Betts, George T.; Carey, Robin J.; Kapushion, Blanche M.
"Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book" includes activities and strategies to support the development of autonomous learners. More than 40 activities are included, all geared to the emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development of students. Teachers may use these activities and strategies with the entire class, small groups, or…
Real world mathematical modeling activities can develop needed and valuable 21st century skills. The knowledge and skills to become adept at mathematical modeling need to develop over time and students in the elementary grades should have experiences with mathematical modeling. For this to occur elementary teachers need to have positive…
This article describes challenges and benefits of modeling learner variability in Computer-Assisted Language Learning. We discuss the learner model of "E-Tutor," a learner model that addresses learner variability by focusing on certain aspects and/or features of the learner's interlanguage. Moreover, we introduce the concept of phrase descriptors,…
Grote, Audrey M.
This guide to model learner outcomes for service occupations contains four chapters: (1) education values, learner values, philosophy, mission, and goals; (2) introduction, goals, and eight program-level learner outcomes; (3) general learner outcomes and outcomes for housing occupations, child care occupations, cosmetology and personal services,…
Gakhal, Inderdip; Bull, Susan
This paper investigates the potential for simple open learner models for highly motivated, independent learners, using the example of trainee pilots. In particular we consider whether such users access their learner model to help them identify their current knowledge level, areas of difficulty and specific misconceptions, to help them plan their…
Wilkerson-Jerde, Michelle H.; Gravel, Brian E.; Macrander, Christopher A.
Modeling and using technology are two practices of particular interest to K-12 science educators. These practices are inextricably linked among professionals, who engage in modeling activity with and across a variety of representational technologies. In this paper, we explore the practices of five sixth-grade girls as they generated models of smell diffusion using drawing, stop-motion animation, and computational simulation during a multi-day workshop. We analyze video, student discourse, and artifacts to address the questions: In what ways did learners' modeling practices, reasoning about mechanism, and ideas about smell shift as they worked across this variety of representational technologies? And, what supports enabled them to persist and progress in the modeling activity? We found that the girls engaged in two distinct modeling cycles that reflected persistence and deepening engagement in the task. In the first, messing about, they focused on describing and representing many ideas related to the spread of smell at once. In the second, digging in, they focused on testing and revising specific mechanisms that underlie smell diffusion. Upon deeper analysis, we found these cycles were linked to the girls' invention of "oogtom," a representational object that encapsulated many ideas from the first cycle and allowed the girls to restart modeling with the mechanistic focus required to construct simulations. We analyze the role of activity design, facilitation, and technological infrastructure in this pattern of engagement over the course of the workshop and discuss implications for future research, curriculum design, and classroom practice.
Omheni, Nizar; Kalboussi, Anis; Mazhoud, Omar; Kacem, Ahmed Hadj
Researchers in distance education are interested in observing and modeling learners' personality profiles, and adapting their learning experiences accordingly. When learners read and interact with their reading materials, they do unselfconscious activities like annotation which may be key feature of their personalities. Annotation activity…
Woolf, Nicholas; Quinn, James
This case study investigated learners' perceptions of value from participating in a learning activity designed to model professional instructional design practice. Learners developed instructional design products for a corporate client in the context of a classroom-based course. The findings indicate that learners perceived different kinds of…
Rogers, Cheryl, Ed.; And Others
Chapter 1 of this document contains sets of statements adopted by either the Minnesota State Board of Education or the Minnesota State Legislature. They represent the hierarchy used by Department of Education staff as they develop model learner outcomes for each subject area. Contents include learner values, education system values, philosophy for…
Deliyska, B.; Rozeva, A.
The learner model in an intelligent learning system (ILS) has to ensure the personalization (individualization) and the adaptability of e-learning in an online learner-centered environment. ILS is a distributed e-learning system whose modules can be independent and located in different nodes (servers) on the Web. This kind of e-learning is achieved through the resources of the Semantic Web and is designed and developed around a course, group of courses or specialty. An essential part of ILS is learner model database which contains structured data about learner profile and temporal status in the learning process of one or more courses. In the paper a learner model position in ILS is considered and a relational database is designed from learner's domain ontology. Multidimensional modeling agent for the source database is designed and resultant learner data cube is presented. Agent's modules are proposed with corresponding algorithms and procedures. Multidimensional (OLAP) analysis guidelines on the resultant learner module for designing dynamic learning strategy have been highlighted.
Hung, Jui-Ying; Lu, Kuo-Song
Taiwan has the fastest ageing population in the world. Thus, the government and local policy makers need to formulate policies not just for the nursing and care needs of the aged. They also need to actively promote the need for lifelong learning among seniors in order to achieve elderly-friendly objectives, such as health promotion and delays in…
Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Hsiu-Mei
This paper investigates the use of e-books as learning tools in terms of learner satisfaction, usefulness, behavioral intention, and learning effectiveness. Based on the activity theory approach, this research develops a research model to understand learner attitudes toward e-books in two physical sizes: 10? and 7?. Results suggest that screen…
Wilkerson-Jerde, Michelle H.; Gravel, Brian E.; Macrander, Christopher A.
Modeling and using technology are two practices of particular interest to K-12 science educators. These practices are inextricably linked among professionals, who engage in modeling activity with and across a variety of representational technologies. In this paper, we explore the practices of five sixth-grade girls as they generated models of…
Karimi, Mehrnoosh; Hamzavi, Raouf
The present study aimed at investigating the effect of flipped model of instruction on EFL learners' reading comprehension ability. Moreover, this study aimed at identifying EFL students' attitudes toward flipped model of instruction. To this end, 60 EFL learners studying at an accredited private language institute in Isfahan were first…
Angelino, Lorraine M.; Natvig, Deborah
Engagement of the online learner is one approach to reduce attrition rates. Attrition rates for classes taught through distance education are 10-20% higher than classes taught in a face-to-face setting. This paper introduces a Model for Engagement and provides strategies to engage the online learner. The Model depicts various opportunities where…
Williams, Joshua T; Newman, Sharlene D
A large body of literature has characterized unimodal monolingual and bilingual lexicons and how neighborhood density affects lexical access; however there have been relatively fewer studies that generalize these findings to bimodal (M2) second language (L2) learners of sign languages. The goal of the current study was to investigate parallel language activation in M2L2 learners of sign language and to characterize the influence of spoken language and sign language neighborhood density on the activation of ASL signs. A priming paradigm was used in which the neighbors of the sign target were activated with a spoken English word and compared the activation of the targets in sparse and dense neighborhoods. Neighborhood density effects in auditory primed lexical decision task were then compared to previous reports of native deaf signers who were only processing sign language. Results indicated reversed neighborhood density effects in M2L2 learners relative to those in deaf signers such that there were inhibitory effects of handshape density and facilitatory effects of location density. Additionally, increased inhibition for signs in dense handshape neighborhoods was greater for high proficiency L2 learners. These findings support recent models of the hearing bimodal bilingual lexicon, which posit lateral links between spoken language and sign language lexical representations.
This paper briefly discusses different research approaches in CALL and makes a case for applying grounded theory (GT) to data gathered from an electronic role-play conducted in L2. The article shows that this method can help gain a better understanding of what learners do when engaged in the task. Through the process of open coding, four…
This essay describes a mock conference model of instruction suitable for use in undergraduate teaching, and which adheres to principles of learner-centred instruction and universal design for learning. A staged process of learner preparation for the conference is outlined, and student and instructor roles during preconference, conference, and…
McCombs, Barbara L.; Quiat, Melinda
Surveyed urban elementary students and teachers, noting whether implementing the Community for Learning (CFL) model would meet the criterion of being learner centered and result in positive changes and whether teachers identified as implementing the CFL program to a high degree had high scores on a learner-centered rubric. There were some highly…
Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.
Chapter 1 of this document contains sets of statements adopted by the Minnesota State Board of Education or Minnesota State Legislature. They represent the hierarchy used by Department of Education staff to develop model learner outcomes for each subject area. Contents include learner values, education system values, philosophy of education,…
Tucci, Vicci; Hursh, Dan; Laitinen, Richard; Lambe, Austin
In this article we outline components of the Competent Learner Model (CLM). Based on principles of applied behavior analysis, the model provides empirically based assessment, instruction, and evaluation for students with developmental disabilities, including autism.
Takaoka, Ryo; Shimokawa, Masayuki; Okamoto, Toshio
Many studies and systems that incorporate elements such as “pleasure” and “fun” in the game to improve a learner's motivation have been developed in the field of learning environments. However, few are the studies of situations where many learners gather at a single computer and participate in a game-based learning environment (GBLE), and where the GBLE designs the learning process by controlling the interactions between learners such as competition, collaboration, and learning by teaching. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a framework of educational control that induces and activates interaction between learners intentionally to create a learning opportunity that is based on the knowledge understanding model of each learner. In this paper, we explain the design philosophy and the framework of our GBLE called “Who becomes the king in the country of mathematics?” from a game viewpoint and describe the method of learning support control in the learning environment. In addition, we report the results of the learning experiment with our GBLE, which we carried out in a junior high school, and include some comments by a principal and a teacher. From the results of the experiment and some comments, we noticed that a game may play a significant role in weakening the learning relationship among students and creating new relationships in the world of the game. Furthermore, we discovered that learning support control of the GBLE has led to activation of the interaction between learners to some extent.
This study investigates the dynamics in the Spanish classroom between heritage language learner (HLL) dyads, second language learner (L2L) dyads, and mixed HLL-L2L dyads. Specifically, it examines oral, written and embodied discourse that informs our understanding of how learners attend to language. Analysis for this dissertation examined…
Sinha, Neelu; Khreisat, Laila; Sharma, Kiron
Neelu Sinha, Laila Khreisat, and Kiron Sharma describe how learner-interface interaction promotes active learning in computer science education. In a pilot study using technology that combines DyKnow software with a hardware platform of pen-enabled HP Tablet notebook computers, Sinha, Khreisat, and Sharma created dynamic learning environments by…
Wright, June L., Ed.; Shade, Daniel D., Ed.
This book addresses the issues of appropriate use of computers with young children and how children and early childhood educators interact with the computer in early childhood settings. Part 1, "Young Children as Active Learners," contains chapter 1: "Listen to the Children: Observing Young Children's Discoveries with the…
Shafie, Latisha Asmaak; Yaacob, Aizan; Singh, Paramjit Kaur Karpal
The article discusses the investment of L2 learners in the English language on Facebook that they portrayed through their Facebook activities. It studied four informants consisted of diploma students in a Malaysian university. The study consisted of 14 weeks of online observation and semi-structured interviews. Data were collected from online…
Asiyaban, Amir R.; Bagheri, Mohammad S.
This research was conducted to find out whether or not using "translation" technique in vocabulary teaching would have any positive effects on the "free active" vocabulary of Iranian learners of English. To carry out the research, eighty-eight intermediate male and female students were chosen. The participants were divided into…
Deese Becht, Sara-Maria Francis
The purpose of this study is two-fold involving both practical and theoretical modeling components. The practical component, an experiential-learning phase, investigated a study population for effects that increasing levels of multicontextual physics activities have on student understanding of Newtonian systems of motion. This contextual-learning model measured learner convictions and non-response gaps and analyzed learner response trends on context, technology, challenge, growth, and success. The theoretical component, a model-building phase, designed a dynamic-knowing model for learning along a range of experiential tasks, from low to high context, monitored for indicators of learning in science and mathematics: learner academic performance and ability, learner control and academic attitude, and a learner non- response gap. This knowing model characterized a learner's process-of-knowing on a less to more expert- like learner-response continuum using performance and perspective indices associated with level of contextual- imagery referent system. Data for the contextual-learning model were collected on 180 secondary subjects: 72 middle and 108 high, with 36 physics subjects as local experts. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups differing only on context level of force and motion activities. Three levels of information were presented through context-based tasks: momentum constancy as inertia, momentum change as impulse, and momentum rate of change as force. The statistical analysis used a multi-level factorial design with repeated measures and discriminate analysis of response-conviction items. Subject grouping criteria included school level, ability level in science and mathematics, gender and race. Assessment criteria used pre/post performance scores, confidence level in physics concepts held, and attitude towards science, mathematics, and technology. Learner indices were computed from logit- transforms applied to learner outcomes
Chan, Kevin; Cheung, George; Wan, Kelvin; Brown, Ian; Luk, Green
In understanding how active and blended learning approaches with learning technologies engagement in undergraduate education, current research models tend to undermine the effect of learners' variations, particularly regarding their styles and approaches to learning, on intention and use of learning technologies. This study contributes to further…
Leontidis, Makis; Halatsis, Constantin
The aim of this paper is to present a model in order to integrate the learning style and the personality traits of a learner into an enhanced Affective Style which is stored in the learner’s model. This model which can deal with the cognitive abilities as well as the affective preferences of the learner is called Learner Affective Model (LAM). The LAM is used to retain learner’s knowledge and activities during his interaction with a Web-based learning environment and also to provide him with the appropriate pedagogical guidance. The proposed model makes use of an ontological approach in combination with the Bayesian Network model and contributes to the efficient management of the LAM in an Affective Module.
Cirillo, Michelle; Bruna, Katherine Richardson; Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth
In this article, we describe aspects of mathematical language that could be problematic to English-language learners, provide recommendations for teaching English-language learners, and suggest activities intended to foster language development in mathematics. (Contains 1 figure.)
This paper connects an online learning model to the rights to education that the online educational environments can provide. The model emerges from a study of ninety-two online learners and is composed of three kinds of inquiries, namely, independent inquiry, collaborative inquiry, and formative inquiry towards expert knowledge. Online learners…
Wrisberg, Craig A; Pein, Richard L
Learners (30 men, 15 women in three groups), given an opportunity to control the frequency with which they viewed a model during initial practice of the badminton long serve, acquired and retained a level of movement form that was equivalent to learners who viewed the model 100% of the time and significantly superior to learners who never viewed the model.
Obiakor, Festus E., Ed.; Grant, Patrick A., Ed.; Dooley, Elizabeth A., Ed.
This collection of papers addresses the importance of maximizing the fullest potential of all students and leaving no child behind. The 14 papers are: (1) "The Comprehensive Support Model for All Learners: Conceptualization and Meaning" (Festus E. Obiakor, Pauline Harris-Obiakor, and Ramel L. Smith); (2) "The Power of the `Self' in Education"…
Bobo, Nichole; Kaup, Tara; McCarty, Patricia; Carlson, Jessie Parker
Every child with diabetes deserves a school nurse with the capacity to effectively manage the disease at school. The school nurse needs knowledge and skills to confidently provide care and communicate with health care providers and families. The Healthy Learner Model for Chronic Condition Management provided a framework to eliminate the disjointed…
This essay draws attention to the shifting constructions of nationally famous role models for English learners. It examines how three individuals rose to national prominence because of their association with the craze for learning English in China in the last three decades. This essay compares the constructed images of these individuals and…
Dimitrova, Vania; Brna, Paul
STyLE-OLM (Dimitrova 2003 "International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education," 13, 35-78) presented a framework for interactive open learner modelling which entails the development of the means by which learners can "inspect," "discuss" and "alter" the learner model that has been jointly…
Silva, Glaucia V.
Over the past four decades, scholars have debated the pedagogical and sociolinguistic needs of heritage language learners. It is widely accepted that these learners present several characteristics that are different from those of foreign (or non-heritage) language learners. However, scholars have also pointed to similarities between the two groups…
Wilson, Bruce M.; Pollock, Philip H.; Hamann, Kerstin
Discussion is one form of active learning, which has been linked to better learner outcomes. Little is known about the relationship between active learning through discussion and learner outcome in the online environment. Here, we construct an index of active learning online that includes the number of postings a student has read, the number of…
Pluta, William J.; Chinn, Clark A.; Duncan, Ravit Golan
Epistemic criteria are the standards used to evaluate scientific products (e.g., models, evidence, arguments). In this study, we analyzed epistemic criteria for good models generated by 324 middle-school students. After evaluating a range of scientific models, but before extensive instruction or experience with model-based reasoning practices,…
Arendse, Gillian J.
In 2006 the author organized a one-day intervention aimed at promoting physics among female learners at the University of Stellenbosch. The activities included an interactive lecture demonstration promoting active engagement, a hands-on session, and short presentations by female physicists addressing issues such as balancing family and career, breaking the stereotypes, and launching a successful career in physics. Each learner was expected to evaluate the program. In 2007 the author joined forces with Hip2B2 (Shuttleworth Foundation) to host a competition among grade-10 learners with the theme, ``promoting creativity through interactivity.'' The author was tasked by the Hip2B2-team to assist with a program for female learners planned for August 2008, coinciding with our national celebration of Women's Day. The event targeted 160 learners and took place in Durban, East London, Cape Town, and Johannesburg. The author shares some of the learners' experiences and personal triumphs.
Mishra, Sanjaya; Gaba, Ashok Kumar
Presents results of a study on the use of learning activities in self-instructional materials by distance learners of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). It shows that learners make use of the activities extensively as they have positive perceptions about benefits of Self-Assessment Questions and Terminal Questions given in the…
Suleman, Raja M.; Mizoguchi, Riichiro; Ikeda, Mitsuru
Negotiation mechanism using conversational agents (chatbots) has been used in Open Learner Models (OLM) to enhance learner model accuracy and provide opportunities for learner reflection. Using chatbots that allow for natural language discussions has shown positive learning gains in students. Traditional OLMs assume a learner to be able to manage…
Dew, Debra R.; Waggoner, Jan E.
This paper reports on the influence of a graduate course, "Methods for Masters," designed to broaden the pedagogical repertoires of cooperating teachers by providing experience in six instructional models (cooperative learning, concept attainment, group investigation, learning contracts, simulations, and synectics). The course used…
Neber, Heinz; He, Jing; Liu, Bang-Xiang; Schofield, Neville
The present study investigates whether Chinese high-school students are self-regulated learners. A social-cognitive model that distinguishes environmental, motivational, and cognitive components of this active approach to learning is described. This provides an appropriate framework for investigating this complex issue with eighth and tenth…
Mobile phone ownership among university students in Vietnam has reached almost 100%, exceeding that of Internet-capable desktop computers. This has made them increasingly popular to allow learners to carry out learning activities outside of the classroom, but some studies have suggested that learners are not always willing to engage in activities…
This study examined the development of interactional competence (Hall, 1993; He & Young, 1998) by beginning learners of Spanish as indexed by their use of alignment moves. Discourse analysis techniques and quantitative data analysis were used to explore how 52 learners expressed alignment and changes in participation patterns in two sets of…
Kosek, Michal; Lison, Pierre
We present an intelligent tutoring system that lets students of Chinese learn words and grammatical constructions. It relies on a Bayesian, linguistically motivated cognitive model that represents the learner's knowledge. This model is dynamically updated given observations about the learner's behaviour in the exercises, and employed at runtime to…
Ching, Yu-Hui; Hsu, Yu-Chang
Peer feedback affords interaction and critical thinking opportunities for learners in online courses. However, various factors prevent learners from taking advantage of these promising benefits. This study explored learners' perceptions of the interpersonal factors in a role-playing peer-feedback activity, and examined the types of peer feedback…
Challco, Geiser C.; Andrade, Fernando R. H.; Borges, Simone S.; Bittencourt, Ig I.; Isotani, Seiji
Flow is the affective state in which a learner is so engaged and involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter. In this sense, to help students in the skill development and knowledge acquisition (referred to as learners' growth process) under optimal conditions, the instructional designers should create learning scenarios that favor…
Lee, Stella; Barker, Trevor; Kumar, Vivekanandan Suresh
It is a hard task to strike a balance between extents of control a learner exercises and the amount of guidance, active or passive, afforded by the learning environment to guide, support, and motivate the learner. Adaptive systems strive to find the right balance in a spectrum that spans between self-control and system-guidance. They also concern…
Bull, Susan; Kay, Judy
The SMILI? (Student Models that Invite the Learner In) Open Learner Model Framework was created to provide a coherent picture of the many and diverse forms of Open Learner Models (OLMs). The aim was for SMILI? to provide researchers with a systematic way to describe, compare and critique OLMs. We expected it to highlight those areas where there…
Bobo, Nichole; Kaup, Tara; McCarty, Patricia; Carlson, Jessie Parker
Every child with diabetes deserves a school nurse with the capacity to effectively manage the disease at school. The school nurse needs knowledge and skills to confidently provide care and communicate with health care providers and families. The Healthy Learner Model for Chronic Condition Management provided a framework to eliminate the disjointed approach to diabetes management at school, replacing it with a consistent, evidence-based approach. A diabetes resource nurse was a key component, providing support for the school nurse and collaboration between the school, community, family, and health care providers. Funded by a cooperative agreement from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) chose five sites from across the country to implement this program-a project titled Managing and Preventing Diabetes and Weight Gain (MAP). This article describes the experience of two sites.
This article examines the characteristics and challenges of online instruction and presents a model for improving learner adaptation in an online classroom. Instruction in an online classroom presents many challenges, including learner individualization. Individual differences in learning styles and preferences are often not considered in the…
Fletcher, Terace M.; Ershler, Jeff
Learner-centered molecular modeling exercises in college science courses can be especially challenging for nonchemistry majors as students typically have a higher degree of anxiety and may not appreciate the relevance of the work. This article describes a learner-centered project given to allied health majors in a Biochemistry course. The project…
Kerlyl, Alice; Hall, Phil; Bull, Susan
There is an extensive body of work on Intelligent Tutoring Systems: computer environments for education, teaching and training that adapt to the needs of the individual learner. Work on personalisation and adaptivity has included research into allowing the student user to enhance the system's adaptivity by improving the accuracy of the underlying learner model. Open Learner Modelling, where the system's model of the user's knowledge is revealed to the user, has been proposed to support student reflection on their learning. Increased accuracy of the learner model can be obtained by the student and system jointly negotiating the learner model. We present the initial investigations into a system to allow people to negotiate the model of their understanding of a topic in natural language. This paper discusses the development and capabilities of both conversational agents (or chatbots) and Intelligent Tutoring Systems, in particular Open Learner Modelling. We describe a Wizard-of-Oz experiment to investigate the feasibility of using a chatbot to support negotiation, and conclude that a fusion of the two fields can lead to developing negotiation techniques for chatbots and the enhancement of the Open Learner Model. This technology, if successful, could have widespread application in schools, universities and other training scenarios.
Boisvert, Précille; Rao, Kavita
Teachers of English language learners (ELLs), expected to address grade-level standards and prepare ELLs for standardized assessments, have the difficult task of designing instruction that meets the range of needs in their classrooms. When these learners have experienced limited or interrupted education, the challenges intensify. Whereas…
Ahmed, Hassan M. Selim
E-learning tools and technologies have been used to supplement conventional courses in higher education institutions creating a "hybrid" e-learning module that aims to enhance the learning experiences of students. Few studies have addressed the acceptance of hybrid e-learning by learners and the factors affecting the learners'…
American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Silver Spring, MD.
In order to insure maximum success of the school's Head Start program, parents and teachers associated with a public school in Harlem chose a program based on the Interdependent Learner Model Follow Through Program originated at New York University. The federally funded program was introduced into kindergarten and first-grade classrooms and…
Herendeen, Noemi Carrera; Mitchell, Alaire; Dinos, Carmen
This document is part of a series of guides for teachers in which the Division of Bilingual Education of the New York City Board of Education presents a learner-centered model in which the learner sees himself or herself in the story. Learners are able to relive their own experiences or those of their parents or grandparents as they left their own…
Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula
This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…
This paper demonstrates how Taiwanese English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) college teachers and students collaborate and negotiate to design various learner-centered activities based on the Chinese film, "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon." These activities are intended to enhance students' listening and speaking abilities. The paper…
This article examines the metalinguistic activity that arose in the interaction of 7 groups of bilingual learners writing collaboratively in their second language (L2), English. A microanalysis of this interaction reveals that metalinguistic activity comprises 3 types of oral production: comments, speech actions, and text reformulations. Text…
In examining the titles of this year's conference presentations, the author noticed quite a few papers that focus on learner-specific issues, for instance, papers that address learning styles, learner needs, personality and learning, learner modeling and, more generally, pedagogical issues that deal with individual learner differences in…
Moghaddam, Nahid Nemati; Mahmoudi, Asgar
This study investigated the effects of three types of pre-reading activities (movie-watching, vocabulary presentation, and pre-reading summarization) on the reading comprehension of 76 elementary-level EFL Iranian learners. The participants were randomly assigned to one control and three experimental conditions and then a pretest was given to…
Li, Jessica C. M.; Wu, Joseph
Whereas a great deal of literature based upon the context of Western societies has concluded criminology is an ideal discipline for active learning approach, it remains uncertain if this learning approach is applicable to Chinese learners in the discipline of criminology. This article describes and provides evidence of the benefits of using active…
Bodzin, Alec M.; Waller, Patricia L.; Edwards, Lana; Darlene Kale, Santoro
A Web-integrated biology program is used to explore how to best assist inclusive high school students to learn biology with inquiry-based activities. Classroom adaptations and instructional strategies teachers may use to assist in promoting biology learning with inclusive learners are discussed.
Savage, William; Storer, Graeme
Relates the experience of the staff of an aquaculture outreach program in Northeast Thailand in implementing an English for special purposes program. By actively involving learners in both the needs analysis and program design, teachers were able to adapt the program content to the requirements of the students. (15 references) (JL)
Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.
