Science.gov

Sample records for activity learners observe

  1. Facilitating Active Learner Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Steven; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Project Participate has developed and implemented a model for making decisions about interventions that enhance the ability of a preschool child with severe motor disabilities to actively participate in educational programs. The effectiveness of the process in increasing child participation in play, communication, social interaction, and mobility…

  2. A learner centered Student Observation Driven Astronomy (SODA)course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottorff, Mark; Doty, S.; Heaton, J.

    2011-01-01

    The non-science major astronomy course, Exploring the Universe, at Southwestern University is now a Student Observation Driven Astronomy (SODA) course. This minimal lecture course emphasizes using student collected observations to infer basic astronomical information about the universe. Observational data is obtained using small telescopes, inexpensive imaging cameras, and reticule eyepieces. The data are collectively analyzed by students in the classroom. In this poster we present the SODA activities that have been successfully carried out in this learner centered course.

  3. Language Learning Activities of Distance EFL Learners in the Turkish Open Education System as the Indicator of Their Learner Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altunay, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the noncompulsory language learning activities performed by a group of distance EFL learners in the Turkish Open Education System. Performance of these activities has been considered as an indicator of their learner autonomy. The data were collected through an online questionnaire and interviews. The study shows that in…

  4. Interactions between and among Heritage Language Learners and Second Language Learners during Collaborative Writing Activities: How Learners Attend to Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamics in the Spanish classroom between heritage language learner (HLL) dyads, second language learner (L2L) dyads, and mixed HLL-L2L dyads. Specifically, it examines oral, written and embodied discourse that informs our understanding of how learners attend to language. Analysis for this dissertation examined…

  5. Teaching Students to Be Active Learners; The Principal's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson-Nasca, Donald

    1993-01-01

    Learning is not a spectator sport but requires active learners who integrate new experiences into existing cognitive structures. Principals can help students develop self-responsibility by initiating discussions on this topic, identifying and sharing multiple learning resources for student use, and modeling uses of assignments based on mastery…

  6. Does Translation Contribute to Learners' Free Active Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiyaban, Amir R.; Bagheri, Mohammad S.

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to find out whether or not using "translation" technique in vocabulary teaching would have any positive effects on the "free active" vocabulary of Iranian learners of English. To carry out the research, eighty-eight intermediate male and female students were chosen. The participants were divided into four "male…

  7. Creating Active Learners on Hawaiian Adventures through Project ALOHA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Claire; Anderson, Thomas; Sakuda, Katherine

    1998-01-01

    Describes an integrated curriculum project for fourth graders in a Hawaiian elementary school with a highly transient population. The project, ALOHA (Active Learners on Hawaiian Adventures) was developed to motivate students in learning about Hawaii's culture and ecosystems. Cooperation between the library media specialist, technology coordinator,…

  8. Methods for Evaluating Learner Activities with New Technologies: Guidelines for the Lab@Future Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwanza-Simwami, Daisy; Engestrom, Yrjo; Amon, Tomaz

    2009-01-01

    The task of evaluating learner activities with new technologies is becoming increasingly complex because traditional evaluation strategies do not adequately consider the unique and often dynamic characteristics of learners and activities carried out. Learner activities are largely driven by motives and relationships that exist in the context in…

  9. Acquisition of Mathematical Language: Suggestions and Activities for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirillo, Michelle; Bruna, Katherine Richardson; Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we describe aspects of mathematical language that could be problematic to English-language learners, provide recommendations for teaching English-language learners, and suggest activities intended to foster language development in mathematics. (Contains 1 figure.)

  10. Discovering Me: Music Activities for Special Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith P.; And Others

    The book contains information on musical activities which were field tested in Project PASE (Program in the Arts for Special Education, Pennsylvania) classrooms with a wide range of exceptionalities from preschool age to adolescence. Activities are seen to help children become more aware of their bodies, feelings, and themselves; feel important…

  11. Learners' Perceptions of Instructional Design Practice in a Situated Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Nicholas; Quinn, James

    2009-01-01

    This case study investigated learners' perceptions of value from participating in a learning activity designed to model professional instructional design practice. Learners developed instructional design products for a corporate client in the context of a classroom-based course. The findings indicate that learners perceived different kinds of…

  12. Does Active Learning Enhance Learner Outcomes? Evidence from Discussion Participation in Online Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bruce M.; Pollock, Philip H.; Hamann, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Discussion is one form of active learning, which has been linked to better learner outcomes. Little is known about the relationship between active learning through discussion and learner outcome in the online environment. Here, we construct an index of active learning online that includes the number of postings a student has read, the number of…

  13. Learners' Evaluations of Teacher-Fronted and Student-Centred Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Peter; Shortall, Terry

    2002-01-01

    Investigates language learners beliefs about their experiences with different types of classroom activities, specifically teacher-fronted activities and student-centered pairwork activities. Discusses the usefulness of studying learners' beliefs about their learning experiences, their perceptions of affective and learning outcomes from these…

  14. An observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to measure in-class learner engagement: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Alimoglu, Mustafa K.; Sarac, Didar B.; Alparslan, Derya; Karakas, Ayse A.; Altintas, Levent

    2014-01-01

    Background Efforts are made to enhance in-class learner engagement because it stimulates and enhances learning. However, it is not easy to quantify learner engagement. This study aimed to develop and validate an observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to determine and compare in-class learner engagement levels in four different class types delivered by the same instructor. Methods Observer pairs observed instructor and student behaviors during lectures in large class (LLC, n=2) with third-year medical students, lectures in small class (LSC, n=6) and case-based teaching sessions (CBT, n=4) with fifth-year students, and problem-based learning (PBL) sessions (~7 hours) with second-year students. The observation tool was a revised form of STROBE, an instrument for recording behaviors of an instructor and four randomly selected students as snapshots for 5-min cycles. Instructor and student behaviors were scored 1–5 on this tool named ‘in-class engagement measure (IEM)’. The IEM scores were parallel to the degree of behavior's contribution to active student engagement, so higher scores were associated with more in-class learner engagement. Additionally, the number of questions asked by the instructor and students were recorded. A total of 203 5-min observations were performed (LLC 20, LSC 85, CBT 50, and PBL 48). Results Interobserver agreement on instructor and student behaviors was 93.7% (κ=0.87) and 80.6% (κ=0.71), respectively. Higher median IEM scores were found in student-centered and problem-oriented methods such as CBT and PBL. A moderate correlation was found between instructor and student behaviors (r=0.689). Conclusions This study provides some evidence for validity of the IEM scores as a measure of student engagement in different class types. PMID:25308966

  15. Observational Tools to Inform Instruction for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurkewecz, Thea

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the need for teachers to use observational tools to identify and understand their learners' cultural backgrounds and literacy skills, including the importance of preparing teacher candidates to become culturally responsive educators. This topic is critical because one of the new teacher certification exams in New York…

  16. Observations in the Computer Room: L2 Output and Learner Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Christine

    2004-01-01

    This article draws on second language theory, particularly output theory as defined by Swain (1995), in order to conceptualise observations made in a computer-assisted language learning setting. It investigates second language output and learner behaviour within an electronic role-play setting, based on a subject-specific problem solving task and…

  17. How Do Distance Learners Use Activities in Self-Instructional Materials?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Sanjaya; Gaba, Ashok Kumar

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of a study on the use of learning activities in self-instructional materials by distance learners of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). It shows that learners make use of the activities extensively as they have positive perceptions about benefits of Self-Assessment Questions and Terminal Questions given in the…

  18. The Child as an Active Learner: Views, Practices, and Barriers in Chinese Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengling

    2006-01-01

    The Chinese view of the child is in the process of changing from the dependent child of traditional Chinese society to the child as an active learner in contemporary China. The view of the child as an active learner forces early childhood practitioners to rethink the features of the child's learning and development, individuality, and needs and…

  19. Aspects on Learner-Biased Classroom Observational Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linhan

    2012-01-01

    This paper was designed to explore the means in the field of observing classroom teaching/learning from both a general, and an "English as a Foreign Language" (EFL), viewpoint. The aim was to browse the relevant literature, and lead to consider observation tools which might serve to research in EFL. This paper summarizes the reading by…

  20. Investigating Learner Attitudes toward E-Books as Learning Tools: Based on the Activity Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of e-books as learning tools in terms of learner satisfaction, usefulness, behavioral intention, and learning effectiveness. Based on the activity theory approach, this research develops a research model to understand learner attitudes toward e-books in two physical sizes: 10? and 7?. Results suggest that screen…

  1. Transformational Processes and Learner Outcomes for Online Learning: An Activity Theory Case Study of Spanish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terantino, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the actions of online language learners from an activity theoretical perspective. It also attempted to explain how the students' learning outcomes evolved from their online learning experiences. This explanation placed an emphasis on the learners' previous experiences, defining their activity…

  2. Training Learners to Use Quizlet Vocabulary Activities on Mobile Phones in Vietnam with Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone ownership among university students in Vietnam has reached almost 100%, exceeding that of Internet-capable desktop computers. This has made them increasingly popular to allow learners to carry out learning activities outside of the classroom, but some studies have suggested that learners are not always willing to engage in activities…

  3. Beginning Learners' Development of Interactional Competence: Alignment Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tecedor, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the development of interactional competence (Hall, 1993; He & Young, 1998) by beginning learners of Spanish as indexed by their use of alignment moves. Discourse analysis techniques and quantitative data analysis were used to explore how 52 learners expressed alignment and changes in participation patterns in two sets of…

  4. Older Adult Learners: A Comparison of Active and Non-Active Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a 2004 follow-up study conducted in partnership with the University of Manitoba Continuing Education Division and local senior's organizations. The partnership was formed in 2002-03 to promote applied research on lifelong learning and older adults, develop new and complement existing educational activities, and explore new…

  5. Learners' Interpersonal Beliefs and Generated Feedback in an Online Role-Playing Peer-Feedback Activity: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Yu-Hui; Hsu, Yu-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Peer feedback affords interaction and critical thinking opportunities for learners in online courses. However, various factors prevent learners from taking advantage of these promising benefits. This study explored learners' perceptions of the interpersonal factors in a role-playing peer-feedback activity, and examined the types of peer feedback…

  6. Active Ageing and Universities: Engaging Older Learners. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Chris; Ogg, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews the engagement of older learners (defined as those aged 50 and over) in education and training with particular reference to their involvement in higher education. The ageing of populations was one of the most important trends in the 20th century and will raise major challenges in this century. Appended are: (1) Selected UK…

  7. A Development of Game-Based Learning Environment to Activate Interaction among Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, Ryo; Shimokawa, Masayuki; Okamoto, Toshio

    Many studies and systems that incorporate elements such as “pleasure” and “fun” in the game to improve a learner's motivation have been developed in the field of learning environments. However, few are the studies of situations where many learners gather at a single computer and participate in a game-based learning environment (GBLE), and where the GBLE designs the learning process by controlling the interactions between learners such as competition, collaboration, and learning by teaching. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a framework of educational control that induces and activates interaction between learners intentionally to create a learning opportunity that is based on the knowledge understanding model of each learner. In this paper, we explain the design philosophy and the framework of our GBLE called “Who becomes the king in the country of mathematics?” from a game viewpoint and describe the method of learning support control in the learning environment. In addition, we report the results of the learning experiment with our GBLE, which we carried out in a junior high school, and include some comments by a principal and a teacher. From the results of the experiment and some comments, we noticed that a game may play a significant role in weakening the learning relationship among students and creating new relationships in the world of the game. Furthermore, we discovered that learning support control of the GBLE has led to activation of the interaction between learners to some extent.

  8. Learner-Controlled Self-Observation is Advantageous for Motor Skill Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Ste-Marie, Diane M.; Vertes, Kelly A.; Law, Barbi; Rymal, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    There were two main objectives of this research. First, we wanted to examine whether video feedback of the self (self-observation) was more effective for motor skill learning when the choice to view the video was provided to the learner (learner-controlled, LC) as opposed to an experimenter-controlled (EC) delivery. Secondly, we explored whether there were differences in the self-regulatory processes of self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation, as well as perceived choice between the LC and EC conditions. Two groups (LC and EC) of children (M age of 11.2 years; SD = 1.89) attempted to learn a progression of trampoline skills during a 2-day acquisition phase in which video self-observation was available. The second acquisition day was followed by a no self-observation retention test 1 day later. It was hypothesized that, during retention, the LC group would be more self-efficacious about their ability to progress through the trampoline skills, show greater intrinsic motivation and perceived choice, and go further in skill progression than the EC group. Analysis of the acquisition data showed the LC group had greater increases in self-efficacy as compared to the EC group. Results of the retention test showed that the participants in the LC group obtained higher scores on the intrinsic motivation and perceived choice measures and had higher skill progression scores as compared to the EC group. Regression analysis showed that group assignment and self-efficacy were significant predictors of the physical performance benefits noted in retention. These findings are discussed within Zimmerman’s (2004) self-regulation of learning model. PMID:23355826

  9. What Does Metalinguistic Activity in Learners' Interaction during a Collaborative L2 Writing Task Look Like?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the metalinguistic activity that arose in the interaction of 7 groups of bilingual learners writing collaboratively in their second language (L2), English. A microanalysis of this interaction reveals that metalinguistic activity comprises 3 types of oral production: comments, speech actions, and text reformulations. Text…

  10. Discussion Activities To Increase Intercultural Communication Skills for Japanese Learners in EFL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kresovich, Brant M.

    1988-01-01

    The study describes ten discussion activities designed to improve the communicative abilities of Japanese learners of English based on cultural instruction goals. The activities target intermediate and advanced students, but teachers can modify the lessons for false beginners. All exercises stress speaking and listening. They focus on topics…

  11. Learner-Centered Activities from the DVD-Format "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Yun

    This paper demonstrates how Taiwanese English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) college teachers and students collaborate and negotiate to design various learner-centered activities based on the Chinese film, "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon." These activities are intended to enhance students' listening and speaking abilities. The paper demonstrates eight…

  12. Identification of Learning Styles Online by Observing Learners Browsing Behaviour through a Neural Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Jia-Jiunn; Shu, Pai-Chuan

    2005-01-01

    Identification of individual learning style is important when developing adaptive educational hypermedia systems. Current systems ask learners to complete questionnaires to identify their learning styles, which might not be appropriate in some contexts. The goal of this research is to identify the learner's learning style by simply observing…

  13. From Evaluation to Collaborative Reflection: Teacher Candidate Perceptions of a Digital Learner-Centered Classroom Observation Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Raymond; Krutka, Daniel G.; Mason, Katherine; Bergman, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    In efforts to promote a more learner-centered approach to supervision, faculty members at a Midwestern U.S. university piloted a new digital classroom observation form. Participants included middle/secondary teacher candidates (N = 28) in their final semester of their programs. The overall goal of this study was to gather teacher candidates'…

  14. 78 FR 11965 - Agency Information Collection (Learner's Perception (LP) Survey) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Learner's Perception (LP) Survey) Activities Under OMB Review...'s Perception (LP) Survey, VA Form 10-0439. OMB Control Number: 2900-0691. Type of Review: Extension... trainees perception of their clinical experience with VA versus non-VA facilities. VA will use the data...

  15. Flipping the Classroom for English Language Learners to Foster Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Hsiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a structured attempt to integrate flip teaching into language classrooms using a WebQuest active learning strategy. The purpose of this study is to examine the possible impacts of flipping the classroom on English language learners' academic performance, learning attitudes, and participation levels. Adopting a…

  16. Active Learning for Discovery and Innovation in Criminology with Chinese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jessica C. M.; Wu, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Whereas a great deal of literature based upon the context of Western societies has concluded criminology is an ideal discipline for active learning approach, it remains uncertain if this learning approach is applicable to Chinese learners in the discipline of criminology. This article describes and provides evidence of the benefits of using active…

  17. An Emergent Language Program Framework: Actively Involving Learners in Needs Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, William; Storer, Graeme

    1992-01-01

    Relates the experience of the staff of an aquaculture outreach program in Northeast Thailand in implementing an English for special purposes program. By actively involving learners in both the needs analysis and program design, teachers were able to adapt the program content to the requirements of the students. (15 references) (JL)

  18. Synthesizing Technology Adoption and Learners' Approaches towards Active Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kevin; Cheung, George; Wan, Kelvin; Brown, Ian; Luk, Green

    2015-01-01

    In understanding how active and blended learning approaches with learning technologies engagement in undergraduate education, current research models tend to undermine the effect of learners' variations, particularly regarding their styles and approaches to learning, on intention and use of learning technologies. This study contributes to further…

  19. A "Dialogic" Approach to the Design of a Transcultural Communication Classroom Activity for Multilingual Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Celia Helen

    2011-01-01

    When preparing teaching materials about communication between people from different linguistic backgrounds, many factors require consideration; these include theoretical orientation, purpose, context, educational needs, study level, as well as the cultural backgrounds of the teachers and their target learners. The classroom activity described in…

  20. Fashion Design: Designing a Learner-Active, Multi-Level High School Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Diane

    2009-01-01

    A high school fashion design teacher has much in common with the ringmaster of a three-ring circus. The challenges of teaching a hands-on course are to facilitate the entire class and to meet the needs of individual students. When teaching family and consumer sciences, the goal is to have a learner-active classroom. Revamping the high school's…

  1. Cross-Language Activation in Children's Speech Production: Evidence from Second Language Learners, Bilinguals, and Trilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals,…

  2. Investigating the Use of Inquiry & Web-Based Activities with Inclusive Biology Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Waller, Patricia L.; Edwards, Lana; Darlene Kale, Santoro

    2007-01-01

    A Web-integrated biology program is used to explore how to best assist inclusive high school students to learn biology with inquiry-based activities. Classroom adaptations and instructional strategies teachers may use to assist in promoting biology learning with inclusive learners are discussed.

  3. The Efficacy of Some Proposed Activities For Developing Creative Thinking of English Learners at the Preparatory Stage (Second Year)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakr, Samira M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of some proposed activities for developing creative thinking of English learners at the preparatory stage. The current study adopted the quasi- experimental design. Two groups of English learners were randomly chosen from one of Port- Said governmental preparatory schools. The experimental…

  4. Synergy between Authentic Assessment Activities and Learner Autonomy: How Does This Promote Shared Authenticity in Online Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gikandi, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether and how authentic assessment activities and learner autonomy converged to productively engage both the teacher and learners in shared authenticity. The study employed case study methodology to investigate the phenomena within an online course in ICT designed for continuing professionals in…

  5. Fluency-dependent cortical activation associated with speech production and comprehension in second language learners.

    PubMed

    Shimada, K; Hirotani, M; Yokokawa, H; Yoshida, H; Makita, K; Yamazaki-Murase, M; Tanabe, H C; Sadato, N

    2015-08-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the brain regions underlying language task performance in adult second language (L2) learners. Specifically, we identified brain regions where the level of activation was associated with L2 fluency levels. Thirty Japanese-speaking adults participated in the study. All participants were L2 learners of English and had achieved varying levels of fluency, as determined by a standardized L2 English proficiency test, the Versant English Test (Pearson Education Inc., 2011). When participants performed the oral sentence building task from the production tasks administered, the dorsal part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (dIFG) showed activation patterns that differed depending on the L2 fluency levels: The more fluent the participants were, the more dIFG activation decreased. This decreased activation of the dIFG might reflect the increased automaticity of a syntactic building process. In contrast, when participants performed an oral story comprehension task, the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) showed increased activation with higher fluency levels. This suggests that the learners with higher L2 fluency were actively engaged in post-syntactic integration processing supported by the left pSTG. These data imply that L2 fluency predicts neural resource allocation during language comprehension tasks as well as in production tasks. This study sheds light on the neural underpinnings of L2 learning by identifying the brain regions recruited during different language tasks across different modalities (production vs. comprehension). PMID:26026679

  6. Listening and Speaking Activities for Foreign Language Learners: Second Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, James M.

    The 30 listening and speaking activities in this collection are designed to motivate students to use foreign languages for communicating their ideas and to encourage students to be creative. The criteria for including the activities were: (1) proven effectiveness toward improving students' oral language proficiency; (2) ease of adaptability to any…

  7. Sharing a Small World: Environmental Activities for Young Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains a collection of activities developed for pre-K through second grade students. All of the activities in this teacher's guide use an interdisciplinary approach and explore the human connection with all living things and their environment. Contents include: (1) "Sharing Space and Working Together"; (2) "Sharing Resources and…

  8. The Creation of Standard-Setting Videos to Support Faculty Observations of Learner Performance and Entrustment Decisions.

    PubMed

    Calaman, Sharon; Hepps, Jennifer H; Bismilla, Zia; Carraccio, Carol; Englander, Robert; Feraco, Angela; Landrigan, Christopher P; Lopreiato, Joseph O; Sectish, Theodore C; Starmer, Amy J; Yu, Clifton E; Spector, Nancy D; West, Daniel C

    2016-02-01

    Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) provide a framework to standardize medical education outcomes and advance competency-based assessment. Direct observation of performance plays a central role in entrustment decisions; however, data obtained from these observations are often insufficient to draw valid high-stakes conclusions. One approach to enhancing the reliability and validity of these assessments is to create videos that establish performance standards to train faculty observers. Little is known about how to create videos that can serve as standards for assessment of EPAs.The authors report their experience developing videos that represent five levels of performance for an EPA for patient handoffs. The authors describe a process that begins with mapping the EPA to the critical competencies needed to make an entrustment decision. Each competency is then defined by five milestones (behavioral descriptors of performance at five advancing levels). Integration of the milestones at each level across competencies enabled the creation of clinical vignettes that were converted into video scripts and ultimately videos. Each video represented a performance standard from novice to expert. The process included multiple assessments by experts to guide iterative improvements, provide evidence of content validity, and ensure that the authors successfully translated behavioral descriptions and vignettes into videos that represented the intended performance level for a learner. The steps outlined are generalizable to other EPAs, serving as a guide for others to develop videos to train faculty. This process provides the level of content validity evidence necessary to support using videos as standards for high-stakes entrustment decisions. PMID:26266461

  9. Observations of Real-Time Captioning in the Elementary English Language Learner Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Nissa

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study reviews the effects of real-time captioning on vocabulary acquisition of a novice elementary English language learner (ELL). Triangulation of data was completed through review of teacher journaling, captioning transcripts, and student pretest and posttest assessments. Results illuminate improved retention and usage of…

  10. Refocusing the Lens: Using Observation To Assess and Identify Gifted Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Judith A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the DISCOVER assessment process, a method designed to identify gifted learners by documenting students' problem-solving abilities in several of Gardner's multiple intelligences, including spatial, mathematical, linguistic, intrapersonal, bodily kinesthetic, and interpersonal. Examples of problems presented to students in grades six…

  11. The effect of curricular activities on learner autonomy: the perspective of undergraduate mechanical engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, M.; Leite, C.; Mouraz, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study researches how first-year engineering students perceived the influence of curricular activities on their own learning autonomy, measured with an adaptation of the Personal Responsibility Orientation to Self-direction in Learning Scale (PRO-SDLS). Participants were questioned to assess the influence of the teacher's role. The results indicate that learners' characteristics (motivation and self-efficacy) contribute more to learner autonomy (LA) than the teaching-learning transaction (control and initiative), as in the original PRO-SDLS validation. The most autonomous learners presented higher values in all LA components and dimensions, but the differences were greater in motivation and initiative. The participants with higher LA were not as dependent on the teacher, regarding assessment, the completion of classroom tasks and deadlines. Regardless of the degree of autonomy in learning, all participants viewed teachers as the main source of information. Therefore, LA plays an important role in teaching activities planning. Suggestions for adjustments and more flexible learning scenarios are formulated.

  12. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-03-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals. PMID:22138311

  13. Model Eliciting Activities: Fostering 21st Century Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohlmann, Micah

    2013-01-01

    Real world mathematical modeling activities can develop needed and valuable 21st century skills. The knowledge and skills to become adept at mathematical modeling need to develop over time and students in the elementary grades should have experiences with mathematical modeling. For this to occur elementary teachers need to have positive…

  14. Total Participation Techniques: Making Every Student an Active Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himmele, Persida; Himmele, William

    2011-01-01

    Yes, there are easy-to-use and incredibly effective alternatives to the "stand and deliver" approach to teaching that causes so many students to tune out--or even drop out. Here's your opportunity to explore dozens of ways to engage K-12 students in active learning and allow them to demonstrate the depth of their knowledge and understanding. The…

  15. Innovative Strategies for Empowering Your Students to Become Active, Responsible Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, B.

    2011-09-01

    The economy continues to sputter along, and the repercussions are now hitting hard at publicly-funded colleges and universities, with enrollment increasing and funding decreasing. Funding agencies are starting to look at retention and completion rates as a way to allocate scarce dollars. Improving these rates is also one way to increase the future stream of tuition; students who can't pass introductory classes like ASTRO101 won't enroll and pay tuition for the next level, and they won't complete their degree. So what can you, a mere professor of astronomy, do? Tired of the "What do you want me to know?" questions? Provide your students with learner-centered structures to help them learn more deeply. Do your students resist active-engagement techniques and hate group work? Share empowerment strategies for helping students become active, responsible learners who can thrive in a learner-centered environment. Do you think that it's wrong for the freshman classes to be over-crowded, yet your sophomore classes don't get enough students or don't even exist? After using the proven curriculum of On Course, college and universities across the country have improved their retention across a wide range of disciplines (http://www.OnCourseWorkshop.com/Data.htm). Experience a sample of the fun and engaging activities developed over two decades to help students (1) accept personal responsibility, (2) discover self motivation, (3) master self-management, (4) use interdependence, (5) gain self-awareness, (6) adopt lifelong learning, (7) develop emotional intelligence, and (8) believe in themselves. Since this is only a one-hour workshop, we will focus on choices one and four: to be successful, students need to see themselves as the primary cause of their outcomes and experiences and to build mutually supportive relationships in our classroom and labs. Outcomes: (1) one ASTRO101 Course-ready activity to help students accept personal responsibility; (2) one ASTRO101 Course

  16. The Impact of Vocabulary Enhancement Activities on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention among Male and Female EFL Learners in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Raftari, Shohreh; Bijami, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    In general, incidental vocabulary acquisition is represented as the "picking up" of new vocabularies when students are engaged in a variety of reading, listening, speaking, or writing activities. Research has shown when learners read extensively incidental vocabulary acquisition happens. Many EFL students cannot be involved in reading…

  17. MAI (Multi-Dimensional Activity Based Integrated Approach): A Strategy for Cognitive Development of the Learners at the Elementary Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basantia, Tapan Kumar; Panda, B. N.; Sahoo, Dukhabandhu

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive development of the learners is the prime task of each and every stage of our school education and its importance especially in elementary state is quite worth mentioning. Present study investigated the effectiveness of a new and innovative strategy (i.e., MAI (multi-dimensional activity based integrated approach)) for the development of…

  18. Comparison of the Effects of Reflection and Contemplation Activities on Service-Learners' Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Trae; Alrutz, Megan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which service-learners' mindfulness is affected by engagement in reflection (e.g., dialogue) and contemplation activities (e.g., labyrinth tracing). The results are compared within and between treatment groups, while covarying for participants' initial levels of mindfulness. While both dialogue and…

  19. From Passive to Active Learners: The "Lived Experience" of Nurses in a Specialist Nephrology Nursing Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridger, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the lived experience of learning for a group of staff nurses in the Middle East, who undertook a post-registration nursing education programme in the speciality of nephrology nursing (the NNP) between 2001 and 2002. The broad-based curriculum seeks to develop the staff nurses into active learners, able to…

  20. When Are Powerful Learning Environments Effective? The Role of Learner Activities and of Students' Conceptions of Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerjets, Peter H.; Hesse, Friedrich W.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to outline a theoretical and empirical perspective on how learners' conceptions of educational technology might influence their learning activities and thereby determine the power of computer-based learning environments. Starting with an introduction to the concept of powerful learning environments we outline how recent…

  1. Identifying and Enhancing the Strengths of Gifted Learners, K-8: Easy-to-Use Activities and Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maccagnano, Ann Marie

    2007-01-01

    Educators can identify children's strengths early on and gain insight into each student's unique abilities by using the numerous ideas and informal assessments in this exciting guide. Gifted and talented specialist Ann Maccagnano offers K-8 teachers challenging activities and engaging lessons to develop and nurture gifted learners' talents.…

  2. Hinode Observes an Active Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    The X-ray Telescope on the Japanese/NASA mission Hinode has been observing the full sun, nearly continuously, for an extended period. In this movie significant small-scale dynamic events can be obs...

  3. CALL and the Development of Learner Autonomy: Towards an Activity-Theoretical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blin, Francoise

    2004-01-01

    While the concepts and principles associated with learner autonomy underpin a broad range of CALL applications and research projects, current debates and research paradigms in CALL do not provide adequate tools and models to investigate in depth the relationship between CALL and the development of learner autonomy. This paper explores the…

  4. Elementary School EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning: The Effects of Post-Reading Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atay, Derin; Kurt, Gokce

    2006-01-01

    As language learning involves the acquisition of thousands of words, teachers and learners alike would like to know how vocabulary learning can be fostered, especially in EFL settings where learners frequently acquire impoverished lexicons, despite years of formal study. Research indicates that reading is important but not sufficient for…

  5. Using Web-Based Instruction to Promote Active Learning: Learners' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lina

    2005-01-01

    This article reports classroom research on learners' perspectives on Web-based instruction that utilizes the "Blackboard" course management system. The Web-based instruction aims to provide and support collaborative learning while fostering learners' autonomy and accountability. The article also provides a description of the course design along…

  6. IRAS observations of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1985-01-01

    The IRAS survey gives an unbiased view of the infrared properties of the active galaxies. Seyfert galaxies occupy much the same area in color-color plots as to normal infrared bright galaxies, but extend the range towards flatter 60 to 25 mm slopes. Statistically the Seyfert 1 galaxies can be distinguished from the Seyfert 2 galaxies, lying predominantly closer to the area with constant slopes between 25 and 200 mm. The infrared measurements of the Seyfert galaxies cannot distinguish between the emission mechanisms in these objects although they agree with the currently popular ideas; they do provide a measure of the total luminosity of the Seyferts. The quasar's position in the color-color diagrams continue the trend of the Seyferts. The quasar 3C48 is shown to be exceptional among the radio loud quasars in that it has a high infrared luminosity which dominates the power output of the quasar and is most likely associated with the underlying host galaxy.

  7. Investigative Research: How It Changes Learner Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Brian

    1993-01-01

    What matters about an educational activity is how learners respond to it. This article examines a program concerned with the learners' needs, through the expression of learners' own meanings, and advances the concept of investigative research as a suitable vehicle for more autonomous learning, through a change in learner status. (26 references)…

  8. Impact of Consciousness-Raising Activities on Young English Language Learners' Grammar Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatemipour, Hamidreza; Hemmati, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Grammar Consciousness-Raising (GCR) is an approach to teaching of grammar which learners instead of being taught the given rules, experience language data. The data challenge them to rethink, restructure their existing mental grammar and construct an explicit rule to describe the grammatical feature which the data illustrate (Ellis, 2002). And…

  9. Fostering Active Processing of Instructional Explanations of Learners with High and Low Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acuna, Santiago R.; Garcia Rodicio, Hector; Sanchez, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential advantages of instructional explanations, evidence indicates that they are usually ineffective. Subsequent work has shown that in order to make instructional explanations effective indeed, one successful strategy is to combine them with indications of the limitations in learners' understanding that they are intended to…

  10. Developing Learners' Second Language Communicative Competence through Active Learning: Clickers or Communicative Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of clickers, the communicative approach and the lecture method on the communicative competence development of learners who were taught English a second language (ESL). Ninety nine pupils from three primary schools participated in the study. Quasi-experimental non-randomised pre-test posttest…

  11. An Analysis of Spanish L2 Learners' Orientation through Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tocaimaza-Hatch, C. Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Orientation is defined as the way in which individuals view a task and the means they devise to fulfill it (Appel & Lantolf, 1994; Roebuck, 2000). This study investigated the orientation of twelve learners enrolled in a fourth-semester Spanish L2 university course through the analysis of their interactions during a collaborative…

  12. Online Social Networks as Formal Learning Environments: Learner Experiences and Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Navarrete, Cesar C.

    2012-01-01

    While the potential of social networking sites to contribute to educational endeavors is highlighted by researchers and practitioners alike, empirical evidence on the use of such sites for formal online learning is scant. To fill this gap in the literature, we present a case study of learners' perspectives and experiences in an online course…

  13. The effects of data-driven learning activities on EFL learners' writing development.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qinqin

    2016-01-01

    Data-driven learning has been proved as an effective approach in helping learners solve various writing problems such as correcting lexical or grammatical errors, improving the use of collocations and generating ideas in writing, etc. This article reports on an empirical study in which data-driven learning was accomplished with the assistance of the user-friendly BNCweb, and presents the evaluation of the outcome by comparing the effectiveness of BNCweb and a search engine Baidu which is most commonly used as reference resource by Chinese learners of English as a foreign language. The quantitative results about 48 Chinese college students revealed that the experimental group which used BNCweb performed significantly better in the post-test in terms of writing fluency and accuracy, as compared with the control group which used the search engine Baidu. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of writing complexity. The qualitative results about the interview revealed that learners generally showed a positive attitude toward the use of BNCweb but there were still some problems of using corpora in the writing process, thus the combined use of corpora and other types of reference resource was suggested as a possible way to counter the potential barriers for Chinese learners of English. PMID:27536538

  14. Activities for Challenging Gifted Learners by Increasing Complexity in the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeone, Alyssa; Caruso, Lenora; Bettle, Kailyn; Chase, Ashley; Bryson, Bridget; Schneider, Jean S.; Rule, Audrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Gifted learners need opportunities for critical and creative thinking to stretch their minds and imaginations. Strategies for increasing complexity in the four core areas of language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies were addressed using the Common Core and Iowa Core Standards through several methods. Descriptive adjective object…

  15. Mathematics Learning with Multiple Solution Methods: Effects of Types of Solutions and Learners' Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Große, Cornelia S.

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly suggested to mathematics teachers to present learners different methods in order to solve one problem. This so-called "learning with multiple solution methods" is also recommended from a psychological point of view. However, existing research leaves many questions unanswered, particularly concerning the effects of…

  16. Using Netbooks to Support Mobile Learners' Investigations across Activities and Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaved, Mark; Collins, Trevor; Mulholland, Paul; Kerawalla, Lucinda; Jones, Ann; Scanlon, Eileen; Littleton, Karen; Blake, Canan; Petrou, Marilena; Clough, Gill; Twiner, Alison

    2010-01-01

    We explore how small-format laptops ("netbooks") have been used within evidence-based investigations undertaken by secondary school students, to what extent these are suitable for effectively supporting learners across different locations and contexts, and their implications for open learning. Over the course of seven trials with 300 students and…

  17. Active Lessons for Active Brains: Teaching Boys and Other Experiential Learners, Grades 3-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Abigail Norfleet; Allison, Sandra Boyd; McKenzie, Caitlin Zimmerman

    2011-01-01

    If you're tired of repeating yourself to students who aren't listening, try a little less talk and a lot more action. The authors follow the best-selling "Teaching the Male Brain and Teaching the Female Brain" with this ready-to-use collection of mathematics, language arts, science, and classroom management strategies. Designed for active,…

  18. Report on observational activity in (summer) 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zejda, M.

    2016-03-01

    A short report on the author's observational activity in 2015 and the last 20 years is given. In total this means almost 900 nights, about a half million of CCD frames and thousands of photometric measurements.

