threshold was 150 nC (charge density 53 μC cm-2). The lowest stimulation thresholds were found proximal to the area centralis. Mean thresholds from multiunit activity were lower for chronic (181 ± 14 nC) compared to acute (322 ± 20 nC) electrodes (P < 0.001), but there was no difference in dynamic range or cortical activation spread. Significance. Suprachoroidal stimulation threshold was lower in chronic than acute implantation and was within safe charge limits for platinum. Electrode-tissue impedance following chronic implantation was higher, indicating the need for sufficient compliance voltage (e.g. 12.8 V for mean impedance, threshold and dynamic range). The wide-field suprachoroidal array reliably activated the retina after chronic implantation.

  19. Matrix metalloproteinase expression and activity following prostaglandin F(2 alpha)-induced luteolysis.

    PubMed

    Ricke, William A; Smith, George W; Smith, Michael F

    2002-03-01

    Luteal tissue contains matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that cleave specific components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and are inhibited by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). We previously reported a decrease in luteal TIMP-1 within 15 min of prostaglandin F(2 alpha) (PGF(2 alpha))-induced luteolysis. An increase in the MMP:TIMP ratio may promote ECM degradation and apoptosis, as observed in other tissues that undergo involution. The objectives of these experiments were to determine whether 1) PGF(2 alpha) affects expression of mRNA encoding fibrillar collagenases (MMP-1 and -13), gelatinases A and B (MMP-2 and -9), membrane type (mt)-1 MMP (MMP-14), stromelysin (MMP-3), and matrilysin (MMP-7), and 2) PGF(2 alpha) increases MMP activity during PGF(2 alpha)-induced luteolysis in sheep. Corpora lutea (n = 3-10/time point) were collected at 0, 15, and 30 min and 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after PGF(2 alpha) administration. Northern blot analysis confirmed the presence of all MMPs except MMP-9. Expression of mRNA for the above MMPs (except MMP-2) increased significantly (P < 0.05) by 30 min, and all MMPs increased significantly (P < 0.05) by 6 h after PGF(2 alpha) administration. Expression of MMP-14 mRNA increased significantly (P < 0.05) by 15 min post-PGF(2 alpha) and remained elevated through 48 h. MMP activity in luteal homogenates (following proenzyme activation and inactivation of inhibitors) was increased significantly (P < 0.05) by 15 min and remained elevated through 48 h post-PGF(2 alpha). MMP activity was localized (in situ zymography) to the pericellular area of various cell types in the 0-h group and was markedly increased by 30 min post-PGF(2 alpha). MMP mRNA expression and activity were significantly increased following PGF(2 alpha) treatment. Increased MMP activity may promote ECM degradation during luteolysis.

  20. Metabolic maintenance of cell asymmetry following division in activated T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Verbist, Katherine C; Guy, Cliff S; Milasta, Sandra; Liedmann, Swantje; Kamiński, Marcin M; Wang, Ruoning; Green, Douglas R

    2016-04-21

    Asymmetric cell division, the partitioning of cellular components in response to polarizing cues during mitosis, has roles in differentiation and development. It is important for the self-renewal of fertilized zygotes in Caenorhabditis elegans and neuroblasts in Drosophila, and in the development of mammalian nervous and digestive systems. T lymphocytes, upon activation by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), can undergo asymmetric cell division, wherein the daughter cell proximal to the APC is more likely to differentiate into an effector-like T cell and the distal daughter is more likely to differentiate into a memory-like T cell. Upon activation and before cell division, expression of the transcription factor c-Myc drives metabolic reprogramming, necessary for the subsequent proliferative burst. Here we find that during the first division of an activated T cell in mice, c-Myc can sort asymmetrically. Asymmetric distribution of amino acid transporters, amino acid content, and activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is correlated with c-Myc expression, and both amino acids and mTORC1 activity sustain the differences in c-Myc expression in one daughter cell compared to the other. Asymmetric c-Myc levels in daughter T cells affect proliferation, metabolism, and differentiation, and these effects are altered by experimental manipulation of mTORC1 activity or c-Myc expression. Therefore, metabolic signalling pathways cooperate with transcription programs to maintain differential cell fates following asymmetric T-cell division.

  1. Increased muscle activation following motor imagery during the rehabilitation of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Lebon, Florent; Guillot, Aymeric; Collet, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is the mental representation of an action without any concomitant movement. MI has been used frequently after peripheral injuries to decrease pain and facilitate rehabilitation. However, little is known about the effects of MI on muscle activation underlying the motor recovery. This study aimed to assess the therapeutic effects of MI on the activation of lower limb muscles, as well as on the time course of functional recovery and pain after surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Twelve patients with a torn ACL were randomly assigned to a MI or control group, who both received a series of physiotherapy. Electromyographic activity of the quadriceps, pain, anthropometrical data, and lower limb motor ability were measured throughout a 12-session therapy. The data provided evidence that MI elicited greater muscle activation, even though imagery practice did not result in pain decrease. Muscle activation increase might originate from a redistribution of the central neuronal activity, as there was no anthropometric change in lower limb muscles after imagery practice. This study confirmed the effectiveness of integrating MI in a rehabilitation process by facilitating muscular properties recovery following motor impairment. MI may thus be considered a reliable adjunct therapy to help injured patients to recover motor functions after reconstructive surgery of ACL.

  2. Microparticle production, neutrophil activation, and intravascular bubbles following open-water SCUBA diving.

    PubMed

    Thom, Stephen R; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Bogush, Marina; Bhopale, Veena M; Yang, Ming; Bushmann, Kim; Pollock, Neal W; Ljubkovic, Marko; Denoble, Petar; Dujic, Zeljko

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate annexin V-positive microparticles (MPs) and neutrophil activation in humans following decompression from open-water SCUBA diving with the hypothesis that changes are related to intravascular bubble formation. Sixteen male volunteer divers followed a uniform profile of four daily SCUBA dives to 18 m of sea water for 47 min. Blood was obtained prior to and at 80 min following the first and fourth dives to evaluate the impact of repetitive diving, and intravascular bubbles were quantified by trans-thoracic echocardiography carried out at 20-min intervals for 2 h after each dive. MPs increased by 3.4-fold after each dive, neutrophil activation occurred as assessed by surface expression of myeloperoxidase and the CD18 component of β(2)-integrins, and there was an increased presence of the platelet-derived CD41 protein on the neutrophil surface indicating interactions with platelet membranes. Intravascular bubbles were detected in all divers. Surprisingly, significant inverse correlations were found among postdiving bubble scores and MPs, most consistently at 80 min or more after the dive on the fourth day. There were significant positive correlations between MPs and platelet-neutrophil interactions after the first dive and between platelet-neutrophil interactions and neutrophil activation documented as an elevation in β(2)-integrin expression after the fourth dive. We conclude that MPs- and neutrophil-related events in humans are consistent with findings in an animal decompression model. Whether there are causal relationships among bubbles, MPs, platelet-neutrophil interactions, and neutrophil activation remains obscure and requires additional study.

  3. Subpallial and hypothalamic areas activated following sexual and agonistic encounters in male chickens.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jingjing; Kuenzel, Wayne J; Anthony, Nicholas B; Jurkevich, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    Male sexual and agonistic behaviors are controlled by the common social behavior network, involving subpallial and hypothalamic brain areas. In order to understand how this common network generates different behavioral outcomes, induction of FOS protein was used to examine the patterns of neuronal activation in adult male chickens following interaction with a female or a male. Males were subjected to one of the following treatments: handling control, non-contact interaction with a female, contact interaction with a live female, a taxidermy female model or another male. The number of FOS-immunoreactive (FOS-ir) cells, and the area and immunostaining density of individual cells were quantified in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), medial extended amygdala (nucleus taeniae of the amygdala, TnA, and dorsolateral and ventromedial subdivisions of the medial portion of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, BSTM1 and BSTM2, respectively), lateral septum (SL), hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), bed nucleus of the pallial commissure (NCPa) and ventrolateral thalamic nucleus (VLT). An increase in FOS-ir cells following appetitive sexual behavior was found in BSTM2 and NCPa. Copulation augmented FOS-ir in POM, SL, VLT, and PVN. Intermale interactions increased FOS-ir in all examined brain regions except the TnA and BSTM. Within the SL, copulatory and agonistic behavior activated spatially segregated cell groups. In the PVN, different social behaviors induced significant changes in the distribution of FOS-ir cell sizes suggesting activation of heterogeneous subpopulations of cells. Collectively, behavioral outcomes of male-female and male-male interactions are associated with a combination of common and site-specific patterns of neural activation.

  4. Altered cortical activation patterns associated with baroreflex unloading following 24 h of physical deconditioning.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, J K; Usselman, C W; Rothwell, A; Wong, S W

    2012-12-01

    Cardiovascular arousal is associated with patterned cortical activity changes. Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) dimishes the baroreflex-mediated cardiac control. The present study tested the hypothesis that HDBR deconditioning would modify the forebrain organization for heart rate (HR) control during baroreflex unloading. Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure and plasma hormones were analysed at rest, whereas HR and cortical autonomic activation patterns (functional magnetic resonance imaging) were measured during graded and randomly assigned lower body negative pressure treatments (LBNP, -15 and -35 mmHg) both before (Pre) and after (Post) a 24 h HDBR protocol (study 1; n = 8). An additional group was tested before and following diuretic-induced hypovolaemia (study 2; n = 9; spironolactone, 100 mg day(-1) for 3 days) that mimicked the plasma volume lost during HDBR (-15% in both studies; P < 0.05). Head-down bed rest with hypovolaemia did not affect baseline HR, mean arterial pressure, HRV or plasma catecholamines. Head-down bed rest augmented the LBNP-induced HR response (P < 0.05), and this was associated with bed-rest-induced development of the following changes: (i) enhanced activation within the genual anterior cingulate cortex and the right anterior insular cortex; and (ii) deactivation patterns within the subgenual regions of the anterior cingulate cortex. Diuretic treatment (without HDBR) did not affect baseline HR and mean arterial pressure, but did reduce resting HRV and elevated circulating noradrenaline and plasma renin activity (P < 0.05). The greater HR response to LBNP following diuretic (P < 0.05) was associated with diminished activation of the right anterior insula. Our findings indicate that 24 h of HDBR minimized the impact of diuretic treatment on baseline autonomic and cardiovascular variables. The findings also indicate that despite the similar augmentation of HR responses to LBNP and despite similar pre-intervention cortical activation

  5. Altered cortical activation patterns associated with baroreflex unloading following 24 h of physical deconditioning.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, J K; Usselman, C W; Rothwell, A; Wong, S W

    2012-12-01

    Cardiovascular arousal is associated with patterned cortical activity changes. Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) dimishes the baroreflex-mediated cardiac control. The present study tested the hypothesis that HDBR deconditioning would modify the forebrain organization for heart rate (HR) control during baroreflex unloading. Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure and plasma hormones were analysed at rest, whereas HR and cortical autonomic activation patterns (functional magnetic resonance imaging) were measured during graded and randomly assigned lower body negative pressure treatments (LBNP, -15 and -35 mmHg) both before (Pre) and after (Post) a 24 h HDBR protocol (study 1; n = 8). An additional group was tested before and following diuretic-induced hypovolaemia (study 2; n = 9; spironolactone, 100 mg day(-1) for 3 days) that mimicked the plasma volume lost during HDBR (-15% in both studies; P < 0.05). Head-down bed rest with hypovolaemia did not affect baseline HR, mean arterial pressure, HRV or plasma catecholamines. Head-down bed rest augmented the LBNP-induced HR response (P < 0.05), and this was associated with bed-rest-induced development of the following changes: (i) enhanced activation within the genual anterior cingulate cortex and the right anterior insular cortex; and (ii) deactivation patterns within the subgenual regions of the anterior cingulate cortex. Diuretic treatment (without HDBR) did not affect baseline HR and mean arterial pressure, but did reduce resting HRV and elevated circulating noradrenaline and plasma renin activity (P < 0.05). The greater HR response to LBNP following diuretic (P < 0.05) was associated with diminished activation of the right anterior insula. Our findings indicate that 24 h of HDBR minimized the impact of diuretic treatment on baseline autonomic and cardiovascular variables. The findings also indicate that despite the similar augmentation of HR responses to LBNP and despite similar pre-intervention cortical activation

  6. Vaxtracker: Active on-line surveillance for adverse events following inactivated influenza vaccine in children.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Patrick; Moberley, Sarah; Dalton, Craig; Stephenson, Jody; Elvidge, Elissa; Butler, Michelle; Durrheim, David N

    2014-09-22

    Vaxtracker is a web based survey for active post marketing surveillance of Adverse Events Following Immunisation. It is designed to efficiently monitor vaccine safety of new vaccines by early signal detection of serious adverse events. The Vaxtracker system automates contact with the parents or carers of immunised children by email and/or sms message to their smart phone. A hyperlink on the email and text messages links to a web based survey exploring adverse events following the immunisation. The Vaxtracker concept was developed during 2011 (n=21), and piloted during the 2012 (n=200) and 2013 (n=477) influenza seasons for children receiving inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in the Hunter New England Local Health District, New South Wales, Australia. Survey results were reviewed by surveillance staff to detect any safety signals and compare adverse event frequencies among the different influenza vaccines administered. In 2012, 57% (n=113) of the 200 participants responded to the online survey and 61% (290/477) in 2013. Vaxtracker appears to be an effective method for actively monitoring adverse events following influenza vaccination in children.

  7. Vaxtracker: Active on-line surveillance for adverse events following inactivated influenza vaccine in children.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Patrick; Moberley, Sarah; Dalton, Craig; Stephenson, Jody; Elvidge, Elissa; Butler, Michelle; Durrheim, David N

    2014-09-22

    Vaxtracker is a web based survey for active post marketing surveillance of Adverse Events Following Immunisation. It is designed to efficiently monitor vaccine safety of new vaccines by early signal detection of serious adverse events. The Vaxtracker system automates contact with the parents or carers of immunised children by email and/or sms message to their smart phone. A hyperlink on the email and text messages links to a web based survey exploring adverse events following the immunisation. The Vaxtracker concept was developed during 2011 (n=21), and piloted during the 2012 (n=200) and 2013 (n=477) influenza seasons for children receiving inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in the Hunter New England Local Health District, New South Wales, Australia. Survey results were reviewed by surveillance staff to detect any safety signals and compare adverse event frequencies among the different influenza vaccines administered. In 2012, 57% (n=113) of the 200 participants responded to the online survey and 61% (290/477) in 2013. Vaxtracker appears to be an effective method for actively monitoring adverse events following influenza vaccination in children. PMID:25077424

  8. Biochemical characterization of a halotolerant feruloyl esterase from Actinomyces spp.: refolding and activity following thermal deactivation.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Cameron J; Tanksale, Akshat; Haritos, Victoria S

    2016-02-01

    Ferulic acid esterases (FAE, EC. 3.1.1.73) hydrolyse the linkage between hemicellulose and lignin and thus have potential for use in mild enzymatic pretreatment of biomass as an alternative to thermochemical approaches. Here, we report the characterization of a novel FAE (ActOFaeI) obtained from the bacterium, Actinomyces sp. oral which was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 in two forms: with and without its putative signal peptide. The truncated form was found to have <10 % relative activity compared to the full length and was more prone to aggregation after purification. The enzyme with retained peptide demonstrated 2 to 4-fold higher activity against methyl caffeate and methyl p-coumarate, with specific activities of 477.6 and 174.4 U mg(-1) respectively, than the equivalent activities of the benchmark FAE from Aspergillus niger A and B. ActOFaeI retained activity over a broad pH range with a maximum at 9 but >90 % relative activity at pH 6.5 and an optimum reaction temperature of 30 °C. ActOFaeI increased activity by 15% in high salt conditions (1000 mMNaCl) and its thermal unfolding temperature improved from 41.5 °C in standard buffer to 74 °C in the presence of 2500 mM sodium malonate. ActOFaeI also released ferulic acid from destarched wheat bran when combined with a xylanase preparation. After treatment above the thermal denaturation temperature followed by cooling to room temperature, ActOFaeI demonstrated spontaneous refolding into an active state. ActOFaeI displays many useful characteristics for enzymatic pretreatment of lignocellulose and contributes to our understanding of this important family.

  9. NRF2-mediated Notch pathway activation enhances hematopoietic reconstitution following myelosuppressive radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Thimmulappa, Rajesh K.; Kumar, Vineet; Cui, Wanchang; Kumar, Sarvesh; Kombairaju, Ponvijay; Zhang, Hao; Margolick, Joseph; Matsui, William; Macvittie, Thomas; Malhotra, Sanjay V.; Biswal, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    A nuclear disaster may result in exposure to potentially lethal doses of ionizing radiation (IR). Hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS) is characterized by severe myelosuppression, which increases the risk of infection, bleeding, and mortality. Here, we determined that activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2–related factor 2 (NRF2) signaling enhances hematopoietic stem progenitor cell (HSPC) function and mitigates IR-induced myelosuppression and mortality. Augmenting NRF2 signaling in mice, either by genetic deletion of the NRF2 inhibitor Keap1 or by pharmacological NRF2 activation with 2-trifluoromethyl-2′-methoxychalone (TMC), enhanced hematopoietic reconstitution following bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Strikingly, even 24 hours after lethal IR exposure, oral administration of TMC mitigated myelosuppression and mortality in mice. Furthermore, TMC administration to irradiated transgenic Notch reporter mice revealed activation of Notch signaling in HSPCs and enhanced HSPC expansion by increasing Jagged1 expression in BM stromal cells. Administration of a Notch inhibitor ablated the effects of TMC on hematopoietic reconstitution. Taken together, we identified a mechanism by which NRF2-mediated Notch signaling improves HSPC function and myelosuppression following IR exposure. Our data indicate that targeting this pathway may provide a countermeasure against the damaging effects of IR exposure. PMID:24463449

  10. Changes in cortisol level in saliva following relaxation-activation autoregulative intervention.

    PubMed

    Machac, M; Machacová, H; Stárka, L; Hampl, R

    1987-09-01

    The relaxation-activation autoregulative method (RAM) is a psychoregulative procedure characterized by typical autonomic patterns of relaxation and activation phases (blood pressure, electric skin resistance, heart beat, EEG, etc.). They are used as feedback information in the training of autoregulative abilities. RAM has a multidimensional (non-specific) tuning effect which is manifested by changes in the psychophysiological state (emotional tuning, physiological functioning and performance). It has a therapeutical effect on disorders with a psychic pathogenic component, e.g., essential hypertension. The increased production of adrenaline following the application of RAM was found in previous experiments.--The present experiment with a sample of six persons well mastering RAM has shown that the cortisol level following this psychoregulative intervention also rises significantly and that this rise has been recorded over three days, i.e., over the whole period of saliva sampling. It may be said that RAM has a non-specific, ergotropic (activating) subsequent effect and that this effect has the character of stress, more accurately eustress. Autogenic training, on the other hand, reduces the cortisol level.

  11. Throwing and catching movements exhibit post-activation potentiation effects following fatigue.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Andrew J

    2011-09-01

    Many sport and exercise activities require powerful movements of the upper body. Despite their importance, there is a paucity of research examining stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) activities occurring in the upper limbs. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of fatigue on throwing performance (height of throw) and biomechanical factors of the upper limbs (reactive strength index; hand contact time) using a specially constructed sledge apparatus for the upper body. Ten male subjects aged between 19 and 21 years performed a series of rebound throws (RBT) in a non-fatigued state to obtain a maximal baseline throw score. Subjects then performed a RBT fatiguing protocol on the upper body sledge followed by further RBT, at 15, 45, 120 and 300-seconds post fatigue. Markers on the subjects' limb and the sledge were analysed using Motion Analysis Corporation 3-D kinematic analysis system (200 Hz). Throwing height, contact time and reactive strength index were determined. Mean throwing height and reactive strength index showed significant decreases following fatigue and increases during recovery (p < 0.05). The results confirm the presence ofpost-activation potentiation (PAP) in RBT performance. This finding could be useful when optimising recovery periods in training or implementing complex training methods.

  12. Genotoxicity induced by a shale oil byproduct in Chinese hamster cells following metabolic activation

    SciTech Connect

    Okinaka, R.T.; Nickols, J.W.; Chen, D.J.; Strniste, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    A process water obtained from a holding tank during the surface retorting of oil shale has been shown to induce a linear dose response of 100 histidine revertants/sub ..mu../1 in the Ames/Salmonella test. The complex mixture has also previously been shown to induce genotoxicity in mammalian cells following activation by near ultraviolet light and natural sunlight. This report focuses on the effects of a particular oil shale retort process water on cultured Chinese hamster cells following metabolic activation by either rat liver homogenate or lethally irradiated but metabolically competent Syrian hamster embryonic cells. Cytotoxic and mutagenic responses induced by the process water and a fractionated sample from it containing the majority of the mutagenic activity (as assessed by the Salmonella test) were measured under conditions designed to optimally measure the mutagenic potency of the promutagen, benzo(a)pyrene. These results suggest a possible discrepancy in the genotoxic potential of this complex mixture when various methods are utilized to measure its potential.

  13. Delayed healing of a navicular stress fracture, following limited weight-bearing activity

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Matthew; Fulcher, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a 21-year-old man, a semiprofessional football (soccer) player, with a navicular stress fracture. It highlights the difficulty in diagnosing the condition and the complications arising from inadequate management. The case discusses the optimal management of these stress fractures and the detrimental role of weight-bearing recovery. The diagnosis of navicular stress fractures is challenging, and a high index of suspicion is required. The available literature indicates that limited weightbearing is not an appropriate treatment for navicular stress injuries. Non-weight-bearing (NWB) cast immobilisation for 6–8 weeks appears to be the gold standard treatment; however, open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF) has similar success rates and an equal return-to-play time but should also be followed by a period of NWB. NWB cast immobilisation for 6 weeks remains a good second option at any time following failed limited weight-bearing activity. PMID:24618870

  14. Activation of Neutrophils via IP3 Pathway Following Exposure to Demodex-Associated Bacterial Proteins.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Fred; Banville, Nessa; Bergin, David A; Smedman, Christian; Paulie, Staffan; Reeves, Emer; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2016-02-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory condition that predominantly affects the skin of the face. Sera from rosacea patients display elevated reactivity to proteins from a bacterium (Bacillus oleronius) originally isolated from a Demodex mite from a rosacea patient suggesting a possible role for bacteria in the induction and persistence of this condition. This work investigated the ability of B. oleronius proteins to activate neutrophils and demonstrated activation via the IP3 pathway. Activated neutrophils displayed increased levels of IP1 production, F-actin formation, chemotaxis, and production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 following stimulation by pure and crude B. oleronius protein preparations (2 μg/ml), respectively. In addition, neutrophils exposed to pure and crude B. oleronius proteins (2 μg/ml) demonstrated increased release of internally stored calcium (Ca(2+)), a hallmark of the IP3 pathway of neutrophil activation. Neutrophils play a significant role in the inflammation associated with rosacea, and this work demonstrates how B. oleronius proteins can induce neutrophil recruitment and activation. PMID:26433579

  15. Promotion of ovarian follicle growth following mTOR activation: synergistic effects of AKT stimulators.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuan; Kim, Jaehong; Li, Xiao Xiao; Hsueh, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase and mTOR signaling is important in regulating cell growth and proliferation. Recent studies using oocyte- and granulosa cell-specific deletion of mTOR inhibitor genes TSC1 or TSC2 demonstrated the important role of mTOR signaling in the promotion of ovarian follicle development. We now report that treatment of ovaries from juvenile mice with an mTOR activator MHY1485 stimulated mTOR, S6K1 and rpS6 phosphorylation. Culturing ovaries for 4 days with MHY1485 increased ovarian explant weights and follicle development. In vivo studies further demonstrated that pre-incubation of these ovaries with MHY1485 for 2 days, followed by allo-grafting into kidney capsules of adult ovariectomized hosts for 5 days, led to marked increases in graft weights and promotion of follicle development. Mature oocytes derived from MHY1485-activated ovarian grafts could be successfully fertilized, leading the delivery of healthy pups. We further treated ovaries with the mTOR activator together with AKT activators (PTEN inhibitor and phosphoinositol-3-kinase stimulator) before grafting and found additive enhancement of follicle growth. Our studies demonstrate the ability of an mTOR activator in promoting follicle growth, leading to a potential strategy to stimulate preantral follicle growth in infertile patients.

  16. Diversity of dominant bacterial taxa in activated sludge promotes functional resistance following toxic shock loading.

    PubMed

    Saikaly, Pascal E; Oerther, Daniel B

    2011-04-01

    Examining the relationship between biodiversity and functional stability (resistance and resilience) of activated sludge bacterial communities following disturbance is an important first step towards developing strategies for the design of robust biological wastewater treatment systems. This study investigates the relationship between functional resistance and biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa by subjecting activated sludge samples, with different levels of biodiversity, to toxic shock loading with cupric sulfate (Cu[II]), 3,5-dichlorophenol (3,5-DCP), or 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Respirometric batch experiments were performed to determine the functional resistance of activated sludge bacterial community to the three toxicants. Functional resistance was estimated as the 30 min IC(50) or the concentration of toxicant that results in a 50% reduction in oxygen utilization rate compared to a referential state represented by a control receiving no toxicant. Biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa was assessed using polymerase chain reaction-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-T-RFLP) targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene. Statistical analysis of 30 min IC(50) values and PCR-T-RFLP data showed a significant positive correlation (P < 0.05) between functional resistance and microbial diversity for each of the three toxicants tested. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing a positive correlation between biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa in activated sludge and functional resistance. In this system, activated sludge bacterial communities with higher biodiversity are functionally more resistant to disturbance caused by toxic shock loading.