In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals,…
This paper describes a structured attempt to integrate flip teaching into language classrooms using a WebQuest active learning strategy. The purpose of this study is to examine the possible impacts of flipping the classroom on English language learners' academic performance, learning attitudes, and participation levels. Adopting a…
A high school fashion design teacher has much in common with the ringmaster of a three-ring circus. The challenges of teaching a hands-on course are to facilitate the entire class and to meet the needs of individual students. When teaching family and consumer sciences, the goal is to have a learner-active classroom. Revamping the high school's…
Gu, Qing; Schweisfurth, Michele
From a comparative perspective, this paper analyses Chinese learners' intercultural experiences in Chinese and British educational contexts. In the Chinese context, interview and questionnaire research was carried out in 24 universities that hosted the British Council's English teaching development programmes. The research uncovered perspectives…
Chan, Hoi Wing
This paper reports on how and why proficient learners of English in Hong Kong participated in popular culture, out-of-class activities, with an emphasis on their development of learner autonomy. Autonomy in language learning is defined as an individual's ability and responsibility to take charge of his or her own learning . Out-of-class…
Kareva, Veronika; Echevarria, Jana
In this paper we present a comprehensive model of instruction for providing consistent, high quality teaching to L2 students. This model, the SIOP Model (Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol), provides an explicit framework for organizing instructional practices to optimize the effectiveness of teaching second and foreign language learners.…
Shimada, K; Hirotani, M; Yokokawa, H; Yoshida, H; Makita, K; Yamazaki-Murase, M; Tanabe, H C; Sadato, N
This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the brain regions underlying language task performance in adult second language (L2) learners. Specifically, we identified brain regions where the level of activation was associated with L2 fluency levels. Thirty Japanese-speaking adults participated in the study. All participants were L2 learners of English and had achieved varying levels of fluency, as determined by a standardized L2 English proficiency test, the Versant English Test (Pearson Education Inc., 2011). When participants performed the oral sentence building task from the production tasks administered, the dorsal part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (dIFG) showed activation patterns that differed depending on the L2 fluency levels: The more fluent the participants were, the more dIFG activation decreased. This decreased activation of the dIFG might reflect the increased automaticity of a syntactic building process. In contrast, when participants performed an oral story comprehension task, the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) showed increased activation with higher fluency levels. This suggests that the learners with higher L2 fluency were actively engaged in post-syntactic integration processing supported by the left pSTG. These data imply that L2 fluency predicts neural resource allocation during language comprehension tasks as well as in production tasks. This study sheds light on the neural underpinnings of L2 learning by identifying the brain regions recruited during different language tasks across different modalities (production vs. comprehension).
Davidson, Troy; Guénette, Danielle; Simard, Daphnée
According to Dörnyei's model of second language (L2) motivation, the motivated learner aims to incorporate the L2 into his or her self-concept, known as the ideal L2 self. This study examined the internal consistency of Dörnyei's model among ESL Francophone students in Quebec (n = 68) by means of a questionnaire. Correlations were calculated…
Yaghoub Zadeh, Zohreh; Farnia, Fataneh; Geva, Esther
This study investigated the adequacy of an expanded simple view of reading (SVR) framework for English language learners (ELLs), using mediation modeling approach. The proposed expanded SVR included reading fluency as an outcome and phonological awareness and naming speed as predictors. To test the fit of the proposed mediation model, longitudinal…
Coll, Richard K.; Treagust, David F.
Mental models of metallic bonding held by learners from three academic levels, secondary school (year 12), undergraduate, and postgraduate, were probed using semistructured interviews including the use of Interviews-About-Events focus cards depicting metallic properties and cards containing depictions of models from curriculum material. The…
Coll, Richard K.; Treagust, David F.
Mental models of metallic bonding held by learners' from three academic levels, secondary school (year-12), undergraduate and postgraduate, were probed using semi-structured interviews including the use of Interview about Events focus card depicting metallic properties and cards containing depictions of models from curriculum material. Learners…
Many twenty-first century educational discourses focus on including and empowering independent learners. Within the context of five self-assessment models, this article evaluates how these practices relate to the realities of student involvement, empowerment and voice. A proposed new classification of these self-assessment models is presented and…
Doubleday, Alison F; Wille, Sarah J
Video and photography are often used for delivering content within the anatomical sciences. However, instructors typically produce these resources to provide instructional or procedural information. Although the benefits of learner-generated content have been explored within educational research, virtually no studies have investigated the use of learner-generated video and photograph content within anatomy dissection laboratories. This study outlines an activity involving learner-generated video diaries and learner-generated photograph assignments produced during anatomy laboratory sessions. The learner-generated photographs and videos provided instructors with a means of formative assessment and allowed instructors to identify evidence of collaborative behavior in the laboratory. Student questionnaires (n = 21) and interviews (n = 5), as well as in-class observations, were conducted to examine student perspectives on the laboratory activities. The quantitative and qualitative data were examined using the framework of activity theory to identify contradictions between student expectations of, and engagement with, the activity and the actual experiences of the students. Results indicate that learner-generated photograph and video content can act as a rich source of data on student learning processes and can be used for formative assessment, for observing collaborative behavior, and as a starting point for class discussions. This study stresses the idea that technology choice for activities must align with instructional goals. This research also highlights the utility of activity theory as a framework for assessing classroom and laboratory activities, demonstrating that this approach can guide the development of laboratory activities.
Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.
This booklet contains a collection of activities developed for pre-K through second grade students. All of the activities in this teacher's guide use an interdisciplinary approach and explore the human connection with all living things and their environment. Contents include: (1) "Sharing Space and Working Together"; (2) "Sharing Resources and…
Wasburn-Moses, Leah; Noltemeyer, Amity L.; Schmitz, Kristin J.
The last several years have seen a dramatic increase in interest surrounding the role of clinical experiences in enhancing the learning of teacher candidates. Further, pressure has intensified to demonstrate the impact of teacher candidates on P-12 learners. With these goals in mind, a model alternative school/university partnership was created,…
Grable, John E.
Innovation in doctoral degree program development and delivery provides an effective counterpoint to the expert-apprentice model established in the Middle Ages. The author outlines the importance of innovation in reaching adult learners and describes an innovative hybrid PhD program designed to allow aspiring doctoral adult-age students to pursue…
Zafarmand, Atefeh; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh; Akbari, Omid
This article sets out to examine the relationship between EFL learners' goal orientation, metacognitive awareness and self-efficacy in a single framework. One hundred fifteen EFL students from two universities of Mashhad, a city in north-eastern Iran took part in this study. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to examine the…
Healy, Krista; Vanderwood, Mike; Edelston, Danielle
As part of a three tier prevention model, first grade students in a large urban school district were screened with measures of phonological awareness and nonsense word fluency to determine those in need of a Tier 2 reading intervention. The 15 lowest performing English language learner (ELL) students were selected and received a manualized…
Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G
In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals.
Duarte, M.; Leite, C.; Mouraz, A.
This study researches how first-year engineering students perceived the influence of curricular activities on their own learning autonomy, measured with an adaptation of the Personal Responsibility Orientation to Self-direction in Learning Scale (PRO-SDLS). Participants were questioned to assess the influence of the teacher's role. The results indicate that learners' characteristics (motivation and self-efficacy) contribute more to learner autonomy (LA) than the teaching-learning transaction (control and initiative), as in the original PRO-SDLS validation. The most autonomous learners presented higher values in all LA components and dimensions, but the differences were greater in motivation and initiative. The participants with higher LA were not as dependent on the teacher, regarding assessment, the completion of classroom tasks and deadlines. Regardless of the degree of autonomy in learning, all participants viewed teachers as the main source of information. Therefore, LA plays an important role in teaching activities planning. Suggestions for adjustments and more flexible learning scenarios are formulated.
Duangchant, Shatchaya; Kiattikomol, Paiboon; Kaewkuekool, Sittichai
Purpose: The process of knowledge transfer under the B-O-R-N Model is based on the concepts of knowledge transfer and change of knowledge patterns to create new knowledge. It stimulates learners to learn under the process of knowledge transfer during the learning with an aim to allow learners to achieve the learning outcomes.…
Williams, Joshua T.; Newman, Sharlene D.
A large body of literature has characterized unimodal monolingual and bilingual lexicons and how neighborhood density affects lexical access; however there have been relatively fewer studies that generalize these findings to bimodal (M2) second language (L2) learners of sign languages. The goal of the current study was to investigate parallel…
Nierenberg, D W
While teaching in a tutorial, seminar, or problem-based learning group format may be the most fun and most active/interactive for both learner and faculty mentor, there are situations in medical student education in which various constraints require the use of the "lecture" format. Similar constraints may occur in the field of continuing medical education, or graduate medical education, as well. When this occurs, the faculty mentor can increase the active participation of the learners in the audience by continuously stressing seven key pedagogical (androgogical) principles. These include: 1) begin the learning exercise with a clinical example or anecdote to show the relevance of the material to the student; 2) frequently ask the students whether they have ever seen examples of what you describe in their previous experience with patients, personal experience, experience with relatives, etc.; 3) ask students frequently whether they have heard similar material presented differently in other courses; 4) recruit students to help solve "mystery cases"; 5) show examples of similar material from real life (e.g., patient descriptions, or even excerpts from favorite TV shows); 6) ask students to help summarize key points at the end of the session; and 7) allow, or even encourage, whispering during the class. Using some or all of these techniques can help turn a "lecture format" into a much more fun, interactive, and valuable session that emphasizes "learning" rather than "teaching."
The economy continues to sputter along, and the repercussions are now hitting hard at publicly-funded colleges and universities, with enrollment increasing and funding decreasing. Funding agencies are starting to look at retention and completion rates as a way to allocate scarce dollars. Improving these rates is also one way to increase the future stream of tuition; students who can't pass introductory classes like ASTRO101 won't enroll and pay tuition for the next level, and they won't complete their degree. So what can you, a mere professor of astronomy, do? Tired of the "What do you want me to know?" questions? Provide your students with learner-centered structures to help them learn more deeply. Do your students resist active-engagement techniques and hate group work? Share empowerment strategies for helping students become active, responsible learners who can thrive in a learner-centered environment. Do you think that it's wrong for the freshman classes to be over-crowded, yet your sophomore classes don't get enough students or don't even exist? After using the proven curriculum of On Course, college and universities across the country have improved their retention across a wide range of disciplines (http://www.OnCourseWorkshop.com/Data.htm). Experience a sample of the fun and engaging activities developed over two decades to help students (1) accept personal responsibility, (2) discover self motivation, (3) master self-management, (4) use interdependence, (5) gain self-awareness, (6) adopt lifelong learning, (7) develop emotional intelligence, and (8) believe in themselves. Since this is only a one-hour workshop, we will focus on choices one and four: to be successful, students need to see themselves as the primary cause of their outcomes and experiences and to build mutually supportive relationships in our classroom and labs. Outcomes: (1) one ASTRO101 Course-ready activity to help students accept personal responsibility; (2) one ASTRO101 Course
Dell, Diana F. Abernathy
Teaching and learning tools such as Moodle and Web 2.0 tools are appearing in K-12 classrooms; however, there is a lack of scholarly research to guide the implementation of these tools. The WebQuest model, a widely adopted inquiry-based model for online instruction, has instructional inadequacies and does not make the most of emerging…
The study suggests a general model that could guarantee the cooperation between teachers and their students to overcome the difficulties encountered in ESP learning. It tries to join together different perspectives in the research of adult education, specifically in the teaching of English for Specific Purposes. It also provides some sort of trust…
Hawley, Chandra L.; Duffy, Thomas M.
This paper presents a model for designing computer-based simulation environments within a constructivist framework for the K-12 school setting. The following primary criteria for the development of simulations are proposed: (1) the problem needs to be authentic; (2) the cognitive demand in learning should be authentic; (3) scaffolding supports a…
Purpose: This study aims to explore the lived experience of learning for a group of staff nurses in the Middle East, who undertook a post-registration nursing education programme in the speciality of nephrology nursing (the NNP) between 2001 and 2002. The broad-based curriculum seeks to develop the staff nurses into active learners, able to…
Maccagnano, Ann Marie
Educators can identify children's strengths early on and gain insight into each student's unique abilities by using the numerous ideas and informal assessments in this exciting guide. Gifted and talented specialist Ann Maccagnano offers K-8 teachers challenging activities and engaging lessons to develop and nurture gifted learners' talents.…
Basantia, Tapan Kumar; Panda, B. N.; Sahoo, Dukhabandhu
Cognitive development of the learners is the prime task of each and every stage of our school education and its importance especially in elementary state is quite worth mentioning. Present study investigated the effectiveness of a new and innovative strategy (i.e., MAI (multi-dimensional activity based integrated approach)) for the development of…
Stewart, Trae; Alrutz, Megan
This study investigates the extent to which service-learners' mindfulness is affected by engagement in reflection (e.g., dialogue) and contemplation activities (e.g., labyrinth tracing). The results are compared within and between treatment groups, while covarying for participants' initial levels of mindfulness. While both dialogue and…
Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Raftari, Shohreh; Bijami, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed; Eng, Lin Siew
In general, incidental vocabulary acquisition is represented as the "picking up" of new vocabularies when students are engaged in a variety of reading, listening, speaking, or writing activities. Research has shown when learners read extensively incidental vocabulary acquisition happens. Many EFL students cannot be involved in reading…
Magagna, Alessandra; Giardino, Marco; Perotti, Luigi; Ferrero, Elena
The increasing sensitivity among the academics towards a holistic approach to Geoheritage and Geodiversity implies the involvement of society in geoscience topics. The mixture of social values and features related to Geodiversity predisposes for the design of educational projects based on experimental and cooperative activities with local communities. Moreover, the first step towards an effective geoconservation action plan is by raising public awareness of the value of Geodiversity (Carrada 2006; Gray 2011, 2013; Henriques et al. 2011). By taking awareness of the spatial and temporal scales related to landforms and geomorphical processes, as well as to Man-Nature interactions, we want help people to realize the "dynamic dimension" of Geodiversity and its role as archive of the memory of the Earth. As a consequence, people will be enabled to perceive the geomorphological environment as a system changing over time and as fragile Geoheritage, therefore worthy of protection. In this context, during four years of a PhD research, a series of actions have been designed and tested to implement innovative educational practices for spreading Geodiversity and Geoheritage awareness, by integrating geoscience knowledge, geoconservation principles, learner-based educational approaches, geomatics tools, ICTs, and geoethics. More than 300 secondary school students and their teachers have been therefore involved in monitored educational activities developed in a variety of areas in the Piemonte Region (NW Italy): the Susa and the Sangone Valleys, the Morainic Amphiteatre of Ivrea, and the Sesia Val Grande Geopark. Results based on data form analysis confirmed the use of familiar, informal, and friendly ICTs devices (smartphones, tablets and PCs) being effective in encouraging students to approach Geodiversity. For achieving successful results the use of ICTs has to be: 1. learner centered (Mayer 2009). It is fundamental to propose them within a well-designed educational project
Roesler, Rebecca A.
The purposes of the present study were to identify the teacher behaviors that preceded learners' active participation in solving musical and technical problems and describe learners' roles in the problem-solving process. I applied an original model of problem solving to describe the behaviors of teachers and students in 161 rehearsal frames…
Rasseneur-Coffinet, Dorothée; Smyrniou, Georgia; Tchounikine, Pierre
This article presents an approach and tools that can help learners appropriate a Web-based learning curriculum and become active participants in their learning. The approach is based on a detailed modeling of the curriculum and intends to equip the learners with different computer-based tools facilitating a multiple point of view perception of the…
Arnold, Holly Weber
This study examines the relationship between delivery models (the class size reduction model and the sheltered instruction model) and language development levels on the grade-level reading development of sixth-grade English learners (ELs) attending public middle schools in metro Atlanta, Georgia. The instrument used to measure grade-level mastery…
This article reports classroom research on learners' perspectives on Web-based instruction that utilizes the "Blackboard" course management system. The Web-based instruction aims to provide and support collaborative learning while fostering learners' autonomy and accountability. The article also provides a description of the course…
Atay, Derin; Kurt, Gokce
As language learning involves the acquisition of thousands of words, teachers and learners alike would like to know how vocabulary learning can be fostered, especially in EFL settings where learners frequently acquire impoverished lexicons, despite years of formal study. Research indicates that reading is important but not sufficient for…
Devall, Kelly Davidson
This article presents a question and answer session in which Paula Garrett-Rucks discusses how creativity and kinesthetics motivate young language learners, the type of characteristics she might consider for different age groups in planning lessons, her views on the goals of world language teachers of young learners, and what a typical lesson…
Norman, Helmi; Nordin, Norazah; Din, Rosseni; Ally, Mohamed
The concept of situation awareness is essential in enhancing collaborative learning. Learners require information from different awareness aspects to deduce a learning situation for decision-making. Designing learning environments that assist learners to understand situation awareness via monitoring actions and reaction of other learners has been…
Rowlands, Gillian; Shaw, Adrienne; Jaswal, Sabrena; Smith, Sian; Harpham, Trudy
Health literacy, 'the personal characteristics and social resources needed for individuals and communities to access, understand, appraise and use information and services to make decisions about health', is key to improving peoples' control over modifiable social determinants of health (SDH). This study listened to adult learners to understand their perspectives on gathering, understanding and using information for health. This qualitative project recruited participants from community skills courses to identify relevant 'health information' factors. Subsequently different learners put these together to develop a model of their 'Journey to health'. Twenty-seven participants were recruited; twenty from community health literacy courses and seven from an adult basic literacy and numeracy course. Participants described health as a 'journey' starting from an individual's family, ethnicity and culture. Basic (functional) health literacy skills were needed to gather and understand information. More complex interactive health literacy skills were needed to evaluate the importance and relevance of information in context, and make health decisions. Critical health literacy skills could be used to adapt negative external factors that might inhibit health-promotion. Our model is an iterative linear one moving from ethnicity, community and culture, through lifestyle, to health, with learning revisited in the context of different sources of support. It builds on existing models by highlighting the importance of SDH in the translation of new health knowledge into healthy behaviours, and the importance of health literacy in enabling people to overcome barriers to health.
Garcia, Debra Ann N.
The general purpose of this study was to determine if the implementation of the Brazosport Model improves student reading achievement as determined by Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS). In particular, this study examined the implementation of the Brazosport Model and its effect on the achievement of English Language Learners (ELLs)…
Nasser, Fadia; Birenbaum, Menucha
This study examined a structural model of mathematics achievement of 2 culturally different groups of Jewish and Arab 8th graders in terms of 5 learner-related variables, namely, gender, epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy, attitudes, and mathematics anxiety. Multigroup structural modeling analysis indicated that the goodness of fit of the…
Cates, Ward Mitchell; Bruce, Ronald R.
Discussion of computer-based online help systems for instructional software focuses on three types of learner support: for optimizing use of a computer program; for learning content; and for monitoring and enhancing learning. Proposes a multi-dimensional model of learner-support space defined by the intrusiveness of the delivery methods and…
Cutrer, William B; Miller, Bonnie; Pusic, Martin V; Mejicano, George; Mangrulkar, Rajesh S; Gruppen, Larry D; Hawkins, Richard E; Skochelak, Susan E; Moore, Donald E
Change is ubiquitous in health care, making continuous adaptation necessary for clinicians to provide the best possible care to their patients. The authors propose that developing the capabilities of a Master Adaptive Learner will provide future physicians with strategies for learning in the health care environment and for managing change more effectively. The concept of a Master Adaptive Learner describes a metacognitive approach to learning based on self-regulation that can foster the development and use of adaptive expertise in practice. The authors describe a conceptual literature-based model for a Master Adaptive Learner that provides a shared language to facilitate exploration and conversation about both successes and struggles during the learning process.
Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.
The purpose of the current study was to examine the nature of the relationship between learners' distrust of scientific models that represent unseen entities and phenomena, their spatial ability, and the vividness of their mental images. The sample consisted of 302 tenth grade students in the Sultanate of Oman. Three measures were used for this…
This project was an alternative capstone dissertation conducted by a team of three doctoral students. The project focused on systematic and long-term underachievement of the English Language Learner (ELL) population of a single school, Sunshine Elementary, using the gap analysis model (Clark and Estes, 2008). More specifically, the purpose of the…
This research is aiming at developing a parenting training model using a character education for young learners from the poor families. The data obtained were qualitative data drawn from open answers and Focus Group Discussion. The data were analyzed by using domain analysis and taxonomy. The research findings showed that there were some problems…
The purpose of this study is to examine a process model of L2 learners' motivation. To investigate the overall process of motivation, the motivation of 148 university students was analyzed. Data were collected on three variables from the pre-decisional phase of motivation (i.e., value, expectancy, and intention) and four variables from the…
Merchant, Zahira; Goetz, Ernest T.; Keeney-Kennicutt, Wendy; Kwok, Oi-man; Cifuentes, Lauren; Davis, Trina J.
We examined a model of the impact of a 3D desktop virtual reality environment on the learner characteristics (i.e. perceptual and psychological variables) that can enhance chemistry-related learning achievements in an introductory college chemistry class. The relationships between the 3D virtual reality features and the chemistry learning test as…
What matters about an educational activity is how learners respond to it. This article examines a program concerned with the learners' needs, through the expression of learners' own meanings, and advances the concept of investigative research as a suitable vehicle for more autonomous learning, through a change in learner status. (26 references)…
Erickson, Cecelia DuPlessis; Splett, Patricia L.; Mullett, Sara Stoltzfus; Jensen, Charlotte; Belseth, Stephanie Bisson
The Healthy Learner Asthma Initiative (HLAI) was designed as a comprehensive, school-community initiative to improve asthma management and produce healthy learners. National asthma guidelines were translated into components of asthma management in the school setting that defined performance expectations and lead to greater quality and consistency…
Reali, Florencia; Griffiths, Thomas L
Scientists studying how languages change over time often make an analogy between biological and cultural evolution, with words or grammars behaving like traits subject to natural selection. Recent work has exploited this analogy by using models of biological evolution to explain the properties of languages and other cultural artefacts. However, the mechanisms of biological and cultural evolution are very different: biological traits are passed between generations by genes, while languages and concepts are transmitted through learning. Here we show that these different mechanisms can have the same results, demonstrating that the transmission of frequency distributions over variants of linguistic forms by Bayesian learners is equivalent to the Wright-Fisher model of genetic drift. This simple learning mechanism thus provides a justification for the use of models of genetic drift in studying language evolution. In addition to providing an explicit connection between biological and cultural evolution, this allows us to define a 'neutral' model that indicates how languages can change in the absence of selection at the level of linguistic variants. We demonstrate that this neutral model can account for three phenomena: the s-shaped curve of language change, the distribution of word frequencies, and the relationship between word frequencies and extinction rates.
Verginis, Ilias; Gouli, Evangelia; Gogoulou, Agoritsa; Grigoriadou, Maria
The paper presents the facilities offered by the open learner model maintained in the web-based, adaptive, activity-oriented learning environment SCALE (Supporting Collaboration and Adaptation in a Learning Environment), in order to guide online students who become disengaged and support their reengagement. The open learner model (OLM_SCALE)…
McKeone, Alyssa; Caruso, Lenora; Bettle, Kailyn; Chase, Ashley; Bryson, Bridget; Schneider, Jean S.; Rule, Audrey C.
Gifted learners need opportunities for critical and creative thinking to stretch their minds and imaginations. Strategies for increasing complexity in the four core areas of language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies were addressed using the Common Core and Iowa Core Standards through several methods. Descriptive adjective object…
Große, Cornelia S.
It is commonly suggested to mathematics teachers to present learners different methods in order to solve one problem. This so-called "learning with multiple solution methods" is also recommended from a psychological point of view. However, existing research leaves many questions unanswered, particularly concerning the effects of…
Tocaimaza-Hatch, C. Cecilia
This project investigated vocabulary learning from a sociocultural perspective--in particular, the way in which lexical knowledge was mediated in Spanish second language (L2) learners' and native speakers' (NSs') interactions. Nine students who were enrolled in an advanced conversation course completed an oral portfolio assignment consisting of…
Fatemipour, Hamidreza; Hemmati, Shiva
Grammar Consciousness-Raising (GCR) is an approach to teaching of grammar which learners instead of being taught the given rules, experience language data. The data challenge them to rethink, restructure their existing mental grammar and construct an explicit rule to describe the grammatical feature which the data illustrate (Ellis, 2002). And…
Data-driven learning has been proved as an effective approach in helping learners solve various writing problems such as correcting lexical or grammatical errors, improving the use of collocations and generating ideas in writing, etc. This article reports on an empirical study in which data-driven learning was accomplished with the assistance of the user-friendly BNCweb, and presents the evaluation of the outcome by comparing the effectiveness of BNCweb and a search engine Baidu which is most commonly used as reference resource by Chinese learners of English as a foreign language. The quantitative results about 48 Chinese college students revealed that the experimental group which used BNCweb performed significantly better in the post-test in terms of writing fluency and accuracy, as compared with the control group which used the search engine Baidu. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of writing complexity. The qualitative results about the interview revealed that learners generally showed a positive attitude toward the use of BNCweb but there were still some problems of using corpora in the writing process, thus the combined use of corpora and other types of reference resource was suggested as a possible way to counter the potential barriers for Chinese learners of English.
Acuna, Santiago R.; Garcia Rodicio, Hector; Sanchez, Emilio
Despite the potential advantages of instructional explanations, evidence indicates that they are usually ineffective. Subsequent work has shown that in order to make instructional explanations effective indeed, one successful strategy is to combine them with indications of the limitations in learners' understanding that they are intended to…
Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe
The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of clickers, the communicative approach and the lecture method on the communicative competence development of learners who were taught English a second language (ESL). Ninety nine pupils from three primary schools participated in the study. Quasi-experimental non-randomised pre-test posttest…
James, Abigail Norfleet; Allison, Sandra Boyd; McKenzie, Caitlin Zimmerman
If you're tired of repeating yourself to students who aren't listening, try a little less talk and a lot more action. The authors follow the best-selling "Teaching the Male Brain and Teaching the Female Brain" with this ready-to-use collection of mathematics, language arts, science, and classroom management strategies. Designed for active,…
Kostrubiec, Viviane; Zanone, Pier-Giorgio; Fuchs, Armin; Kelso, J A Scott
Using an approach that combines experimental studies of bimanual movements to visual stimuli and theoretical modeling, the present paper develops a dynamical account of sensorimotor learning, that is, how new skills are acquired and old ones modified. A significant aspect of our approach is the focus on the individual learner as the basic unit of analysis, in particular the quantification of predispositions and capabilities that the individual learner brings to the learning environment. Such predispositions constitute the learner's behavioral repertoire, captured here theoretically as a dynamical landscape ("intrinsic dynamics"). The learning process is demonstrated to not only lead to a relatively permanent improvement of performance in the required task-the usual outcome-but also to alter the individual's entire repertoire. Changes in the dynamical landscape due to learning are shown to result from two basic mechanisms or "routes": bifurcation and shift. Which mechanism is selected depends the initial individual repertoire before new learning begins. Both bifurcation and shift mechanisms are accommodated by a dynamical model, a relatively straightforward development of the well-established HKB model of movement coordination. Model simulations show that although environmental or task demands may be met equally well using either mechanism, the bifurcation route results in greater stabilization of the to-be-learned behavior. Thus, stability not (or not only) error is demonstrated to be the basis of selection, both of a new pattern of behavior and the path (smooth shift versus abrupt qualitative change) that learning takes. In line with these results, recent neurophysiological evidence indicates that stability is a relevant feature around which brain activity is organized while an individual performs a coordination task. Finally, we explore the consequences of the dynamical approach to learning for theories of biological change.