  19. The Built Environment Predicts Observed Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Cheryl; Wilson, Jeffrey S.; Schootman, Mario; Clennin, Morgan; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In order to improve our understanding of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity, it is important to identify associations between specific geographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors. Purpose: Examine relationships between observed physical activity behavior and measures of the built environment collected on 291 street segments in Indianapolis and St. Louis. Methods: Street segments were selected using a stratified geographic sampling design to ensure representation of neighborhoods with different land use and socioeconomic characteristics. Characteristics of the built environment on-street segments were audited using two methods: in-person field audits and audits based on interpretation of Google Street View imagery with each method blinded to results from the other. Segments were dichotomized as having a particular characteristic (e.g., sidewalk present or not) based on the two auditing methods separately. Counts of individuals engaged in different forms of physical activity on each segment were assessed using direct observation. Non-parametric statistics were used to compare counts of physically active individuals on each segment with built environment characteristic. Results: Counts of individuals engaged in physical activity were significantly higher on segments with mixed land use or all non-residential land use, and on segments with pedestrian infrastructure (e.g., crosswalks and sidewalks) and public transit. Conclusion: Several micro-level built environment characteristics were associated with physical activity. These data provide support for theories that suggest changing the built environment and related policies may encourage more physical activity. PMID:24904916

  20. Earth observation archive activities at DRA Farnborough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, M. D.; Williams, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Space Sector, Defence Research Agency (DRA), Farnborough have been actively involved in the acquisition and processing of Earth Observation data for over 15 years. During that time an archive of over 20,000 items has been built up. This paper describes the major archive activities, including: operation and maintenance of the main DRA Archive, the development of a prototype Optical Disc Archive System (ODAS), the catalog systems in use at DRA, the UK Processing and Archive Facility for ERS-1 data, and future plans for archiving activities.

  1. Using What Learners Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Mary; Adams, Sharon

    2000-01-01

    This issue of "TAP into Learning" focuses on technology-assisted learning activities for students, in particular on those that use spreadsheets. Articles include: "Using What Learners Know"; "Activity: Grade 7 and 8 Math, Social Studies and Language Arts"; "Managing Growth: Collaborative Decision-Making in Urban Planning"; "Spreadsheets"; "Getting…

  2. Participatory Multimedia Learning: Engaging Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiili, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a participatory multimedia learning model for use in designing multimedia learning environments that support an active learning process, creative participation, and learner engagement. Participatory multimedia learning can be defined as learning with systems that enable learners to produce part of the…

  3. HEROES Observations of a Quiescent Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, A. Y.; Christe, S.; Gaskin, J.; Wilson-Hodge, C.

    2014-12-01

    Hard X-ray (HXR) observations of solar flares reveal the signatures of energetic electrons, and HXR images with high dynamic range and high sensitivity can distinguish between where electrons are accelerated and where they stop. Even in the non-flaring corona, high-sensitivity HXR measurements may be able to detect the presence of electron acceleration. The High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) balloon mission added the capability of solar observations to an existing astrophysics balloon payload, HERO, which used grazing-incidence optics for direct HXR imaging. HEROES measures HXR emission from ~20 to ~75 keV with an angular resolution of 33" HPD. HEROES launched on 2013 September 21 from Fort Sumner, New Mexico, and had a successful one-day flight. We present the detailed analysis of the 7-hour observation of AR 11850, which sets new upper limits on the HXR emission from a quiescent active region, with corresponding constraints on the numbers of tens of keV energetic electrons present. Using the imaging capability of HEROES, HXR upper limits are also obtained for the quiet Sun surrounding the active region. We also discuss what can be achieved with new and improved HXR instrumentation on balloons.

  4. The Development and Evaluation of an Achievement Test for Measuring the Efficacy of Task-Based Writing Activities to Enhance Iranian EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejad, Ferdows Mohsen; Khosravian, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability of an achievement test to measure the efficacy of task-based writing activities to improve Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension at the intermediate level in a private language institute in Ilam, Iran, namely Alefba language institute. To achieve the goal, the techniques for evaluating reliability…

  5. Effects of an Online Learning Community on Active and Reflective Learners' Learning Performance and Attitudes in a Face-to-Face Undergraduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhan, Zehui; Xu, Fuyin; Ye, Huiwen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an Online Learning Community (OLC) on active and reflective learners' learning performance and attitude in a face-to-face undergraduate digital design course. 814 freshmen in an introductory digital design course were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: one offered students an OLC,…

  6. The Effects of Pragmatic Consciousness-Raising Activities on the Development of Pragmatic Awareness and Use of Hearsay Evidential Markers for Learners of Japanese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narita, Ritsuko

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the effectiveness of pragmatic consciousness-raising (PCR) activities in the L2 pragmatic acquisition of hearsay evidential markers by learners of Japanese as a foreign language (JFL). PCR is essentially an inductive approach to facilitating awareness of how language forms are used appropriately in a given context.…

  7. Digging Deeper into Learners' Experiences in MOOCs: Participation in Social Networks outside of MOOCs, Notetaking and Contexts Surrounding Content Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Collier, Amy; Schneider, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Researchers describe with increasing confidence "what" they observe participants doing in massive open online courses (MOOCs). However, our understanding of learner activities in open courses is limited by researchers' extensive dependence on log file analyses and clickstream data to make inferences about learner behaviors. Further, the…

  8. Observations of an active region filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, W. G.; Tang, Y. H.; Fang, C.; Xu, A. A.

    An active region filament was well observed on September 4, 2002 with THEMIS at the Teide observatory and SOHO/MDI. The full Stokes parameters of the filament were obtained in Hα and FeI 6302 Å lines. Using the data, we have studied the fine structure of the filament and obtained the parameters at the barb endpoints, including intensity, velocity and longitudinal magnetic field. Our results indicate: (a) the Doppler velocities are quiet different at barb endpoints; (b) the longitudinal magnetic fields at the barb endpoints are very weak; (c) there is a strong magnetic field structure under the filament spine.

  9. MESSENGER Observations of Substorm Activity at Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W. J.; Slavin, J. A.; Fu, S.; Raines, J. M.; Zong, Q. G.; Poh, G.; Jia, X.; Sundberg, T.; Gershman, D. J.; Pu, Z.; Zurbuchen, T.; Shi, Q.

    2015-12-01

    MErcury Surface, Space ENviroment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) magnetic field and plasma measurements taken during crossings of Mercury's magnetotail from 2011 to 2014 have been investigated for substorms. A number of events with clear Earth-like growth phase and expansion phase signatures were found. The thinning of the plasma sheet and the increase of magnetic field intensity in the lobe were observed during the growth phase and plasma sheet was observed to thicken during the expansion phase, which are similar to the observations at Earth. But the time scale of Mercury's substorm is only several minutes comparing with the several hours at Earth [Sun et al., 2015a]. Detailed analysis of magnetic field fluctuations during the substorm expansion phase have revealed low frequency plasma waves, e.g. Pi2-like pulsations. The By fluctuations accompanying substorm dipolarizations are consistent with pulses of field-aligned currents near the high latitude edge of the plasma sheet. Further study shows that they are near-circularly polarized electromagnetic waves, most likely Alfvén waves. Soon afterwards the plasma sheet thickened and MESSENGER detected a series of compressional waves. We have also discussed their possible sources [Sun et al., 2015b]. Sun, W.-J., J. A. Slavin, S. Y. Fu, et al. (2015a), MESSENGER observations of magnetospheric substorm activity in Mercury's near magnetotail. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 3692-3699. doi: 10.1002/2015GL064052.Sun, W.-J., J. A. Slavin, S. Y. Fu, et al. (2015b), MESSENGER observations of Alfvénic and compressional waves during Mercury's substorms. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, in press. doi: 10.1002/ 2015GL065452.

  10. Observations of seismic activity in Southern Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meirova, T.; Hofstetter, R.

    2013-04-01

    Recent seismic activity in southern Lebanon is of particular interest since the tectonic framework of this region is poorly understood. In addition, seismicity in this region is very infrequent compared with the Roum fault to the east, which is seismically active. Between early 2008 and the end of 2010, intense seismic activity occurred in the area. This was manifested by several swarm-like sequences and continuous trickling seismicity over many days, amounting in total to more than 900 earthquakes in the magnitude range of 0.5 ≤ M d ≤ 5.2. The region of activity extended in a 40-km long zone mainly in a N-S direction and was located about 10 km west of the Roum fault. The largest earthquake, with a duration magnitude of M d = 5.2, occurred on February 15, 2008, and was located at 33.327° N, 35.406° E at a depth of 3 km. The mean-horizontal peak ground acceleration observed at two nearby accelerometers exceeded 0.05 g, where the strongest peak horizontal acceleration was 55 cm/s2 at about 20 km SE of the epicenter. Application of the HypoDD algorithm yielded a pronounced N-S zone, parallel to the Roum fault, which was not known to be seismically active. Focal mechanism, based on full waveform inversion and the directivity effect of the strongest earthquake, suggests left-lateral strike-slip NNW-SSE faulting that crosses the NE-SW traverse faults in southern Lebanon.

  11. Reaching English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    In the authors' science classroom, students who are English Language Learners (ELL) seem to struggle less than they do with other content areas. She believes the "handson" nature of science motivates and encourages students to interact with others. This interaction spurs conversation among the students involved in the activity. If a child is…

  12. "Dealing With" Unexpected Learner Contributions in Whole Group Activities: An Examination of Novice Language Teacher Discursive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Drew S.

    2012-01-01

    The current paper examines the discursive practices of one novice English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher "dealing with" learners' unexpected contributions in whole group classroom interactions during teacher- and learner-initiated sequences-of-talk. The study draws from two fields of research: classroom discourse studies…

  13. Exploring Shifts in Middle School Learners' Modeling Activity While Generating Drawings, Animations, and Computational Simulations of Molecular Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson-Jerde, Michelle H.; Gravel, Brian E.; Macrander, Christopher A.

    2015-04-01

    Modeling and using technology are two practices of particular interest to K-12 science educators. These practices are inextricably linked among professionals, who engage in modeling activity with and across a variety of representational technologies. In this paper, we explore the practices of five sixth-grade girls as they generated models of smell diffusion using drawing, stop-motion animation, and computational simulation during a multi-day workshop. We analyze video, student discourse, and artifacts to address the questions: In what ways did learners' modeling practices, reasoning about mechanism, and ideas about smell shift as they worked across this variety of representational technologies? And, what supports enabled them to persist and progress in the modeling activity? We found that the girls engaged in two distinct modeling cycles that reflected persistence and deepening engagement in the task. In the first, messing about, they focused on describing and representing many ideas related to the spread of smell at once. In the second, digging in, they focused on testing and revising specific mechanisms that underlie smell diffusion. Upon deeper analysis, we found these cycles were linked to the girls' invention of "oogtom," a representational object that encapsulated many ideas from the first cycle and allowed the girls to restart modeling with the mechanistic focus required to construct simulations. We analyze the role of activity design, facilitation, and technological infrastructure in this pattern of engagement over the course of the workshop and discuss implications for future research, curriculum design, and classroom practice.

  14. When the School "Faucet" Turns Off, the Sociocultural "Sprinklers" Turn On: Observing Funds of Knowledge among First and Second Grade English Learners Who Experienced Summer Gains in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Shannon Kay

    2010-01-01

    Based on a mixed methods research design that included an examination of the impact of summer, case study analyses, and survey findings, English learners appear to have an advantage over their non-English learner peers in resisting summer loss and developing social competence. This study examined the effect of summer vacation on the oral reading…

  15. The Structural Challenge: A Simple Design-Based Science Activity to Foster Creativity among Kinaesthetic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Nazir; Subramaniam, R.

    2014-01-01

    A suitable way for teachers to present science content and foster creativity in less academically inclined students is by getting them to engage in design-based science activities and guiding them along the way. This study illustrates how a design-and-make activity was carried out with the aim of getting students to showcase their creativity while…

  16. Microvariability Observations of Three Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.; Hirschmann, A.; Jenks, A.; Keshishian, G.; Torres, Y.

    2000-12-01

    Microvariability observations are presented for three objects - the BL Lac object OQ 530, the OVV quasar 3CR 345, and the very high redshift quasar PSS 1057+4555. All objects were observed using the 0.76m telescope at the Rosemary Hill Observatory. The object OQ 530 was observed in the R band during three nights in June of 1997. Observations in the V and I bands were made of the OVV quasar 3CR 345 in May of 2000. The microvariability behavior reported here for OQ 530 and 3CR 345 is compared to the previously reported behavior for these objects. In addition, observations were carried out over four nights in March and May of 2000 to search for microvariability of the very high redshift (z = 4.10) quasar PSS 1057+4555. The data presented here for these three objects are discussed in relation to current models for microvariability.

  17. Objects prompt authentic scientific activities among learners in a museum programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achiam, Marianne; Simony, Leonora; Kramer Lindow, Bent Erik

    2016-04-01

    Although the scientific disciplines conduct practical work in different ways, all consider practical work as the essential way of connecting objects and phenomena with ideas and the abstract. Accordingly, practical work is regarded as central to science education as well. We investigate a practical, object-based palaeontology programme at a natural history museum to identify how palaeontological objects prompt scientific activity among upper secondary school students. We first construct a theoretical framework based on an analysis of the programme's palaeontological content. From this, we build our reference model, which considers the specimens used in the programme, possible palaeontological interpretations of these specimens, and the conditions inherent in the programme. We use the reference model to analyse the activities of programme participants, and illustrate how these activities are palaeontologically authentic. Finally, we discuss our findings, examining the mechanism by which the specimens prompt scientific activities. We also discuss our discipline-based approach, and how it allows us to positively identify participants' activities as authentic. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings.

  18. Frequency requirements for active earth observation sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The foundation and rationale for the selection of microwave frequencies for active remote sensing usage and for subsequent use in determination of sharing criteria and allocation strategies for the WARC-79 are presented.

  19. Sciencing with Mother Goose: Observation Activities with Chicken Little.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Carolyn

    1996-01-01

    Provides sample observation activities to accompany the nursery tale of Chicken Little. Includes five activities that involve the skills of observing, communicating, comparing, ordering, and categorizing to engage students in hands-on science. (DDR)

  20. The Effect of Curricular Activities on Learner Autonomy: The Perspective of Undergraduate Mechanical Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, M.; Leite, C.; Mouraz, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study researches how first-year engineering students perceived the influence of curricular activities on their own learning autonomy, measured with an adaptation of the Personal Responsibility Orientation to Self-direction in Learning Scale (PRO-SDLS). Participants were questioned to assess the influence of the teacher's role. The results…

  1. The Effect of Post-Teaching Activity Type on Vocabulary Learning of Elementary EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Karim; Sharifi, Faranak

    2013-01-01

    Considering the significant role of vocabulary in learning a language, and teachers' great responsibility in providing opportunities to facilitate this learning, many studies have focused on the best means of achieving a good knowledge of vocabulary. This study set out to investigate the effect of four post-teaching activities, namely game,…

  2. Growing into Greatness: A Study of a Local History Group of Active-Retired Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Trudy; Byrne, Brid; Harris, Phyllis; Lalor, Maureen; O'Connor, Maura; O'Reilly, Kathleen; Quinn, Frank; Forde, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Research in Canada on the learning needs of older people looked at such issues as how to cope with changes in society, the need to make a contribution and the need to be influential. The White Paper on Adult Education "Learning for Life" notes that strategies for active ageing stress the critical importance of access to learning as a key tool in…

  3. Collaborative Syntactic Priming Activities and EFL Learners' Production of Wh-questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Kim; Chaikitmongkol, Wanpen

    2010-01-01

    Syntactic priming is the tendency for a speaker to produce a structure that was encountered in recent discourse and is measured by calculating how frequently speakers use the modelled structures as opposed to alternatives. Recent lab-based studies have shown that carrying out syntactic priming activities with trained interlocutors positively…

  4. Research on the Healthy Lifestyle Model, Active Ageing, and Loneliness of Senior Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Jui-Ying; Lu, Kuo-Song

    2014-01-01

    Taiwan has the fastest ageing population in the world. Thus, the government and local policy makers need to formulate policies not just for the nursing and care needs of the aged. They also need to actively promote the need for lifelong learning among seniors in order to achieve elderly-friendly objectives, such as health promotion and delays in…

  5. Towards Flexible Learning for Adult Learners in Professional Contexts: An Activity-Focused Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Sarah; Gordon, Carole; Ackland, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    This article argues for a flexible model of learning for adults which allows them to make choices and contextualise their learning in a manner appropriate to their own professional practice whilst also developing as a member of a learning community. It presents a design based around online "learning activities" which draws on ideas of…

  6. OBSERVING CORONAL NANOFLARES IN ACTIVE REGION MOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, Paola; DeLuca, Ed; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark; De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Title, Alan; Hansteen, Viggo; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Kuzin, Sergey; Walsh, Robert; DeForest, Craig

    2013-06-10

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial ({approx}0.''3-0.''4) and temporal (5.5 s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to {approx}15 s, significantly shorter than the minute-scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the 94 A channel, and by the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few 10{sup 23} erg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C observations suggest that future observations at comparable high spatial and temporal resolution, with more extensive temperature coverage, are required to determine the exact characteristics of the heating mechanism(s).

  7. Active Latitude Oscillations Observed on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilcik, A.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Clette, F.; Ozguc, A.; Rozelot, J.-P.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate periodicities in the mean heliographic latitudes of sunspot groups, called active latitudes, for the past six complete solar cycles (1945 - 2008). For this purpose, the multitaper method and Morlet wavelet analysis were used. We found that solar rotation periodicities (26 - 38 days) are present in active latitudes of both hemispheres for all the investigated cycles (18 to 23). Both in the northern and southern hemispheres, active latitudes drifted toward the equator from the beginning to the end of each cycle and followed an oscillating path. These motions are well described by a second-order polynomial. There are no meaningful periods of between 55 and about 300 days in either hemisphere for all cycles. A periodicity of 300 to 370 days appears in both hemispheres for Cycle 23, in the northern hemisphere for Cycle 20, and in the southern hemisphere for Cycle 18.

  8. THE MORE CAPABLE LEARNER, GRADE 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HANSEN, WILLIAM; AND OTHERS

    ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES FOR TEACHER USE WITH CAPABLE LEARNERS ARE DISCUSSED. THE TEACHER'S SECTION CONTAINS--SUGGESTIONS FOR USING PUPIL MATERIALS, CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MORE ABLE STUDENT, A CHECKLIST FOR IDENTIFYING THE MORE ABLE STUDENTS, A CHART OF ACTIVITIES FOR THE CAPABLE LEARNER, AND A LIST OF MATERIALS AVAILABLE FROM THE CURRICULUM…

  9. Turning Reluctant Learners into Inspired Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanacore, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Motivation is a key factor in promoting academic success, and intrinsic motivation is especially important for developing autonomous learners. Reluctant learners, in particular, benefit from intrinsic motivation that makes learning relevant to their lives. In this article, the author describes commonalities of reluctant learners and presents…

  10. Observational Activities at Manipur University, India (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. Y.; Meitei, I. A.; Singh, S. A.; Singh, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) We have innovatively designed and constructed three observatories each costing a few hundred USD for housing three small Schmidt-Cassegrain type telescopes namely, Celestron CGE925, Celestron CGE1400, Meade 12-inch LX200GPS. These observatories are completely different in design and are found to be perfectly usable for doing serious work on astronomical observation and measurements. The observatory with the Celestron CGE1400 telescope has been inducted, since January 2012, as one of the observatories of the international “Orion Project” headquartered at Phoenix, Arizona, which is dedicated for photometric and spectroscopic observations of five bright variable stars of the Orion constellation namely, Betelgeuse (alpha Ori), Rigel (beta Ori), Mintaka (delta Ori), Alnilam (epsilon Ori) and Alnitak (zeta Ori). Using this observatory, we have been producing BVRI photometric data for the five stars of the Orion project. The other observatory with the Meade 12-inch LX200GPS telescope is being inducted into service for CCD photometric study of SU UMa stars in connection with implementation of a project funded by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). In the present paper, we would like to describe our self-built observatories, our observational facilities, the BVRI photometric data that we acquired for the Orion project, and our future plan for observation of variable stars of interest.

  11. OBSERVATIONS ON ASBESTOS RELEASE DURING DEMOLITION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory has monitored block-wide building demolition and debris disposal activities at Santa Cruz and Watsonville, California following the earthquake, an implosion demolition of a 26-story building in Cincinnati, Ohio, and the demolition of two ...

  12. Einstein observations of active galaxies and quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreier, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The radio galaxies Centaurus A and Signus B are discussed. In both these sources, a comparison of the radio and imaged X-ray flux is allowed for the measurement of the magnetic fields. Einstein observations of quasars are discussed. The number of known X-ray emitting QSO's was increased from 3 to 22 and the distances where these QSO's were seen to correspond to an age of 15 billion years. It was shown that these quasars contributed significantly to the X-ray background.

  13. Learner Personas in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude

    2007-01-01

    In examining the titles of this year's conference presentations, the author noticed quite a few papers that focus on learner-specific issues, for instance, papers that address learning styles, learner needs, personality and learning, learner modeling and, more generally, pedagogical issues that deal with individual learner differences in…

  14. Morphing into Adolescents: Active Word Learning for English-Language Learners and Their Classmates in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2010-01-01

    Many students arrive at middle school without the academic language skills they need to read sophisticated texts with comprehension. In particular, English language learners and students from low-income backgrounds attending underresourced, urban middle schools lack opportunities to learn the thousands of academic words they need to succeed. To…

  15. Teacher-Made Tactile Science Materials with Critical and Creative Thinking Activities for Learners Including Those with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teske, Jolene K.; Gray, Phyllis; Kuhn, Mason A.; Clausen, Courtney K.; Smith, Latisha L.; Alsubia, Sukainah A.; Ghayoorad, Maryam; Rule, Audrey C.; Schneider, Jean Suchsland

    2014-01-01

    Gifted students with visual impairments are twice exceptional learners and may not evidence their advanced science aptitudes without appropriate accommodations for learning science. However, effective tactile science teaching materials may be easily made. Recent research has shown that when tactile materials are used with "all" students…

  16. We Are What We Do: Examining Learner-Generated Content in the Anatomy Laboratory through the Lens of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doubleday, Alison F.; Wille, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Video and photography are often used for delivering content within the anatomical sciences. However, instructors typically produce these resources to provide instructional or procedural information. Although the benefits of learner-generated content have been explored within educational research, virtually no studies have investigated the use of…

  17. Guiding Learners to near Native Fluency in English through an Adaptive Programme of Activities Which Includes Phoneme and Prosody Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Alistair; Attridge, Ann; Lapok, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Many students of English language find pronunciation difficult to master. This work in progress paper discusses an incremental and iterative approach towards developing requirements for software applications to assist learners with the perception and production of English pronunciation in terms of phonemes and prosody. It was found that prompts…

  18. Style Shifts among Japanese Learners before and after Study Abroad in Japan: Becoming Active Social Agents in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwasaki, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on L2 Japanese sojourners often reported that learners overuse the plain style or haphazardly mix the plain and polite styles upon return. These styles, which are often associated with formal or informal contexts, also index complex social and situational meanings, and native speakers are reported to shift their styles to create…

  19. Examining Student Cognitive and Affective Engagement and Reading Instructional Activities: Spanish-Speaking English Learners' Reading Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Ana Taboada; Gallagher, Melissa; Smith, Peet; Buehl, Michelle M.; Beck, Jori S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the key role of engagement in helping students succeed in school and beyond. Given the academic struggles that many English learners (ELs) face as they transition to middle school, exploring the facets of engagement in middle school ELs is needed. We established reader profiles for eight sixth grade Hispanic ELs and…

  20. Video Observation of the Leonids 2001 Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chilong; Abe, Shinsuke; Koten, Pavel; Yang, I-Ching

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents an analysis of records obtained by video equipment of the 2001 Leonid meteor storm. Totally, 3712 meteors, including 22 non-Leonid ones, were recognized from the record of 247 min. The brightness of meteors was measured with the software ``LIMovie'', and a population index of r = 2.01 ± 0.05 (-8 ≤ mag ≤ -3) was thus derived. We proposed a way to derive the mass-distribution index, s = 1.82, from only our one-station data. The maximum of the activity appeared at 18h25m UT with an effective peak of ZHR90°×67° = 52606 (mag ≤ +6.5). There are also compatible sub-peaks and high plateaus beside the main peak. One of them may correspond to the predicted 9-revolution dust trail (ejection in 1699). In this article we treat the cross section of the influx zone as a trapezoid. The peak ``influx rate'' generated by the 4-revolution dust trail (ejection in 1866) thus derived would be 6.76 × 10-5km-2s-1 (mag ≤ +6.5), and the corresponding ``spatial number density'' would be 9.52 × 10-7km-3 (mag ≤ +6.5).

  1. Solar Activity Studies using Microwave Imaging Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the status of solar cycle 24 based on polar prominence eruptions (PEs) and microwave brightness enhancement (MBE) information obtained by the Nobeyama radioheliograph. The north polar region of the Sun had near-zero field strength for more than three years (2012-2015) and ended only in September 2015 as indicated by the presence of polar PEs and the lack of MBE. The zero-polar-field condition in the south started only around 2013, but it ended by June 2014. Thus the asymmetry in the times of polarity reversal switched between cycle 23 and 24. The polar MBE is a good proxy for the polar magnetic field strength as indicated by the high degree of correlation between the two. The cross-correlation between the high- and low-latitude MBEs is significant for a lag of approximately 5.5 to 7.3 years, suggesting that the polar field of one cycle indicates the sunspot number of the next cycle in agreement with the Babcock-Leighton mechanism of solar cycles. The extended period of near-zero field in the north-polar region should result in a weak and delayed sunspot activity in the northern hemisphere in cycle 25.

  2. Cassini UVIS Observations Show Active Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L.; Colwell, J. E.; UVIS Team

    2004-12-01

    The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) is part of the remote sensing payload of the NASA/ESA Cassini spacecraft. This spectrograph includes channels for extreme UV and far UV spectroscopic imaging, high speed photometry of stellar occultations, solar EUV occultation, and a hydrogen/deuterium absorption cell. We report our initial results from UVIS observations of Saturn's rings. Dynamic interactions between neutrals, ions, rings, moons and meteoroids produce a highly structured and time variable Saturn system Oxygen in the Saturn system dominates the magnetosphere. Observed fluctuations indicate close interactions with plasma sources. Stochastic events in the E ring may be the ultimate source. The spectral signature of water ice is seen on Phoebe and in Saturn's rings. Water ice is mixed non-uniformly with darker constituents. The high structure of the UV ring reflectance argues that collisional transport dominates ballistic transport in darkening the rings. Our preliminary results support the idea that rings are recycled fragments of moons: the current processes are more important than history and initial conditions. The spectra along the UVIS SOI radial scan indicate varying amounts of water ice. In the A ring, the ice fraction increases outward to a maximum at the outer edge. This large-scale variation is consistent with initially pure ice that has suffered meteoritic bombardment over the age of the Solar system (Cuzzi and Estrada 1998). We also see variations over scales of 1000 - 3000 km, which cannot be explained by this mechanism. Ballistic transport of spectrally neutral extrinsic pollutants from meteoroids striking the rings has a typical throw distance of 6000 km (Durisen et al 1989), too long to explain this finer structure. We propose a class of smaller renewal events, in which a small moon residing within the rings is shattered by an external impactor (Colwell and Esposito 1993, Barbara and Esposito 2002, Esposito and Colwell 2003). The

  3. Learning Science Using AR Book: A Preliminary Study on Visual Needs of Deaf Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megat Mohd. Zainuddin, Norziha; Badioze Zaman, Halimah; Ahmad, Azlina

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology that is projected to have more significant role in teaching and learning, particularly in visualising abstract concepts in the learning process. AR is a technology is based on visually oriented technique. Thus, it is suitable for deaf learners since they are generally classified as visual learners. Realising the importance of visual learning style for deaf learners in learning Science, this paper reports on a preliminary study of on an ongoing research on problems faced by deaf learners in learning the topic on Microorganisms. Being visual learners, they have problems with current text books that are more text-based that graphic based. In this preliminary study, a qualitative approach using the ethnographic observational technique was used so that interaction with three deaf learners who are participants throughout this study (they are also involved actively in the design and development of the AR Book). An interview with their teacher and doctor were also conducted to identify their learning and medical problems respectively. Preliminary findings have confirmed the need to design and develop a special Augmented Reality Book called AR-Science for Deaf Learners (AR-SiD).

  4. Engaging Learner Support: An Investigation of Faculty-Library Collaboration to Provide Live Course-Specific Learner Support in the Online Classroom Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration between faculty and learner support can create seamless services for e-learners. Providing access to learning materials and activities with co-located tailored learner support creates an environment in which e-learners can easily access everything they need for an enhanced, supported, and more focused learning experience. The…

  5. The Development of Expert Learners in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Saemah; Mahmud, Zuria; Yassin, Siti Fatimah Mohd; Amir, Ruslin; Ilias, Khadijah Wan

    2010-01-01

    The term "expert learner" refers to students who are actively engaged with the materials learned and take responsibility for their own learning. Literature reviews suggested the use of metacognitive approach to help develop students to become expert learners. Research on development of expert learners can be traced from movements that…

  6. Using Blended Learning to Increase Learner Support and Improve Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Gwyneth

    2007-01-01

    Improving retention and identifying "at risk" learners are high profile issues in higher education, and a proposed solution is to provide good learner support. Blending of online learning with classroom sessions offers the potential to use a virtual learning environment to deliver learning activities, and to support learners using a distance…

  7. The Tip of the Iceberg: Factors Affecting Learner Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Teachers' informal discussions of learner motivation often emphasize the need to find ways to motivate learners, most usually through "fun" or "dynamic" activities. This paper starts from the assumption, however, that part of the work of the teacher is to avoid the "demotivation" of learners, and that there is a need to consider the overall…

  8. Naturalistic Observations of Children's Activities and Roles While Playing with Their Siblings and Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneman, Zolinda; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reports studies of children's interactions at home with younger siblings and/or best friends. Finds gender and group composition differences in the play activities selected, amount of positive and negative interaction, and assumption of the roles of teacher/learner, manager/manager and playmate. (CB)

  9. Observations of Teacher-Child Interactions in Classrooms Serving Latinos and Dual Language Learners: Applicability of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System in Diverse Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downer, Jason T.; Lopez, Michael L.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Hamagami, Aki; Pianta, Robert C.; Howes, Carollee

    2012-01-01

    With the rising number of Latino and dual language learner (DLL) children attending pre-k and the importance of assessing the quality of their experiences in those settings, this study examined the extent to which a commonly used assessment of teacher-child interactions, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS), demonstrated similar…

  10. Lurking and L2 Learners on a Facebook Group: The Voices of the Invisibles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafie, Latisha Asmaak; Yaacob, Aizan; Singh, Paramjit Kaur Karpal

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research investigates the practice of lurking among English as a second language (ESL) learners in a Facebook group discussion. Lurking is a term used to describe the activity of following and observing any online discussions or activities without contributing to the discussions. Lurkers are often accused of being invisible and…

  11. Expanded Perspectives on Autonomous Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two general perspectives on autonomous learners: psychological and sociocultural. These perspectives introduce a range of theoretically grounded facets of autonomous learners, facets such as the self-regulated learner, the emotionally intelligent learner, the self-determined learner, the mediated learner, the socioculturally…

  12. Listening to Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    This booklet looks at the role of learner feedback in the quality improvement process. It suggests how adult and community learning (ACL) providers can adapt and improve their practice to meet the needs of learners in the changed policy context. Chapter 1 explores why providers should listen to learners and finds that listening to learners…

  13. Learner and Faculty Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Sharon; Stanford, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This chapter identifies effective ways to address learner and faculty support. It introduces methods for building a successful learner support system by providing sufficient resources and proactively addressing learner motivation. It also addresses effective faculty support through institutional policies, resources, training, and course…

  14. Between the Social and the Selfish: Learner Autonomy in Online Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores what it means to be an autonomous learner in an online social context. Using distinctions originally drawn by Jürgen Habermas, it argues that classic accounts of learner autonomy as teleological action are inadequate to explain learner activity in group settings. It points out that learners in such settings display attitudes…

  15. "Sharing Time" with Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazigi, Rana; Seedhouse, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Although "Sharing Time" is a popular and widespread activity in English for Young Learners (L2) classrooms around the world, there have so far been no research studies of the interaction that is generated and its relationship to learning processes. The aims of this study were to find out how interaction is organized during "Sharing…

  16. Using Computers to Motivate Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Jeri A.

    1989-01-01

    Maintains that the use of computers in the classroom produces motivated students, empowered learners, and increased literacy. Gives an example of the computer program "The Oregon Trail" in which students participate actively in a wagon train journey from Missouri to Oregon. Urges teachers to encourage students in their mastery of computer skills.…

  17. Staff Members as Lifelong Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Joanne V.

    Based on the assumption that all community college staff members should be lifelong learners, this paper outlines the purposes and principles underlying a quality staff development program and enumerates the elements, activities, incentives, and other considerations that are necessary for the program to be successful. First, the purposes of staff…

  18. UTILITY OF ACTIVITY AND OBSERVATIONAL DATA FOR NEUROTOXICITY SCREENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Observational and activity tests provide neurobehavioral data critical for assessing a chemical's effects on the nervous system. he measures are sensitive, relatively specific, and provide information about the effects of the chemical in specified functional domains. These measur...

  19. Combined Passive Active Soil Moisture Observations During CLASIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important issue in advancing higher spatial resolution and better accuracy in soil moisture remote sensing is the integration of active and passive observations. In an effort to address these questions an airborne passive/active L-band system (PALS) was flown as part of CLASIC in Oklahoma over th...