  17. Grammatical Processing in Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clahsen, Harald; Felser, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    The ability to process the linguistic input in real time is crucial for successfully acquiring a language, and yet little is known about how language learners comprehend or produce language in real time. Against this background, we have conducted a detailed study of grammatical processing in language learners using experimental psycholinguistic…

  18. Orienting Adult Learners to College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Tara S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes pilot program at University of Louisville (Kentucky) which was designed to assist in orienting adult learners to the collegiate environment. Addresses special concerns of adult learners, including child care, career planning, academic support, personal support, and financial aid. Explains program development and presentation, materials,…

  19. Profiling Mobile English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Jason; Diem, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an app-embedded survey to profile language learner demographics. A total of 3,759 EFL language learners from primarily eight L1 backgrounds (French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Russian, Spanish and Thai) responded to the survey embedded within a popular English grammar app. This app has over 500,000…

  20. Iranian EFL Learners' Compliment Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allami, Hamid; Montazeri, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the knowledge of Iranian EFL learners in responding to compliments in English, with a focus on the variables of gender, age and educational background. The data were collected through a 24-item English Discourse Completion Task (DCT) to which 40 male and female EFL learners were asked to provide short…

  1. Assistive Software for Disabled Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sharon; Baggaley, Jon

    2004-01-01

    Previous reports in this series (#32 and 36) have discussed online software features of value to disabled learners in distance education. The current report evaluates four specific assistive software products with useful features for visually and hearing impaired learners: "ATutor", "ACollab", "Natural Voice", and "Just Vanilla". The evaluative…

  2. High Ability and Learner Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindal, Huda; Reid, Norman; Whitehead, Rex

    2013-01-01

    The outstandingly able learner has been conceptualised, in terms of test and examination performance, as the learner showing superior academic performance which is markedly better than that of peers and in ways regarded as of value by wider society. In Kuwait, such superior examination performance leads to a classification regarded as being…

  3. The Generative Adolescent Mathematical Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the personal epistemologies of generative adolescent mathematical learners. A generative disposition defined a learner who operated mathematically in ways that reflect an internalized authority for knowing and a constructive orientation to knowledge. Drawing upon the radical constructivist teaching…

  4. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…

  5. Sensitizing ESL Learners to Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Jasti Appa

    2008-01-01

    This article evaluates the efficacy of explicit genre-based instruction by sensitizing the ESL learners to the concept of genre. The main questions addressed are: How does sensitizing ESL learners to the rhetorical move structure of a genre, the communicative purposes of these moves, and linguistic features that realize these moves help them to…

  6. Learner Intonation -- A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Nancy

    This study is concerned with problems in language learners' intonation of English. Ten intonation problems were found in the learner speech of two adult Spanish-speaking males: (1) range of pitch, (2) initial rise, (3) final fall, (4) rise to final stressed syllable, (5) placement of prominence, (6) final rise for questions, (7) total question…

  7. Visualization of Active Glucocerebrosidase in Rodent Brain with High Spatial Resolution following In Situ Labeling with Fluorescent Activity Based Probes

    PubMed Central

    Herrera Moro Chao, Daniela; Kallemeijn, Wouter W.; Marques, Andre R. A.; Orre, Marie; Ottenhoff, Roelof; van Roomen, Cindy; Foppen, Ewout; Renner, Maria C.; Moeton, Martina; van Eijk, Marco; Boot, Rolf G.; Kamphuis, Willem; Hol, Elly M.; Aten, Jan; Overkleeft, Hermen S.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Gaucher disease is characterized by lysosomal accumulation of glucosylceramide due to deficient activity of lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GBA). In cells, glucosylceramide is also degraded outside lysosomes by the enzyme glucosylceramidase 2 (GBA2) of which inherited deficiency is associated with ataxias. The interest in GBA and glucosylceramide metabolism in the brain has grown following the notion that mutations in the GBA gene impose a risk factor for motor disorders such as α-synucleinopathies. We earlier developed a β-glucopyranosyl-configured cyclophellitol-epoxide type activity based probe (ABP) allowing in vivo and in vitro visualization of active molecules of GBA with high spatial resolution. Labeling occurs through covalent linkage of the ABP to the catalytic nucleophile residue in the enzyme pocket. Here, we describe a method to visualize active GBA molecules in rat brain slices using in vivo labeling. Brain areas related to motor control, like the basal ganglia and motor related structures in the brainstem, show a high content of active GBA. We also developed a β-glucopyranosyl cyclophellitol-aziridine ABP allowing in situ labeling of GBA2. Labeled GBA2 in brain areas can be identified and quantified upon gel electrophoresis. The distribution of active GBA2 markedly differs from that of GBA, being highest in the cerebellar cortex. The histological findings with ABP labeling were confirmed by biochemical analysis of isolated brain areas. In conclusion, ABPs offer sensitive tools to visualize active GBA and to study the distribution of GBA2 in the brain and thus may find application to establish the role of these enzymes in neurodegenerative disease conditions such as α-synucleinopathies and cerebellar ataxia. PMID:26418157

  8. Data on antioxidant activity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) following cryopreservation by vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Lazo-Javalera, María Fernanda; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín Ernesto; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa; Rocha-Granados, María del Carmen; Martínez-Montero, Marcos Edel; Rivera-Domínguez, Marisela

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is used for the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources. This technique very often induces lethal injury or tissue damage. In this study, we measured indicators of viability and cell damage following cryopreservation and vitrification-cryopreservation in Vitis vinifera L. axillary buds cv. “Flame seedless” stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) for: three seconds, one hour, one day, one week and one month; after LN thawed at 38 °C for three minutes. The enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein and viability were assayed. PMID:26958607

  9. MICROSTRUCTURAL EXAMINATION OF LOW ACTIVATION FERRITIC STEELS FOLLOWING IRRADIATION IN ORR

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, David S.

    2002-09-01

    Microstructural examinations are reported for a series of low activation steels containing Mn following irradiation in the Oak Ridge Reactor at 330 and 400 degrees C to approximately 10 dpa. Alloy compositions included 2Cr, 9Cr and 12Cr steels with V to 1.5 percent and W to 1.0 percent. Results include compositional changes in precipitates and microstructural changes as a function of composition and irradiation temperature. It is concluded that temperatures in ORR are on the order of 50 degrees C higher than anticipated.

  10. Shear Punch Properties of Low Activation Ferritic Steels Following Irradiation in ORR

    SciTech Connect

    Ermi, Ruby M.; Hamilton, Margaret L.; Gelles, David S.; Ermi, August M.

    2001-10-01

    Shear punch post-irradiation test results are reported for a series of low activation steels containing Mn following irradiation in the Oak Ridge Reactor at 330 and 400 degrees centigrade to {approx}10 dpa. Alloy compositions included 2Cr, 9Cr and 12Cr steels with V to 1.5% and W to 1.0%. Comparison of results with tensile test results showed good correlations with previously observed trends except where disks were improperly manufactured because they were too thin or because engraving was faulty.

  11. Reduced activity of monoamine oxidase in the rat brain following repeated nandrolone decanoate administration.

    PubMed

    Birgner, Carolina; Kindlundh-Högberg, Anna M S; Oreland, Lars; Alsiö, Johan; Lindblom, Jonas; Schiöth, Helgi B; Bergström, Lena

    2008-07-11

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are known as doping agents within sports and body-building, but are currently also abused by other groups in society in order to promote increased courage and aggression. We previously showed that 14 days of daily intramuscular injections of the AAS nandrolone decanoate (15 mg/kg) reduced the extracellular levels of the dopaminergic metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the nucleus accumbens shell using microdialysis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the same dose regimen of nandrolone decanoate may affect the activities of the dopamine-metabolizing enzymes monoamine oxidases A and B (MAO-A and MAO-B). A radiometric assay was used to determine the activities of MAO-A and MAO-B in rat brain tissues after 14 days of daily i.m. nandrolone decanoate injections at the doses 3 and 15 mg/kg. Gene transcript contents of MAO-A, MAO-B and cathecol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) were measured with quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. 3 mg/kg of nandrolone decanoate significantly reduced the activity of both MAO-A and -B in the caudate putamen. 15 mg/kg of nandrolone decanoate significantly reduced the activity of MAO-A in the amygdala and increased the gene transcript level of MAO-B in the substantia nigra. In conclusion, imbalanced MAO activities may contribute to explain the impulsive and aggressive behaviour often described in AAS abusers. The reduced MAO activities observed are in line with our previously presented findings of decreased extracellular levels of DOPAC and HVA in the rat brain, indicating decreased monoaminergic activity following repeated AAS administration. PMID:18539264

  12. Physical Activity and Prostate Tumor Vessel Morphology: Data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Van Blarigan, Erin L; Gerstenberger, John P; Kenfield, Stacey A; Giovannucci, Edward L; Stampfer, Meir J; Jones, Lee W; Clinton, Steven K; Chan, June M; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2015-10-01

    Vigorous activity is associated with lower risk of prostate cancer progression, but the biologic mechanisms are unknown. Exercise affects vascularization of tumors in animal models, and small, irregularly shaped vessels in prostate tumors are associated with fatal prostate cancer. We hypothesized that men who engaged in vigorous activity or brisk walking would have larger, more regularly shaped vessels in their prostate tumors. We prospectively examined whether physical activity was associated with prostate tumor microvessel morphology among 571 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study using ordinal logistic regression. Vessel size (μm(2)), vessel lumen regularity (perimeter(2)/4 · Π · area), and microvessel density (number/high-powered field) were ascertained in tumor sections stained for endothelial cell marker CD34. Vigorous activity [metabolic equivalent task (MET) ≥ 6], nonvigorous activity (MET < 6), and walking pace were assessed a median of 14 months before diagnosis. Prostate tumors from men who reported a brisk walking pace (3+ mph) had larger, more regularly shaped blood vessels compared with those of men who walked at a less than brisk pace [vessel regularity OR, 1.59; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-2.27; P value, 0.01; vessel size OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.04-2.12; P value, 0.03]. Brisk walking was not associated with microvessel density; total vigorous and nonvigorous activities were not associated with vessel size, shape, or number. Brisk walking may be associated with larger, more regularly shaped vessels in prostate tumors. Additional research elucidating the effect of physical activity on prostate tumor biology is needed. PMID:26276753

  13. Physical activity and prostate tumor vessel morphology: data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Kenfield, Stacey A.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Jones, Lee W.; Clinton, Steven K.

    2015-01-01

    Vigorous activity is associated with lower risk of prostate cancer progression, but the biologic mechanisms are unknown. Exercise affects vascularization of tumors in animal models, and small, irregularly shaped vessels in prostate tumors are associated with fatal prostate cancer. We hypothesized that men who engaged in vigorous activity or brisk walking would have larger, more regularly shaped vessels in their prostate tumors. We prospectively examined whether physical activity was associated with prostate tumor microvessel morphology among 571 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study using ordinal logistic regression. Vessel size (μm2), vessel lumen regularity (perimeter2 / 4 · Π · area), and microvessel density (number per high powered field) were ascertained in tumor sections stained for endothelial cell marker CD34. Vigorous activity [metabolic equivalent task (MET) ≥ 6], non-vigorous activity (MET <6), and walking pace were assessed a median of 14 months prior to diagnosis. Prostate tumors from men who reported a brisk walking pace (3+ mph) had larger, more regularly shaped blood vessels compared to those of men who walked at a less than brisk pace [vessel regularity odds ratio (OR): 1.59; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 2.27; p-value: 0.01; vessel size OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.12; p-value: 0.03]. Brisk walking was not associated with microvessel density; total vigorous and non-vigorous activities were not associated with vessel size, shape, or number. Brisk walking may be associated with larger, more regularly shaped vessels in prostate tumors. Additional research elucidating the effect of physical activity on prostate tumor biology is needed. PMID:26276753

  14. Physical Activity and Prostate Tumor Vessel Morphology: Data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Van Blarigan, Erin L; Gerstenberger, John P; Kenfield, Stacey A; Giovannucci, Edward L; Stampfer, Meir J; Jones, Lee W; Clinton, Steven K; Chan, June M; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2015-10-01

    Vigorous activity is associated with lower risk of prostate cancer progression, but the biologic mechanisms are unknown. Exercise affects vascularization of tumors in animal models, and small, irregularly shaped vessels in prostate tumors are associated with fatal prostate cancer. We hypothesized that men who engaged in vigorous activity or brisk walking would have larger, more regularly shaped vessels in their prostate tumors. We prospectively examined whether physical activity was associated with prostate tumor microvessel morphology among 571 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study using ordinal logistic regression. Vessel size (μm(2)), vessel lumen regularity (perimeter(2)/4 · Π · area), and microvessel density (number/high-powered field) were ascertained in tumor sections stained for endothelial cell marker CD34. Vigorous activity [metabolic equivalent task (MET) ≥ 6], nonvigorous activity (MET < 6), and walking pace were assessed a median of 14 months before diagnosis. Prostate tumors from men who reported a brisk walking pace (3+ mph) had larger, more regularly shaped blood vessels compared with those of men who walked at a less than brisk pace [vessel regularity OR, 1.59; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-2.27; P value, 0.01; vessel size OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.04-2.12; P value, 0.03]. Brisk walking was not associated with microvessel density; total vigorous and nonvigorous activities were not associated with vessel size, shape, or number. Brisk walking may be associated with larger, more regularly shaped vessels in prostate tumors. Additional research elucidating the effect of physical activity on prostate tumor biology is needed.

  15. Treatment of active duty military with PTSD in primary care: A follow-up report.

    PubMed

    Cigrang, Jeffrey A; Rauch, Sheila A M; Mintz, Jim; Brundige, Antoinette; Avila, Laura L; Bryan, Craig J; Goodie, Jeffrey L; Peterson, Alan L

    2015-12-01

    First-line trauma-focused therapies offered in specialty mental health clinics do not reach many veterans and active duty service members with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Primary care is an ideal environment to expand access to mental health care. Several promising clinical case series reports of brief PTSD therapies adapted for primary care have shown positive results, but the long-term effectiveness with military members is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term outcome of an open trial of a brief cognitive-behavioral primary care-delivered protocol developed specifically for deployment-related PTSD in a sample of 24 active duty military (15 men, 9 women). Measures of PTSD symptom severity showed statistically and clinically significant reductions from baseline to posttreatment that were maintained at the 6-month and 1-year follow-up assessments. Similar reductions were maintained in depressive symptoms and ratings of global mental health functioning. PMID:26519833

  16. Treatment of active duty military with PTSD in primary care: A follow-up report.

    PubMed

    Cigrang, Jeffrey A; Rauch, Sheila A M; Mintz, Jim; Brundige, Antoinette; Avila, Laura L; Bryan, Craig J; Goodie, Jeffrey L; Peterson, Alan L

    2015-12-01

    First-line trauma-focused therapies offered in specialty mental health clinics do not reach many veterans and active duty service members with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Primary care is an ideal environment to expand access to mental health care. Several promising clinical case series reports of brief PTSD therapies adapted for primary care have shown positive results, but the long-term effectiveness with military members is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term outcome of an open trial of a brief cognitive-behavioral primary care-delivered protocol developed specifically for deployment-related PTSD in a sample of 24 active duty military (15 men, 9 women). Measures of PTSD symptom severity showed statistically and clinically significant reductions from baseline to posttreatment that were maintained at the 6-month and 1-year follow-up assessments. Similar reductions were maintained in depressive symptoms and ratings of global mental health functioning.

  17. Distance Learners in Higher Education: Institutional Responses for Quality Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Chere Campbell, Ed.

    The contributors to this book, administrators and faculty from a variety of higher education institutions in North America, reflect on current research and practices in distance higher education, and address specific facets of the distance learner. Following an introduction by Michael G. Moore, eight chapters include the following: (1) Distance…

  18. Motivation Classification and Grade Prediction for MOOCs Learners

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    While MOOCs offer educational data on a new scale, many educators find great potential of the big data including detailed activity records of every learner. A learner's behavior such as if a learner will drop out from the course can be predicted. How to provide an effective, economical, and scalable method to detect cheating on tests such as surrogate exam-taker is a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a grade predicting method that uses student activity features to predict whether a learner may get a certification if he/she takes a test. The method consists of two-step classifications: motivation classification (MC) and grade classification (GC). The MC divides all learners into three groups including certification earning, video watching, and course sampling. The GC then predicts a certification earning learner may or may not obtain a certification. Our experiment shows that the proposed method can fit the classification model at a fine scale and it is possible to find a surrogate exam-taker. PMID:26884747

  19. Motivation Classification and Grade Prediction for MOOCs Learners.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    While MOOCs offer educational data on a new scale, many educators find great potential of the big data including detailed activity records of every learner. A learner's behavior such as if a learner will drop out from the course can be predicted. How to provide an effective, economical, and scalable method to detect cheating on tests such as surrogate exam-taker is a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a grade predicting method that uses student activity features to predict whether a learner may get a certification if he/she takes a test. The method consists of two-step classifications: motivation classification (MC) and grade classification (GC). The MC divides all learners into three groups including certification earning, video watching, and course sampling. The GC then predicts a certification earning learner may or may not obtain a certification. Our experiment shows that the proposed method can fit the classification model at a fine scale and it is possible to find a surrogate exam-taker.

  20. p53-Dependent activation of a molecular beacon in tumor cells following exposure to doxorubicin chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rishita; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2004-09-01

    In an effort to begin developing a non-invasive strategy for in-vivo detection of the cellular DNA damage response, we engineered a molecular beacon to detect expression of p21(WAF1/CIP1), a gene whose transcription is directly activated by the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Introduction of a phosphorothioate-modified p21-beacon by transfection in human tumor cells led to a slight background signal that increased in a dose dependent manner between 50 and 400 nM beacon. Strong nuclear signal was observed following treatment of wild-type p53-expressing human H460 lung cancer cells for 8 hours with the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (adriamycin). Similar induction was observed in wild-type p53-expressing HCT116 cells. Interestingly, following doxorubicin exposure, there was activation of the p21-beacon in p21-null HCT116 cells, which was not observed in p53-null HCT116, or mutant p53-expressing DLD1 cells that are either wild-type or p21-null. Increased signal from the phosphorothioate-modified p21-beacon in doxorubicin-treated cells likely resulted from sequence-specific hybridization as well as sequence-independent cleavage that may occur due to p53-dependent activation of endonucleases during apoptosis. We conclude that activation of p53 by chemotherapy leads to a strong signal from a p21-beacon that may be useful in further testing both in vitro and in vivo. Strategies need to be developed to optimize the gene or damage specificity as well as the sensitivity to therapeutic response of this non-invasive imaging approach.

  1. Learners' Perceptions and Attitudes: Implications for Willingness to Communicate in an L2 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Saint Leger, Diane; Storch, Neomy

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates learners' perceptions of their speaking abilities, of their contributions to oral class activities (whole class and small group discussions) as well as their attitudes towards these activities, and how such perceptions and attitudes influenced the learners' willingness to communicate in the L2. The study employed a range of…

  2. School-based sexual violence among female learners with mild intellectual disability in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Phasha, Tlakale Nareadi; Nyokangi, Doris

    2012-03-01

    Following qualitative research methodology, this article presents school-based sexual violence experiences of female learners with mild intellectual disability. A total of 16 learners aged 16 to 24 years participated in the study. The findings revealed that learners with intellectual disability are not immune to school-based sexual violence. Modes of behavior that occurred frequently included touching, threats, and intimidation. School practices that reinforced school-based sexual violence are identified. The findings contradict common misconceptions that people with intellectual disability do not understand what is happening to them. The study recommends that school policies for sexual violence be intensified and learners receive developmentally appropriate sex education.

  3. Apoptotic and proliferative activity of mouse gastric mucosa following oral administration of fumonisin B1

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Mohammadghasemi, Fahimeh; Zendehdel, Kazem; Kamyabi-moghaddam, Zahra; Tavassoli, Abbas; Amini-najafi, Fatemeh; Khosravi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Fumonisins are a group of toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins, which contaminate the grains and their products. The aim of this study was to examine the apoptotic and proliferative activity of mouse gastric mucosa following administration of fumonisin B1 (FB1). Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine female mice divided into treatment (n=15) and control (n=14) groups. The treatment group received FB1 (150 mg/kg diet) for 16 weeks. The gastric atrophy was allocated using grading criteria modeled on the updated Sydney System. Immunohistochemistry studies were performed for evaluation of apoptosis and proliferative activity in gastric mucosa. Results: Mild to moderate gastric atrophy were observed in microscopic findings of the gastric mucosa in treated animals (P<0.05). Number of parietal cells significantly decreased in the treatment group in comparison with the control (P<0.05). Treatment with FB1 for 16 weeks significantly reduced both gastric mucosa height and mitotic index in the gastric glands (P<0.05). TUNEL- and Bax-labeled positive cell numbers significantly increased in the FB1-treated group compared to the control (P<0.05). In addition, proliferative activity of gastric glands in the treated group was significantly lower than the control (P<0.05). Conclusion: Oral administration of FB1 caused atrophy in gastric mucosa both via increasing of apoptosis and suppressing the mitotic activity of these cells. PMID:25810870

  4. Ligand stimulation of CD95 induces activation of Plk3 followed by phosphorylation of caspase-8

    PubMed Central

    Helmke, Christina; Raab, Monika; Rödel, Franz; Matthess, Yves; Oellerich, Thomas; Mandal, Ranadip; Sanhaji, Mourad; Urlaub, Henning; Rödel, Claus; Becker, Sven; Strebhardt, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Upon interaction of the CD95 receptor with its ligand, sequential association of the adaptor molecule FADD (MORT1), pro-forms of caspases-8/10, and the caspase-8/10 regulator c-FLIP leads to the formation of a death-inducing signaling complex. Here, we identify polo-like kinase (Plk) 3 as a new interaction partner of the death receptor CD95. The enzymatic activity of Plk3 increases following interaction of the CD95 receptor with its ligand. Knockout (KO) or knockdown of caspase-8, CD95 or FADD prevents activation of Plk3 upon CD95 stimulation, suggesting a requirement of a functional DISC for Plk3 activation. Furthermore, we identify caspase-8 as a new substrate for Plk3. Phosphorylation occurs on T273 and results in stimulation of caspase-8 proapoptotic function. Stimulation of CD95 in cells expressing a non-phosphorylatable caspase-8-T273A mutant in a rescue experiment or in Plk3-KO cells generated by CRISPR/Cas9 reduces the processing of caspase-8 prominently. Low T273 phosphorylation correlates significantly with low Plk3 expression in a cohort of 95 anal tumor patients. Our data suggest a novel mechanism of kinase activation within the Plk family and propose a new model for the stimulation of the extrinsic death pathway in tumors with high Plk3 expression. PMID:27325299

  5. Ligand stimulation of CD95 induces activation of Plk3 followed by phosphorylation of caspase-8.

    PubMed

    Helmke, Christina; Raab, Monika; Rödel, Franz; Matthess, Yves; Oellerich, Thomas; Mandal, Ranadip; Sanhaji, Mourad; Urlaub, Henning; Rödel, Claus; Becker, Sven; Strebhardt, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    Upon interaction of the CD95 receptor with its ligand, sequential association of the adaptor molecule FADD (MORT1), pro-forms of caspases-8/10, and the caspase-8/10 regulator c-FLIP leads to the formation of a death-inducing signaling complex. Here, we identify polo-like kinase (Plk) 3 as a new interaction partner of the death receptor CD95. The enzymatic activity of Plk3 increases following interaction of the CD95 receptor with its ligand. Knockout (KO) or knockdown of caspase-8, CD95 or FADD prevents activation of Plk3 upon CD95 stimulation, suggesting a requirement of a functional DISC for Plk3 activation. Furthermore, we identify caspase-8 as a new substrate for Plk3. Phosphorylation occurs on T273 and results in stimulation of caspase-8 proapoptotic function. Stimulation of CD95 in cells expressing a non-phosphorylatable caspase-8-T273A mutant in a rescue experiment or in Plk3-KO cells generated by CRISPR/Cas9 reduces the processing of caspase-8 prominently. Low T273 phosphorylation correlates significantly with low Plk3 expression in a cohort of 95 anal tumor patients. Our data suggest a novel mechanism of kinase activation within the Plk family and propose a new model for the stimulation of the extrinsic death pathway in tumors with high Plk3 expression. PMID:27325299

  6. Caregiver Reports of Children’s Activity Participation Following Serious Injury

    PubMed Central

    Braaf, Sandra; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Teague, Warwick; Jowett, Helen; Gabbe, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric trauma can result in significant levels of on-going disability. The aim of this study was to explore the restrictions on activity participation that children experience following serious injury from the perspective of their caregivers. We performed a thematic analysis of transcripts of semi-structured in-depth interviews with the caregivers of 44 seriously injured children, conducted three-years after the injury, and purposively sampled from a population-based cohort study. Both temporary and on-going restrictions on school, sport, leisure and social activities were identified, some of which were imposed by caregivers, schools, or recommended by health providers. The perceived risk of further injury, physical restrictions, emotional state and fatigue levels were important influences on degrees of activity restriction. Children who were socially less engaged, especially those who were more severely injured, had difficulty making and retaining friends, and exhibited signs of depression or social withdrawal. The activities of pre-school children were strongly regulated by their caregivers, while school age children faced obstacles with participation in aspects such as study, sport, and peer and teacher relationships, affecting learning, school attendance and enjoyment. The findings highlight the need for primary prevention and reducing the impacts of serious injury throughout the continuum of care. PMID:27399741

  7. Learning to associate novel words with motor actions: language-induced motor activity following short training.

    PubMed

    Fargier, Raphaël; Paulignan, Yves; Boulenger, Véronique; Monaghan, Padraic; Reboul, Anne; Nazir, Tatjana A

    2012-07-01

    Action words referring to face, arm or leg actions activate areas along the motor strip that also control the planning and execution of the actions specified by the words. This electroencephalogram (EEG) study aimed to test the learning profile of this language-induced motor activity. Participants were trained to associate novel verbal stimuli to videos of object-oriented hand and arm movements or animated visual images on two consecutive days. Each training session was preceded and followed by a test-session with isolated videos and verbal stimuli. We measured motor-related brain activity (reflected by a desynchronization in the μ frequency bands; 8-12 Hz range) localized at centro-parietal and fronto-central electrodes. We compared activity from viewing the videos to activity resulting from processing the language stimuli only. At centro-parietal electrodes, stable action-related μ suppression was observed during viewing of videos in each test-session of the two days. For processing of verbal stimuli associated with motor actions, a similar pattern of activity was evident only in the second test-session of Day 1. Over the fronto-central regions, μ suppression was observed in the second test-session of Day 2 for the videos and in the second test-session of Day 1 for the verbal stimuli. Whereas the centro-parietal μ suppression can be attributed to motor events actually experienced during training, the fronto-central μ suppression seems to serve as a convergence zone that mediates underspecified motor information. Consequently, sensory-motor reactivations through which concepts are comprehended seem to differ in neural dynamics from those implicated in their acquisition.

  8. Predictors of reading literacy for first and second language learners.

    PubMed

    Netten, Andrea; Droop, Mienke; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-04-01

    In this study an attempt was made to construct a multi-factor model predicting the development of reading literacy in the upper grades of primary school in the Netherlands for subgroups of 729 first language (L1) learners and 93 second language (L2) learners. Following a longitudinal design, it was explored to what extent the variation in reading literacy development in L1 and L2 from grade 4 to grade 6 can be explained from children's word decoding, language, mathematics and nonverbal reasoning skills, reading motivation and self confidence as well as their home reading resources. The results showed that L1 and L2 learners differed in reading literacy skills, language, mathematics, and reasoning skills. Structural equation modelling showed that the reading literacy development in both L1 and L2 learners could be explained from decoding, language, mathematics and reasoning skills, as well as their motivation and self-confidence. A striking difference was the fact that home reading resources had an impact on reading literacy in L1 learners but not in L2 learners. PMID:21475733

  9. Persistent Activation of the Innate Immune Response in Adult Drosophila Following Radiation Exposure During Larval Development.

    PubMed

    Sudmeier, Lisa J; Samudrala, Sai-Suma; Howard, Steven P; Ganetzky, Barry

    2015-11-01

    Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) is an effective treatment for pediatric central nervous system malignancies, but survivors often suffer from neurological and neurocognitive side effects that occur many years after radiation exposure. Although the biological mechanisms underlying these deleterious side effects are incompletely understood, radiation exposure triggers an acute inflammatory response that may evolve into chronic inflammation, offering one avenue of investigation. Recently, we developed a Drosophila model of the neurotoxic side effects of radiation exposure. Here we use this model to investigate the role of the innate immune system in response to radiation exposure. We show that the innate immune response and NF-ĸB target gene expression is activated in the adult Drosophila brain following radiation exposure during larval development, and that this response is sustained in adult flies weeks after radiation exposure. We also present preliminary data suggesting that innate immunity is radioprotective during Drosophila development. Together our data suggest that activation of the innate immune response may be beneficial initially for survival following radiation exposure but result in long-term deleterious consequences, with chronic inflammation leading to impaired neuronal function and viability at later stages. This work lays the foundation for future studies of how the innate immune response is triggered by radiation exposure and its role in mediating the biological responses to radiation. These studies may facilitate the development of strategies to reduce the deleterious side effects of CRT.