Heinrich, Eva; Johnson, Russell; Luo, Daoshui; Maurer, Hermann; Sapper, Marianne
This paper looks at learner-formulated questions in technology-supported learning applications. Traditionally, technology-supported learning applications request input from the learner. The learner's response is used to assess the knowledge of the learner, to define a navigation path through the material or to construct a learner model. The…
Byun, Sookeun; Mills, Juline E
Current business leaders continue to adopt e-learning technology despite concerns regarding its value. Positing that the effectiveness of e-training depends on how its environment is managed, we argue that a learner-centric approach is necessary in order to achieve workplace training goals. We subsequently develop a theoretical model that is aimed at identifying the key components of learner-centered e-training environments, which serve the function of providing a benchmarked approach for evaluating e-training success. The model was empirically tested using data from an Internet survey of retail industry employees and partial least squares techniques were used for analysis. Based on the findings, this study clarifies what is needed for successful e-training in terms of instructional design, system design, and organizational support.
Astall, Chris; Bruce, Warren
Adding Mentos to an open bottle of Diet Coke can produce a fountain of liquid and froth extending several metres high. This activity can engage a wide audience of learners in a relevant and meaningful way, provide a model for creative science teaching, and help to develop learners' attitudes towards school science as a subject. In this paper, the…
American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.
Educators, concerned with disturbing trends in school failure, are arguing for more learner-centered models of schooling. Such a reform effort requires set principles that emphasize the active and reflective nature of learning and learners; 14 such principles are reported here. The immediate goal of this report is to provide a framework that can…
McDonough, Kim; Chaikitmongkol, Wanpen
Syntactic priming is the tendency for a speaker to produce a structure that was encountered in recent discourse and is measured by calculating how frequently speakers use the modelled structures as opposed to alternatives. Recent lab-based studies have shown that carrying out syntactic priming activities with trained interlocutors positively…
Achiam, Marianne; Simony, Leonora; Kramer Lindow, Bent Erik
Although the scientific disciplines conduct practical work in different ways, all consider practical work as the essential way of connecting objects and phenomena with ideas and the abstract. Accordingly, practical work is regarded as central to science education as well. We investigate a practical, object-based palaeontology programme at a natural history museum to identify how palaeontological objects prompt scientific activity among upper secondary school students. We first construct a theoretical framework based on an analysis of the programme's palaeontological content. From this, we build our reference model, which considers the specimens used in the programme, possible palaeontological interpretations of these specimens, and the conditions inherent in the programme. We use the reference model to analyse the activities of programme participants, and illustrate how these activities are palaeontologically authentic. Finally, we discuss our findings, examining the mechanism by which the specimens prompt scientific activities. We also discuss our discipline-based approach, and how it allows us to positively identify participants' activities as authentic. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings.
Richards-Tutor, Catherine; Solari, Emily J.; Leafstedt, Jill M.; Gerber, Michael M.; Filippini, Alexis; Aceves, Terese C.
Using extant data, the purpose of this study is to examine methods for determining response to intervention (RTI) in a sample of kindergarten English Learners (ELs). Three commonly used methods for determining RTI--(a) benchmark criteria, (b) slope discrepancy, and (c) dual discrepancy--are investigated. Participants included 117 ELs. Students…
Abdelrahman, Omer Hassan
Distance learning has flourished in Sudan during the last two decades; more and more higher education institutions offer distance learning programmes to off-campus students. Like on-campus students, distance learners should have access to appropriate library and information support services. They also have specific needs for library and…
Lee, Hollylynne S.; Doerr, Helen M.; Tran, Dung; Lovett, Jennifer N.
Repeated sampling approaches to inference that rely on simulations have recently gained prominence in statistics education, and probabilistic concepts are at the core of this approach. In this approach, learners need to develop a mapping among the problem situation, a physical enactment, computer representations, and the underlying randomization…
Valdez, Angela L.
The number of English language learners (ELLs) within the school system in one Western U.S. state continues to rise; writing scores of ELLs lag well behind those of their English speaking peers. The purpose of this ex post facto quantitative causal comparative study was to examine the writing achievement of fourth grade ELLs instructed within a…
Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Lopez, Alexis; Castellano, Katherine; Himelfarb, Igor; Tsutagawa, Fred S.
This article investigates ways to improve the assessment of English learner students' English language proficiency given the current movement of creating next-generation English language proficiency assessments in the Common Core era. In particular, this article discusses the integration of scaffolding strategies, which are prevalently utilized as…
Syakir, Muhammad; Mahmud, Alimuddin; Achmad, Arifin
One of the impacts of information technology in guidance counseling is in the implementation of the support system. Entering the world of globalization and rapid technological breadth of information requires counseling to adjust to the environment in order to meet the needs of learners. Therefore, cyber-counseling is now developing. It is one of…
Mahalingam, Sheila; Abdollah, Faizal Mohd; Sahib, Shahrin
M-Learning has a potential to improve efficiency in the education sector and has a tendency to grow advance and transform the learning environment in the future. Yet there are challenges in many areas faced when introducing and implementing m-learning. The learner centered attribute in mobile learning implies deployment in untrustworthy learning…
Ryser, Gail R.; Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.
Using assessment data to determine student growth has become an integral part of the accountability movement, and researchers and educators are currently examining how new rules impact the academic assessment of gifted learners. In 2008, the Association for the Gifted's Annual Symposium at the Council for Exceptional Children Convention focused on…
Dowell, Nia M. M.; Graesser, Arthur C.
An emerging trend toward computer-mediated collaborative learning environments promotes lively exchanges between learners in order to facilitate learning. Discourse can play an important role in enhancing epistemology, pedagogy, and assessments in these environments. In this paper, we highlight some of our recent work showing the advantages using…
Waight, Consuelo L.; Stewart, Barbara
The framework describes that e-Learning engagement, learning and transfer within corporate settings can possibly be achieved if antecedents such as needs assessment, learner analysis, for example, and moderators such as return on investment, learning theories, for example, are adhered. The realization of antecedents and moderators, however, are…
Burns, Mary; Adams, Sharon
This issue of "TAP into Learning" focuses on technology-assisted learning activities for students, in particular on those that use spreadsheets. Articles include: "Using What Learners Know"; "Activity: Grade 7 and 8 Math, Social Studies and Language Arts"; "Managing Growth: Collaborative Decision-Making in Urban Planning"; "Spreadsheets"; "Getting…
Promotional materials and activities for Australia's Adult Learners Week, which are shaped by a variety of stakeholders , include media strategies and a website. Activities are evaluated using a market research company and website and telephone hotline statistics. (SK)
Several studies of the differences in teacher and learner perceptions of the usefulness of certain teaching techniques and activities reveal clear mismatches between learners' and teachers' views of language learning. The differences seem to be due to the sociocultural background and previous learning experiences of the learners and the influence…
Nejad, Ferdows Mohsen; Khosravian, Fereshteh
The present study examined the reliability of an achievement test to measure the efficacy of task-based writing activities to improve Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension at the intermediate level in a private language institute in Ilam, Iran, namely Alefba language institute. To achieve the goal, the techniques for evaluating reliability…
Zhan, Zehui; Xu, Fuyin; Ye, Huiwen
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an Online Learning Community (OLC) on active and reflective learners' learning performance and attitude in a face-to-face undergraduate digital design course. 814 freshmen in an introductory digital design course were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: one offered students an OLC,…
Carman, Priscilla; Van Horn, Barbara; Hamilton, KayLynn; Williams, Mary Kay
This guide contains activities and resources to help adult learners develop the work-based foundation skills and knowledge areas included on the Foundation Skills Framework wheel (Institute for the Study of Adult Literacy 2000). Its four sections (basic employability skills, basic workplace knowledge, basic workplace skills, and lifelong learning…
The present study investigates the effectiveness of pragmatic consciousness-raising (PCR) activities in the L2 pragmatic acquisition of hearsay evidential markers by learners of Japanese as a foreign language (JFL). PCR is essentially an inductive approach to facilitating awareness of how language forms are used appropriately in a given context.…
Stanton, Marina R; Atherton, W Leigh; Toriello, Paul J; Hodgson, Jennifer L
Although screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) has been a popular model to address potential substance abuse issues in primary care, there is a need for innovative approaches for training providers and staff on SBIRT protocols. An interdisciplinary approach to SBIRT training, named ICARE, was implemented at 3 different medical settings. The ICARE team trained 85 employees at an academic family medicine residency center and 37 employees across 2 rural community health care clinics. Using an innovative "learner-driven" approach, the authors implemented a combination of didactic and interactive training strategies that included on-site coaching, patient simulation exercises, as well as large- and small-group learning.
Dirnbeck, Matthew R.
Biological systems pose a challenge both for learners and teachers because they are complex systems mediated by feedback loops; networks of cause-effect relationships; and non-linear, hierarchical, and emergent properties. Teachers and scientists routinely use models to communicate ideas about complex systems. Model-based pedagogies engage students in model construction as a means of practicing higher-order reasoning skills. One such modeling paradigm describes systems in terms of their structures, behaviors, and functions (SBF). The SBF framework is a simple modeling language that has been used to teach about complex biological systems. Here, we used student-generated SBF models to assess students' causal reasoning in the context of a novel biological problem on an exam. We compared students' performance on the modeling problem, their performance on a set of knowledge/comprehension questions, and their performance on a set of scientific reasoning questions. We found that students who performed well on knowledge and understanding questions also constructed more networked, higher quality models. Previous studies have shown that learners' mental maps increase in complexity with increased expertise. We wanted to investigate if biology students with varying levels of training in biology showed a similar pattern when constructing system models. In a pilot study, we administered the same modeling problem to two additional groups of students: 1) an animal physiology course for students pursuing a major in biology (n=37) and 2) an exercise physiology course for non-majors (n=27). We found that there was no significant difference in model organization across the three student populations, but there was a significant difference in the ability to represent function between the three populations. Between the three groups the non-majors had the lowest function scores, the introductory majors had the middle function scores, and the upper division majors had the highest function
Salame, Hania Moussa
The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of adapting the instructional congruence model on the English Language Learners' (ELL) attitudes and achievement in science. Changes in teacher's views and practices were documented. The mixed-method approach was adapted. Data sources were the "Attitude Towards Science" survey, VNOS-C questionnaire, Luykx and Lee (2007) observational instrument, Gee (1997) discussion categories, video recordings, and pre- and post-tests. A science teacher and a class of 24 ELL female students in a charter school participated in this research. The results of this study indicated that student achievement increased significantly and students' attitudes improved in all contexts. At the conclusion of the study, all teacher's views on NOS were reported to be informed, teacher's practices were rated higher, and different classroom interactions increased significantly. The instructional congruence model in science education has been successful in reaching different learners, improving students' attitudes and achievement in science and enhancing teacher's views and practices. This model has significant potential for meeting the challenging goals of reformed science education.
Fagan, Drew S.
The current paper examines the discursive practices of one novice English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher "dealing with" learners' unexpected contributions in whole group classroom interactions during teacher- and learner-initiated sequences-of-talk. The study draws from two fields of research: classroom discourse studies…
In the authors' science classroom, students who are English Language Learners (ELL) seem to struggle less than they do with other content areas. She believes the "handson" nature of science motivates and encourages students to interact with others. This interaction spurs conversation among the students involved in the activity. If a child is…
Xu, Bin; Yang, Dan
While MOOCs offer educational data on a new scale, many educators find great potential of the big data including detailed activity records of every learner. A learner's behavior such as if a learner will drop out from the course can be predicted. How to provide an effective, economical, and scalable method to detect cheating on tests such as surrogate exam-taker is a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a grade predicting method that uses student activity features to predict whether a learner may get a certification if he/she takes a test. The method consists of two-step classifications: motivation classification (MC) and grade classification (GC). The MC divides all learners into three groups including certification earning, video watching, and course sampling. The GC then predicts a certification earning learner may or may not obtain a certification. Our experiment shows that the proposed method can fit the classification model at a fine scale and it is possible to find a surrogate exam-taker. PMID:26884747
This article defines the cultural nature and scale of change in learning consciousness that has to take place when the organizationally-based adult learner makes the transition from formal prescriptive learning practice to self-owned, self-directed learning. It articulates some of the learning-to-learn process models that introduce, accelerate,…
Kacerja, Suela; Julie, Cyril; Hadjerrouit, Said
This paper reports on an investigation on the real-life situations students in grades 8 and 9 in South Africa and Albania prefer to use in Mathematics. The functioning of the instrument used to assess the order of preference learners from both countries have for contextual situations is assessed using Rasch modeling techniques. For both the cohorts, the data fit the Rasch model. The differential item functioning (DIF) analysis rendered 3 items operating differentially for the two cohorts. Explanations for these differences are provided in terms of differences in experiences learners in the two countries have related to some of the contextual situations. Implications for interpretation of international comparative tests are offered, as are the possibilities for the cross-country development of curriculum materials related to contexts that learners prefer to use in Mathematics.
Franklin, Pat; Stephens, Claire Gatrell
Turning students into lifelong learners is not easily accomplished. How do school librarians ensure that students have a zeal for learning? How do they encourage, cajole, or entice students to want to learn? The answer lies in empowering students with the skills they need to enjoy researching as well as reading for information and pleasure. This…
This article examines the efficacy of current definitional perspectives on learning disabilities (LD) and related assessment models to support appropriate instructional and support services for learners of English with learning-related difficulties. A revised framework for defining LD and an associated assessment model, curriculum-based dynamic assessment (CDA), are proposed. The results of a teacher assessment study are reported to exemplify how this revised framework may be studied. The study examined the following questions: (a) Can curriculum-based dynamic assessments of authentic learning tasks help educators to differentiate between the work of students with limited English proficiency and their peers identified as having LD? (b) What are the characteristics of curriculum-based work samples of limited English proficient students with LD that may predictably differentiate them from their peers without LD?
Ravi, R.; Xavier, P.
The Activity Based Learning (ABL) is unique and effective to attract out-of -school children to schools. It facilitates readiness for learning, instruction, reinforcement and evaluation. ABL has transformed the classrooms into hubs of activities and meaningful learning. Activity-based learning, naturally leads to cooperative learning. Since group…
Simon, Jason Foster
Provides advice to faculty advisers of student organizations on understanding the learning styles, needs, cultures, and strengths of today's "electronic learners." Advisers need to understand technology-related learning patterns and become technologically literate to work with college students. (MDM)
This article introduces a waka tino whakarawea model for evaluating programmes and services for Maori learners. It is based on a set of underlying principles identified in the author's PhD study (Bevan-Brown, 2002). Explanations are provided for eight principles: kaupapa Maori; importance, relevance and beneficence; participation; empowerment,…
Kurland, Michael A. T.
This capstone dissertation inquiry project focused on the underperformance of English language learners (ELLs) at a high school. The Clark and Estes' (2008) gap analysis model was the analytical framework used to conduct this inquiry. At the request of the school, the inquiry focus was on gaining a better understanding of the underachievement…
Lloyd, Sonya LaShawn
Providing academic assistance to English Language Learners (ELLs) is varied and often ineffective. The purpose of this causal-comparative study was to determine if there was a relationship between 9th grade students' performance on the High School Graduation Exam (HSGE) in reading and language and the Push-in and Pull-out models of instruction.…
Zhang, Lingxian; Zhang, Xiaoshuan; Duan, Yanqing; Fu, Zetian; Wang, Yanwei
This paper presents a method of assessment on how Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and animation influence the psychological process of learning by comparing a traditional web design course and an e-learning web design course, based on the Change of Internal Mental Model of Learners. We constructed the e-learning course based on Gagne's learning…
Chan, Alice Y. W.
This article reports on the results of a research study that investigated Cantonese English as a second language (ESL) learners' perception of English speech sounds, their perceived relations between "similar" English and Cantonese sounds, as well as the applicability of the claims of the Speech Learning Model (SLM) to second language…
Amir, Nazir; Subramaniam, R.
A suitable way for teachers to present science content and foster creativity in less academically inclined students is by getting them to engage in design-based science activities and guiding them along the way. This study illustrates how a design-and-make activity was carried out with the aim of getting students to showcase their creativity while…
Liu, Jiamin; Udupa, Jayaram K
Active shape models (ASM) are widely employed for recognizing anatomic structures and for delineating them in medical images. In this paper, a novel strategy called oriented active shape models (OASM) is presented in an attempt to overcome the following five limitations of ASM: 1) lower delineation accuracy, 2) the requirement of a large number of landmarks, 3) sensitivity to search range, 4) sensitivity to initialization, and 5) inability to fully exploit the specific information present in the given image to be segmented. OASM effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the boundary orientedness property and the globally optimal delineation capability of the live wire methodology of boundary segmentation. The latter characteristics allow live wire to effectively separate an object boundary from other nonobject boundaries with similar properties especially when they come very close in the image domain. The approach leads to a two-level dynamic programming method, wherein the first level corresponds to boundary recognition and the second level corresponds to boundary delineation, and to an effective automatic initialization method. The method outputs a globally optimal boundary that agrees with the shape model if the recognition step is successful in bringing the model close to the boundary in the image. Extensive evaluation experiments have been conducted by utilizing 40 image (magnetic resonance and computed tomography) data sets in each of five different application areas for segmenting breast, liver, bones of the foot, and cervical vertebrae of the spine. Comparisons are made between OASM and ASM based on precision, accuracy, and efficiency of segmentation. Accuracy is assessed using both region-based false positive and false negative measures and boundary-based distance measures. The results indicate the following: 1) The accuracy of segmentation via OASM is considerably better than that of ASM; 2) The number of landmarks
Breitenstein, Caterina; Jansen, Andreas; Deppe, Michael; Foerster, Ann-Freya; Sommer, Jens; Wolbers, Thomas; Knecht, Stefan
Language proficiency is a key to academic and workplace success for native and non-native speakers. It is largely unknown, however, why some people pick up languages more easily than others. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (e-fMRI) to elucidate which brain regions are modulated during the acquisition of a novel lexicon and which of these learning-related activity changes correlated with general semantic language knowledge. Fourteen healthy young subjects learned a novel vocabulary of 45 concrete nouns via an associative learning principle over the course of five blocks during e-fMRI. As a control condition, subjects took part in a structurally identical "No-Learning" condition lacking any learning principle. Overall, increasing vocabulary proficiency was associated with (intercorrelated) modulations of activity within the left hippocampus and the left fusiform gyrus, regions involved in the binding and integration of multimodal stimuli, and with an increasing activation of the left inferior parietal cortex, the presumed neural store of phonological associations. None of these activity changes were observed during the control condition. Furthermore, subjects who showed less suppression of hippocampal activity over learning blocks scored higher on semantic knowledge in their native language and learned the novel vocabulary more efficiently. Our findings indicate that (a) the successful acquisition of a new lexicon depends on correlated amplitude changes between the left hippocampus and neocortical regions and (b) learning-related hippocampus activity is a stable marker of individual differences in the ability to acquire and master vocabularies.
Hanson, Alan L.; DeMuth, James E.
A national survey of 355 licensed pharmacists investigated their perceptions of themselves as lifelong learners, participation in various professional and leisure activities, attitudes predicting lifelong learning behavior, and respondent characteristics. The two analytical models used arrived at different demographic and other variables…
Cross, K. Patricia
The literature on adult learners is reviewed, and two models of adult learning are developed. Demographic, social, and technological trends that stimulate the increasing demand for learning opportunities are examined, and the views of those who see dangers in new pressures on adults to participate in organized learning activities are considered.…
This article presents KnowledgePuzzle, a browsing tool for knowledge construction from the web. It aims to adapt the structure of web content to the learner's information needs regardless of how the web content is originally delivered. Learners are provided with a meta-cognitive space (e.g., a concept mapping tool) that enables them to plan…
Kerins, John; Ramsay, Allan
This paper reports on the development of a prototype tool which shows how learners can be helped to reflect upon the accuracy of their writing. Analysis of samples of freely written texts by intermediate and advanced learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) showed evidence of weakness in the use of tense and aspect. Computational discourse…
Duarte, M.; Leite, C.; Mouraz, A.
This study researches how first-year engineering students perceived the influence of curricular activities on their own learning autonomy, measured with an adaptation of the Personal Responsibility Orientation to Self-direction in Learning Scale (PRO-SDLS). Participants were questioned to assess the influence of the teacher's role. The results…
Corrigan, Trudy; Byrne, Brid; Harris, Phyllis; Lalor, Maureen; O'Connor, Maura; O'Reilly, Kathleen; Quinn, Frank; Forde, Kathleen
Research in Canada on the learning needs of older people looked at such issues as how to cope with changes in society, the need to make a contribution and the need to be influential. The White Paper on Adult Education "Learning for Life" notes that strategies for active ageing stress the critical importance of access to learning as a key…
Chang, Anna C-S
To develop reading fluency, a 13-week timed reading activity was integrated into a normal curriculum with the aim of improving students' reading rates. Participants were 84 college students divided into an experimental and a control group. The test instruments involved pretests and posttests on reading speed and comprehension. Students'…
Previous studies on L2 Japanese sojourners often reported that learners overuse the plain style or haphazardly mix the plain and polite styles upon return. These styles, which are often associated with formal or informal contexts, also index complex social and situational meanings, and native speakers are reported to shift their styles to create…
Teske, Jolene K.; Gray, Phyllis; Kuhn, Mason A.; Clausen, Courtney K.; Smith, Latisha L.; Alsubia, Sukainah A.; Ghayoorad, Maryam; Rule, Audrey C.; Schneider, Jean Suchsland
Gifted students with visual impairments are twice exceptional learners and may not evidence their advanced science aptitudes without appropriate accommodations for learning science. However, effective tactile science teaching materials may be easily made. Recent research has shown that when tactile materials are used with "all" students…
Barber, Ana Taboada; Gallagher, Melissa; Smith, Peet; Buehl, Michelle M.; Beck, Jori S.
Recent research has emphasized the key role of engagement in helping students succeed in school and beyond. Given the academic struggles that many English learners (ELs) face as they transition to middle school, exploring the facets of engagement in middle school ELs is needed. We established reader profiles for eight sixth grade Hispanic ELs and…
Lawson, Alistair; Attridge, Ann; Lapok, Paul
Many students of English language find pronunciation difficult to master. This work in progress paper discusses an incremental and iterative approach towards developing requirements for software applications to assist learners with the perception and production of English pronunciation in terms of phonemes and prosody. It was found that prompts…
Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Knight, Jennifer Hatch
Second language learners face countless obstacles in the classroom, including communication and comprehension limitations and difficulty building relationships with peers. Many teachers struggle to build an inclusive classroom environment and ensure all students, especially those with linguistic and other learning disadvantages, are learning. This…
Doubleday, Alison F.; Wille, Sarah J.
Video and photography are often used for delivering content within the anatomical sciences. However, instructors typically produce these resources to provide instructional or procedural information. Although the benefits of learner-generated content have been explored within educational research, virtually no studies have investigated the use of…
Matos, Joao Filipe
This paper is a reflection of the preparation of the Psychology of Mathematics Education Panel (PME26) that discuss the issue of "learning from learners." What it implies to be a learner is formulated in order to reflect upon the way teachers and/or researchers learn from learners. The idea of conceptualizing the notion of "learning from learners"…
Takeuchi, Osamu; Ikeda, Maiko; Mizumoto, Atsushi
In this paper, we validate Macaro's (2006) model of strategy use among language learners by assessing the amount of neural activity around the prefrontal cortex, the supposed locus of working memory (WM). We also examine whether WM activation during first language (L1) strategy deployment is lower than WM activation during second language (L2)…
Zhang, Ke; Bonk, Curtis J.
This paper critically reviews various learning preferences and human intelligence theories and models with a particular focus on the implications for online learning. It highlights a few key models, Gardner's multiple intelligences, Fleming and Mills' VARK model, Honey and Mumford's Learning Styles, and Kolb's Experiential Learning Model, and…
Xu, Bin; Yang, Dan
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) provide an opportunity for people to access free courses offered by top universities in the world and therefore attracted great attention and engagement from college teachers and students. However, with contrast to large scale enrollment, the completion rate of these courses is really low. One of the reasons for students to quit learning process is problems which they face that could not be solved by discussing them with classmates. In order to keep them staying in the course, thereby further improving the completion rate, we address the task of study partner recommendation for students based on both content information and social network information. By analyzing the content of messages posted by learners in course discussion forum, we investigated the learners' behavior features to classify the learners into three groups. Then we proposed a topic model to measure learners' course knowledge awareness. Finally, a social network was constructed based on their activities in the course forum, and the relationship in the network was then employed to recommend study partners for target learner combined with their behavior features and course knowledge awareness. The experiment results show that our method achieves better performance than recommending method only based on content information. PMID:25663836
Learner corpora have become prominent in language teaching and learning, enhancing data-driven learning (DDL) pedagogy by promoting "learning driven data" in the classroom. This study explores the potential of a local learner corpus by investigating the effects of two types of DDL activities, one relying on a native-speaker corpus (NSC)…
The purpose of this investigation was to use Rasch measurement to study the psychometric properties of a 34 item questionnaire designed to measure second language learners' willingness to communicate (WTC) in English inside their language class. 490 Japanese university students' responses to the questionnaire were subjected to a number of different analyses. The first involved a comparison of the category threshold estimates produced by the Rating Scale and Partial Credit models. The questionnaire's items were then evaluated according to how well they defined the willingness to communicate construct. The potential dimensionality of using items that involved different speaking and writing tasks/situations in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of students' willingness to communicate was also investigated. Next there was an examination of the questionnaire's four-point scale to ensure that it captured meaningful differences in students' WTC. Finally, the questionnaire items were compared using differential item functioning to determine if second year students were more willing than first year students in any of the different speaking and writing tasks/situations. This investigation closes with some suggestions on how the WTC questionnaire can inform second language instruction and curriculum design.
Nasser-Abu Alhija, Fadia; Amasha, Marcel
This study examined a structural model of mathematics achievement among Druze 8th graders in Israel. The model integrates 2 psychosocial theories: goal theory and social learning theory. Variables in the model included gender, father's and mother's education, classroom mastery and performance goal orientation, mathematics self-efficacy and…
Teachers' informal discussions of learner motivation often emphasize the need to find ways to motivate learners, most usually through "fun" or "dynamic" activities. This paper starts from the assumption, however, that part of the work of the teacher is to avoid the "demotivation" of learners, and that there is a need to consider the overall…
The starting point for curriculum planning for second language instruction is the learner, and a curriculum can claim to be learner-centered only if key factors about the learner are made the basis for curriculum design at all stages in the planning and development of learning activities and materials and in the sequencing of learning experiences.…
Durak, Gurhan; Ataizi, Murat
The purpose of the study was to investigate the views of learners experienced in the Distance Learning Platform (DLP), which was prepared according to an online course design model. The participants of the study were 19 learners who took the programming languages course (via the DLP for 14 weeks). Before the application, the preparation of the DLP…
Goodwin, Amanda P.; Jiménez, Robert
This teaching tip shares a research-based instructional model that uses translation to improve the English reading comprehension of English Learners. Within this instruction, English learners work collaboratively in small groups and use translation to facilitate understandings of their required English language arts curriculum. Students are taught…
Nutta, Joyce W.; Strebel, Carine; Mokhtari, Kouider; Mihai, Florin M.; Crevecoeur-Bryant, Edwidge
In "Educating English Learners," Joyce W. Nutta and her colleagues offer practical tools for helping schools and teachers successfully integrate English learners into mainstream classrooms. Drawing on the One Plus model presented in their award-winning book, "Preparing Every Teacher to Reach English Learners," the authors now…
Chard, David J.