  20. Modeling Learner Variability in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude

    2008-01-01

    This article describes challenges and benefits of modeling learner variability in Computer-Assisted Language Learning. We discuss the learner model of "E-Tutor," a learner model that addresses learner variability by focusing on certain aspects and/or features of the learner's interlanguage. Moreover, we introduce the concept of phrase descriptors,…

  1. Learner Performance in Multimedia Learning Arrangements: An Analysis across Instructional Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eysink, Tessa H. S.; de Jong, Ton; Berthold, Kirsten; Kolloffel, Bas; Opfermann, Maria; Wouters, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared four multimedia learning arrangements differing in instructional approach on effectiveness and efficiency for learning: (a) hypermedia learning, (b) observational learning, (c) self-explanation-based learning, and (d) inquiry learning. The approaches all advocate learners' active attitude toward the learning…

  2. Improving Learners' Research Process Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, T. K.; Hunter, L.; Kluger-Bell, B.; Seagroves, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Professional Development Program (PDP) supports participants as they design inquiry activities that help learners improve their research process skills. These skills include the cognitive or reasoning skills that scientists and engineers use while doing research; for example, making a testable hypothesis, coordinating results from multiple experiments, or identifying and evaluating tradeoffs. Past work in the PDP indicated that additional support was needed to help participants design instructional activities that would teach these important skills. A new workshop was therefore developed for the 2009 PDP cycle, entitled "Improving Learners' Process Skills." In this workshop, participants worked in small groups to define specific science and engineering skills found in four past PDP activity designs. Participants distinguished between "simple tasks" and "authentic inquiry" activities that learners could perform as demonstration of the skill. Through this new workshop, participants were able to explicitly discuss ways in which individual process skills are unique or inter-related. In addition, by identifying a "simple task," participants were able to pinpoint areas in which their own designs could be improved to better focus on authentic inquiry tasks. In 2010, the workshop was slightly modified to help participants reconnect the research process skills with the activity content. In addition, the idea of using generic and context-specific scaffolds was also introduced. To make the participants feel like they were contributing to the PDP community, four activity designs actively being worked on in the 2010 cycle were used. Based on participant feedback, this "Improving Learners' Process Skills" workshop should be strongly considered for future returning participants.

  3. Learner Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Carola

    2011-01-01

    This article presents first results of an ethnographic research project in a Luxembourgish primary school that accompanied the development of a school project by children from the fifth grade. Analysing the data children themselves collected with Kodak Zi8 cameras in order to document their project activities, it investigates their possibilities…

  4. Galileo SSI Observations of Volcanic Activity at Tvashtar Catena, Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milazzo, M. P.; Keszthely, L. P.; Radebaugh, J.; Davies, A. G.; Turtle, E. P.; Geissler, P.; Klaasen, K. P.; McEwen, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: We report on the analysis of the Galileo SSI's observations of the volcanic activity at Tvashtar Catena, Io as discussed by Milazzo et al. Galileo's Solid State Imager (SSI) observed Tvashtar Catena (63 deg N, 120 deg W) four times between November 1999 and October 2001, providing a unique look at the distinctive high latitude volcanism on Io. The November 1999 observation spatially resolved, for the first time, an active extraterrestrial fissure eruption. The brightness temperature of the lavas at the November 1999 fissure eruption was 1300 K. The second observation (orbit I27, February 2000) showed a large (approx. 500 sq km) region with many, small spots of hot, active lava. The third observation was taken in conjunction with a Cassini observation in December 2000 and showed a Pele-like plume deposition ring, while the Cassini images revealed a 400 km high Pele-type plume above the Catena. The final Galileo SSI observation of Tvashtar was acquired in October 2001, and all obvious (to SSI) activity had ceased, although data from Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) indicated that there was still significant thermal emission from the Tvashtar region. We have concentrated on analyzing the style of eruption during orbit I27 (February 2000). Comparison with a lava flow cooling model indicates that the behavior of the Tvashtar eruption during I27 does not match that of "simple" advancing lava flows. Instead, it may be an active lava lake or a complex set of lava flows with episodic, overlapping (in time and space) eruptions.

  5. HiRISE observations of gas sublimation-driven activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, N.; Hansen, C. J.; Portyankina, G.; Russell, P. S.; Bridges, N. T.

    2009-04-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has been used to monitor the seasonal evolution of several regions at high southern latitudes and, in particular, the geyser-like activity which may result from the process described by Kieffer [JGR, 112, 8005, 2007] involving translucent CO2 ice. Here, we mostly concentrate on observations of the Inca City (81S, 296E) region. The observations indicate rapid on-set of activity at the beginning of southern spring with activity initiating before HiRISE can obtain adequately illuminated images (Ls < 174 at Inca City). Most sources became active within the subsequent 8 weeks. Activity is indicated by the production of dark deposits surrounded by brighter bluer deposits which probably arise from the freezing out of vented CO2 [Titus et al., AGU Abstract P41A-0188, 2007]. These deposits originate from araneiform structures (spiders), stones on ridges, cracks on slopes, and along linear cracks in the slab ice on flatter surfaces. The type of activity observed can often be explained qualitatively by considering the local topography. Some dark fans were observed to shorten enormously in length on a timescale of 18 days. We consider this to be strong evidence that emission was in progress at the time of HiRISE image acquisition. The orientations of surficial deposits were mostly topographically controlled in Inca City in 2007. The deposition of dark material also appeared to be influenced by local topography suggesting that the ejection from the vents was at low velocity (<10 m/s) and that a ground-hugging flow type process (a sort of "cryo-fumarole") may have been occurring. The presentation will illustrate the above features and make a first comparison between activity separated by one full Martian year. Our first observations indicate a stronger influence of wind in 2009.

  6. Regional Observation of Seismic Activity in Baekdu Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Geunyoung; Che, Il-Young; Shin, Jin-Soo; Chi, Heon-Cheol

    2015-04-01

    Seismic unrest in Baekdu Mountain area between North Korea and Northeast China region has called attention to geological research community in Northeast Asia due to her historical and cultural importance. Seismic bulletin shows level of seismic activity in the area is higher than that of Jilin Province of Northeast China. Local volcanic observation shows a symptom of magmatic unrest in period between 2002 and 2006. Regional seismic data have been used to analyze seismic activity of the area. The seismic activity could be differentiated from other seismic phenomena in the region by the analysis.

  7. Separating "Inquiry Questions" and "Techniques" to Help Learners Move between the How and the Why of Biology Practical Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Judith M. D.; Taber, Keith S.

    2016-01-01

    School science practical activities have been criticised for exposing learners to a series of phenomena disconnected from the conceptual frameworks needed to understand them. Such activities are successful in the "domain of observables" but not the "domain of ideas". Few resources exist for classroom teachers wishing to improve…

  8. Observations on Electronic Networks: Appropriate Activities for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, James A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of the use of electronic networks for learning activities highlights the Noon Observation Project in which students in various locations measured the length of a noontime shadow to determine the earth's circumference. Electronic pen pals are discussed, and the roles of the network and of the class are described. (LRW)

  9. Teaching Writing. Three Seasonal Activities to Hone Kids' Observation Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Brenda

    1997-01-01

    The seasonal activities presented are: observing herbs to encourage use of the senses in writing; watching a jack-o'-lantern wither to learn skills in writing details; and building snowmen to learn to explain a string of events in writing. (SM)

  10. Radio Imaging Observations of Solar Activity Cycle and Its Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibasaki, K.

    2011-12-01

    The 24th solar activity cycle has started and relative sunspot numbers are increasing. However, their rate of increase is rather slow compared to previous cycles. Active region sizes are small, lifetime is short, and big (X-class) flares are rare so far. We study this anomalous situation using data from Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH). Radio imaging observations have been done by NoRH since 1992. Nearly 20 years of daily radio images of the Sun at 17 GHz are used to synthesize a radio butterfly diagram. Due to stable operation of the instrument and a robust calibration method, uniform datasets are available covering the whole period of observation. The radio butterfly diagram shows bright features corresponding to active region belts and their migration toward low latitude as the solar cycle progresses. In the present solar activity cycle (24), increase of radio brightness is delayed and slow. There are also bright features around both poles (polar brightening). Their brightness show solar cycle dependence but peaks around solar minimum. Comparison between the last minimum and the previous one shows decrease of its brightness. This corresponds to weakening of polar magnetic field activity between them. In the northern pole, polar brightening is already weakened in 2011, which means it is close to solar maximum in the northern hemisphere. Southern pole does not show such feature yet. Slow rise of activity in active region belt, weakening of polar activity during the minimum, and large north-south asymmetry in polar activity imply that global solar activity and its synchronization are weakening.

  11. First OSIRIS observations of active areas on comet 67P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, J.-B.; Sierks, H.; Oklay, N.; Agarwal, J.; Güttler, C.; Bodewits, D.; Osiris Team

    2014-04-01

    After a successful exit from hibernation, Rosetta started observing its final target comet 67P in March 2014 with the two OSIRIS cameras WAC and NAC (Wide Angle and Narrow Angle Camera) [1]. By the time of this conference, the spacecraft will have flown from 5 million to 50 km from the nucleus surface, reaching a resolution of 1 meter/pixel in the NAC images. During that period, the comet heliocentric distance varies from 4.3 to 3.2 AU and we will observe how the early activity develops. We know that cometary surfaces are not fully active; only a small fraction of the surface emits gas and dust. However we do not yet understand why it happens in that way, and what to expect on 67P. Recent publications using data from ground-based telescopes have proposed different interpretations for the distribution of active sources, from one to three at various latitudes [2, 3]. There is some evidence for different levels of activity in the northern and southern hemispheres, but these variations can only be constrained with close range data. In August 2014, OSIRIS will map the surface of the comet at high resolution, and perform weekly monitoring of the activity, especially the faintest jets. With these images and the inversion code COSSIM [4], we will be able to link observed features in the coma or on the limb to physical spots on the surface. On other comets visited by spacecrafts the activity has sometimes been associated with smooth areas, rough terrains, or specific morphologic features (cliff, crater, rim, . . . ). We will present a first look at how activity and terrain are linked on 67P, and look at variations of composition, morphology, or both. We will compare this identification of active areas to previous publications.

  12. Observational evidence for enhanced magnetic activity of superflare stars

    PubMed Central

    Karoff, Christoffer; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; De Cat, Peter; Bonanno, Alfio; Fogtmann-Schulz, Alexandra; Fu, Jianning; Frasca, Antonio; Inceoglu, Fadil; Olsen, Jesper; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Shi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Superflares are large explosive events on stellar surfaces one to six orders-of-magnitude larger than the largest flares observed on the Sun throughout the space age. Due to the huge amount of energy released in these superflares, it has been speculated if the underlying mechanism is the same as for solar flares, which are caused by magnetic reconnection in the solar corona. Here, we analyse observations made with the LAMOST telescope of 5,648 solar-like stars, including 48 superflare stars. These observations show that superflare stars are generally characterized by larger chromospheric emissions than other stars, including the Sun. However, superflare stars with activity levels lower than, or comparable to, the Sun do exist, suggesting that solar flares and superflares most likely share the same origin. The very large ensemble of solar-like stars included in this study enables detailed and robust estimates of the relation between chromospheric activity and the occurrence of superflares. PMID:27009381

  13. Observational evidence for enhanced magnetic activity of superflare stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karoff, Christoffer; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; De Cat, Peter; Bonanno, Alfio; Fogtmann-Schulz, Alexandra; Fu, Jianning; Frasca, Antonio; Inceoglu, Fadil; Olsen, Jesper; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Shi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Superflares are large explosive events on stellar surfaces one to six orders-of-magnitude larger than the largest flares observed on the Sun throughout the space age. Due to the huge amount of energy released in these superflares, it has been speculated if the underlying mechanism is the same as for solar flares, which are caused by magnetic reconnection in the solar corona. Here, we analyse observations made with the LAMOST telescope of 5,648 solar-like stars, including 48 superflare stars. These observations show that superflare stars are generally characterized by larger chromospheric emissions than other stars, including the Sun. However, superflare stars with activity levels lower than, or comparable to, the Sun do exist, suggesting that solar flares and superflares most likely share the same origin. The very large ensemble of solar-like stars included in this study enables detailed and robust estimates of the relation between chromospheric activity and the occurrence of superflares.

  14. Observational evidence for enhanced magnetic activity of superflare stars.

    PubMed

    Karoff, Christoffer; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; De Cat, Peter; Bonanno, Alfio; Fogtmann-Schulz, Alexandra; Fu, Jianning; Frasca, Antonio; Inceoglu, Fadil; Olsen, Jesper; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Shi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Superflares are large explosive events on stellar surfaces one to six orders-of-magnitude larger than the largest flares observed on the Sun throughout the space age. Due to the huge amount of energy released in these superflares, it has been speculated if the underlying mechanism is the same as for solar flares, which are caused by magnetic reconnection in the solar corona. Here, we analyse observations made with the LAMOST telescope of 5,648 solar-like stars, including 48 superflare stars. These observations show that superflare stars are generally characterized by larger chromospheric emissions than other stars, including the Sun. However, superflare stars with activity levels lower than, or comparable to, the Sun do exist, suggesting that solar flares and superflares most likely share the same origin. The very large ensemble of solar-like stars included in this study enables detailed and robust estimates of the relation between chromospheric activity and the occurrence of superflares. PMID:27009381

  15. Physical Activity Surveillance in Parks Using Direct Observation

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Cohen, Deborah; Evenson, Kelly R.; Golinelli, Daniela; Hillier, Amy; Lapham, Sandra C.; Williamson, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Primary features of observational public health surveillance instruments are that they are valid, can reliably estimate physical activity behaviors, and are useful across diverse geographic settings and seasons by different users. Previous studies have reported the validity and reliability of Systematic Observation of Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) to estimate park and user characteristics. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the use of SOPARC as a surveillance instrument and to situate the findings from the study in the context of the previous literature. Methods We collected data by using SOPARC for more than 3 years in 4 locations: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Columbus, Ohio; Chapel Hill/Durham, North Carolina; and Albuquerque, New Mexico during spring, summer, and autumn. Results We observed a total of 35,990 park users with an overall observer reliability of 94% (range, 85%–99%) conducted on 15% of the observations. We monitored the proportion of park users engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and found marginal differences in MVPA by both city and season. Park users visited parks significantly more on weekend days than weekdays and visitation rates tended to be lower during summer than spring. Conclusion SOPARC is a highly reliable observation instrument that can be used to collect data across diverse geographic settings and seasons by different users and has potential as a surveillance system. PMID:24384304

  16. English Language Learners interactions with various science curriculum features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norland, Jennifer Jane

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of eighth grade English Language Learners in an inclusive science classroom. There is a paucity of research in this area. Central to this study was the students' perceptions and interactions with five different science curriculum features; teacher presentation and guided notes, worksheets, homework, labs, and practice and review activities. The student participants were English Language Learners from two language proficiency levels and the teacher was a provisionally licensed first year science teacher. The aggregate data included individual interviews with the students and teacher, classroom observations, and the collection of classroom artifacts. The findings revealed: (a) students' comprehension of the material was inconsistent throughout all of the curriculum features and differences were observed not only between but also within the two proficiency levels; (b) classroom organizational issues created challenges for both the teacher and the students; (c) off task behavior was most prevalent during the teacher's one-to-one instruction and interfered with learning; (d) differences between levels of language proficiency were observed among students who preferred to work independently and were comfortable asking the teacher for assistance and the students who preferred working with and receiving assistance from peers; and (e) language proficiency rather than cultural differences appeared to be the greatest barrier to classroom success. Overall, English language proficiency was a crucial determinant in the English Language Learners success in the inclusive classroom. Additionally, implications suggest that a limited teaching skill set could adversely affect the success of students in inclusive classrooms.

  17. NIMS Observes Increased Activity at Loki Patera, Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Loki Patera, historically the most active and persistent hot spot on Io, is located on the hemisphere of Io always facing Jupiter. Loki Patera was the site of two plumes during the Voyager encounters, which were not seen during the early orbits of Galileo. Ground-based observers reported Loki Patera to be unusually dim during this time, marking a period of low volcanic activity.

    On 21 February 1997, during Galileo's sixth orbit, the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on the Galileo spacecraft observed Io in daylight from a range of approximately 703,000 km (440,000 miles). The image on the left shows Io at a wavelength of 2.95 microns. Loki Patera is seen to be relatively quiescent (at longer wavelengths which are more sensitive to thermal emission, Loki Patera is more noticeable).

    A few weeks later, on March 12th 1997, ground based observers using the Infra-Red Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, observed an intense brightening in the Loki region, so much that Loki was contributing 75% of Io's in-eclipse flux for this hemisphere. A large eruption was taking place! Other ground-based observations through March, April and May tracked the course of the activity and confirmed its location at Loki Patera.

    On 4 April 1997, NIMS again observed Io during the seventh orbit from a range of 556,000 km (348,000 miles), with Loki Patera positioned in darkness, close to the limb. The image on the right shows the increase in activity at Loki Patera, again at 2.95 microns. A preliminary single temperature fit to NIMS orbit seven Loki Patera hot spot data yields a temperature of 500 K and an area of over 800 square kilometers. That the image is so bright at this wavelength is an indication of the areal extent of the activity. It is also probable that some part of the volcanic material being erupted or exposed is at considerably higher temperatures than that of the 500 K single-temperature fit.

    Io is under observation by ground-based observers under

  18. 19th century auroral observations reveal solar activity patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Sam

    Growing interest in the aurora in the early part of the eighteenth century, which resulted from the spectacular reappearance of the aurora in 1707 and 1716, followed a relative scarcity of great auroras during the Maunder minimum, a period of prolonged reduced solar activity from about 1645-1715. Observations in the early eighteenth century led to questions about the geographical extent, nature, and temporal variability of the auroras. Typically, such observations were included as part of recorded meteorological notations, though occasionally early astronomers, such as Tycho Brahe in the 1590s, included auroras in their observations. Meteorological observations were important because of the effects of weather and climate on agriculture, and, according to the belief at the time, on disease.

  19. Some implications of ultraviolet observations of quasars and active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidsen, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of the order of magnitude discrepancy in the expected and observed ratios of the Lyman and Balmer lines in quasars and active galaxies is reviewed. Whereas early photoionization models for the emission line regions predicted F(L-alpha)/F(H-beta) not less than 40, the observations give values for this ratio in the range 3-8. Attempts at explaining the observations have involved dust, both external and internal to the emission line regions, and improved treatments of the collisional processes and radiative transfer effects in dense (Ne about 10 to the 10th/cu cm), optically thick clouds. None of the effects considered is, by itself, able to explain all the observations, and a combination of several of them is probably required.

  20. The Learner's Permit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Daniel R.

    2003-01-01

    Considers the role and value of an extended learner's period in a graduated driver-licensing system through a review of the literature. Concludes that further research is needed on the safety benefits and optional features of the learner period. (Contains 1 figure, 3 tables, and 41 references.) (AUTHOR/WFA)

  1. Understanding Oral Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, W. Jay

    2012-01-01

    A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral…

  2. Adult Learners in Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Janette, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Theories on adult development and learning and some of the Ontario universities' programs and services for the adult learner are examined, and Athabasca University, Alberta's answer to the British Open University, is described. Peter O'Donnell discusses adult learners' needs and explains how Athabasca University serves this specific type of…

  3. The Lifelong Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Ronald

    Designed to provide a general guide and stimuli for lifelong learning, this book examines all the positive factors of independent study. Lifelong learning is defined as self-directed growth free from the traditional schooling procedures. Chapters discuss the following: the lifelong learner; profiles of such learners in action; how to be…

  4. A Learner Centered Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Florence N.

    This paper proposes a learner-centered educational system, focusing on aspects that are intrinsically associated with the modern educational system, such as the curriculum, school community, parents, learners, and educational support personnel. It examines: primary level preparation (literacy, numeracy, and basic knowledge; examination and…

  5. Grading Exceptional Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers often grapple with the challenge of giving report card grades to students with learning disabilities and English language learners. The authors offer a five-step model that "offers a fair, accurate, and legal way to adapt the grading process for exceptional learners." The model begins with a high-quality reporting system for all students…

  6. Learner-Centered Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Robert M.

    There is no clear consensus of the term "learner-centered reform." Learner-centered reform has become by implication either the cause or the consequence of inflated grades, lowered admission requirements, affirmative action, elimination of language and other requirements, student evaluation of teaching, abandonment of research, and many other ills…

  7. Learner-Centered Teaching Techniques in Astronomy 101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L. V.; Marschall, L. A.; Prather, E.

    2003-12-01

    We present preliminary results of studies done on learner-centered teaching techniques with students in Astronomy 101. Results for two classes taught at Gettysburg College this fall will be presented. One class used learner-centered activities, the other did not. A diagnostic survey was given to both classes before and after. Specific newly designed activities were tested as well.

  8. CORONAS-F observations of active phenomena on the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oraevsky, V. N.; Sobelman, I. I.; Zitnik, I. A.; Kuznetsov, V. D.; Stepanov, A. I.; Polishuk, G. M.; Kovilin, P. N.; Negoda, A. A.; Dranovsky, V. I.; Yatskiv, Ya. S.

    Complex observations in the framework of the CORONAS-F Mission aimed at the study of active phenomena inthe solar corona are described. The main features are given for the following experiments: (1) XUV-imaging spectroscopy with high temporal and spatial resolution, (2) X-ray spectroscopy, (3) X-ray and gamma-ray photometer/spectrometer, and (4) solar cosmic rays. Some new observational data on the structure and dynamics of flares and transient events are discussed along with their analysis.

  9. OBSERVABILITY OF DUAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN MERGING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wassenhove, Sandor; Volonteri, Marta; Bellovary, Jillian; Mayer, Lucio; Callegari, Simone; Dotti, Massimo

    2012-03-20

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) have been detected in the centers of most nearby massive galaxies. Galaxies today are not only the products of billions of years of galaxy mergers, but also billions of years of SMBH activity as active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that is connected to galaxy mergers. In this context, detection of AGN pairs should be relatively common. Observationally, however, dual AGNs are scant, being just a few percent of all AGNs. In this Letter, we investigate the triggering of AGN activity in merging galaxies via a suite of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations. We follow the dynamics and accretion onto the SMBHs as they move from separations of tens of kiloparsecs to tens of parsecs. Our resolution, cooling, and star formation implementation produce an inhomogeneous, multi-phase interstellar medium, allowing us to accurately trace star formation and accretion onto the SMBHs. We study the impact of gas content, morphology, and mass ratio, focusing on AGN activity and dynamics across a wide range of relevant conditions. We test when the two AGNs are simultaneously detectable, for how long and at which separations. We find that strong dual AGN activity occurs during the late phases of the mergers, at small separations (<1-10 kpc) below the resolution limit of most surveys. Much of the SMBH accretion is not simultaneous, limiting the dual AGN fraction detectable through imaging and spectroscopy to a few percent, in agreement with observational samples.

  10. Underwater observations of active lava flows from Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tribble, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Underwater observation of active submarine lava flows from Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, in March-June 1989 revealed both pillow lava and highly channelized lava streams flowing down a steep and unconsolidated lava delta. The channelized streams were 0.7-1.5 m across and moved at rates of 1-3 m/s. The estimated flux of a stream was 0.7 m3/s. Jets of hydrothermal water and gas bubbles were associated with the volcanic activity. The rapidly moving channelized lava streams represent a previously undescribed aspect of submarine volcanism. -Author

  11. Learner-Content-Interface as an Approach for Self-Reliant and Student-Centered Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolay, Robin; Schwennigcke, Bastian; Sahl, Sarah; Martens, Alke

    2015-01-01

    Conceptualization and implementation of computer supported teaching and training is currently not tailored to the paradigm of learner centration. Many technical solutions lack transparency and consistency regarding the supported learner activities. An insight into learners activities correlated to learning tasks is needed. In this paper we outline…

  12. Observation of Chlorine Activation near the Midlatitude Tropopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, B.; Toohey, D.; Wilson, J. C.; Kelly, K. K.; Thompson, T. L.; Proffitt, M. H.; May, R. D.

    2004-12-01

    It has been proposed that heterogeneous chlorine activation on cirrus cloud particles near the tropopause could provide a chemical explanation for ozone trends in the midlatitude tropopause region. During the 1998 WAM (WB-57 Aerosol Mission) campaign, an in situ ClO instrument was deployed on the NASA WB-57 aircraft in the midlatitudes. On the 11 April 1998 flight, clear examples of enhancements to reactive chlorine in sunlit, wet, particle laden air near the tropopause were observed over eastern Wyoming (approximately 42\\deg N, 105\\deg E) at 11-12 km. The air being sampled appeared to contain evaporating cirrus, and the observed chlorine enhancements (up to 20% activation) were strongly correlated with both particle surface area and total water. Ozone values in this enhanced ClO region ranged from 80-300 ppbv, consistent with both tropospheric and lowermost stratospheric air. These observations suggest that near tropopause reactive chlorine enhancements likely occur in regions of recent stratospheric-tropospheric exchange providing water and increased particle surface area to otherwise relatively dry stratospheric air. Due to greater insolation, ozone loss rates in this region may be higher than those previously reported for similar active chlorine abundances at similar altitudes in the Arctic.

  13. Knowledge discovery in group activities through sequential observation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2014-06-01

    Understanding of Group Activities (GA) has significant applications in civilian and military domains. The process of understanding GA is typically involved with spatiotemporal analysis of multi-modality sensor data. Video imagery is one popular sensing modality that offers rich data, however, data associated with imagery source may become fragmented and discontinued due to a number of reasons (e.g., data transmission, or observation obstructions and occlusions). However, making sense out of video imagery is a real challenge. It requires a proper inference working model capable of analyzing video imagery frame by frame, extract and inference spatiotemporal information pertaining to observations while developing an incremental perception of the GA as they emerge overtime. In this paper, we propose an ontology based GA recognition where three inference Hidden Markov Models (HMM's) are used for predicting group activities taking place in outdoor environments and different task operational taxonomy. The three competing models include: a concatenated HMM, a cascaded HMM, and a context-based HMM. The proposed ontology based GA-HMM was subjected to set of semantically annotated visual observations from outdoor group activity experiments. Experimental results from GA-HMM are presented with technical discussions on design of each model and their potential implication to Persistent Surveillance Systems (PSS).

  14. Active Region Moss: Doppler Shifts from Hinode/EIS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen E.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Studying the Doppler shifts and the temperature dependence of Doppler shifts in moss regions can help us understand the heating processes in the core of the active regions. In this paper we have used an active region observation recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) onboard Hinode on 12-Dec- 2007 to measure the Doppler shifts in the moss regions. We have distinguished the moss regions from the rest of the active region by defining a low density cut-off as derived by Tripathi et al. (2010). We have carried out a very careful analysis of the EIS wavelength calibration based on the method described in Young, O Dwyer and Mason (2012). For spectral lines having maximum sensitivity between log T = 5.85 and log T = 6.25 K, we find that the velocity distribution peaks at around 0 km/s with an estimated error of 4 km/s. The width of the distribution decreases with temperature. The mean of the distribution shows a blue shift which increases with increasing temperature and the distribution also shows asymmetries towards blue-shift. Comparing these results with observables predicted from different coronal heating models, we find that these results are consistent with both steady and impulsive heating scenarios. Further observational constraints are needed to distinguish between these two heating scenarios.

  15. Continuous gravity observations at active volcanoes through superconducting gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Daniele; Greco, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    Continuous gravity measurements at active volcanoes are usually taken through spring gravimeters that are easily portable and do not require much power to work. However, intrinsic limitations dictate that, when used in continuous, these instruments do not provide high-quality data over periods longer than some days. Superconducting gravimeters (SG), that feature a superconducting sphere in a magnetic field as the proof mass, provide better-quality data than spring gravimeters, but are bigger and need mains electricity to work, implying that they cannot be installed close to the active structures of high volcanoes. An iGrav SG was installed on Mt. Etna (Italy) in September 2014 and has worked almost continuously since then. It was installed about 6km from the active craters in the summit zone of the volcano. Such distance is normally too much to observe gravity changes due to relatively fast (minutes to days) volcanic processes. Indeed, mass redistributions in the shallowest part of the plumbing system induce short-wavelength gravity anomalies, centered below the summit craters. Nevertheless, thanks to the high precision and long-term stability of SGs, it was possible to observe low-amplitude changes over a wide range of timescales (minutes to months), likely driven by volcanic activity. Plans are in place for the implementation of a mini-array of SGs at Etna.

  16. The impact of chromospheric activity on observed initial mass functions

    SciTech Connect

    Stassun, Keivan G.; Scholz, Aleks; Dupuy, Trent J.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.

    2014-12-01

    Using recently established empirical calibrations for the impact of chromospheric activity on the radii, effective temperatures, and estimated masses of active low-mass stars and brown dwarfs, we reassess the shape of the initial mass function (IMF) across the stellar/substellar boundary in the Upper Sco star-forming region (age ∼ 5-10 Myr). We adjust the observed effective temperatures to warmer values using the observed strength of the chromospheric Hα emission, and redetermine the estimated masses of objects using pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks in the H-R diagram. The effect of the activity-adjusted temperatures is to shift the objects to higher masses by 3%-100%. While the slope of the resulting IMF at substellar masses is not strongly changed, the peak of the IMF does shift from ≈0.06 to ≈0.11 M {sub ☉}. Moreover, for objects with masses ≲ 0.2 M {sub ☉}, the ratio of brown dwarfs to stars changes from ∼80% to ∼33%. These results suggest that activity corrections are essential for studies of the substellar mass function, if the masses are estimated from spectral types or from effective temperatures.

  17. Solar activities observed with the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuhong

    2015-08-01

    The New Vacuum Solar Telescope is the most important facility of the Fuxian Solar Observatory in China. Based on the high spatial and temporal resolution NVST observations, we investigate the solar activities in the chromosphere and obtain some new results. (1) Observations of a flux rope tracked by filament activation (Yang et al. 2014a). The filament material is initially located at one end of the flux rope and fills in a section of the rope. Then the filament is activated and the material flows along helical threads, tracking the twisted flux rope structure. The flux rope can be detected in both low temperature and high temperature lines, and there exists a striking anti-correlation between the Hα and EUV lines, which could imply some mild heating of cool filament material to coronal temperatures during the filament activation. (2) Fine structures and overlying loops of homologous confined solar flares (Yang et al. 2014b). At the pre-flare stage, there exists a reconnection between small loops. During the flare processes, the overlying loops, some of which are tracked by activated dark materials, do not break out. These direct observations may illustrate the physical mechanism of confined flares, i.e., magnetic reconnection between the emerging loops and the pre-existing loops triggers flares and the overlying loops prevent the flares from being eruptive. (3) Magnetic reconnection between small-scale loops (Yang et al. 2015). We report the solid observational evidence of magnetic reconnection between two sets of small-scale loops. The observed signatures are consistent with the predictions by reconnection models. The thickness and length of the current sheet are determined to be about 420 km and 1.4 Mm, respectively. The reconnection process contains a slow step and a rapid step. We suggest that the successive slow reconnection changes the conditions around the reconnection site and disrupts the instability, thus leading to the rapid approach of the anti

  18. TRMM/LIS and PR Observations and Thunderstorm Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohita, S.; Morimoto, T.; Kawasaki, Z. I.; Ushio, T.

    2005-12-01

    Thunderstorms observed by TRMM/PR and LIS have been investigating, and Lightning Research Group of Osaka University (LRG-OU) has unveiled several interesting features. Correlation between lightning activities and the snow depth of convective clouds may follow the power-five law. The power five law means that the flash density is a function of the snow-depth to power five. The definition of snow depth is the height of detectable cloud tops by TRMM/PR from the climatological freezing level, and it may be equivalent to the length of the portion where the solid phase precipitation particles exist. This is given by examining more than one million convective clouds, and we conclude that the power five law should be universal from the aspect of the statistic. Three thunderstorm active areas are well known as "Three World Chimneys", and those are the Central Africa, Amazon of the South America, and South East Asia. Thunderstorm activities in these areas are expected to contribute to the distribution of thermal energy around the equator to middle latitude regions. Moreover thunderstorm activity in the tropical region is believed to be related with the average temperature of our planet earth. That is why long term monitoring of lightning activity is required. After launching TRMM we have accumulated seven-year LIS observations, and statistics for three world chimneys are obtained. We have recognized the additional lightning active area, and that is around the Maracaibo lake in Venezuera. We conclude that this is because of geographical features of the Maracaibo lake and the continuous easterly trade wind. Lightning Activity during El Niño period is another interesting subject. LRGOU studies thunderstorm occurrences over west Indonesia and south China, and investigates the influence of El Nino on lightning . We compare the statistics between El Nino and non El Nino periods. We learn that the lightning activity during El Niño period is higher than non El Nino period instead

  19. Both novelty and expertise increase action observation network activity

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Sook-Lei; Sheng, Tong; Margetis, John L.; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Our experiences with others affect how we perceive their actions. In particular, activity in bilateral premotor and parietal cortices during action observation, collectively known as the action observation network (AON), is modulated by one's expertise with the observed actions or individuals. However, conflicting reports suggest that AON activity is greatest both for familiar and unfamiliar actions. The current study examines the effects of different types and amounts of experience (e.g., visual, interpersonal, personal) on AON activation. fMRI was used to scan 16 healthy participants without prior experience with individuals with amputations (novices), 11 experienced occupational therapists (OTs) who had varying amounts of experience with individuals with amputations, and one individual born with below-elbow residual limbs (participant CJ), as they viewed video clips of goal-matched actions performed by an individual with residual limbs and by an individual with hands. Participants were given increased visual exposure to actions performed by both effectors midway through the scanning procedure. Novices demonstrated a large AON response to the initial viewing of an individual with residual limbs compared to one with hands, but this signal was attenuated after they received visual exposure to both effectors. In contrast, OTs, who had moderate familiarity with residual limbs, demonstrated a lower AON response upon initial viewing—similar to novices after they received visual exposure. At the other extreme, CJ, who has extreme familiarity with residual limbs both visually and motorically, shows a largely increased left-lateralized AON response, exceeding that of novices and experienced OTs, when viewing the residual limb compared to hand actions. These results suggest that a nuanced model of AON engagement is needed to explain how cases of both extreme experience (CJ) and extreme novelty (novices) can result in the greatest AON activity. PMID:24062656

  20. High Spatial Resolution Fe XII Observations of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Paola; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo

    2016-08-01

    We use UV spectral observations of active regions with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to investigate the properties of the coronal Fe xii 1349.4 Å emission at unprecedented high spatial resolution (∼0.33″). We find that by using appropriate observational strategies (i.e., long exposures, lossless compression), Fe xii emission can be studied with IRIS at high spatial and spectral resolution, at least for high-density plasma (e.g., post-flare loops and active region moss). We find that upper transition region (TR; moss) Fe xii emission shows very small average Doppler redshifts ({v}{{D}} ∼ 3 km s‑1) as well as modest non-thermal velocities (with an average of ∼24 km s‑1 and the peak of the distribution at ∼15 km s‑1). The observed distribution of Doppler shifts appears to be compatible with advanced three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations in which impulsive heating is concentrated at the TR footpoints of a hot corona. While the non-thermal broadening of Fe xii 1349.4 Å peaks at similar values as lower resolution simultaneous Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) measurements of Fe xii 195 Å, IRIS observations show a previously undetected tail of increased non-thermal broadening that might be suggestive of the presence of subarcsecond heating events. We find that IRIS and EIS non-thermal line broadening measurements are affected by instrumental effects that can only be removed through careful analysis. Our results also reveal an unexplained discrepancy between observed 195.1/1349.4 Å Fe xii intensity ratios and those predicted by the CHIANTI atomic database.