  10. Memory impairment and alterations in prefrontal cortex gamma band activity following methamphetamine sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Linsenbardt, David N.; Lapish, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Repeated methamphetamine (MA) use leads to increases in the incentive motivational properties of the drug as well as cognitive impairments. These behavioral alterations persist for some time following abstinence, and neuroadaptations in the structure and function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are particularly important for their expression. However, there is a weak understanding of the changes in neural firing and oscillatory activity in the PFC evoked by repeated drug use, thus complicating the development of novel treatment strategies for addiction. Objectives The purpose of the current study was to assess changes in cognitive and brain function following MA sensitization. Methods Sensitization was induced in rats, then temporal and recognition memory were assessed after 1 or 30 days of abstinence. Electrophysiological recordings from the medial PFC were also acquired from rats whereupon simultaneous measures of oscillatory and spiking activity were examined. Results Impaired temporal memory was observed after 1 and 30 days of abstinence. However, recognition memory was only impaired after 1 day of abstinence. An injection of MA profoundly decreased neuronal firing rate and the anesthesia-induced slow oscillation (SO) in both sensitized (SENS) and control (CTRL) rats. Strong correlations were observed between the SO and gamma band power, which was altered in SENS animals. A decrease in the number of neurons phase-locked to the gamma oscillation was also observed in SENS animals. Conclusions The changes observed in PFC function may play an integral role in the expression of the altered behavioral phenotype evoked by MA sensitization. PMID:25572530

  11. Improvement of Processing Speed in Executive Function Immediately following an Increase in Cardiovascular Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Nicoladie D.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to identify the acute effects of physical exercise on specific cognitive functions immediately following an increase in cardiovascular activity. Stair-climbing exercise is used to increase the cardiovascular output of human subjects. The color-naming Stroop Test was used to identify the cognitive improvements in executive function with respect to processing speed and error rate. The study compared the Stroop results before and immediately after exercise and before and after nonexercise, as a control. The results show that there is a significant increase in processing speed and a reduction in errors immediately after less than 30 min of aerobic exercise. The improvements are greater for the incongruent than for the congruent color tests. This suggests that physical exercise induces a better performance in a task that requires resolving conflict (or interference) than a task that does not. There is no significant improvement for the nonexercise control trials. This demonstrates that an increase in cardiovascular activity has significant acute effects on improving the executive function that requires conflict resolution (for the incongruent color tests) immediately following aerobic exercise more than similar executive functions that do not require conflict resolution or involve the attention-inhibition process (for the congruent color tests). PMID:24187613

  12. Focal hyperemia followed by spreading oligemia and impaired activation of rCBF in classic migraine

    SciTech Connect

    Olesen, J.; Larsen, B.; Lauritzen, M.

    1981-04-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 254 areas of a hemisphere with the xenon 133 intraarterial injection method. Six cases of classic migraine were followed from the normal state into the prodromal phase, and in 3 cases further into the headache phase. One patient with common migraine was similarly followed during his only classic attack. The attacks were initiated by focal hyperemia in 3 patients. During prodromes all patients displayed occipitoparietal rCBF reduction (oligemia), but in only 1 case did the reduction approach critical values. Oligemia gradually spread anteriorly in the course of 15 to 45 minutes. In 4 patients a global oligemia was observed. In 4 patients severe headache was present concomitantly with oligemia and with no sign of hyperemia or nonhomogeneous brain perfusion. The normal rCBF increase during cortical activity (hand movement, speech, and similar activities) was impaired in 6 patients. The results indicate that the vasospastic model of the migraine attack is too simplistic.

  13. Persistent Activation of the Innate Immune Response in Adult Drosophila Following Radiation Exposure During Larval Development

    PubMed Central

    Sudmeier, Lisa J.; Samudrala, Sai-Suma; Howard, Steven P.; Ganetzky, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) is an effective treatment for pediatric central nervous system malignancies, but survivors often suffer from neurological and neurocognitive side effects that occur many years after radiation exposure. Although the biological mechanisms underlying these deleterious side effects are incompletely understood, radiation exposure triggers an acute inflammatory response that may evolve into chronic inflammation, offering one avenue of investigation. Recently, we developed a Drosophila model of the neurotoxic side effects of radiation exposure. Here we use this model to investigate the role of the innate immune system in response to radiation exposure. We show that the innate immune response and NF-ĸB target gene expression is activated in the adult Drosophila brain following radiation exposure during larval development, and that this response is sustained in adult flies weeks after radiation exposure. We also present preliminary data suggesting that innate immunity is radioprotective during Drosophila development. Together our data suggest that activation of the innate immune response may be beneficial initially for survival following radiation exposure but result in long-term deleterious consequences, with chronic inflammation leading to impaired neuronal function and viability at later stages. This work lays the foundation for future studies of how the innate immune response is triggered by radiation exposure and its role in mediating the biological responses to radiation. These studies may facilitate the development of strategies to reduce the deleterious side effects of CRT. PMID:26333838

  14. Augmented force output in skeletal muscle fibres of Xenopus following a preceding bout of activity.

    PubMed Central

    Bruton, J D; Westerblad, H; Katz, A; Lännergren, J

    1996-01-01

    1. The effect of a brief period of activity on subsequent isometric tetanic force production was investigated in single muscle fibres of Xenopus laevis. 2. Following a train of ten tetani separated by 4 s intervals, tetanic force was significantly augmented by about 10%. The tetanic force augmentation persisted for at least 15 min and then slowly subsided. A similar potentiation was seen following trains of five and twenty tetani. 3. During the period of tetanic force potentiation, tetanic calcium was reduced by more than 30%, and intracellular pH was reduced from 7.15 +/- 0.07 to 7.03 +/- 0.11 (n = 4). 4. Fibre swelling was greatest at 1 min and then subsided over 15-20 min and possibly accounted for a small part of the observed force potentiation. 5. A reduction in the inorganic phosphate (P1) concentration of more than 40% was found in fibres frozen in liquid nitrogen at the peak of force potentiation compared with resting fibres. 6. It is concluded that the augmentation of tetanic force found after a brief preceding bout of activity is due to a reduction in inorganic phosphate. This mechanism may underlie the improved performance observed in athletes after warm-up. Images Figure 2 PMID:8735706

  15. Using Visual Methods to Understand Physical Activity Maintenance following Cardiac Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Hardcastle, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have explored the factors associated with long-term maintenance of exercise following cardiac rehabilitation. The present study used auto-photography and interviews to explore the factors that influence motivation and continued participation in physical activity among post cardiac rehabilitation patients. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted alongside participant-selected photographs or drawings with participants that had continued participation in physical activity for at least two years following the cardiac rehabilitation programme. Participants were recruited from circuit training classes in East Sussex in the UK. Thematic content analysis revealed seven main themes: fear of death and ill health avoidance, critical incidents, overcoming aging, social influences, being able to enjoy life, provision of routine and structure, enjoyment and psychological well-being. Fear of death, illness avoidance, overcoming aging, and being able to enjoy life were powerful motives for continued participation in exercise. The social nature of the exercise class was also identified as a key facilitator of continued participation. Group-based exercise suited those that continued exercise participation post cardiac rehabilitation and fostered adherence. PMID:26381147

  16. A continuous follow-up of Centaurs, and dormant comets: looking for cometary activity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; García Melendo, E.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Davidsson, B.; Sánchez, A.; Rodríguez, D.

    2008-09-01

    MOTIVATION FOR THIS MONITORING To better understand the origin, nature and evolution of the Kuiper Belt Objects (hereafter KBOs) it is needed a characterization of the physical properties of these primitive bodies. We expect that these remote and pristine bodies are rich in ice and other volatiles. They also probably played an important role in the enrichment in volatiles of the solar system inner planets. In fact, the dynamic patterns and the structure of the KB, populated by large ice-rich bodies probably subjected to complex collisional histories are opening new questions. They are for example suspicious of being the source of Centaurs, and Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs) [1]. In fact, the present day known Centaurs are ice-rich bodies that follow unstable orbits crossing those of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. On the other hand, modelling of JFCs evolution suggests that some are able to get incorporated into the NEO population via a close encounter with Jupiter. These presumably weak bodies are subjected during their inner solar system stays to solar irradiation, collisions, and close approaches that are probably disrupting them in short timescales [2, 3]. To perform a continuous monitoring of Centaurs, and other unusual bodies is interesting because they are little-studied bodies that are probably representing a transition among the different populations [4, 5]. The recent discovery of the activity of some Centaurs (like e.g. C/NEAT 2001T4, 174P/2000 EC98, P/2004 A1 (LONEOS), and 2004 PY42) suggests that many of these bodies exhibit cometary activity [6, 7, 8]. As they are located to moderately large heliocentric distances, the detection of activity can provide interesting constrains on the sublimation mechanisms that originated such activity. During the last 6 years we have been monitoring one of the most famous Centaurs, comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, that exhibits unusual changes in their coma appearance and brightness [9]. Encouraged by our previous results

  17. Ten Helpful Ideas for Teaching English to Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Joan Kang

    2006-01-01

    This article offers ten suggestions for teaching young learners between the age of 7 and 12 based on language-teaching principles. They include supplementing activities with visuals, realia and movement; involving students in making visuals and realia; moving from activity to activity; teaching in themes; using stories and contexts familiar to…

  18. Research on Learners' Preferences for Reading from a Printed Text or from a Computer Screen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Carrie

    2006-01-01

    In this study, 254 Royal Roads University School of Business learners (graduates and undergraduates) were surveyed on their online course-related reading habits and choices. Based on their responses and anecdotal comments and the data from follow-up interviews with six of the participants, learners preferred print copies of text materials for…

  19. "Co-Constructing" Explicit L2 Knowledge with High School Spanish Learners through Guided Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Paul D.; Wagner, Elvis; Moranski, Kara

    2013-01-01

    This article documents how second language (L2) Spanish learners in an American high school formulated explicit grammar rules during three inductive lessons on the pronominal clitic "se." Following Adair-Hauck "et al." (2010), each lesson first presented a property of "se" within a narrative text, and then had learners inductively "Co-construct"…

  20. Effectiveness of Adaptive Assessment versus Learner Control in a Multimedia Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ching-Huei; Chang, Shu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of adaptive assessment versus learner control in a multimedia learning system designed to help secondary students learn science. Unlike other systems, this paper presents a workflow of adaptive assessment following instructional materials that better align with learners' cognitive…

  1. Spanish Heritage Language Learners' Allocation of Time to Writing Processes in English and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulski, Ariana; Elola, Idoia

    2011-01-01

    This study brings together previous research on writing processes and Spanish heritage language (SHL) learners to obtain a clearer picture of these learners' writing behaviors in English and Spanish. Following a cognitive-oriented framework, the study explores planning time, execution time, monitoring time, accuracy, and fluency. Twelve SHL…

  2. From the "Good Kids" to the "Worst": Representations of English Language Learners across Educational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harklau, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Examines the way in which immigrant English-as-a-Second-Language learners in the United States identities are created through their educational settings as they participate in high schools and then college. Discusses case studies from a 3-year ethnographic study that followed learners from high school to college ESL classes, documenting evidence…

  3. Learner Autonomy: New Insights. = Autonomie de l'apprenant: nouvelles pistes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dam, Leni, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This book presents papers, written in both English and French, from a symposium entitled "Promoting Learner Autonomy: New Insights." After "Introduction" (Leni Dam), the eight papers include the following: "Examining the Discourse of Learner Advisory Sessions" (David Crabbe, Alison Hoffman, and Sara Cotteral); "Approaches to Advising for…

  4. The Achievement Progress of English Learner Students in Arizona. REL 2015-098

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Eric; Tran, Loan; Huang, Min; Yu, Airong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the learning trajectories of the growing numbers of English learner students in Arizona, especially those who struggle to pass state English language arts and math content tests. This study followed three cohorts of English learner students in Arizona (kindergarten, grade 3, and grade 6) over six school…

  5. New Wine in Old Skins: Changing Patterns in the Governing of the Adult Learner in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejes, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which the adult learner has been governed in recent years and whether the techniques for doing this have changed over the last 50 years. The focus is first on which adult subject (adult learner) is constructed in the material analysed. What kinds of subjects are governed? This is followed by an analysis of what…

  6. English Learner (EL) Students Who Are Black. Fast Facts [2 of 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. This fact sheet uses data from the 2013 American Community Survey (ACS), and applies the following definitions: An "English learner" student: (1) is ages 5 to 18; (2)…

  7. Model Learner Outcomes for Health Education. A Mission toward Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wandberg, Robert; And Others

    This document provides a structure within which teaching staff can improve students' learning experiences and predict specific learner outcomes in health education. The material is presented in four chapters followed by an appendix. Chapters 1-3 examine the system's values, learner values, philosophy of education, mission for public education and…

  8. 'The Secret Is the Teacher': The Learners View of Online Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashion, Joan; Palmieri, Phoebe

    Learner perceptions of online learning were examined in a study of the views of learners enrolled in online vocational education and training (VET) courses across Australia. Data were collected from the following sources: an online questionnaire completed by 356 students and 63 educators; case studies of 6 VET organizations; and interviews and…

  9. Investigating Attitude and Motivation of Iranian University Learners toward English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayadian, Sima; Lashkarian, Anita

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the attitudes and motivation Iranian learners have toward learning EFL at their university level. Although research of a similar nature has been done in other countries, the present study complements others by following 500 university learners and it provides another avenue for examining the language situation in Iran. To…

  10. Anxiety and Affective Control among Distance Language Learners in China and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Stella; Xiao, Junhong

    2010-01-01

    Foreign language anxiety (FLA) has been the focus of many studies into affect in classroom settings. However, the growing numbers of distance language learners worldwide in recent years calls for greater attention to be paid to this increasingly important constituency of language learners. Following on from Hurd's investigation into FLA with…

  11. Effects of Task Repetition on Learners' Attention Orientation in L2 Oral Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuta, Junya

    2016-01-01

    Task repetition facilitates learners' performance, at least temporarily: Since learners are already familiar with the content of the task at the initial enactment, they are capable of focusing their attention on linguistic form during the following enactment. However, the analysis in previous studies treated various aspects of "form" as…

  12. Increased Risk of Active Tuberculosis following Acute Kidney Injury: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Hsui; Huang, Hui-Yu; Huang, Tao-Min; Lai, Chun-Fu; Lin, Meng-Chun; Ko, Wen-Je; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Yu, Chong-Jen; Shu, Chin-Chung; Lee, Chih-Hsin; Wang, Jann-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Background Profound alterations in immune responses associated with uremia and exacerbated by dialysis increase the risk of active tuberculosis (TB). Evidence of the long-term risk and outcome of active TB after acute kidney injury (AKI) is limited. Methods This population-based-cohort study used claim records retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database. We retrieved records of all hospitalized patients, more than 18 years, who underwent dialysis for acute kidney injury (AKI) during 1999–2008 and validated using the NSARF data. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model to adjust for the ongoing effect of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was conducted to predict long-term de novo active TB after discharge from index hospitalization. Results Out of 2,909 AKI dialysis patients surviving 90 days after index discharge, 686 did not require dialysis after hospital discharge. The control group included 11,636 hospital patients without AKI, dialysis, or history of TB. The relative risk of active TB in AKI dialysis patients, relative to the general population, after a mean follow-up period of 3.6 years was 7.71. Patients who did (hazard ratio [HR], 3.84; p<0.001) and did not (HR, 6.39; p<0.001) recover from AKI requiring dialysis had significantly higher incidence of TB than patients without AKI. The external validated data also showed nonrecovery subgroup (HR = 4.37; p = 0.049) had high risk of developing active TB compared with non-AKI. Additionally, active TB was associated with long-term all-cause mortality after AKI requiring dialysis (HR, 1.34; p = 0.032). Conclusions AKI requiring dialysis seems to independently increase the long-term risk of active TB, even among those who weaned from dialysis at discharge. These results raise concerns that the increasing global burden of AKI will in turn increase the incidence of active TB. PMID:23936044

  13. Evaluation of prostaglandin biosynthetic activity in canine basilar artery following subarachnoid injection of blood.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, T; Murota, S I; Wakai, S; Asano, T; Sano, K

    1981-11-01

    Transformation of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins was investigated in the basilar artery by incubating sections of artery with carbon-14-labeled arachidonic acid. Thin-layer radiochromatography revealed that, in normal canine basilar arteries, 14C-arachidonic acid was transformed mainly to 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG)F1 alpha, a spontaneous metabolite of prostacyclin (PGI2). Among other prostaglandins, only a small amount of PGF2 alpha was detected, whereas PGD2, PGE2, and thromboxane B2 were not. Arteries removed on Days 3 and 8 after subarachnoid blood injection showed a prostaglandin synthesis profile similar to that in the normal cerebral artery. In borate-buffered saline (0.1M borate buffer, pH 9.0/0.15M NaCl = 1:9, vol/vol), canine basilar artery produced a PGI2-like substance that inhibited adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation. Its anti-aggregatory activity was completely abolished by acidification. Aspirin likewise inhibited production of the anti-aggregatory substance. From these results, it was concluded that the anti-aggregatory activity was due solely to the production of PGI2 by the arterial specimen. Based on the above results, PGI2 biosynthetic activity in the cerebral artery exposed to subarachnoid blood injection was bioassayed by measuring the inhibitory activity of the incubation product upon ADP-induced platelet aggregation following incubation of the arteries in borate-buffered saline for 5 to 30 minutes at 20 degrees C, using synthetic PGI2-Na as a standard. The synthetic activity of PGI2 in the artery exposed to subarachnoid blood injection had diminished remarkably by Days 3 and 8. This diminution of PGI2 synthesis in the cerebral artery may be involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm.

  14. The Beliefs of Two Expert EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Much of the research into "expert" language learners has focused largely on their learning strategies or styles. Less attention has been paid to other expert learner characteristics, such as learner beliefs. However, the importance of learners' beliefs in guiding their behaviours and how they interpret their experiences is widely recognised. This…

  15. Preparing Learners for e-Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piskurich, George M., Ed.

    This book presents methods business organizations and educational institutions can use to prepare their learners to become successful e-learners. "Preparing e-Learners for Self- Directed Learning" (Long) discusses self-direction as a prerequisite to e-learning and gives a list of ways to help enhance learners' self-directedness. "Identifying…

  16. Learning Difficulties in English for Rural Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2010-01-01

    The present study illuminates and diagnoses the learning problems of the rural learners in English Grammar at standard VI. Present study may be useful to ameliorate the rural learners for acquiring competencies in English and eliminates the problems of the learners. It paves way to the teachers to diagnose the learning hurdles of the learners and…

  17. Model Learner Outcomes for Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Richard C.; Hessler, Edward

    This document provides curriculum planners with models of learner outcomes that can be incorporated into a science curriculum and science essential learner outcomes. The first chapter includes a list of educational system values and learner values, philosophy of education, the mission for public education, and learner goals that describe the…

  18. Learner Control: When Does It Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham-Wheat, Nancy

    This review of the literature on five learner control variables in computer-based instruction concludes that: (1) pacing left to learner control has been found ineffective because learners tend to procrastinate or to exit lessons prematurely; (2) sequence, or content flow, has been an ineffective variable left under learner control since…

  19. Learner characteristics involved in distance learning

    SciTech Connect

    Cernicek, A.T.; Hahn, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Distance learning represents a strategy for leveraging resources to solve educational and training needs. Although many distance learning programs have been developed, lessons learned regarding differences between distance learning and traditional education with respect to learner characteristics have not been well documented. Therefore, we conducted a survey of 20 distance learning professionals. The questionnaire was distributed to experts attending the second Distance Learning Conference sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory. This survey not only acquired demographic information from each of the respondents but also identified important distance learning student characteristics. Significant distance learner characteristics, which were revealed statistically and which influence the effectiveness of distance learning, include the following: reading level, student autonomy, and self-motivation. Distance learning cannot become a more useful and effective method of instruction without identifying and recognizing learner characteristics. It will be important to consider these characteristics when designing all distance learning courses. This paper will report specific survey findings and their implications for developing distance learning courses. 9 refs., 6 tabs.

  20. Activation of Erk1/2 and Akt following unilateral ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Peña, Ana B; Grande, Maria T; Eleno, Nélida; Arévalo, Miguel; Guerrero, Carmen; Santos, Eugerio; López-Novoa, José M

    2008-07-01

    Chronic unilateral ureteral obstruction is a well characterized model of renal injury leading to tubulointerstitial fibrosis and distinct patterns of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the obstructed kidney. In this study we assessed the contribution of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)-ERK1/2 and the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathways to early renal changes following unilateral obstruction. Increased activation of small Ras GTPase and its downstream effectors ERK1/2 and Akt was detected in ligated kidneys. The use of specific pharmacological inhibitors to either ERK1/2 or Akt activation led to decreased levels of fibroblast-myofibroblast markers in the interstitium while inhibition of PI3K reduced the number of proliferating cells and the amount of interstitial extracellular matrix deposition. Treatment with an ERK1/2 inhibitor diminished the number of apoptotic tubule and interstitial cells. Our results suggest a role for the MAPK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-Akt systems in early changes induced by ureteral obstruction and that inhibition of these signaling pathways may provide a novel approach to prevent progression of renal fibrosis.

  1. Diminished amygdala activation and behavioral threat response following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Christopher P; Metheny, Hannah E; Elkind, Jaclynn A; Cohen, Akiva S

    2016-03-01

    Each year, approximately 3.8 million people suffer mild to moderate traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) that result in an array of neuropsychological symptoms and disorders. Despite these alarming statistics, the neurological bases of these persistent, debilitating neuropsychological symptoms are currently poorly understood. In this study we examined the effects of mTBI on the amygdala, a brain structure known to be critically involved in the processing of emotional stimuli. Seven days after lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI), mice underwent a series of physiological and behavioral experiments to assess amygdala function. Brain-injured mice exhibited a decreased threat response in a cued fear conditioning paradigm, congruent with a decrease in amygdala excitability determined with basolateral amygdala (BLA) field excitatory post-synaptic potentials together with voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSD). Furthermore, beyond exposing a general decrease in the excitability of the primary input of the amygdala, the lateral amygdala (LA), VSD also revealed a decrease in the relative strength or activation of internuclear amygdala circuit projections after LFPI. Thus, not only does activation of the LA require increased stimulation, but the proportion of this activation that is propagated to the primary output of the amygdala, the central amygdala, is also diminished following LFPI. Intracellular recordings revealed no changes in the intrinsic properties of BLA pyramidal neurons after LFPI. This data suggests that mild to moderate TBI has prominent effects on amygdala function and provides a potential neurological substrate for many of the neuropsychological symptoms suffered by TBI patients. PMID:26791254

  2. Superoxide dismutase activity as a measure of hepatic oxidative stress in cattle following ethionine administration.

    PubMed

    Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R; Okada, Keiji; Goryo, Masanobu; Oishi, Akihiro; Yasuda, Jun

    2009-11-01

    The goal of this study was to assess if oxidative stress, as measured by alterations in the concentrations of antioxidant enzymes in the liver and erythrocytes of cattle, could be induced following dl-ethionine administration. Whole blood, serum and liver biopsy samples were collected 0, 4, 7 and 10 days after intra-peritoneal ethionine administration to five cows. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes copper zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn SOD) and catalase were assessed in the liver biopsies which were also examined histopathologically. Significant increases in hepatic Cu, Zn SOD concentrations (P<0.01) were noted on days 7 and 10 post-treatment. Hepatic catalase activity decreased significantly (P<0.01) on days 4, 7 and 10 post-treatment and erythrocyte Cu, Zn SOD activity was significantly increased on day 10. Serum biochemical analysis revealed a significant increase (P<0.01) in non-esterified fatty acid concentrations on day 4 and significant decreases in total cholesterol and phospholipid levels on days 4 (P<0.05), 7 (P<0.01) and 10 (P<0.01). In this model system, dl-ethionine administration was effective in inducing oxidative stress particularly reflected in the liver. PMID:18585936

  3. FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM: ACTIVATION OF SHAPE & FUNCTION FEATURES DURING OBJECT IDENTIFICATION

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Eiling; Huffstetler, Stacy; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Most theories of semantic memory characterize knowledge of a given object as comprising a set of semantic features. But how does conceptual activation of these features proceed during object identification? We present the results of a pair of experiments that demonstrate that object recognition is a dynamically unfolding process in which function follows form. We used eye movements to explore whether activating one object’s concept leads to the activation of others that share perceptual (shape) or abstract (function) features. Participants viewed four-picture displays and clicked on the picture corresponding to a heard word. In critical trials, the conceptual representation of one of the objects in the display was similar in shape or function (i.e., its purpose) to the heard word. Importantly, this similarity was not apparent in the visual depictions (e.g., for the target “frisbee,” the shape-related object was a triangular slice of pizza – a shape that a frisbee cannot take); preferential fixations on the related object were therefore attributable to overlap of the conceptual representations on the relevant features. We observed relatedness effects for both shape and function, but shape effects occurred earlier than function effects. We discuss the implications of these findings for current accounts of the representation of semantic memory. PMID:21417543

  4. Characterization of the passive component of force enhancement following active stretching of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Herzog, W; Schachar, R; Leonard, T R

    2003-10-01

    The mechanisms causing the steady-state force enhancement following active skeletal muscle stretching are not well understood. Recently, we found direct evidence that part of the force enhancement is associated with the engagement of a passive component. In this study, we reproduced the conditions that give consistent passive force enhancement and evaluated the mechanical properties of this passive force enhancement so as to gain insight into its source. The three primary results were that (1). the passive force enhancement is long lasting (>25 s), (2). passive force enhancement was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the amount of shortening preceding active muscle stretching, and (3). passive force enhancement could be abolished 'instantaneously' by shortening-stretching the passive muscle by an amount equivalent to the active stretch magnitude. Together with the remaining results, we conclude that the source of the passive force enhancement must be arranged in parallel with the contractile force, it must consist of a viscoelastic molecular spring whose stiffness characteristic can be reset by shortening, and it must have a characteristic length that is governed by the length of the contractile components, possibly the sarcomeres. Based on these results, the molecular spring titin emerges as a possible candidate for the passive component of the steady-state force enhancement observed in this and previous studies.

  5. Superoxide dismutase activity as a measure of hepatic oxidative stress in cattle following ethionine administration.

    PubMed

    Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R; Okada, Keiji; Goryo, Masanobu; Oishi, Akihiro; Yasuda, Jun

    2009-11-01

    The goal of this study was to assess if oxidative stress, as measured by alterations in the concentrations of antioxidant enzymes in the liver and erythrocytes of cattle, could be induced following dl-ethionine administration. Whole blood, serum and liver biopsy samples were collected 0, 4, 7 and 10 days after intra-peritoneal ethionine administration to five cows. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes copper zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn SOD) and catalase were assessed in the liver biopsies which were also examined histopathologically. Significant increases in hepatic Cu, Zn SOD concentrations (P<0.01) were noted on days 7 and 10 post-treatment. Hepatic catalase activity decreased significantly (P<0.01) on days 4, 7 and 10 post-treatment and erythrocyte Cu, Zn SOD activity was significantly increased on day 10. Serum biochemical analysis revealed a significant increase (P<0.01) in non-esterified fatty acid concentrations on day 4 and significant decreases in total cholesterol and phospholipid levels on days 4 (P<0.05), 7 (P<0.01) and 10 (P<0.01). In this model system, dl-ethionine administration was effective in inducing oxidative stress particularly reflected in the liver.