The majority of school districts implementing response to intervention use a systemwide, multitier model of delivery. This article describes the common features of multitier models and discusses the emerging evidence of their effectiveness. In addition, specific factors that schools should consider to enhance effective implementation of systemic,…
Gajewski, Agnes; Mather, Meera
This paper presents an overview and discussion of a course based remediation model developed to enhance student learning and increased retention based on literature. This model focuses on course structure and course delivery in a compressed semester format. A comparative analysis was applied to a pilot study of students enrolled in a course…
This study is concerned with developing scaffolding model to elicit bilingual kindergarten children's English speech production. It is aimed at describing what the teachers need in eliciting their students' speech production; how a scaffolding model should be developed to elicit the children's speech production; and how effective is the…
Sparrow, Wendy; Butvilofsky, Sandra; Escamilla, Kathy; Hopewell, Susan; Tolento, Teresa
This longitudinal study examines the biliteracy results of Spanish-English emerging bilingual students who participated in a K-5 paired literacy model in a large school district in Oregon. Spanish and English reading and writing data show longitudinal gains in students' biliterate development, demonstrating the potential of the model in developing…
Taber, Keith S.
This paper describes the conceptualizations, or mental models, of the nature of the bonding and structure of metals of a group of U.K. college students. It is suggested that these mental models may be understood in terms of the students' prior learning about covalent and ionic bonding, and the prevalence of a common alternative conceptual…
Tian, Xingbin; Suppasetseree, Suksan
College English in China has shifted from cultivating reading ability to comprehensive communicative abilities with an emphasis on listening and speaking. For this reason, new teaching models should be built on modern information technology. However, little research on developing models for the online teaching of listening skills has been…
Calderón, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sánchez, Marta
The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or instructing them. Margarita Calderón, Robert Slavin, and Marta Sánchez identify the elements of effective instruction and review a variety of successful program models. During 2007-08, more than 5.3 million English learners made up 10.6 percent of the nation's K-12 public school enrollment. Wide and persistent achievement disparities between these English learners and English-proficient students show clearly, say the authors, that schools must address the language, literacy, and academic needs of English learners more effectively. Researchers have fiercely debated the merits of bilingual and English-only reading instruction. In elementary schools, English learners commonly receive thirty minutes of English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction but attend general education classes for the rest of the day, usually with teachers who are unprepared to teach them. Though English learners have strikingly diverse levels of skills, in high school they are typically lumped together, with one teacher to address their widely varying needs. These in-school factors contribute to the achievement disparities. Based on the studies presented here, Calderón, Slavin, and Sánchez assert that the quality of instruction is what matters most in educating English learners. They highlight comprehensive reform models, as well as individual components of these models: school structures and leadership; language and literacy instruction; integration of language, literacy, and content instruction in secondary schools; cooperative learning; professional development; parent and family support teams; tutoring; and monitoring implementation and outcomes
Oxford, Rebecca L.
This paper explores two general perspectives on autonomous learners: psychological and sociocultural. These perspectives introduce a range of theoretically grounded facets of autonomous learners, facets such as the self-regulated learner, the emotionally intelligent learner, the self-determined learner, the mediated learner, the socioculturally…
Taber, Keith S.
This paper describes the conceptualizations, or mental models, of the nature of the bonding and structure of metals of a group of U.K. college students. It is suggested that these mental models may be understood in terms of the students' prior learning about covalent and ionic bonding, and the prevalence of a common alternative conceptual framework for chemical bonding labeled the octet framework. This study illustrates the prominence of prior learning in channeling the interpretation of subsequent teaching, and highlights the significance of the decisions made by curriculum planners, textbook authors, and teachers on the order of presenting subject content, the degree of simplification of scientific models, and the selection and presentation of metaphors.
Lee, Ritchie; Wolpert, David H.; Backhaus, Scott; Bent, Russell; Bono, James; Tracey, Brendan
This paper introduces a novel framework for modeling interacting humans in a multi-stage game environment by combining concepts from game theory and reinforcement learning. The proposed model has the following desirable characteristics: (1) Bounded rational players, (2) strategic (i.e., players account for one anothers reward functions), and (3) is computationally feasible even on moderately large real-world systems. To do this we extend level-K reasoning to policy space to, for the first time, be able to handle multiple time steps. This allows us to decompose the problem into a series of smaller ones where we can apply standard reinforcement learning algorithms. We investigate these ideas in a cyber-battle scenario over a smart power grid and discuss the relationship between the behavior predicted by our model and what one might expect of real human defenders and attackers.
This critique of J. Renzulli's models of gifted education suggests a weakness is the lack of school-based assessment procedures to guide decisions about a broader range of acceleration, enrichment, and other types of program options. Major ideas underlying Renzulli's theory are examined including broadening the talent pool, emphasis on products,…
In language learning contexts, writing tasks that involve reading of source texts are often used to elicit more authentic integrative language use. Thus, interests in researching these read-to-write tasks in general and as assessment tasks keep growing. This study examined and modeled the process of summary writing as a read-to-write integrated…
Smith, Debra M.
The purpose of this study was to develop a research-based model for designing and deploying instructional narratives based on principles derived from narrative theory, development theory, communication theory, learning theory and instructional design theory to enable adult learning and retention and the effective transfer of that retained learning…
Muñoz, Karla; Noguez, Julieta; Neri, Luis; Mc Kevitt, Paul; Lunney, Tom
Game-based Learning (GBL) environments make instruction flexible and interactive. Positive experiences depend on personalization. Student modelling has focused on affect. Three methods are used: (1) recognizing the physiological effects of emotion, (2) reasoning about emotion from its origin and (3) an approach combining 1 and 2. These have proven…
Anderson, Lezley Barker
The purpose of this causal-comparative study was to examine whether differences exist in the mathematics achievement of fifth grade gifted students based on the instructional delivery model used for mathematics instruction, cluster or collaborative, as defined by the Georgia Department of Education. The content area of mathematics, an area…
Background/Context: In contrast to cultural constructs that equate education with cognitive development and formal schooling, the Latin American cultural model of educacion encompasses academic knowledge and social competence. Prior scholarship has mainly investigated parental notions of educacion vis-a-vis childrearing and schooling, primarily…
Pae, Hye K.
The aim of this study was to apply Rasch modeling to an examination of the psychometric properties of the "Pearson Test of English Academic" (PTE Academic). Analyzed were 140 test-takers' scores derived from the PTE Academic database. The mean age of the participants was 26.45 (SD = 5.82), ranging from 17 to 46. Conformity of the participants'…
This paper explores what it means to be an autonomous learner in an online social context. Using distinctions originally drawn by Jürgen Habermas, it argues that classic accounts of learner autonomy as teleological action are inadequate to explain learner activity in group settings. It points out that learners in such settings display attitudes…
This booklet looks at the role of learner feedback in the quality improvement process. It suggests how adult and community learning (ACL) providers can adapt and improve their practice to meet the needs of learners in the changed policy context. Chapter 1 explores why providers should listen to learners and finds that listening to learners…
Carpenter, Helen; Jeon, K. Seon; MacGregor, David; Mackey, Alison
A number of interaction researchers have claimed that recasts might be ambiguous to learners; that is, instead of perceiving recasts as containing corrective feedback, learners might see them simply as literal or semantic repetitions without any corrective element (Long, in press; Lyster & Ranta, 1997). This study investigates learners'…
Guan, Sharon; Stanford, Daniel
This chapter identifies effective ways to address learner and faculty support. It introduces methods for building a successful learner support system by providing sufficient resources and proactively addressing learner motivation. It also addresses effective faculty support through institutional policies, resources, training, and course…
van Garderen, Delinda; Hanuscin, Deborah; Lee, Eun; Kohn, Pat
Teaching science to diverse learners can be a demanding and challenging task. Teachers may be underprepared and thus unsure of how to best address the needs of their students in their classroom. One approach to helping teachers is through professional development. Yet, programs that focus mainly on science or special education can fail to fully…
Hege, Brent A. R.
One factor contributing to success in online education is the creation of a safe and vibrant virtual community and sustained, lively engagement with that community of learners. In order to create and engage such a community instructors must pay special attention to the relationship between technology and pedagogy, specifically in terms of issues…
Al-Azawei, Ahmed; Lundqvist, Karsten
Online learning constitutes the most popular distance-learning method, with flexibility, accessibility, visibility, manageability and availability as its core features. However, current research indicates that its efficacy is not consistent across all learners. This study aimed to modify and extend the factors of the Technology Acceptance Model…
Wang, Peizhen; Machado, Crystal
This paper describes the ways in which Writing Centers (WC) currently serve English Language Learners (ELL) at American universities. The authors argue that the pedagogy offered at these centers does not always meet the needs of the Chinese ELLs who make up the largest population of ELLs at American universities. The proposed supplemental model…
Saah, Albert Amoah; Mensah, Joseph Adia
Community based learning and outreach is a strategy through which academic institutions worldwide including University of Ghana have successfully stayed relevant to less privileged communities; they exist in bringing benefits of education to their (less privileged communities) doorstep. Learner's participation has been an objective that any adult…
Waight, Consuelo L.; Stewart, Barbara L.
Purpose: To illustrate how the interdependence among four championing factors, five antecedents, and four moderators affect companies' efforts in valuing the adult learner in e-learning. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review was conducted to identify the championing factors, antecedents, and moderators that can assist teams in designing…
Chabeli, M M
Outcomes-Based Education (OBE) brought about a significant paradigm shift in the education and training of learners in South Africa. OBE requires a shift from focusing on the teacher input (instruction offerings or syllabuses expressed in terms of content), to focusing on learner outcomes. OBE is moving away from 'transmission' models to constructivistic, learner-centered models that put emphasis on learning as an active process (Nieburh, 1996:30). Teachers act as facilitators and mediators of learning (Norms and Standards, Government Gazette vol 415, no 20844 of 2000). Facilitators are responsible to create the environment that is conducive for learners to construct their own knowledge, skills and values through interaction (Peters, 2000). The first critical cross-field outcome accepted by the South African Qualification Framework (SAQA) is that learners should be able to identify and solve problems by using critical and creative thinking skills. This paper seeks to explore some higher order thinking skills competencies required by OBE from learners such as critical thinking, reflective thinking, creative thinking, dialogic / dialectic thinking, decision making, problem solving and emotional intelligence and their implications in facilitating teaching and learning from the theoretical perspective. The philosophical underpinning of these higher order thinking skills is described to give direction to the study. It is recommended that a study focusing on the assessment of these intellectual concepts be made. The study may be qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods in nature (Creswell 2005).
Romanyshyn, Yuriy; Smerdov, Andriy; Petrytska, Svitlana
On the basis of the neurophysiological strength-duration (amplitude-duration) curve of neuron activation (which relates the threshold amplitude of a rectangular current pulse of neuron activation to the pulse duration), as well as with the use of activation energy constraint (the threshold curve corresponds to the energy threshold of neuron activation by a rectangular current pulse), an energy model of neuron activation by a single current pulse has been constructed. The constructed model of activation, which determines its spectral properties, is a bandpass filter. Under the condition of minimum-phase feature of the neuron activation model, on the basis of Hilbert transform, the possibilities of phase-frequency response calculation from its amplitude-frequency response have been considered. Approximation to the amplitude-frequency response by the response of the Butterworth filter of the first order, as well as obtaining the pulse response corresponding to this approximation, give us the possibility of analyzing the efficiency of activating current pulses of various shapes, including analysis in accordance with the energy constraint.
Frey, Barbara A.; Overfield, Karen
This study addressed the challenges of developing a faculty professional development workshop on assessment, measurement, and evaluation of achievement in adult learners. The setting for the workshop was a system of postsecondary career colleges throughout the United States. The curriculum development model of D. Kirkpatrick (1994) was used as a…
Ahmed Abdelaziz, Hamdy
The objective of this paper was to develop a four dimensions dynamic model for designing instructional activities appropriate to electronic and virtual learning environments. The suggested model is guided by learning principles of cognitivism, constructivism, and connectivism learning theories in order to help online learners to build and acquire…
Cloud, Nancy; Lakin, Judah; Leininger, Erin
In this piece, a teacher educator and two secondary teachers describe how they implemented the Learners' Lives as Curriculum model (Weinstein, 2004) with adolescent English language learners using a unit from a pilot secondary curriculum titled Lives Unfolding (Weinstein & Cloud, 2007). They discuss the development and adaptation of the Names unit…
Active networks of filamentous proteins and crosslinking motor proteins play a critical role in many important cellular processes. One of the most important microtubule-motor protein assemblies is the mitotic spindle, a self-organized active liquid-crystalline structure that forms during cell division and that ultimately separates chromosomes into two daughter cells. Although the spindle has been intensively studied for decades, the physical principles that govern its self-organization and function remain mysterious. To evolve a better understanding of spindle formation, structure, and dynamics, I investigate course-grained models of active liquid-crystalline networks composed of microtubules, modeled as hard spherocylinders, in diffusive equilibrium with a reservoir of active crosslinks, modeled as hookean springs that can adsorb to microtubules and and translocate at finite velocity along the microtubule axis. This model is investigated using a combination of brownian dynamics and kinetic monte carlo simulation. I have further refined this model to simulate spindle formation and kinetochore capture in the fission yeast S. pombe. I then make predictions for experimentally realizable perturbations in motor protein presence and function in S. pombe.
Chang, Anna C-S; Wu, Bill Wen-Pin; Pang, Jerry C-L
The purpose was the develop a questionnaire to identify the specific listening difficulties of second language (L2) learners. Based on previous research, a questionnaire containing 31 items was developed and administered to 1,056 college freshmen. The whole sample was split randomly into two subsamples, each containing 528 cases. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to analyse the first subsample, and six factors were extracted, explaining a total of 57.1% of variance. To test the factor model, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with the second subsample. Various fit indices were examined. The best fitting model for the data was a 23-item, six-factor model representing text, input channel and surroundings, relevance, listener, speaker, and task. Apart from the listener factor, all components are external ones and deemed to be uncontrollable by listeners. L2 learners must take an active role in listening practice to overcome L2 listening difficulties.
Wenden, Anita L.
Focuses on learner development, a learner-centered innovation in foreign language-second language instruction that responds to learner diversity by aiming to improve the language learner's ability to learn a language. Describes various ideas that shaped early practice in learner development, and provides an evaluation of the theory and practice in…
Quan, T. K.; Hunter, L.; Kluger-Bell, B.; Seagroves, S.
The Professional Development Program (PDP) supports participants as they design inquiry activities that help learners improve their research process skills. These skills include the cognitive or reasoning skills that scientists and engineers use while doing research; for example, making a testable hypothesis, coordinating results from multiple experiments, or identifying and evaluating tradeoffs. Past work in the PDP indicated that additional support was needed to help participants design instructional activities that would teach these important skills. A new workshop was therefore developed for the 2009 PDP cycle, entitled "Improving Learners' Process Skills." In this workshop, participants worked in small groups to define specific science and engineering skills found in four past PDP activity designs. Participants distinguished between "simple tasks" and "authentic inquiry" activities that learners could perform as demonstration of the skill. Through this new workshop, participants were able to explicitly discuss ways in which individual process skills are unique or inter-related. In addition, by identifying a "simple task," participants were able to pinpoint areas in which their own designs could be improved to better focus on authentic inquiry tasks. In 2010, the workshop was slightly modified to help participants reconnect the research process skills with the activity content. In addition, the idea of using generic and context-specific scaffolds was also introduced. To make the participants feel like they were contributing to the PDP community, four activity designs actively being worked on in the 2010 cycle were used. Based on participant feedback, this "Improving Learners' Process Skills" workshop should be strongly considered for future returning participants.
Students usually find science to be quite abstract. This is especially true of disciplines like Earth Science where it is difficult for the students to conduct and design hands-on experiments in areas such as Plate Tectonics that would allow them to develop predictive models. In the United States the new Next Generation Science Standards explicitly requires students to experience the science disciplines via modeling based activities. This poster presentation will discuss an activity that demonstrates how modeling, plate tectonics and student discourse converge in the earth science classroom. The activities featured on the poster will include using cardboard and shaving cream to demonstrate convergent plate boundaries, a Milky Way candy bar to demonstrate divergent boundaries and silly putty to demonstrate a strike slip boundary. I will discuss how students report back to the group about the findings from the lab and the techniques that can be used to heighten the student discourse. The activities outlined in this poster were originally designed for a middle school Earth Science class by Suzi Shoemaker for a graduate thesis at Arizona State University.
This article presents first results of an ethnographic research project in a Luxembourgish primary school that accompanied the development of a school project by children from the fifth grade. Analysing the data children themselves collected with Kodak Zi8 cameras in order to document their project activities, it investigates their possibilities…
Kim, Mi Song
Situating science concepts in concrete and authentic contexts, using information and communications technologies, including multimodal modeling tools, is important for promoting the development of higher-order thinking skills in learners. However, teachers often struggle to integrate emergent multimodal models into a technology-rich informal learning environment. Our design-based research co-designs and develops engaging, immersive, and interactive informal learning activities called "Embodied Modeling-Mediated Activities" (EMMA) to support not only Singaporean learners' deep learning of astronomy but also the capacity of teachers. As part of the research on EMMA, this case study describes two prospective teachers' co-design processes involving multimodal models for teaching and learning the concept of the seasons in a technology-rich informal learning setting. Our study uncovers four prominent themes emerging from our data concerning the contextualized nature of learning and teaching involving multimodal models in informal learning contexts: (1) promoting communication and emerging questions, (2) offering affordances through limitations, (3) explaining one concept involving multiple concepts, and (4) integrating teaching and learning experiences. This study has an implication for the development of a pedagogical framework for teaching and learning in technology-enhanced learning environments—that is empowering teachers to become active sense-makers using multimodal models.
This paper presents a model of learning in a workplace, in which an online course provides flexibility for staff to learn at their convenient hours. A motivation was brought into an account of the success of learning in a workplace program, based upon Behaviorist learning approach--an online mentor and an accumulated learning activities score was…
Roy, Sitikantha; Brownell, William E.; Spector, Alexander A.
The membrane protein prestin is native to the cochlear outer hair cell that is crucial to the ear's amplification and frequency selectivity throughout the whole acoustic frequency range. The outer hair cell exhibits interrelated dimensional changes, force generation, and electric charge transfer. Cells transfected with prestin acquire unique active properties similar to those in the native cell that have also been useful in understanding the process. Here we propose a model describing the major electromechanical features of such active membranes. The model derived from thermodynamic principles is in the form of integral relationships between the history of voltage and membrane resultants as independent variables and the charge density and strains as dependent variables. The proposed model is applied to the analysis of an active force produced by the outer hair cell in response to a harmonic electric field. Our analysis reveals the mechanism of the outer hair cell active (isometric) force having an almost constant amplitude and phase up to 80 kHz. We found that the frequency-invariance of the force is a result of interplay between the electrical filtering associated with prestin and power law viscoelasticity of the surrounding membrane. Paradoxically, the membrane viscoelasticity boosts the force balancing the electrical filtering effect. We also consider various modes of electromechanical coupling in membrane with prestin associated with mechanical perturbations in the cell. We consider pressure or strains applied step-wise or at a constant rate and compute the time course of the resulting electric charge. The results obtained here are important for the analysis of electromechanical properties of membranes, cells, and biological materials as well as for a better understanding of the mechanism of hearing and the role of the protein prestin in this mechanism. PMID:22701528
Distributed Learning : concurrent distribution of training and educational content to multiple users at the point-of-need in which content is...the ALM to guide a revolution in Army training (US Army Training and Doctrine Command 2011). The ALM calls for a total integrated learning ...the appropriate domain models with different levels of the competency learning domains. In this way the ITS can identify which content to deliver to
Designed to provide a general guide and stimuli for lifelong learning, this book examines all the positive factors of independent study. Lifelong learning is defined as self-directed growth free from the traditional schooling procedures. Chapters discuss the following: the lifelong learner; profiles of such learners in action; how to be…
Mayhew, Daniel R.
Considers the role and value of an extended learner's period in a graduated driver-licensing system through a review of the literature. Concludes that further research is needed on the safety benefits and optional features of the learner period. (Contains 1 figure, 3 tables, and 41 references.) (AUTHOR/WFA)
Richards, Jack C.
Ways in which curriculum development and methodology in teaching English as a Second Language can take account of learners are discussed. In addition, ways that teachers and researchers can collaborate in the process of developing a learner-center curriculum are examined. (28 references) (LB)
Moon, W. Jay
A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral…
Ballard, Florence N.
This paper proposes a learner-centered educational system, focusing on aspects that are intrinsically associated with the modern educational system, such as the curriculum, school community, parents, learners, and educational support personnel. It examines: primary level preparation (literacy, numeracy, and basic knowledge; examination and…
Marzuki; Prayogo, Johannes Ananto; Wahyudi, Arwijati
This present research was aimed to improve the EFL learners' speaking ability and their classroom activities through the implementation of Interactive Storytelling Strategy. Therefore, this study was directed to explore the beneficial of Interactive Storytelling that closely related to the EFL learners' everyday activities at their home and…
Nicolay, Robin; Schwennigcke, Bastian; Sahl, Sarah; Martens, Alke
Conceptualization and implementation of computer supported teaching and training is currently not tailored to the paradigm of learner centration. Many technical solutions lack transparency and consistency regarding the supported learner activities. An insight into learners activities correlated to learning tasks is needed. In this paper we outline…
An Investigation into the Practicality and Applicability of the Pedandragogic Framework: A Case Study of Faculty Attitude toward a Learner-Centered Model of Teaching and Learning at a University in the Southern United States
This study defines and explores pedandragogy as a teaching and learning model using a southern university in the United States of America as a case study. It examines its applicability to a multiplicity of academic disciplines, testing the attitudes of faculty towards the implementation of the learner-centered approach in higher education.…
Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos
Sixty-five undergraduates were classified into field-dependent, field-mixed, and field-independent learners, and were randomly assigned to two groups: text-only and text-and-visual. Participants in the text-only group received a description of a model in textual format, whereas participants in the other group received the same description in…
Norton, Priscilla; Hathaway, Dawn
In this article, the CLICK ("C"omputer Games and "L"iteracy "I"ntegrated with "C"ontent "K"nowledge) design model for high school education is proposed and developed as an instructional response to concerns about content coverage versus deeper content knowledge, learners' inability to grasp the meanings embedded in complex text, and disregard for…
An investigation was carried out to examine the effects of cognitive style on learners' performance and interaction during complex problem solving with a computer modeling tool. One hundred and nineteen undergraduates volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were first administered a test, and based on their test scores they were…
Aldi, Catarina; Crigler, Alexandra; Kates-McElrath, Kelly; Long, Brian; Smith, Hillary; Rehak, Kim; Wilkinson, Lisa
Video modeling has been shown to be effective in teaching a number of skills to learners diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study, we taught two young men diagnosed with ASD three different activities of daily living skills (ADLS) using point-of-view video modeling. Results indicated that both participants met criterion for all ADLS. Participants did not maintain mastery criterion at a 1-month follow-up, but did score above baseline at maintenance with and without video modeling. • Point-of-view video models may be an effective intervention to teach daily living skills. • Video modeling with handheld portable devices (Apple iPod or iPad) can be just as effective as video modeling with stationary viewing devices (television or computer). • The use of handheld portable devices (Apple iPod and iPad) makes video modeling accessible and possible in a wide variety of environments.
Discusses materials for middle grade and high school learners. Explains useful resources for teaching struggling writers. Details a publishing tool, a reading comprehension assessment, and a Scholastic Assessment Tests (SAT) preparation text. (PM)
Al Asmari, AbdulRahman
Language learning process works through the learners' own reflection on how they learn and it makes learners active in the sense that they learn to analyze their learning strategies. So they start making decisions, e.g., whether to improve them or not, and in which way. Generally, this trait is missing in traditional language teaching process and…
This paper proposes that activities based on a variety of drama-based techniques could be valuable in giving Asian ESL learners opportunities to use communicative spoken English confidently and without restraint during their time in English-language-speaking countries. These learners often get anxious when in situations where they are required to…
Vu, Phu; Cao, Vien; Vu, Lan; Cepero, Jude
This study examined factors that contributed to the success of online learners in an online professional development course. Research instruments included an online survey and learners' activity logs in an online professional development course for 512 in-service teachers. The findings showed that there were several factors affecting online…
If web-based technology is increasingly becoming the central plank of contemporary teaching and learning processes, there is still too little evidence to suggest that it is delivering purposeful learning activities beyond its widely perceived potential as a learning resource providing content and learning objects. This is due in part to the…
Serna Dimas, Héctor Manuel; Ruíz Castellanos, Erika
The preparation of both language-building activities and a variety of teacher/student interaction patterns increase both oral language participation and content learning in a course of manual therapy with mixed-language ability students. In this article, the researchers describe their collaboration in a content-based course in English with English…
Edgar, S. Keith
This packet contains both a teacher's guide and a student activity book designed to help adult students locate and use community resources. Both booklets cover the following topics: the public library, Social Security, postal services, use of the telephone and the telephone directory, the newspaper, the Cooperative Extension Service, reference…
Parma City School District, OH.
This handbook defines and describes the benefits of both collaborative approaches and cooperative techniques. An introduction uses watercolor marbling as a metaphor for collaborative approaches and cooperative activities. Section I provides research results regarding problems of adult literacy programs, skills employers want, and Bloom's taxonomy.…
Dudu, Washington T.; Vhurumuku, Elaosi
This paper discusses the adoption and validation of a research instrument, on determining learners' levels of perception of classroom inquiry based on data collected from South African Grade 11 learners. The Learners' Perception of Classroom Inquiry (LPCI) instrument consists only of Likert-type items which rank activities according to how often…
Tasks provide engaging ways to involve learners in meaningful, real-world activities with the foreign language (FL). Yet selecting classroom tasks suitable to learners' linguistic readiness is challenging, and task-based research is exploring the relationship between learners' overall abilities (e.g., reading, grammatical) and the complexity and…
Gallagher, Silvia Elena; Savage, Timothy
Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) can create large scale communities of learners who collaborate, interact and discuss learning materials and activities. MOOCs are often delivered multiple times with similar content to different cohorts of learners. However, research into the differences of learner communication, behavior and expectation between…
Gallagher, Silvia Elena; Savage, Timothy
Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) can create large scale communities of learners who collaborate, interact and discuss learning materials and activities. MOOCs are often delivered multiple times with similar content to different cohorts of learners. However, research into the differences of learner communication, behavior and expectation between…
Lawrence, Barry A. M.