  1. High Spatial Resolution Fe XII Observations of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Paola; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo

    2016-08-01

    We use UV spectral observations of active regions with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to investigate the properties of the coronal Fe xii 1349.4 Å emission at unprecedented high spatial resolution (˜0.33″). We find that by using appropriate observational strategies (i.e., long exposures, lossless compression), Fe xii emission can be studied with IRIS at high spatial and spectral resolution, at least for high-density plasma (e.g., post-flare loops and active region moss). We find that upper transition region (TR; moss) Fe xii emission shows very small average Doppler redshifts ({v}{{D}} ˜ 3 km s‑1) as well as modest non-thermal velocities (with an average of ˜24 km s‑1 and the peak of the distribution at ˜15 km s‑1). The observed distribution of Doppler shifts appears to be compatible with advanced three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations in which impulsive heating is concentrated at the TR footpoints of a hot corona. While the non-thermal broadening of Fe xii 1349.4 Å peaks at similar values as lower resolution simultaneous Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) measurements of Fe xii 195 Å, IRIS observations show a previously undetected tail of increased non-thermal broadening that might be suggestive of the presence of subarcsecond heating events. We find that IRIS and EIS non-thermal line broadening measurements are affected by instrumental effects that can only be removed through careful analysis. Our results also reveal an unexplained discrepancy between observed 195.1/1349.4 Å Fe xii intensity ratios and those predicted by the CHIANTI atomic database.

  2. Observations of Active Volcanoes Using the EO-1 Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, L. P.; Harris, A. J.; Wright, R.; Oppenheimer, C.; Geschwind, L. R.; Donegan, S.; Garbeil, H.

    2001-12-01

    Previous satellite observations of active volcanoes have been hampered by instruments that are primarily designed to measure surface reflectance of the Earth's vegetation. Sensors detecting radiation in the near-IR and IR are frequently saturated by highly radiant active volcanic features. Two satellite instruments, Hyperion and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on the Earth Observing -1 (EO-1) offer a means to circumvent saturation issues. Hyperion is a hyperspectral instrument that collects data in 242 narrow spectral bands between 0.4 and 2.5 microns and produces images that are 7.5 km x 100 km. For each 30m x 30m pixel, accurate atmospheric corrections and multiple component thermal models for lava flows can be generated. ALI is a Landsat-like instrument having 10 spectral bands at 0.4 - 2.35 microns. One of these, the 1.2 micron band, is sensitive to high temperature thermal anomalies such as overturning lava lakes and open lava channels. ALI also has a 10-m panchromtic band that allows for greater detailed mapping of volcanic features. ALI and Hyperion analyses for Erta Ale (Ethiopia), Mt. Etna (Sicily), Santiaguito (Guatemala), Popocatepetl (Mexico), and Mayon (Philippines) will be presented. While distribution of these data sets is limited to the EO-1 Science Team, the future of NASA's high spatial resolution terrestrial observation program will likely be based on a hybrid of these EO-1 sensors.

  3. Activity of faults observed in caves of the Eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroň, Ivo; Plan, Lukas; Grasemann, Bernhard; Mitrovič, Ivanka; Stemberk, Josef

    2015-04-01

    Major recent tectonic process in the Eastern Alps involves the Neogene and Quaternary lateral extrusion of parts of the Eastern Alps towards the Pannonian Basin coeval with north-south shortening of the collision realm between the Adriatic Plate and the Bohemian Massif (European Plate). Within the framework of the FWF project "Speleotect" (2013-2017), we observe recent activity of the major fault systems of the Eastern Alps, such as the (1) Salzach-Ennstal-Mariazell-Puchberg (SEMP), (2) Mur-Mürz, (3) Periadriatic, (4) Lavanttal, and (5) Vienna Basin marginal Faults. Totally seven high-accuracy 3D crack-gauges TM71 with automated reading devices were installed in five selected karst caves with faults younger than the particular caves and correlated to one of these fault zones. The recorded micro-displacement events have been compared to known regional fault kinematics and to regional seismic activity (seismic data provided by the ZAMG). Already within the first year of observation, several micro displacement events were registered; these events sometimes revealed the same mechanisms as the geologically documented kinematics of the particular active faults, but in some cases performed completely opposite kinematics. These micro displacement events occurred in seismically rather quiet periods, however, usually about 1 - 10 days prior to local seismic events of different magnitudes (varying between ML 0.1 and 3.3). Further, in some caves gravitational mass movements were recorded that accompanied the tectonic moments.

  4. Spectroscopic Observations of Fe XVIII in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teriaca, Luca; Warren, Harry P.; Curdt, Werner

    2012-08-01

    The large uncertainties associated with measuring the amount of high temperature emission in solar active regions (ARs) represents a significant impediment to making progress on the coronal heating problem. Most current observations at temperatures of 3 MK and above are taken with broadband soft X-ray instruments. Such measurements have proven difficult to interpret unambiguously. Here, we present the first spectroscopic observations of the Fe XVIII 974.86 Å emission line in an on-disk AR taken with the SUMER instrument on SOHO. Fe XVIII has a peak formation temperature of 7.1 MK and provides important constraints on the amount of impulsive heating in the corona. Detailed evaluation of the spectra and comparison of the SUMER data with soft X-ray images from the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode confirm that this line is unblended. We also compare the spectroscopic data with observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 94 Å channel on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The AIA 94 Å channel also contains Fe XVIII, but is blended with emission formed at lower temperatures. We find that it is possible to remove the contaminating blends and form relatively pure Fe XVIII images that are consistent with the spectroscopic observations from SUMER. The observed spectra also contain the Ca XIV 943.63 Å line that, although a factor 2-6 weaker than the Fe XVIII 974.86 Å line, allows us to probe the plasma around 3.5 MK. The observed ratio between the two lines indicates (isothermal approximation) that most of the plasma in the brighter Fe XVIII AR loops is at temperatures between 3.5 and 4 MK.

  5. Active region upflows. I. Multi-instrument observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanninathan, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Galsgaard, K.; Huang, Z.; Doyle, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Context. We study upflows at the edges of active regions, called AR outflows, using multi-instrument observations. Aims: This study intends to provide the first direct observational evidence of whether chromospheric jets play an important role in furnishing mass that could sustain coronal upflows. The evolution of the photospheric magnetic field, associated with the footpoints of the upflow region and the plasma properties of active region upflows is investigated with the aim of providing information for benchmarking data-driven modelling of this solar feature. Methods: We spatially and temporally combine multi-instrument observations obtained with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board the Hinode, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Interferometric BI-dimensional Spectro-polarimeter installed at the National Solar Observatory, Sac Peak, to study the plasma parameters of the upflows and the impact of the chromosphere on active region upflows. Results: Our analysis shows that the studied active region upflow presents similarly to those studied previously, i.e. it displays blueshifted emission of 5-20 kms-1 in Fe xii and Fe xiii and its average electron density is 1.8 × 109 cm-3 at 1 MK. The time variation of the density is obtained showing no significant change (in a 3σ error). The plasma density along a single loop is calculated revealing a drop of 50% over a distance of ~20 000 km along the loop. We find a second velocity component in the blue wing of the Fe xii and Fe xiii lines at 105 kms-1 reported only once before. For the first time we study the time evolution of this component at high cadence and find that it is persistent during the whole observing period of 3.5 h with variations of only ±15 kms-1. We also, for the first time, study the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field at high cadence and find that magnetic flux diffusion is

  6. Multi-wavelength Observations of Solar Active Region NOAA 7154

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, M. E.; Nitta, N. V.; Frank. Z. A.; Dame, L.; Suematsu, Y.

    2000-01-01

    We report on observations of a solar active region in May 1992 by the Solar Plasma Diagnostic Experiment (SPDE) in coordination with the Yohkoh satellite (producing soft X-ray images) and ground-based observatories (producing photospheric magnetograms and various filtergrams including those at the CN 3883 A line). The main focus is a study of the physical conditions of hot (T is approximately greater than 3 MK) coronal loops at their foot-points. The coronal part of the loops is fuzzy but what appear to be their footpoints in the transition region down to the photosphere are compact. Despite the morphological similarities, the footpoint emission at 10(exp 5) K is not quantitatively correlated with that at approximately 300 km above the tau (sub 5000) = 1 level, suggesting that the heat transport and therefore magnetic field topology in the intermediate layer is complicated. High resolution imaging observations with continuous temperature coverage are crucially needed.

  7. Inference of other's internal neural models from active observation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Joong; Cho, Sung-Bae

    2015-02-01

    Recently, there have been several attempts to replicate theory of mind, which explains how humans infer the mental states of other people using multiple sensory input, with artificial systems. One example of this is a robot that observes the behavior of other artificial systems and infers their internal models, mapping sensory inputs to the actuator's control signals. In this paper, we present the internal model as an artificial neural network, similar to biological systems. During inference, an observer can use an active incremental learning algorithm to guess an actor's internal neural model. This could significantly reduce the effort needed to guess other people's internal models. We apply an algorithm to the actor-observer robot scenarios with/without prior knowledge of the internal models. To validate our approach, we use a physics-based simulator with virtual robots. A series of experiments reveal that the observer robot can construct an "other's self-model", validating the possibility that a neural-based approach can be used as a platform for learning cognitive functions. PMID:25617791

  8. Observations on studies useful to asbestos operations and management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmoth, R.C.; Powers, T.J.; Millette, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Asbestos-containing materials found in buildings may release asbestos fibers into the air. Some of these fibers will eventually settle and attach to room surfaces (walls, furnishings, equipment, floors, and carpet) as part of normal dust. Activities like dusting, sweeping and vacuuming are likely to re-entrain the dust causing exposure to airborne asbestos. The paper discusses data that are largely observational in nature, but are illustrative of general trends of interest to those individuals dealing with the day-to-day problems of asbestos in buildings.

  9. Schoolyard Inquiry for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westervelt, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    This article presents outdoor inquiry activities to help English Language Learner (ELL) students learn life science concepts. As a public high school ELL science teacher, the author of this article use these place-based and scaffolded inquiry activities outside to reinforce concepts she teaches in the classroom all year long. Through inductive…

  10. Practices and Prospects of Learner Autonomy: Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Asmari, AbdulRahman

    2013-01-01

    Language learning process works through the learners' own reflection on how they learn and it makes learners active in the sense that they learn to analyze their learning strategies. So they start making decisions, e.g., whether to improve them or not, and in which way. Generally, this trait is missing in traditional language teaching process and…

  11. Factors Driving Learner Success in Online Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vu, Phu; Cao, Vien; Vu, Lan; Cepero, Jude

    2014-01-01

    This study examined factors that contributed to the success of online learners in an online professional development course. Research instruments included an online survey and learners' activity logs in an online professional development course for 512 in-service teachers. The findings showed that there were several factors affecting online…

  12. Building a Dynamic Online Learning Community among Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Minjuan; Sierra, Christina; Folger, Terre

    2003-01-01

    Examines the nature of learning communities constructed among a diverse group of adult learners in an international online graduate-level course. Discusses independent work, team tasks, the variety of computer-mediated communication tools used, and implications for promoting adult learners' active participation in online learning and instructional…

  13. Fermi Observations of TeV-Selected Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Di Bernardo, G.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Finke, J.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Foschini, L.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocian, M. L.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Reyes, L. C.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Schalk, T. L.; Sellerholm, A.; Sgrò, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2009-12-01

    We report on observations of TeV-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) made during the first 5.5 months of observations with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). In total, 96 AGNs were selected for study, each being either (1) a source detected at TeV energies (28 sources) or (2) an object that has been studied with TeV instruments and for which an upper limit has been reported (68 objects). The Fermi observations show clear detections of 38 of these TeV-selected objects, of which 21 are joint GeV-TeV sources, and 29 were not in the third EGRET catalog. For each of the 38 Fermi-detected sources, spectra and light curves are presented. Most can be described with a power law of spectral index harder than 2.0, with a spectral break generally required to accommodate the TeV measurements. Based on an extrapolation of the Fermi spectrum, we identify sources, not previously detected at TeV energies, which are promising targets for TeV instruments. Evidence for systematic evolution of the γ-ray spectrum with redshift is presented and discussed in the context of interaction with the extragalactic background light.

  14. UV Observations of Prominence Activation and Cool Loop Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Therese A.; Landi, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the thermal and dynamic properties of dynamic structures in and around a prominence channel observed on the limb on 17 April 2003. Observations were taken with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory's Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SOHO/SUMER) in lines formed at temperatures from 80,000 to 1.6 MK. The instrument was pointed to a single location and took a series of 90 s exposures. Two-dimensional context was provided by the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) in the UV and EUV and the Kanzelhohe Solar Observatory in H-alpha. Two dynamic features were studied in depth: an activated prominence and repeated motions in a loop near the prominence. We calculated three-dimensional geometries and trajectories, differential emission measure, and limits on the mass, pressure, average density, and kinetic and thermal energies. These observations provide important tests for models of dynamics in prominences and cool (approx. 10(exp 5) K)loops, which will ultimately lead to a better understanding the mechanism(s) leading to energy and mass flow in these solar features.

  15. Assessing the Literacy Needs of Adult Learners of ESL. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santopietro, Kathleen; Peyton, Joy Kreeft

    Traditionally, student assessment has focused on measuring learner skills. Assessment of literacy needs, from the learner's perspective, is also an important part of an instructional program. This digest focuses on ways to determine what learners want or believe they need to learn. Many of the activities described can include or lead to assessment…

  16. Comparing Learner Community Behavior in Multiple Presentations of a Massive Open Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Silvia Elena; Savage, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) can create large scale communities of learners who collaborate, interact and discuss learning materials and activities. MOOCs are often delivered multiple times with similar content to different cohorts of learners. However, research into the differences of learner communication, behavior and expectation between…

  17. Learner Autonomy as a Predictor of Course Success and Final Grades in Community College Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Cherng-Jyh; Liu, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This study employed a quantitative research design to examine the predictive relationships between: (a) learner autonomy and course success; and (b) learner autonomy and final grades in community college online courses. Learner autonomy was defined as the characteristic of an individual who exhibited intentional behavior in learning activities.…

  18. Exploring South African Grade 11 Learners' Perceptions of Classroom Inquiry: Validation of a Research Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudu, Washington T.; Vhurumuku, Elaosi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the adoption and validation of a research instrument, on determining learners' levels of perception of classroom inquiry based on data collected from South African Grade 11 learners. The Learners' Perception of Classroom Inquiry (LPCI) instrument consists only of Likert-type items which rank activities according to how often…

  19. The Effect of Reading on Second-Language Learners' Production in Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collentine, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Tasks provide engaging ways to involve learners in meaningful, real-world activities with the foreign language (FL). Yet selecting classroom tasks suitable to learners' linguistic readiness is challenging, and task-based research is exploring the relationship between learners' overall abilities (e.g., reading, grammatical) and the complexity and…

  20. TRACE and SVST Observations of an Active-Region Filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Deluca, E. E.

    1999-05-01

    In June 1998 the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) observed filaments and prominences in coordination with various ground-based solar observatories, including the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope (SVST) on La Palma. Here we present results for an active-region filament observed on June 21-22. This horse-shoe shaped filament had a "barb" that reached down from the filament spine to the chomosphere below. We use high-resolution images obtained at the SVST on June 21 from 18:03 to 19:04 UT to study the fine structure and dynamics of plasmas in the barb and other parts of the filament. The data consist of narrowband Hα images taken with the Lockheed Tunable Filtergraph operating at a cadence of 20 s. We present Doppler maps derived from these images. The filament erupted six hours after the SVST observations. The eruption was observed with TRACE, which obtained images in Fe IX/X 171, Fe XII 195, Fe XV 284 and H I Lyalpha . At the start of the event, a thin bright loop appears high above the filament at the location of the barb. We interpret this feature as the outline of a magnetic "bubble" which forms as a result of kink instability in the magnetic field that supports the filament. The bright loop appears to be due to particle acceleration and impulsive heating along certain field lines on the periphery of this magnetic structure. A few minutes later, the dark filament threads turn into emission and move outward, exhibiting a helical structure. We discuss the magnetic structure of the barb and its possible role in the filament eruption.

  1. The Arctic Observing Viewer: A Web-mapping Application for U.S. Arctic Observing Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, R. P.; Manley, W. F.; Gaylord, A. G.; Kassin, A.; Villarreal, S.; Barba, M.; Dover, M.; Escarzaga, S. M.; Habermann, T.; Kozimor, J.; Score, R.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    interoperable resources in this way will help to ensure improved capacities for conducting activities such as assessing the status of arctic observing efforts, optimizing logistic operations, and for quickly accessing external and project-focused web resources for more detailed information and access to scientific data and derived products.

  2. A cross-sectional survey to compare the competence of learners registered for the Baccalaureus Curationis programme using different learning approaches at the University of the Western Cape.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Loretta Z; Khanyile, Thembisile D

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the extent to which the different teaching approaches applied in the Baccalaureus Curationis programme adequately prepare graduating learners for professional competence. The research methodology was a quantitative approach, based on descriptive research, with a clinical competence development model to guide the data collection procedure. The target population of the study included a sample of 250 learners in the four-year B.Cur programme, that extended from first-to-fourth-year. Stratified random sampling was applied to select the sample learners for this research and data were collected by means of a five-point Likert scale questionnaire. Data were organised and managed using the SAS statistical software package. Descriptive statistics were gathered with measures of central tendency and dispersion included, and their findings were illustrated on descriptive tables. A correlation technique was applied to determine the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable.The results of the study indicated that progression in competence did not occur as learners progressed through higher levels of their training, except during the third-year of study. However, the study's results confirmed the strengths of the Case-based clinical reasoning approach to teaching and learning. This approach is able to combine the strengths of the traditional methods, which dealt with large class sizes and that had a focus on learner centred learning, with a focus on clinical practice. This approach provides realistic opportunities for learners to experiment with solutions to dilemmas encountered in real life situations, from the protected and safe environment of the classroom. The first-year learners who were observed in this study, who although novices, were exposed to Case-based teaching approaches and showed more self-perceived competence than learners in later years. This occurred in spite of the limited exposure of the first

  3. You Can Be in a Group and Still Not Cooperate. Collaborative Approaches and Cooperative Learning Activities for Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parma City School District, OH.

    This handbook defines and describes the benefits of both collaborative approaches and cooperative techniques. An introduction uses watercolor marbling as a metaphor for collaborative approaches and cooperative activities. Section I provides research results regarding problems of adult literacy programs, skills employers want, and Bloom's taxonomy.…

  4. Exploring Shifts in Middle School Learners' Modeling Activity While Generating Drawings, Animations, and Computational Simulations of Molecular Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson-Jerde, Michelle H.; Gravel, Brian E.; Macrander, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Modeling and using technology are two practices of particular interest to K-12 science educators. These practices are inextricably linked among professionals, who engage in modeling activity with and across a variety of representational technologies. In this paper, we explore the practices of five sixth-grade girls as they generated models of…

  5. Design Issues Related to the Evaluation of Learner--Computer Interaction in a Web-Based Environment: Activities v. Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemard, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    If web-based technology is increasingly becoming the central plank of contemporary teaching and learning processes, there is still too little evidence to suggest that it is delivering purposeful learning activities beyond its widely perceived potential as a learning resource providing content and learning objects. This is due in part to the…

  6. Magnetic observations during the recent declining phase of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E. J.

    Changes in the heliospheric magnetic field during the recent declining phase in solar activity are reviewed and compared with observations during past sunspot cycles. The study is based principally on data obtained by IMP-8 and Ulysses. The field magnitude is found to have increased during the declining phase until it reached a maximum value of 11.5nT in approximately 1991.5, approximately two years after sunspot maximum. The field of the sun's south pole became negative after a reversal in early 1990. The sector structure disappeared at Ulysses in April 1993 when the latitude of the spacecraft was -30 deg revealing a low inclination of the heliospheric current sheet. A large outburst of solar activity in March 1991 caused four Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and numerious shocks at the location of Ulysses. Following a delay of more than a year, a series of recurrent high speed streams and Corotating Interaction Regions commenced in July 1992 which were observed by IMP-8, Ulysses and Voyager 2. In all these respects, the behavior of the magnetic field mimics that seen in the two earlier sunspot cycles. The comprehensive data set suggests a correlation between the absolute value of B and sunspot number. The major solar cycle variations in the radial component (and magnitude) of the field have been successfully reproduced by a recent model consisting of a tilted solar dipole, whose strength and tilt undergo characteristic changes over the sunspot cycle, and the heliospheric current sheet. The large outbursts of activity in mid-1972, mid-1982 and the first quarter of 1991 may represent a characteristic last 'gasp' of solar activity before the sun evolves to a different state. The recurrent high speed streams in 1973, 1984 and 1992 accompany the developemnt of large asymetrical polar coronal holes and the growth in intensity of the polar cap fields. After they endure for about one year, the polar coronal holes recede and the high speed streams are replaced by weaker

  7. Magnetic observations during the recent declining phase of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.

    1995-01-01

    Changes in the heliospheric magnetic field during the recent declining phase in solar activity are reviewed and compared with observations during past sunspot cycles. The study is based principally on data obtained by IMP-8 and Ulysses. The field magnitude is found to have increased during the declining phase until it reached a maximum value of 11.5nT in approximately 1991.5, approximately two years after sunspot maximum. The field of the sun's south pole became negative after a reversal in early 1990. The sector structure disappeared at Ulysses in April 1993 when the latitude of the spacecraft was -30 deg revealing a low inclination of the heliospheric current sheet. A large outburst of solar activity in March 1991 caused four Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and numerious shocks at the location of Ulysses. Following a delay of more than a year, a series of recurrent high speed streams and Corotating Interaction Regions commenced in July 1992 which were observed by IMP-8, Ulysses and Voyager 2. In all these respects, the behavior of the magnetic field mimics that seen in the two earlier sunspot cycles. The comprehensive data set suggests a correlation between the absolute value of B and sunspot number. The major solar cycle variations in the radial component (and magnitude) of the field have been successfully reproduced by a recent model consisting of a tilted solar dipole, whose strength and tilt undergo characteristic changes over the sunspot cycle, and the heliospheric current sheet. The large outbursts of activity in mid-1972, mid-1982 and the first quarter of 1991 may represent a characteristic last 'gasp' of solar activity before the sun evolves to a different state. The recurrent high speed streams in 1973, 1984 and 1992 accompany the developemnt of large asymetrical polar coronal holes and the growth in intensity of the polar cap fields. After they endure for about one year, the polar coronal holes recede and the high speed streams are replaced by weaker

  8. Learner Characteristics, Learning Environments and Constructivist Epistemologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on a current research project that examines the measurement of learner characteristics (multiple intelligence, learning style, learner ability), learner perceptions of the classroom (constructivist learning environment survey and views about teaching and learning), and learner constructs. (Author/MM)

  9. Active region studies with coordinated SOHO, microwave, and magnetograph observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    1992-01-01

    The scientific justification for an observing campaign to study the quantitative magnetic and plasma properties of coronal loops in active regions is presented. The SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) instruments of primary relevance are CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer), EIT, SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation), and MDI. The primary ground based instruments would be the VLA (Very Large Array), the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, and vector and longitudinal field magnetographs. Similar campaigns have successfully been carried out with the Solar Maximum Mission x-ray polychromator and the Soft X-ray Imaging Sounding Rocket Payload (CoMStOC '87), the Goddard Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph, the Lockheed Solar Plasma Diagnostics Experiment rocket payload, and the Soft X-ray Telescope in Yohkoh (CoMStoc '92). The scientific payoff from such a campaign is discussed in light of the results from these previous campaigns.

  10. The Arctic Observing Viewer: A Web-mapping Application for U.S. Arctic Observing Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassin, A.; Gaylord, A. G.; Manley, W. F.; Villarreal, S.; Tweedie, C. E.; Cody, R. P.; Copenhaver, W.; Dover, M.; Score, R.; Habermann, T.

    2014-12-01

    way will help to ensure improved capacities for conducting activities such as assessing the status of arctic observing efforts, optimizing logistic operations, and for quickly accessing external and project-focused web resources for more detailed information and data.

  11. Highlights from the VERITAS Active Galactic Nuclei Observing Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortson, Lucy; VERITAS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The VERITAS Observatory, located at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory near Tucson, Arizona is one of the world's most sensitive detectors of very-high-energy (VHE; E>100GeV) gamma rays. With an array of four 12-m telescopes, VERITAS detects the Cherenkov light emitted from air showers initiated by astrophysical gamma rays. A sequence of upgrades completed in 2012 aimed at lowering the energy threshold resulted in the instrument being sensitive to gamma rays between 85 GeV and 30 TeV. Fully operational since 2007, VERITAS has so far detected 54 VHE gamma-ray objects in eight different source classes. The active galactic nuclei (AGN) class comprises the majority of these detections, with 34 sources that include several radio galaxies but are predominantly blazars (AGN with relativistic jets pointing towards Earth). The scientific importance of VHE detections of AGN includes studying the details of emission mechanisms in blazars and elucidating whether they are sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and astrophysical neutrinos. Additionally VHE gamma-ray observations can be used to gain cosmological insights such as placing limits on the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) and the extragalactic background light (EBL), which comprises all the diffuse starlight in the universe. This presentation will summarize the VERITAS AGN observing program and highlight a few recent results.

  12. High-Resolution Observations of a Filament showing Activated Barb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Anand; Martin, Sara F.; Mathew, Shibu; Srivastava, Nandita

    2012-07-01

    Analysis of a filament showing an activated barb using observations from the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 2010 August 20 are presented. The DOT takes Doppler images in Hα, among other wavelengths, in a region about 110 × 110 arcsec^{2} in area, at a cadence of 30~seconds. The offline image restoration technique of speckle reconstruction is applied to obtain diffraction limited images. The filament developed a new barb in 10~minutes, which disappeared within the next 35~minutes. Such a rapid formation and disappearance of a filament barb is unusual, and has not been reported earlier. Line-of-sight velocity maps were constructed from the Doppler images of the target filament. We observe flows in the filament spine towards the barb location prior to its formation, and flows in the barb towards the spine during its disappearance. Photospheric magnetograms from Heliospheric Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, at a cadence of 45~seconds, were used to determine the changes in magnetic flux in the region surrounding the barb location. The variation of magnetic flux in this duration supports the view that barbs are rooted in minor magnetic polarity. Our analysis shows that barbs can be short-lived and formation and disappearance of the barb was associated with cancellation of magnetic flux.

  13. MESSENGER observations of substorm activity in Mercury's near magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei-Jie; Slavin, James; Fu, Suiyan; Raines, Jim; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Yao, Zhonghua; Pu, Zuyin; Shi, Quanqi; Poh, Gangkai; Boardsen, Scott; Imber, Suzanne; Sundberg, Torbjörn; Anderson, Brian; Korth, Haje; Baker, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    MESSENGER magnetic field and plasma measurements taken during crossings of Mercury's magnetotail from 2011 to 2014 have been examined for evidence of substorm activity. A total of 32 events were found during which an Earth-like growth phase was followed by clear near-tail expansion phase signatures. During the growth phase, the lobe of the tail loads with magnetic flux while the plasma sheet thins due to the increased lobe magnetic pressure. MESSENGER is often initially in the plasma sheet and then moves into the lobe during the growth phases. The averaged time scale of the loading is around 1 min, consistent with previous observations of Mercury's Dungey cycle. The dipolarization front that marks the initiation of the substorm expansion phase is only a few seconds in duration. The spacecraft then abruptly enters the plasma sheet due to the plasma sheet expansion as reconnection-driven flow from the near-Mercury neutral line encounters the stronger magnetic fields closer to the planet. Substorm activity in the near tail of Mercury is quantitatively very similar to the Earth despite the very compressed time scale.

  14. High-energy gamma-ray observations of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.

    1994-01-01

    During the period from 1992 May to early 1992 November, the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory obtained high-energy gamma-ray data for most of the sky. A total of 18 active galaxies have been seen with high certainty, and it is expected that more will be found in the data when a more thorough analysis is complete. All of those that have been seen are radio-loud quasars or BL Lacertae objects; most have already been identified as blazars. No Seyfert galaxies have been found thus far. If the spectra are represented as a power law in energy, spectral slopes ranging from approximately -1.7 to -2.4 are found. A wide range of z-values exits in the observed sample, eight having values in excess of 1.0. Time variations have been seen, with the timescale for a significant change being as short as days in at least one case. These results imply the existence of very large numbers of relativistic particles, probably close to the central object. Although a large extrapolation is required, their existence also suggests that these active galactic nuclei may be the source of the extragalactic cosmic rays.

  15. A Novel Method for Learner Assessment Based on Learner Annotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noorbehbahani, Fakhroddin; Samani, Elaheh Biglar Beigi; Jazi, Hossein Hadian

    2013-01-01

    Assessment is one of the most essential parts of any instructive learning process which aims to evaluate a learner's knowledge about learning concepts. In this work, a new method for learner assessment based on learner annotations is presented. The proposed method exploits the M-BLEU algorithm to find the most similar reference annotations…

  16. Finding Out What Makes Learners Tick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, K. Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the most serious barrier to increasing understanding of students' learning lies in the neglect of individual differences and the overreliance on categorizing students into groups. Looking carefully at how even one student learns is often quite revealing, and most educators have an opportunity to observe a wide variety of learners.…

  17. Observation and Modelling of Micropore Formation in Active Network Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T. E.; Löfdahl, M. G.; Bercik, D. J.

    2002-06-01

    We present phase-diversity corrected G-band 4305 Å and 4364 Å continuum image time series showing the formation of a micropore in a small active region near disk center. The data were acquired at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope on La Palma in June of 1997 and post-processed using the Phase Diverse Speckle (PDS) algorithm to produce diffraction limited images throughout the majority of both time series. The micropore dataset comprises a 29x29 Mm field of view and spans 5.1 hours with a 38 second cadence. The micropore forms in a strong sink area that can be seen to ``collect" many G-band bright points over the first 2 hours of the observation. During this time there is an occasional darkening at the sink point that may be the first unstable phase of the micropore formation. Once a stable dark pore forms in the flowfield, it grows to a maximum diameter of 1.2 Mm in approximately 1.9 hours. The pore persists for another 35 minutes before apparently being broken up by the intergranular flowfield. The total ``lifetime" of the stable pore phase is 2.5 hours. A separate nearby micropore of 1.5 Mm maximum diameter exists for the entire 5.2 hour data span. We show G-band and continuum movies of the micropore formation, correlation tracking flowfield analyses, G-band bright point tracking results, and area versus time plots for the micropore formation lifetime. The observational data are compared with fully compressible 3D MHD numerical simulations which show the development of a similar micropore structure within the computational domain. This research was supported by NASA SR&T grant NASW-98008, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, NSF and NASA funding at Michigan State University, and Lockheed Martin IRAD funding.

  18. Morphological Family Size Effects in Young First and Second Language Learners: Evidence of Cross-Language Semantic Activation in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zeeuw, Marlies; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined to what extent young second language (L2) learners showed morphological family size effects in L2 word recognition and whether the effects were grade-level related. Turkish-Dutch bilingual children (L2) and Dutch (first language, L1) children from second, fourth, and sixth grade performed a Dutch lexical decision task on words…

  19. Instructional Prescriptions for Learner Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Jaesam; Reigeluth, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of learner control in instructional management describes six learner control methods: (1) content control; (2) sequence control; (3) pace control; (4) display or strategy control; (5) internal processing control; and (6) advisor strategies. Relevant literature, both theoretical and empirical, is reviewed, and learner control and…

  20. Motivating Literacy Learners in Today's World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, J., Ed.; Parkhill, F., Ed.; Gillon, G., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Motivating Literacy Learners in Today's World" provides insights into a broad spectrum of children's literacy learning. Motivation is the key theme and the authors show how this can be achieved through reading for pleasure; in writing activities at a number of levels; and through oral language development. Chapters include: (1) Motivating…

  1. Goals, the Learner, and the Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers, principals, and supervisors need to determine the kinds of learners being taught in the school/class setting. Are pupils good by nature, bad, or neutral? Concepts held pertaining to each pupil assist in determining objectives, learning activities, and evaluation techniques. The Puritans believed that individuals were born evil or sinful.…

  2. Learner Generated versus Instructor Induced Visual Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenze, James S.

    The concepts of imagery, mathemagenic behaviors, and generative imagery are reviewed; and the learner's use of visual imagery is discussed. Several studies have supported the idea that imagery is an active mental process that gives birth to learning. The concept of mathemagenic control or manipulation is of interest to the instructional designer.…

  3. Effective Strategies for Engaging Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Phillips, Kathleen M.; Jessee, Tammy; McCabe, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    Innovative methods in teaching should be used in every college classroom to enhance student engagement, support any teaching environment and encourage inquiry among learners. Adults learn best by participation in relevant experiences and utilization of practical information. When adult students are active in their learning they are able to develop…

  4. Workplace Learning in Malaysia: The Learner's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Idris, Khairuddin

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers a scenario of workplace learning as practiced in Malaysia. Based on survey research, the article describes learner profiles, learning provision and pattern. The analysis shows that Malaysians participate in formal workplace learning as part of their employment activities. Workplace learning in Malaysia is contextual, promoted by…

  5. Supporting a Learner Community with Software Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taurisson, Neil; Tchounikine, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-agent approach that aims at supporting learners involved in a collective activity. We consider pedagogical situations where students have to explicitly define the articulation of their collective work and then achieve the different tasks they have defined. Our objective is to support these students by taking some of…

  6. Visual observations of glottic activity during didgeridoo performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izdebski, Krzysztof; Hyde, Lydia; Ward, Ronald R.; Ross, Joel C.

    2012-02-01

    Australian didgeridoo is a reed-less hollow conically shape wooden tubular wind instrument typically measuring up to 150 cm in length, with distal and proximal diameters ranging from 150 to 30 mm. This tube allows a player to produce only a narrow variety of sound and sounds effects because it is coupled directly to the player's vocal tract. The typical frequency of the tube typically called the drone, is approximately within 60 to 100 Hz range. This tone generation modulated by lip vibration is supported by circular breathing, allowing for an uninterrupted (indefinite) length of sound generation. Inhalation introduces sound pulsation, while specific tonal effects can be consciously created by manipulation of the player's lips and/or the vocal tract, including conscious phonation using vocal folds vibration, all used to enrich both the sound and the artistic meaning of the played sequence. Though the results of the research on the acoustics of this instrument are often reported in the literature, physiologic data regarding vocal tract configurations, and especially on the behavior of the vocal folds in regulation of ventilation and in phonation, remain less than underreported. The data presented here comprises (as far as we were able to determine) the first ever physiologic account of vocal fold activity in a didgeridoo player observed with help of trans-nasal endoscopy. Our focus was to reveal the work of t

  7. Observational signatures of galactic winds powered by active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nims, Jesse; Quataert, Eliot; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2015-03-01

    We predict the observational signatures of galaxy scale outflows powered by active galactic nuclei (AGN). Most of the emission is produced by the forward shock driven into the ambient interstellar medium (ISM) rather than by the reverse shock. AGN-powered galactic winds with energetics suggested by phenomenological feedback arguments should produce spatially extended ˜1-10 keV X-ray emission ˜ 1041-44 erg s- 1, significantly in excess of the spatially extended X-ray emission associated with normal star-forming galaxies. The presence of such emission is a direct test of whether AGN outflows significantly interact with the ISM of their host galaxy. We further show that even radio-quiet quasars should have a radio luminosity comparable to or in excess of the far-infrared-radio correlation of normal star-forming galaxies. This radio emission directly constrains the total kinetic energy flux in AGN-powered galactic winds. Radio emission from AGN wind shocks can also explain the recently highlighted correlations between radio luminosity and the kinematics of AGN narrow-line regions in radio-quiet quasars.