  6. Mitochondrial and lysosomal biogenesis are activated following PINK1/parkin-mediated mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Ivankovic, Davor; Chau, Kai-Yin; Schapira, Anthony H V; Gegg, Matthew E

    2016-01-01

    Impairment of the autophagy-lysosome pathway is implicated with the changes in α-synuclein and mitochondrial dysfunction observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Damaged mitochondria accumulate PINK1, which then recruits parkin, resulting in ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins. These can then be bound by the autophagic proteins p62/SQSTM1 and LC3, resulting in degradation of mitochondria by mitophagy. Mutations in PINK1 and parkin genes are a cause of familial PD. We found a significant increase in the expression of p62/SQSTM1 mRNA and protein following mitophagy induction in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. p62 protein not only accumulated on mitochondria, but was also greatly increased in the cytosol. Increased p62/SQSMT1 expression was prevented in PINK1 knock-down cells, suggesting increased p62 expression was a consequence of mitophagy induction. The transcription factors Nrf2 and TFEB, which play roles in mitochondrial and lysosomal biogenesis, respectively, can regulate p62/SQSMT1. We report that both Nrf2 and TFEB translocate to the nucleus following mitophagy induction and that the increase in p62 mRNA levels was significantly impaired in cells with Nrf2 or TFEB knockdown. TFEB translocation also increased expression of itself and lysosomal proteins such as glucocerebrosidase and cathepsin D following mitophagy induction. We also report that cells with increased TFEB protein have significantly higher PGC-1α mRNA levels, a regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, resulting in increased mitochondrial content. Our data suggests that TFEB is activated following mitophagy to maintain autophagy-lysosome pathway and mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, strategies to increase TFEB may improve both the clearance of α-synuclein and mitochondrial dysfunction in PD. Damaged mitochondria are degraded by the autophagy-lysosome pathway and is termed mitophagy. Following mitophagy induction, the transcription factors Nrf2 and TFEB translocate to the nucleus, inducing

  7. Spiking in auditory cortex following thalamic stimulation is dominated by cortical network activity

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Bryan M.; Raz, Aeyal; Uhlrich, Daniel J.; Smith, Philip H.; Banks, Matthew I.

    2014-01-01

    The state of the sensory cortical network can have a profound impact on neural responses and perception. In rodent auditory cortex, sensory responses are reported to occur in the context of network events, similar to brief UP states, that produce “packets” of spikes and are associated with synchronized synaptic input (Bathellier et al., 2012; Hromadka et al., 2013; Luczak et al., 2013). However, traditional models based on data from visual and somatosensory cortex predict that ascending sensory thalamocortical (TC) pathways sequentially activate cells in layers 4 (L4), L2/3, and L5. The relationship between these two spatio-temporal activity patterns is unclear. Here, we used calcium imaging and electrophysiological recordings in murine auditory TC brain slices to investigate the laminar response pattern to stimulation of TC afferents. We show that although monosynaptically driven spiking in response to TC afferents occurs, the vast majority of spikes fired following TC stimulation occurs during brief UP states and outside the context of the L4>L2/3>L5 activation sequence. Specifically, monosynaptic subthreshold TC responses with similar latencies were observed throughout layers 2–6, presumably via synapses onto dendritic processes located in L3 and L4. However, monosynaptic spiking was rare, and occurred primarily in L4 and L5 non-pyramidal cells. By contrast, during brief, TC-induced UP states, spiking was dense and occurred primarily in pyramidal cells. These network events always involved infragranular layers, whereas involvement of supragranular layers was variable. During UP states, spike latencies were comparable between infragranular and supragranular cells. These data are consistent with a model in which activation of auditory cortex, especially supragranular layers, depends on internally generated network events that represent a non-linear amplification process, are initiated by infragranular cells and tightly regulated by feed-forward inhibitory

  8. The Role of Hippocampal NMDA Receptors in Long-Term Emotional Responses following Muscarinic Receptor Activation.

    PubMed

    Hoeller, Alexandre A; Costa, Ana Paula R; Bicca, Maíra A; Matheus, Filipe C; Lach, Gilliard; Spiga, Francesca; Lightman, Stafford L; Walz, Roger; Collingridge, Graham L; Bortolotto, Zuner A; de Lima, Thereza C M

    2016-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates the influence of the cholinergic system on emotional processing. Previous findings provided new insights into the underlying mechanisms of long-term anxiety, showing that rats injected with a single systemic dose of pilocarpine--a muscarinic receptor (mAChR) agonist--displayed persistent anxiogenic-like responses when evaluated in different behavioral tests and time-points (24 h up to 3 months later). Herein, we investigated whether the pilocarpine-induced long-term anxiogenesis modulates the HPA axis function and the putative involvement of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) following mAChRs activation. Accordingly, adult male Wistar rats presented anxiogenic-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) after 24 h or 1 month of pilocarpine injection (150 mg/kg, i.p.). In these animals, mAChR activation disrupted HPA axis function inducing a long-term increase of corticosterone release associated with a reduced expression of hippocampal GRs, as well as consistently decreased NMDAR subunits expression. Furthermore, in another group of rats injected with memantine--an NMDARs antagonist (4 mg/kg, i.p.)--prior to pilocarpine, we found inhibition of anxiogenic-like behaviors in the EPM but no further alterations in the pilocarpine-induced NMDARs downregulation. Our data provide evidence that behavioral anxiogenesis induced by mAChR activation effectively yields short- and long-term alterations in hippocampal NMDARs expression associated with impairment of hippocampal inhibitory regulation of HPA axis activity. This is a novel mechanism associated with anxiety-like responses in rats, which comprise a putative target to future translational studies. PMID:26795565

  9. Delayed synchronization of activity in cortex and subthalamic nucleus following cortical stimulation in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Magill, Peter J; Sharott, Andrew; Bolam, J Paul; Brown, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Oscillations may play a role in the functional organization of cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits, and it is important to understand their underlying mechanisms. The cortex often drives basal ganglia (BG) activity, and particularly, oscillatory activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). However, the STN may also indirectly influence cortex. The aim of this study was to characterize the delayed (>200 ms) responses of STN neurons to synchronized cortical inputs, focusing on their relationship with oscillatory cortical activity. We recorded the short-latency and delayed responses of STN units and frontal electrocorticogram (ECoG) to cortical stimulation in anaesthetized rats. Similar to previous studies, stimulation of ipsilateral frontal cortex, but not temporal cortex, evoked a short-latency triphasic response, followed by a sustained reduction or pause in firing, in rostral STN units. Caudal STN units did not show the short-latency triphasic response but often displayed a prolonged firing reduction. Oscillations in STN unit activity and ECoG were common after this sustained firing reduction, particularly between 200 and 600 ms after frontal cortical stimulation. These delayed oscillations were significantly coherent in a broad frequency band of 5–30 Hz. Coherence with ECoG at 5–15 Hz was observed throughout STN, though coherence at 15–30 Hz was largely restricted to rostral STN. Furthermore, oscillatory responses at 5–30 Hz in rostral STN predominantly led those in cortex (mean latency of 29 ms) after frontal cortical stimulation. These findings suggest that STN neurons responding to corticosubthalamic inputs may provide a delayed input to cortex, via BG output nuclei, and thence, thalamocortical pathways. PMID:16709634

  10. The Role of Hippocampal NMDA Receptors in Long-Term Emotional Responses following Muscarinic Receptor Activation.

    PubMed

    Hoeller, Alexandre A; Costa, Ana Paula R; Bicca, Maíra A; Matheus, Filipe C; Lach, Gilliard; Spiga, Francesca; Lightman, Stafford L; Walz, Roger; Collingridge, Graham L; Bortolotto, Zuner A; de Lima, Thereza C M

    2016-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates the influence of the cholinergic system on emotional processing. Previous findings provided new insights into the underlying mechanisms of long-term anxiety, showing that rats injected with a single systemic dose of pilocarpine--a muscarinic receptor (mAChR) agonist--displayed persistent anxiogenic-like responses when evaluated in different behavioral tests and time-points (24 h up to 3 months later). Herein, we investigated whether the pilocarpine-induced long-term anxiogenesis modulates the HPA axis function and the putative involvement of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) following mAChRs activation. Accordingly, adult male Wistar rats presented anxiogenic-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) after 24 h or 1 month of pilocarpine injection (150 mg/kg, i.p.). In these animals, mAChR activation disrupted HPA axis function inducing a long-term increase of corticosterone release associated with a reduced expression of hippocampal GRs, as well as consistently decreased NMDAR subunits expression. Furthermore, in another group of rats injected with memantine--an NMDARs antagonist (4 mg/kg, i.p.)--prior to pilocarpine, we found inhibition of anxiogenic-like behaviors in the EPM but no further alterations in the pilocarpine-induced NMDARs downregulation. Our data provide evidence that behavioral anxiogenesis induced by mAChR activation effectively yields short- and long-term alterations in hippocampal NMDARs expression associated with impairment of hippocampal inhibitory regulation of HPA axis activity. This is a novel mechanism associated with anxiety-like responses in rats, which comprise a putative target to future translational studies.

  11. Following [FeFe] Hydrogenase Active Site Intermediates by Time-Resolved Mid-IR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mirmohades, Mohammad; Adamska-Venkatesh, Agnieszka; Sommer, Constanze; Reijerse, Edward; Lomoth, Reiner; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Hammarström, Leif

    2016-08-18

    Time-resolved nanosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy is for the first time employed to study the [FeFe] hydrogenase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and to investigate relevant intermediates of the enzyme active site. An actinic 355 nm, 10 ns laser flash triggered photodissociation of a carbonyl group from the CO-inhibited state Hox-CO to form the state Hox, which is an intermediate of the catalytic proton reduction cycle. Time-resolved infrared spectroscopy allowed us to directly follow the subsequent rebinding of the carbonyl, re-forming Hox-CO, and determine the reaction half-life to be t1/2 ≈ 13 ± 5 ms at room temperature. This gives direct information on the dynamics of CO inhibition of the enzyme. PMID:27494400

  12. Following [FeFe] Hydrogenase Active Site Intermediates by Time-Resolved Mid-IR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mirmohades, Mohammad; Adamska-Venkatesh, Agnieszka; Sommer, Constanze; Reijerse, Edward; Lomoth, Reiner; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Hammarström, Leif

    2016-08-18

    Time-resolved nanosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy is for the first time employed to study the [FeFe] hydrogenase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and to investigate relevant intermediates of the enzyme active site. An actinic 355 nm, 10 ns laser flash triggered photodissociation of a carbonyl group from the CO-inhibited state Hox-CO to form the state Hox, which is an intermediate of the catalytic proton reduction cycle. Time-resolved infrared spectroscopy allowed us to directly follow the subsequent rebinding of the carbonyl, re-forming Hox-CO, and determine the reaction half-life to be t1/2 ≈ 13 ± 5 ms at room temperature. This gives direct information on the dynamics of CO inhibition of the enzyme.

  13. Chemical change, production of tension and energy following stretch of active muscle of frog.

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, N A; Woledge, R C

    1979-01-01

    1. Measurements were made of the tension and the heat + work produced during 6.5 s of tetanic stimulation at 0 degrees C. The muscle was stretched by 3 mm to 1.2 times rest length either 1 s before stimulation began of 1 s after it began. 2. The extent of ATP splitting during the period from 1.5 to 6.5 s after stimulation began was determined from observations of the levels of phosphocreatine, creatine and the sum of inorganic phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate and glucose-1-phosphate. (The creatine kinase reaction was taken to be in equilibrium.) 3. In agreement with earlier findings more active tension was produced following a stretch when the stretch occurred during stimulation than when it occurred before stimulation. This increase was large and statistically significant. 4. The mean splitting of ATP was greater following a stretch during stimulation, but this change was small and not statistically significant. 5. During the interval from 1.5 to 2.5 s after stimulation began, which is shortly after the stretch ended, the rate of heat production was significantly greater than in the isometric contraction. 6. From 2.5 s to the end of stimulation and during relaxation the heat + work was not significantly different in the two types of contraction. Images Fig. 1 PMID:317107

  14. Decline in HIV infectivity following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Porco, Travis C.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Page-Shafer, Kimberly A.; Cheng, Amber; Charlebois, Edwin; Grant, Robert M.; Osmond, Dennis H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the degree to which widespread use of antiretroviral therapy in a community reduces uninfected individuals’ risk of acquiring HIV. We estimated the degree to which the probability of HIV infection from an infected partner (the infectivity) declined following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in San Francisco. Design Homosexual men from the San Francisco Young Men’s Health Study, who were initially uninfected with HIV, were asked about sexual practices, and tested for HIV antibodies at each of four follow-up visits during a 6-year period spanning the advent of widespread use of HAART (1994 to 1999). Methods We estimated the infectivity of HIV (per-partnership probability of transmission from an infected partner) using a probabilistic risk model based on observed incident infections and self-reported sexual risk behavior, and tested the hypothesis that infectivity was the same before and after HAART was introduced. Results A total of 534 homosexual men were evaluated. Decreasing trends in HIV seroincidence were observed despite increases in reported number of unprotected receptive anal intercourse partners. Conservatively assuming a constant prevalence of HIV infection between 1994 and 1999, HIV infectivity decreased from 0.120 prior to widespread use of HAART, to 0.048 after the widespread use of HAART – a decline of 60% (P = 0.028). Conclusions Use of HAART by infected persons in a community appears to reduce their infectiousness and therefore may provide an important HIV prevention tool. PMID:15090833

  15. Reduction in Neural Performance following Recovery from Anoxic Stress Is Mimicked by AMPK Pathway Activation

    PubMed Central

    Money, Tomas G. A.; Sproule, Michael K. J.; Hamour, Amr F.; Robertson, R. Meldrum

    2014-01-01

    Nervous systems are energetically expensive to operate and maintain. Both synaptic and action potential signalling require a significant investment to maintain ion homeostasis. We have investigated the tuning of neural performance following a brief period of anoxia in a well-characterized visual pathway in the locust, the LGMD/DCMD looming motion-sensitive circuit. We hypothesised that the energetic cost of signalling can be dynamically modified by cellular mechanisms in response to metabolic stress. We examined whether recovery from anoxia resulted in a decrease in excitability of the electrophysiological properties in the DCMD neuron. We further examined the effect of these modifications on behavioural output. We show that recovery from anoxia affects metabolic rate, flight steering behaviour, and action potential properties. The effects of anoxia on action potentials can be mimicked by activation of the AMPK metabolic pathway. We suggest this is evidence of a coordinated cellular mechanism to reduce neural energetic demand following an anoxic stress. Together, this represents a dynamically-regulated means to link the energetic demands of neural signaling with the environmental constraints faced by the whole animal. PMID:24533112

  16. Recovery of microbial diversity and activity during bioremediation following chemical oxidation of diesel contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Nora B; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Lasso, Daniel Hidalgo; van der Zaan, Bas; van Gaans, Pauline; Maphosa, Farai; Smidt, Hauke; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2014-03-01

    To improve the coupling of in situ chemical oxidation and in situ bioremediation, a systematic analysis was performed of the effect of chemical oxidation with Fenton's reagent, modified Fenton's reagent, permanganate, or persulfate, on microbial diversity and activity during 8 weeks of incubation in two diesel-contaminated soils (peat and fill). Chemical oxidant and soil type affected the microbial community diversity and biodegradation activity; however, this was only observed following treatment with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent, and in the biotic control without oxidation. Differences in the highest overall removal efficiencies of 69 % for peat (biotic control) and 59 % for fill (Fenton's reagent) were partially explained by changes in contaminant soil properties upon oxidation. Molecular analysis of 16S rRNA and alkane monooxygenase (alkB) gene abundances indicated that oxidation with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent negatively affected microbial abundance. However, regeneration occurred, and final relative alkB abundances were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher in chemically treated microcosms than in the biotic control. 16S rRNA gene fragment fingerprinting with DGGE and prominent band sequencing illuminated microbial community composition and diversity differences between treatments and identified a variety of phylotypes within Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria. Understanding microbial community dynamics during coupled chemical oxidation and bioremediation is integral to improved biphasic field application.

  17. Changes in potassium channel activity following axotomy of B-cells in bullfrog sympathetic ganglion.

    PubMed Central

    Jassar, B S; Pennefather, P S; Smith, P A

    1994-01-01

    1. Whole-cell and microelectrode voltage-clamp techniques were used to investigate the changes in ionic currents and action potential shape that follow axotomy of bullfrog paravertebral sympathetic ganglion B-cells. 2. Axotomy increased M-conductance (gM; muscarine-sensitive, voltage- and time-dependent K+ conductance) by 35% at -30 mV and slowed its deactivation kinetics. 3. The delayed rectifier K+ current (IK; at +50 mV) was reduced in axotomized neurones to 61% of control without any change in activation or deactivation kinetics. Steady-state intracellular Ca2+ levels and leak conductance were unchanged. 4. The fast, voltage-sensitive, Ca(2+)-activated K+ current (IC), evoked from -40 mV, was decreased to about 71% of control (at +30 mV) in axotomized neurones, whereas that evoked from -80 mV was largely unaffected. IC kinetics were also similar in control and axotomized neurones. This suggests that IC channels are not changed after axotomy. 5. In axotomized neurones, commands to +10 from -40 mV had to be extended by 16 ms to evoke voltage-insensitive Ca(2+)-dependent K+ current (IAHP) responses that were similar in magnitude to those observed in control cells. 6. The previously documented, axotomy-induced decrease in Ca2+ current (ICa) due to increased resting inactivation can account for the reduction in IC and IAHP and for the change in the shape of the action potential. PMID:7837094

  18. Endothelial sirtuin 1 inactivation enhances capillary rarefaction and fibrosis following kidney injury through Notch activation.

    PubMed

    Kida, Yujiro; Zullo, Joseph A; Goligorsky, Michael S

    2016-09-23

    Peritubular capillary (PTC) rarefaction along with tissue fibrosis is a hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, molecular mechanisms of PTC loss have been poorly understood. Previous studies have demonstrated that functional loss of endothelial sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) impairs angiogenesis during development and tissue damage. Here, we found that endothelial SIRT1 dysfunction causes activation of endothelial Notch1 signaling, which leads to PTC rarefaction and fibrosis following kidney injury. In mice lacking functional SIRT1 in the endothelium (Sirt1 mutant), kidney injury enhanced apoptosis and senescence of PTC endothelial cells with impaired endothelial proliferation and expanded myofibroblast population and collagen deposition. Compared to wild-type kidneys, Sirt1 mutant kidneys up-regulated expression of Delta-like 4 (DLL4, a potent Notch1 ligand), Hey1 and Hes1 (Notch target genes), and Notch intracellular domain-1 (NICD1, active form of Notch1) in microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) post-injury. Sirt1 mutant primary kidney MVECs reduced motility and vascular assembly and enhanced senescence compared to wild-type kidney MVECs. This difference in the phenotype was negated with Notch inhibition. Concurrent stimulation of DLL4 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 increased trans-differentiation of primary kidney pericytes into myofibroblast more than TGF-β1 treatment alone. Collectively, these results indicate that endothelial SIRT1 counteracts PTC rarefaction by repression of Notch1 signaling and antagonizes fibrosis via suppression of endothelial DLL4 expression.

  19. Improved cognitive, affective and anxiety measures in patients with chronic systemic disorders following structured physical activity.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Robson Bonoto; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; de Sá Junior, Antonio Reis; de Carvalho, Cristiane Junqueira; da Silva Moura, Tiago Augusto; Lade, Carlos Gabriel; Rizvanov, Albert A; Kiyasov, Andrey P; Mukhamedyarov, Marat A; Zefirov, Andrey L; Palotás, András; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2015-11-01

    Mental illnesses are frequent co-morbid conditions in chronic systemic diseases. High incidences of depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment complicate cardiovascular and metabolic disorders such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Lifestyle changes including regular exercise have been advocated to reduce blood pressure and improve glycaemic control. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effect of physical training on the most prevalent corollary psychiatric problems in patients with chronic organic ailments. This longitudinal study assessed the mental health of hypertensive (age: 57 ± 8 years) and/or diabetic (age: 53 ± 8 years) patients using mini-mental state examination, Beck's depression inventory, Beck's anxiety inventory and self-reporting questionnaire-20 before and after a 3-month supervised resistance and aerobic exercise programme comprising structured physical activity three times a week. Clinically relevant improvement was observed in the Beck's depression inventory and Beck's anxiety inventory scores following the 12-week training (61%, p = 0.001, and 53%, p = 0.02, respectively). Even though statistically not significant (p = 0.398), the cognitive performance of this relatively young patient population also benefited from the programme. These results demonstrate positive effects of active lifestyle on non-psychotic mental disorders in patients with chronic systemic diseases, recommending exercise as an alternative treatment option. PMID:26410835

  20. A novel source-drain follower for monolithic active pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, C.; Aglieri, G.; Hillemanns, H.; Huang, G.; Junique, A.; Keil, M.; Kim, D.; Kofarago, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Mager, M.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Martinengo, P.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Lee, S.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Rousset, J.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Snoeys, W.; Sun, X.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; Yang, P.

    2016-09-01

    Monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) receive interest in tracking applications in high energy physics as they integrate sensor and readout electronics in one silicon die with potential for lower material budget and cost, and better performance. Source followers (SFs) are widely used for MAPS readout: they increase charge conversion gain 1/Ceff or decrease the effective sensing node capacitance Ceff because the follower action compensates part of the input capacitance. Charge conversion gain is critical for analog power consumption and therefore for material budget in tracking applications, and also has direct system impact. This paper presents a novel source-drain follower (SDF), where both source and drain follow the gate potential improving charge conversion gain. For the inner tracking system (ITS) upgrade of the ALICE experiment at CERN, low material budget is a primary requirement. The SDF circuit was studied as part of the effort to optimize the effective capacitance of the sensing node. The collection electrode, input transistor and routing metal all contribute to Ceff. Reverse sensor bias reduces the collection electrode capacitance. The novel SDF circuit eliminates the contribution of the input transistor to Ceff, reduces the routing contribution if additional shielding is introduced, provides a way to estimate the capacitance of the sensor itself, and has a voltage gain closer to unity than the standard SF. The SDF circuit has a somewhat larger area with a somewhat smaller bandwidth, but this is acceptable in most cases. A test chip, manufactured in a 180 nm CMOS image sensor process, implements small prototype pixel matrices in different flavors to compare the standard SF to the novel SF and to the novel SF with additional shielding. The effective sensing node capacitance was measured using a 55Fe source. Increasing reverse substrate bias from -1 V to -6 V reduces Ceff by 38% and the equivalent noise charge (ENC) by 22% for the standard SF. The SDF

  1. The Good Second Language Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naiman, N.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Reports on a research study designed to find out more about the successful second language learner. By means of interviews, a list of the learning strategies of good language students was developed. (PMP)

  2. Imaging activity in astrocytes and neurons with genetically encoded calcium indicators following in utero electroporation.

    PubMed

    Gee, J Michael; Gibbons, Meredith B; Taheri, Marsa; Palumbos, Sierra; Morris, S Craig; Smeal, Roy M; Flynn, Katherine F; Economo, Michael N; Cizek, Christian G; Capecchi, Mario R; Tvrdik, Petr; Wilcox, Karen S; White, John A

    2015-01-01

    Complex interactions between networks of astrocytes and neurons are beginning to be appreciated, but remain poorly understood. Transgenic mice expressing fluorescent protein reporters of cellular activity, such as the GCaMP family of genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs), have been used to explore network behavior. However, in some cases, it may be desirable to use long-established rat models that closely mimic particular aspects of human conditions such as Parkinson's disease and the development of epilepsy following status epilepticus. Methods for expressing reporter proteins in the rat brain are relatively limited. Transgenic rat technologies exist but are fairly immature. Viral-mediated expression is robust but unstable, requires invasive injections, and only works well for fairly small genes (<5 kb). In utero electroporation (IUE) offers a valuable alternative. IUE is a proven method for transfecting populations of astrocytes and neurons in the rat brain without the strict limitations on transgene size. We built a toolset of IUE plasmids carrying GCaMP variants 3, 6s, or 6f driven by CAG and targeted to the cytosol or the plasma membrane. Because low baseline fluorescence of GCaMP can hinder identification of transfected cells, we included the option of co-expressing a cytosolic tdTomato protein. A binary system consisting of a plasmid carrying a piggyBac inverted terminal repeat (ITR)-flanked CAG-GCaMP-IRES-tdTomato cassette and a separate plasmid encoding for expression of piggyBac transposase was employed to stably express GCaMP and tdTomato. The plasmids were co-electroporated on embryonic days 13.5-14.5 and astrocytic and neuronal activity was subsequently imaged in acute or cultured brain slices prepared from the cortex or hippocampus. Large spontaneous transients were detected in slices obtained from rats of varying ages up to 127 days. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of this toolset for interrogating astrocytic and neuronal activity

  3. Distinct BOLD Activation Profiles Following Central and Peripheral Oxytocin Administration in Awake Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Craig F.; Yee, Jason R.; Kenkel, William M.; Dumais, Kelly Marie; Moore, Kelsey; Veenema, Alexa H.; Kulkarni, Praveen; Perkybile, Allison M.; Carter, C. Sue

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature has suggested that intranasal oxytocin (OT) or other systemic routes of administration can alter prosocial behavior, presumably by directly activating OT sensitive neural circuits in the brain. Yet there is no clear evidence that OT given peripherally can cross the blood–brain barrier at levels sufficient to engage the OT receptor. To address this issue we examined changes in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity in response to peripheral OT injections (0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/kg) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in awake rats imaged at 7.0 T. These data were compared to OT (1 μg/5 μl) given directly to the brain via the lateral cerebroventricle. Using a 3D annotated MRI atlas of the rat brain segmented into 171 brain areas and computational analysis, we reconstructed the distributed integrated neural circuits identified with BOLD fMRI following central and peripheral OT. Both routes of administration caused significant changes in BOLD signal within the first 10 min of administration. As expected, central OT activated a majority of brain areas known to express a high density of OT receptors, e.g., lateral septum, subiculum, shell of the accumbens, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This profile of activation was not matched by peripheral OT. The change in BOLD signal to peripheral OT did not show any discernible dose–response. Interestingly, peripheral OT affected all subdivisions of the olfactory bulb, in addition to the cerebellum and several brainstem areas relevant to the autonomic nervous system, including the solitary tract nucleus. The results from this imaging study do not support a direct central action of peripheral OT on the brain. Instead, the patterns of brain activity suggest that peripheral OT may interact at the level of the olfactory bulb and through sensory afferents from the autonomic nervous system to influence brain activity. PMID:26441574

  4. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China. PMID:25134668

  5. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China.