This study used the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT; Venkatesh, Morris, Davis, & Davis, 2003) model to investigate factors predicting the acceptance of iPad tablets by learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) at a technical vocational college in Saudi Arabia. An online survey was conducted on 199 male learners,…
Jones, Jaimon K.; Hebert, Thomas P.
The strengths and talents of diverse gifted learners must be supported in culturally responsive middle and high school classrooms. Secondary social studies teachers can use teaching strategies to provide an enriched experience in U.S. history classrooms that will engage and intellectually challenge diverse gifted learners. The model proposed by…
Netten, Andrea; Droop, Mienke; Verhoeven, Ludo
In this study an attempt was made to construct a multi-factor model predicting the development of reading literacy in the upper grades of primary school in the Netherlands for subgroups of 729 first language (L1) learners and 93 second language (L2) learners. Following a longitudinal design, it was explored to what extent the variation in reading…
Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Kuo, Kuang-Ming; Talley, Paul C; Chen, Hsiu-Chin; Wang, Jhi-Joung
The purposes of this study are threefold: 1) to find out what characteristics are required for the successful use of ePortfolios; 2) to discover what activities best represent reflective thinking during the use of ePortfolios; and, 3) to investigate the interrelationship between nursing staff users' perceived success levels with ePortfolios and with their reflective thinking activities. Survey methodology was used to gather responses from 78 nurses from a medical center located in southern Taiwan via questionnaires. Factor analysis and canonical correlation analysis were used to analyze the collected data. The results demonstrated that system quality, information quality, and user satisfaction are important variables in successful ePortfolio usage; while habitual action, understanding, reflection, and critical reflection are major variables of reflective thinking. Further, we found a significant relationship exists between the relative success of ePortfolios and reflective thinking activities of ePortfolios users. The subject hospital should pay special attention to important characteristics including system quality, information quality, and user satisfaction when employing ePortfolios to help nursing staff users to achieve their learning goals through this form of reflective thinking.
Douglas, Kerrie A.; Bermel, Peter; Alam, Md Monzurul; Madhavan, Krishna
MOOCs attract a\tlarge\tnumber of learners with largely unknown diversity in terms of motivation,\tability, and goals. To understand more\tabout learners in highly technical engineering MOOCs,\tthis study investigates patterns of learners' (n = 337) behaviour and performance in the Nanophotonic Modelling MOOC, offered through nanoHUB-U. The authors…
Noorbehbahani, Fakhroddin; Samani, Elaheh Biglar Beigi; Jazi, Hossein Hadian
Assessment is one of the most essential parts of any instructive learning process which aims to evaluate a learner's knowledge about learning concepts. In this work, a new method for learner assessment based on learner annotations is presented. The proposed method exploits the M-BLEU algorithm to find the most similar reference annotations…
Taurisson, Neil; Tchounikine, Pierre
This paper describes a multi-agent approach that aims at supporting learners involved in a collective activity. We consider pedagogical situations where students have to explicitly define the articulation of their collective work and then achieve the different tasks they have defined. Our objective is to support these students by taking some of…
Fletcher, J., Ed.; Parkhill, F., Ed.; Gillon, G., Ed.
"Motivating Literacy Learners in Today's World" provides insights into a broad spectrum of children's literacy learning. Motivation is the key theme and the authors show how this can be achieved through reading for pleasure; in writing activities at a number of levels; and through oral language development. Chapters include: (1)…
Teachers, principals, and supervisors need to determine the kinds of learners being taught in the school/class setting. Are pupils good by nature, bad, or neutral? Concepts held pertaining to each pupil assist in determining objectives, learning activities, and evaluation techniques. The Puritans believed that individuals were born evil or sinful.…
for repeat activity in security applications. The research team has made great strides in applying such ideas to urban domestic crime applications...developed new basic research to extend many of these ideas beyond domestic crime applications to problems abroad involving insurgents and also to other...for repeat activity in security applications. The research team has made great strides in applying such ideas to urban domestic crime applications
Shapiro, Amy M.
A number of available resources offer guidance about hypermedia design strategies, many of which rely on principles of user-centered design. Many recent efforts, however, have focused more on developing "learner-centered" hypermedia. Learner-centered hypermedia is designed to help learners achieve their educational goals, rather than offer mere…
Restrepo, Maria Adelaida; Gray, Shelley
Children in the United States who are English language learners characteristically do not exhibit the same levels of reading achievement as their peers. The article describes the development of English literacy in English language learners and the relationship between a child's second language (L2) and his or her native language (L1) in literacy development. It is organized first to consider the issue of language of instruction and language transfer, specifically the aspects of L1 literacy that appear to transfer to the second language (L2), English. It then discusses general principles for professionals working to optimize English literacy development in different models of literacy instruction for English language learners. We conclude that using the child's L1 provides the children with strong language and literacy skills in both languages.
Sattes, Beth; Walsh, Jackie; Hickman, Mickey
A SMART Learner is a lifelong learner who can adapt to rapid change and who possesses characteristics associated with success in and out of school. These workshop materials to help parents help their children become SMART learners provide: information from current research and best practice; learning activities that will actively engage parents in…
Epa, V Chandana; Burden, Frank R; Tassa, Carlos; Weissleder, Ralph; Shaw, Stanley; Winkler, David A
Products are increasingly incorporating nanomaterials, but we have a poor understanding of their adverse effects. To assess risk, regulatory authorities need more experimental testing of nanoparticles. Computational models play a complementary role in allowing rapid prediction of potential toxicities of new and modified nanomaterials. We generated quantitative, predictive models of cellular uptake and apoptosis induced by nanoparticles for several cell types. We illustrate the potential of computational methods to make a contribution to nanosafety.
Hohmann, Mary; Weikart, David P.
High/Scope preschool curriculum is a model for developing high-quality early childhood programs that encourage and support children's initiatives and active learning experiences. This revised manual for early childhood practitioners and students presents essential strategies adults can use to make active learning a reality in their programs. The…
Journal of Staff Development, 2014
Learning Forward's Standards for Professional Learning emphasize the needs and responsibilities of adults as learners. This is especially true for the Learning Designs standard, which states: "Professional learning that increases educator effectiveness and results for all students integrates theories, research, and models of human…
Mathematical modelling is suggested as an activity through which students engage in meaningful mathematics. In the current research, the modelling activity of a group of four seventh-grade students was analysed using the discursive analysis framework. The research findings show that the positionings and emotions of the group members during their…
Lamb, Terry Eric
Recent research in the fields of motivation and learner autonomy in language learning has begun to explore their relationships to the construct of identity. This article builds on this through the voices of a group of six learners of French or German in a secondary school in England, over a two-year period. These young learners initially reveal a…
Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary
Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…
Kurikawa, Tomoki; Kaneko, Kunihiko
We propose a novel associative memory model wherein the neural activity without an input (i.e., spontaneous activity) is modified by an input to generate a target response that is memorized for recall upon the same input. Suitable design of synaptic connections enables the model to memorize input/output (I/O) mappings equaling 70% of the total number of neurons, where the evoked activity distinguishes a target pattern from others. Spontaneous neural activity without an input shows chaotic dynamics but keeps some similarity with evoked activities, as reported in recent experimental studies.
Cady, Jo Ann; Hodges, Thomas E.; Brown, Clara Lee
English Language Learners (ELLs) have an increasing presence in the nations' classrooms. From 1991 to 2004 the number of ELLs nearly doubled in grades K-12. Furthermore, new forms of accountability have school personnel concerned with the progress--or lack of progress--of the ELLs. "Principles and Standards" also reflects this concern: The Equity…
Hill, Laura E.
English Learner (EL) students in California's schools are numerous and diverse, and they lag behind their native-English-speaking peers. Closing the achievement gap for EL students has been a long-standing goal for California educators, and there are some signs of success. Now that EL funding and curriculum issues are receiving a fresh level of…
Karlsson, Jenni, Ed.
This document presents papers from a conference held in November 1995 in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, convened by the Education Policy Unit (EPU) of the University of Natal as part of research concerning the provision of library-based resources for school learners. Following an introduction are two chapters: "Identifying the Inherited Problems in…
World Education, Inc. Reports, 1987
This journal issue focuses on the learner, looks at why literacy has become a major concern and examines the changes brought about by the mastery of new skills. "Literacy/Illiteracy in an International Perspective" (Carman St. John Hunter) frames the discussion by stressing that literacy and illiteracy are moving targets, not fixed by…
Boettcher, Judith V.
Systems and services for recruiting, advising, and support of online students have seldom been at the top of the list when planning online and distance learning programs. That is now changing: Forces pushing advising and support services into the foreground include recognition of the student learner as "customer" and the increasing…
Hindal, Huda; Reid, Norman; Whitehead, Rex
It is well established that girls and boys perform differently in traditional examinations in most countries. This study looks at a sample of 754 school students in Kuwait (aged about 13) and explores how boys and girls differ in the performance in a range of tests related to learner characteristics. The fundamental question is how boys and girls…
Garcia, Eugene E.; Jensen, Bryant
Hispanics are the largest and youngest ethnic group in the United States. Moreover, young Hispanic children make up approximately 80 percent of the U.S. English language learner population. They are a heterogeneous group, born both inside and outside the United States and having origins in Mexico, Cuba, Central America, South America, and the…
Thomas et al. have defined transliteracy as "the ability to read, write and interact across a range of platforms, tools and media from signing and orality through handwriting, print, TV, radio and film, to digital social networks" (Transliteracy Research Group). The learner who is transliterate builds knowledge, communicates, and interacts across…
This article explores whether the perception of learner autonomy that is promoted in language pedagogy is suitable for preparing students to perform successfully in the changed circumstances of the use of English. Recent developments, which include the growing role of English as a lingua franca and computer-mediated communication (CMC), give rise…
Whenever educators talk about raising achievement, grade-level standards are most frequently the end goal for student learning. But what about students who have already met some, if not all, of those standards and who master material quickly and in-depth? Advanced and gifted learners often languish in our schools because teachers don't have the…
Rashidi, Nasser; Mortazavi, Fariba
This research investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of Iranian university EFL students. Participants in the present study were a total of 67 EFL learners, studying at Shiraz Azad University as senior English Translation students. The instruments utilized for data collection were three tests: A…
Decker, Johannes H; Otto, A Ross; Daw, Nathaniel D; Hartley, Catherine A
Theoretical models distinguish two decision-making strategies that have been formalized in reinforcement-learning theory. A model-based strategy leverages a cognitive model of potential actions and their consequences to make goal-directed choices, whereas a model-free strategy evaluates actions based solely on their reward history. Research in adults has begun to elucidate the psychological mechanisms and neural substrates underlying these learning processes and factors that influence their relative recruitment. However, the developmental trajectory of these evaluative strategies has not been well characterized. In this study, children, adolescents, and adults performed a sequential reinforcement-learning task that enabled estimation of model-based and model-free contributions to choice. Whereas a model-free strategy was apparent in choice behavior across all age groups, a model-based strategy was absent in children, became evident in adolescents, and strengthened in adults. These results suggest that recruitment of model-based valuation systems represents a critical cognitive component underlying the gradual maturation of goal-directed behavior.
Atalay, Özlem; Kahveci, Nihat Gürel
This experimental study examines the effects of Integrated Curriculum Model (ICM) on 4th grade elementary gifted and talented students' academic achievement, creativity and critical thinking (Control Group N= 10, Experimental Group N= 11) in the social studies classroom context, in Istanbul, Turkey. Integrated Curriculum Model was utilized to…
Tarkang, Elvis Enowbeyang
Introduction Since learners in secondary schools fall within the age group hardest hit by HIV/AIDS, it is obvious that these learners might be at high risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. However, little has been explored on the perception of risk of contracting HIV among secondary school learners in Cameroon. This study aimed at examining the perception of risk of contracting HIV among secondary school learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as framework. Methods A quantitative, correlational design was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire to collect data from 210 female learners selected through disproportional, stratified, simple random sampling technique, from three participating senior secondary schools. Statistics were calculated using SPSS version 20 software program. Results Only 39.4% of the respondents perceived themselves to be at high risk of contracting HIV, though the majority, 54.0% were sexually active. Multinomial logistic regression analyses show that sexual risk behaviours (p=0.000) and the Integrated Value Mapping (IVM) of the perception components of the HBM are the most significant factors associated with perception of risk of contracting HIV at the level p<0.05. Conclusion The findings of this study can play an instrumental role in the development of effective preventive and interventional messages for adolescents in Cameroon. PMID:25309659
Medical physics is learned in a combination of activities including classroom sessions, individual study, small-group collaborative problem solving, and direct experience in the laboratory or clinical environment. Each type of learning activity is characterized by its effectiveness in producing the desired knowledge for the learner and the cost in terms of resources and human effort required providing it. While learning and teaching is a human activity, modern technology provides a variety of tools that can be used to enhance human performance. The class or conference room is the common setting for educational sessions in both academic institutions and continuing education conferences and programs such as those sponsored by the AAPM. A major value of a class/conference room program is efficiency by bringing a group of learners together to share in a common learning experience under the guidance of one or more experienced learning facilitators (lecturers or presenters). A major challenge is that the class/conference room is separated from the real world of medical physics. The design of an educational activity needs to take into consideration the desired outcomes with respect to what the learners should be able to do. The distinction is that of being able to apply the knowledge to perform specific physics functions rather than just knowing and being able to recall facts, and perhaps do well on written examinations. These are different types of knowledge structures within the human brain and distinctly different learning activities to develop each. Much of medical physics education, especially at the post-graduate and continuing education level, is for the purpose of enhancing the ability of physicists and other related professionals to perform applied procedures and tasks and requires specific types of knowledge.In this session we will analyze various learning activity models, the values and limitations of each, and how they can be used in medical physics education
Mathematical modelling is suggested as an activity through which students engage in meaningful mathematics. In the current research, the modelling activity of a group of four seventh-grade students was analysed using the discursive analysis framework. The research findings show that the positionings and emotions of the group members during their participation in the modelling activity changed as the activity proceeded. Overall, it can be said that three of the four group members acted as insiders, while the fourth acted as an outsider, and only, towards the end of the group's work on the activity, he acted as an insider. Moreover, the research findings point at four factors that affected the group members' positionings and emotions during the modelling activity: the member's characteristics, the member's history of learning experiences, the activity characteristics and the modelling phases. Furthermore, the different positionings of the group members in the different modelling phases were accompanied by different emotions experienced by them, where being an insider and a collaborator resulted in positive emotions, while being an outsider resulted in negative emotions.
Adbo, Karina; Taber, Keith S.
The results presented here derive from a longitudinal study of Swedish upper secondary science students' (16-19 years of age) developing understanding of key chemical concepts. The informants were 18 students from two different schools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mental models of matter at the particulate level that…
Stanton, Marina R.; Atherton, W. Leigh; Toriello, Paul J.; Hodgson, Jennifer L.
Although screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) has been a popular model to address potential substance abuse issues in primary care, there is a need for innovative approaches for training providers and staff on SBIRT protocols. An interdisciplinary approach to SBIRT training, named ICARE, was implemented at 3 different…
Deforest, C. E.; Kankelborg, C. C.; Davey, A. R.; Rachmeler, L.
We present current results and status on fluxon modeling of free energy buildup and release in active regions. Our publicly available code, FLUX, has the unique ability to track magnetic energy buildup with a truly constrained topology in evolving, nonlinear force-free conditions. Recent work includes validation of the model against Low &Lou force-free field solutions, initial evolution studies of idealized active regions, and inclusion of locally parameterized reconnection into the model. FLUX is uniquely able to simulate complete active regions in 3-D on a single workstation; we estimate that a parallelized fluxon model, together with computer vision code to ingest solar data, could run faster than real time on a cluster of \\textasciitilde 30 CPUs and hence provide a true predictive space weather model in the style of predictive simulations of terrestrial weather.
Pillai, Vijayan K.; Gupta, Rashmi
Proposes a model of sexual activity among secondary school-going Zambian girls. Identifies the role of dating as an intervening variable in explaining the variation in sexual activity among teenagers. Schools are an important setting for the young to meet and initiate sexual relationships. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed.…
Green Teacher, 2000
Introduces activities on nitrogen, nitrogen pollution from school commuters, nitrogen response in native and introduced species, and nutrient loading models. These activities help students determine the nitrogen contribution from their parents' cars, test native plant responses to nitrogen, and experiment with the results of removing water from…
Al-Hmouz, A.; Shen, Jun; Al-Hmouz, R.; Yan, Jun
With recent advances in mobile learning (m-learning), it is becoming possible for learning activities to occur everywhere. The learner model presented in our earlier work was partitioned into smaller elements in the form of learner profiles, which collectively represent the entire learning process. This paper presents an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy…
Ledbetter, Andrew M.; Finn, Amber N.
Following research indicating prevalent and deleterious use of social communication technology in college classrooms, this study investigated teacher credibility, learner empowerment, and online communication attitude as predictors of such use. The sample included 379 participants who completed an online survey about a college course. Results…
Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.
Despite acknowledgement of the limited English vocabularies demonstrated by many language minority (LM) learners, few studies have identified skills that relate to variation in vocabulary growth in this population. This study investigated the concurrent development of morphological awareness (i.e., students' understanding of complex words as…
Avitabile, Daniele; Homer, Martin; Jackson, Joe; Robert, Daniel; Champneys, Alan
A simple microscopic mechanistic model is described of the active amplification within the Johnston's organ of the mosquito species Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. The model is based on the description of the antenna as a forced-damped oscillator coupled to a set of active threads (ensembles of scolopidia) that provide an impulsive force when they twitch. This twitching is in turn controlled by channels that are opened and closed if the antennal oscillation reaches a critical amplitude. The model matches both qualitatively and quantitatively with recent experiments. New results are presented using mathematical homogenization techniques to derive a mesoscopic model as a simple oscillator with nonlinear force and damping characteristics. It is shown how the results from this new model closely resemble those from the microscopic model as the number of threads approach physiologically correct values.
Goldstein, Daniel; Chakraborty, Bulbul; Baskaran, Aparna
Recent experiments in active filament networks reveal interesting rheological properties (Dan Chen: APS March Meeting 2015 D49.00001). This system consumes ATP to produce an extensile motion in bundles of microtubules. This extension then leads to self generated stresses and spontaneous flows. We propose a minimal model where the activity is modeled by self-extending bundles that are part of a cross linked network. This network can reorganize itself through buckling of extending filaments and merging events that alter the topology of the network. We numerically simulate this minimal kinetic model and examine the emergent rheological properties and determine how stresses are generated by the extensile activity. We will present results that focus on the effects of confinement and network connectivity of the bundles on stress fluctuations and response of an active gel.
Phillips, C. D.; Thomason, R.; Galloway, M.; Sorey, N.; Stidham, L.; Torgerson, M.
EMPACTS (Educationally Managed Projects Advancing Curriculum, Technology/Teamwork and Service) is a project-based, adult learning modelthat is designed to enhance learning of course content through real-world application and problem solving self directed and collaborative learning use of technology service to the community EMPACTS students are self-directed in their learning, often working in teams to develop, implement, report and present final project results. EMPACTS faculty use community based projects to increase deeper learning of course content through "real-world" service experiences. Learners develop personal and interpersonal work and communication skills as they plan, execute and complete project goals together. Technology is used as a tool to solve problems and to publish the products of their learning experiences. Courses across a broad STEM curriculum integrate the EMPACTS project experience into the overall learning outcomes as part of the learning college mission of preparing 2Y graduates for future academic and/or workforce success. Since the program began in 2005, there have been over 200 completed projects/year. Student driven successes have led to the establishment of an EMPACTS Technology Corp, which is funded through scholarship and allows EMPACTS learners the opportunity to serve and learn from one another as "peer instructors." Engineering and 3D graphic design teams have written technology proposals and received funding for 3D printing replication projects, which have benefited the college as a whole through grant opportunities tied to these small scale successes. EMPACTS students engage in a variety of outreachprojects with area schools as they share the successes and joys of self directed, inquiry, project based learning. The EMPACTS Program has successfully trained faculty and students in the implementation of the model and conduct semester to semester and once a year workshops for college and K-12 faculty, who are interested in
Gender is considered as one of the important variables that effects learner motivation in second or foreign language acquisition. It is also believed that learner motivation has an impact on learner performance as well. Using the expectancy-value theory model of achievement motivation, this study aimed at exploring (1) the impact of gender…
Callan-Jones, A. C.; Voituriez, R.
We develop a model of amoeboid cell motility based on active gel theory. Modeling the motile apparatus of a eukaryotic cell as a confined layer of finite length of poroelastic active gel permeated by a solvent, we first show that, due to active stress and gel turnover, an initially static and homogeneous layer can undergo a contractile-type instability to a polarized moving state in which the rear is enriched in gel polymer. This agrees qualitatively with motile cells containing an actomyosin-rich uropod at their rear. We find that the gel layer settles into a steadily moving, inhomogeneous state at long times, sustained by a balance between contractility and filament turnover. In addition, our model predicts an optimal value of the gel-substrate adhesion leading to maximum layer speed, in agreement with cell motility assays. The model may be relevant to motility of cells translocating in complex, confining environments that can be mimicked experimentally by cell migration through microchannels.
This paper calls for a new theory of learner support in distance learning based on recent findings in the fields of learning and motivational psychology. It surveys some current learning motivation theories and proposes that models drawn from the relatively new field of Positive Psychology, such as the "Strengths Approach", together with…
Hsu, Chia-Cheng; Wang, Kun-Te; Huang, Yueh-Min
An innovative learning mechanism for identifying learners' learning styles to improve adaptive learning is proposed. Hypermedia-learning tools are highly interactive to learners in web-based environments that have become increasingly popular in the field of education. However, these learning tools are frequently inadequate for individualize learning because accessing adaptive learning content is required for learners to achieve objectives. For predicating adaptive learning, a neuron-fuzzy inference approach is used to model the diagnosis of learning styles. Then, according to the diagnosis results, a recommendation model is constructed to help learners obtain adaptive digital content. The proposed approach has the capability of tracking learning activities on-line to correspond with learning styles. The results show that the identified model successfully classified 102 learners into groups based on learning style. The implemented learning mechanism produced a clear learning guide for learning activities, which can help an advanced learning system retrieve a well-structure learning unit.
Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; Sullivan, Howard J.; Leader, Lars F.; Jones, Elizabeth E. K.
Examines the effects of program mode (i.e., a lean program version containing a basic amount of learner practice versus a full mode containing expanded practice) and learner preference (matched or unmatched) for amount of practice on the achievement, time-in-program, and attitudes of university undergraduate students. Students preferred the lean…
Reia, Sandro M.; Neves, Ubiraci P. C.
Axelrod's model was proposed to study interactions between agents and the formation of cultural domains. It presents a transition from a monocultural to a multicultural steady state which has been studied in the literature by evaluation of the relative size of the largest cluster. In this article, we propose new measurements based on the concept of activity per agent to study the Axelrod's model on the square lattice. We show that the variance of system activity can be used to indicate the critical points of the transition. Furthermore the frequency distribution of the system activity is able to show a coexistence of phases typical of a first order phase transition. Finally, we verify a power law dependence between cluster activity and cluster size for multicultural steady state configurations at the critical point.
Within the frameworks of Sociocultural theory, particularly Vygotskian sociocultural theory and ZPD, Lave and Wenger's CoP, and contemporary sociocultural theory, this paper seeks to examine the unfavourable scholarly portrayal of learners and their identities based on learners' behaviours, attitudes, and beliefs about the social element of…
Smith, Judith L.
Across the nation, colleges are discovering a new group of students: retired learners. Special programs are emerging to meet the unique needs and interests of this mature population. This booklet describes these programs under the generic title, College Centers for Older Learners (CCOLs). CCOLs offer a stimulating college environment for older…
Lawler, Brian R.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the personal epistemologies of generative adolescent mathematical learners. A generative disposition defined a learner who operated mathematically in ways that reflect an internalized authority for knowing and a constructive orientation to knowledge. Drawing upon the radical constructivist teaching…
Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael
The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…
Clark, Sharon; Baggaley, Jon
Previous reports in this series (#32 and 36) have discussed online software features of value to disabled learners in distance education. The current report evaluates four specific assistive software products with useful features for visually and hearing impaired learners: "ATutor", "ACollab", "Natural Voice", and "Just Vanilla". The evaluative…
Lucas, John A., Ed.