  8. Doing Your Part To Help Your Child Become SMART (Successful, Motivated, Autonomous, Responsible, Thoughtful): Six Workshops on Parenting SMART Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattes, Beth; Walsh, Jackie; Hickman, Mickey

    A SMART Learner is a lifelong learner who can adapt to rapid change and who possesses characteristics associated with success in and out of school. These workshop materials to help parents help their children become SMART learners provide: information from current research and best practice; learning activities that will actively engage parents in…

  9. Authentic Assessment of Special Learners: Problem or Promise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Joyce S.; Evans, Susan S.

    1992-01-01

    This article outlines differences between traditional assessment and authentic assessment procedures, discusses problems with each type of assessment in relation to special learners, and offers certain cautions that must be observed when implementing authentic assessment. (JDD)

  10. Fragile Identities: Exploring Learner Identity, Learner Autonomy and Motivation through Young Learners' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Terry Eric

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in the fields of motivation and learner autonomy in language learning has begun to explore their relationships to the construct of identity. This article builds on this through the voices of a group of six learners of French or German in a secondary school in England, over a two-year period. These young learners initially reveal a…

  11. Gender agreement violations modulate beta oscillatory dynamics during sentence comprehension: A comparison of second language learners and native speakers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ashley Glen; Lemhӧfer, Kristin; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; Schriefers, Herbert

    2016-08-01

    For native speakers, many studies suggest a link between oscillatory neural activity in the beta frequency range and syntactic processing. For late second language (L2) learners on the other hand, the extent to which the neural architecture supporting syntactic processing is similar to or different from that of native speakers is still unclear. In a series of four experiments, we used electroencephalography to investigate the link between beta oscillatory activity and the processing of grammatical gender agreement in Dutch determiner-noun pairs, for Dutch native speakers, and for German L2 learners of Dutch. In Experiment 1 we show that for native speakers, grammatical gender agreement violations are yet another among many syntactic factors that modulate beta oscillatory activity during sentence comprehension. Beta power is higher for grammatically acceptable target words than for those that mismatch in grammatical gender with their preceding determiner. In Experiment 2 we observed no such beta modulations for L2 learners, irrespective of whether trials were sorted according to objective or subjective syntactic correctness. Experiment 3 ruled out that the absence of a beta effect for the L2 learners in Experiment 2 was due to repetition of the target nouns in objectively correct and incorrect determiner-noun pairs. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that when L2 learners are required to explicitly focus on grammatical information, they show modulations of beta oscillatory activity, comparable to those of native speakers, but only when trials are sorted according to participants' idiosyncratic lexical representations of the grammatical gender of target nouns. Together, these findings suggest that beta power in L2 learners is sensitive to violations of grammatical gender agreement, but only when the importance of grammatical information is highlighted, and only when participants' subjective lexical representations are taken into account. PMID:27350390

  12. Direct Observations Of Microbial Activity At Extreme Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A.; Scott, J. H.; Cody, G. D.; Fogel, M.; Hazen, R. M.; Hemley, R. J.; Huntress, W. T.

    2002-12-01

    Microbial communities adapt to a wide range of pressures, temperatures, salinities, pH, and oxidation states. Although, significant attention has been focused on the effects of high and low temperature on physiology, there is some evidence that elevated pressure may also manifest interesting effects on cellular physiology, such as enzyme inactivation, cell-membrane breach, and suppression of protein interactions with various substrates. However, exactly how these factors affect intact cells is not well understood. In this study, we have adapted diamond anvil cells to explore the effects of high pressure on microbial life. We used the rate of microbial formate oxidation as a probe of metabolic viability. The utilization of formate by microorganisms is a fundamental metabolic process in anaerobic environments. We monitored in-situ microbial formate oxidation via molecular spectroscopy for Shewanella oneidensis strain MR1 and Escherichia coli strain MG1655 at high pressures (68 to 1060 MPa). At pressures of 1200 to 1600 MPa, living bacteria resided in fluid inclusions in ice-VI crystals and continued to be viable upon subsequent release to ambient pressures (0.1 MPa). Furthermore, direct microscopic observations indicate that these cells maintain their ability for cellular division upon decompression from such high pressures. Evidence of microbial viability and activity at these extreme pressures expands by an order of magnitude the range of conditions representing the habitable zone in the solar system. These results imply that pressure may not be a significant impediment to life. The maximum pressure explored in this work is equivalent to a depth of ~ 50 km below Earth's crust, or ~ 160 km in a hypothetical ocean. The pressures encountered at the depths of thick ice caps and deep crustal subsurface may not be a limiting factor for the existence of life. This suggests that deep (water/ice) layers of Europa, Callisto, or Ganymede, subduction zones on Earth, and the

  13. The Older Language Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleppegrell, Mary

    Research on adult learning shows that there is no decline in ability to learn as people get older, that except for minor considerations such as hearing and vision loss, the age of the adult learner is not a major factor in language acquisition, and that the context in which adults learn is the major influence on their ability to acquire a new…

  14. Supporting Learners in Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Ann; Hopkins, Linda

    A project was conducted in Australia to investigate the most effective ways whereby learners receive informal and formal support to assist them to successfully complete vocational education and training (VET), either in school or in business job-training programs. Data were collected through a literature review, a case study of 11 organizations,…

  15. Serving the Online Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettcher, Judith V.

    2007-01-01

    Systems and services for recruiting, advising, and support of online students have seldom been at the top of the list when planning online and distance learning programs. That is now changing: Forces pushing advising and support services into the foreground include recognition of the student learner as "customer" and the increasing expectations…

  16. School Learners & Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Jenni, Ed.

    This document presents papers from a conference held in November 1995 in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, convened by the Education Policy Unit (EPU) of the University of Natal as part of research concerning the provision of library-based resources for school learners. Following an introduction are two chapters: "Identifying the Inherited Problems in the…

  17. Helping Young Hispanic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E.; Jensen, Bryant

    2007-01-01

    Hispanics are the largest and youngest ethnic group in the United States. Moreover, young Hispanic children make up approximately 80 percent of the U.S. English language learner population. They are a heterogeneous group, born both inside and outside the United States and having origins in Mexico, Cuba, Central America, South America, and the…

  18. Empowering Leaders & Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umphrey, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Trevor Greene, the 2013 MetLife/NASSP National High School Principal of the Year, empowers staff members and students to be the best teachers and learners they can be and provides the community resources to support them. In this article, Greene, principal of Toppenish High School in Washington, shares his biggest motivator as a school leader and…

  19. Novice Learners in Cyberspace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youn, Soonkyoung

    2004-01-01

    Since the Internet was introduced in the field of Educational Technology, it has predominantly been seen as an instructional tool. A number of educational technologists point out that the Internet can be a powerful instructional tool that encourages learners to be involved in problem-solving by using a great deal of information and to enlarge and…

  20. Learner Autonomy Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illes, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article explores whether the perception of learner autonomy that is promoted in language pedagogy is suitable for preparing students to perform successfully in the changed circumstances of the use of English. Recent developments, which include the growing role of English as a lingua franca and computer-mediated communication (CMC), give rise…

  1. Libraries and Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josey, E. J., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Of the 13 essays presented in this special issue on libraries and adult education, 8 focus on programs and services from the public library for adult learners. These essays provide information on: (1) an Education Information Centers Program (EIC) designed to complement employment skills training provided under the Comprehensive Employment and…

  2. Connecting with Latino Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein-Avila, Eliane

    2006-01-01

    The English-only initiatives sweeping the United States are mainstreaming English language learners into content-area classes designed for native or fluent English speakers, with little, if any, English as a second language (ESL) support. This spells trouble for the ever-growing population of Latinos because ESL teachers are not likely to have the…

  3. Gender and Learner Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindal, Huda; Reid, Norman; Whitehead, Rex

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that girls and boys perform differently in traditional examinations in most countries. This study looks at a sample of 754 school students in Kuwait (aged about 13) and explores how boys and girls differ in the performance in a range of tests related to learner characteristics. The fundamental question is how boys and girls…

  4. of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashidi, Nasser; Mortazavi, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of Iranian university EFL students. Participants in the present study were a total of 67 EFL learners, studying at Shiraz Azad University as senior English Translation students. The instruments utilized for data collection were three tests: A…

  5. Teachers as Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiman-Nemser, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    In "Teachers as Learners", a collection of landmark essays, noted teacher educator and scholar Sharon Feiman-Nemser shines a light on teacher learning. Arguing that serious and sustained teacher learning is a necessary condition for ambitious student learning, she examines closely how teachers acquire, generate, and use knowledge about teaching…

  6. California's English Learner Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    English Learner (EL) students in California's schools are numerous and diverse, and they lag behind their native-English-speaking peers. Closing the achievement gap for EL students has been a long-standing goal for California educators, and there are some signs of success. Now that EL funding and curriculum issues are receiving a fresh level of…

  7. The Transliterate Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Thomas et al. have defined transliteracy as "the ability to read, write and interact across a range of platforms, tools and media from signing and orality through handwriting, print, TV, radio and film, to digital social networks" (Transliteracy Research Group). The learner who is transliterate builds knowledge, communicates, and interacts across…

  8. OBSERVED ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES AND THE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF ADOLESCENT MALES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: It has recently been reported that adult physical activity was associated with environmental features. The aim of this study was to determine whether environmental features were associated with physical activity among male adolescents. Methods: Physical activity levels of 210 Boy Scouts ...

  9. Directly Observed Physical Activity Levels in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; McIver, Kerry; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.; Addy, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Background: Millions of young children attend preschools and other structured child development programs, but little is known about their physical activity levels while in those settings. The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels and demographic and school-related correlates of physical activity in children attending…

  10. Skylab observations of X-ray loops connecting separate active regions. [solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, R. C.; Krieger, A. S.; Svestka, Z.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1976-01-01

    One hundred loops interconnecting 94 separate active solar regions detectable in soft X-rays were identified during the Skylab mission. While close active regions are commonly interconnected with loops, the number of such interconnections decreases steeply for longer distances; the longest interconnecting loop observed in the Skylab data connected regions separated by 37 deg. Several arguments are presented which support the point of view that this is the actual limit of the size of magnetic interconnections between active regions. No sympathetic flares could be found in the interconnected regions. These results cast doubt on the hypothesis that accelerated particles can be guided in interconnecting loops from one active region to another over distances of 100 deg or more and eventually produce sympathetic flares in them.

  11. PORTAAL: A Classroom Observation Tool Assessing Evidence-Based Teaching Practices for Active Learning in Large Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Classes

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Sarah L.; Converse, Mercedes; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that active learning works better than a completely passive lecture. Despite this evidence, adoption of these evidence-based teaching practices remains low. In this paper, we offer one tool to help faculty members implement active learning. This tool identifies 21 readily implemented elements that have been shown to increase student outcomes related to achievement, logic development, or other relevant learning goals with college-age students. Thus, this tool both clarifies the research-supported elements of best practices for instructor implementation of active learning in the classroom setting and measures instructors’ alignment with these practices. We describe how we reviewed the discipline-based education research literature to identify best practices in active learning for adult learners in the classroom and used these results to develop an observation tool (Practical Observation Rubric To Assess Active Learning, or PORTAAL) that documents the extent to which instructors incorporate these practices into their classrooms. We then use PORTAAL to explore the classroom practices of 25 introductory biology instructors who employ some form of active learning. Overall, PORTAAL documents how well aligned classrooms are with research-supported best practices for active learning and provides specific feedback and guidance to instructors to allow them to identify what they do well and what could be improved. PMID:26033871

  12. PORTAAL: A Classroom Observation Tool Assessing Evidence-Based Teaching Practices for Active Learning in Large Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Classes.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Sarah L; Converse, Mercedes; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that active learning works better than a completely passive lecture. Despite this evidence, adoption of these evidence-based teaching practices remains low. In this paper, we offer one tool to help faculty members implement active learning. This tool identifies 21 readily implemented elements that have been shown to increase student outcomes related to achievement, logic development, or other relevant learning goals with college-age students. Thus, this tool both clarifies the research-supported elements of best practices for instructor implementation of active learning in the classroom setting and measures instructors' alignment with these practices. We describe how we reviewed the discipline-based education research literature to identify best practices in active learning for adult learners in the classroom and used these results to develop an observation tool (Practical Observation Rubric To Assess Active Learning, or PORTAAL) that documents the extent to which instructors incorporate these practices into their classrooms. We then use PORTAAL to explore the classroom practices of 25 introductory biology instructors who employ some form of active learning. Overall, PORTAAL documents how well aligned classrooms are with research-supported best practices for active learning and provides specific feedback and guidance to instructors to allow them to identify what they do well and what could be improved. PMID:26033871

  13. Techniques: Paying Attention to the Place. Part 1--Activities for Instructors and Adult Learners [and] Part 2--Activities for Planning Places for Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Rodney D.

    1992-01-01

    This two-part article discusses the role of the physical environment in adult learning. In the first part, two activities--environment introduction and visualization--are discussed as ways to develop an awareness for improving the learning environment. In the second part, two planning activities--mapping and geometric coding--are discussed as ways…

  14. Global Night-Time Lights for Observing Human Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hipskind, Stephen R.; Elvidge, Chris; Gurney, K.; Imhoff, Mark; Bounoua, Lahouari; Sheffner, Edwin; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Pettit, Donald R.; Fischer, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We present a concept for a small satellite mission to make systematic, global observations of night-time lights with spatial resolution suitable for discerning the extent, type and density of human settlements. The observations will also allow better understanding of fine scale fossil fuel CO2 emission distribution. The NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey recommends more focus on direct observations of human influence on the Earth system. The most dramatic and compelling observations of human presence on the Earth are the night light observations taken by the Defence Meteorological System Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Beyond delineating the footprint of human presence, night light data, when assembled and evaluated with complementary data sets, can determine the fine scale spatial distribution of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding fossil fuel carbon emissions is critical to understanding the entire carbon cycle, and especially the carbon exchange between terrestrial and oceanic systems.

  15. Observational Findings Regarding Independent Learning Behavior. The Classroom Attitude Observational Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldupp, Ocea

    The Classroom Attitude Observational Schedule (CAOS) is designed to detect pattern shifts in a classroom during the absence of controlling adults. It is concerned with the independent learner who will continue school related tasks in a socially acceptable manner without supervision. The CAOS recording form notes activities and inappropriate…

  16. Kinematic observers for active control of helicopter rotor vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckillip, Robert M., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A simple scheme for estimating the state variables of a helicopter rotor is presented. The method incorporates the use of blade-mounted accelerometers and/or position transducers to reconstruct modal displacements and velocities. The design of the observer structure and feedback gains is simplified by the fact that the method requires only knowledge of basic kinematic relationships between the various modal quantities. The observer structure described is particularly well-suited to control problems where the use of a traditional Kalman Filter approach would be too complex or costly. The technique can be viewed as decreasing the requirements on observer complexity while increasing the need for an enhanced sensor complement.

  17. Activity and observability of meteor showers throughout the year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimnikoval, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Diagrams on the poster present the activity periods of meteor showers as well as the rising and setting times of meteor shower radiants. Plotted are sunrises, sunsets and the period of twilight. It was constructed according to data from the IMO Meteor Shower Working List. More active showers are displayed in red and less active showers in green. The diagrams are calculated for geographic latitudes of 40° N, 0° and 40° S. The time scale is given as local time at the relevant zonal meridian and supplemented by local daylight saving time. The diagrams contain rounded values of solar longitude J2000. The star chart shows the radiant positions and drift of IMO meteor showers while the other diagrams display shower activity and date of maximum.

  18. Cassini Observes the Active South Pole of Enceladus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porco, C. C.; Helfenstein P.; Thomas, P. C.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Wisdom, J.; West, R.; Neukum, G.; Denk, T.; Wagner, R.; Roatsch, T.; Kieffer, S.; Turtle, E.; McEwen, A.; Johnson, T. V.; Rathbun, J.; Veverka, J.; Wilson, D.; Perry, J.; Spitale, J.; Brahic, A.; Burns, J. A.; DelGenio, A. D.; Dones, L.; Murray, C. D.; Squyres, S.

    2007-01-01

    Cassini has identified a geologically active province a the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus. The shape of Enceladus suggests a possible intense heating epoch in the past by capture into a 1:4 secondary spin/orbit resonance.

  19. All Aboard! The Polar Express Is Traveling to Science--Understanding the States of Matter While Differentiating Instruction for Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vowell, Julie; Phillips, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This standards-based science lesson introduces young learners to scientific inquiry and critical thinking by using activities to demonstrate three phases of matter (solid, liquid, and gas). By learning about the states of matter through a 5E instructional approach, students are encouraged to observe changes in the states of matter and to discuss…

  20. Quantitative observations of cavitation activity in a viscoelastic medium.

    PubMed

    Collin, Jamie R T; Coussios, Constantin C

    2011-11-01

    Quantitative experimental observations of single-bubble cavitation in viscoelastic media that would enable validation of existing models are presently lacking. In the present work, single bubble cavitation is induced in an agar gel using a 1.15 MHz high intensity focused ultrasound transducer, and observed using a focused single-element passive cavitation detection (PCD) transducer. To enable quantitative observations, a full receive calibration is carried out of a spherically focused PCD system by a bistatic scattering substitution technique that uses an embedded spherical scatterer and a hydrophone. Adjusting the simulated pressure received by the PCD by the transfer function on receive and the frequency-dependent attenuation of agar gel enables direct comparison of the measured acoustic emissions with those predicted by numerical modeling of single-bubble cavitation using a modified Keller-Miksis approach that accounts for viscoelasticity of the surrounding medium. At an incident peak rarefactional pressure near the cavitation threshold, period multiplying is observed in both experiment and numerical model. By comparing the two sets of results, an estimate of the equilibrium bubble radius in the experimental observations can be made, with potential for extension to material parameter estimation. Use of these estimates yields good agreement between model and experiment. PMID:22088001

  1. GALEX Observes Nearby Cool Stars: Constraints on Ultraviolet Coronal Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, Jonathan; Welsh, Barry

    2016-01-01

    The GALEX ultraviolet mission (1350-2800A) has detected many late-type dwarf stars. Numerous M-type dwarf stars exhibit flaring and coronal activity; we use GALEX UV photometry to measure the variability of coronal emission in the GALEX NUV and FUV wavebands.

  2. Experimental observations of active invariance striations in a tank environment.

    PubMed

    Quijano, Jorge E; Campbell, Richard L; Oesterlein, Tobias G; Zurk, Lisa M

    2010-08-01

    The waveguide invariant in shallow water environments has been widely studied in the context of passive sonar. The invariant provides a relationship between the frequency content of a moving broadband source and the distance to the receiver, and this relationship is not strongly affected by small perturbations in environment parameters such as sound speed or bottom features. Recent experiments in shallow water suggest that a similar range-frequency structure manifested as striations in the spectrogram exists for active sonar, and this property has the potential to enhance the performance of target tracking algorithms. Nevertheless, field experiments with active sonar have not been conclusive on how the invariant is affected by the scattering kernel of the target and the sonar configuration (monostatic vs bistatic). The experimental work presented in this paper addresses those issues by showing the active invariance for known scatterers under controlled conditions of bathymetry, sound speed profile and high SNR. Quantification of the results is achieved by introducing an automatic image processing approach inspired on the Hough transform for extraction of the invariant from spectrograms. Normal mode simulations are shown to be in agreement with the experimental results. PMID:20707430

  3. Evaluation of Forward Observers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letchworth, George A.; And Others

    Performance of forward observer students from the Army Field Artillery School at Fort Sill, Oklahoma was investigated in relation to several learner variables. Learner variables were field dependent/independent cognitive style, visual/haptic perceptual style, trait anxiety, scores on the Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Tests, and achievement scores…

  4. Kepler Observations of Rapid Optical Variability in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Edelson, R.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Gandhi, P.

    2012-01-01

    Over three quarters in 2010 - 2011, Kepler monitored optical emission from four active galactic nuclei (AGN) with approx 30 min sampling, > 90% duty cycle and approx < 0.1% repeatability. These data determined the AGN optical fluctuation power spectral density functions (PSDs) over a wide range in temporal frequency. Fits to these PSDs yielded power law slopes of -2.6 to -3.3, much steeper than typically seen in the X-rays. We find evidence that individual AGN exhibit intrinsically different PSD slopes. The steep PSD fits are a challenge to recent AGN variability models but seem consistent with first order MRI theoretical calculations of accretion disk fluctuations.

  5. C IV Doppler shifts observed in active region filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Doppler shift properties of 21 active region filaments were studied using C IV Dopplergram data. Most are associated with corridors of weak magnetic field that separate opposite polarity strong fields seen in photospheric magnetograms. A majority of the filaments are relatively blue shifted, although several lie very close to the dividing lines between blue and red shift. Only one filament in the samples is clearly red shifted. A new calibration procedure for Dopplergrams indicates that sizable zero point offsets are often required. The center-to-limb behavior of the resulting absolute Doppler shifts suggests that filament flows are usually quite small. It is possible that they vanish.

  6. Hinode Observations of an Eruption from a Sigmoidal Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, L. M.; Wallace, A. J.; Kliem, B.

    2012-08-01

    We analyse the evolution of a bipolar active region which produces an eruption during its decay phase. The soft X-ray arcade develops high shear over a time span of two days and transitions to sigmoidal shortly before the eruption. We propose that the continuous sigmoidal soft X-ray threads indicate that a flux rope has formed which is lying low in the solar atmosphere with a bald patch separatrix surface topology. The formation of the flux rope is driven by the photospheric evolution which is dominated by fragmentation of the main polarities, motion due to supergranular flows and cancellation at the polarity inversion line.

  7. Learner Preferences and Achievement Under Differing Amounts of Learner Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; Sullivan, Howard J.; Leader, Lars F.; Jones, Elizabeth E. K.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the effects of program mode (i.e., a lean program version containing a basic amount of learner practice versus a full mode containing expanded practice) and learner preference (matched or unmatched) for amount of practice on the achievement, time-in-program, and attitudes of university undergraduate students. Students preferred the lean…

  8. Observational Learning and the Effects of Model-Observer Similarity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braaksma, Martine A. H.; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; van den Bergh, Huub

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the effects of similarity in competence between model and observer on the effectiveness of observational learning in argumentative writing. Results are consistent with the similarity hypothesis: weak learners learn more from focusing their observations on weak models, whereas better learners learn more from focusing on good…

  9. Observations of Turbulent Mixing in an Active Antarctic Coastal Polynya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muench, R. D.; Padman, L.; Jacobs, S. S.

    2006-12-01

    Wintertime polynyas, or semipermanent open water areas, occur adjacent to the Antarctic coast in response to strong, offshore katabatic winds and are sites for rapid surface ice formation, brine rejection, and formation of High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW) that contributes to Antarctic deep and bottom waters. We report on a time series of CTD and microstructure profiles obtained from the Mertz Glacier Polynya, Antarctica over a 5- hour period during October (late austral winter) 2004. Winds were offshore at ~5 ms-1 during the observations, and air temperatures were <-10° C. These conditions directly followed cessation of much stronger 20-25 ms-1 winds at the same low temperatures. The upper layer was initially vertically homogeneous to ~140 m depth. During the next 4 h it deepened to ~250 m before beginning to shoal. During this time multiple salinity-stratified layers developed through which temperature remained effectively at the freezing point. Salinity increase in this layer was consistent with ~4 cm new ice formation over the 5-hour duration of the observations; however, we ascribe much of the upper layer evolution to lateral advective processes. Vertical eddy diffusivity Kz, computed from shear microstructure, exhibited pronounced maxima above and below the interface underlying the upper layer, and also in association with the evolving upper layer salinity structures. Values of Kz within these maxima often exceeded 5x10-3 m2s-1. We will address the relative contributions of current shear, convective turbulence and advection to upper-ocean evolution in the polynya and discuss the relevance of these results to regionally significant processes such as formation of HSSW.

  10. Assessing preschool children's physical activity: the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in children-preschool version.

    PubMed

    Brown, William H; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Mclver, Kerry L; Dowda, Marsha; Almeida, M Joao C A; Pate, Russell R

    2006-06-01

    In this paper we present initial information concerning a new direct observation system-the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version. The system will allow researchers to record young children's physical activity levels while also coding the topography of their physical activity, as well as detailed indoor and outdoor social and nonsocial contextual information. With respect to interobserver agreement (IOA), the kappa and category-by-category agreement mean of those obtained for the three illustrative preschools were generally above .80. Hence, our IOA data indicated that trained observers in the three preschools frequently agreed on the eight observational categories and accompanying codes. The results for preschoolers' level of physical activity indicated they spent the majority of observational intervals in sedentary activity (i.e., more than 80% intervals) and were observed in moderate to vigorous physical activity much less frequently (i.e., 5% or fewer intervals). For the 15 indoor and 12 outdoor activity contexts, variability across both the activity contexts and the three preschools were evident. Nevertheless, three classroom contexts-transition, snacks, and naptime--accounted for the greatest porportion of coded activity contexts for the children. In the three preschools, 4 of 17 physical activity types--sit and squat, lie down, stand, and walk--accounted for the topography of much of children's physical activity behavior Systematic observation of more representative preschool samples might better inform our present understanding of young children's physical activity in community preschool programs. PMID:16898273

  11. KEPLER OBSERVATIONS OF RAPID OPTICAL VARIABILITY IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Edelson, R.; Baumgartner, W.

    2011-12-10

    Over three quarters in 2010-2011, Kepler monitored optical emission from four active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with {approx}30 minute sampling, >90% duty cycle, and {approx}<0.1% repeatability. These data determined the AGN optical fluctuation power spectral density (PSD) functions over a wide range in temporal frequency. Fits to these PSDs yielded power-law slopes of -2.6 to -3.3, much steeper than typically seen in the X-rays. We find evidence that individual AGNs exhibit intrinsically different PSD slopes. The steep PSD fits are a challenge to recent AGN variability models but seem consistent with first-order magnetorotational instability theoretical calculations of accretion disk fluctuations.

  12. Supporting learner-centered technology integration through situated mentoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Marian Goode

    Situated mentoring was used as a professional development method to help 11 high school science teachers integrate learner-centered technology. The teachers' learner-centered technology beliefs and practices as well as their perception of barriers to learner-centered technology integration were explored before and after participating in the mentoring program. In addition, the participants' thoughts about the effectiveness of various components of the mentoring program were analyzed along with the mentor's observations of their practices. Situated mentoring can be effective for supporting learner-centered technology integration, in particular decreasing the barriers teachers experience. Goal setting, collaborative planning, reflection, and onsite just-in-time support were thought to be the most valuable components of the mentoring program.

  13. Active deformation in Western Turkey: new GPS observations and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocquet, J.; Aktug, B.; Parsons, B.; Cingoz, A.; England, P.; Erkan, Y.; Soyer, N.; Akdeniz, H.; Kilicoglu, A.

    2007-12-01

    How the continents deform remains a matter of debate. One view postulates that continental deforming zones are comprised of a limited numbers of rigid (elastic) microplates. If true, the surface motion can then be described by the relative rotation of blocks, and strain should be localized along the major faults separating the blocks. An alternative view is that the deformation at depth is distributed over wide areas, can be modelled by a viscous flow responding to boundary conditions applied on it and gravitational potential energy gradients related to variations in topography, and the surface strain simply reflects this deformation. Western Turkey is a region of crustal extension, part of the Nubia/Eurasia plate boundary. Its kinematics is often modelled by the relative motion of a small number of rigid blocks (Nyst & Thatcher, 2005, Reilinger et al., 2006). However, until now, the limited number of GPS velocity vectors available has prevented a detailed examination of which is the more appropriate description. We present a new geodetic velocity field including ~100 sites from the longitude the Central Anatolian plateau to the Aegean coast, derived from a combination of campaigns carried out between 1997 and 2006, and continuous GPS operating since 2003, which we use to test the different models. While the kinematics of the area can be correctly modelled by a block model, a good fit to the velocity field requires blocks with sizes smaller than 100 km and still fails to adequately predict the strain rate observed within blocks . Alternatively, we test an approach where the lithosphere is modelled as a thin viscous sheet, responding to the gravitational potentiel energy contrast between the high plateau of eastern Turkey to the east and the subduction along the Hellenic trench in the southwest. The simplistic model has only one free parameter (the force applied by the subducting oceanic lithosphere on the Aegean ), but provides a good agreement with the observed

  14. Synchronous behaviour of cetaceans observed with active acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godø, Olav Rune; Sivle, Lise Doksæter; Patel, Ruben; Torkelsen, Terje

    2013-12-01

    Scientific split-beam echosounders are sensitive instruments for observing biomass densities and individual behaviour. Earlier studies have demonstrated that these instruments can be used to study diving behaviour of cetaceans. In this paper, we go into more detail about the recorded signal to see if and how acoustic split-beam data can be used to extract information about synchronous behaviour and other species related characteristics. Data of several cetacean individuals were collected by a moored echosounder pinging upwards from about 900 m in the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone. In this paper, we discuss methodological issues associated with using split-beam tracking of large marine animals. Further we demonstrate that target tracking of cetaceans can be used to study solo dives as well as behavioural synchrony. We also show that paired signals can easily be interpreted as false synchrony due to the size of the animals. In such cases a rough estimate of the diameter, and hence size, of the animals can be estimated. We emphasise on four examples that clarify methodological challenges including synchronous swimmers as well as large single cetaceans that might be interpreted as two synchronous swimmers. The applied technology requires that the animals remain in a narrow acoustic beam for long enough time to extract behavioural information. The technology can be improved by developing automatic tracking of cetaceans with a steerable transducer. This will substantially increase the search volume and enable tracking of cetaceans over longer periods and thus, produce more realistic information about the whale behaviour.

  15. Aminoglycoside activity observed on single pre-translocation ribosome complexes

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Michael B; Terry, Daniel S; Altman, Roger B; Blanchard, Scott C

    2010-01-01

    Aminoglycoside-class antibiotics bind directly to ribosomal RNA, imparting pleiotropic effects on ribosome function. Despite in-depth structural investigations of aminoglycoside–RNA oligonucleotide and aminoglycoside-ribosome interactions, mechanisms explaining the unique ribosome inhibition profiles of chemically similar aminoglycosides remain elusive. Here, using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) methods, we show that high-affinity aminoglycoside binding to the conserved decoding site region of the functional pre-translocation ribosome complex specifically remodels the nature of intrinsic dynamic processes within the particle. The extents of these effects, which are distinct for each member of the aminoglycoside class, strongly correlate with their inhibition of EF-G–catalyzed translocation. Neomycin, a 4,5-linked amino-glycoside, binds with lower affinity to one or more secondary binding sites, mediating distinct structural and dynamic perturbations that further enhance translocation inhibition. These new insights help explain why closely related aminoglycosides elicit pleiotropic translation activities and demonstrate the potential utility of smFRET as a tool for dissecting the mechanisms of antibiotic action. PMID:19946275

  16. Grammatical Processing in Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clahsen, Harald; Felser, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    The ability to process the linguistic input in real time is crucial for successfully acquiring a language, and yet little is known about how language learners comprehend or produce language in real time. Against this background, we have conducted a detailed study of grammatical processing in language learners using experimental psycholinguistic…

  17. Learner Autonomy and New Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raya, Manuel Jimenez; Fernandez, Jose Maria Perez

    2002-01-01

    Presents paths for theoretical research and practical procedures that may help teachers make new technology pedagogically relevant. Discusses the need to develop learner autonomy to help students process information in meaningful ways and become independent learners by developing effective learning strategies, transfer skills, and a greater sense…

  18. The Generative Adolescent Mathematical Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the personal epistemologies of generative adolescent mathematical learners. A generative disposition defined a learner who operated mathematically in ways that reflect an internalized authority for knowing and a constructive orientation to knowledge. Drawing upon the radical constructivist teaching…

  19. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…

  20. Sensitizing ESL Learners to Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Jasti Appa

    2008-01-01

    This article evaluates the efficacy of explicit genre-based instruction by sensitizing the ESL learners to the concept of genre. The main questions addressed are: How does sensitizing ESL learners to the rhetorical move structure of a genre, the communicative purposes of these moves, and linguistic features that realize these moves help them to…

  1. Iranian EFL Learners' Compliment Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allami, Hamid; Montazeri, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the knowledge of Iranian EFL learners in responding to compliments in English, with a focus on the variables of gender, age and educational background. The data were collected through a 24-item English Discourse Completion Task (DCT) to which 40 male and female EFL learners were asked to provide short…

  2. High Ability and Learner Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindal, Huda; Reid, Norman; Whitehead, Rex

    2013-01-01

    The outstandingly able learner has been conceptualised, in terms of test and examination performance, as the learner showing superior academic performance which is markedly better than that of peers and in ways regarded as of value by wider society. In Kuwait, such superior examination performance leads to a classification regarded as being…

  3. The Adult Learner: Four Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, John A., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Topics concerning the adult learner that are relevant to institutional researchers are addressed in four articles: marketing, predicting success for adult students, enrollment projection, and follow-up studies of adult learners. In "Institutional Research in Support of Marketing the Adult Student," Lydia Jurand notes the importance of identifying…

  4. Profiling Mobile English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Jason; Diem, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an app-embedded survey to profile language learner demographics. A total of 3,759 EFL language learners from primarily eight L1 backgrounds (French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Russian, Spanish and Thai) responded to the survey embedded within a popular English grammar app. This app has over 500,000…

  5. Assistive Software for Disabled Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sharon; Baggaley, Jon

    2004-01-01

    Previous reports in this series (#32 and 36) have discussed online software features of value to disabled learners in distance education. The current report evaluates four specific assistive software products with useful features for visually and hearing impaired learners: "ATutor", "ACollab", "Natural Voice", and "Just Vanilla". The evaluative…

  6. INTEGRAL Observations of Activity in EXO 2030+375

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollough, M. L.; Turler, M.; Willis, D.; Shaw, S. E.