  6. The Relationship between Reading Proficiency and Reading Strategy Use: A Study of Adult ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…

  7. Toward a Unified Modeling of Learner's Growth Process and Flow Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Challco, Geiser C.; Andrade, Fernando R. H.; Borges, Simone S.; Bittencourt, Ig I.; Isotani, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Flow is the affective state in which a learner is so engaged and involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter. In this sense, to help students in the skill development and knowledge acquisition (referred to as learners' growth process) under optimal conditions, the instructional designers should create learning scenarios that favor…

  8. Language-Related Computer Use: Focus on Young L2 English Learners in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundqvist, Pia; Sylvén, Liss Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study investigating young English language learners (YELLs) in Sweden in 4th grade (N = 76, aged 10-11). Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire and a one-week language diary. The main purpose was to examine the learners' L2 English language-related activities outside of school in general, and…

  9. A Critical Analysis of Learner Participation in Virtual Worlds: How Can Virtual Worlds Inform Our Pedagogy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panichi, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory case study of learner participation within the context of online language learning in virtual world platforms. Data for this investigation was collected through a case study of a Business English course within a qualitative Case-Study Research framework. This study examines learner activity in virtual worlds in…

  10. The Interplay between Language, Gestures, Dragging and Diagrams in Bilingual Learners' Mathematical Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Oi-Lam

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of considering bilingual learners' non-linguistic forms of communication for understanding their mathematical thinking. In particular, I provide a detailed analysis of communication involving a pair of high school bilingual learners during an exploratory activity where a touchscreen-based dynamic geometry…

  11. Effectiveness of a Learner-Directed Model for e-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Stella; Barker, Trevor; Kumar, Vivekanandan Suresh

    2016-01-01

    It is a hard task to strike a balance between extents of control a learner exercises and the amount of guidance, active or passive, afforded by the learning environment to guide, support, and motivate the learner. Adaptive systems strive to find the right balance in a spectrum that spans between self-control and system-guidance. They also concern…

  12. Learner Agency and the Use of Affordances in Language-Exchange Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Tae youn

    2016-01-01

    Language exchange refers to a learning partnership between two learners with different native languages who collaborate to help each other improve their proficiency in the other's language. The purpose of this study is to examine the ways in which language-exchange participants activate learner agency to construct opportunities for learning in…

  13. A Multi-Perspective Investigation into Learners' Interaction in Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çardak, Çigdem Suzan

    2016-01-01

    This article focusses on graduate level students' interactions during asynchronous CMC activities of an online course about the teaching profession in Turkey. The instructor of the course designed and facilitated a semester-long asynchronous CMC on forum discussions, and investigated the interaction of learners in multiple perspectives: learners'…

  14. Choosing to Interact: Exploring the Relationship between Learner Personality, Attitudes, and Tutorial Dialogue Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezen-Can, Aysu; Boyer, Kristy Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The tremendous effectiveness of intelligent tutoring systems is due in large part to their interactivity. However, when learners are free to choose the extent to which they interact with a tutoring system, not all learners do so actively. This paper examines a study with a natural language tutorial dialogue system for computer science, in which…

  15. "Can We Do That Again?" Engaging Learners and Developing beyond the "Wow" Factor in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astall, Chris; Bruce, Warren

    2010-01-01

    Adding Mentos to an open bottle of Diet Coke can produce a fountain of liquid and froth extending several metres high. This activity can engage a wide audience of learners in a relevant and meaningful way, provide a model for creative science teaching, and help to develop learners' attitudes towards school science as a subject. In this paper, the…

  16. Capitalising on Learner Agency and Group Work in Learning Writing in English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the roles of learner agency and group work in learning writing in English as a foreign language (EFL). Through exploratory and participatory action research, this study examines how learner agency and group work function amidst the activity system of task-based EFL writing, especially how they influence and are influenced…

  17. Simplified greywater treatment systems: Slow filters of sand and slate waste followed by granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Zipf, Mariah Siebert; Pinheiro, Ivone Gohr; Conegero, Mariana Garcia

    2016-07-01

    One of the main actions of sustainability that is applicable to residential, commercial, and public buildings is the rational use of water that contemplates the reuse of greywater as one of the main options for reducing the consumption of drinking water. Therefore, this research aimed to study the efficiencies of simplified treatments for greywater reuse using slow sand and slow slate waste filtration, both followed by granular activated carbon filters. The system monitoring was conducted over 28 weeks, using analyses of the following parameters: pH, turbidity, apparent color, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), surfactants, total coliforms, and thermotolerant coliforms. The system was run at two different filtration rates: 6 and 2 m(3)/m(2)/day. Statistical analyses showed no significant differences in the majority of the results when filtration rate changed from 6 to 2 m(3)/m(2)/day. The average removal efficiencies with regard to the turbidity, apparent color, COD and BOD were 61, 54, 56, and 56%, respectively, for the sand filter, and 66, 61, 60, and 51%, respectively, for the slate waste filter. Both systems showed good efficiencies in removing surfactants, around 70%, while the pH reached values of around 7.80. The average removal efficiencies of the total and thermotolerant coliforms were of 61 and 90%, respectively, for the sand filter, and 67 and 80%, respectively, for the slate waste filter. The statistical analysis found no significant differences between the responses of the two systems, which attest to the fact that the slate waste can be a substitute for sand. The maximum levels of efficiency were high, indicating the potential of the systems, and suggesting their optimization in order to achieve much higher average efficiencies.

  18. Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Promotes Dendritic Spine Recovery and Improves Neurological Outcome Following Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fang; Catano, Marcela; Echeverry, Ramiro; Torre, Enrique; Haile, Woldeab B.; An, Jie; Chen, Changhua; Cheng, Lihong; Nicholson, Andrew; Tong, Frank C.; Park, Jaekeun

    2014-01-01

    Spines are dendritic protrusions that receive most of the excitatory input in the brain. Early after the onset of cerebral ischemia dendritic spines in the peri-infarct cortex are replaced by areas of focal swelling, and their re-emergence from these varicosities is associated with neurological recovery after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is a serine proteinase that plays a central role in tissue remodeling via binding to the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). We report that cerebral cortical neurons release uPA during the recovery phase from ischemic stroke in vivo or hypoxia in vitro. Although uPA does not have an effect on ischemia- or hypoxia-induced neuronal death, genetic deficiency of uPA (uPA−/−) or uPAR (uPAR−/−) abrogates functional recovery after AIS. Treatment with recombinant uPA after ischemic stroke induces neurological recovery in wild-type and uPA−/− but not in uPAR−/− mice. Diffusion tensor imaging studies indicate that uPA−/− mice have increased water diffusivity and decreased anisotropy associated with impaired dendritic spine recovery and decreased length of distal neurites in the peri-infarct cortex. We found that the excitotoxic injury induces the clustering of uPAR in dendritic varicosities, and that the binding of uPA to uPAR promotes the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and re-emergence of dendritic filopodia from uPAR-enriched varicosities. This effect is independent of uPA's proteolytic properties and instead is mediated by Rac-regulated profilin expression and cofilin phosphorylation. Our data indicate that binding of uPA to uPAR promotes dendritic spine recovery and improves functional outcome following AIS. PMID:25339736

  19. A mechanistic study of limonene oxidation products and pathways following cleaning activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carslaw, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    Indoor air pollution has caused increasing concern since the 1970s, when the advent of stricter energy efficiency measures lead to increased reports of building related symptoms. Cleaning activities have been linked to adverse health effects indoors, although it is unclear which of the components of cleaning products cause these reported health effects. This paper uses a detailed chemical model for indoor air chemistry, to identify the species formed at the highest concentrations following use of a limonene-based cleaning product. The explicit nature of the chemical mechanism also permits the key pathways to their formation to be identified. The results show that the key species in terms of gas-phase concentration are multi-functional carbonyl species including limonaldehyde, 4-acetyl-1-methyl-1-cyclohexene and other dicarbonyl species. The particle-phase was dominated by peroxide species. The predicted gas-phase concentrations for three limonene-oxidation products were compared to recently published human reference values, but found not to be high enough to cause concern for typical indoor conditions, or under high indoor ozone conditions. However, cleaning products contain a range of terpenes other than limonene, which could also produce some of the secondary products identified here, as well as more common species such as formaldehyde, glyoxal and hydrogen peroxide. A mechanistic pathway analysis shows that the secondary products formed through limonene oxidation indoors depend critically on the competition between ozone and hydroxyl radicals, such that indoor pollutant concentrations and composition could vary widely in different locations for a nominally similar residence and indoor activities. Future studies should focus on aiming to measure multi-functional carbonyl species indoors to help validate models, whilst human reference values are needed for many more relevant species indoors.

  20. A Learner-led, Discussion-based Elective on Emerging Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Clinton

    2015-08-25

    Objective. To implement a learner-led, discussion-based course aimed at exposing second-year pharmacy learners to the study of emerging infectious diseases from a global health perspective and to assess the role and importance of pharmacists in the management of disease outbreaks. Design. Learners examined literature pertinent to an emerging infectious disease in a 3-credit, discussion-based course and participated in peer discussion led by a designated learner. Instructional materials included journal articles, audio-visual presentations, documentaries, book chapters, movies, newspaper/magazine articles, and other materials. Learning outcomes were measured based on the ability of learners to perform critical thinking and analysis, communicate with their peers, and participate in class discussions. Assessment. The course was offered to 2 consecutive cohorts consisting of 14 and 16 learners, respectively. Overall, every learner in the first cohort achieved a final grade of A for the course. In the second cohort, the overall grade distribution consisted of grades of A, B, and C for the course. Learner evaluations indicated that the active-learning, discussion-based environment significantly enhanced interest in the topic and overall performance in the course. Conclusion. The elective course on emerging infectious diseases provided in-depth exposure to disease topics normally not encountered in the pharmacy curriculum. Learners found the material and format valuable, and the course enhanced their appreciation of infectious diseases, research methodology, critical thinking and analysis, and their roles as pharmacists. PMID:26430268

  1. A Learner-led, Discussion-based Elective on Emerging Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To implement a learner-led, discussion-based course aimed at exposing second-year pharmacy learners to the study of emerging infectious diseases from a global health perspective and to assess the role and importance of pharmacists in the management of disease outbreaks. Design. Learners examined literature pertinent to an emerging infectious disease in a 3-credit, discussion-based course and participated in peer discussion led by a designated learner. Instructional materials included journal articles, audio-visual presentations, documentaries, book chapters, movies, newspaper/magazine articles, and other materials. Learning outcomes were measured based on the ability of learners to perform critical thinking and analysis, communicate with their peers, and participate in class discussions. Assessment. The course was offered to 2 consecutive cohorts consisting of 14 and 16 learners, respectively. Overall, every learner in the first cohort achieved a final grade of A for the course. In the second cohort, the overall grade distribution consisted of grades of A, B, and C for the course. Learner evaluations indicated that the active-learning, discussion-based environment significantly enhanced interest in the topic and overall performance in the course. Conclusion. The elective course on emerging infectious diseases provided in-depth exposure to disease topics normally not encountered in the pharmacy curriculum. Learners found the material and format valuable, and the course enhanced their appreciation of infectious diseases, research methodology, critical thinking and analysis, and their roles as pharmacists. PMID:26430268

  2. Learners' Satisfaction Level with Online Student Portal as a Support System in an Open and Distance eLearning Environment (ODeL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secreto, Percia V.; Pamulaklakin, Rhodora L.

    2015-01-01

    Learner support in an open, distance and online learning is defined as "all activities and elements in education that respond to a known learner or group of learners, and which are designed to assist in the cognitive, affective, and systemic realms of the learning process" (Brindley, et. al, 2004). Teaching and tutoring, advising and…

  3. Barriers to Adult Learners of an Isolated Northern Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilts, David J.

    In 1991, a study was conducted to determine perceptions regarding the deterrents to college attendance among adult learners in an isolated northern community. The study consisted of a survey of 40 students at the Fort Nelson campus of Northern Lights College (NLC) in British Columbia, and a follow-up interview of eight of the survey respondents.…

  4. Engaging the Learner in Whole Literacy: An Immersion Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemmons, Joan; And Others

    This collection of administrative, planning, and teaching materials focuses on an immersion approach to engaging learners in whole literacy. The collection's 6 sections are as follows: (1) Role of the Administrator (Mary Dill); (2) Role of the Reading Teacher (Carleen Payne); (3) Batteries and Bulbs (DonnaLynn Estes); (4) Bears (Lois Laase); (5)…

  5. Literacy Scaffolding Strategies for Diverse Learners: A Bridge for Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stange, Terrence V.; Ponder, John M.

    Teachers are likely to have exceptional learners in their classrooms and thus need better understanding of these students to provide for their literacy needs. The acronym "SPECIAL NEEDS" suggests the following teacher characteristics and tasks: Sensitivity, Patience, Empathy, Caring, Individualized instruction, Acceptance, Life skills, Nature of…

  6. Technology Integration for the "New" 21st Century Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Nancye

    2012-01-01

    A dramatic shift is sweeping through the schools. Third graders texting on their cell phones. Kindergarteners who can navigate an iPod Touch better than educators can. Middle schoolers who already have an Internet following on their blog or YouTube channel. These are not the same 21st century learners people came to know over the first decade of…

  7. English Learner (EL) Students Who Are Black. Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. This Fast Facts covers data in the following categories: (1) States, Including D.C., with the Highest Concentration of ELs Who Are Black; (2) States, Including D.C., with the…

  8. Perception and Production of Thai Learners on English Prepositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruangjaroon, Sugunya

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I adopt Best's (2001) Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM) to account for how Thai learners acquire English prepositions in prepositional phrases and propose the ranking order of English preposition acquisition into three different categories. The ranking is as follows: Category A is a one-to-one semantic mapping between English and…

  9. Feedback in Technology-Based Instruction: Learner Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefevre, David; Cox, Benita

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates learner preferences for the format of feedback?when using technology-based instruction (TBI). The primary method of data collection was to provide subjects with a range of options for TBI feedback following responses to multiple-choice questions and then observe their choices. A software tool both presented the feedback…

  10. Different Demotivators for Japanese Junior High and High School Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamada, Yo

    2011-01-01

    Motivation has been studied throughout the field of language acquisition for the past 20 years. Demotivation has also been researched in Japan at primarily the university and high school level. To provide a deeper understanding of demotivation for Japanese junior and senior high school learners, this study explores the following three questions.…

  11. Short-Duration Mindfulness Training with Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumley, Gene; Schutz, Howard

    2011-01-01

    The adult learner is typically a motivated student who comes to class prepared to pay attention. They also come with cognitive and emotional stimuli not related to the course's content, which can be distracting especially at the start of a class or following a break. Ways of dealing with the problem of start-of-class attention, and for that…

  12. Native English Speaking Teachers' Beliefs about Korean EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Cheongsook

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate native English-speaking teachers' beliefs about Korean EFL learners, following a qualitative case study approach. Participants consisted of 3 Americans and 15 Canadians, aged 29-41, who were a part of a university teaching staff in Korea. The data collection employed questionnaires and interviews. The results…

  13. Learner Characteristics as Predictors of Online Social Presence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykota, David; Duncan, Randy

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors determined the individual learner characteristics of educators enrolled in online courses that influenced social presence (affective social communication). Findings reveal that the number of online courses taken, followed by computer-mediated communication proficiency, are significant predictors of social presence.…

  14. Meeting the Needs of Second Language Learners: An Educator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessow-Hurley, Judith

    This book discusses popular myths about educating students in a multilinguistic society. It examines the following themes: the demographics of second language learners; the theory underlying language instruction; desirable qualifications for bilingual teachers; effective teaching methods and programs; language and politics; and language and the…

  15. Implicit theories about willpower predict the activation of a rest goal following self-control exertion.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Bernecker, Katharina; Miketta, Stefanie; Friese, Malte

    2015-10-01

    Past research indicates that peoples' implicit theories about the nature of willpower moderate the ego-depletion effect. Only people who believe or were led to believe that willpower is a limited resource (limited-resource theory) showed lower self-control performance after an initial demanding task. As of yet, the underlying processes explaining this moderating effect by theories about willpower remain unknown. Here, we propose that the exertion of self-control activates the goal to preserve and replenish mental resources (rest goal) in people with a limited-resource theory. Five studies tested this hypothesis. In Study 1, individual differences in implicit theories about willpower predicted increased accessibility of a rest goal after self-control exertion. Furthermore, measured (Study 2) and manipulated (Study 3) willpower theories predicted an increased preference for rest-conducive objects. Finally, Studies 4 and 5 provide evidence that theories about willpower predict actual resting behavior: In Study 4, participants who held a limited-resource theory took a longer break following self-control exertion than participants with a nonlimited-resource theory. Longer resting time predicted decreased rest goal accessibility afterward. In Study 5, participants with an induced limited-resource theory sat longer on chairs in an ostensible product-testing task when they had engaged in a task requiring self-control beforehand. This research provides consistent support for a motivational shift toward rest after self-control exertion in people holding a limited-resource theory about willpower. PMID:26075793

  16. Implicit theories about willpower predict the activation of a rest goal following self-control exertion.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Bernecker, Katharina; Miketta, Stefanie; Friese, Malte

    2015-10-01

    Past research indicates that peoples' implicit theories about the nature of willpower moderate the ego-depletion effect. Only people who believe or were led to believe that willpower is a limited resource (limited-resource theory) showed lower self-control performance after an initial demanding task. As of yet, the underlying processes explaining this moderating effect by theories about willpower remain unknown. Here, we propose that the exertion of self-control activates the goal to preserve and replenish mental resources (rest goal) in people with a limited-resource theory. Five studies tested this hypothesis. In Study 1, individual differences in implicit theories about willpower predicted increased accessibility of a rest goal after self-control exertion. Furthermore, measured (Study 2) and manipulated (Study 3) willpower theories predicted an increased preference for rest-conducive objects. Finally, Studies 4 and 5 provide evidence that theories about willpower predict actual resting behavior: In Study 4, participants who held a limited-resource theory took a longer break following self-control exertion than participants with a nonlimited-resource theory. Longer resting time predicted decreased rest goal accessibility afterward. In Study 5, participants with an induced limited-resource theory sat longer on chairs in an ostensible product-testing task when they had engaged in a task requiring self-control beforehand. This research provides consistent support for a motivational shift toward rest after self-control exertion in people holding a limited-resource theory about willpower.

  17. Activity of retinal ganglion cells following intense, nanosecond laser flashes. Final report, 1983-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Glickman, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of intense, but nonlesion-producing, laser exposures of 20-ns duration were determined on the light responses and spontaneous activity of retinal ganglion cells recorded in situ from the rhesus monkey. (Following a single, 20-ns exposure centered on its receptive field, a ganglion cell produced an 'afterdischarge' of maintained action potentials). The duration of the afterdischarge depended on the diameter of the laser beam on the retina and on the beam's intensity. Laser exposures subtending 0.5 to 2.0 deg, and delivering 45 to 60% of the maximum permissible exposure, elicited afterdischarges that lasted up to 80 s. When the beam diameter was decreased to 0.25 deg, the afterdischarge was reduced to 30 s, and to less than 5 s with the 0.12-deg beam. Light sensitivity after the laser exposure recovered rapidly during the first 10 s and then more slowly, but exponentially, until it reached the preflash level. Color-opponent ganglion cells exhibited a phenomenon called 'response-reversal' after the laser exposure, presumably due to selective adaptation of a mid-wavelength cone-input. Because a 20-ns exposure, regardless of intensity, is likely to photoregenerate more than half of the available visual pigment, the effects of ganglion cell response described here are not likely to be due solely to pigment bleaching.

  18. Autophagy deficiency in macrophages enhances NLRP3 inflammasome activity and chronic lung disease following silica exposure.

    PubMed

    Jessop, Forrest; Hamilton, Raymond F; Rhoderick, Joseph F; Shaw, Pamela K; Holian, Andrij

    2016-10-15

    Autophagy is an important metabolic mechanism that can promote cellular survival following injury. The specific contribution of autophagy to silica-induced inflammation and disease is not known. The objective of these studies was to determine the effects of silica exposure on the autophagic pathway in macrophages, as well as the general contribution of autophagy in macrophages to inflammation and disease. Silica exposure enhanced autophagic activity in vitro in Bone Marrow derived Macrophages and in vivo in Alveolar Macrophages isolated from silica-exposed mice. Impairment of autophagy in myeloid cells in vivo using Atg5(fl/fl)LysM-Cre(+) mice resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity and inflammation after silica exposure compared to littermate controls, including elevated IL-18 and the alarmin HMGB1 in the whole lavage fluid. Autophagy deficiency caused some spontaneous inflammation and disease. Greater silica-induced acute inflammation in Atg5(fl/fl)LysM-Cre(+) mice correlated with increased fibrosis and chronic lung disease. These studies demonstrate a critical role for autophagy in suppressing silica-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation in disease development. Furthermore, this data highlights the importance of basal autophagy in macrophages and other myeloid cells in maintaining lung homeostasis.

  19. Autophagy deficiency in macrophages enhances NLRP3 inflammasome activity and chronic lung disease following silica exposure.

    PubMed

    Jessop, Forrest; Hamilton, Raymond F; Rhoderick, Joseph F; Shaw, Pamela K; Holian, Andrij

    2016-10-15

    Autophagy is an important metabolic mechanism that can promote cellular survival following injury. The specific contribution of autophagy to silica-induced inflammation and disease is not known. The objective of these studies was to determine the effects of silica exposure on the autophagic pathway in macrophages, as well as the general contribution of autophagy in macrophages to inflammation and disease. Silica exposure enhanced autophagic activity in vitro in Bone Marrow derived Macrophages and in vivo in Alveolar Macrophages isolated from silica-exposed mice. Impairment of autophagy in myeloid cells in vivo using Atg5(fl/fl)LysM-Cre(+) mice resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity and inflammation after silica exposure compared to littermate controls, including elevated IL-18 and the alarmin HMGB1 in the whole lavage fluid. Autophagy deficiency caused some spontaneous inflammation and disease. Greater silica-induced acute inflammation in Atg5(fl/fl)LysM-Cre(+) mice correlated with increased fibrosis and chronic lung disease. These studies demonstrate a critical role for autophagy in suppressing silica-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation in disease development. Furthermore, this data highlights the importance of basal autophagy in macrophages and other myeloid cells in maintaining lung homeostasis. PMID:27594529

  20. Individual interferon regulatory factor-3 thiol residues are not critical for its activation following virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Nicolas; Williams, Virginie; Grandvaux, Nathalie

    2012-09-01

    The interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 transcription factor plays a central role in the capacity of the host to mount an efficient innate antiviral immune defense, mainly through the regulation of type I Interferon genes. A tight regulation of IRF-3 is crucial for an adapted intensity and duration of the response. Redox-dependent processes are now well known to regulate signaling cascades. Recent reports have revealed that signaling molecules upstream of IRF-3, including the mitochondrial antiviral-signalling protein (MAVS) and the TNF receptor associated factors (TRAFs) adaptors, are sensitive to redox regulation. In the present study, we assessed whether redox regulation of thiol residues contained in IRF-3, which are priviledged redox sensors, play a role in its regulation following Sendai virus infection, using a combination of mutation of Cysteine (Cys) residues into Alanine and thiols alkylation using N-ethyl maleimide. Alkylation of IRF-3 on Cys289 appears to destabilize IRF-3 dimer in vitro. However, a detailed analysis of IRF-3 phosphorylation, dimerization, nuclear accumulation, and induction of target gene promoter in vivo led us to conclude that IRF-3 specific, individual Cys residues redox status does not play an essential role in its activation in vivo.

  1. Sympathetic activity-mediated neuropathic facial pain following simple tooth extraction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kohjitani, Atsushi; Miyawaki, Takuya; Kasuya, Keigo; Shimada, Masahiko

    2002-04-01

    This is a report of a case of sympathetic activity-mediated neuropathic facial pain induced by a traumatic trigeminal nerve injury and by varicella zoster virus infection, following a simple tooth extraction. The patient had undergone extraction of the right lower third molar at a local dental clinic, and soon after the tooth extraction, she became aware of spontaneous pain in the right ear, right temporal region, and in the tooth socket. At our initial examination 30 days after the tooth extraction, the healing of the tooth socket was normal; however, the patient had a tingling and burning sensation (dysesthesia) and spontaneous pain of the right lower lip and the right temporal region, both of which were exacerbated by non-noxious stimuli (allodynia). The patient also showed paralysis of the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve, taste dysfunction, and increased varicella zoster serum titers. A diagnostic stellate ganglion block (SGB) 45 days after the tooth extraction using one percent lidocaine markedly alleviated the dysesthesia and allodynia. These symptoms are characteristic of neuropathic pain with sympathetic interaction. The patient was successfully treated with SGB and a tricyclic antidepressant. PMID:12002830

  2. EXTRACELLULAR PROTEOLYSIS OF REELIN BY TISSUE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR FOLLOWING SYNAPTIC POTENTIATION

    PubMed Central

    TROTTER, J. H.; LUSSIER, A. L.; PSILOS, K. E.; MAHONEY, H. L.; SPONAUGLE, A. E.; HOE, H.-S.; REBECK, G. W.; WEEBER, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    The secreted glycoprotein reelin plays an indispensable role in neuronal migration during development and in regulating adult synaptic functions. The upstream mechanisms responsible for initiating and regulating the duration and magnitude of reelin signaling are largely unknown. Here we report that reelin is cleaved between EGF-like repeats 6–7 (R6–7) by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) under cell-free conditions. No changes were detected in the level of reelin and its fragments in the brains of tPA knockouts, implying that other unknown proteases are responsible for generating reelin fragments found constitutively in the adult brain. Induction of NMDAR-independent long-term potentiation with the potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA-Cl) led to a specific up-regulation of reelin processing at R6–7 in wild-type mice. In contrast, no changes in reelin expression and processing were observed in tPA knockouts following TEA-Cl treatment. These results demonstrate that synaptic potentiation results in tPA-dependent reelin processing and suggest that extracellular proteolysis of reelin may regulate reelin signaling in the adult brain. PMID:24892761

  3. Knee functions and a return to sports activity in competitive athletes following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Y; Shirai, Y; Narita, T; Mori, A; Kobayashi, K

    2000-06-01

    We investigated knee functions and a return to sports in 50 competitive athlete patients treated with arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using double-looped STG augmented by woven polyester at a 1-year follow-up. There were 25 males and 25 females with a mean age of 24.3 years (range: 19-39 years). The majority of preinjury sports were basketball, volleyball and soccer. Athletic rehabilitation including agility training and sports-specific training was started at 12 weeks. Fourty patients (80%) was rated as normal or nearly normal on the assessment of International Knee Documentation Commitee postoperatively. Fourty-eight patients (96%) obtained full range of motion, and the mean quadriceps muscle strength of the injured side was 91.3%of that of the uninjured side. As for a return to sports, 46 patients (92%) were able to do fully competitive sports at a mean of 8.1 postoperative months. These results suggest that arthroscopic reconstruction using augmented double-looped STG allows early athletic rehabilitation, and lead satisfactory outcome as well as a reliable and early return to preinjury level of sport activity for the majority of the competitive athlete patients.

  4. Imaging activity in astrocytes and neurons with genetically encoded calcium indicators following in utero electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Gee, J. Michael; Gibbons, Meredith B.; Taheri, Marsa; Palumbos, Sierra; Morris, S. Craig; Smeal, Roy M.; Flynn, Katherine F.; Economo, Michael N.; Cizek, Christian G.; Capecchi, Mario R.; Tvrdik, Petr; Wilcox, Karen S.; White, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Complex interactions between networks of astrocytes and neurons are beginning to be appreciated, but remain poorly understood. Transgenic mice expressing fluorescent protein reporters of cellular activity, such as the GCaMP family of genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs), have been used to explore network behavior. However, in some cases, it may be desirable to use long-established rat models that closely mimic particular aspects of human conditions such as Parkinson's disease and the development of epilepsy following status epilepticus. Methods for expressing reporter proteins in the rat brain are relatively limited. Transgenic rat technologies exist but are fairly immature. Viral-mediated expression is robust but unstable, requires invasive injections, and only works well for fairly small genes (<5 kb). In utero electroporation (IUE) offers a valuable alternative. IUE is a proven method for transfecting populations of astrocytes and neurons in the rat brain without the strict limitations on transgene size. We built a toolset of IUE plasmids carrying GCaMP variants 3, 6s, or 6f driven by CAG and targeted to the cytosol or the plasma membrane. Because low baseline fluorescence of GCaMP can hinder identification of transfected cells, we included the option of co-expressing a cytosolic tdTomato protein. A binary system consisting of a plasmid carrying a piggyBac inverted terminal repeat (ITR)-flanked CAG-GCaMP-IRES-tdTomato cassette and a separate plasmid encoding for expression of piggyBac transposase was employed to stably express GCaMP and tdTomato. The plasmids were co-electroporated on embryonic days 13.5–14.5 and astrocytic and neuronal activity was subsequently imaged in acute or cultured brain slices prepared from the cortex or hippocampus. Large spontaneous transients were detected in slices obtained from rats of varying ages up to 127 days. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of this toolset for interrogating astrocytic and neuronal

  5. Aqueous Volatiles in Hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Vent Field: Temporal Variability Following Earthquake Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seewald, J. S.; Cruse, A. M.; Saccocia, P. J.