Topics concerning the adult learner that are relevant to institutional researchers are addressed in four articles: marketing, predicting success for adult students, enrollment projection, and follow-up studies of adult learners. In "Institutional Research in Support of Marketing the Adult Student," Lydia Jurand notes the importance of…
Hindal, Huda; Reid, Norman; Whitehead, Rex
The outstandingly able learner has been conceptualised, in terms of test and examination performance, as the learner showing superior academic performance which is markedly better than that of peers and in ways regarded as of value by wider society. In Kuwait, such superior examination performance leads to a classification regarded as being…
This study is concerned with problems in language learners' intonation of English. Ten intonation problems were found in the learner speech of two adult Spanish-speaking males: (1) range of pitch, (2) initial rise, (3) final fall, (4) rise to final stressed syllable, (5) placement of prominence, (6) final rise for questions, (7) total question…
Swami, Jasti Appa
This article evaluates the efficacy of explicit genre-based instruction by sensitizing the ESL learners to the concept of genre. The main questions addressed are: How does sensitizing ESL learners to the rhetorical move structure of a genre, the communicative purposes of these moves, and linguistic features that realize these moves help them to…
Allami, Hamid; Montazeri, Maryam
The present study aimed at examining the knowledge of Iranian EFL learners in responding to compliments in English, with a focus on the variables of gender, age and educational background. The data were collected through a 24-item English Discourse Completion Task (DCT) to which 40 male and female EFL learners were asked to provide short…
Raya, Manuel Jimenez; Fernandez, Jose Maria Perez
Presents paths for theoretical research and practical procedures that may help teachers make new technology pedagogically relevant. Discusses the need to develop learner autonomy to help students process information in meaningful ways and become independent learners by developing effective learning strategies, transfer skills, and a greater sense…
Byrne, Jason; Diem, Robert
The purpose of this study was to use an app-embedded survey to profile language learner demographics. A total of 3,759 EFL language learners from primarily eight L1 backgrounds (French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Russian, Spanish and Thai) responded to the survey embedded within a popular English grammar app. This app has over 500,000…
Calderon, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sanchez, Marta
The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or…
Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter
Contrary to system-controlled multimedia learning environments, hypermedia systems are characterized by a high level of interactivity. This interactivity is referred to as learner control in the respective literature. For several reasons this learner control is seen as a major advantage of hypermedia for learning and instruction. For instance,…
de Saint Leger, Diane; Storch, Neomy
This paper investigates learners' perceptions of their speaking abilities, of their contributions to oral class activities (whole class and small group discussions) as well as their attitudes towards these activities, and how such perceptions and attitudes influenced the learners' willingness to communicate in the L2. The study employed a range of…
Javadi Mottaghi, Fatemeh; Abdollahi Azgomi, Mohammad
The essence of workflow systems is workflow patterns. The aim is to use an existing powerful formal modeling language with workflow systems. Stochastic activity networks (SANs) are a powerful extension of Petri nets. Having the SAN model of a system, one can verify the functional aspects and evaluate the operational measures, both on a same model. SANs have already been used in a wide range of applications. As a new application area, we have used SANs for modeling workflow systems. The results show that the most important workflow patterns can be modeled in SANs. In addition, the resulting SAN models of workflow systems can be used for model checking and/or performance evaluation purposes using the existing tools. In this paper, we will present the results of this work. For this purpose, we will present the SAN submodels corresponding to the most important workflow patterns. Then, the proposed SAN submodels are used in a case study for workflow modeling, which will also be presented in this paper. Finally, we will present the results of the evaluation of the model using the Möbius modeling tool.
Netten, Andrea; Droop, Mienke; Verhoeven, Ludo
In this study an attempt was made to construct a multi-factor model predicting the development of reading literacy in the upper grades of primary school in the Netherlands for subgroups of 729 first language (L1) learners and 93 second language (L2) learners. Following a longitudinal design, it was explored to what extent the variation in reading literacy development in L1 and L2 from grade 4 to grade 6 can be explained from children's word decoding, language, mathematics and nonverbal reasoning skills, reading motivation and self confidence as well as their home reading resources. The results showed that L1 and L2 learners differed in reading literacy skills, language, mathematics, and reasoning skills. Structural equation modelling showed that the reading literacy development in both L1 and L2 learners could be explained from decoding, language, mathematics and reasoning skills, as well as their motivation and self-confidence. A striking difference was the fact that home reading resources had an impact on reading literacy in L1 learners but not in L2 learners.
Doruk, Bekir Kürsat
Researchers have proposed a variety of methods to make a connection between real life and mathematics so that it can be learned in a practical way and enable people to utilise mathematics in their daily lives. Model-eliciting activities (MEAs) were developed to fulfil this need and are very capable of serving this purpose. The reason MEAs are so…
The paper presents a mathematical model of total mercury removed from the flue gas at coal-fired plants equipped with powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection for Mercury control. The developed algorithms account for mercury removal by both existing equipment and an added PAC in...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Model activities. 1006.225 Section 1006.225 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK...
Lichtman, Brenda; Avans, Diana
This article describes a hybrid activities model that physical educators can use with students in grades four and above to create virtually a limitless array of novel games. A brief introduction to the basic theory is followed by descriptions of some hybrid games. Hybrid games are typically the result of merging two traditional sports or other…
This article describes the principles and investigation of a small-group laboratory activity based on refutational modeling to teach the concept of seasons to preservice elementary teachers. The results show that these teachers improved significantly when they had to refute their initial misconceptions practically. (Contains 8 figures and 1 table.)
Shin, Joan Kang
This article offers ten suggestions for teaching young learners between the age of 7 and 12 based on language-teaching principles. They include supplementing activities with visuals, realia and movement; involving students in making visuals and realia; moving from activity to activity; teaching in themes; using stories and contexts familiar to…
Kim, Mi Song
Situating science concepts in concrete and authentic contexts, using information and communications technologies, including multimodal modeling tools, is important for promoting the development of higher-order thinking skills in learners. However, teachers often struggle to integrate emergent multimodal models into a technology-rich informal…
The main goal of the new instructional design model is to organize long term and full learning activities. The new model is based on the theoretical foundation of behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism. During teaching and learning activities, learners are active and use cognitive, constructivist, or behaviorist learning to construct new…
Marra, S. P.; Ramesh, K. T.; Douglas, A. S.
Active materials respond mechanically to changes in environmental conditions. One example of a compliant active material is a polymer gel. Active polymer gels expand and contract in response to certain environmental stimuli, such as the application of an electric field or a change in the pH level of the surroundings. This ability to achieve large, reversible deformations with no external mechanical loading has generated much interest in the use of these gels as actuators and "artificial muscles". While much work has been done to study the behavior and properties of these gels, little information is available regarding the full constitutive description of the mechanical and actuation properties. This work focuses on developing a means of characterizing the mechanical properties of compliant active materials. A thermodynamically consistent finite-elastic constitutive model was developed to describe the mechanical and actuation behaviors of these kinds of materials. The mechanical properties of compliant active materials are characterized by a free-energy function, and the model utilizes an evolving internal variable to describe the actuation state. A biaxial testing system has been developed which can measure stresses and deformations of polymer gel films in a variety of liquid environments. This testing system is used to determine the form and parameters of the free-energy function for a specific active polymer gel, poly(vinyl alcohol)-poly(acrylic acid) gel.
LUCIANO, CARL S.; YOUNG, MATTHEW W.; PATTERSON, ROBIN R.
Although bacteriophage provided a useful model system for the development of molecular biology, its simplicity, accessibility, and familiarity have not been fully exploited in the classroom. We describe a student-centered laboratory course in which student teams selected phage from sewage samples and characterized the phage in a semester-long project that modeled real-life scientific research. The course used an instructional approach that included active learning, collaboration, and learning by inquiry. Cooperative student teams had primary responsibility for organizing the content of the course, writing to learn using a journal article format, involving the entire group in shared laboratory responsibilities, and applying knowledge to the choice of new experiments. The results of student evaluations indicated a high level of satisfaction with the course. Our positive experience with this course suggests that phage provides an attractive model system for an active-learning classroom. PMID:23653543
Imbierowicz, Mirosław; Chacuk, Andrzej
Thermal hydrolysis of excess activated sludge suspensions was carried at temperatures ranging from 423 K to 523 K and under pressure 0.2-4.0 MPa. Changes of total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in a solid and liquid phase were measured during these studies. At the temperature 423 K, after 2 h of the process, TOC concentration in the reaction mixture decreased by 15-18% of the initial value. At 473 K total organic carbon removal from activated sludge suspension increased to 30%. It was also found that the solubilisation of particulate organic matter strongly depended on the process temperature. At 423 K the transfer of TOC from solid particles into liquid phase after 1 h of the process reached 25% of the initial value, however, at the temperature of 523 K the conversion degree of 'solid' TOC attained 50% just after 15 min of the process. In the article a lumped kinetic model of the process of activated sludge thermohydrolysis has been proposed. It was assumed that during heating of the activated sludge suspension to a temperature in the range of 423-523 K two parallel reactions occurred. One, connected with thermal destruction of activated sludge particles, caused solubilisation of organic carbon and an increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration in the liquid phase (hydrolysate). The parallel reaction led to a new kind of unsolvable solid phase, which was further decomposed into gaseous products (CO(2)). The collected experimental data were used to identify unknown parameters of the model, i.e. activation energies and pre-exponential factors of elementary reactions. The mathematical model of activated sludge thermohydrolysis appropriately describes the kinetics of reactions occurring in the studied system.
Aitken, Joan E.
This paper provides strategies for communicating about and with learners diagnosed with emotional or behavioral disorders. Based on educator interviews, the author discusses ways to communicate about learners through Response to Intervention models from two Midwestern school districts. The models provide ideas for identifying and monitoring…
The present study illuminates and diagnoses the learning problems of the rural learners in English Grammar at standard VI. Present study may be useful to ameliorate the rural learners for acquiring competencies in English and eliminates the problems of the learners. It paves way to the teachers to diagnose the learning hurdles of the learners and…
Piskurich, George M., Ed.
This book presents methods business organizations and educational institutions can use to prepare their learners to become successful e-learners. "Preparing e-Learners for Self- Directed Learning" (Long) discusses self-direction as a prerequisite to e-learning and gives a list of ways to help enhance learners' self-directedness.…
Redner, Gabriel S.
The amazing collective behaviors of active systems such as bird flocks, schools of fish, and colonies of microorganisms have long amazed scientists and laypeople alike. Understanding the physics of such systems is challenging due to their far-from-equilibrium dynamics, as well as the extreme diversity in their ingredients, relevant time- and length-scales, and emergent phenomenology. To make progress, one can categorize active systems by the symmetries of their constituent particles, as well as how activity is expressed. In this work, we examine two categories of active systems, and explore their phase behavior in detail. First, we study systems of self-propelled spherical particles moving in two dimensions. Despite the absence of an aligning interaction, this system displays complex emergent dynamics, including phase separation into a dense active solid and dilute gas. Using simulations and analytic modeling, we quantify the phase diagram and separation kinetics. We show that this nonequilibrium phase transition is analogous to an equilibrium vapor-liquid system, with binodal and spinodal curves and a critical point. We also characterize the dense active solid phase, a unique material which exhibits the structural signatures of a crystalline solid near the crystal-hexatic transition point, as well as anomalous dynamics including superdiffusive motion on intermediate timescales. We also explore the role of interparticle attraction in this system. We demonstrate that attraction drastically changes the phase diagram, which contains two distinct phase-separated regions and is reentrant as a function of propulsion speed. We interpret this complex situation with a simple kinetic model, which builds from the observed microdynamics of individual particles to a full description of the macroscopic phase behavior. We also study active nematics, liquid crystals driven out of equilibrium by energy-dissipating active stresses. The equilibrium nematic state is unstable in these
Leiva, Víctor; Tejo, Mauricio; Guiraud, Pierre; Schmachtenberg, Oliver; Orio, Patricio; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando
Neurons transmit information as action potentials or spikes. Due to the inherent randomness of the inter-spike intervals (ISIs), probabilistic models are often used for their description. Cumulative damage (CD) distributions are a family of probabilistic models that has been widely considered for describing time-related cumulative processes. This family allows us to consider certain deterministic principles for modeling ISIs from a probabilistic viewpoint and to link its parameters to values with biological interpretation. The CD family includes the Birnbaum-Saunders and inverse Gaussian distributions, which possess distinctive properties and theoretical arguments useful for ISI description. We expand the use of CD distributions to the modeling of neural spiking behavior, mainly by testing the suitability of the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution, which has not been studied in the setting of neural activity. We validate this expansion with original experimental and simulated electrophysiological data.
This study investigates the perception of English vowels /i I/, /u U/, and /e EI/ and Spanish /i u e/ by native-speakers (NS) and learners (L) and compares these two sets of vowels cross-linguistically. Research on the acquisition of vowels indicates that learners can improve their perception with exposure to the second language [Bohn and Flege (1990)]. Johnson, Flemming, and Wright (1993) investigated the hyperspace effect and how listeners tended to choose extreme vowel qualities in a method of adjustment (MOA) task. The theoretical framework of this study is Fleges (1995) Speech Learning Model. The research question is: Are vowels selected differently by NS and L using synthesized data? Spanish learners (n=54) and English learners (n=17) completed MOA tasks in which they were exposed to 330 synthetically produced vowels to analyze spectral differences in the acquisition of both sound systems, and how the learners vowel system may vary from that of the NS. In the MOA tasks they were asked to select which synthesized vowel sounds resembled the most the ones whose spelling was presented to them. The results include an overview of the vowel formant analysis performed, and which vowels are the most challenging ones to learners.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn , AL 36849, U.S.A. Active Control of Automobile Two-Stage Suspension System-Half Car Model...element model ..... one d.imensnional modelo -ilo0- S-120 1 L 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 Frequency(f/fO) 6(b) Sensor Voltage S20 10 16
Toschkoff, Gregor; Just, Sarah; Knop, Klaus; Kleinebudde, Peter; Funke, Adrian; Djuric, Dejan; Scharrer, Georg; Khinast, Johannes G
Tablet coating is a common unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry, during which a coating layer is applied to tablet cores. The coating uniformity of tablets in a batch is especially critical for active coating, that is, coating that contains an active pharmaceutical ingredient. In recent years, discrete element method (DEM) simulations became increasingly common for investigating tablet coating. In this work, DEM was applied to model an active coating process as closely as possible, using measured model parameters and non-spherical particles. We studied how operational conditions (rotation speed, fill level, number of nozzles, and spray rate) influence the coating uniformity. To this end, simulation runs were planned and interpreted according to a statistical design of (simulation) experiments. Our general goal was to achieve a deeper understanding of the process in terms of residence times and dimensionless scaling laws. With that regard, the results were interpreted in light of analytical models. The results were presented at various detail levels, ranging from an overview of all variations to in-depth considerations. It was determined that the biggest uniformity improvement in a realistic setting was achieved by increasing the number of spray nozzles, followed by increasing the rotation speed and decreasing the fill level.
Saint, Sanjay; Fowler, Karen E; Krein, Sarah L; Flanders, Scott A; Bodnar, Timothy W; Young, Eric; Moseley, Richard H
BACKGROUND Although hospitalists may improve efficiency and quality of inpatient care, their effect on healthcare-worker communication and education has been less well-studied. OBJECTIVE To test various approaches to improving healthcare-worker communication and learner education within the context of a newly designed academic hospital medicine program. DESIGN Before-and-after design with concurrent control group. SETTING A Midwestern Veterans Affairs medical center. INTERVENTION Multimodal systems redesign of 1 of 4 medical teams (Gold team) that included clinical modifications (change in rounding structure, with inclusion of nurses, a Clinical Care Coordinator, and a pharmacist) and educational interventions (providing explicit expectations of learners and providing a reading list for both learners and attending physicians). MEASUREMENTS Number of admissions, length of stay, readmissions, house officer and medical student ratings of attendings' teaching, medical student internal medicine National Board of Medical Examiners Subject Examination (“shelf” exam) scores, and clinical staff surveys. RESULTS Length of stay was reduced by about 0.3 days on all teams after the initiative began (P = 0.004), with no significant differences between Gold and non-Gold teams. The majority of physicians (83%) and nurses (68%) felt that including nurses during rounds improved healthcare-worker communication; significantly more nurses were satisfied with communication with the Gold team than with the other teams (71% vs 53%; P = 0.02). Gold attendings generally received higher teaching scores compared with non-Gold attendings, and third-year medical students on the Gold team scored significantly higher on the shelf exam compared with non–Gold team students (84 vs 82; P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Academic hospitalists working within a systems redesign intervention were able to improve healthcare-worker communication and enhance learner education without increasing
Active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigeration is an alternative technology to conventional vapor-compression refrigerators that has the potential to operate at higher efficiencies. Based on the magnetocaloric effect, this technology uses the magnetization and demagnetization of environmentally neutral solid refrigerants to produce a cooling effect. To become competitive however, a large amount of research into the optimal device configurations, operating parameters and refrigerants is still needed. To aid in this research, a simplified model for predicting the general trends of AMR devices at a low computational cost is developed. The derivation and implementation of the model for an arbitrary AMR is presented. Simulations from the model are compared to experimental results from two different devices and show good agreement across a wide range of operating parameters. The simplified model is also used to study the impacts of Curie temperature spacing, material weighting and devices on the performance of multilayered regenerators. Future applications of the simplified AMR model include costing and optimization programs where the low computational demand of the model can be fully exploited.
Fichtner, K.-H.; Fichtner, L.; Freudenberg, W.; Ohya, M.
One of the main activities of the brain is the recognition of signals. A first attempt to explain the process of recognition in terms of quantum statistics was given in . Subsequently, details of the mathematical model were presented in a (still incomplete) series of papers (cf. [7, 2, 5, 10]). In the present note we want to give a general view of the principal ideas of this approach. We will introduce the basic spaces and justify the choice of spaces and operations. Further, we bring the model face to face with basic postulates any statistical model of the recognition process should fulfill. These postulates are in accordance with the opinion widely accepted in psychology and neurology.
Ahn, Tae youn
Language exchange refers to a learning partnership between two learners with different native languages who collaborate to help each other improve their proficiency in the other's language. The purpose of this study is to examine the ways in which language-exchange participants activate learner agency to construct opportunities for learning in…
This paper reports on an exploratory case study of learner participation within the context of online language learning in virtual world platforms. Data for this investigation was collected through a case study of a Business English course within a qualitative Case-Study Research framework. This study examines learner activity in virtual worlds in…
Çardak, Çigdem Suzan
This article focusses on graduate level students' interactions during asynchronous CMC activities of an online course about the teaching profession in Turkey. The instructor of the course designed and facilitated a semester-long asynchronous CMC on forum discussions, and investigated the interaction of learners in multiple perspectives: learners'…
Amirian, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Mallahi, Omid; Zaghi, Damoon
Self-regulation is referred to as learners' self-generated ideas and actions which are systematically directed towards achieving educational goals and require learners' active participation in the learning process (Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994). The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL students' self-regulation capacity…
Sundqvist, Pia; Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
This paper presents findings from a study investigating young English language learners (YELLs) in Sweden in 4th grade (N = 76, aged 10-11). Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire and a one-week language diary. The main purpose was to examine the learners' L2 English language-related activities outside of school in general, and their…
This paper discusses the importance of considering bilingual learners' non-linguistic forms of communication for understanding their mathematical thinking. In particular, I provide a detailed analysis of communication involving a pair of high school bilingual learners during an exploratory activity where a touchscreen-based dynamic geometry…
This study investigates the roles of learner agency and group work in learning writing in English as a foreign language (EFL). Through exploratory and participatory action research, this study examines how learner agency and group work function amidst the activity system of task-based EFL writing, especially how they influence and are influenced…
Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna
This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…
Ezen-Can, Aysu; Boyer, Kristy Elizabeth
The tremendous effectiveness of intelligent tutoring systems is due in large part to their interactivity. However, when learners are free to choose the extent to which they interact with a tutoring system, not all learners do so actively. This paper examines a study with a natural language tutorial dialogue system for computer science, in which…
de Arcangelis, L.
Networks of living neurons represent one of the most fascinating systems of modern biology. If the physical and chemical mechanisms at the basis of the functioning of a single neuron are quite well understood, the collective behavior of a system of many neurons is an extremely intriguing subject. Crucial ingredient of this complex behavior is the plasticity property of the network, namely the capacity to adapt and evolve depending on the level of activity. This plastic ability is believed, nowadays, to be at the basis of learning and memory in real brains. This fundamental problem in neurobiology has recently shown a number of features in common to other complex systems. These features mainly concern the morphology of the network, namely the spatial organization of the established connections, and a novel kind of neuronal activity. Experimental data have, in fact, shown that electrical information propagates in a cortex slice via an avalanche mode. Both features have been found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems and successful models have been developed to describe their behavior. In this contribution, we apply a statistical mechanical model to describe the complex activity in a neuronal network. The network is chosen to have a number of connections in long range, as found for neurons in vitro. The model implements the main physiological properties of living neurons and is able to reproduce recent experimental results. The numerical power spectra for electrical activity reproduces also the power law behavior measured in an EEG of man resting with the eyes closed.
Hotelling, Barbara A.
Our mandate, as Lamaze International childbirth educators, is to assist women in making healthy pregnancy, birth, and parenting choices. Being mindful of health promotion theory and using learning tasks and dialogue education to provide information creates a collaborative Lamaze class where the teacher is the facilitator and the learners are accountable for their learning. This column offers Lamaze educators a deeper understanding of adult learners and our roles in their birth education. PMID:22942625
MacDonald, Hayley J.; McMorland, Angus J. C.; Stinear, Cathy M.; Coxon, James P.; Byblow, Winston D.
Reactive response inhibition (RI) is the cancellation of a prepared response when it is no longer appropriate. Selectivity of RI can be examined by cueing the cancellation of one component of a prepared multi-component response. This substantially delays execution of other components. There is debate regarding whether this response delay is due to a selective neural mechanism. Here we propose a computational activation threshold model (ATM) and test it against a classical “horse-race” model using behavioural and neurophysiological data from partial RI experiments. The models comprise both facilitatory and inhibitory processes that compete upstream of motor output regions. Summary statistics (means and standard deviations) of predicted muscular and neurophysiological data were fit in both models to equivalent experimental measures by minimizing a Pearson Chi-square statistic. The ATM best captured behavioural and neurophysiological dynamics of partial RI. The ATM demonstrated that the observed modulation of corticomotor excitability during partial RI can be explained by nonselective inhibition of the prepared response. The inhibition raised the activation threshold to a level that could not be reached by the original response. This was necessarily followed by an additional phase of facilitation representing a secondary activation process in order to reach the new inhibition threshold and initiate the executed component of the response. The ATM offers a mechanistic description of the neural events underlying RI, in which partial movement cancellation results from a nonselective inhibitory event followed by subsequent initiation of a new response. The ATM provides a framework for considering and exploring the neuroanatomical constraints that underlie RI. PMID:28085907
Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael
The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China.
Secreto, Percia V.; Pamulaklakin, Rhodora L.
Learner support in an open, distance and online learning is defined as "all activities and elements in education that respond to a known learner or group of learners, and which are designed to assist in the cognitive, affective, and systemic realms of the learning process" (Brindley, et. al, 2004). Teaching and tutoring, advising and…
Objective. To implement a learner-led, discussion-based course aimed at exposing second-year pharmacy learners to the study of emerging infectious diseases from a global health perspective and to assess the role and importance of pharmacists in the management of disease outbreaks. Design. Learners examined literature pertinent to an emerging infectious disease in a 3-credit, discussion-based course and participated in peer discussion led by a designated learner. Instructional materials included journal articles, audio-visual presentations, documentaries, book chapters, movies, newspaper/magazine articles, and other materials. Learning outcomes were measured based on the ability of learners to perform critical thinking and analysis, communicate with their peers, and participate in class discussions. Assessment. The course was offered to 2 consecutive cohorts consisting of 14 and 16 learners, respectively. Overall, every learner in the first cohort achieved a final grade of A for the course. In the second cohort, the overall grade distribution consisted of grades of A, B, and C for the course. Learner evaluations indicated that the active-learning, discussion-based environment significantly enhanced interest in the topic and overall performance in the course. Conclusion. The elective course on emerging infectious diseases provided in-depth exposure to disease topics normally not encountered in the pharmacy curriculum. Learners found the material and format valuable, and the course enhanced their appreciation of infectious diseases, research methodology, critical thinking and analysis, and their roles as pharmacists. PMID:26430268
Objective. To implement a learner-led, discussion-based course aimed at exposing second-year pharmacy learners to the study of emerging infectious diseases from a global health perspective and to assess the role and importance of pharmacists in the management of disease outbreaks. Design. Learners examined literature pertinent to an emerging infectious disease in a 3-credit, discussion-based course and participated in peer discussion led by a designated learner. Instructional materials included journal articles, audio-visual presentations, documentaries, book chapters, movies, newspaper/magazine articles, and other materials. Learning outcomes were measured based on the ability of learners to perform critical thinking and analysis, communicate with their peers, and participate in class discussions. Assessment. The course was offered to 2 consecutive cohorts consisting of 14 and 16 learners, respectively. Overall, every learner in the first cohort achieved a final grade of A for the course. In the second cohort, the overall grade distribution consisted of grades of A, B, and C for the course. Learner evaluations indicated that the active-learning, discussion-based environment significantly enhanced interest in the topic and overall performance in the course. Conclusion. The elective course on emerging infectious diseases provided in-depth exposure to disease topics normally not encountered in the pharmacy curriculum. Learners found the material and format valuable, and the course enhanced their appreciation of infectious diseases, research methodology, critical thinking and analysis, and their roles as pharmacists.
Karim, Md E.; Phoha, Vir V.; Sultan, Md A.
We develop a hierarchical immunological model to detect bot activities in a computer network. In the proposed model antibody (detector)-antigen (foreign object) reactions are defined using negative selection based approach and negative systems-properties are defined by various temporal as well as non-temporal systems features. Theory of sequential hypothesis testing has been used in the literature for identifying spatial-temporal correlations among malicious remote hosts and among the bots within a botnet. We use it for combining multiple immunocomputing based decisions too. Negative selection based approach defines a self and helps identifying non-selves. We define non-selves with respect to various systems characteristics and then use different combinations of non-selves to design bot detectors. Each detector operates at the client sites of the network under surveillance. A match with any of the detectors suggests presence of a bot. Preliminary results suggest that the proposed model based solutions can improve the identification of bot activities.
Aylward, Michael; Nixon, James; Gladding, Sophia
Medical education is moving toward assessment of educational outcomes rather than educational processes. The American Board of Internal Medicine and American Board of Pediatrics milestones and the concept of entrustable professional activities (EPA)--skills essential to the practice of medicine that educators progressively entrust learners to perform--provide new approaches to assessing outcomes. Although some defined EPAs exist for internal medicine and pediatrics, the continued development and implementation of EPAs remains challenging. As residency programs are expected to begin reporting milestone-based performance, however, they will need examples of how to overcome these challenges. The authors describe a model for the development and implementation of an EPA using the resident handoff as an example. The model includes nine steps: selecting the EPA, determining where skills are practiced and assessed, addressing barriers to assessment, determining components of the EPA, determining needed assessment tools, developing new assessments if needed, determining criteria for advancement through entrustment levels, mapping milestones to the EPA, and faculty development. Following implementation, 78% of interns at the University of Minnesota Medical School were observed giving handoffs and provided feedback. The authors suggest that this model of EPA development--which includes engaging stakeholders, an iterative process to describing the behavioral characteristics of each domain at each level of entrustment, and the development of specific assessment tools that support both formative feedback and summative decisions about entrustment--can serve as a model for EPA development for other clinical skills and specialty areas.