    2006-07-01

    The Be/neutron star binary EXO 2030+375 was in the field of view of INTEGRAL from July 26 at 6:00 UT to July 27 at 11:56 UT during a target of opportunity observation of Cyg X-3 consisting of 50 pointings of 2 ksec. The major outburst of the source reported by Corbet & Levine (ATel #843) and by Krimm et al. (ATel #861) is found to be still on-going with no sign of fading. The table below summarizes the count rates obtained in single pointings (For JEM-X 1 considering only results for source off-axis angles below 3 degrees):

    Instrument Energy band Rate (min-max) 1 Crab
    JEM-X 1 3-10 keV 41-47 cts/s 65 cts/s
    JEM-X 1 10-20 keV 21-25 cts/s 21 cts/s
    IBIS/ISGRI 20-40 keV 95-113 cts/s 109 cts/s
    IBIS/ISGRI 40-80 keV 26-31 cts/s 62 cts/s
    We note that the source reached the 1 Crab flux level around about 20 keV.

  7. Land-cover observations as part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS): progress, activities, and prospects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herold, M.; Woodcock, C.E.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Townshend, J.; Brady, M.; Steenmans, C.; Schmullius, C. C.

    2008-01-01

    The international land-cover community has been working with GEO since 2005 to build the foundations for land-cover observations as an integral part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) has provided the platform to elevate the societal relevance of land cover monitoring and helped to link a diverse set of global, regional, and national activities. A dedicated 2007-2009 GEO work plan task has resulted in achievements on the strategic and implementation levels. Integrated Global Observations of the Land (IGOL), the land theme of the Integrated Global Observation Strategy (IGOS), has been approved and is now in the process of transition into GEO implementation. New global land-cover maps at moderate spatial resolutions (i.e., GLOBCOVER) are being produced using guidelines and standards of the international community. The Middecadal Global Landsat Survey for 2005-2006 is extending previous 1990 and 2000 efforts for global, high-quality Landsat data. Despite this progress, essential challenges for building a sustained global land-cover-observing system remain, including: international cooperation on the continuity of global observations; ensuring consistency in land monitoring approaches; community engagement and country participation in mapping activities; commitment to ongoing quality assurance and validation; and regional networking and capacity building.

  8. A coupled observation - modeling approach for studying activation kinetics from measurements of CCN activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raatikainen, T.; Moore, R. H.; Lathem, T. L.; Nenes, A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents an approach to study droplet activation kinetics from measurements of CCN activity by the Continuous Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Chamber (CFSTGC) and a comprehensive model of the instrument and droplet growth. The model, which can be downloaded from http://nenes.eas.gatech.edu/Experiments/CFSTGC.html , is evaluated against a series of experiments with ammonium sulfate calibration aerosol. Observed and modeled droplet sizes are in excellent agreement for a water vapor uptake coefficient ~0.2, which is consistent with theoretical expectations. The model calculations can be considerably accelerated without significant loss of accuracy by assuming simplified instrument geometry and constant parabolic flow velocity profiles. With these assumptions, the model can be applied to large experimental data sets to infer kinetic growth parameters while fully accounting for water vapor depletion effects and changes in instrument operation parameters such as the column temperature, flow rates, sheath and sample flow relative humidities, and pressure. When the effects of instrument operation parameters, water vapor depletion and equilibrium dry particle properties on droplet size are accounted for, the remaining variations in droplet size are most likely due to non-equilibrium processes such as those caused by organic surface films, slow solute dissociation and glassy or highly viscous particle states. As an example of model application, data collected during a research flight in the ARCTAS 2008 campaign are analyzed. The model shows that water vapor depletion effects can explain changes in the observed average droplet size.

  9. Modulation of Motor Area Activity during Observation of Unnatural Body Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimada, Sotaro; Oki, Kazuma

    2012-01-01

    The mirror neuron system (MNS) is activated when observing the actions of others. However, it remains unclear whether the MNS responds more strongly to natural bodily actions in the observer's motor repertoire than to unnatural actions. We investigated whether MNS activity is modulated by the unnaturalness of an observed action by inserting short…

  10. Motivation Classification and Grade Prediction for MOOCs Learners

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    While MOOCs offer educational data on a new scale, many educators find great potential of the big data including detailed activity records of every learner. A learner's behavior such as if a learner will drop out from the course can be predicted. How to provide an effective, economical, and scalable method to detect cheating on tests such as surrogate exam-taker is a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a grade predicting method that uses student activity features to predict whether a learner may get a certification if he/she takes a test. The method consists of two-step classifications: motivation classification (MC) and grade classification (GC). The MC divides all learners into three groups including certification earning, video watching, and course sampling. The GC then predicts a certification earning learner may or may not obtain a certification. Our experiment shows that the proposed method can fit the classification model at a fine scale and it is possible to find a surrogate exam-taker. PMID:26884747

  11. Development and Testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children: Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIver, Kerry L.; Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the development and pilot testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity-Elementary School (OSRAC-E) Version. Method: This system was developed to observe and document the levels and types of physical activity and physical and social contexts of physical activity in elementary school students…

  12. Active Microwave Remote Sensing Observations of Weddell Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drinkwater, Mark R.

    1997-01-01

    Since July 1991, the European Space Agency's ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites have acquired radar data of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The Active Microwave Instrument on board ERS has two modes; SAR and Scatterometer. Two receiving stations enable direct downlink and recording of high bit-rate, high resolution SAR image data of this region. When not in an imaging mode, when direct SAR downlink is not possible, or when a receiving station is inoperable, the latter mode allows normalized radar cross-section data to be acquired. These low bit-rate ERS scatterometer data are tape recorded, downlinked and processed off-line. Recent advances in image generation from Scatterometer backscatter measurements enable complementary medium-scale resolution images to be made during periods when SAR images cannot be acquired. Together, these combined C-band microwave image data have for the first time enabled uninterrupted night and day coverage of the Weddell Sea region at both high (25 m) and medium-scale (-20 km) resolutions. C-band ERS-1 radar data are analyzed in conjunction with field data from two simultaneous field experiments in 1992. Satellite radar signature data are compared with shipborne radar data to extract a regional and seasonal signature database for recognition of ice types in the images. Performance of automated sea-ice tracking algorithms is tested on Antarctic data to evaluate their success. Examples demonstrate that both winter and summer ice can be effectively tracked. The kinematics of the main ice zones within the Weddell Sea are illustrated, together with the complementary time-dependencies in their radar signatures. Time-series of satellite images are used to illustrate the development of the Weddell Sea ice cover from its austral summer minimum (February) to its winter maximum (September). The combination of time-dependent microwave signatures and ice dynamics tracking enable various drift regimes to be defined which relate closely to the circulation of the

  13. Life Skills Resource Guide for Senior Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon County Schools, Tallahassee, FL.

    This life resources guide for senior adult learners contains activities in the life skills curriculum. The manual is organized by content area and instructional goal. Under each instructional goal, one or more activities is given. A list of resources is at the end of each section. The activities cover the following topics: (1) consumer education;…

  14. Model Learner Outcomes for Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Richard C.; Hessler, Edward

    This document provides curriculum planners with models of learner outcomes that can be incorporated into a science curriculum and science essential learner outcomes. The first chapter includes a list of educational system values and learner values, philosophy of education, the mission for public education, and learner goals that describe the…

  15. Learning Difficulties in English for Rural Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2010-01-01

    The present study illuminates and diagnoses the learning problems of the rural learners in English Grammar at standard VI. Present study may be useful to ameliorate the rural learners for acquiring competencies in English and eliminates the problems of the learners. It paves way to the teachers to diagnose the learning hurdles of the learners and…

  16. Older Learners: A Viable Clientele.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Kathleen M.

    1980-01-01

    As enrollments decline and financial pressures increase, many institutions have developed an interest in older learners as an alternative market for continuing education. Demographic and social factors behind this rising concern with adult education are examined. (JSR)

  17. Japanese Adult Learners' Development of the Locality Condition on English Reflexives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, Yasuhiro

    2002-01-01

    Explores the developmental patterns observed when Japanese adult learners acquire the locality condition on English reflexives. Experimental tasks were designed specifically to deal with the methodological problems of earlier research and then administered to Japanese learners of English at five proficiency levels as well as English and Japanese…

  18. Exploratory Research on the Effect of Autonomous Learners to Team Learning within Healthcare Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Patricia R.; Chalofsky, Neal

    2005-01-01

    How does individual learning impact team learning? Through an exploratory case study, data was collected from questionnaires, documentation review, observations, and interviews. Three themes emerged describing how an autonomous learner affected team learning. The results indicated that the autonomous learner influenced team learning through…

  19. Factors Affecting Learners' Attention to Teacher Talk in Nine ESL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Weiqing

    2015-01-01

    With classroom observation and stimulated recall interviews as research instruments, the present study investigated some of the factors that affected learners' attention to teacher talk in nine English as a Second Language (ESL) classrooms. The results revealed five such factors, namely, learners' self evaluation of their language knowledge, the…

  20. Functions of Repetition in Learners' Private Speech in Japanese Language Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Reiko

    2008-01-01

    Studies investigating repetition in SL/FL learners' private speech have focused mainly on its cognitive and metacognitive functions. In the present study, the classroom observations, video-recordings of lessons, audio-recordings of six learners and two teachers and simulated recall interviews were conducted in Japanese language classes over two…

  1. Using the SIOP Model to Promote the Acquisition of Language and Science Concepts with English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echevarria, Jana; Richards-Tutor, Catherine; Canges, Rebecca; Francis, David

    2011-01-01

    In this article we report findings from research through the Center for Research on the Educational Achievement and Teaching of English Language Learners (CREATE), a National Research and Development Center. In our study we examined the efficacy of a model of instruction for English learners, the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP)…

  2. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Learning Chinese with a Cognitive Model of the Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosek, Michal; Lison, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We present an intelligent tutoring system that lets students of Chinese learn words and grammatical constructions. It relies on a Bayesian, linguistically motivated cognitive model that represents the learner's knowledge. This model is dynamically updated given observations about the learner's behaviour in the exercises, and employed at runtime to…

  3. The Acquisition of Tense and Agreement by Early Child Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ming-Ching

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the acquisition of tense and agreement morphology by child L2 learners in an early stage of language acquisition. The objectives of this study are twofold. The first is to observe the development of verb inflections and syntactic competence over time from an early stage by Chinese child L2 learners of English. The…

  4. Social Interaction within a Web 2.0 Learning Environment: The Impact on Learner Social Presence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinman, Debbie Cinque

    2010-01-01

    In this case study, the researcher observed the social interactions within a Web 2.0 learning environment to examine the nature of the learner social presence. Social presence is essential to facilitate group cooperation and plays a central role in establishing learners' sense of belonging and social cohesion to the group. Social presence is…

  5. Development of a Direct Observation Instrument to Measure Environmental Characteristics of Parks for Physical Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study's purpose is to describe the development and evaluate the reliability (inter-observer agreement) and validity (rater agreement with a gold standard) of a direct observation instrument to assess park characteristics that may be related to physical activity. A direct observation instrument ...

  6. Evoking the Power of Learners

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Our mandate, as Lamaze International childbirth educators, is to assist women in making healthy pregnancy, birth, and parenting choices. Being mindful of health promotion theory and using learning tasks and dialogue education to provide information creates a collaborative Lamaze class where the teacher is the facilitator and the learners are accountable for their learning. This column offers Lamaze educators a deeper understanding of adult learners and our roles in their birth education. PMID:22942625

  7. Choosing to Interact: Exploring the Relationship between Learner Personality, Attitudes, and Tutorial Dialogue Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezen-Can, Aysu; Boyer, Kristy Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The tremendous effectiveness of intelligent tutoring systems is due in large part to their interactivity. However, when learners are free to choose the extent to which they interact with a tutoring system, not all learners do so actively. This paper examines a study with a natural language tutorial dialogue system for computer science, in which…

  8. The Interplay between Language, Gestures, Dragging and Diagrams in Bilingual Learners' Mathematical Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Oi-Lam

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of considering bilingual learners' non-linguistic forms of communication for understanding their mathematical thinking. In particular, I provide a detailed analysis of communication involving a pair of high school bilingual learners during an exploratory activity where a touchscreen-based dynamic geometry…

  9. Toward a Unified Modeling of Learner's Growth Process and Flow Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Challco, Geiser C.; Andrade, Fernando R. H.; Borges, Simone S.; Bittencourt, Ig I.; Isotani, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Flow is the affective state in which a learner is so engaged and involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter. In this sense, to help students in the skill development and knowledge acquisition (referred to as learners' growth process) under optimal conditions, the instructional designers should create learning scenarios that favor…

  10. Create Independent Learners: Teacher-Tested Strategies for ALL Ability Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavelka, Patricia

    Noting that teachers' ultimate goal for their students is that they begin to apply strategies on their own and learn how to be independent, strategic, successful learners, this book presents numerous activities, strategies, and ideas to help students of all learning abilities in grades 1 through 5 become independent learners. The guide was…

  11. "Can We Do That Again?" Engaging Learners and Developing beyond the "Wow" Factor in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astall, Chris; Bruce, Warren

    2010-01-01

    Adding Mentos to an open bottle of Diet Coke can produce a fountain of liquid and froth extending several metres high. This activity can engage a wide audience of learners in a relevant and meaningful way, provide a model for creative science teaching, and help to develop learners' attitudes towards school science as a subject. In this paper, the…

  12. Learner-Centered Psychological Principles: A Framework for School Redesign and Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.

    Educators, concerned with disturbing trends in school failure, are arguing for more learner-centered models of schooling. Such a reform effort requires set principles that emphasize the active and reflective nature of learning and learners; 14 such principles are reported here. The immediate goal of this report is to provide a framework that can…

  13. Student Choice of Anonymity for Learner Identity in Online Learning Discussion Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Mark; Bamford, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Academics have a range of learning activities and tools they can incorporate to enable students to achieve the objectives of their courses. Strategies such as role-play have been used with learners in face-to-face settings to allow students to experience learning using a range of learner identities. Yet, with the exception of role-plays,…

  14. Effectiveness of a Learner-Directed Model for e-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Stella; Barker, Trevor; Kumar, Vivekanandan Suresh

    2016-01-01

    It is a hard task to strike a balance between extents of control a learner exercises and the amount of guidance, active or passive, afforded by the learning environment to guide, support, and motivate the learner. Adaptive systems strive to find the right balance in a spectrum that spans between self-control and system-guidance. They also concern…

  15. The Development of Adult Learner Autonomy and Self-Directedness in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasworm, Carol E.; Yao, Bing

    Distance education's use of the instructional systems design model has been challenged by critics who suggest that the learner is passive and learning is superficial. A suggestion is that distance education should be structured so that learners assume a more active role in the development and use of autonomous and self-directed learning…

  16. The Relationship between Reading Proficiency and Reading Strategy Use: A Study of Adult ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…

  17. Learner Agency and the Use of Affordances in Language-Exchange Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Tae youn

    2016-01-01

    Language exchange refers to a learning partnership between two learners with different native languages who collaborate to help each other improve their proficiency in the other's language. The purpose of this study is to examine the ways in which language-exchange participants activate learner agency to construct opportunities for learning in…

  18. Language-Related Computer Use: Focus on Young L2 English Learners in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundqvist, Pia; Sylvén, Liss Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study investigating young English language learners (YELLs) in Sweden in 4th grade (N = 76, aged 10-11). Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire and a one-week language diary. The main purpose was to examine the learners' L2 English language-related activities outside of school in general, and…

  19. A Critical Analysis of Learner Participation in Virtual Worlds: How Can Virtual Worlds Inform Our Pedagogy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panichi, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory case study of learner participation within the context of online language learning in virtual world platforms. Data for this investigation was collected through a case study of a Business English course within a qualitative Case-Study Research framework. This study examines learner activity in virtual worlds in…

  20. Capitalising on Learner Agency and Group Work in Learning Writing in English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the roles of learner agency and group work in learning writing in English as a foreign language (EFL). Through exploratory and participatory action research, this study examines how learner agency and group work function amidst the activity system of task-based EFL writing, especially how they influence and are influenced…

  1. Building a Tool to Help Teachers Analyse Learners' Interactions in a Networked Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petropoulou, O.; Altanis, I.; Retalis, S.; Nicolaou, C. A.; Kannas, C.; Vasiliadou, M.; Pattis, Ireneos

    2010-01-01

    Educators participating in networked learning communities have very little support from integrated tools in evaluating students' learning activities flow and examining learners' online behaviour. There is a need for non-intrusive ways to monitor learners' progress in order better to follow their learning process and appraise the online course…

  2. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Assessing Physical Activity and Its Contexts Using Systematic Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Numerous methods are available to assess physical activity (PA) but systematic observation (SO) excels in being able to provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. As SO is particularly useful for determining how activity is influenced by the immediate physical and social environments, its use is becoming more…

  3. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China. PMID:25134668

  4. Celebrating the Earth: Stories, Experiences, and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livo, Norma J.

    Young learners are invited to learn about the natural world through engaging activities that encourage the observation, exploration, and appreciation of nature. Weaving together a stimulating tapestry of folktales, personal narratives, and hands-on activities, this book teaches children about the earth and all of its creatures--birds, plants,…

  5. A Learner-led, Discussion-based Elective on Emerging Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To implement a learner-led, discussion-based course aimed at exposing second-year pharmacy learners to the study of emerging infectious diseases from a global health perspective and to assess the role and importance of pharmacists in the management of disease outbreaks. Design. Learners examined literature pertinent to an emerging infectious disease in a 3-credit, discussion-based course and participated in peer discussion led by a designated learner. Instructional materials included journal articles, audio-visual presentations, documentaries, book chapters, movies, newspaper/magazine articles, and other materials. Learning outcomes were measured based on the ability of learners to perform critical thinking and analysis, communicate with their peers, and participate in class discussions. Assessment. The course was offered to 2 consecutive cohorts consisting of 14 and 16 learners, respectively. Overall, every learner in the first cohort achieved a final grade of A for the course. In the second cohort, the overall grade distribution consisted of grades of A, B, and C for the course. Learner evaluations indicated that the active-learning, discussion-based environment significantly enhanced interest in the topic and overall performance in the course. Conclusion. The elective course on emerging infectious diseases provided in-depth exposure to disease topics normally not encountered in the pharmacy curriculum. Learners found the material and format valuable, and the course enhanced their appreciation of infectious diseases, research methodology, critical thinking and analysis, and their roles as pharmacists. PMID:26430268

  6. Learners' Satisfaction Level with Online Student Portal as a Support System in an Open and Distance eLearning Environment (ODeL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secreto, Percia V.; Pamulaklakin, Rhodora L.

    2015-01-01

    Learner support in an open, distance and online learning is defined as "all activities and elements in education that respond to a known learner or group of learners, and which are designed to assist in the cognitive, affective, and systemic realms of the learning process" (Brindley, et. al, 2004). Teaching and tutoring, advising and…

  7. Assessing Children's Physical Activity in Their Homes: The Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIver, Kerry L.; Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes the development and pilot testing of the Observation System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Home version. This system was developed to document physical activity and related physical and social contexts while children are at home. An analysis of interobserver agreement and a description of children's…

  8. Urban school leadership for elementary science education: Meeting the needs of English Language Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcon, Maricela H.

    Science education reform and state testing accountability call upon principals to become instructional leaders in science. Specifically, elementary school principals must take an active role in science instruction to effectively improve science education for all students including English Language Learners. As such, the research questioned posed in this study centered on How are elementary school principals addressing the academic needs of Latino Spanish-speaking English language learners within science education? This study employed a qualitative research design to identify the factors contributing to the exemplary performance in science, as measured by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS), for English Language Learner students in three high poverty bilingual elementary schools based on a multiple case study. As part of the data collection process, interviews were conducted with three school principals, three science academic support teachers, and two 5th grade bilingual teachers. Additionally, observations were acquired through school principal shadowing. The findings revealed four attributes necessary for effective instructional leadership in science education. First, Positive School Culture was defined as the core that linked the other three instructional leadership attributes and thus increased their effectiveness. Second, Clear Goals and Expectations were set by making science a priority and ensuring that English language learners were transitioning from Spanish to English instruction by the fifth grade. Third, Critical Resourcing involved hiring a science academic support teacher, securing a science classroom on campus, and purchasing bilingual instructional materials. Fourth, principal led and supported Collaboration in which teachers met to discuss student performance based data in addition to curriculum and instruction. These research findings are vital because by implementing these best practices of elementary school principals, educators

  9. Quantitative observation and study on rhythmic abnormalities of activities in animals prior to earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chungao; Jiang, Jinchang

    1992-11-01

    In this paper, the normal daily activities and abnormal activities related to earthquake premonitory information are given by a quantitative observation and analysis of activities in the sparrow (SR, Passer montanus), budgerigar (BG, Melopsittacus undulatus) and rat (RT, Rattus norvegicus). The results show that the quantitative observation of habitual abnormalities in animals may provide some cues for the short-term earthquake prediction. The normal activity rhythms for the SR and BG are similar, and both present M mode. The high activities occurs during 07h 10h and 15h 16h, respectively, the low activities occurs during 12h 13h, and at night both birds are basically silent. For the RT, the normal rhythmic activity has the middle magnitude during 07h 10h and 17h 18h, the low and high magnitudes occur during 11h 16h and from 19h to 06h at the next day. For the SR, BG and RT, observable abnormal changes of the normal activity rhythm were found before earthquakes. The night activities of the SR and BG were increased noticeably. For the RT the activities during the low magnitude of activities at the day time were also increased. They both are about 300 times greater than the normal activity value. Moreover, the total activity values per day were increased, and were about 2 times of the normal value. The x 2-test shows that the abnormalities of the daily activity rhythm and following increase of the daily activity events are significantly correlated with earthquakes of magnitude over 4.3 in Tangshan seismic area within the region of 200 km distance from the observation station.

  10. Differences in HIV knowledge and sexual practices of learners with intellectual disabilities and non-disabled learners in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Aderemi, Toyin J; Pillay, Basil J; Esterhuizen, Tonya M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Individuals with intellectual disabilities are rarely targeted by the current human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) response, thereby reducing their access to HIV information and services. Currently, little is known about the HIV knowledge and sexual practices of young Nigerians with intellectual disabilities. Thus, this study sought to compare the HIV knowledge and sexual practices of learners with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities and non-disabled learners (NDL) in Nigeria. Findings could help in the development of HIV interventions that are accessible to Nigerian learners with intellectual impairments. Methods This cross-sectional, comparative study utilized a survey to investigate HIV knowledge and sexual practices among learners with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities and NDL in Nigeria. Learners with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities (n=300) and NDL (n=300) within the age range of 12 to 19 years drawn from schools across Oyo State, Nigeria, completed a structured questionnaire to assess their knowledge of HIV transmission and sexual practices. Results Significantly more learners with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities (62.2%) than NDL 48 (37.8%) reported having sexual experience (p=0.002). Of the sexually experienced female learners with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities, 28 (68.3%) reported history of rape compared with 9 (2.9%) of female NDL (p=0.053). Intellectual impairment was significantly associated with lower HIV transmission knowledge scores (p<0.001). Learners with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities were less likely than NDL (p<0.001) to have heard about HIV from most of the common sources of HIV information. In addition, when compared with non-disabled learners, learners with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities were significantly more likely to have reported inconsistent condom use with boyfriends/girlfriends (p<0.001), with casual sexual partners (p<0.001) and non-use of condom during last sexual

  11. Modulation of neural activity during observational learning of actions and their sequential orders.

    PubMed

    Frey, Scott H; Gerry, Valerie E

    2006-12-20

    How does the brain transform perceptual representations of others' actions into motor representations that can be used to guide behavior? Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to record human brain activity while subjects watched others construct multipart objects under varied task demands. We find that relative to resting baseline, passive action observation increases activity within inferior frontal and parietal cortices implicated in action encoding (mirror system) and throughout a distributed network of areas involved in motor representation, including dorsal premotor cortex, pre-supplementary motor area, cerebellum, and basal ganglia (experiments 1 and 2). Relative to passive observation, these same areas show increased activity when subjects observe with the intention to subsequently reproduce component actions using the demonstrated sequential procedures (experiment 1). Observing the same actions with the intention of reproducing component actions, but without the requirement to use the demonstrated sequential procedure, increases activity in the same regions, although to a lesser degree (experiment 2). These findings demonstrate that when attempting to learn behaviors through observation, the observers' intentions modulate responses in a widely distributed network of cortical and subcortical regions implicated previously in action encoding and/or motor representation. Among these regions, only activity within the right intraparietal sulcus predicts the accuracy with which observed procedures are subsequently performed. Successful formation of motor representations of sequential procedures through observational learning is dependent on computations implemented within this parietal region. PMID:17182769

  12. Modulation of Brain Activity during Action Observation: Influence of Perspective, Transitivity and Meaningfulness

    PubMed Central

    Hétu, Sébastien; Mercier, Catherine; Eugène, Fanny; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Jackson, Philip L.

    2011-01-01

    The coupling process between observed and performed actions is thought to be performed by a fronto-parietal perception-action system including regions of the inferior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule. When investigating the influence of the movements' characteristics on this process, most research on action observation has focused on only one particular variable even though the type of movements we observe can vary on several levels. By manipulating the visual perspective, transitivity and meaningfulness of observed movements in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study we aimed at investigating how the type of movements and the visual perspective can modulate brain activity during action observation in healthy individuals. Importantly, we used an active observation task where participants had to subsequently execute or imagine the observed movements. Our results show that the fronto-parietal regions of the perception action system were mostly recruited during the observation of meaningless actions while visual perspective had little influence on the activity within the perception-action system. Simultaneous investigation of several sources of modulation during active action observation is probably an approach that could lead to a greater ecological comprehension of this important sensorimotor process. PMID:21931832

  13. A rightly balanced intellectual property rights regime as a mechanism to enhance commercial earth observation activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doldirina, Catherine

    2010-09-01

    Earth observation by satellites is one of the developing sectors of space activities with the growing involvement in private capital or actors. This leads to the question of how efficient legal rules governing this activity are. Copyright law is one of the key fields of law applicable to earth observation activities and is the subject of the present analysis. This paper describes the current state of copyright regulations in different jurisdictions. It also addresses the issue of defining earth observation data for the purpose of applying copyright protection to them. Finally, it analyses whether more or less copyright protection would be beneficial for the commercialisation of the earth observation activities, and the distribution and further use of data they produce. The paper is largely based on my current doctoral research. Draft chapter on file with the author.

  14. OBSERVED, GIS, AND SELF-REPORTED ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES AND ADOLESCENT PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Examine associations among observed, self-reported, and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) environmental features and physical activity among adolescent males. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Boy Scout troops and neighborhoods in Houston, Texas. Subjects: Two hundred and ten ...

  15. Effective instruction for English learners.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sánchez, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or instructing them. Margarita Calderón, Robert Slavin, and Marta Sánchez identify the elements of effective instruction and review a variety of successful program models. During 2007-08, more than 5.3 million English learners made up 10.6 percent of the nation's K-12 public school enrollment. Wide and persistent achievement disparities between these English learners and English-proficient students show clearly, say the authors, that schools must address the language, literacy, and academic needs of English learners more effectively. Researchers have fiercely debated the merits of bilingual and English-only reading instruction. In elementary schools, English learners commonly receive thirty minutes of English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction but attend general education classes for the rest of the day, usually with teachers who are unprepared to teach them. Though English learners have strikingly diverse levels of skills, in high school they are typically lumped together, with one teacher to address their widely varying needs. These in-school factors contribute to the achievement disparities. Based on the studies presented here, Calderón, Slavin, and Sánchez assert that the quality of instruction is what matters most in educating English learners. They highlight comprehensive reform models, as well as individual components of these models: school structures and leadership; language and literacy instruction; integration of language, literacy, and content instruction in secondary schools; cooperative learning; professional development; parent and family support teams; tutoring; and monitoring implementation and outcomes

  16. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  17. Surprisingly correct: unexpectedness of observed actions activates the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Anne-Marike; Krause, Kim H; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2014-04-01

    Not only committing errors, but also observing errors has been shown to activate the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, particularly BA 8 and adjacent rostral cingulate zone (RCZ). Currently, there is a debate on whether this activity reflects a response to the incorrectness of the committed action or to its unexpectedness. This article reports two studies investigating whether activity in BA 8/RCZ is due to the unexpectedness of observed errors or the incorrectness of the specific observed action. Both studies employed an action observation paradigm reliant on the observation of an actor tying sailing knots. The reported behavioral experiment delivered evidence that the paradigm successfully induced the expectation of incorrect actions as well as the expectation of correct actions. The functional magnetic resonance imaging study revealed that unexpectedly correct as well as unexpectedly incorrect actions activate the BA 8/RCZ. The same result was confirmed for a coordinate in the vicinity that has been previously reported to be activated in separate studies either by the error observation or by the unexpectedness of committed errors, and has been associated with the error-related negativity. The present results suggest that unexpectedness has an impact on the medial prefrontal correlate of observed errors. PMID:23670963

  18. Active buildings: modelling physical activity and movement in office buildings. An observational study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lee; Ucci, Marcella; Marmot, Alexi; Spinney, Richard; Laskowski, Marek; Sawyer, Alexia; Konstantatou, Marina; Hamer, Mark; Ambler, Gareth; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Health benefits of regular participation in physical activity are well documented but population levels are low. Office layout, and in particular the number and location of office building destinations (eg, print and meeting rooms), may influence both walking time and characteristics of sitting time. No research to date has focused on the role that the layout of the indoor office environment plays in facilitating or inhibiting step counts and characteristics of sitting time. The primary aim of this study was to investigate associations between office layout and physical activity, as well as sitting time using objective measures. Methods and analysis Active buildings is a unique collaboration between public health, built environment and computer science researchers. The study involves objective monitoring complemented by a larger questionnaire arm. UK office buildings will be selected based on a variety of features, including office floor area and number of occupants. Questionnaires will include items on standard demographics, well-being, physical activity behaviour and putative socioecological correlates of workplace physical activity. Based on survey responses, approximately 30 participants will be recruited from each building into the objective monitoring arm. Participants will wear accelerometers (to monitor physical activity and sitting inside and outside the office) and a novel tracking device will be placed in the office (to record participant location) for five consecutive days. Data will be analysed using regression analyses, as well as novel agent-based modelling techniques. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and scientific presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University College London Research Ethics Committee (Reference number 4400/001). PMID:24227873

  19. Observations of Children's Interactions with Teachers, Peers, and Tasks across Preschool Classroom Activity Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booren, Leslie M.; Downer, Jason T.; Vitiello, Virginia E.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This descriptive study examined classroom activity settings in relation to children's observed behavior during classroom interactions, child gender, and basic teacher behavior within the preschool classroom. A total of 145 children were observed for an average of 80 min during 8 occasions across 2 days using the Individualized…

  20. Respect and Autonomy in Children's Observation and Participation in Adults' Activities.

    PubMed

    García, Fernando A

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines Peruvian Quechua children's learning by observing and pitching in. The children concentrate attentively when they observe the activities of the adults and they exercise autonomy in the context of adults' encouragement of measured behaviors while always showing respectful silence in the presence of their elders. PMID:26955926

  1. Observing and Understanding Arterial and Venous Circulation Differences in a Physiology Laboratory Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altermann, Caroline; Gonçalves, Rithiele; Lara, Marcus Vinícius S.; Neves, Ben-Hur S.; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to describe three simple practical experiments that aim to observe and discuss the anatomic and physiological functions and differences between arteries and veins as well as the alterations observed in skin blood flow in different situations. For this activity, students were divided in small groups. In each…

  2. The Effects of Instructor-Learner Interactions on Learner Satisfaction in Online Masters Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Angelene C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to investigate the extent instructor-learner interactions affected learner satisfaction in online, semester-long Masters courses. This research study lent itself to several questions: To what extent do instructor-learner interactions affect learner satisfaction in online Masters courses; To what extent does…

  3. Teacher Perceptions of Learner-Learner Engagement at a Cyber High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borup, Jered

    2016-01-01

    Distance education has historically contained little or no learner-learner interactions. Currently the Internet allows for unprecedented levels of learner-learner interaction and has the potential to transform how students learn online. However, many courses offered online focus more on flexibility and independence than on interaction and…

  4. Study Partners Recommendation for xMOOCs Learners

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) provide an opportunity for people to access free courses offered by top universities in the world and therefore attracted great attention and engagement from college teachers and students. However, with contrast to large scale enrollment, the completion rate of these courses is really low. One of the reasons for students to quit learning process is problems which they face that could not be solved by discussing them with classmates. In order to keep them staying in the course, thereby further improving the completion rate, we address the task of study partner recommendation for students based on both content information and social network information. By analyzing the content of messages posted by learners in course discussion forum, we investigated the learners' behavior features to classify the learners into three groups. Then we proposed a topic model to measure learners' course knowledge awareness. Finally, a social network was constructed based on their activities in the course forum, and the relationship in the network was then employed to recommend study partners for target learner combined with their behavior features and course knowledge awareness. The experiment results show that our method achieves better performance than recommending method only based on content information. PMID:25663836

  5. Study Partners Recommendation for xMOOCs learners.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) provide an opportunity for people to access free courses offered by top universities in the world and therefore attracted great attention and engagement from college teachers and students. However, with contrast to large scale enrollment, the completion rate of these courses is really low. One of the reasons for students to quit learning process is problems which they face that could not be solved by discussing them with classmates. In order to keep them staying in the course, thereby further improving the completion rate, we address the task of study partner recommendation for students based on both content information and social network information. By analyzing the content of messages posted by learners in course discussion forum, we investigated the learners' behavior features to classify the learners into three groups. Then we proposed a topic model to measure learners' course knowledge awareness. Finally, a social network was constructed based on their activities in the course forum, and the relationship in the network was then employed to recommend study partners for target learner combined with their behavior features and course knowledge awareness. The experiment results show that our method achieves better performance than recommending method only based on content information. PMID:25663836

  6. Directly Observed Physical Activity among 3-Year-Olds in Finnish Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soini, Anne; Villberg, Jari; Sääkslahti, Arja; Gubbels, Jessica; Mehtälä, Anette; Kettunen, Tarja; Poskiparta, Marita

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to determine 3-year-olds' physical activity levels and how these vary across season, gender, time of day, location, and the physical and social environment in childcare settings in Finland. A modified version of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P) was used…

  7. An Observational Assessment of Physical Activity Levels and Social Behaviour during Elementary School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon J.; Fairclough, Stuart J.; Ridgers, Nicola D.; Porteous, Conor

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess children's physical activity, social play behaviour, activity type and social interactions during elementary school recess using a pre-validated systematic observation system. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Two elementary schools located in Merseyside, England. Method: Fifty-six…

  8. Self-Observation Model Employing an Instinctive Interface for Classroom Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Gwo-Dong; Nurkhamid; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Yang, Shu-Han; Chao, Po-Yao

    2014-01-01

    In a classroom, obtaining active, whole-focused, and engaging learning results from a design is often difficult. In this study, we propose a self-observation model that employs an instinctive interface for classroom active learning. Students can communicate with virtual avatars in the vertical screen and can react naturally according to the…