    2001-12-01

    Volatile species play a critical role in a broad spectrum of physical, chemical, and biological processes associated with hydrothermal circulation at oceanic spreading centers. Earthquake activity at the Main Endeavour vent field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge in June 1999 [1] provided and opportunity to assess factors that regulate the flux of volatile species from the oceanic crust to the water column following a rapid change in subsurface reaction zone conditions. High temperature vent fluids were collected in gas-tight samplers at the Main Endeavour field in September 1999, approximately four months after the earthquakes, and again in July 2000, and were analyzed for the abundance of aqueous volatile and non-volatile species. Measured concentrations of aqueous H2, H2S, and CO2 increased substantially in September 1999 relative to pre-earthquake values [2,3], and subsequently decreased in July 2000, while aqueous Cl concentrations initially decreased in 1999 and subsequently increased in 2000. Concentrations of Cl in all fluids were depleted relative to seawater values. Aqueous CH4 and NH3 concentrations decreased in both the 1999 and 2000 samples relative to pre- earthquake values. Variations in Cl concentration of Endeavour fluids reflect varying degrees of phase separation under near critical temperature and pressure conditions. Because volatile species efficiently partition into the vapor phase, variations in their abundance as a function of Cl concentration can be used to constrain conditions of phase separation and fluid-rock interaction. For example, concentrations of volatile species that are not readily incorporated into minerals (CH4 and NH3) correlated weakly with Cl suggesting phase separation was occurring under supercritical conditions after the earthquake activity. In contrast, compositional data for fluids prior to the earthquakes indicate a strong negative correlation between these species and Cl suggesting phase separation under subcritical

  6. What Happens in Classrooms after Earth Science Fieldwork? Supporting Student Learning Processes during Follow-Up Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remmen, Kari Beate; Frøyland, Merethe

    2015-01-01

    Follow-up activities after fieldwork are recommended, yet little research has been conducted in this area. This study investigates six cases of follow-up work carried out by three teachers and their students in three upper secondary schools in Norway. The data comprises video observations of teachers and students, instructional artifacts,…

  7. Reducing length of stay and satisfying learner needs.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Lisa; Chahine, Saad; Klingel, Michelle; Zibrowski, Elaine; Meiwald, Allison; Lingard, Lorelei

    2016-06-01

    A complicated relationship exists between emergency department (ED) learner needs and patient flow with solutions to one issue often negatively affecting the other. Teaching shifts that allow clinical teachers and learners to interact without the pressure of patient care may offer a mutually beneficial solution. This study investigated the relationship between teaching shifts on ED length of stay, student self-efficacy and knowledge application.In 2012-2013, a prospective, cohort study was undertaken in a large Canadian acute-care teaching centre. All 132 clinical clerks completing their mandatory two-week emergency medicine rotation participated in three teaching shifts supervised by one faculty member without patient care responsibilities. The curriculum emphasized advanced clinical skills and included low fidelity simulation exercises, a suturing lab, image interpretation modules and discussion about psychosocial issues in emergency medicine. The clerks then completed seven clinical shifts in the traditional manner caring for patients under the supervision of an ED attending physician. Length of stay was compared during and one week following teaching shifts. A self-efficacy questionnaire was validated through exploratory factor analysis. Pre/post knowledge application was assessed using a paper-based clinical case activity.Across 40.998 patient visits, median length of stay was shortened overall by 5 minutes (95 % CI:1.2, 8.8) when clerks were involved in their teaching shifts. In the first academic block, median length of stay was reduced by 20 minutes per patient (95 % CI:12.7, 27.3). Self-efficacy showed significant improvement post teaching shifts (p < 0.001) with large effect sizes (d > 1.25) on dimensions of knowledge base, suturing, trauma and team efficacy. Students' knowledge application scores improved from pre to post (p < 0.01), with notable gains in the generation of differential diagnoses.Teaching shifts are an effective

  8. A Support Method with Changeable Training Strategies Based on Mutual Adaptation between a Ubiquitous Pet and a Learner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xianzhi; Jing, Lei; Kansen, Mizuo; Wang, Junbo; Ota, Kaoru; Cheng, Zixue

    With the progress of ubiquitous technology, ubiquitous learning presents new opportunities to learners. Situations of a learner can be grasped through analyzing the learner's actions collected by sensors, RF-IDs, or cameras in order to provide support at proper time, proper place, and proper situation. Training for acquiring skills and enhancing physical abilities through exercise and experience in the real world is an important domain in u-learning. A training program may last for several days and has one or more training units (exercises) for a day. A learner's performance in a unit is considered as short term state. The performance in a series of units may change with patterns: progress, plateau, and decline. Long term state in a series of units is accumulatively computed based on short term states. In a learning/training program, it is necessary to apply different support strategies to adapt to different states of the learner. Adaptation in learning support is significant, because a learner loses his/her interests easily without adaptation. Systems with the adaptive support usually provide stimulators to a learner, and a learner can have a great motivation in learning at beginning. However, when the stimulators reach some levels, the learner may lose his/her motivation, because the long term state of the learner changes dynamically, which means a progress state may change to a plateau state or a decline state. In different long term learning states, different types of stimulators are needed. However, the stimulators and advice provided by the existing systems are monotonic without changeable support strategies. We propose a mutual adaptive support. The mutual adaptation means each of the system and the learner has their own states. On one hand, the system tries to change its state to adapt to the learner's state for providing adaptive support. On the other hand, the learner can change its performance following the advice given based on the state of the system

  9. Ascorbic acid supplementation diminishes microparticle elevations and neutrophil activation following SCUBA diving.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Barak, Otto F; Dujic, Zeljko; Madden, Dennis; Bhopale, Veena M; Bhullar, Jasjeet; Thom, Stephen R

    2015-08-15

    Predicated on evidence that diving-related microparticle generation is an oxidative stress response, this study investigated the role that oxygen plays in augmenting production of annexin V-positive microparticles associated with open-water SCUBA diving and whether elevations can be abrogated by ascorbic acid. Following a cross-over study design, 14 male subjects ingested placebo and 2-3 wk later ascorbic acid (2 g) daily for 6 days prior to performing either a 47-min dive to 18 m of sea water while breathing air (∼222 kPa N2/59 kPa O2) or breathing a mixture of 60% O2/balance N2 from a tight-fitting face mask at atmospheric pressure for 47 min (∼40 kPa N2/59 kPa O2). Within 30 min after the 18-m dive in the placebo group, neutrophil activation, and platelet-neutrophil interactions occurred, and the total number of microparticles, as well as subgroups bearing CD66b, CD41, CD31, CD142 proteins or nitrotyrosine, increased approximately twofold. No significant elevations occurred among divers after ingesting ascorbic acid, nor were elevations identified in either group after breathing 60% O2. Ascorbic acid had no significant effect on post-dive intravascular bubble production quantified by transthoracic echocardiography. We conclude that high-pressure nitrogen plays a key role in neutrophil and microparticle-associated changes with diving and that responses can be abrogated by dietary ascorbic acid supplementation.

  10. Ascorbic acid supplementation diminishes microparticle elevations and neutrophil activation following SCUBA diving.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Barak, Otto F; Dujic, Zeljko; Madden, Dennis; Bhopale, Veena M; Bhullar, Jasjeet; Thom, Stephen R

    2015-08-15

    Predicated on evidence that diving-related microparticle generation is an oxidative stress response, this study investigated the role that oxygen plays in augmenting production of annexin V-positive microparticles associated with open-water SCUBA diving and whether elevations can be abrogated by ascorbic acid. Following a cross-over study design, 14 male subjects ingested placebo and 2-3 wk later ascorbic acid (2 g) daily for 6 days prior to performing either a 47-min dive to 18 m of sea water while breathing air (∼222 kPa N2/59 kPa O2) or breathing a mixture of 60% O2/balance N2 from a tight-fitting face mask at atmospheric pressure for 47 min (∼40 kPa N2/59 kPa O2). Within 30 min after the 18-m dive in the placebo group, neutrophil activation, and platelet-neutrophil interactions occurred, and the total number of microparticles, as well as subgroups bearing CD66b, CD41, CD31, CD142 proteins or nitrotyrosine, increased approximately twofold. No significant elevations occurred among divers after ingesting ascorbic acid, nor were elevations identified in either group after breathing 60% O2. Ascorbic acid had no significant effect on post-dive intravascular bubble production quantified by transthoracic echocardiography. We conclude that high-pressure nitrogen plays a key role in neutrophil and microparticle-associated changes with diving and that responses can be abrogated by dietary ascorbic acid supplementation. PMID:26084697

  11. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  12. Cultural Isolation and Cultural Integration: A Communicative Language Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, John

    2002-01-01

    Provides a theoretical grounding to an activity that follows a communicative language teaching approach to teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. The activity, cultural isolation and cultural integration, motivates learners to relate their experiences and feelings in regard to diverse cultures. (Author/VWL)

  13. Teacher Perceptions of Learner-Learner Engagement at a Cyber High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borup, Jered

    2016-01-01

    Distance education has historically contained little or no learner-learner interactions. Currently the Internet allows for unprecedented levels of learner-learner interaction and has the potential to transform how students learn online. However, many courses offered online focus more on flexibility and independence than on interaction and…

  14. Study Partners Recommendation for xMOOCs Learners

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) provide an opportunity for people to access free courses offered by top universities in the world and therefore attracted great attention and engagement from college teachers and students. However, with contrast to large scale enrollment, the completion rate of these courses is really low. One of the reasons for students to quit learning process is problems which they face that could not be solved by discussing them with classmates. In order to keep them staying in the course, thereby further improving the completion rate, we address the task of study partner recommendation for students based on both content information and social network information. By analyzing the content of messages posted by learners in course discussion forum, we investigated the learners' behavior features to classify the learners into three groups. Then we proposed a topic model to measure learners' course knowledge awareness. Finally, a social network was constructed based on their activities in the course forum, and the relationship in the network was then employed to recommend study partners for target learner combined with their behavior features and course knowledge awareness. The experiment results show that our method achieves better performance than recommending method only based on content information. PMID:25663836

  15. Study Partners Recommendation for xMOOCs learners.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) provide an opportunity for people to access free courses offered by top universities in the world and therefore attracted great attention and engagement from college teachers and students. However, with contrast to large scale enrollment, the completion rate of these courses is really low. One of the reasons for students to quit learning process is problems which they face that could not be solved by discussing them with classmates. In order to keep them staying in the course, thereby further improving the completion rate, we address the task of study partner recommendation for students based on both content information and social network information. By analyzing the content of messages posted by learners in course discussion forum, we investigated the learners' behavior features to classify the learners into three groups. Then we proposed a topic model to measure learners' course knowledge awareness. Finally, a social network was constructed based on their activities in the course forum, and the relationship in the network was then employed to recommend study partners for target learner combined with their behavior features and course knowledge awareness. The experiment results show that our method achieves better performance than recommending method only based on content information.

  16. Language Development of Children Born Following Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Combined with Assisted Oocyte Activation (AOA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Vanden Meerschaut, Frauke; Bettens, Kim; Luyten, Anke; Gysels, Hannelore; Thienpont, Ylenia; De Witte, Griet; Heindryckx, Björn; Oostra, Ann; Roeyers, Herbert; De Sutter, Petra; van Lierde, Kristiane

    2014-01-01

    Background: The effect of assisted reproduction technology (ART) on language development is still unclear. Moreover, different techniques are introduced at rapid pace and are not always accompanied by extensive follow-up programmes. Aims: To investigate the language development of 3-10-year-old children born following ART using intracytoplasmic…

  17. Program Characteristics that Predict Improved Learner Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Margaret Becker; Mellard, Daryl

    2011-01-01

    This study identifies adult education program characteristics that predict improved learner outcomes through statistical analyses of data across four years in a single state. Data indicate that, collectively, several predictors contribute to our understanding of learner outcomes, including (a) learner entry level, (b) size of community, (c) staff qualifications, and (d) learner exposure to high quality services. A surprising finding was the lack of robust outcome predictors that maintain consistency from one year to another. PMID:22348153

  18. How does self-efficacy affect performance of learner?

    PubMed

    Vakani, Farhan; Sheerani, Mughis; Afzal, Azam; Amin, Almas

    2012-01-01

    All types of attribution based on which learners make their judgement (i.e., self efficacy), about academic success or failure or about a specific task usually affect their performance and their capabilities to deal with different realities. It is perhaps the most distinctive capability of self-reflection. Many of the cognitive theorists have defined it as a meta-cognitive capability. This judgement influence learners choose what to do, how much effort to be invested in the activity, how long to carry the phase of disappointment, and whether to approach the task anxiously or with assurance.

  19. The Adult Learner: Some Things We Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin J.; Pete, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses the "warrior" who rises to the challenge of teaching the adult learner. The discussion is designed as a catalyst for dialogue about the adult learner and to uncover the complexities of teaching this rare and riveting species. This book is organized around three interlocking themes: some things we know about the adult learner;…

  20. Corrective Feedback and Learner Uptake in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a study in which we investigated the effects of corrective feedback on learner uptake in CALL. Learner uptake is here defined as learner responses to corrective feedback in which, in case of an error, students attempt to correct their mistake(s). 177 students from three Canadian universities participated in the study during…

  1. Learner-Content, Learner-Instructor, and Learner-Learner Interaction in a Web-Enhanced, Internet Videoconference AP Calculus Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einfeld, Dana Hobbs

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to investigate how the use of technology promotes interaction to foster high school students' mathematical understanding. This mixed method study is guided by social-constructivist theory (Vygotsky, 1978) and framed within Moore's (1989) model of learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner…

  2. An Open Learner Model for Trainee Pilots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gakhal, Inderdip; Bull, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential for simple open learner models for highly motivated, independent learners, using the example of trainee pilots. In particular we consider whether such users access their learner model to help them identify their current knowledge level, areas of difficulty and specific misconceptions, to help them plan their…

  3. Appropriateness and the Foreign-Language Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Roger E.

    1980-01-01

    The attitude of the target-language community toward the foreign language learner has been overlooked in language teaching. The teacher should consider the native speaker's attitude toward the language learner's command of the language, whether the native speaker views the learner's proficiency as an intrusion, and whether situations dictate…

  4. Adult Learner Characteristics and Instructional Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etter, David Campbell George

    Using 40 male and 40 female part time learners with an average age of 36.6, this program planning study explored relationships between selected learner characteristics and behaviorally stated cognitive instructional objectives (IOs). Variables included age, sex, socioeconomic status, verbal ability, and a measure of learners' goals or learning…

  5. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  6. Activation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 is altered at the frog neuromuscular junction following changes in synaptic activity.

    PubMed

    VanSaun, M; Humburg, B C; Arnett, M G; Pence, M; Werle, M J

    2007-09-15

    The extracellular matrix surrounding the neuromuscular junction is a highly specialized and dynamic structure. Matrix Metalloproteinases are enzymes that sculpt the extracellular matrix. Since synaptic activity is critical to the structure and function of this synapse, we investigated whether changes in synaptic activity levels could alter the activity of Matrix Metalloproteinases at the neuromuscular junction. In particular, we focused on Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), since antibodies to MMP3 recognize molecules at the frog neuromuscular junction, and MMP3 cleaves a number of synaptic basal lamina molecules, including agrin. Here we show that the fluorogenic compound (M2300) can be used to perform in vivo proteolytic imaging of the frog neuromuscular junction to directly measure the activity state of MMP3. Application of this compound reveals that active MMP3 is concentrated at the normal frog neuromuscular junction, and is tightly associated with the terminal Schwann cell. Blocking presynaptic activity via denervation, or TTX nerve blockade, results in a decreased level of active MMP3 at the neuromuscular junction. The loss of active MMP3 at the neuromuscular junction in denervated muscles can result from decreased activation of pro-MMP3, or it could result from increased inhibition of MMP3. These results support the hypothesis that changes in synaptic activity can alter the level of active MMP3 at the neuromuscular junction. PMID:17525979

  7. Continuing Education in Chemical Dependency Focuses on Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devens, Don L.

    1977-01-01

    In 1974, a private junior college initiated a continuing education program in chemical dependency (alcohol and drug abuse). The program is based on the concept that adult learners are responsible to plan, develop, implement, and evaluate their own learning activities in consultation with the instructor. (Author)

  8. Collaborative Revision in L2 Writing: Learners' Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memari Hanjani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    L2 learning literature has reflected on the problems surrounding the application of teacher written feedback and peer feedback in EFL contexts. To address the disadvantages of these feedback forms, this exploratory case study examined EFL learners' reactions to a collaborative revision activity. Interview data were collected from eight native…

  9. Does a Community of Learners Foster Self-Regulated Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beishuizen, Jos

    2008-01-01

    Although self-regulated learning is considered as a characteristic of individual students, the question may be raised as to whether a community of learners with its emphasis on inquiry learning in teams of students provides an appropriate environment to acquire and develop active and dynamic self-regulation strategies. Two cases of communities of…

  10. Language Development for English Language Learners. Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Mabel O.; Moughamian, Ani; Francis, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This Facilitator's Guide has been prepared for presenters of the "Language Development for English Language Learners" professional development module. It accompanies the 67-slide PowerPoint presentation with speaker's notes and contains materials to help prepare for a professional development session, including activity instructions, handouts,…

  11. Adapting a Social Studies Lesson to Include English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Lake, Vickie E.; Rice, Diana C.

    2005-01-01

    If one were to search for classroom strategies for English Language Learners (ELLs), it would not take much time to find many different types of activities that are all useful with ELLs. Additionally, if one were to search for social studies strategies to use with native English speakers, he or she would have little difficulty in finding a variety…

  12. Shared Pedagogical Understandings: Schoolwide Inclusion Practices Supporting Learner Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abawi, Lindy; Oliver, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Educational perspectives that recommend inclusion of children with special needs into mainstream classrooms remain a controversial topic. The Melbourne Declaration declares that all young Australians should be supported to become successful learners; confident and creative individuals; and active and informed citizens. So the question remains how…

  13. Motivation and Interlanguage Pragmatics in Iranian English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khorshidi, Hassan Rasouli; Nimchahi, Abdolreza Bagherzadeh

    2013-01-01

    It is generally believed that interlanguage pragmatics and motivation play important roles in learning. Motivation is important because it determines the extent of the learner's active involvement and attitude toward learning. The major purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of integrative and instrumental motivation on the…

  14. Boosting Language Skills of English Learners through Dramatization and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfader, Christa Mulker; Brouillette, Liane

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an arts integration program that uses drama and dance to promote foundational literacy skills, with an emphasis on the oral development of English Language Learners (ELLs). Previous research indicates that arts activities afford a beneficial opportunity for young students to practice language skills, but many teachers have…

  15. A Problem Solving Strategy for Gifted Learners in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Horst, Helen v R.

    2000-01-01

    A strategy of problem solving in the teaching of gifted learners is explored as a possible way of differentiating the curriculum in order to optimize learning. The Teaching Actively in a Social Context Model (TASC) and Renzulli's Enrichment Triad Model are cited as valuable teaching-learning programs. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  16. Using Your Daily Newspaper to Teach Math to Slow Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Mee Quai P.

    One of a series prepared by the Hawaii Newspaper Agency, this teaching guide offers ideas on using the daily newspaper to teach mathematics to slow learners. Classroom activities include teaching students how to shop for bargains through newspaper advertisements, how to compute batting averages in baseball, how to write a check after adding up the…

  17. Swahili Learners' Reference Grammar. African Language Learners' Reference Grammar Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Katrina Daly; Schleicher, Antonia Folarin

    This reference grammar is written for speakers of English who are learning Swahili. Because many language learners are not familiar with the grammatical terminology, this book explains the basic terminology and concepts of English grammar that are necessary for understanding the grammar of Swahili. It assumes no formal knowledge of English grammar…

  18. Activation patterns of embryonic chick lumbosacral motoneurones following large spinal cord reversals.

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, M W

    1987-01-01

    1. Embryonic chick motoneurones were caused to innervate inappropriate hindlimb muscles by rotating the presumptive lumbosacral region of the neural tube in stage 15-16 embryos which is prior to the outgrowth of motoneurone axons. 2. The activation patterns of motoneurones in control and spinal cord reversal embryos were analysed from electromyographic (e.m.g.) recordings of stage 36 limb muscles during evoked movement sequences in an isolated spinal cord-limb preparation. Histograms representing the frequency of activation were constructed for each muscle. The muscle's pattern of activation was classified as flexor-like or extensor-like and compared to the activation patterns of control muscles. 3. A series of control operations was performed in which the prospective lumbosacral region of the neural tube was removed and replaced in its original orientation. Muscles in these embryos were innervated by their normal motoneurone pools and they were activated normally, indicating that the neural tube operation per se does not alter the activation pattern of motoneurones. Furthermore, some muscles (twelve out of sixty-one) in spinal cord reversal embryos had normal activation patterns and appeared to be innervated by their original motoneurones. Based on these results and the result of a previous study (Landmesser & O'Donovan, 1984 b), it is concluded that motoneurones in reversed spinal cords are activated in a manner appropriate for their original identity. 4. The majority of muscles (thirty-three out of sixty-one) in large spinal cord reversal embryos were activated during an appropriate phase of the kicking cycle. Of the remaining muscles, 16% were activated inappropriately (i.e. extensor muscles were activated as flexors, and vice versa), and 30% had a novel 'mixed' flexor- and extensor-like activation pattern. However, the activation pattern of most muscles differed markedly from that of any other control muscles regardless of whether the muscle was activated

  19. OXIDATIVE STRESS PARTICIPATES IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND ACTIVATION OF MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES (MAPK) FOLLOWING AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE EXPOSURE (PM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    OXIDATIVE STRESS PARTICIPATES IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND ACTIVATION OF MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES (MAPK) FOLLOWING AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE EXPOSURE (PM). E S Roberts1, R Jaskot2, J Richards2, and K L Dreher2. 1College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC a...

  20. Educating Young Children: Active Learning Practices for Preschool and Child Care Programs [and] A Study Guide to Educating Young Children: Exercises for Adult Learners. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann, Mary; Weikart, David P.

    High/Scope preschool curriculum is a model for developing high-quality early childhood programs that encourage and support children's initiatives and active learning experiences. This revised manual for early childhood practitioners and students presents essential strategies adults can use to make active learning a reality in their programs. The…

  1. Morphosyntactic processing in late second-language learners.

    PubMed

    Dowens, Margaret Gillon; Vergara, Marta; Barber, Horacio A; Carreiras, Manuel

    2010-08-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of second-language (L2) morphosyntactic processing in highly proficient late learners of an L2 with long exposure to the L2 environment. ERPs were collected from 22 English-Spanish late learners while they read sentences in which morphosyntactic features of the L2 present or not present in the first language (number and gender agreement, respectively) were manipulated at two different sentence positions-within and across phrases. The results for a control group of age-matched native-speaker Spanish participants included an ERP pattern of LAN-type early negativity followed by P600 effect in response to both agreement violations and for both sentence positions. The late L2 learner results included a similar pattern, consisting of early negativity followed by P600, in the first sentence position (within-phrase agreement violations) but only P600 effects in the second sentence position (across-phrase agreement violation), as well as significant amplitude and onset latency differences between the gender and the number violation effects in both sentence positions. These results reveal that highly proficient learners can show electrophysiological correlates during L2 processing that are qualitatively similar to those of native speakers, but the results also indicate the contribution of factors such as age of acquisition and transfer processes from first language to L2.

  2. Morphosyntactic processing in late second-language learners.

    PubMed

    Dowens, Margaret Gillon; Vergara, Marta; Barber, Horacio A; Carreiras, Manuel

    2010-08-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of second-language (L2) morphosyntactic processing in highly proficient late learners of an L2 with long exposure to the L2 environment. ERPs were collected from 22 English-Spanish late learners while they read sentences in which morphosyntactic features of the L2 present or not present in the first language (number and gender agreement, respectively) were manipulated at two different sentence positions-within and across phrases. The results for a control group of age-matched native-speaker Spanish participants included an ERP pattern of LAN-type early negativity followed by P600 effect in response to both agreement violations and for both sentence positions. The late L2 learner results included a similar pattern, consisting of early negativity followed by P600, in the first sentence position (within-phrase agreement violations) but only P600 effects in the second sentence position (across-phrase agreement violation), as well as significant amplitude and onset latency differences between the gender and the number violation effects in both sentence positions. These results reveal that highly proficient learners can show electrophysiological correlates during L2 processing that are qualitatively similar to those of native speakers, but the results also indicate the contribution of factors such as age of acquisition and transfer processes from first language to L2. PMID:19580390

  3. Loss of vascular fibrinolytic activity following irradiation of the liver - an aspect of late radiation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, B.W.; Bicher, H.I.; Johnson, R.J.

    1983-09-01

    The vascular fibrinolytic activity, known to originate from the endothelium, was studied histochemically by fibrinolysis autography in liver samples from beagles exposed to radiation treatment. Eighteen to thirty months prior to sacrifice, six dogs received x irradiation (4600 rad in 5 weeks) and three dogs received x irradiation plus aspirin (1 g/kg). Two dogs served as untreated controls. Control livers showed extensive fibrinolytic activity related to large and small vascular structures. The vascular fibrinolytic activity had been lost from all vessels except the major portal branches in five irradiated livers and was severaly diminished in three. One irradiated liver appeared to possess normal fibrinolytic activity.

  4. Learning from instructional explanations: effects of prompts based on the active-constructive-interactive framework.

    PubMed

    Roelle, Julian; Müller, Claudia; Roelle, Detlev; Berthold, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Although instructional explanations are commonly provided when learners are introduced to new content, they often fail because they are not integrated into effective learning activities. The recently introduced active-constructive-interactive framework posits an effectiveness hierarchy in which interactive learning activities are at the top; these are then followed by constructive and active learning activities, respectively. Against this background, we combined instructional explanations with different types of prompts that were designed to elicit these learning activities and tested the central predictions of the active-constructive-interactive framework. In Experiment 1, N = 83 students were randomly assigned to one of four combinations of instructional explanations and prompts. To test the active < constructive learning hypothesis, the learners received either (1) complete explanations and engaging prompts designed to elicit active activities or (2) explanations that were reduced by inferences and inference prompts designed to engage learners in constructing the withheld information. Furthermore, in order to explore how interactive learning activities can be elicited, we gave the learners who had difficulties in constructing the prompted inferences adapted remedial explanations with either (3) unspecific engaging prompts or (4) revision prompts. In support of the active < constructive learning hypothesis, we found that the learners who received reduced explanations and inference prompts outperformed the learners who received complete explanations and engaging prompts. Moreover, revision prompts were more effective in eliciting interactive learning activities than engaging prompts. In Experiment 2, N = 40 students were randomly assigned to either (1) a reduced explanations and inference prompts or (2) a reduced explanations and inference prompts plus adapted remedial explanations and revision prompts condition. In support of the constructive < interactive

  5. Learning from Instructional Explanations: Effects of Prompts Based on the Active-Constructive-Interactive Framework

    PubMed Central

    Roelle, Julian; Müller, Claudia; Roelle, Detlev; Berthold, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Although instructional explanations are commonly provided when learners are introduced to new content, they often fail because they are not integrated into effective learning activities. The recently introduced active-constructive-interactive framework posits an effectiveness hierarchy in which interactive learning activities are at the top; these are then followed by constructive and active learning activities, respectively. Against this background, we combined instructional explanations with different types of prompts that were designed to elicit these learning activities and tested the central predictions of the active-constructive-interactive framework. In Experiment 1, N = 83 students were randomly assigned to one of four combinations of instructional explanations and prompts. To test the active < constructive learning hypothesis, the learners received either (1) complete explanations and engaging prompts designed to elicit active activities or (2) explanations that were reduced by inferences and inference prompts designed to engage learners in constructing the withheld information. Furthermore, in order to explore how interactive learning activities can be elicited, we gave the learners who had difficulties in constructing the prompted inferences adapted remedial explanations with either (3) unspecific engaging prompts or (4) revision prompts. In support of the active < constructive learning hypothesis, we found that the learners who received reduced explanations and inference prompts outperformed the learners who received complete explanations and engaging prompts. Moreover, revision prompts were more effective in eliciting interactive learning activities than engaging prompts. In Experiment 2, N = 40 students were randomly assigned to either (1) a reduced explanations and inference prompts or (2) a reduced explanations and inference prompts plus adapted remedial explanations and revision prompts condition. In support of the constructive < interactive

  6. Effect of Different Teaching Techniques on the Acquisition of Grammatical Gender by Beginning German Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arzt, Jessica; Kost, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The grammatical gender of German nouns continues to pose a challenge to second language learners. Following from a connectionist framework, this study explores the effect of two input enhancement techniques, color-coding and gendered actors, on the learning of grammatical gender by beginning learners of German during a vocabulary acquisition…

  7. A Learning Methodology Using Matlab/Simulink for Undergraduate Electrical Engineering Courses Attending to Learner Satisfaction Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Mario J.; Gallardo, Sergio; Toral, Sergio L.; Martinez-Torres, Rocio; Barrero, Federico J.