The present study examines how display model, English proficiency and cognitive preference affect English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' listening comprehension of authentic videos and cognitive load degree. EFL learners were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The control group received single coding and the experimental group received…
Fadlelmula, Fatma Kayan; Ozgeldi, Meric
The purpose of this study is to examine how a learner self-regulates learning while reading an academic text. In particular, the aim is not to generalize self-regulatory processes for any learning task, but to have an overall idea about how a learner self-regulates. In particular, Pintrich's SRL (self-regulated learning) model is used to find out…
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how an understanding of the Good Language Learner models described in the SLA literature can be used to tailor and implement a program of learning strategy training and self-regulatory practices in the classroom to empower L2 learners in an EFL context. The paper begins by reviewing the various…
Mahalingam, Sheila; Abdollah, Faizal Mohd; Sahib, Shahrin
The paper focus on learner centric attributes in a m-learning environment encounters the security measurements. In order to build up a systematic threat and countermeasure for protecting the learners as well as providing awareness and satisfaction in utilizing the mobile learning system, a security model need to be overhauled. The brief literature…
This article presents the results of a qualitative study into how adult literacy learners perceive reading. Individual interviews and focus groups were used to ask 37 adult literacy learners at a London further education college what reading is. It follows a grounded theory approach to build a model, or narrative, of reading in the form of six…
Nutta, Joyce W., Ed.; Mokhtari, Kouider, Ed.; Strebel, Carine, Ed.
"Preparing Every Teacher to Reach English Learners" presents a practical, flexible model for infusing English learner (EL) instruction into teacher education courses. The editors outline the key steps involved in this approach--winning faculty support, assessing needs, and developing capacity--and share strategies for avoiding pitfalls. The…
Hafidi, Mohamed; Bensebaa, Taher
The majority of adaptive and intelligent tutoring systems (AITS) are dedicated to a specific domain, allowing them to offer accurate models of the domain and the learner. The analysis produced from traces left by the users is didactically very precise and specific to the domain in question. It allows one to guide the learner in case of difficulty…
Al-Harthi, Aisha S.
This study investigated cultural variations between two samples of Arab and American distance learners (N = 190). The overarching purpose was to chart the underlying relationships between learner self-regulation and cultural orientation within distance education environments using structural equation modeling. The study found significant…
The developing discourse which moves assessment away from a measurement model towards one of learner empowerment and the development of assessment for lifelong learning sets the context for this article. The aim was to investigate the effect of self-assessment on foreign language learners' oral performance ability. Twenty EFL students of foreign…
Chinese EFL learners may have difficulty in speaking fluent and accurate English, for their speaking competence are likely to be influenced by cognitive, linguistic and affective factors. With the aim to enhance those learners' oral proficiency, this paper first discusses three effective models of teaching English speaking, and then proposes a…
The author reviews exemplary strategies for teaching reading to middle grades English language learners (ELLs) derived from 21 peer-reviewed journal articles and professional books. The author presents an in-depth look at three successful categories of reading strategies: interactive read-alouds to model fluent reading and engage learners, the…
Xie, Shijie; Schweizer, Kenneth
The nonlinear Langevin equation approach is applied to investigate the ensemble-averaged activated dynamics of small molecule liquids (or disconnected segments in a polymer melt) in dense nanocomposites under model isobaric conditions where the spherical nanoparticles are dynamically fixed. Fully thermalized and quenched-replica integral equation theory methods are employed to investigate the influence on matrix dynamics of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium nanocomposite structure, respectively. In equilibrium, the miscibility window can be narrow due to depletion and bridging attraction induced phase separation which limits the study of activated dynamics to regimes where the barriers are relatively low. In contrast, by using replica integral equation theory, macroscopic demixing is suppressed, and the addition of nanoparticles can induce much slower activated matrix dynamics which can be studied over a wide range of pure liquid alpha relaxation times, interfacial attraction strengths and ranges, particle sizes and loadings, and mixture microstructures. Numerical results for the mean activated relaxation time, transient localization length, matrix elasticity and kinetic vitrification in the nanocomposite will be presented.
Buning, Pieter G.
This presentation describes current work under UEET Active Flow Control CFD Research Tool Development. The goal of this work is to develop computational tools for inlet active flow control design. This year s objectives were to perform CFD simulations of fully gridded vane vortex generators, micro-vortex genera- tors, and synthetic jets, and to compare flowfield results with wind tunnel tests of simple geometries with flow control devices. Comparisons are shown for a single micro-vortex generator on a flat plate, and for flow over an expansion ramp with sidewall effects. Vortex core location, pressure gradient and oil flow patterns are compared between experiment and computation. This work lays the groundwork for evaluating simplified modeling of arrays of devices, and provides the opportunity to test simple flow control device/sensor/ control loop interaction.
Lambert, Richard G.; Kim, Do-Hong; Durham, Sean; Burts, Diane C.
This study illustrates why preschool children who are dual language learners (DLLs) are not a homogeneous group. An empirically developed model of preschool DLL subgroups, based on latent class analysis, was presented. The model reflects three separate subgroups of DLL children present in many classrooms where DLL children are served: Bilinguals,…
Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia; Gonzalez Canche, Manuel S.; Moll, Luis C.
Background/Context: In September 2007, the Arizona State Board of Education adopted the Structured English Immersion (SEI) model proposed by the Arizona English Language Learner (ELL) Task Force.During the 2008-2009 academic year, it required all school districts to implement the SEI model.The SEI program, best known as the 4-hour English Language…
Fumin, Fang; Li, Zhang
Since 2007, the Ministry of Education of China has been promoting a shift from traditional teaching models to a new teaching model where students' autonomous learning skills can be enhanced. In particular, college students are encouraged to learn English free from the constraints of time or place. While learner autonomy has been perceived as…
Short, Deborah J.; Fidelman, Carolyn G.; Louguit, Mohammed
This article describes a study examining the effects of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) model instruction on the academic language performance of middle and high school English language learners. The SIOP model is an approach for teaching content curriculum to students learning through a new language. Teachers employ techniques…
Hye, Abdul; Lin, Chin H.
The Space Station Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) has been modeled using modified SINDA/SINFLO programs to solve two-phase Thermo-fluid problems. The modifications include changes in several subroutines to incorporate implicit solution which allows larger time step as compared to that for explicit solutions. Larger time step saves computer time but involves larger computational error. Several runs were made using various time steps for the ATCS model. It has been found that for a reasonable approach, three times larger time step as compared to that used in explicit method is a good value which will reduce the computer time by approximately 50 percent and still maintain the accuracy of the output data to within 90 percent of the explicit values.
Research was undertaken to establish the social profile of Project 2000 (Diploma) learners, and to determine when, and with whose influence, learners make decisions to enter nursing. The image of nursing held by the group was sought and nurse tutors perceptions of the group were obtained, using a questionnaire method. Results analysed using statistical measures and content analysis showed that the majority of learners came from middle socio-economic backgrounds, generally decided to enter nursing whilst at school, and were influenced by nursing role models and the media. The learners perceptions and expectations of nursing were influenced by their experiences and showed some differences when compared with tutor responses. The findings from this small study imply the need for the dissemination of accurate and appropriate recruitment information to school personnel and career advisors. Effective marketing which addresses influences of the media and nursing role models should be employed, and finally nurse tutors need to be conversant with course content and learner expectations to facilitate effective recruitment policies and curriculum development.
Robinson, Peter A.; Rennie, Christopher J.
The electrical activity of the brain has been observed for over a century and is widely used to probe brain function and disorders, chiefly through the electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded by electrodes on the scalp. However, the connections between physiology and EEGs have been chiefly qualitative until recently, and most uses of the EEG have been based on phenomenological correlations. A quantitative mean-field model of brain electrical activity is described that spans the range of physiological and anatomical scales from microscopic synapses to the whole brain. Its parameters measure quantities such as synaptic strengths, signal delays, cellular time constants, and neural ranges, and are all constrained by independent physiological measurements. Application of standard techniques from wave physics allows successful predictions to be made of a wide range of EEG phenomena, including time series and spectra, evoked responses to stimuli, dependence on arousal state, seizure dynamics, and relationships to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fitting to experimental data also enables physiological parameters to be infered, giving a new noninvasive window into brain function, especially when referenced to a standardized database of subjects. Modifications of the core model to treat mm-scale patchy interconnections in the visual cortex are also described, and it is shown that resulting waves obey the Schroedinger equation. This opens the possibility of classical cortical analogs of quantum phenomena.
McQueen, Hilary; Webber, John
Following an investigation of students' views of one further education college's teaching and learning model (McQueen and Webber 2009), a second project, reported here, sought to review students' ideas about what constitutes an effective learner. For this project a set of 36 statements was constructed based on theoretical models and research about…
van Swol, Frank B.; Miller, James Edward; Lechman, Jeremy B.; Givler, Richard C.
Active brazes have been used for many years to produce bonds between metal and ceramic objects. By including a relatively small of a reactive additive to the braze one seeks to improve the wetting and spreading behavior of the braze. The additive modifies the substrate, either by a chemical surface reaction or possibly by alloying. By its nature, the joining process with active brazes is a complex nonequilibrium non-steady state process that couples chemical reaction, reactant and product diffusion to the rheology and wetting behavior of the braze. Most of the these subprocesses are taking place in the interfacial region, most are difficult to access by experiment. To improve the control over the brazing process, one requires a better understanding of the melting of the active braze, rate of the chemical reaction, reactant and product diffusion rates, nonequilibrium composition-dependent surface tension as well as the viscosity. This report identifies ways in which modeling and theory can assist in improving our understanding.
The term ``active plasma resonance spectroscopy'' (APRS) refers to a plasma diagnostic method which employs the natural ability of plasmas to resonate close to the plasma frequency. Essential for this method is an appropriate model to determine the relation between the resonance parameters and demanded plasma parameters. Measurements with these probes in plasmas of a few Pa typically show a broadening of the spectrum that cannot be predicted by a fluid model. Thus, a kinetic model is necessary. A general kinetic model of APRS probes, which can be described in electorstatic approximation, valid for all pressures has been presented. This model is used to analyze the dynamic behavior of such probes by means of functional analytic methods. One of the main results is, that the system response function Y (ω) is given in terms of the matrix elements of the resolvent of the dynamic operator evaluated for values on the imaginary axis. The spectrum of this operator is continuous which implies a new phenomenon related to anomalous or non-collisional dissipation. Based on the scalar product, which is motivated by the kinetic free energy, the non-collisional damping can be interpreted: In a periodic state, the probe constantly emits plasma waves which propagate to ``infinity''. The free energy simply leaves the ``observation range'' of the probe which is recorded as damping. The kinetic damping, which depends on the mean kinetic energy of the electrons, is responsible for the broadening of a resonance peak in the measured spectrum of APRS probes. The ultimate goal is to determine explicit formulas for the relation between the broadening of the resonance peak and the ``equivalent electron temperature'', especially in the case of the spherical Impedance Probe and the Multipole Resonance Probe. Gratitude is expressed to the internal funding of Leuphana University, the BMBF via PluTO+, the DFG via Collaborative Research Center TR 87, and the Ruhr University Research School.
Park, Han; Chien, Steve; Zak, Michail; James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Fisher, Forest
The concept of the active state model (ASM) is an architecture for the development of advanced integrated fault-detection-and-isolation (FDI) systems for robotic land vehicles, pilotless aircraft, exploratory spacecraft, or other complex engineering systems that will be capable of autonomous operation. An FDI system based on the ASM concept would not only provide traditional diagnostic capabilities, but also integrate the FDI system under a unified framework and provide mechanism for sharing of information between FDI subsystems to fully assess the overall health of the system. The ASM concept begins with definitions borrowed from psychology, wherein a system is regarded as active when it possesses self-image, self-awareness, and an ability to make decisions itself, such that it is able to perform purposeful motions and other transitions with some degree of autonomy from the environment. For an engineering system, self-image would manifest itself as the ability to determine nominal values of sensor data by use of a mathematical model of itself, and selfawareness would manifest itself as the ability to relate sensor data to their nominal values. The ASM for such a system may start with the closed-loop control dynamics that describe the evolution of state variables. As soon as this model was supplemented with nominal values of sensor data, it would possess self-image. The ability to process the current sensor data and compare them with the nominal values would represent self-awareness. On the basis of self-image and self-awareness, the ASM provides the capability for self-identification, detection of abnormalities, and self-diagnosis.
Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang
This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…
Barañao, P A; Hall, E R
Activated Sludge Model No 3 (ASM3) was chosen to model an activated sludge system treating effluents from a mechanical pulp and paper mill. The high COD concentration and the high content of readily biodegradable substrates of the wastewater make this model appropriate for this system. ASM3 was calibrated based on batch respirometric tests using fresh wastewater and sludge from the treatment plant, and on analytical measurements of COD, TSS and VSS. The model, developed for municipal wastewater, was found suitable for fitting a variety of respirometric batch tests, performed at different temperatures and food to microorganism ratios (F/M). Therefore, a set of calibrated parameters, as well as the wastewater COD fractions, was estimated for this industrial wastewater. The majority of the calibrated parameters were in the range of those found in the literature.
This descriptive study reports findings on the relationship between focus on form, learner uptake and subsequent lexical gains in learners' oral production. The data for the study consisted in 17 45-minute audio-recorded teacher-led conversations, 204 learners' diaries (17 sessions x 12 learners) reporting what they had learned after each…
Distance education has historically contained little or no learner-learner interactions. Currently the Internet allows for unprecedented levels of learner-learner interaction and has the potential to transform how students learn online. However, many courses offered online focus more on flexibility and independence than on interaction and…
Fukuchi, Naoko Tani; Sakamoto, Robin
As learner-centred approaches are gaining popularity in many language classrooms, the affective dimensions of learners and the interaction effects of learners and teachers have become an important theme for research and assessment. This paper explores how Japanese learners of English as a foreign language evolve in two geographically distinct…
Amit, Daniel J.
Neuro-physiological experiments on cognitively performing primates are described to argue that strong evidence exists for localized, non-ergodic (stimulus specific) attractor dynamics in the cortex. The specific phenomena are delay activity distributions-enhanced spike-rate distributions resulting from training, which we associate with working memory. The anatomy of the relevant cortex region and the physiological characteristics of the participating elements (neural cells) are reviewed to provide a substrate for modeling the observed phenomena. Modeling is based on the properties of the integrate-and-fire neural element in presence of an input current of Gaussian distribution. Theory of stochastic processes provides an expression for the spike emission rate as a function of the mean and the variance of the current distribution. Mean-field theory is then based on the assumption that spike emission processes in different neurons in the network are independent, and hence the input current to a neuron is Gaussian. Consequently, the dynamics of the interacting network is reduced to the computation of the mean and the variance of the current received by a cell of a given population in terms of the constitutive parameters of the network and the emission rates of the neurons in the different populations. Within this logic we analyze the stationary states of an unstructured network, corresponding to spontaneous activity, and show that it can be stable only if locally the net input current of a neuron is inhibitory. This is then tested against simulations and it is found that agreement is excellent down to great detail. A confirmation of the independence hypothesis. On top of stable spontaneous activity, keeping all parameters fixed, training is described by (Hebbian) modification of synapses between neurons responsive to a stimulus and other neurons in the module-synapses are potentiated between two excited neurons and depressed between an excited and a quiescent neuron
Adams, Rebecca; Nuevo, Ana Maria; Egi, Takako
Research on interactional feedback has typically focused on feedback learners receive from native speakers (i.e., NS-learner contexts). However, for many second language (L2) learners, the majority of their opportunities to engage in interaction occur with other learners (i.e., learner-learner contexts). The literature has suggested that feedback…
Brantingham, Patricia; Glässer, Uwe; Jackson, Piper; Vajihollahi, Mona
Computational and mathematical methods arguably have an enormous potential for serving practical needs in crime analysis and prevention by offering novel tools for crime investigations and experimental platforms for evidence-based policy making. We present a comprehensive formal framework and tool support for mathematical and computational modeling of criminal behavior to facilitate systematic experimental studies of a wide range of criminal activities in urban environments. The focus is on spatial and temporal aspects of different forms of crime, including opportunistic and serial violent crimes. However, the proposed framework provides a basis to push beyond conventional empirical research and engage the use of computational thinking and social simulations in the analysis of terrorism and counter-terrorism.
Memari Hanjani, Alireza
L2 learning literature has reflected on the problems surrounding the application of teacher written feedback and peer feedback in EFL contexts. To address the disadvantages of these feedback forms, this exploratory case study examined EFL learners' reactions to a collaborative revision activity. Interview data were collected from eight native…
Miller, Keith A.
Since the number of adult students engaging in higher education activities is growing rapidly and is expected to continue to climb, this paper is intended to help administrators develop a perspective from which to view adult learners on college campuses and craft programs to help faculty work more effectively with adult students. The first section…
Khorshidi, Hassan Rasouli; Nimchahi, Abdolreza Bagherzadeh
It is generally believed that interlanguage pragmatics and motivation play important roles in learning. Motivation is important because it determines the extent of the learner's active involvement and attitude toward learning. The major purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of integrative and instrumental motivation on the…
Students are increasingly expected to be able to think critically, solve complex problems, and communicate clearly. Educators are expected to facilitate that learning in a variety of situations for an increasingly individualized student population. Therefore, educators who attempt to change their practices must become active learners. A school…
Greenfader, Christa Mulker; Brouillette, Liane
This article presents an arts integration program that uses drama and dance to promote foundational literacy skills, with an emphasis on the oral development of English Language Learners (ELLs). Previous research indicates that arts activities afford a beneficial opportunity for young students to practice language skills, but many teachers have…
Capdeferro, Neus; Romero, Margarida
Online education increasingly puts emphasis on collaborative learning methods. Despite the pedagogical advantages of collaborative learning, online learners can perceive collaborative learning activities as frustrating experiences. The purpose of this study was to characterize the feelings of frustration as a negative emotion among online learners…
The World Wide Web offers a global database of authentic materials that can enhance language learning and teaching. This study examines the use of the web for language learning through a study of English as a second language (ESL) learners' experiences in web-based language learning (WBLL) activities in an English language intensive course for…
Rivera, Mabel O.; Moughamian, Ani; Francis, David J.
This Facilitator's Guide has been prepared for presenters of the "Language Development for English Language Learners" professional development module. It accompanies the 67-slide PowerPoint presentation with speaker's notes and contains materials to help prepare for a professional development session, including activity instructions, handouts,…
Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Lake, Vickie E.; Rice, Diana C.
If one were to search for classroom strategies for English Language Learners (ELLs), it would not take much time to find many different types of activities that are all useful with ELLs. Additionally, if one were to search for social studies strategies to use with native English speakers, he or she would have little difficulty in finding a variety…
Watts, Elizabeth L.
Discusses (1) a rationale for using young adult literature with adolescent English-as-a-Second-Language learners; (2) an approach to teaching the novel "Make Lemonade" by Virginia Euwer Wolff; (3) activities in which students engaged and samples of their work; and (4) implications for teachers who explore young adult literature with…
Holmes, N.; And Others
An investigation of how secondary students coped when taught binary arithmetic through a computer assisted instruction program used four treatment groups: learner control, learner control with advice; random program control, and adaptive program control. The random group performed less well, but no differences were found between learner and…
This paper is a series of lesson plans designed to assist teachers with the instruction of the exceptional learner. The focus is on identifying what the exceptional learner needs, and provides specific lesson plans that met those needs. Exceptional learners experience difficulty with spelling, organization, and metacognition. Detailed directions…
Cohen, Andrew D.
This article outlines what it means to be a strategic language learner in the context of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). It looks at the possible roles for language learner strategies at their crucial intersection with language learning technology. We will first consider what language learner strategies have been represented in…
This survey study, which involved 134 language learners enrolled in first-year Chinese as a foreign language classrooms in the US universities, intended to address the research question, "Do learners' strategy use differ based on the following learner differences: (1) gender; (2) home language/culture; and (3) number of other foreign languages…
Fogarty, Robin J.; Pete, Brian M.
This book addresses the "warrior" who rises to the challenge of teaching the adult learner. The discussion is designed as a catalyst for dialogue about the adult learner and to uncover the complexities of teaching this rare and riveting species. This book is organized around three interlocking themes: some things we know about the adult learner;…
Annis, Linda Ferrill
This paper outlines recommended test-taking strategies for the self-sufficient learner based on research in cognitive psychology. The theoretical model used is the information-processing approach involving the three essential steps of paying attention, encoding, and framing associative linkages for the new material. Preparing for examinations is…
In this paper, I adopt Best's (2001) Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM) to account for how Thai learners acquire English prepositions in prepositional phrases and propose the ranking order of English preposition acquisition into three different categories. The ranking is as follows: Category A is a one-to-one semantic mapping between English and…
Making Nation's text analysis software accessible via the World Wide Web has opened up an exploration of how his learning principles can best be realized in practice. This paper discusses 3 representative episodes in the ongoing exploration. The first concerns an examination of the assumptions behind modeling what texts look like to learners with…
According to Beck, McKeown, and Kucan's Three Tier Model (2002), when it comes to language instruction the distinction between academic vocabulary words and content specific words has a significant bearing on the language success of English language learners (ELLs). In this article, the author describes strategies that give teachers and parents…
de Jong, Kenneth; Park, Hanyong
Recent literature has sought to understand the presence of epenthetic vowels after the productions of postvocalic word-final consonants by second language (L2) learners whose first languages (L1s) restrict the presence of obstruents in coda position. Previous models include those in which epenthesis is seen as a strategy to mitigate the effects of…
Hermans, Henry; Kalz, Marco; Koper, Rob
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an e-learning system that integrates the use of concepts of virtual learning environments, personal learning environments, and social network sites. The system is based on a learning model which comprises and integrates three learning contexts for the adult learner: the formal, instructional…
Farnia, Fataneh; Geva, Esther
This study modeled vocabulary trajectories in 91 English language learners (ELLs) with Punjabi, Tamil, or Portuguese home languages, and 50 English monolinguals (EL1) from Grades 1 to 6. The concurrent and longitudinal relationships between phonological awareness and phonological short-term memory and vocabulary were examined. ELLs underperformed…
Cornelius-White, Jeffrey H.D.; Harbaugh, Adam P.
This book covers teaching methods, classroom management strategies, and ways to engage students and support their success. Authors Jeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White and Adam P. Harbaugh show K-12 teachers how to use the learner-centered instruction model to develop teacher-student relationships, as well as relationships with parents, administrators,…
Andrade, Maureen Snow
This paper describes an embedded approach to learner support in online English language courses. The support model is based on language acquisition, transactional distance, and self-regulated learning theories. Based on these theories, courses were designed to provide the interaction necessary for academic English language gains, decrease the…
Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education and Literacy.
This guide is intended to assist in linking service providers to existing resources and models and to build awareness of the body of innovative work that has been developed to respond to needs of homeless adult learners. It describes materials for instruction, outreach, and program management that were primarily developed in projects funded under…
Within the field of technology enhanced learning, adaptive educational systems offer an advanced form of learning environment that attempts to meet the needs of different students. Such systems capture and represent, for each student, various characteristics such as knowledge and traits in an individual learner model. Subsequently, using the…
Rojas, Raul; Iglesias, Aquiles
Although the research literature regarding language growth trajectories is burgeoning, the shape and direction of English Language Learners' (ELLs) language growth trajectories are largely not known. This study used growth curve modeling to determine the shape of ELLs' language growth trajectories across 12,248 oral narrative language samples…
Parker, Jenni; Maor, Dorit; Herrington, Jan
Over the past few decades there has been a substantial swing among higher education practitioners towards a more constructivist approach to learning. Nevertheless, it is still evident that many instructivist models are widely used in both classroom and online learning environments. A key challenge for educators is linking learner needs, pedagogy…
Riffel, R.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Dametto, N. Z.; Ruschel-Dutra, D.; Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Martins, L. P.; Mason, R.; Ho, L. C.; Palomar XD Team
Studying the unresolved stellar content of galaxies generally involves disentangling the various components contributing to the spectral energy distribution (SED), and fitting a combination of simple stellar populations (SSPs) to derive information about age, metallicity, and star formation history. In the near-infrared (NIR, 0.85-2.5 μm), the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase - the last stage of the evolution of intermediate-mass (M ≲ 6 M⊙) stars - is a particularly important component of the SSP models. These stars can dominate the emission of stellar populations with ages ˜ 0.2-2 Gyr, being responsible for roughly half of the luminosity in the K band. In addition, when trying to describe the continuum observed in active galactic nuclei, the signatures of the central engine and from the dusty torus cannot be ignored. Over the past several years we have developed a method to disentangle these three components. Our synthesis shows significant differences between Seyfert 1 (Sy 1) and Seyfert 2 (Sy 2) galaxies. The central few hundred parsecs of our galaxy sample contain a substantial fraction of intermediate-age populations with a mean metallicity near solar. Two-dimensional mapping of the near-infrared stellar population of the nuclear region of active galaxies suggests that there is a spatial correlation between the intermediate-age stellar population and a partial ring of low stellar velocity dispersion (σ*). Such an age is consistent with a scenario in which the origin of the low-σ* rings is a past event which triggered an inflow of gas and formed stars which still keep the colder kinematics of the gas from which they have formed. We also discuss the fingerprints of features attributed to TP-AGB stars in the spectra of the nuclear regions of nearby galaxies.
An e-learner's characteristics are very important variables with regards to educational performance and the e-learning environment. This study suggests a research model, based on a successful e-learning model, which presents the relationship between e-learner's self-regulated learning strategies and the quality perception in LMS (learning…
This paper attempts to conceptualize identity prototypes regarding model L2 learners/users of English over the past 50 years, as embedded in research discourses. For a long time, the ideal learner was a "faithful imitator" whose L2 use and cultural conduct were strictly modeled on the native speaker (NS). With postcolonial changes around…
This article describes the complex cognitive and linguistic challenges of summarizing expository text at vocabulary, syntactic, and rhetorical levels. It then outlines activities to help ABE/ESL learners develop corresponding skills.
Arabski, Janusz; Wojtaszek, Adam
"Individual Learner Differences in SLA" addresses the apparently insoluble conflict between the unquestionably individual character of the process of second language acquisition/foreign language learning and the institutionalised, often inflexible character of formal instruction in which it takes place. How, then, is success in SLA so prevalent?
Tsai, Kuan Chen
Creativity in education research has received increasing attention, although the major focus of this research has been on children. Despite pleas by several adult educators for promoting creativity, very few studies have focused on adult learners, leaving to it to be explored what approaches are useful for adult educators to facilitate creativity…
Rothes, Ana; Lemos, Marina S.; Gonçalves, Teresa
This study investigated profiles of autonomous and controlled motivation and their effects in a sample of 188 adult learners from two Portuguese urban areas. Using a person-centered approach, results of cluster analysis and multivariate analysis of covariance revealed four motivational groups with different effects in self-efficacy, engagement,…
From a sociocultural perspective, teacher identity is constructed in relation to others, including other teachers and students. Drawing on positioning theory and the concept of investment, this study analyzed the case of a secondary English teacher who negotiated his teacher identity in relation to English language learners (ELLs). Findings…
Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.