  9. BEACHES: An Observational System for Assessing Children's Eating and Physical Activity Behaviors and Associated Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children's Health Evaluation System (BEACHES) codes direct observations of children's dietary and physical activity behaviors and associated environmental events, including physical location, antecedents, and consequences. The system's reliability and validity was assessed in a study of 42 children (ages…

  10. Periodic Properties and Inquiry: Student Mental Models Observed during a Periodic Table Puzzle Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kathleen G.; Long, George R.; Briggs, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    The mental models of both novice and advanced chemistry students were observed while the students performed a periodic table activity. The mental model framework seems to be an effective way of analyzing student behavior during learning activities. The analysis suggests that students do not recognize periodic trends through the examination of…

  11. Human movements and abstract motion displays activate different processes in the observer's motor system.

    PubMed

    Agosta, Sara; Battelli, Lorella; Casile, Antonino

    2016-04-15

    Brain imaging studies have shown that observation of both bodily movements and abstract motion displays complying with human kinematics activate the observer's motor cortex. However, it is unknown whether the same processes are active in the two conditions. Here, we addressed this issue using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to directly compare cortico-spinal excitability during observation of actions and motion stimuli that complied with or violated normal human kinematics. We found that kinematics significantly modulated the motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) produced by TMS during observation of both human and abstract motion stimuli. However, only the temporal unfolding of cortico-spinal excitability during observation of human movements significantly correlated with instantaneous stimulus velocity. This correlation was present for normal movements and also for a subset of the movements having unnatural kinematics. Furthermore, bodily movements for which we found no correlation between MEPs and stimulus velocity produced significantly higher MEPs. Our novel results suggest a dissociation in how human movements and abstract motion displays engage the observer's motor system. Specifically, while both stimulus types significantly activate the observer's motor cortex, only bodily movements produce patterns of cortico-spinal excitability that closely follow the velocity profile of the observed movement. This internal "re-enactment" of observed bodily movements seems to be only partially attuned to normal human kinematics. PMID:26854559

  12. Is Brain Activity during Action Observation Modulated by the Perceived Fairness of the Actor?

    PubMed

    Etzel, Joset A; Valchev, Nikola; Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving other people's actions triggers activity in premotor and parietal areas, brain areas also involved in executing and sensing our own actions. Paralleling this phenomenon, observing emotional states (including pain) in others is associated with activity in the same brain areas as activated when experiencing similar emotions directly. This emotion perception associated activity has been shown to be affected by the perceived fairness of the actor, and in-group membership more generally. Here, we examine whether action observation associated brain activity is also affected by the perceived social fairness of the actors. Perceived fairness was manipulated using an alternating iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game between the participant and two confederates, one of whom played fairly and the other unfairly. During fMRI scanning the participants watched movies of the confederates performing object-directed hand actions, and then performed hand actions themselves. Mass-univariate analysis showed that observing the actions triggered robust activation in regions associated with action execution, but failed to identify a strong modulation of this activation based on perceived fairness. Multivariate pattern analysis, however, identified clusters potentially carrying information about the perceived fairness of the actor in the middle temporal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right middle cingulate cortex, right angular gyrus, and right superioroccipital gyrus. Despite being identified by a whole-brain searchlight analysis (and so without anatomical restriction), these clusters fall into areas frequently associated with action observation. We conclude that brain activity during action observation may be modulated by perceived fairness, but such modulation is subtle; robust activity is associated with observing the actions of both fair and unfair individuals. PMID:26820995

  13. Is Brain Activity during Action Observation Modulated by the Perceived Fairness of the Actor?

    PubMed Central

    Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving other people’s actions triggers activity in premotor and parietal areas, brain areas also involved in executing and sensing our own actions. Paralleling this phenomenon, observing emotional states (including pain) in others is associated with activity in the same brain areas as activated when experiencing similar emotions directly. This emotion perception associated activity has been shown to be affected by the perceived fairness of the actor, and in-group membership more generally. Here, we examine whether action observation associated brain activity is also affected by the perceived social fairness of the actors. Perceived fairness was manipulated using an alternating iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma game between the participant and two confederates, one of whom played fairly and the other unfairly. During fMRI scanning the participants watched movies of the confederates performing object-directed hand actions, and then performed hand actions themselves. Mass-univariate analysis showed that observing the actions triggered robust activation in regions associated with action execution, but failed to identify a strong modulation of this activation based on perceived fairness. Multivariate pattern analysis, however, identified clusters potentially carrying information about the perceived fairness of the actor in the middle temporal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right middle cingulate cortex, right angular gyrus, and right superioroccipital gyrus. Despite being identified by a whole-brain searchlight analysis (and so without anatomical restriction), these clusters fall into areas frequently associated with action observation. We conclude that brain activity during action observation may be modulated by perceived fairness, but such modulation is subtle; robust activity is associated with observing the actions of both fair and unfair individuals. PMID:26820995

  14. Developing Academic Language in English Language Learners through Sheltered Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Deborah J.; Fidelman, Carolyn G.; Louguit, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a study examining the effects of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) model instruction on the academic language performance of middle and high school English language learners. The SIOP model is an approach for teaching content curriculum to students learning through a new language. Teachers employ techniques…

  15. Power and Disagreement: Insights into Japanese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkinshaw, Ian

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of disagreement strategies used by Japanese learners of English (JLEs) studying at language schools in New Zealand. The study stemmed from an observation that JLEs were unwilling to express disagreements in exchanges with high-power (+P) interlocutors, possibly due to the threat of face-loss and the consequences of…

  16. Feedback in Technology-Based Instruction: Learner Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefevre, David; Cox, Benita

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates learner preferences for the format of feedback?when using technology-based instruction (TBI). The primary method of data collection was to provide subjects with a range of options for TBI feedback following responses to multiple-choice questions and then observe their choices. A software tool both presented the feedback…

  17. Learner-Centered Principles in Teacher-Centered Practices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuh, K.L.

    2004-01-01

    In the study reported here, I compare Learner-Centered Battery (a questionnaire of students' perceptions of the classroom) results and the observation and interview data gathered in one sixth-grade classroom noting first a discrepancy between the descriptions of the classroom that stems from each. I review this discrepancy, highlighting a need for…

  18. Inquiry at the Window: Pursuing the Wonders of Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitin, Phyllis; Whitin, David J.

    This book describes inquiry learning during a year-long classroom exploration with 4th graders, which began with setting up a bird feeder and a journal for students to record observations. The authors argue that schools have been organized to make things easy for learners, shielding them from the messiness, ambiguity, and change of intellectual…

  19. Beyond Redemption? Locating the Experience of Adult Learners and Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Anne B.; Connolly, Brid; Grummell, Bernie; Finnegan, Fergal

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to continue the conversation initiated by Denis O'Sullivan in the 2008 issue of the "Adult Learner". O'Sullivan raises several important points about the nature of Irish adult education and the need to develop a rigorous theoretical basis for the authors' work. The authors wish to engage with O'Sullivan's observations of the…

  20. All Means All: Classrooms that Work for Advanced Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The author of this article observes that sometimes educators are so overwhelmed by the needs of struggling learners that they believe they do not have time for the gifted, talented, high achieving, and high potential students. However, those students are just as desperate as any other students for good teachers to help them progress. Middle school…

  1. When Everyone Is a Probe, Everyone Is a Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenfeld, Boris; Krupa, Tatiana; Lebedev, Arseny; Stafeev, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Most students globally have mobile devices and the Global Students Laboratory (GlobalLab) project is integrating mobility into learning. First launched in 1991, GlobalLab builds a community of learners engaged in collaborative, distributed investigations. Long relying on stationary desktop computers, or students inputting their observations by…

  2. More Than 50 Ways to Learner-Centered Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Laura; Hubble, Deborah

    Designed for teachers of kindergarten through grade 6, this book contains practical and innovative ideas on fostering literacy generated from discussions with teachers from the United States and Canada, visits to their classrooms, and observations of their interactions with students. The book addresses all levels of learner-centered literacy…

  3. Explicit and Implicit Feedback, Modified Output, and SLA: Does Explicit and Implicit Feedback Promote Learning and Learner-Learner Interactions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Rebecca; Nuevo, Ana Maria; Egi, Takako

    2011-01-01

    Research on interactional feedback has typically focused on feedback learners receive from native speakers (i.e., NS-learner contexts). However, for many second language (L2) learners, the majority of their opportunities to engage in interaction occur with other learners (i.e., learner-learner contexts). The literature has suggested that feedback…

  4. Summary of solar activity observed in the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory, 1980 - 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, K.; Fisher, R.; Garcia, C.; Yasukawa, E.

    1983-11-01

    The following technical note summarizes solar activity observed during the first four years operation of the experiment systems of the Coronal Dynamics Project, which are located at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory. This short report has been produced with the general aim of providing users of Mauna Loa observations with a summary of data for specific events. So that this table might be as useful as possible, a comprehensive review of three sources was performed. The plain language logs, identified as the so-called observer's logs, the now-discontinued activity logs, and the prominence monitor quality control logs were the sources from which the information in the following tables was obtained.

  5. Non-LTE Inversion of Spectropolarimetric and Spectroscopic Observations of a Small Active-region Filament Observed at the VTT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, P.; Balthasar, H.; Kuckein, C.; Koza, J.; Gömöry, P.; Rybák, J.; Kučera, A.; Heinzel, P.

    2016-04-01

    An active region mini-filament was observed by VTT simultaneously in the HeI 10 830 Å triplet by the TIP 1 spectropolarimeter, in Hα by the TESOS Fabry-Pérot interferometer, and in Ca II 8542 Å by the VTT spectrograph. The spectropolarimetric data were inverted using the HAZEL code and Hα profiles were modelled solving a NLTE radiative transfer in a simple isobaric and isothermal 2D slab irradiated both from bottom and sides. It was found that the mini-filament is composed of horizontal fluxtubes, along which the cool plasma of T˜10 000 K can flow by very large - even supersonic - velocities.

  6. The Enhanced Musical Rhythmic Perception in Second Language Learners.

    PubMed

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M Paula; Roor, Drikus A; Chen, Ao; Sadakata, Makiko

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that mastering languages with distinct rather than similar rhythmic properties enhances musical rhythmic perception. This study investigates whether learning a second language (L2) contributes to enhanced musical rhythmic perception in general, regardless of first and second languages rhythmic properties. Additionally, we investigated whether this perceptual enhancement could be alternatively explained by exposure to musical rhythmic complexity, such as the use of compound meter in Turkish music. Finally, it investigates if an enhancement of musical rhythmic perception could be observed among L2 learners whose first language relies heavily on pitch information, as is the case with tonal languages. Therefore, we tested Turkish, Dutch and Mandarin L2 learners of English and Turkish monolinguals on their musical rhythmic perception. Participants' phonological and working memory capacities, melodic aptitude, years of formal musical training and daily exposure to music were assessed to account for cultural and individual differences which could impact their rhythmic ability. Our results suggest that mastering a L2 rather than exposure to musical rhythmic complexity could explain individuals' enhanced musical rhythmic perception. An even stronger enhancement of musical rhythmic perception was observed for L2 learners whose first and second languages differ regarding their rhythmic properties, as enhanced performance of Turkish in comparison with Dutch L2 learners of English seem to suggest. Such a stronger enhancement of rhythmic perception seems to be found even among L2 learners whose first language relies heavily on pitch information, as the performance of Mandarin L2 learners of English indicates. Our findings provide further support for a cognitive transfer between the language and music domain. PMID:27375469

  7. The Enhanced Musical Rhythmic Perception in Second Language Learners

    PubMed Central

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M. Paula; Roor, Drikus A.; Chen, Ao; Sadakata, Makiko

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that mastering languages with distinct rather than similar rhythmic properties enhances musical rhythmic perception. This study investigates whether learning a second language (L2) contributes to enhanced musical rhythmic perception in general, regardless of first and second languages rhythmic properties. Additionally, we investigated whether this perceptual enhancement could be alternatively explained by exposure to musical rhythmic complexity, such as the use of compound meter in Turkish music. Finally, it investigates if an enhancement of musical rhythmic perception could be observed among L2 learners whose first language relies heavily on pitch information, as is the case with tonal languages. Therefore, we tested Turkish, Dutch and Mandarin L2 learners of English and Turkish monolinguals on their musical rhythmic perception. Participants’ phonological and working memory capacities, melodic aptitude, years of formal musical training and daily exposure to music were assessed to account for cultural and individual differences which could impact their rhythmic ability. Our results suggest that mastering a L2 rather than exposure to musical rhythmic complexity could explain individuals’ enhanced musical rhythmic perception. An even stronger enhancement of musical rhythmic perception was observed for L2 learners whose first and second languages differ regarding their rhythmic properties, as enhanced performance of Turkish in comparison with Dutch L2 learners of English seem to suggest. Such a stronger enhancement of rhythmic perception seems to be found even among L2 learners whose first language relies heavily on pitch information, as the performance of Mandarin L2 learners of English indicates. Our findings provide further support for a cognitive transfer between the language and music domain. PMID:27375469

  8. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants’ Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions

    PubMed Central

    Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition. PMID:26111226

  9. Light Bridge in a Developing Active Region. I. Observation of Light Bridge and its Dynamic Activity Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toriumi, Shin; Katsukawa, Yukio; Cheung, Mark C. M.

    2015-10-01

    Light bridges, the bright structures that divide the umbra of sunspots and pores into smaller pieces, are known to produce a wide variety of activity events in solar active regions (ARs). It is also known that the light bridges appear in the assembling process of nascent sunspots. The ultimate goal of this series of papers is to reveal the nature of light bridges in developing ARs and the occurrence of activity events associated with the light bridge structures from both observational and numerical approaches. In this first paper, exploiting the observational data obtained by Hinode, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, and the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we investigate the detailed structure of the light bridge in NOAA AR 11974 and its dynamic activity phenomena. As a result, we find that the light bridge has a weak, horizontal magnetic field, which is transported from the interior by a large-scale convective upflow and is surrounded by strong, vertical fields of adjacent pores. In the chromosphere above the bridge, a transient brightening occurs repeatedly and intermittently, followed by a recurrent dark surge ejection into higher altitudes. Our analysis indicates that the brightening is the plasma heating due to magnetic reconnection at lower altitudes, while the dark surge is the cool, dense plasma ejected from the reconnection region. From the observational results, we conclude that the dynamic activity observed in a light bridge structure such as chromospheric brightenings and dark surge ejections are driven by magnetoconvective evolution within the light bridge and its interaction with the surrounding magnetic fields.

  10. Adult Learner Characteristics and Instructional Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etter, David Campbell George

    Using 40 male and 40 female part time learners with an average age of 36.6, this program planning study explored relationships between selected learner characteristics and behaviorally stated cognitive instructional objectives (IOs). Variables included age, sex, socioeconomic status, verbal ability, and a measure of learners' goals or learning…

  11. Alternative Model Learner Verification and Revision Statutes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffert, Hannah N.; And Others

    A learner verification and revision (LVR) process attempts to discover difficulties learners experience in using instructional materials and to formulate possible ways of modifying the instructional materials to eliminate the difficulties. It is a means of ensuring useful learner input into the prepublication development and postpublication…

  12. An Open Learner Model for Trainee Pilots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gakhal, Inderdip; Bull, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential for simple open learner models for highly motivated, independent learners, using the example of trainee pilots. In particular we consider whether such users access their learner model to help them identify their current knowledge level, areas of difficulty and specific misconceptions, to help them plan their…

  13. The Adult Learner: Some Things We Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin J.; Pete, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses the "warrior" who rises to the challenge of teaching the adult learner. The discussion is designed as a catalyst for dialogue about the adult learner and to uncover the complexities of teaching this rare and riveting species. This book is organized around three interlocking themes: some things we know about the adult learner;…

  14. Slow Learners: Are Educators Leaving Them Behind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaznowski, Kimberly

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the school performance of a sample of slow learners who qualified for special education as learning disabled with a sample of slow learners who did not qualify for special education. The intent of the study was to determine which group of slow learners was more successful in school in order to know if special education or…

  15. Appropriateness and the Foreign-Language Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Roger E.

    1980-01-01

    The attitude of the target-language community toward the foreign language learner has been overlooked in language teaching. The teacher should consider the native speaker's attitude toward the language learner's command of the language, whether the native speaker views the learner's proficiency as an intrusion, and whether situations dictate…

  16. Becoming a Strategic Language Learner in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines what it means to be a strategic language learner in the context of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). It looks at the possible roles for language learner strategies at their crucial intersection with language learning technology. We will first consider what language learner strategies have been represented in…

  17. Characteristics of Successful Adult Distance Instructors for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nora N.

    2003-01-01

    In this age of rapid technological and economic change, life-long learning is becoming a way of life. The average age of students will become greater. Participation in learning activities by learners 18 and over increased from 38 percent in 1991 to 50 percent in 1999 (U.S. Department of Education, NCES, 1999). As the population seeks more…

  18. Curriculum Guides: Programming for the Adult Mentally Handicapped Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klugerman, Phyllis B., Ed.; Toye, Bernadette, Ed.

    This volume includes a series of curricula designed specifically for adult mentally handicapped learners. Addressed in the individual curricula are the following topics: basic skills; bicycle maintenance and repair; manual wheelchair maintenance and repair; personal awareness; social, recreational, and art activity groups; woodworking; and…

  19. A Problem Solving Strategy for Gifted Learners in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Horst, Helen v R.

    2000-01-01

    A strategy of problem solving in the teaching of gifted learners is explored as a possible way of differentiating the curriculum in order to optimize learning. The Teaching Actively in a Social Context Model (TASC) and Renzulli's Enrichment Triad Model are cited as valuable teaching-learning programs. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  20. Collaborative Revision in L2 Writing: Learners' Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memari Hanjani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    L2 learning literature has reflected on the problems surrounding the application of teacher written feedback and peer feedback in EFL contexts. To address the disadvantages of these feedback forms, this exploratory case study examined EFL learners' reactions to a collaborative revision activity. Interview data were collected from eight native…

  1. Language Development for English Language Learners. Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Mabel O.; Moughamian, Ani; Francis, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This Facilitator's Guide has been prepared for presenters of the "Language Development for English Language Learners" professional development module. It accompanies the 67-slide PowerPoint presentation with speaker's notes and contains materials to help prepare for a professional development session, including activity instructions, handouts,…

  2. Understanding the Learner-Environment Relationship: A Matrix of Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Josephine; Annan, Jean; Mentis, Mandia

    2007-01-01

    This conceptual article re-examines the contribution of a contextual perspective to the practice of educational psychology. The two dimensions of environment and learner are placed along a continuum of active to passive. A range of theory is then situated within this matrix. The article explains and illustrates how the matrix encompasses different…

  3. Shared Pedagogical Understandings: Schoolwide Inclusion Practices Supporting Learner Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abawi, Lindy; Oliver, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Educational perspectives that recommend inclusion of children with special needs into mainstream classrooms remain a controversial topic. The Melbourne Declaration declares that all young Australians should be supported to become successful learners; confident and creative individuals; and active and informed citizens. So the question remains how…

  4. Motivation and Interlanguage Pragmatics in Iranian English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khorshidi, Hassan Rasouli; Nimchahi, Abdolreza Bagherzadeh

    2013-01-01

    It is generally believed that interlanguage pragmatics and motivation play important roles in learning. Motivation is important because it determines the extent of the learner's active involvement and attitude toward learning. The major purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of integrative and instrumental motivation on the…

  5. Boosting Language Skills of English Learners through Dramatization and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfader, Christa Mulker; Brouillette, Liane

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an arts integration program that uses drama and dance to promote foundational literacy skills, with an emphasis on the oral development of English Language Learners (ELLs). Previous research indicates that arts activities afford a beneficial opportunity for young students to practice language skills, but many teachers have…

  6. Are Online Learners Frustrated with Collaborative Learning Experiences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capdeferro, Neus; Romero, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Online education increasingly puts emphasis on collaborative learning methods. Despite the pedagogical advantages of collaborative learning, online learners can perceive collaborative learning activities as frustrating experiences. The purpose of this study was to characterize the feelings of frustration as a negative emotion among online learners…

  7. Learner Experiences in Web-Based Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Jeong-Bae

    2007-01-01

    The World Wide Web offers a global database of authentic materials that can enhance language learning and teaching. This study examines the use of the web for language learning through a study of English as a second language (ESL) learners' experiences in web-based language learning (WBLL) activities in an English language intensive course for…

  8. Interactive TV: An Effective Instructional Mode for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Ling; Iris, Carole

    2004-01-01

    The inclusion of interactive television (iTV) programs for learning is an emerging genre in education. Literature has concluded that any aspect of learning requires some form of interaction or feedback to be most effective. As television (TV) evolves from being a passive to an active medium, it has the potential to engage learners and reach a mass…

  9. Enhanced activation of motor execution networks using action observation combined with imagination of lower limb movements.

    PubMed

    Villiger, Michael; Estévez, Natalia; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kiper, Daniel; Kollias, Spyros S; Eng, Kynan; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    The combination of first-person observation and motor imagery, i.e. first-person observation of limbs with online motor imagination, is commonly used in interactive 3D computer gaming and in some movie scenes. These scenarios are designed to induce a cognitive process in which a subject imagines himself/herself acting as the agent in the displayed movement situation. Despite the ubiquity of this type of interaction and its therapeutic potential, its relationship to passive observation and imitation during observation has not been directly studied using an interactive paradigm. In the present study we show activation resulting from observation, coupled with online imagination and with online imitation of a goal-directed lower limb movement using functional MRI (fMRI) in a mixed block/event-related design. Healthy volunteers viewed a video (first-person perspective) of a foot kicking a ball. They were instructed to observe-only the action (O), observe and simultaneously imagine performing the action (O-MI), or imitate the action (O-IMIT). We found that when O-MI was compared to O, activation was enhanced in the ventralpremotor cortex bilaterally, left inferior parietal lobule and left insula. The O-MI and O-IMIT conditions shared many activation foci in motor relevant areas as confirmed by conjunction analysis. These results show that (i) combining observation with motor imagery (O-MI) enhances activation compared to observation-only (O) in the relevant foot motor network and in regions responsible for attention, for control of goal-directed movements and for the awareness of causing an action, and (ii) it is possible to extensively activate the motor execution network using O-MI, even in the absence of overt movement. Our results may have implications for the development of novel virtual reality interactions for neurorehabilitation interventions and other applications involving training of motor tasks. PMID:24015241

  10. Enhanced Activation of Motor Execution Networks Using Action Observation Combined with Imagination of Lower Limb Movements

    PubMed Central

    Villiger, Michael; Estévez, Natalia; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kiper, Daniel; Kollias, Spyros S.; Eng, Kynan; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    The combination of first-person observation and motor imagery, i.e. first-person observation of limbs with online motor imagination, is commonly used in interactive 3D computer gaming and in some movie scenes. These scenarios are designed to induce a cognitive process in which a subject imagines himself/herself acting as the agent in the displayed movement situation. Despite the ubiquity of this type of interaction and its therapeutic potential, its relationship to passive observation and imitation during observation has not been directly studied using an interactive paradigm. In the present study we show activation resulting from observation, coupled with online imagination and with online imitation of a goal-directed lower limb movement using functional MRI (fMRI) in a mixed block/event-related design. Healthy volunteers viewed a video (first-person perspective) of a foot kicking a ball. They were instructed to observe-only the action (O), observe and simultaneously imagine performing the action (O-MI), or imitate the action (O-IMIT). We found that when O-MI was compared to O, activation was enhanced in the ventralpremotor cortex bilaterally, left inferior parietal lobule and left insula. The O-MI and O-IMIT conditions shared many activation foci in motor relevant areas as confirmed by conjunction analysis. These results show that (i) combining observation with motor imagery (O-MI) enhances activation compared to observation-only (O) in the relevant foot motor network and in regions responsible for attention, for control of goal-directed movements and for the awareness of causing an action, and (ii) it is possible to extensively activate the motor execution network using O-MI, even in the absence of overt movement. Our results may have implications for the development of novel virtual reality interactions for neurorehabilitation interventions and other applications involving training of motor tasks. PMID:24015241

  11. What are you doing? How active and observational experience shape infants' action understanding

    PubMed Central

    Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold

    2014-01-01

    From early in life, infants watch other people's actions. How do young infants come to make sense of actions they observe? Here, we review empirical findings on the development of action understanding in infancy. Based on this review, we argue that active action experience is crucial for infants' developing action understanding. When infants execute actions, they form associations between motor acts and the sensory consequences of these acts. When infants subsequently observe these actions in others, they can use their motor system to predict the outcome of the ongoing actions. Also, infants come to an understanding of others’ actions through the repeated observation of actions and the effects associated with them. In their daily lives, infants have plenty of opportunities to form associations between observed events and learn about statistical regularities of others’ behaviours. We argue that based on these two forms of experience—active action experience and observational experience—infants gradually develop more complex action understanding capabilities. PMID:24778386

  12. Perception of race-related features modulates neural activity associated with action observation and imitation.

    PubMed

    Earls, Holly A; Englander, Zoë A; Morris, James P

    2013-05-29

    The present study examines whether race-specific features affect biological motion perception. Activation of the neural action observation and imitation network was measured using functional MRI. During scanning, individuals were asked to imitate and observe basic hand movements of own-race and other-race actors. Results indicate that three key areas often associated with action observation and imitation, the inferior parietal lobule, superior parietal lobule, and superior temporal sulcus, were more active when participants imitated and observed hand movements of own-race relative to other-race actors. These findings indicate that several regions associated with the neural imitation/observation network are sensitive to race-related features. PMID:23571693

  13. Brood surveys and hunter observations used to predict gobbling activity wild turkeys in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palumbo, Matthew D.; Vilella, Francisco; Strickland, Bronson K.; Wang, Guiming; Godwin, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks utilize data from turkey hunter observations and brood surveys from across the state to manage wild turkey Meleagris gallopavo populations. Since 1995, hunters have collected gobbling and jake observation data, while the Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks' personnel and cooperating wildlife managers of several natural resource agencies throughout the state have collected brood survey data. Both sources of data serve to forecast poult recruitment and gobbling activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate if these data can serve as a viable predictor of gobbling activity. We used three mixed models to investigate the relationship between the number of jakes observed per hour of hunting 1 y prior and the total number of poults per hens 2 y prior (model 1), number of gobblers heard per hour of hunting and the number of jakes observed per hour of hunting 1 y prior (model 2), the number of gobblers heard per hour of hunting and the total number poults per total hens observed 2 y prior (model 3) using data from 1995 to 2008 among five wild turkey management regions encompassing the state. We incorporated region as a random effect to account for spatial variation. We found the number of jakes observed per hour of hunting 1 y prior correlated with the total number of poults per total hens observed 2 y prior. We also found the number of gobblers heard per hour of hunting correlated with the number of jakes observed per hour of hunting 1 y prior. Additionally, we found that the total poults per total hens observed 2 y prior was correlated to the number of gobblers heard per hour of hunting. Our results show promise for using indices of gobbling activity, jake observations, and brood surveys to estimate gobbling activity.

  14. Increased premotor cortex activation in high functioning autism during action observation.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Tom J; Bittar, Richard G; McGillivray, Jane A; Cox, Ivanna I; Stokes, Mark A

    2015-04-01

    The mirror neuron (MN) hypothesis of autism has received considerable attention, but to date has produced inconsistent findings. Using functional MRI, participants with high functioning autism or Asperger's syndrome were compared to typically developing individuals (n=12 in each group). Participants passively observed hand gestures that included waving, pointing, and grasping. Concerning the MN network, both groups activated similar regions including prefrontal, inferior parietal and superior temporal regions, with the autism group demonstrating significantly greater activation in the dorsal premotor cortex. Concerning other regions, participants with autism demonstrated increased activity in the anterior cingulate and medial frontal gyrus, and reduced activation in calcarine, cuneus, and middle temporal gyrus. These results suggest that during observation of hand gestures, frontal cortex activation is affected in autism, which we suggest may be linked to abnormal functioning of the MN system. PMID:25726458

  15. Using Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) Observations to Estimate Potential Evaporation with Combination Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Freyberg, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    Estimating potential evaporation with combination equations typically depends on observations of solar radiation. In situations where only photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) observations are available, a conversion model is required. We use coincident observations of solar radiation and PAR to build a conversion model for the Santa Cruz Mountains region of California, USA. The model takes advantage of the strong seasonality in cloud cover and albedo, using two seasonal sub-models to improve performance. We examine the uncertainty induced by model error in predictions of potential evaporation and reference crop evaporation using locally calibrated combination equations, and compare with direct observations of pan evaporation and inferred estimates of lake evaporation.

  16. Educating Young Children: Active Learning Practices for Preschool and Child Care Programs [and] A Study Guide to Educating Young Children: Exercises for Adult Learners. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann, Mary; Weikart, David P.

    High/Scope preschool curriculum is a model for developing high-quality early childhood programs that encourage and support children's initiatives and active learning experiences. This revised manual for early childhood practitioners and students presents essential strategies adults can use to make active learning a reality in their programs. The…

  17. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Investigation of Contradictions in Open and Distance Higher Education among Alienated Adult Learners in Korea National Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, K. P.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing upon cultural-historical activity theory, this research analyzed the structural contradictions existing in a variety of educational activities among a group of alienated adult students in Korea National Open University (KNOU). Despite KNOU's quantitative development in student enrollment, the contradictions shed light on how the…

  18. Neural activation in cognitive motor processes: comparing motor imagery and observation of gymnastic movements.

    PubMed

    Munzert, Jörn; Zentgraf, Karen; Stark, Rudolf; Vaitl, Dieter

    2008-07-01

    The simulation concept suggested by Jeannerod (Neuroimage 14:S103-S109, 2001) defines the S-states of action observation and mental simulation of action as action-related mental states lacking overt execution. Within this framework, similarities and neural overlap between S-states and overt execution are interpreted as providing the common basis for the motor representations implemented within the motor system. The present brain imaging study compared activation overlap and differential activation during mental simulation (motor imagery) with that while observing gymnastic movements. The fMRI conjunction analysis revealed overlapping activation for both S-states in primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, and the supplementary motor area as well as in the intraparietal sulcus, cerebellar hemispheres, and parts of the basal ganglia. A direct contrast between the motor imagery and observation conditions revealed stronger activation for imagery in the posterior insula and the anterior cingulate gyrus. The hippocampus, the superior parietal lobe, and the cerebellar areas were differentially activated in the observation condition. In general, these data corroborate the concept of action-related S-states because of the high overlap in core motor as well as in motor-related areas. We argue that differential activity between S-states relates to task-specific and modal information processing. PMID:18425505

  19. Targeted Observation of ELL Instruction as a Tool in the Preparation of School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baecher, Laura; Knoll, Marcia; Patti, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Preparing school administrators to promote effective instruction of English language learners (ELLs) is an important dimension of today's educational leadership programs, requiring innovative program activities. This study explores school leadership candidates' use of an observation tool targeted to ELL instruction that incorporated guided video…

  20. Brain activation patterns resulting from learning letter forms through active self-production and passive observation in young children

    PubMed Central

    Kersey, Alyssa J.; James, Karin H.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous literature suggests that writing practice facilitates neural specialization for letters, it is unclear if this facilitation is driven by the perceptual feedback from the act of writing or the actual execution of the motor act. The present study addresses this issue by measuring the change in BOLD signal in response to hand-printed letters, unlearned cursive letters, and cursive letters that 7-year-old children learned actively, by writing, and passively, by observing an experimenter write. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI while perceiving letters—in both cursive and manuscript forms. Results showed that active training led to increased recruitment of the sensori-motor network associated with letter perception as well as the insula and claustrum, but passive observation did not. This suggests that perceptual networks for newly learned cursive letters are driven by motor execution rather than by perceptual feedback. PMID:24069007

  1. Monitoring the Stellar Activity of Transit-Hosting Stars II: supporting HST exoplanet atmosphere observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Paul Anthony; Evans, Tom; Sing, David K.; Aigrain, Suzanne

    2012-02-01

    We propose to use the CTIO 1.3m telescope with ANDICAM to monitor 5 bright stars that host transiting exoplanets in an effort to characterise their activity. These observations will provide critical ground-based support for our large HST program that has been granted 124 orbits to perform a survey of UV-optical atmospheric transmission spectra for 8 hot Jupiters using the STIS instrument (Cycle 19, Prog 12473, PI D Sing). They are required because active stellar regions inevitably contaminate measured planetary light curves by causing the apparent planet-to-star radius to vary in a wavelength dependent manner. Regular ground-based photometric monitoring performed using the CTIO 1.3m telescope will allow us to determine the spot activity at the time of the HST observations, so that the stellar baseline flux can be accurately normalised for every transit observed, enabling transmission spectra from multiple visits to be combined.

  2. Learner-Centered Online Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This chapter offers a theoretical rationale and an explanation of evidence for using research-validated, learner-centered principles and practices in online course development, highlighting the evidence-based practices that have been used successfully to develop online courses that engage and retain students.

  3. Options for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minaya-Rowe, Liliana

    2008-01-01

    Between 69 percent and 90 percent of English language learners (ELLs) in middle and high schools were born in the United States and have been in U.S. schools since kindergarten still have not achieved the academic proficiency to succeed in an all-English mainstream program. Various ELL program options are available for school districts to…

  4. Individual Learner Differences in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabski, Janusz; Wojtaszek, Adam

    2011-01-01

    "Individual Learner Differences in SLA" addresses the apparently insoluble conflict between the unquestionably individual character of the process of second language acquisition/foreign language learning and the institutionalised, often inflexible character of formal instruction in which it takes place. How, then, is success in SLA so prevalent?

  5. Grading Exceptional and Struggling Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    How can you ensure that you are grading your exceptional students fairly? Teachers receive very little guidance for grading students with disabilities, English learners, and those receiving services through a response-to-intervention (RTI) process. This practitioner-friendly book provides teachers and administrators with an effective framework for…

  6. Are Deaf Students Visual Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschark, Marc; Morrison, Carolyn; Lukomski, Jennifer; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol

    2013-01-01

    It is frequently assumed that by virtue of their hearing losses, deaf students are visual learners. Deaf individuals have some visual-spatial advantages relative to hearing individuals, but most have been linked to use of sign language rather than auditory deprivation. How such cognitive differences might affect academic performance has been…

  7. Learner Differences in Hint Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Ilya M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Aleven, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Although ITSs are supposed to adapt to differences among learners, so far, little attention has been paid to how they might adapt to differences in how students learn from help. When students study with an Intelligent Tutoring System, they may receive multiple types of help, but may not comprehend and make use of this help in the same way. To…

  8. English Language Learners: Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hector-Mason, Anestine; Bardack, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This annotated bibliography represents a first step toward compiling a comprehensive overview of current research on issues related to English language learners (ELLs). It is intended to be a resource for researchers, policymakers, administrators, and educators who are engaged in efforts to bridge the divide between research, policy, and practice…

  9. Learner Diaries: Possibilities and Pitfalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell-Richardson, Christina; Parkinson, Brian

    Learner diaries, or dialogue journals, are popular in second language teaching. Numerous teaching, learning, evaluative, and research-related uses for them have evolved. Pedagogically, they are used to identify and allay anxiety, offer advice on specific difficulties, provide study skill and individual feedback, encourage student self-assessment,…

  10. Distance Learners: Welcome to Campus!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwitzer, Alan M.; Duggan, Mary H.