    2007-01-01

    Learner-centred approaches follow the prevailing tendency in modern University reforms which are primarily concerned about "how people learn". The methodologies can be learner-centred in the sense of placing the student as the main actor of the teaching-learning process by increasing his interactivity and participation, but also considering what…

  8. Supporting Young Second Language Learners' Reading through Guided Reading and Strategy Instruction in a Second Grade Classroom in Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaaya, Darine; Ghosn, Irma-Kaarina

    2010-01-01

    Learning to read in English still developing literacy in one's mother tongue is a challenge facing many young English language learners (ELLs) around the world. Reading progress of six young language learners was followed in a second grade classroom in an urban English-immersion school in Lebanon. Two of the six children were identified as…

  9. Components of Task-Based Needs Analysis of the ESP Learners with the Specialization of Business and Tourism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poghosyan, Naira

    2016-01-01

    In the following paper we shall thoroughly analyze the target learning needs of the learners within an ESP (English for Specific Purposes) context. The main concerns of ESP have always been and remain with the needs analysis, text analysis and preparing learners to communicate effectively in the tasks prescribed by their study or work situation.…

  10. Introducing OVAL Writing: A New Approach to Chinese Character Retention for Secondary Non-Chinese-Speaking Background Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Guanxin

    2004-01-01

    One of the difficulties secondary non-Chinese-speaking background (NCSB) learners are facing is to remember the characters learned in order to recall them when necessary. The traditional way of teaching secondary NCSB learners to remember Chinese characters is through mere repetition, e.g. writing out each single character by following its stroke…

  11. A Corpus-Based System of Error Detection and Revision Suggestion for Spanish Learners in Taiwan: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Hui-Chuan; Chu, Yu-Hsin; Chang, Cheng-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Compared with English learners, Spanish learners have fewer resources for automatic error detection and revision and following the current integrative Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL), we combined corpus-based approach and CALL to create the System of Error Detection and Revision Suggestion (SEDRS) for learning Spanish. Through…

  12. iSELF: The Development of an Internet-Tool for Self-Evaluation and Learner Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theunissen, Nicolet; Stubbé, Hester

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the theoretical basis and development of the iSELF: an Internet-tool for Self-Evaluation and Learner Feedback to stimulate self-directed learning in ubiquitous learning environments. In ubiquitous learning, learners follow their own trails of interest, scaffolded by coaches, peers and tools for thinking and learning.…

  13. Learner Differences in Hint Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Ilya M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Aleven, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Although ITSs are supposed to adapt to differences among learners, so far, little attention has been paid to how they might adapt to differences in how students learn from help. When students study with an Intelligent Tutoring System, they may receive multiple types of help, but may not comprehend and make use of this help in the same way. To…

  14. English Learners Program Guide. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This guide is designed as a reference for District and School personnel working with English learners (ELs). The content of the guide represents a compilation of information, examples, and resources. This guide is a living document and subject to frequent updates. It is recommended to review the document online rather than printing a hard copy.

  15. Learner-Centered Online Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This chapter offers a theoretical rationale and an explanation of evidence for using research-validated, learner-centered principles and practices in online course development, highlighting the evidence-based practices that have been used successfully to develop online courses that engage and retain students.

  16. Options for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minaya-Rowe, Liliana

    2008-01-01

    Between 69 percent and 90 percent of English language learners (ELLs) in middle and high schools were born in the United States and have been in U.S. schools since kindergarten still have not achieved the academic proficiency to succeed in an all-English mainstream program. Various ELL program options are available for school districts to…

  17. Distance Learners: Welcome to Campus!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwitzer, Alan M.; Duggan, Mary H.

    2005-01-01

    Old Dominion University's distance learning program, called TELETECHNET, brings the main-campus college experience to geographically distant learners at sites across Virginia and as far away as the state of Washington, as well as to military personnel on Navy bases, carriers, and submarines. In an interesting turnabout, the Summer Institute for…

  18. Language Learners' Perceptions of Accent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Julie; Wennerstrom, Ann; Richard, Dara; Wu, Su Hui

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzed the accent perceptions of a group of 37 English language learners and 10 American undergraduate students. Each subject listened to a one-minute passage read by four speakers with different accents of English: General American, British English, Chinese English, and Mexican English. Participants then attempted to identify the…

  19. for Teachers of English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molle, Daniella

    2013-01-01

    For more than a decade, the professional development literature has shown that most teachers are not adequately prepared to teach English learners (ELs)--that holds true for both specialist and mainstream teachers (see, for example, August & Hakuta, 1997; Beykont, 2002). Research that focuses on professional development for teachers of ELs,…

  20. Teaching Reading to Struggling Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minskoff, Esther

    2005-01-01

    Identifying the best way to help students who struggle with reading--whether they have learning disabilities, are English language learners, or just need extra support--is a challenge for any teacher. Schools can make that task easier with this indispensable resource, a complete guide to addressing each student's specific instructional needs and…

  1. Reading and the Adult Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laura S., Ed.

    This monograph consists of selected International Reading Association convention and journal articles that describe reading programs for adult learners in the United States. The focus of the articles is on continuing adult education and developing advanced reading skills rather than on remedial or basic skills. Topics of selections include…

  2. English Language Learners: Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hector-Mason, Anestine; Bardack, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This annotated bibliography represents a first step toward compiling a comprehensive overview of current research on issues related to English language learners (ELLs). It is intended to be a resource for researchers, policymakers, administrators, and educators who are engaged in efforts to bridge the divide between research, policy, and practice…

  3. Rich Environments for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentham, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Unaware of the messages a bare adult learning environment sends and its effect on adult learners, a trainer attends an intensive Reggio Emilia course and learns that the physical environment is the "third teacher"--for adults as well as for children. Using principles of Reggio, she offers suggestions for enhancing adult learning spaces and…

  4. Grading Exceptional and Struggling Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    How can you ensure that you are grading your exceptional students fairly? Teachers receive very little guidance for grading students with disabilities, English learners, and those receiving services through a response-to-intervention (RTI) process. This practitioner-friendly book provides teachers and administrators with an effective framework for…

  5. Teacher Investment in Learner Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Jenelle

    2009-01-01

    From a sociocultural perspective, teacher identity is constructed in relation to others, including other teachers and students. Drawing on positioning theory and the concept of investment, this study analyzed the case of a secondary English teacher who negotiated his teacher identity in relation to English language learners (ELLs). Findings…

  6. Reading and the Special Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Carolyn N., Ed.; Hicks, John S., Ed.

    Compiled from papers presented at the annual Reading/Special Education Institute at Fordham University, this collection of essays addresses reading problems of special education students. The book is divided into three sections. The first section covers reading assessment and reading intervention; section 2 addresses the specific learner and the…

  7. Facilitating Creativity in Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Kuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Creativity in education research has received increasing attention, although the major focus of this research has been on children. Despite pleas by several adult educators for promoting creativity, very few studies have focused on adult learners, leaving to it to be explored what approaches are useful for adult educators to facilitate creativity…

  8. Are Deaf Students Visual Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschark, Marc; Morrison, Carolyn; Lukomski, Jennifer; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol

    2013-01-01

    It is frequently assumed that by virtue of their hearing losses, deaf students are visual learners. Deaf individuals have some visual-spatial advantages relative to hearing individuals, but most have been linked to use of sign language rather than auditory deprivation. How such cognitive differences might affect academic performance has been…

  9. Learner Perceptions of Online Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrup, Pam; Lee, Russell; Burgess, Vance

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the types of interactions that students perceived to be important for online learning. The interaction attributes investigated included content interaction, conversation and collaboration, intrapersonal/metacognitive skills, and need for support. Also investigated were reasons why learners were taking…

  10. The Learner and the Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, George E.

    The revolution in computers begun in the mid 1950's will help education to meet the new challenges of the future generated by the predicted drastic declines in student enrollment and by changes in the types of learners served. Projects such as PLATO and TICCIT have proved that computers can provide useful and timely instruction for such learners…

  11. Developing Collections to Empower Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Sue C.

    2014-01-01

    "Developing Collections to Empower Learners" examines collection development in the context of today's shifts toward digital resources while emphasizing the foundational beliefs of the school library profession. Writer Sue Kimmel includes practical advice about needs assessment, planning, selection, acquisitions, evaluation, and…

  12. Individual Learner Differences in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabski, Janusz; Wojtaszek, Adam

    2011-01-01

    "Individual Learner Differences in SLA" addresses the apparently insoluble conflict between the unquestionably individual character of the process of second language acquisition/foreign language learning and the institutionalised, often inflexible character of formal instruction in which it takes place. How, then, is success in SLA so prevalent?

  13. Learners' Use of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ally, Mohamed; Cleveland-Innes, Martha; Boskic, Natasha; Larwill, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study exploring the generativity (Gibbons, Nelson, & Richards, 2000; Parrish, 2004) and discoverability (Friesen, 2001) of learning objects in the hands of the learner. Through the convergence of two separate pilot projects--the Canadian EduSource initiative through Athabasca University, and the researchers'…

  14. Activity Limitations among Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities: A Population-Based Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Lollar, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Developmental disabilities are a heterogeneous group of chronic conditions that may result in substantial activity limitations. The type and number of limitations may vary by impairment characteristics. Economic and social constraints may impact activity limitations beyond those attributable to their impairment. Using the International…

  15. CONTRIBUTIONS OF CHILDREN'S ACTIVITIES TO PESTICIDE HAND LOADINGS FOLLOWING RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of children's activities in leading to pesticide exposure was evaluated by comparing pesticide loadings on the hands of children with the activities of the same children observed over a 4 hour period. Ten children ranging in age from 24-55 months were videotaped on the s...

  16. Follow-up and physical activity in postoperative congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Colonna, Pierluigi; Manfrin, Marcello; Cecconi, Moreno; Perna, Gian Piero; Picchio, Fernando Maria

    2007-01-01

    During the past three decades, interventional cardiology and cardiac surgery have found solutions even for the most complex congenital heart malformations with an overall low operative mortality. A careful clinical and instrumental follow-up of postoperative congenital heart disease patients is fundamental not only to prevent complications and/or to treat eventual residua and sequelae, but also to modify future surgical strategies on the basis of long-term results. To be able to give a correct prognostic meaning to the data collected during the follow-up, the cardiologist should have an excellent knowledge of the native defect, the surgical technique and the post-surgical anatomy and physiology. Major cardiological concerns during a follow-up after corrective surgery are: arrhythmias; heart failure; cyanosis and erythrocytosis; and infective endocarditis. Psychosocial needs, such as employment, contraception, pregnancy and physical exercise, are very important to enable a 'normal' life, complying with the postoperative hemodynamic situation of the patients.

  17. More than a "Basic Skill": Breaking down the Complexities of Summarizing for ABE/ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette-Schramm, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the complex cognitive and linguistic challenges of summarizing expository text at vocabulary, syntactic, and rhetorical levels. It then outlines activities to help ABE/ESL learners develop corresponding skills.

  18. Hippo/MST1 signaling mediates microglial activation following acute cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Siqi; Yin, Jie; Zhou, Lujun; Yan, Feng; He, Qing; Huang, Li; Peng, Shengyi; Jia, Junying; Cheng, Jinbo; Chen, Hong; Tao, Wufan; Ji, Xunming; Xu, Yun; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2016-07-01

    Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major public health concern that causes high rates of disability and mortality in adults. Microglial activation plays a crucial role in ischemic stroke-induced alteration of the immune microenvironment. However, the mechanism underlying the triggering of microglial activation by ischemic stroke remains to be elucidated. Previously, we demonstrated that the protein kinase Hippo/MST1 plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced cell death in mammalian primary neurons and that the protein kinase c-Abl phosphorylates MST1 at Y433, which increases MST1 kinase activity. Microglial activation has been implicated as a secondary detrimental cellular response that contributes to neuronal cell death in ischemic stroke. Here, we are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate that MST1 mediates stroke-induced microglial activation by directly phosphorylating IκBα at residues S32 and S36. We further demonstrate that Src kinase functions upstream of MST1-IκB signaling during microglial activation. Specific deletion of MST1 in microglia mitigates stroke-induced brain injury. Therefore, we propose that Src-MST1-IκB signaling plays a critical role in stroke-induced microglial activation. Together with our previous work demonstrating that MST1 is important for oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death, our results indicate that MST1 could represent a potent therapeutic target for ischemic stroke.

  19. Normalisation of frontal theta activity following methylphenidate treatment in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Skirrow, Caroline; McLoughlin, Grainne; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with cognitive performance and functional brain changes that are sensitive to task conditions, indicating a role for dynamic impairments rather than stable cognitive deficits. Prominent hypotheses consistent with this observation are a failure to optimise brain arousal or activation states. Here we investigate cortical activation during different conditions. Using a sample of 41 non-comorbid adults with ADHD and 48 controls, we examine quantitative EEG activity during a resting state, a cued continuous performance test with flankers (CPT-OX) and the sustained attention to response task (SART). We further investigate the effects of methylphenidate in a subsample of 21 ADHD cases. Control participants showed a task-related increase in theta activity when engaged in cognitive tasks, primarily in frontal and parietal regions, which was absent in participants with ADHD. Treatment with methylphenidate resulted in normalisation of the resting state to task activation pattern. These findings suggest that ADHD in adults is associated with insufficient allocation of neuronal resources required for normal cortical activation commensurate with task demands. Further work is required to clarify the causal role of the deficit in cortical activation and provide a clearer understanding of the mechanisms involved.

  20. Aligning Game Activity with Educational Goals: Following a Constrained Design Approach to Instructional Computer Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Brett E.; Scoresby, Jon

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the design, creation and implementation of an instructional game for use in a high school poetry class following a commitment to an educational game design principle of "alignment". We studied groups of instructional designers and an interactive fiction computer game they built. The game was implemented in a 9th grade English classroom…

  1. 77 FR 69896 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Follow-Up...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ...; Follow-Up Survey Information for Green Jobs and Health Care Impact Evaluation, American Recovery... Survey Information for Green Jobs and Health Care Impact Evaluation, American Recovery Reinvestment Act... Health Care Grants Impact Evaluation (OMB 1205-0486), and in March, 2012, the OMB approved a...

  2. Big Bang! An Evaluation of NASA's Space School Musical Program for Elementary and Middle School Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haden, C.; Styers, M.; Asplund, S.

    2015-12-01

    Music and the performing arts can be a powerful way to engage students in learning about science. Research suggests that content-rich songs enhance student understanding of science concepts by helping students develop content-based vocabulary, by providing examples and explanations of concepts, and connecting to personal and situational interest in a topic. Building on the role of music in engaging students in learning, and on best practices in out-of-school time learning, the NASA Discovery and New Frontiers program in association with Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Marshall Space Flight Center, and KidTribe developed Space School Musical. Space School Musical consists of a set of nine songs and 36 educational activities to teach elementary and middle school learners about the solar system and space science through an engaging storyline and the opportunity for active learning. In 2014, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory contracted with Magnolia Consulting, LLC to conduct an evaluation of Space School Musical. Evaluators used a mixed methods approach to address evaluation questions related to educator professional development experiences, program implementation and perceptions, and impacts on participating students. Measures included a professional development feedback survey, facilitator follow-up survey, facilitator interviews, and a student survey. Evaluation results showed that educators were able to use the program in a variety of contexts and in different ways to best meet their instructional needs. They noted that the program worked well for diverse learners and helped to build excitement for science through engaging all learners in the musical. Students and educators reported positive personal and academic benefits to participating students. We present findings from the evaluation and lessons learned about integration of the arts into STEM education.

  3. Focus on the Foreign Language Learner: Priorities and Strategies. Selected Papers from the Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Language (23rd, Indianapolis, Indiana, March 21-24, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasheim, Lorraine A. Ed.; And Others

    Eight selected papers from a conference on the teaching of foreign languages cover three main topics: learner-centered priorities; learner-directed strategies; and planning strategies. After an introduction by Lorraine A. Strasheim on learners and learning outcomes, the papers and authors are as follows: "The Developing Child: What Every FLES…

  4. Older women's personal goals and exercise activity: an 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Saajanaho, Milla; Viljanen, Anne; Read, Sanna; Rantakokko, Merja; Tsai, Li-Tang; Kaprio, Jaakko; Jylhä, Marja; Rantanen, Taina

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the associations of personal goals with exercise activity, as well as the relationships between exercise-related and other personal goals, among older women. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs were used with a sample of 308 women ages 66-79 at baseline. Women who reported exercise-related personal goals were 4 times as likely to report high exercise activity at baseline than those who did not report exercise-related goals. Longitudinal results were parallel. Goals related to cultural activities, as well as to busying oneself around the home, coincided with exercise-related goals, whereas goals related to own and other people's health and independent living lowered the odds of having exercise-related goals. Helping older adults to set realistic exercise-related goals that are compatible with their other life goals may yield an increase in their exercise activity, but this should be evaluated in a controlled trial.

  5. Following fluctuating signs: Anomalous active superdiffusion of swimmers in anisotropic media.

    PubMed

    Toner, John; Löwen, Hartmut; Wensink, Henricus H

    2016-06-01

    Active (i.e., self-propelled or swimming) particles moving through an isotropic fluid exhibit conventional diffusive behavior. We report anomalous diffusion of an active particle moving in an anisotropic nematic background. While the translational motion parallel to the nematic director shows ballistic behavior, the long-time transverse motion is superdiffusive, with an anomalous scaling proportional to tlnt of the mean-square displacement with time t. This behavior is predicted by an analytical theory that we present here and is corroborated by numerical simulation of active particle diffusion in a simple lattice model for a nematic liquid crystal. It is universal for any collection of self-propelled elements (e.g., bacteria or active rods) moving in a nematic background, provided only that the swimmers are sufficiently dilute that their interactions with each other can be neglected and that they do not perform hairpin turns. PMID:27415323

  6. Locomotor activity and tissue levels following acute administration of lambda- and gamma-cyhalothrin in rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroids produce neurotoxicity that depends, in part, on the chemical structure. Common behavioral effects include locomotor activity changes and specific toxic syndromes (types I and II). In general these neurobehavioral effects correlate well with peak internal dose metric...

  7. Following fluctuating signs: Anomalous active superdiffusion of swimmers in anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, John; Löwen, Hartmut; Wensink, Henricus H.

    2016-06-01

    Active (i.e., self-propelled or swimming) particles moving through an isotropic fluid exhibit conventional diffusive behavior. We report anomalous diffusion of an active particle moving in an anisotropic nematic background. While the translational motion parallel to the nematic director shows ballistic behavior, the long-time transverse motion is superdiffusive, with an anomalous scaling proportional to t lnt of the mean-square displacement with time t . This behavior is predicted by an analytical theory that we present here and is corroborated by numerical simulation of active particle diffusion in a simple lattice model for a nematic liquid crystal. It is universal for any collection of self-propelled elements (e.g., bacteria or active rods) moving in a nematic background, provided only that the swimmers are sufficiently dilute that their interactions with each other can be neglected and that they do not perform hairpin turns.

  8. Physical Activity Patterns in University Students: Do They Follow the Public Health Guidelines?

    PubMed

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Martins, Fernando Manuel Lourenço; Mendes, Rui Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with health. The aim of this study was (a) to access if Portuguese university students meet the public health recommendations for physical activity and (b) the effect of gender and day of the week on daily PA levels of university students. This observational cross-sectional study involved 126 (73 women) healthy Portuguese university students aged 18-23 years old. Participants wore the ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Number of steps, time spent sedentary and in light, moderate and vigorous physical activity were recorded. The two-way MANOVA revealed that gender (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.038; minimum effect) and day of the week (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.174; minimum effect) had significant main effects on the physical activity variables. It was shown that during weekdays, male students walked more steps (65.14%), spent less time sedentary (6.77%) and in light activities (3.11%) and spent more time in moderate (136.67%) and vigorous activity (171.29%) in comparison with weekend days (p < 0.05). The descriptive analysis revealed that female students walked more steps (51.18%) and spent more time in moderate (125.70%) and vigorous (124.16%) activities during weekdays than in weekend days (p < 0.05). Women students did not achieve the recommended 10,000 steps/day on average during weekdays and weekend days. Only male students achieved this recommendation during weekdays. In summary, this study showed a high incidence of sedentary time in university students, mainly on weekend days. New strategies must be adopted to promote physical activity in this population, focusing on the change of sedentary behaviour.

  9. Long-term facilitation of expiratory and sympathetic activities following acute intermittent hypoxia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lemes, Eduardo V.; Aiko, Simone; Orbem, Caroline B.; Formentin, Cleiton; Bassi, Mirian; Colombari, Eduardo; Zoccal, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) promotes persistent increases in ventilation and sympathetic activity, referred as long-term facilitation (LTF). Augmented inspiratory activity is suggested as a major component of respiratory LTF. In the present study, we hypothesized that AIH also elicits a sustained increase in expiratory motor activity. We also investigated whether the expiratory LTF contributes to the development of sympathetic LTF after AIH. Methods Rats were exposed to AIH (10 × 6–7 % O2 for 45 s, every 5 min) and the cardiorespiratory parameters were evaluated during 60 min using in vivo and in situ approaches. Results In unanesthetized conditions (n=9), AIH elicited a modest but sustained increase in baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP, 104±2 vs 111±3 mmHg, P<0.05) associated with enhanced sympathetic and respiratory-related variabilities. In the in situ preparations (n=9), AIH evoked LTF in phrenic (33±12%), thoracic sympathetic (75±25%) and abdominal nerve activities (69±14%). The sympathetic overactivity after AIH was phase-locked with the emergence of bursts in abdominal activity during the late-expiratory phase. In anesthetized vagus-intact animals, AIH increased baseline MAP (113±3 vs 122±2 mmHg, P<0.05) and abdominal muscle activity (535±94%), which were eliminated after pharmacological inhibition of the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG). Conclusion These findings indicate that increased expiratory activity is also an important component of AIH-elicited respiratory LTF. Moreover, the development of sympathetic LTF after AIH is linked to the emergence of active expiratory pattern and depends on the integrity of the neurones of the RTN/pFRG. PMID:26910756

  10. Physical Activity Patterns in University Students: Do They Follow the Public Health Guidelines?

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Martins, Fernando Manuel Lourenço; Mendes, Rui Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with health. The aim of this study was (a) to access if Portuguese university students meet the public health recommendations for physical activity and (b) the effect of gender and day of the week on daily PA levels of university students. This observational cross-sectional study involved 126 (73 women) healthy Portuguese university students aged 18–23 years old. Participants wore the ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Number of steps, time spent sedentary and in light, moderate and vigorous physical activity were recorded. The two-way MANOVA revealed that gender (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.038; minimum effect) and day of the week (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.174; minimum effect) had significant main effects on the physical activity variables. It was shown that during weekdays, male students walked more steps (65.14%), spent less time sedentary (6.77%) and in light activities (3.11%) and spent more time in moderate (136.67%) and vigorous activity (171.29%) in comparison with weekend days (p < 0.05). The descriptive analysis revealed that female students walked more steps (51.18%) and spent more time in moderate (125.70%) and vigorous (124.16%) activities during weekdays than in weekend days (p < 0.05). Women students did not achieve the recommended 10,000 steps/day on average during weekdays and weekend days. Only male students achieved this recommendation during weekdays. In summary, this study showed a high incidence of sedentary time in university students, mainly on weekend days. New strategies must be adopted to promote physical activity in this population, focusing on the change of sedentary behaviour. PMID:27022993

  11. Physical Activity Patterns in University Students: Do They Follow the Public Health Guidelines?

    PubMed

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Martins, Fernando Manuel Lourenço; Mendes, Rui Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with health. The aim of this study was (a) to access if Portuguese university students meet the public health recommendations for physical activity and (b) the effect of gender and day of the week on daily PA levels of university students. This observational cross-sectional study involved 126 (73 women) healthy Portuguese university students aged 18-23 years old. Participants wore the ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Number of steps, time spent sedentary and in light, moderate and vigorous physical activity were recorded. The two-way MANOVA revealed that gender (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.038; minimum effect) and day of the week (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.174; minimum effect) had significant main effects on the physical activity variables. It was shown that during weekdays, male students walked more steps (65.14%), spent less time sedentary (6.77%) and in light activities (3.11%) and spent more time in moderate (136.67%) and vigorous activity (171.29%) in comparison with weekend days (p < 0.05). The descriptive analysis revealed that female students walked more steps (51.18%) and spent more time in moderate (125.70%) and vigorous (124.16%) activities during weekdays than in weekend days (p < 0.05). Women students did not achieve the recommended 10,000 steps/day on average during weekdays and weekend days. Only male students achieved this recommendation during weekdays. In summary, this study showed a high incidence of sedentary time in university students, mainly on weekend days. New strategies must be adopted to promote physical activity in this population, focusing on the change of sedentary behaviour. PMID:27022993

  12. The Effect of Reflective Discussions following Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activities on Students' Views of Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, Hagop A.; BouJaoude, Saouma

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the effect of reflective discussions following inquiry-based laboratory activities on students' views of the tentative, empirical, subjective, and social aspects of nature of science (NOS). Thirty-eight grade six students from a Lebanese school participated in the study. The study used a pretest-posttest control-group…

  13. Swift Follow-up of Recent Gamma-ray Flaring Activity from the FSRQ B2 1846+32B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Roopesh; Carpen, Bryce

    2015-11-01

    Following the gamma-ray detection of flaring activity from the flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) B2 1846+32B by Fermi-LAT ( > 100 MeV) on 19 November 2015 (ATel #8315), a Swift target of opportunity observation was performed on 21 November 2015.

  14. 78 FR 42935 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request- Follow-Up Activities for Product-Related Injuries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... the Federal Register of May 7, 2013 (78 FR 26618), the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC or... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-- Follow-Up Activities for Product-Related...

  15. Visual Literacy Skills of Students in College-Level Biology: Learning Outcomes Following Digital or Hand-Drawing Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Justine C.

    2014-01-01

    To test the claim that digital learning tools enhance the acquisition of visual literacy in this generation of biology students, a learning intervention was carried out with 33 students enrolled in an introductory college biology course. This study compared learning outcomes following two types of learning tools: a traditional drawing activity, or…

  16. 30 CFR 280.3 - What requirements must I follow when I conduct prospecting or research activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What requirements must I follow when I conduct prospecting or research activities? 280.3 Section 280.3 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL,...

  17. 30 CFR 280.3 - What requirements must I follow when I conduct prospecting or research activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements must I follow when I conduct prospecting or research activities? 280.3 Section 280.3 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR ON THE...

  18. Occupational Physical Activity, Overweight, and Mortality: A Follow-Up Study of 47,405 Norwegian Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Selmer, Randi; Sorensen, Marit; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    This population-based 24-year follow-up study evaluated the association of occupational physical activity (OPA) with overweight and mortality in 47,405 men and women, healthy at baseline, and reporting OPA as sedentary (reference), light, moderately heavy, or heavy. The adjusted odds ratio for overweight was slightly less than 1 for all categories…

  19. Activities of Extracellular Enzymes in Soils Following Woody Plant Invasion of Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filley, T. R.; Stott, D. E.; Dooling, V.; Sorg, L.; Boutton, T.