How can you ensure that you are grading your exceptional students fairly? Teachers receive very little guidance for grading students with disabilities, English learners, and those receiving services through a response-to-intervention (RTI) process. This practitioner-friendly book provides teachers and administrators with an effective framework for…
Kimmel, Sue C.
"Developing Collections to Empower Learners" examines collection development in the context of today's shifts toward digital resources while emphasizing the foundational beliefs of the school library profession. Writer Sue Kimmel includes practical advice about needs assessment, planning, selection, acquisitions, evaluation, and…
Marschark, Marc; Morrison, Carolyn; Lukomski, Jennifer; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol
It is frequently assumed that by virtue of their hearing losses, deaf students are visual learners. Deaf individuals have some visual-spatial advantages relative to hearing individuals, but most have been linked to use of sign language rather than auditory deprivation. How such cognitive differences might affect academic performance has been…
Decades of reform have resulted in a system of further education that treats adults like children, with limited control over the qualifications they choose to pursue. This needs to change. Money must follow learners, not government contracts, and so create a genuinely demand-led system. The author proposes new financial and regulatory structures…
Pendergraft, Katy; Daugherty, Michael K.; Rossetti, Charles
In an effort to develop an engineering design project that would deliver the necessary content and reach out to the English Language Learner (ELL) community, faculty in the Engineering Academy at Springdale High School in Springdale, Arkansas instituted the ELL Engineering Collaborative. The ELL Engineering Collaborative has four primary goals…
Identifying the best way to help students who struggle with reading--whether they have learning disabilities, are English language learners, or just need extra support--is a challenge for any teacher. Schools can make that task easier with this indispensable resource, a complete guide to addressing each student's specific instructional needs and…
Hedley, Carolyn N., Ed.; Hicks, John S., Ed.
Compiled from papers presented at the annual Reading/Special Education Institute at Fordham University, this collection of essays addresses reading problems of special education students. The book is divided into three sections. The first section covers reading assessment and reading intervention; section 2 addresses the specific learner and the…
This chapter offers a theoretical rationale and an explanation of evidence for using research-validated, learner-centered principles and practices in online course development, highlighting the evidence-based practices that have been used successfully to develop online courses that engage and retain students.
Hector-Mason, Anestine; Bardack, Sarah
This annotated bibliography represents a first step toward compiling a comprehensive overview of current research on issues related to English language learners (ELLs). It is intended to be a resource for researchers, policymakers, administrators, and educators who are engaged in efforts to bridge the divide between research, policy, and practice…
Oregon Department of Education, 2013
This guide is designed as a reference for District and School personnel working with English learners (ELs). The content of the guide represents a compilation of information, examples, and resources. This guide is a living document and subject to frequent updates. It is recommended to review the document online rather than printing a hard copy.
Schwitzer, Alan M.; Duggan, Mary H.
Old Dominion University's distance learning program, called TELETECHNET, brings the main-campus college experience to geographically distant learners at sites across Virginia and as far away as the state of Washington, as well as to military personnel on Navy bases, carriers, and submarines. In an interesting turnabout, the Summer Institute for…
Unaware of the messages a bare adult learning environment sends and its effect on adult learners, a trainer attends an intensive Reggio Emilia course and learns that the physical environment is the "third teacher"--for adults as well as for children. Using principles of Reggio, she offers suggestions for enhancing adult learning spaces and…
Goldin, Ilya M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Aleven, Vincent
Although ITSs are supposed to adapt to differences among learners, so far, little attention has been paid to how they might adapt to differences in how students learn from help. When students study with an Intelligent Tutoring System, they may receive multiple types of help, but may not comprehend and make use of this help in the same way. To…
ERRORS (NOT MISTAKES) MADE IN BOTH SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING AND CHILD LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PROVIDE EVIDENCE THAT A LEARNER USES A DEFINITE SYSTEM OF LANGUAGE AT EVERY POINT IN HIS DEVELOPMENT. THIS SYSTEM, OR "BUILT-IN SYLLABUS," MAY YIELD A MORE EFFICIENT SEQUENCE THAN THE INSTRUCTOR-GENERATED SEQUENCE BECAUSE IT IS MORE MEANINGFUL TO THE…
Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2005
This Summer 2005 issue of "Learners in Action" contains the following articles: (1) Bridging Barriers to Learning (Glenn Kissman); (2) Education Really Is a Family Affair; (3) Sabrina's Story; (4) SARAW Helps Students Find Their Voice; (5) Literacy Changes Lives; and (6) Seeing STARs in Alberta.
Scales, Julie; Wennerstrom, Ann; Richard, Dara; Wu, Su Hui
This study analyzed the accent perceptions of a group of 37 English language learners and 10 American undergraduate students. Each subject listened to a one-minute passage read by four speakers with different accents of English: General American, British English, Chinese English, and Mexican English. Participants then attempted to identify the…
For more than a decade, the professional development literature has shown that most teachers are not adequately prepared to teach English learners (ELs)--that holds true for both specialist and mainstream teachers (see, for example, August & Hakuta, 1997; Beykont, 2002). Research that focuses on professional development for teachers of ELs,…
Ally, Mohamed; Cleveland-Innes, Martha; Boskic, Natasha; Larwill, Sandra
This article reports findings from a study exploring the generativity (Gibbons, Nelson, & Richards, 2000; Parrish, 2004) and discoverability (Friesen, 2001) of learning objects in the hands of the learner. Through the convergence of two separate pilot projects--the Canadian EduSource initiative through Athabasca University, and the…
Adult learners comprise almost 50 percent of all students enrolled in higher Education. Some argue they are pioneering change in today's higher educational landscape. This book is designed to assist faculty members and administrators who want to understand how the impact of adult learning programs has and is helping to transform the academy and…
Reasons people do not complete online training courses include (1) no incentives, (2) lack of connectedness, (3) learner preference for instructor-led courses, (4) poor course design, (5) "some is enough," and (6) lack of perks. Course delivery must consider three elements: the technology, course design, and the learning environment. (JOW)
Tian, Haili; du Toit, Dorita; Toriola, Abel L.
Background: The absence of Physical Education (PE) from the South African school curriculum before its reintroduction in recent years contributed to health concerns regarding the low physical activity (PA) levels of children and adolescents in South Africa. Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of a once-a-week enhanced quality PE programme on…
Gialamas, Stefanos; Pelonis, Peggy; Medeiros, Steven
A school that holds as a central belief that knowledge is individually and socially constructed by learners who are active observers of the world, active questioners, agile problem posers and critical and creative problem solvers must evolve leadership models and organizational patterns that mirror this model of genuine and meaningful learning as…
Miwa, Kazuhisa; Morita, Junya; Nakaike, Ryuichi; Terai, Hitoshi
Cognitive modelling is one of the representative research methods in cognitive science. It is believed that creating cognitive models promotes learners' meta-cognitive activities such as self-monitoring and reflecting on their own cognitive processing. Preceding studies have confirmed that such meta-cognitive activities actually promote learning…
Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M
Previous research shows that people can use the co-occurrence of words and objects in ambiguous situations (i.e., containing multiple words and objects) to learn word meanings during a brief passive training period (Yu & Smith, 2007). However, learners in the world are not completely passive but can affect how their environment is structured by moving their heads, eyes, and even objects. These actions can indicate attention to a language teacher, who may then be more likely to name the attended objects. Using a novel active learning paradigm in which learners choose which four objects they would like to see named on each successive trial, this study asks whether active learning is superior to passive learning in a cross-situational word learning context. Finding that learners perform better in active learning, we investigate the strategies and discover that most learners use immediate repetition to disambiguate pairings. Unexpectedly, we find that learners who repeat only one pair per trial--an easy way to infer this pair-perform worse than those who repeat multiple pairs per trial. Using a working memory extension to an associative model of word learning with uncertainty and familiarity biases, we investigate individual differences that correlate with these assorted strategies.
Consistent with the notion of learning as changing participation (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Rogoff, 1998; Sfard, 1998; Young & Miller, 2004), the present qualitative study investigated how social interaction between learners of Japanese as a foreign language and native speaker classroom guests contributed to the students' use of second language…
Due to the growing number of plurilingual learners in the world today (Hammarberg, 2010), the present multiple case study examines four plurilingual participants' beliefs toward first language (L1) and second language (L2) mediation in the acquisition of French as a third language (L3). During a 16-week classroom-based study in a French university…
Fransen, Shelly Lynette
High quality student engagement activities are essential if students are to be successful learners. Over the years, many instructional strategies and models have been devised to encourage teachers to develop student engagement activities that result in high achievement. The Reading First Model initiative was introduced as a part of the No Child…
Liang, Lijuan; Chen, Baoguo
The present study explored how the processing of morphologically complex words in second-language (L2) learners changes as their proficiency increases. ERPs were recorded from highly proficient and less proficient L2 learners, using the repetition priming paradigm. Three experimental conditions were investigated: morphological related/unrelated pairs, semantically related/unrelated pairs, and form related/unrelated pairs. The presence of priming in each condition was assessed by comparing responses to targets preceded by related primes with those preceded by unrelated primes. ERP results showed that highly proficient L2 learners demonstrated priming effect within 350-550 ms in the morphological condition, associating with an N400 reduction, while less proficient L2 learners showed no morphological priming effect within the N400 range. Besides, form priming effect was observed in both highly proficient and less proficient L2 learners within 400-450 ms and 450-500 ms, and semantic inhibiting effect was observed in both groups within 450-500 ms, suggesting that less proficient L2 learners were equally sensitive to the word form and meaning. The ERP results indicate that highly proficient L2 learners manifest rule-based decomposition, while less proficient L2 learners rely more on lexical storage in processing morphologically complex words. Less proficient L2 learners have not developed the decomposing mechanism, despite their sensitivity to word form and meaning. The way in which morphologically complex words are processed in L2 learners does change as their proficiency increases, validating the predictions of the declarative/procedural model.
Rudd, R E; Comings, J P
Freire used very specific materials in culture circles to support an empowering process that allowed learners to define the content and outcome of their own learning. However, the materials themselves were carefully crafted and developed by Freire and his co-workers. This article focuses on an extension of Freire's problem-posing educational methods to include participant involvement in the development and production of their own learning materials. Four linked case examples, one in literacy and three in health education, illustrate the process of participatory materials development and we discuss some issues for facilitators and learners. The production process can be an empowering experience and the product stands as testimony to the participants as self-conscious agents and critical thinkers capable of transforming their world. The resultant materials, geared to a particular locale and reflective of the people and language in the community, can provide a powerful model for those who may not have been involved in the process, but who can identify with the friends and neighbors who developed the materials. Participatory materials development is suggested as a supplement to problem-posing educational experiences and is particularly well suited for community programs.
Gurvitch, Rachel; Metzler, Michael
Model-based instruction has been increasingly used in physical education for the past two decades. Metzler (2011) identified eight instructional models that are commonly used in physical education today. Each model is designed to promote certain kinds of learning outcomes for students and to address different combinations of the national…
Piksööt, Jaanika; Sarapuu, Tago
This study investigates ways to enhance secondary school students' knowledge transfer in complex science domains by implementing question prompts. Two samples of students applied two web-based models to study molecular genetics--the model of genetic code (n = 258) and translation (n = 245). For each model, the samples were randomly divided into…
Sarab, Mohamad Reza Anani; Gordani, Yahya
Investigations into the use of private speech by adult English foreign language (EFL) learners in regulating their mental activities have been an interesting area of research with a sociocultural framework. Following this line of research, 30 advanced adult EFL learners were selected via the administration of Oxford quick placement test and took a…
Veletsianos, George; Collier, Amy; Schneider, Emily
Researchers describe with increasing confidence "what" they observe participants doing in massive open online courses (MOOCs). However, our understanding of learner activities in open courses is limited by researchers' extensive dependence on log file analyses and clickstream data to make inferences about learner behaviors. Further, the…
Munoz, Carmen; Gilabert, Roger
A robust finding from studies investigating the Aspect Hypothesis is that learners at the early stages of acquisition show a strong preference for using the progressive aspect as associated with activity verbs. As they advance in their acquisition of the second or foreign language, learners move from this prototypical association to associations…
In the techno-driven world, mobile learning is an indispensable element of teaching-learning activities. It helps distance learners in many ways by providing their required facilities. The paper discusses about these facilities in an eclectic and summary manner. Thus, by implication, it is popularized among distance learners across the globe.…
Newman, Aaron J; Tremblay, Antoine; Nichols, Emily S; Neville, Helen J; Ullman, Michael T
We investigated the influence of English proficiency on ERPs elicited by lexical semantic violations in English sentences, in both native English speakers and native Spanish speakers who learned English in adulthood. All participants were administered a standardized test of English proficiency, and data were analyzed using linear mixed effects (LME) modeling. Relative to native learners, late learners showed reduced amplitude and delayed onset of the N400 component associated with reading semantic violations. As well, after the N400 late learners showed reduced anterior negative scalp potentials and increased posterior potentials. In both native and late learners, N400 amplitudes to semantically appropriate words were larger for people with lower English proficiency. N400 amplitudes to semantic violations, however, were not influenced by proficiency. Although both N400 onset latency and the late ERP effects differed between L1 and L2 learners, neither correlated with proficiency. Different approaches to dealing with the high degree of correlation between proficiency and native/late learner group status are discussed in the context of LME modeling. The results thus indicate that proficiency can modulate ERP effects in both L1 and L2 learners, and for some measures (in this case, N400 amplitude), L1-L2 differences may be entirely accounted for by proficiency. On the other hand, not all effects of L2 learning can be attributed to proficiency. Rather, the differences in N400 onset and the post-N400 violation effects appear to reflect fundamental differences in L1-L2 processing.
Rastaetter, L.; Pulkkinen, A.; Taktakishvill, A.; Macneice, P.; Shim, J. S.; Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Hesse, M.
The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) holds the largest assembly of state-of-the-art physics-based space weather models developed by the international space physics community. In addition to providing the community easy access to these modern space research models to support science research, its another primary goal is to test and validate models for transition from research to operations. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the space science models available at CCMC. Then we will focus on the community-wide model validation efforts led by CCMC in all domains of the Sun-Earth system and the internal validation efforts at CCMC to support space weather servicesjoperations provided its sibling organization - NASA GSFC Space Weather Center (http://swc.gsfc.nasa.gov). We will also discuss our efforts in operational model validation in collaboration with NOAA/SWPC.
Cao, Fan; Young Kim, Say; Liu, Yanni; Liu, Li
It has been evidenced that both similarities and differences exist in the brain network involved in second language reading in comparison to the first language reading. However, very few studies have been done to compare functional connectivity in L1 and L2 reading. Brain activation and functional connectivity during English pseudoword rhyming judgment in a group of late Chinese-English bilinguals (the CE group) were compared to a Chinese word rhyming judgment task in another group of late Chinese-English bilinguals (the CC group). Brain activation analyses revealed that the two groups engaged a similar network and that the only significant group difference was greater involvement of the right middle occipital gyrus in the CC group than in the CE group, due to greater holistic visuospatial processing of Chinese characters. English pseudowords can be read using the same network as Chinese characters, whereas psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses revealed different connectivity within the reading network between the two groups. Greater functional connectivity was found between three visuo-orthographic seed regions and the right precentral gyrus in the CC group, suggesting that the sensorimotor patterns of Chinese syllables are activated during Chinese word rhyming judgment. In contrast, we found greater connectivity between the three seed regions and the left postcentral gyrus in the CE group. In addition, the connectivity between one of the three seed regions (i.e. the right middle occipital gyrus) and the left postcentral gyrus was positively correlated with English proficiency in the CE group. This suggests that somatosensory feedback plays a key role in processing the foreign phonemes of English pseudowords and those highly proficient bilinguals tend to rely on this information to a greater degree. We also found that within the CE group, the connectivity between the right middle occipital gyrus and the left inferior parietal lobule was positively
van der Ploeg, Hidde P; van der Beek, Allard J; van der Woude, Luc H V; van Mechelen, Willem
The promotion of a physically active lifestyle has become an important issue in health policy in first-world countries. A physically active lifestyle is accompanied by several fitness and health benefits. Individuals with a disability can particularly benefit from an active lifestyle: not only does it reduce the risk for secondary health problems, but all levels of functioning can be influenced positively. The objective of this article is to propose a conceptual model that describes the relationships between physical activity behaviour, its determinants and functioning of people with a disability. The literature was systematically searched for articles considering physical activity and disability, and models relating both topics were looked for in particular. No models were found relating physical activity behaviour, its determinants and functioning in people with a disability. Consequently, a new model, the Physical Activity for people with a Disability (PAD) model, was constructed based on existing models of disability and models of determinants of physical activity behaviour. The starting point was the new WHO Model of Functioning and Disability, part of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), which describes the multidimensional aspects of functioning and disability. Physical activity behaviour and its determinants were integrated into the ICF model. The factors determining physical activity were based mainly on those used in the Attitude, Social influence and self-Efficacy (ASE) model. The proposed model can be used as a theoretical framework for future interventions and research on physical activity promotion in the population of people with a disability. The model currently forms the theoretical basis for a large physical activity promotion trial in ten Dutch rehabilitation centres.
Nist, Sherrie L.
J. D. Bransford's tetrahedral model of learning considers four variables: (1) learning activities, (2) characteristics of the learner, (3) criterial tasks, and (4) the nature of the materials. Bransford's model provides a research-based theoretical framework that can be used to teach, model, and have students apply a variety of study strategies to…
Klochkov, B N; Romanov, A S
A nonlinear distributed mathematical model of soft vessel with the nonmonotonous static characteristic is proposed and considered. The model describes space-time dynamics of vessel clearance change. Wave phenomena in vessels of different nature and the possibility of peristaltic fluid pumping are discussed and analyzed. The model is rather common in character and represents a description of the whole class of transport phenomena. Lymphatic vessels are particularly considered.
Marschark, Marc; Morrison, Carolyn; Lukomski, Jennifer; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol
It is frequently assumed that by virtue of their hearing losses, deaf students are visual learners. Deaf individuals have some visual-spatial advantages relative to hearing individuals, but most have been are linked to use of sign language rather than auditory deprivation. How such cognitive differences might affect academic performance has been investigated only rarely. This study examined relations among deaf college students’ language and visual-spatial abilities, mathematics problem solving, and hearing thresholds. Results extended some previous findings and clarified others. Contrary to what might be expected, hearing students exhibited visual-spatial skills equal to or better than deaf students. Scores on a Spatial Relations task were associated with better mathematics problem solving. Relations among the several variables, however, suggested that deaf students are no more likely to be visual learners than hearing students and that their visual-spatial skill may be related more to their hearing than to sign language skills. PMID:23750095
Huggett, Kathryn N; Warrier, Rugmini; Maio, Anna
Medical education in the US has adapted to the shift of patient care from hospital to ambulatory settings by developing educational opportunities in outpatient settings. Faculty development efforts must acknowledge learners' perspectives to be effective in improving teaching and learning. Clinics provide important and unique learning opportunities, but also present different challenges for preceptors (i.e., physician teachers) and learners. Multiple studies have identified characteristics of effective preceptors of ambulatory care medicine. However, most of these studies were conducted among residents or students with clinical experience. To investigate preclinical, second-year medical students' perceptions of preceptor quality, we conducted an exploratory qualitative study using analysis of student learning journals. The purposive sample included 120 medical students in a private, Midwestern medical school in the United States. Learning journals of 110 students for two semesters were reviewed. Five attributes of an effective preceptor emerged: (1) Demonstrates professional expertise (2) Actively engages students in learning (3) Creates a positive environment for teaching and learning (4) Demonstrates collegiality and professionalism (5) Discusses career-related topics and concerns. Our findings suggest preclinical learners often begin initial clinical experiences with sophisticated definitions of professional expertise, and hold specific expectations for professionalism. These are based on previous coursework and personal experience. These expectations influence their perceptions of effective preceptors and learning experiences. Early clinical experiences can also influence perceptions about career and specialty choice. Improving our understanding of preclinical learners' perceptions of preceptor quality will improve the efficacy of faculty development efforts and learning experiences.
Edelson, Daniel C.; Gordin, Douglas
The use of scientific investigation tools for education is receiving considerable attention as a result of an increased emphasis in the educational community on open-ended inquiry. The scientific community possesses a treasure trove of tools that could be adapted for use by learners. Scientific visualization technologies, in particular, offer great promise for education because of the way they use visual representations to facilitate exploration of complex data. However, the tools that are used by scientists are inappropriate for learners because of their reliance on the tacit knowledge of expert users. Through a careful consideration of the differences between scientists and science students and the design of a series of scientific visualization environments for learners in grades 8-16, we have developed a design framework for the creation of scientific investigation tools based on those of scientists. The framework highlights five critical issues for the construction of tools to support inquiry-based learning: motivating context, learner-appropriate activities, data selection, scaffolding interfaces and support for learning. We have applied this framework to the design of ClimateWatcher, a scientific visualization environment for the investigation of issues related to global climate and climate change that is now in use in middle school, high school and university settings.
This study aims to explore the structural relationships among the variables of EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' perceptual learning styles and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Three hundred and forty-one (n = 341) EFL learners were invited to join a self-regulated English pronunciation training program through automatic speech…
Lervag, Arne; Aukrust, Vibeke Grover
Background: This study examines the role of decoding and vocabulary skills as longitudinal predictors of reading comprehension in young first (L1) and second (L2) language learners. Methods: Two-group latent growth models were used to assess differences in growth and predictions of growth between the 198 L1 and 90 L2 language learners. Results: L1…
Most people are frustrated with the current scientific method presented in textbooks. The scientific method--a simplistic model of the scientific inquiry process--fails in most cases to provide a successful guide to how science is done. This is not shocking, really. Many simple models used in science are quite useful within their limitations. When…
Carrera, Olaia; Fraga, Ángela; Pellón, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Emilio
Activity-based anorexia (ABA) consists of a procedure that involves the simultaneous exposure of animals to a restricted feeding schedule, while free access is allowed to an activity wheel. Under these conditions, animals show a progressive increase in wheel running, a reduced efficiency in food intake to compensate for their increased activity, and a severe progression of weight loss. Due to the parallelism with the clinical manifestations of anorexia nervosa including increased activity, reduced food intake and severe weight loss, the ABA procedure has been proposed as the best analog of human anorexia nervosa (AN). Thus, ABA research could both allow a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying AN and generate useful leads for treatment development in AN.
Stresses the need for young children to understand that wild animals should not be kept for pets. Provides lesson plans for physical education, music, and science. Includes suggestions for bulletin boards and learning centers, and a clip art set with figures that are suitable for use with the activities. (TW)
A viewgraph presentation on NASA Stennis Space Center's Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling activities is shown. The topics include: 1) Overview of NASA Stennis Space Center; 2) Role of Computational Modeling at NASA-SSC; 3) Computational Modeling Tools and Resources; and 4) CFD Modeling Applications.
Grauwin, Sebastian; Kallus, Zsófia; Gódor, István; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Ratti, Carlo
Thanks to their widespread usage, mobile devices have become one of the main sensors of human behaviour and digital traces left behind can be used as a proxy to study urban environments. Exploring the nature of the spatio-temporal patterns of mobile phone activity could thus be a crucial step towards understanding the full spectrum of human activities. Using 10 months of mobile phone records from Greater London resolved in both space and time, we investigate the regularity of human telecommunication activity on urban scales. We evaluate several options for decomposing activity timelines into typical and residual patterns, accounting for the strong periodic and seasonal components. We carry out our analysis on various spatial scales, showing that regularity increases as we look at aggregated activity in larger spatial units with more activity in them. We examine the statistical properties of the residuals and show that it can be explained by noise and specific outliers. Also, we look at sources of deviations from the general trends, which we find to be explainable based on knowledge of the city structure and places of attractions. We show examples how some of the outliers can be related to external factors such as specific social events. PMID:28386443
A written language intervention for at-risk second grade students: a randomized controlled trial of the process assessment of the learner lesson plans in a tier 2 response-to-intervention (RtI) model.
Hooper, Stephen R; Costa, Lara-Jeane C; McBee, Matthew; Anderson, Kathleen L; Yerby, Donna Carlson; Childress, Amy; Knuth, Sean B
In a randomized controlled trial, 205 students were followed from grades 1 to 3 with a focus on changes in their writing trajectories following an evidence-based intervention during the spring of second grade. Students were identified as being at-risk (n=138), and then randomized into treatment (n=68) versus business-as-usual conditions (n=70). A typical group also was included (n=67). The writing intervention comprised Lesson Sets 4 and 7 from the Process Assessment of the Learner (PAL), and was conducted via small groups (three to six students) twice a week for 12 weeks in accordance with a response-to-intervention Tier 2 model. The primary outcome was the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II Written Expression Scale. Results indicated modest support for the PAL lesson plans, with an accelerated rate of growth in writing skills following treatment. There were no significant moderator effects, although there was evidence that the most globally impaired students demonstrated a more rapid rate of growth following treatment. These findings suggest the need for ongoing examination of evidence-based treatments in writing for young elementary students.
Mulcahy, Robert F.
Defines the concept of autonomous learning. Presents the Strategies Program for Effective Learning/Thinking (SPELT), including its underlying assumptions, instructional model, teacher training procedures, research findings, and anticipated future development. Research results include implications for learning-disabled and gifted students. (KS)
Rassaei, Ehsan; Moinzadeh, Ahmad
In the current study, we present the results of an experiment with 30 Persian EFL learners in which we explored the learners' perceptions of recasts and metalinguistic corrective feedback. The participant learners received either recasts or metalinguistic feedback for their errors during task-based interactions with their interlocutors and then…
Sözcü, Ömer Faruk; Ipek, Ismail; Kinay, Hüseyin
The purpose of the study is to explore relationships between learners' cognitive styles of field dependence and learner variables in the preference of learner Interface design, attitudes in e-Learning instruction and experience with e-Learning in distance education. Cognitive style has historically referred to a psychological dimension…
Song, Xiaomei; Cheng, Liying
This article examines language learner strategy use reported by 121 Chinese learners of English through a questionnaire and the relationships between their strategy use and language performance on a national English proficiency test: College English Test-Band 4. Results showed that this group of learners reported using more metacognitive…
Learners' spontaneous speech beyond interaction patterns such as teacher's initiation-learner's response-teacher's evaluation (I-R-E/F) (Heap, 1988; Mehan, 1979; Ohta, 1999) helps lead them to negotiated interaction (Boulima, 1999), which is effective for foreign language learning. This study examines both an instructor's and a learner's…