    2008-12-01

    Extracellular enzymes produced by microbes and immobilize in the soil environment are the principle means by which complex plant and microbial compounds are degraded. The concentration of these enzymes and their ability to interact with litter and soil organic matter contributes both to the stabilization and destabilization of soil carbon. We quantified the activities of three extracellular enzymes, B-glucosidase, B- glucosaminidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and a general marker for hydrolytic activity through fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis activity, in a subtropical savanna parkland in southern Texas where woody plants have invaded a once open grassland. Previous research has demonstrated that areas which have shifted to woody vegetation are accruing soil carbon, undergoing a dramatic shift in the chemistry of plant input, and increasing in hyphal biomass. Soils were obtained along a successional chronosequence from grassland dominated by C4 grasses to woody patches dominated by C3 trees/shrubs in Oct 2006 and stored immediately frozen until thawing for enzyme assay. Most enzymes, with the exception of PPO, show distinct behavior when comparing grassland and clusters in that grasslands exhibit far lower mass normalized activity than clusters and no activity trend with respect to age of the adjacent cluster. Both FDA and B- glucosaminidase activities are positively correlated with the age of the woody clusters and increase their activity by as much as 10-fold across the age gradient from 14 yr to 86 yr old clusters. The cellulose degrading enzyme, B-glucosidase, always exhibited greater activity (1.5 -4 fold) in woody clusters than in grasslands, but did not exhibit a trend with increasing cluster age. The PPO activity is anomalous in that there is no quantitative difference in mass normalized activity between grassland and cluster and no trend with cluster age. The results for the FDA and B-glucosaminidase assays are consistent with concurrent studies

  20. Changes in the spectrum and rates of extracellular enzyme activities in seawater following aggregate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziervogel, K.; Steen, A. D.; Arnosti, C.

    2010-03-01

    Marine snow aggregates are heavily colonized by heterotrophic microorganisms that express high levels of hydrolytic activities, making aggregates hotspots for carbon remineralization in the ocean. To assess how aggregate formation influences the ability of seawater microbial communities to access organic carbon, we compared hydrolysis rates of six polysaccharides in coastal seawater after aggregates had been formed (via incubation on a roller table) with hydrolysis rates in seawater from the same site that had not incubated on a roller table (referred to as whole seawater). Hydrolysis rates in the aggregates themselves were up to three orders of magnitude higher on a volume basis than in whole seawater. The enhancement of enzyme activity in aggregates relative to whole seawater differed by substrate, suggesting that the enhancement was under cellular control, rather than due to factors such as lysis or grazing. A comparison of hydrolysis rates in whole seawater with those in aggregate-free seawater, i.e. the fraction of water from the roller bottles that did not contain aggregates, demonstrated a nuanced microbial response to aggregate formation. Activities of laminarinase and xylanase enzymes in aggregate-free seawater were higher than in whole seawater, while activities of chondroitin, fucoidan, and arabinogalactan hydrolyzing enzymes were lower than in whole seawater. These data suggest that aggregate formation enhanced production of laminarinase and xylanase enzymes, and the enhancement also affected the surrounding seawater. Decreased activities of chondroitin, fucoidan, and arabinoglactan-hydrolyzing enzymes in aggregate-free seawaters relative to whole seawater are likely due to shifts in enzyme production by the aggregate-associated community, coupled with the effects of enzyme degradation. Enhanced activities of laminarin- and xylan-hydrolyzing enzymes in aggregate-free seawater were due at least in part to cell-free enzymes. Measurements of enzyme

  1. Plurilingual Learners' Beliefs and Practices toward Native and Nonnative Language Mediation during Learner-Learner Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payant, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing number of plurilingual learners in the world today (Hammarberg, 2010), the present multiple case study examines four plurilingual participants' beliefs toward first language (L1) and second language (L2) mediation in the acquisition of French as a third language (L3). During a 16-week classroom-based study in a French university…

  2. Beyond Classroom Discourse: Learning as Participation in Native Speaker-Learner and Learner-Learner Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshi, Saori

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with the notion of learning as changing participation (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Rogoff, 1998; Sfard, 1998; Young & Miller, 2004), the present qualitative study investigated how social interaction between learners of Japanese as a foreign language and native speaker classroom guests contributed to the students' use of second language…

  3. Formation of tissue factor activity following incubation of recombinant human tissue factor apoprotein with plasma lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, T.; Kisiel, W. )

    1990-11-01

    Incubation of recombinant human tissue factor apoprotein (Apo-TF) with human plasma decreased the recalcified clotting time of this plasma in a time-and dose-dependent manner suggesting relipidation of the Apo-TF by plasma lipoproteins. Incubation of Apo-TF with purified preparations of human very low density, low density and high density lipoproteins resulted in tissue factor activity in a clotting assay. The order of effectiveness was VLDL greater than LDL much greater than HDL. Tissue factor activity generated by incubation of a fixed amount of Apo-TF with plasma lipoproteins was lipoprotein concentration-dependent and saturable. The association of Apo-TF with lipoprotein particles was supported by gel filtration studies in which {sup 125}I-Apo-TF coeluted with the plasma lipoprotein in the void volume of a Superose 6 column in the presence and absence of calcium ions. In addition, void-volume Apo-TF-lipoprotein fractions exhibited tissue factor activity. These results suggest that the factor VIII-bypassing activity of bovine Apo-TF observed in a canine hemophilic model may be due, in part, to its association with plasma lipoproteins and expression of functional tissue factor activity.

  4. Stress-activated signaling responses leading to apoptosis following photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleinick, Nancy L.; He, Jin; Xue, Liang-yan; Separovic, Duska

    1998-05-01

    Photodynamic treatment with the phthalocyanine Pc 4, a mitochondrially localizing photosensitizer, is an efficient inducer of cell death by apoptosis, a cell suicide pathway that can be triggered by physiological stimuli as well as by various types of cellular damage. Upon exposure of the dye- loaded cells to red light, several stress signalling pathways are rapidly activated. In murine L5178Y-R lymphoblasts, caspase activation and other hallmarks of the final phase of apoptosis are observed within a few minutes post-PDT. In Chinese hamster CHO-K1 cells, the first signs of apoptosis are not observed for 1 - 2 hours. The possible involvement of three parallel mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathways has been investigated. The extracellular- regulated kinases (ERK-1 and ERK-2), that are thought to promote cell growth, are not appreciably altered by PDT. However, PDT causes marked activation of the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) cascade in both cell types and of the p38/HOG-type kinase in CHO cells. Both of these latter pathways have been demonstrated to be associated with apoptosis. A specific inhibitor of the ERK pathway did not alter PDT-induced apoptosis; however, an inhibitor of the p38 pathway partially blocked PDT-induced apoptosis. Blockage of the SAPK pathway is being pursued by a genetic approach. It appears that the SAPK and p38 pathways may participate in signaling apoptosis in response to PDT with Pc 4.

  5. Allopregnanolone Elevations Following Pregnenolone Administration are Associated with Enhanced Activation of Emotion Regulation Neurocircuits

    PubMed Central

    Sripada, Rebecca K.; Marx, Christine E.; King, Anthony P.; Rampton, Jessica C.; Ho, Shaun; Liberzon, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Background The neurosteroid allopregnanolone is a potent allosteric modulator of the GABA(A) receptor with anxiolytic properties. Exogenous administration of allopregnanolone reduces anxiety, and allopregnanolone blockade impairs social and affective functioning. However, the neural mechanism whereby allopregnanolone improves mood and reduces anxiety is unknown. In particular, brain imaging has not been used to link neurosteroid effects to emotion regulation neurocircuitry. Methods To investigate the brain basis of allopregnanolone’s impact on emotion regulation, participants were administered 400mg of pregnenolone (N=16) or placebo (N=15) and underwent 3T fMRI while performing the Shifted-Attention Emotion Appraisal Task (SEAT), which probes emotional processing and regulation. Results Compared to placebo, allopregnanolone was associated with reduced activity in the amygdala and insula across all conditions. During the appraisal condition, allopregnanolone increased activity in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex and enhanced connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, an effect that was associated with reduced self-reported anxiety. Conclusions These results demonstrate that in response to emotional stimuli, allopregnanolone reduces activity in regions associated with generation of negative emotion. Furthermore, allopregnanolone may enhance activity in regions linked to regulatory processes. Aberrant activity in these regions has been linked to anxiety psychopathology. These results thus provide initial neuroimaging evidence that allopregnanolone may be a target for pharmacological intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders, and suggest potential future directions for research into neurosteroid effects on emotion regulation neurocircuitry. PMID:23348009

  6. Changes in tRNA methyltransferase activity and cellular S-adenosylmethionine content following methionine deprivation.

    PubMed

    Tisdale, M J

    1980-09-19

    Although homocysteine was unable to support growth of Walker carcinoma in media lacking methionine it did enable some proliferation of TLX5 lymphoma. In both cell lines there was an increase in growth rate in the presence of homocysteine at limiting methionine concentrations. The proliferation rate of Walker carcinoma was proportional to the methionine concentraion of the medium down to 0.5 microgram/ml, whereas growth of TLX5 lymphoma was only slightly reduced at such methionine concentrations. The difference in proliferative ability between the two cell lines was reflected in the level of S-adenosyl-L-methionine under conditions of methionine deprivation. In both cases transferance to a media in which methionine was growth limiting caused a rapid increase in the activity of tRNA methyltransferases to levels six to seven-fold greater than the control. The initial increase in methylase activity was not prevented by cycloheximide, although after 4 h there was a progressive decrease in activity which approached control values within 24 h. The increase in tRNA methyltransferase activity on removal of the normal level of methionine in the medium was also seen with human embryonic fibroblasts, which are able to proliferate normally in methionine-deficient, homocysteine-supplemented media. These results suggest that methyltransferase activity may be regulated in part by the S-adenosyl-methionine content of the cell.

  7. Hepatic Insulin Resistance Following Chronic Activation of the CREB Coactivator CRTC2.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Meghan F; Ravnskjaer, Kim; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Huising, Mark O; Hull, Rebecca L; Kahn, Steven E; Montminy, Marc

    2015-10-23

    Under fasting conditions, increases in circulating concentrations of glucagon maintain glucose homeostasis via the induction of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Triggering of the cAMP pathway in hepatocytes stimulates the gluconeogenic program via the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of CREB and dephosphorylation of the cAMP-regulated CREB coactivators CRTC2 and CRTC3. In parallel, decreases in circulating insulin also increase gluconeogenic gene expression via the de-phosphorylation and activation of the forkhead transcription factor FOXO1. Hepatic gluconeogenesis is increased in insulin resistance where it contributes to the attendant hyperglycemia. Whether selective activation of the hepatic CREB/CRTC pathway is sufficient to trigger metabolic changes in other tissues is unclear, however. Modest hepatic expression of a phosphorylation-defective and therefore constitutively active CRTC2S171,275A protein increased gluconeogenic gene expression under fasting as well as feeding conditions. Circulating glucose concentrations were constitutively elevated in CRTC2S171,275A-expressing mice, leading to compensatory increases in circulating insulin concentrations that enhance FOXO1 phosphorylation. Despite accompanying decreases in FOXO1 activity, hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression remained elevated in CRTC2S171,275A mice, demonstrating that chronic increases in CRTC2 activity in the liver are indeed sufficient to promote hepatic insulin resistance and to disrupt glucose homeostasis.

  8. Hepatic Insulin Resistance Following Chronic Activation of the CREB Coactivator CRTC2*

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Meghan F.; Ravnskjaer, Kim; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Huising, Mark O.; Hull, Rebecca L.; Kahn, Steven E.; Montminy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Under fasting conditions, increases in circulating concentrations of glucagon maintain glucose homeostasis via the induction of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Triggering of the cAMP pathway in hepatocytes stimulates the gluconeogenic program via the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of CREB and dephosphorylation of the cAMP-regulated CREB coactivators CRTC2 and CRTC3. In parallel, decreases in circulating insulin also increase gluconeogenic gene expression via the de-phosphorylation and activation of the forkhead transcription factor FOXO1. Hepatic gluconeogenesis is increased in insulin resistance where it contributes to the attendant hyperglycemia. Whether selective activation of the hepatic CREB/CRTC pathway is sufficient to trigger metabolic changes in other tissues is unclear, however. Modest hepatic expression of a phosphorylation-defective and therefore constitutively active CRTC2S171,275A protein increased gluconeogenic gene expression under fasting as well as feeding conditions. Circulating glucose concentrations were constitutively elevated in CRTC2S171,275A-expressing mice, leading to compensatory increases in circulating insulin concentrations that enhance FOXO1 phosphorylation. Despite accompanying decreases in FOXO1 activity, hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression remained elevated in CRTC2S171,275A mice, demonstrating that chronic increases in CRTC2 activity in the liver are indeed sufficient to promote hepatic insulin resistance and to disrupt glucose homeostasis. PMID:26342077

  9. Barriers to and enablers of physical activity in patients with COPD following a hospital admission: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Olivia; Kumar, Saravana; Johnston, Kylie

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by a persistent blockage of airflow, prompting episodes of shortness of breath, commonly leading to hospitalization. Hospitalization may lead to a decline in physical activity following discharge. Physical activity has been shown to improve symptoms of COPD and reduce readmissions, and to decrease morbidity and mortality. This study aims to explore, from the perspectives of people with COPD, the barriers to and enablers of participation in physical activity following hospitalization for COPD. Methods This study had a qualitative descriptive design and included semistructured interviews with 28 adult COPD patients who had been admitted to hospital with a primary diagnosis of exacerbation of COPD. Results A plethora of barriers to but fewer enablers of participation in physical activity and pulmonary rehabilitation were identified for this cohort of people. The main barriers identified were health-related (comorbidities, COPD symptoms, and physical injury or illness) environment-related (weather, transport, and finance), and self-related. The main enabling factors reported were access to health professionals and equipment, social support, routine and extracurricular activities, personal goals and motivation, and the effect of physical activity and “feeling better”. Conclusion This research provides a snapshot of the barriers to and enablers of physical activity and pulmonary rehabilitation in people with COPD. It is evident that there are significant barriers which hinder the ability of people with COPD to undertake and continue participation in physical activity and pulmonary rehabilitation. While there are some enablers that may counter these barriers, it is clear that health professionals dealing with people suffering from COPD need to actively recognize and address barriers to physical activity and pulmonary rehabilitation. Hospital admission may create an opportunity for implementation

  10. Development of Mitochondrial Activities in Pea Cotyledons during and following Germination of the Axis 1

    PubMed Central

    Morohashi, Yukio; Bewley, J. Derek

    1980-01-01

    Development of mitochondrial activities in pea cotyledons during early times after the start of imbibition occurred in two phases. In the first phase (0 to 8 hours after the start of imbibition), succinate or NADH oxidation increased rapidly, while malate or α-ketoglutarate oxidation remained low. The latter activities developed only 8 to 12 hours after the start of imbibition (the second phase). Development in the first phase was induced by water uptake, but some development occurred even when the cotyledons were fully imbibed. The presence of the axis was required for the second phase of the development. It is suggested that mitochondrial development in the second phase is brought about by activation of the electron transfer path at a site between the oxidation of endogenous NADH and the reduction of ubiquinone. PMID:16661396

  11. The changing face(book) of psychiatry: can we justify 'following' patients' social media activity?

    PubMed

    Cox-George, Chantal

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with mental health issues may post information on social networking sites that can provide an insight into their mental health status. It could be argued that doctors (and specifically psychiatrists) should understand the way in which social media is used by their patients to gain a better insight into their illnesses. However, choosing to actively monitor a patient's social media activity raises important questions about the way in which medical students, qualified clinicians and other healthcare professionals obtain information about patients. While this may be framed as a mere form of 'collateral history-taking', there are obvious practical and ethical problems with doing so. Here, a case is made against monitoring the social media activity of patients involved with psychiatric services. PMID:26755986

  12. Antigen-dependent and -independent contributions to primary memory CD8 T cell activation and protection following infection.

    PubMed

    Martin, Matthew D; Badovinac, Vladimir P

    2015-12-10

    Memory CD8 T-cell activation, including expression of IFN-γ and granzymeB, can be induced by antigen (Ag)-dependent signals through the T-cell-receptor, or by pathogen-derived inflammatory cytokines in an Ag-independent manner. Recent studies have come to conflicting results regarding the contributions of Ag and/or inflammation to memory CD8 T-cell activation. Additionally, research has indicated that inflammation-driven CD8 T-cell responses during un-related infections (bystander activation) have the potential to provide protection, but whether protection occurs in immuno-competent hosts is unclear. To investigate these questions, we examined activation of virus-specific memory CD8 T-cells following infection with L. monocytogenes either expressing or not cognate Ag. We show that Ag and inflammation act synergistically in vitro to induce memory activation. In vivo, we found that when memory CD8 T-cells significantly contribute to clearance of infection, early activation and continued responses by these cells are enhanced by cognate Ag recognition. Mechanistically, we show that bystander responses by memory are dependent upon the dose of infection and the amount of inflammation elicited following infection and are able to provide protection in IFN-γ deficient mice, but not in immuno-competent hosts. The data elucidate the requirements for memory CD8 T-cell activation and the protective role of bystander responses.

  13. Antigen-dependent and –independent contributions to primary memory CD8 T cell activation and protection following infection

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Matthew D.; Badovinac, Vladimir P.

    2015-01-01

    Memory CD8 T-cell activation, including expression of IFN-γ and granzymeB, can be induced by antigen (Ag)-dependent signals through the T-cell-receptor, or by pathogen-derived inflammatory cytokines in an Ag-independent manner. Recent studies have come to conflicting results regarding the contributions of Ag and/or inflammation to memory CD8 T-cell activation. Additionally, research has indicated that inflammation-driven CD8 T-cell responses during un-related infections (bystander activation) have the potential to provide protection, but whether protection occurs in immuno-competent hosts is unclear. To investigate these questions, we examined activation of virus-specific memory CD8 T-cells following infection with L. monocytogenes either expressing or not cognate Ag. We show that Ag and inflammation act synergistically in vitro to induce memory activation. In vivo, we found that when memory CD8 T-cells significantly contribute to clearance of infection, early activation and continued responses by these cells are enhanced by cognate Ag recognition. Mechanistically, we show that bystander responses by memory are dependent upon the dose of infection and the amount of inflammation elicited following infection and are able to provide protection in IFN-γ deficient mice, but not in immuno-competent hosts. The data elucidate the requirements for memory CD8 T-cell activation and the protective role of bystander responses. PMID:26658291

  14. How Effective Are Affective Activities? Relative Benefits of Two Types of Structured Input Activities as Part of a Computer-Delivered Lesson on the Spanish Subjunctive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshaw, Florencia

    2012-01-01

    Proponents of Processing Instruction (VanPatten, 2005) claim that learners benefit most when presented with both referential and affective structured input activities. Following a classic pretest-posttest design, the present study investigates the role of these two types of activities on the learning of the Spanish subjunctive. Groups differed…

  15. Adult Female Rats Altered Diurnal Locomotor Activity Pattern Following Chronic Methylphenidate Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, T.; Kohllepin, S; Yang, P.B.; Burau, K.D.; Dafny, N.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is one of the most prescribed pharmacological agents and also used as cognitive enhancement and for recreational purposes. The objective of this study was to investigate the repetitive dose-response effects of MPD on rhythm locomotor activity pattern of female WKY rats and compare to prior study done on male. The hypothesis is that change in the circadian activity pattern indicates a long-lasting effect of the drug. Four animal groups (saline control, 0.6, 2.5, and 10.0 mg/kg MPD dose groups) were housed in a sound-controlled room at 12:12 light/dark cycle. All received saline injections on experimental day 1 (ED 1). On EDs 2-7, the control group received saline injection; the other groups received 0.6, 2.5, or 10.0 mg/kg MPD, respectively. On ED 8-10, injections were withheld. On ED 11, each group received the same dose as EDs 2-7. Hourly histograms and cosine statistical analyses calculating the acrophase (ϕ), amplitude (A), and MESOR (M) were applied to assess the 24-hour circadian activity pattern. The 0.6 and 2.5 mg/kg MPD groups exhibited significant (p<0.05) change in their circadian activity pattern on ED 11. The 10.0 mg/kg MPD group exhibited tolerance on ED 11 and also a significant change in activity pattern on ED 8 compared to ED 1, consistent with withdrawal behavior (p<0.007). In conclusion, chronic MPD administration alters circadian locomotor activity of adult female WKY rats and confirms that chronic MPD use elicits long lasting effects PMID:23893293

  16. Following the Trajectory of Osteoarthritis Development Through Serial Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of MMP Activities

    PubMed Central

    Leahy, Averi A.; Esfahani, Shadi A.; Foote, Andrea T.; Hui, Carrie K.; Rainbow, Roshni S.; Nakamura, Daisy S.; Tracey, Brian H.; Mahmood, Umar; Zeng, Li

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A major hurdle in osteoarthritis (OA) research is the lack of sensitive detection and monitoring methods. It is hypothesized that proteases, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), are upregulated at early stages of OA development. The aim of this study was to investigate if a near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) probe activated by MMPs could visualize in vivo OA progression starting from its early stages. Methods Using an MMP activatable NIRF probe (MMPSense680), we assessed the upregulation of MMP activity in vitro by incubating human chondrocytes with the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. MMP activity was then evaluated in vivo serially in a chronic, injury-induced OA mouse model. For tracking MMP activity over time, mice were imaged 1 – 8 weeks post OA inducing surgery. Imaging results were correlated with histology. Results In vitro studies confirmed that NIRF imaging could identify enhanced MMP activity in IL-1β-treated human chondrocytes. In vivo imaging showed significantly higher fluorescent intensity in OA knees compared to sham knees (control) of the same mice. Additionally, the total emitted fluorescence intensity steadily increased over the entire course of OA progression that was examined. NIRF imaging results correlated with histological analysis, which showed an increase in articular cartilage structural damage over time. Conclusions Imaging of MMP activity in an OA mouse model provided sensitive and consistent visualization of OA progression, beginning from the early stages of OA. In addition to facilitating the preclinical study of OA modulators, this approach has the potential for future human translation. PMID:25385707

  17. Changes in the spectrum and rates of extracellular enzyme activities in seawater following aggregate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziervogel, K.; Steen, A. D.; Arnosti, C.

    2009-12-01

    Marine snow aggregates are heavily colonized by heterotrophic microorganisms that express high levels of hydrolytic activities, making aggregates hotspots for carbon remineralization in the ocean. To assess how aggregate formation influences the ability of seawater microbial communities to access organic carbon, we compared hydrolysis rates of six polysaccharides in coastal seawater after aggregates had been formed (via incubation on a roller table) with hydrolysis rates in seawater from the same site that had not incubated on a roller table (referred to as whole seawater). Hydrolysis rates in the aggregates themselves were up to three orders of magnitude higher on a volume basis than in whole seawater. The enhancement of enzyme activity in aggregates relative to whole seawater differed by substrate, suggesting that the enhancement was under cellular control, rather than due to factors such as lysis or grazing. A comparison of hydrolysis rates in whole seawater with those in aggregate-free seawater, i.e. the fraction of water from the roller bottles that did not contain aggregates, demonstrated a nuanced microbial response to aggregate formation. Activities of laminarinase and xylanase enzymes in aggregate-free seawater were higher than in whole seawater, while activities of chondroitin, fucoidan, and arabinogalactan hydrolyzing enzymes were lower than in whole seawater. These data suggest that aggregate formation enhanced production of laminarinase and xylanase enzymes, and the enhancement also affected the surrounding seawater. Decreased activities of chondroitin, fucoidan, and arabinoglactan-hydrolyzing enzymes in aggregate-free seawater relative to whole seawater are likely due to shifts in enzyme production by the aggregate-associated community, coupled with the effects of enzyme degradation. Enhanced activities of laminarin- and xylan-hydrolyzing enzymes in aggregate-free seawater were due at least in part to cell-free enzymes. Measurements of enzyme lifetime

  18. Down-regulation of phospholipase C-beta1 following chronic muscarinic receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, S D; Linseman, D A; Fisher, S K

    1998-04-01

    To determine whether prolonged activation of a phospholipase C-coupled receptor can lead to a down-regulation of its effector enzyme, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were incubated for 24 h with the muscarinic receptor agonist, oxotremorine-M. Under these conditions, significant reductions (46-53%) in muscarinic cholinergic receptor density, G(alphaq/11) and phospholipase C-beta1 (but not the beta3-or gamma1 isoforms) were observed. These results suggest that a selective down-regulation of phospholipase C-beta1 may play a role in adaptation to chronic muscarinic receptor activation. PMID:9617763

  19. Methods to monitor distribution and metabolic activity of mesenchymal stem cells following in vivo injection into nucleotomized porcine intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Omlor, G W; Bertram, H; Kleinschmidt, K; Fischer, J; Brohm, K; Guehring, T; Anton, M; Richter, Wiltrud

    2010-04-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration involves a series of biochemical and morphological changes leading to loss of spinal stability and flexibility. Cell therapy is promising to reconstitute IVDs with new cells, however, sustained metabolic activity seems crucial for an active contribution to regeneration. The aim of the present study was to establish methods for separate follow up of persistence and activity of autologous porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSC) after implantation into IVDs of Goettingen minipigs in vivo in order to conclude about the potential of such an intervention strategy. For quantitative follow up, the transfer matrix was supplemented with Al(2)O(3) particles and pMSC which were retrovirally labeled with firefly luciferase (pMSC-Luc). Six mature Goettingen minipigs underwent matrix based cell transfer after partial nucleotomy of lumbar IVDs (n = 24). Day 0 and day 3 segments were analyzed for retained volume of Al(2)O(3) particles by micro-computed-tomography (muCT) and for cell activity by luciferase enzyme assessment. Three days after injection a reduction of Al(2)O(3) particles (P = 0.028) to about 9% and of pMSC-Luc activity to about 7% of initial values (P = 0.003) was detected, which suggests loss of 90% of the implant material under in vivo conditions without evidence for reduced pMSC-Luc metabolic activity (P = 0.887). In conclusion, separate follow up of implant material and cell activity was possible and unravels problems with in vivo implant persistence after annular puncture rather than quick loss of cell activity. Therefore, IVD-regeneration-strategies should increasingly focus on annulus reconstruction in order to reduce implant loss due to annular failure.

  20. Processing of action- but not stimulus-related prediction errors differs between active and observational feedback learning.

    PubMed

    Kobza, Stefan; Bellebaum, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Learning of stimulus-response-outcome associations is driven by outcome prediction errors (PEs). Previous studies have shown larger PE-dependent activity in the striatum for learning from own as compared to observed actions and the following outcomes despite comparable learning rates. We hypothesised that this finding relates primarily to a stronger integration of action and outcome information in active learners. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated brain activations related to action-dependent PEs, reflecting the deviation between action values and obtained outcomes, and action-independent PEs, reflecting the deviation between subjective values of response-preceding cues and obtained outcomes. To this end, 16 active and 15 observational learners engaged in a probabilistic learning card-guessing paradigm. On each trial, active learners saw one out of five cues and pressed either a left or right response button to receive feedback (monetary win or loss). Each observational learner observed exactly those cues, responses and outcomes of one active learner. Learning performance was assessed in active test trials without feedback and did not differ between groups. For both types of PEs, activations were found in the globus pallidus, putamen, cerebellum, and insula in active learners. However, only for action-dependent PEs, activations in these structures and the anterior cingulate were increased in active relative to observational learners. Thus, PE-related activity in the reward system is not generally enhanced in active relative to observational learning but only for action-dependent PEs. For the cerebellum, additional activations were found across groups for cue-related uncertainty, thereby emphasising the cerebellum's role in stimulus-outcome learning.