    2005-01-01

    Old Dominion University's distance learning program, called TELETECHNET, brings the main-campus college experience to geographically distant learners at sites across Virginia and as far away as the state of Washington, as well as to military personnel on Navy bases, carriers, and submarines. In an interesting turnabout, the Summer Institute for…

  11. for Teachers of English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molle, Daniella

    2013-01-01

    For more than a decade, the professional development literature has shown that most teachers are not adequately prepared to teach English learners (ELs)--that holds true for both specialist and mainstream teachers (see, for example, August & Hakuta, 1997; Beykont, 2002). Research that focuses on professional development for teachers of ELs,…

  12. Reading and the Special Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Carolyn N., Ed.; Hicks, John S., Ed.

    Compiled from papers presented at the annual Reading/Special Education Institute at Fordham University, this collection of essays addresses reading problems of special education students. The book is divided into three sections. The first section covers reading assessment and reading intervention; section 2 addresses the specific learner and the…

  13. Seven Things Adult Learners Dislike.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strzalka, Agnieszka

    1998-01-01

    A questionnaire was designed to elicit what adult learners disliked most about learning English. Seven dislikes were identified, including the following: textbooks in English only, role plays, drills, textbooks with no reading material or with artificial texts, homework, inflexible teachers, and audiotapes. (Author/VWL)

  14. Learners' Use of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ally, Mohamed; Cleveland-Innes, Martha; Boskic, Natasha; Larwill, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study exploring the generativity (Gibbons, Nelson, & Richards, 2000; Parrish, 2004) and discoverability (Friesen, 2001) of learning objects in the hands of the learner. Through the convergence of two separate pilot projects--the Canadian EduSource initiative through Athabasca University, and the researchers'…

  15. Building a Community of Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Leaders for Urban Schools, 1995

    1995-01-01

    The theme of this inaugural serial issue is "Building a Community of Learners." The serial has been designed to address school restructuring and reform and the roles of teachers, administrators, and parents. The first essay, "Constructing Communities of Cooperation" by Anne Turnbaugh Lockwood examines structural change in schools and what is meant…

  16. Building Resilience in Literacy Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanacore, Joseph

    Although an increasing number of young people encounter adversity in their environments, many manage to rebound and live successful lives while others repeat patterns of adversity in their adult lives. Classroom educators and special educators should therefore establish a learning environment that builds resilience in all learners. Educational…

  17. Teacher Investment in Learner Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Jenelle

    2009-01-01

    From a sociocultural perspective, teacher identity is constructed in relation to others, including other teachers and students. Drawing on positioning theory and the concept of investment, this study analyzed the case of a secondary English teacher who negotiated his teacher identity in relation to English language learners (ELLs). Findings…

  18. Learners in Action, Summer 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This Summer 2005 issue of "Learners in Action" contains the following articles: (1) Bridging Barriers to Learning (Glenn Kissman); (2) Education Really Is a Family Affair; (3) Sabrina's Story; (4) SARAW Helps Students Find Their Voice; (5) Literacy Changes Lives; and (6) Seeing STARs in Alberta.

  19. Adult Learners' Week in Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jermann, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    The slogan of International Adult Learners Week in Switzerland is "one hour a day for learning." Four goals of the lifelong learning agenda are government policies to promote access, public awareness campaigns, creation of public learning places, and development of networks for real and virtual learning. (SK)

  20. Developing Collections to Empower Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Sue C.

    2014-01-01

    "Developing Collections to Empower Learners" examines collection development in the context of today's shifts toward digital resources while emphasizing the foundational beliefs of the school library profession. Writer Sue Kimmel includes practical advice about needs assessment, planning, selection, acquisitions, evaluation, and…

  1. Rich Environments for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentham, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Unaware of the messages a bare adult learning environment sends and its effect on adult learners, a trainer attends an intensive Reggio Emilia course and learns that the physical environment is the "third teacher"--for adults as well as for children. Using principles of Reggio, she offers suggestions for enhancing adult learning spaces and…

  2. Confessions of a Language Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, William G.

    1974-01-01

    This Middlebury College summer 1974 commencement address is an informal presentation of the author's experiences as a language learner. The effectiveness of such pedagogical methods as the grammar-translation, audio-lingual, and "balanced" approaches, and of language learning with the aid of an informant, is discussed. It is concluded that, given…

  3. Teaching Reading to Struggling Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minskoff, Esther

    2005-01-01

    Identifying the best way to help students who struggle with reading--whether they have learning disabilities, are English language learners, or just need extra support--is a challenge for any teacher. Schools can make that task easier with this indispensable resource, a complete guide to addressing each student's specific instructional needs and…

  4. The Learner and the Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, George E.

    The revolution in computers begun in the mid 1950's will help education to meet the new challenges of the future generated by the predicted drastic declines in student enrollment and by changes in the types of learners served. Projects such as PLATO and TICCIT have proved that computers can provide useful and timely instruction for such learners…

  5. English Learners Program Guide. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This guide is designed as a reference for District and School personnel working with English learners (ELs). The content of the guide represents a compilation of information, examples, and resources. This guide is a living document and subject to frequent updates. It is recommended to review the document online rather than printing a hard copy.

  6. More than a "Basic Skill": Breaking down the Complexities of Summarizing for ABE/ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette-Schramm, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the complex cognitive and linguistic challenges of summarizing expository text at vocabulary, syntactic, and rhetorical levels. It then outlines activities to help ABE/ESL learners develop corresponding skills.

  7. Advancing the science for active surveillance: rationale and design for the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership.

    PubMed

    Stang, Paul E; Ryan, Patrick B; Racoosin, Judith A; Overhage, J Marc; Hartzema, Abraham G; Reich, Christian; Welebob, Emily; Scarnecchia, Thomas; Woodcock, Janet

    2010-11-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 mandated that the FDA develop a system for using automated health care data to identify risks of marketed drugs and other medical products. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership is a public-private partnership among the FDA, academia, data owners, and the pharmaceutical industry that is responding to the need to advance the science of active medical product safety surveillance by using existing observational databases. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership's transparent, open innovation approach is designed to systematically and empirically study critical governance, data resource, and methodological issues and their interrelationships in establishing a viable national program of active drug safety surveillance by using observational data. This article describes the governance structure, data-access model, methods-testing approach, and technology development of this effort, as well as the work that has been initiated. PMID:21041580

  8. Passive and Active Detection of Clouds: Comparisons between MODIS and GLAS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahesh, Ashwin; Gray, Mark A.; Palm, Stephen P.; Hart, William D.; Spinhirne, James D.

    2003-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), launched on board the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite in January 2003 provides space-borne laser observations of atmospheric layers. GLAS provides opportunities to validate passive observations of the atmosphere for the first time from space with an active optical instrument. Data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer aboard the Aqua satellite is examined along with GLAS observations of cloud layers. In more than three-quarters of the cases, MODIS scene identification from spectral radiances agrees with GLAS. Disagreement between the two platforms is most significant over snow-covered surfaces in the northern hemisphere. Daytime clouds detected by GLAS are also more easily seen in the MODIS data as well, compared to observations made at night. These comparisons illustrate the capabilities of active remote sensing to validate and assess passive measurements, and also to complement them in studies of atmospheric layers.

  9. Activity in superior parietal cortex during training by observation predicts asymmetric learning levels across hands

    PubMed Central

    Ossmy, Ori; Mukamel, Roy

    2016-01-01

    A dominant concept in motor cognition associates action observation with motor control. Previous studies have shown that passive action observation can result in significant performance gains in humans. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether the neural mechanism subserving such learning codes abstract aspects of the action (e.g. goal) or low level aspects such as effector identity. Eighteen healthy subjects learned to perform sequences of finger movements by passively observing right or left hand performing the same sequences in egocentric view. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we show that during passive observation, activity in the superior parietal lobule (SPL) contralateral to the identity of the observed hand (right\\left), predicts subsequent performance gains in individual subjects. Behaviorally, left hand observation resulted in positively correlated performance gains of the two hands. Conversely right hand observation yielded negative correlation - individuals with high performance gains in one hand exhibited low gains in the other. Such behavioral asymmetry is reflected by activity in contralateral SPL during short-term training in the absence of overt physical practice and demonstrates the role of observed hand identity in learning. These results shed new light on the coding level in SPL and have implications for optimizing motor skill learning. PMID:27535179

  10. Activity in superior parietal cortex during training by observation predicts asymmetric learning levels across hands.

    PubMed

    Ossmy, Ori; Mukamel, Roy

    2016-01-01

    A dominant concept in motor cognition associates action observation with motor control. Previous studies have shown that passive action observation can result in significant performance gains in humans. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether the neural mechanism subserving such learning codes abstract aspects of the action (e.g. goal) or low level aspects such as effector identity. Eighteen healthy subjects learned to perform sequences of finger movements by passively observing right or left hand performing the same sequences in egocentric view. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we show that during passive observation, activity in the superior parietal lobule (SPL) contralateral to the identity of the observed hand (right\\left), predicts subsequent performance gains in individual subjects. Behaviorally, left hand observation resulted in positively correlated performance gains of the two hands. Conversely right hand observation yielded negative correlation - individuals with high performance gains in one hand exhibited low gains in the other. Such behavioral asymmetry is reflected by activity in contralateral SPL during short-term training in the absence of overt physical practice and demonstrates the role of observed hand identity in learning. These results shed new light on the coding level in SPL and have implications for optimizing motor skill learning. PMID:27535179

  11. How in-situ observations challenge our understanding of cometary activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-07-01

    "Cometary activity" is traditionally summarized as the combination of the sublimation of volatile material and the acceleration of refractories elements leading to a gas and dust coma around the nucleus. In-situ observations have shown that, although correct, this description is not sufficient. Volatiles are scarce on the surface of cometary nuclei, and the activity patterns are far more complex than initially thought. One example of the problems to solve is to understand how gas and dust can arise from the nucleus as collimated streams, often called "jets". ESA's Giotto observed these features for the first time 30 years ago but their formation mechanism remains to be explained. The Rosetta mission is now providing a continuous monitoring of a nucleus activity at high spatial and temporal resolution. We observed various types of activity, from narrow jets on a few meters scale to large structures extending 10s of kilometers from the nucleus. Overall the activity is quite homogeneously distributed, following closely the insolation pattern and repeating itself from one rotation to the other. We find however that some types of surfaces are more prone to create jets than others, reflecting local inhomogeneities in the topography and/or the volatile content. In addition to the typical jets, we also observed many transient events close to perihelion approach: sudden and massive releases of gas and dust for short times (<10min) which cannot be explained with the standard activity models. This presentation will review the different types of activity we have observed, and discuss how the Rosetta data challenges the current models.

  12. Characterization of Activity at Loki from Galileo and Ground-based Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, R. R.; Lopes, R. M.

    2004-01-01

    While Loki is the most active volcanic center on Io, major questions remain concerning the nature of that activity. Rathbun et al. showed that the activity was semi-periodic, and suggested it was due to a resurfacing wave which swept across a lava lake as the crust cooled and become unstable. However in 2001 new observations showed that an intermediate level, less periodic mode of activity had apparently begun. Galileo-NIMS observations of Loki clearly show that the highest temperatures are found near the edge of the patera, consistent with disruption of a lava lake at the margins. NIMS observations also show gradients in temperature across the patera which, when modeled in terms of lava cooling models, are generally consistent with ages expected for the resurfacing wave but may also be consistent with spreading flows. We present a further analysis of NIMS data from I24 and I32 which help define the nature of the temperature variations present in Loki patera, along with Galileo-SSI images from the G1-I32 flybys which show albedo changes apparently correlated with the "periodic" activity measured from ground-based observations.

  13. Insights from an observational assessment of park-based physical activity in Nanchang, China

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Hong; Liao, Xiong; Schuller, Kristyn; Cook, Angelie; Fan, Si; Lan, Guilian; Lu, Yuanan; Yuan, Zhaokang; Moore, Justin B.; Maddock, Jay E.

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, parks have been shown to be an important community asset for physical activity (PA), but little is known about the relationship between park usage and physical activity in China. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between park user characteristics and PA in Nanchang, China. In June 2014, 75,678 people were observed in eight parks over 12 days using SOPARC, a validated systematic observation tool. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between PA and park user characteristics. Most park users were older adults (53.5%) or adults (34.6%). Overall, 55% of park users engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Fewer women were observed in parks than men, but were 66% more likely to be engaged in MVPA than men. Park users were more likely to be observed in MVPA between 6–9 am and when the temperature was below 30 °C. Chinese park users were more active (55%) than US studies in Tampa (30%), Chicago (49%), and Los Angeles (34%). More research is necessary to identify features of parks that are associated with greater PA so that effective interventions can be developed to promote active park use in Chinese citizens. PMID:26844171

  14. Versatile illumination platform and fast optical switch to give standard observation camera gated active imaging capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasser, R.; Peyronneaudi, Benjamin; Yon, Kevin; Aubry, Marie

    2015-10-01

    CILAS, subsidiary of Airbus Defense and Space, develops, manufactures and sales laser-based optronics equipment for defense and homeland security applications. Part of its activity is related to active systems for threat detection, recognition and identification. Active surveillance and active imaging systems are often required to achieve identification capacity in case for long range observation in adverse conditions. In order to ease the deployment of active imaging systems often complex and expensive, CILAS suggests a new concept. It consists on the association of two apparatus working together. On one side, a patented versatile laser platform enables high peak power laser illumination for long range observation. On the other side, a small camera add-on works as a fast optical switch to select photons with specific time of flight only. The association of the versatile illumination platform and the fast optical switch presents itself as an independent body, so called "flash module", giving to virtually any passive observation systems gated active imaging capacity in NIR and SWIR.

  15. Neural Substrates Underlying the Passive Observation and Active Control of Translational Egomotion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ching-fu; Sereno, Martin I.

    2015-01-01

    Moving or static obstacles often get in the way while walking in daily life. Avoiding obstacles involves both perceptual processing of motion information and controlling appropriate defensive movements. Several higher-level motion areas, including the ventral intraparietal area (VIP), medial superior temporal area, parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC), areas V6 and V6A, and cingulate sulcus visual area, have been identified in humans by passive viewing of optic flow patterns that simulate egomotion and object motion. However, the roles of these areas in the active control of egomotion in the real world remain unclear. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map the neural substrates underlying the passive observation and active control of translational egomotion in humans. A wide-field virtual reality environment simulated a daily scenario where doors randomly swing outward while walking in a hallway. The stimuli of door-dodging events were essentially the same in two event-related fMRI experiments, which compared passive and active dodges in response to swinging doors. Passive dodges were controlled by a computer program, while active dodges were controlled by the subject. Passive dodges activated several higher-level areas distributed across three dorsal motion streams in the temporal, parietal, and cingulate cortex. Active dodges most strongly activated the temporal–vestibular stream, with peak activation located in the right PIVC. Other higher-level motion areas including VIP showed weaker to no activation in active dodges. These results suggest that PIVC plays an active role in sensing and guiding translational egomotion that moves an observer aside from impending obstacles. PMID:25762672

  16. Neural substrates underlying the passive observation and active control of translational egomotion.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruey-Song; Chen, Ching-Fu; Sereno, Martin I

    2015-03-11

    Moving or static obstacles often get in the way while walking in daily life. Avoiding obstacles involves both perceptual processing of motion information and controlling appropriate defensive movements. Several higher-level motion areas, including the ventral intraparietal area (VIP), medial superior temporal area, parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC), areas V6 and V6A, and cingulate sulcus visual area, have been identified in humans by passive viewing of optic flow patterns that simulate egomotion and object motion. However, the roles of these areas in the active control of egomotion in the real world remain unclear. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map the neural substrates underlying the passive observation and active control of translational egomotion in humans. A wide-field virtual reality environment simulated a daily scenario where doors randomly swing outward while walking in a hallway. The stimuli of door-dodging events were essentially the same in two event-related fMRI experiments, which compared passive and active dodges in response to swinging doors. Passive dodges were controlled by a computer program, while active dodges were controlled by the subject. Passive dodges activated several higher-level areas distributed across three dorsal motion streams in the temporal, parietal, and cingulate cortex. Active dodges most strongly activated the temporal-vestibular stream, with peak activation located in the right PIVC. Other higher-level motion areas including VIP showed weaker to no activation in active dodges. These results suggest that PIVC plays an active role in sensing and guiding translational egomotion that moves an observer aside from impending obstacles. PMID:25762672

  17. Observed Manipulation Enhances Left Fronto-Parietal Activations in the Processing of Unfamiliar Tools

    PubMed Central

    Rüther, Norma Naima; Tettamanti, Marco; Cappa, Stefano F.; Bellebaum, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tools represent a special class of objects, as functional details of tools can afford certain actions. In addition, information gained via prior experience with tools can be accessed on a semantic level, providing a basis for meaningful object interactions. Conceptual representations of tools also encompass knowledge about tool manipulation which can be acquired via direct (active manipulation) or indirect (observation of others manipulating objects) motor experience. The present study aimed to explore the impact of observation of manipulation on the neural processing of previously unfamiliar, manipulable objects. Brain activity was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants accomplished a visual matching task involving pictures of the novel objects before and after they received object-related training. Three training session in which subjects observed an experimenter manipulating one set of objects and visually explored another set of objects were used to make subjects familiar with the tools and to allow the formation of new tool representations. A control object set was not part of the training. Training-related brain activation increases were found for observed manipulation objects compared to not trained objects in a left-hemispheric network consisting of inferior frontal gyrus (iFG) pars opercularis and triangularis and supramarginal/angular gyrus. This illustrates that direct manipulation experience is not required to elicit tool-associated activation changes in the action system. While the iFG activation might indicate a close relationship between the areas involved in tool representation and those involved in observational knowledge acquisition, the parietal activation is discussed in terms of non-semantic effects of object affordances and hand-tool spatial relationships. PMID:24911053

  18. Beyond Classroom Discourse: Learning as Participation in Native Speaker-Learner and Learner-Learner Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshi, Saori

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with the notion of learning as changing participation (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Rogoff, 1998; Sfard, 1998; Young & Miller, 2004), the present qualitative study investigated how social interaction between learners of Japanese as a foreign language and native speaker classroom guests contributed to the students' use of second language…

  19. Plurilingual Learners' Beliefs and Practices toward Native and Nonnative Language Mediation during Learner-Learner Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payant, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing number of plurilingual learners in the world today (Hammarberg, 2010), the present multiple case study examines four plurilingual participants' beliefs toward first language (L1) and second language (L2) mediation in the acquisition of French as a third language (L3). During a 16-week classroom-based study in a French university…

  20. CAN A LONG NANOFLARE STORM EXPLAIN THE OBSERVED EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ACTIVE REGION CORES?

    SciTech Connect

    Mulu-Moore, Fana M.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Warren, Harry P.

    2011-11-20

    All theories that attempt to explain the heating of the high-temperature plasma observed in the solar corona are based on short bursts of energy. The intensities and velocities measured in the cores of quiescent active regions, however, can be steady over many hours of observation. One heating scenario that has been proposed to reconcile such observations with impulsive heating models is the 'long nanoflare storm', where short-duration heating events occur infrequently on many sub-resolution strands; the emission of the strands is then averaged together to explain the observed steady structures. In this Letter, we examine the emission measure distribution predicted for such a long nanoflare storm by modeling an arcade of strands in an active region core. Comparisons of the computed emission measure distributions with recent observations indicate that the long nanoflare storm scenario implies greater than five times more 1 MK emission than is actually observed for all plausible combinations of loop lengths, heating rates, and abundances. We conjecture that if the plasma had 'super coronal' abundances, the model may be able to match the observations at low temperatures.

  1. Elemental abundances and temperatures of quiescent solar active region cores from X-ray observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Zanna, G.; Mason, H. E.

    2014-05-01

    A brief review of studies of elemental abundances and emission measures in quiescent solar active region cores is presented. Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) observations of strong iron spectral lines have shown sharply peaked distributions around 3 MK. EIS observations of lines emitted by a range of elements have allowed good estimates of abundances relative to iron. However, X-ray observations are required to measure the plasma emission above 3 MK and the abundances of oxygen and neon. We revisit, using up-to-date atomic data, older X-ray observations obtained by a sounding rocket and by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Flat Crystal Spectrometer (FCS). We find that the Fe/O and Fe/Ne ratios are normally increased by a factor of 3.2, compared to the photospheric values. Similar results are obtained from FCS observations of six quiescent active region cores. The FCS observations also indicate that the emission measure above 3 MK has a very steep negative slope, with very little plasma observed at 5 MK or above. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. Observational Evidence of Aerosol Enhancement of Lightning Activity and Convective Invigoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Tianle; Remer, Lorraine A.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Yu, Hongbin

    2011-01-01

    Lightning activity over the West Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines is usually much less frequent than over the nearby maritime continents. However, in 2005 the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) aboard the TRMM satellite observed anomalously high lightning activity in that area. In the same year the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measured anomalously high aerosol loading. The high aerosol loading was traced to volcanic activity, and not to any factor linked to meteorology, disentangling the usual convolution between aerosols and meteorology. We show that in general lightning activity is tightly correlated with aerosol loadings at both inter-annual and biweekly time scales. We estimate that a approximately 60% increase in aerosol loading leads to more than 150% increase in lightning flashes. Aerosols increase lightning activity through modification of cloud microphysics. Cloud ice particle sizes are reduced and cloud glaciation is delayed to colder temperature when aerosol loading is increased. TRMM precipitation radar measurements indicate that anomalously high aerosol loading is associated with enhanced cloud mixed phase activity and invigorated convection over the maritime ocean. These observed associations between aerosols, cloud microphysics, morphology and lightning activity are not related to meteorological variables or ENSO events. The results have important implications for understanding the variability of lightning and resulting aerosol-chemistry interactions.

  3. Assimilation of active and passive microwave observations for improved estimates of soil moisture and crop growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Ensemble Kalman Filter-based data assimilation framework that links a crop growth model with active and passive (AP) microwave models was developed to improve estimates of soil moisture (SM) and vegetation biomass over a growing season of soybean. Complementarities in AP observations were incorpo...

  4. PeV Neutrinos Observed by IceCube from Cores of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2013-01-01

    I show that the high energy neutrino flux predicted to arise from active galactic nuclei cores can explain the PeV neutrinos detected by IceCube without conflicting with the constraints from the observed extragalactic cosmic-ray and gamma-ray backgrounds.

  5. Magnetoseismology of Active Regions using Multi-wavelength Observations from GONG and SDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Sushanta; Jain, Kiran; Kholikov, Shukur; Hill, Frank; Cally, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The structure and dynamics of active regions beneath the surface show significant uncertainties due to our limited understanding of the wave interaction with magnetic field. Recent numerical simulations further demonstrate that the atmosphere above the photospheric levels also modifies the seismic observables at the surface. Thus the key to improve helioseismic interpretation beneath the active regions requires a synergy between models and helioseismic inferences from observations. In this context, using data from Global Oscillation Network Group and from Helioseismic Magnetic Imager and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory, we characterize the spatio-temporal power distribution in and around active regions. Specifically, we focus on the power enhancements seen around active regions as a function of wave frequencies, strength, inclination of magnetic field and observation height as well as the relative phases of the observables and their cross-coherence functions. It is expected that these effects will help us to comprehend the interaction of acoustic waves with magnetic field in the solar photosphere.

  6. Operational Control Procedures for the Activated Sludge Process, Part I - Observations, Part II - Control Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Alfred W.

    This is the first in a series of documents developed by the National Training and Operational Technology Center describing operational control procedures for the activated sludge process used in wastewater treatment. Part I of this document deals with physical observations which should be performed during each routine control test. Part II…

  7. Potentials of Physical Activity Promotion in Preschools--An Overview of Results of an Ethnographic Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pape, Natalie; Sterdt, Elena; Azouagh, Karima; Kramer, Silke; Walter, Ulla; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses exemplary differences between preschools with systematic physical activity (PA) programmes and preschools without PA programmes in Germany. Two preschools from each group were visited in the context of a focused ethnographic observation to examine the educational practice, PA and social behaviour of preschool children. The…

  8. Observations of an oil spill bioremediation activity in Galveston Bay, Texas. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Mearns, A.J.

    1991-06-01

    Bioremediation is a technology that attempts to accelerate microbial degradation of oil or other substances. This involves the application of nutrients or microbial products to contaminated environments. The goal is to enhance the natural process of chemical degradation. The report summarizes observations on the application and monitoring of a bioremediation activity in oiled marshes of Galveston Bay, Texas in August 1990.

  9. Reputation in an economic game modulates premotor cortex activity during action observation.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Harry; Apps, Matthew; Tsakiris, Manos

    2016-09-01

    Our interactions with other people - and our processing of their actions - are shaped by their reputation. Research has identified an Action Observation Network (AON) which is engaged when observing other people's actions. Yet, little is known about how the processing of others' actions is influenced by another's reputation. Is the response of the AON modulated by the reputation of the actor? We developed a variant of the ultimatum game in which participants watched either the visible or occluded actions of two 'proposers'. These actions were tied to decisions of how to split a pot of money although the proposers' decisions on each trial were not known to participants when observing the actions. One proposer made fair offers on the majority of trials, establishing a positive reputation, whereas the other made predominantly, unfair offers resulting in a negative reputation. We found significant activations in two regions of the left dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC). The first of these showed a main effect of reputation with greater activation for the negative reputation proposer than the positive reputation proposer. Furthermore individual differences in trust ratings of the two proposers covaried with activation in the right primary motor cortex (M1). The second showed an interaction between visibility and reputation driven by a greater effect of reputation when participants were observing an occluded action. Our findings show that the processing of others' actions in the AON is modulated by an actor's reputation, and suggest a predictive role for the PMC during action observation. PMID:27364606

  10. Summary of solar activity observed at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory: 1980-1983. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Rock, K.; Fisher, R.; Garcia, C.; Yasukawa, E.

    1983-11-01

    The following technical note summarizes solar activity observed during the first four years operation of the experiment systems of the Coronal Dynamics Project, which are located at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory. This short report has been produced with the general aim of providing users of Mauna Loa observations with a summary of data for specific events. So that this table might be as useful as possible, a comprehensive review of three sources was performed. The plain language logs, identified as the so-called observer's logs, the now-discontinued activity logs, and the prominence monitor quality control logs were the sources from which the information in the following tables was obtained. It is expected that this review will be of particular use to those investigators who intend to use both the K-coronameter data base and the SMM Coronagraph-Polarimeter data for the study of coronal transient events.

  11. Preseismic Velocity Changes Observed from Active Source Monitoringat the Parkfield SAFOD Drill Site

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, Thomas; Niu, Fenglin; Silver, Paul G.; Daley, Thomas M.; Cheng, Xin; Majer, Ernest L.

    2008-06-10

    Measuring stress changes within seismically active fault zones has been a long-sought goal of seismology. Here we show that such stress changes are measurable by exploiting the stress dependence of seismic wave speed from an active source cross-well experiment conducted at the SAFOD drill site. Over a two-month period we observed an excellent anti-correlation between changes in the time required for an S wave to travel through the rock along a fixed pathway--a few microseconds--and variations in barometric pressure. We also observed two large excursions in the traveltime data that are coincident with two earthquakes that are among those predicted to produce the largest coseismic stress changes at SAFOD. Interestingly, the two excursions started approximately 10 and 2 hours before the events, respectively, suggesting that they may be related to pre-rupture stress induced changes in crack properties, as observed in early laboratory studies.

  12. The Art of Observation: A Pedagogical Framework.

    PubMed

    Wellbery, Caroline; McAteer, Rebecca A

    2015-12-01

    Observational skills, honed through experience with the literary and visual arts, bring together in a timely manner many of the goals of the medical humanities, providing thematic cohesion through the act of seeing while aiming to advance clinical skills through a unified practice. In an arts observation pedagogy, nature writing serves as an apt model for precise, clinically relevant linguistic noticing because meticulous attention to the natural world involves scientific precision; additionally, a number of visual metaphors employed in medicine are derived from close observation of the natural world. Close reading reinforces observational skills as part of integrative, multidisciplinary clinical practice. Literary precision provides an educational bridge to recognizing the importance of detail in the clinical realm. In weighing multiple perspectives, observation applied to practice helps learners understand the nuances of the role of witness, activating reflection consonant with the viewer's professional identity. The realization that seeing is highly filtered through the observer's values allows the act of observation to come under scrutiny, opening the observer's gaze to disturbance and challenging the values and precepts of the prevailing medical culture. Application of observational skills can, for example, help observers recognize and address noxious effects of the built environment. As learners describe what they see, they also develop the communication skills needed to articulate both problems and possible improvements within their expanding sphere of influence. The ability to craft this speech as public narrative can lead to interventions with positive impacts on physicians, their colleagues, and patients. PMID:26164640

  13. Long Term Preservation of Earth Observation Data in Europe - Challenge and Cooperation Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molch, K.; Albani, M.

    2014-12-01

    Earth observation data are unique snapshots of the Earth and the atmosphere. As such they constitute a humankind asset in their importance for monitoring changes in global environmental conditions. With spaceborne Earth observation (EO) missions dating back to the 1970s, 40 years worth of observations are now available in EO data archives worldwide. Data holdings are growing exponentially, e.g. with the Sentinel series of high resolution EO satellites of the European Copernicus Program - which introduces a new dimension of data volumes to be handled. As other EO data holders around the globe, the European Space Agency (ESA) and its member states are committed to keeping the valuable EO data assets safe, accessible, and useable for an unlimited timespan. Rapidly evolving information technology and changing user requirements call for a dedicated and coordinated approach to EO data long term preservation. In Europe collaborative EO data stewardship activities are coordinated by ESA within the ESA long term data preservation (LTDP) program. With a view to the entire data set life cycle of historic and current missions an active LTDP working group addresses a wide range of relevant technical and organizational topics. Studies investigate archiving and access technologies, user expectations, or applicable standards; guidelines and best practices recommend preservation workflows, steps to take in curating individual data sets, the composition of the preserved data set, or concepts for introducing persistent identifiers. Fostering an active international exchange, the activities and documents developed within this European LTDP framework extend beyond Europe by being introduced to the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). The paper describes the European LTDP cooperation framework, discusses individual focus areas and current activities, and highlights the interaction with global data stewardship initiatives.

  14. Study of Seismic Activity Using Geophysical and Radio Physical Equipment for Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvavadze, N.; Tsereteli, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most dangerous and destructive natural hazards are earthquakes, which is confirmed by recent earthquakes such as Nepal 2015, Japan and Turkey 2011. Because of this, study of seismic activity is important. Studying any process, it is necessary to use different methods of observation, which allows us to increase accuracy of obtained data. Seismic activity is a complex problem and its study needs different types of observation methods. Two main problems of seismic activity study are: reliable instrumental observations and earthquake short-term predictions. In case of seismic risks it is necessary to have reliable accelerometer data. One of the most promising field in earthquake short-term prediction is very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic wave propagation in ionosphere observation. To study Seismic activity of Caucasus region, was created observation complex using Accelerometer, Velocimeter and VLF electromagnetic waves received from communication stations (located in different area of the world) reflected from low ionosphere. System is created and operates at Tbilisi State University Ionosphere Observatory, near Tbilisi in Tabakhmela 42.41'70 N, 44.80'92 E, Georgia. Data obtained is sent to a local server located at M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics, TSU, for storage and processing. Diagram for complex is presented. Also data analysis methods were created and preliminary processing was done. In this paper we present some of the results: Earthquake data from ionosphere observations as well as local earthquakes recorded with accelerometer and velocimeter. Complex is first in 6 that will be placed around Georgia this year. We plan on widening network every year.

  15. Kanji Learning Attitudes and Self-Directed Learning by Learners of Japanese as a Foreign Language: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamage, Gayathri Haththotuwa

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal qualitative study investigates how cultural experiences of staying in Japan may affect attitudes and self-directed learning of kanji among learners of Japanese as a foreign language. Six beginner learners pursued semester-long weekly kanji learning sessions and their diachronic behaviours were observed and recorded for attitudes…

  16. Observation campaign for recent active comets at the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.; Choi, Y.; Lim, Y.; Moon, H.; Sohn, M.; Kim, K.

    2014-07-01

    We present the preliminary results of photometric and spectroscopic observations of recent active comets, such as C/2012 S1 (ISON), C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy), C/2012 X1 (LINEAR), C/2012 K1 (PANSTARRS), C/2013 V1 (Boattini), and 290P/Jager using KASI facilities. Multi-band observations from optical to millimeter wavelengths can offer a unique opportunity in cometary science. Observations of several recent active comets were conducted during 22 nights from October 2013 to March 2014. We used CCD cameras with narrow-band filter sets of C2 (513 nm) and C3 (406 nm) at the Lemmonsan Optical Astronomical Observatory (LOAO) 1.0-m telescope in Arizona, USA, and near-IR photometric observations at J, H, and K bands (1.252, 1.633, and 2.143 μ m, respectively) using the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO) 1.8-m telescope on Mt. Bohyun, Korea. We also carried out spectroscopic observations using (Korea VLBI Network) the KVN Single Dish 21-m telescope at the Yonsei site at the frequencies of 86 and 129 GHz. With the KASINICS (KASI Near-Infrared Camera System) and the narrow-band filter observations at BOAO and LOAO, respectively, it is possible to estimate the change in the characteristics of the cometary comae as a function of the heliocentric distance. Also, the gas production rate will be discussed for C_2, C_3, HCN, HNC, and H_2CO.

  17. Optimal strategies for observation of active galactic nuclei variability with Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giomi, Matteo; Gerard, Lucie; Maier, Gernot

    2016-07-01

    Variable emission is one of the defining characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGN). While providing precious information on the nature and physics of the sources, variability is often challenging to observe with time- and field-of-view-limited astronomical observatories such as Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). In this work, we address two questions relevant for the observation of sources characterized by AGN-like variability: what is the most time-efficient way to detect such sources, and what is the observational bias that can be introduced by the choice of the observing strategy when conducting blind surveys of the sky. Different observing strategies are evaluated using simulated light curves and realistic instrument response functions of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a future gamma-ray observatory. We show that strategies that makes use of very small observing windows, spread over large periods of time, allows for a faster detection of the source, and are less influenced by the variability properties of the sources, as compared to strategies that concentrate the observing time in a small number of large observing windows. Although derived using CTA as an example, our conclusions are conceptually valid for any IACTs facility, and in general, to all observatories with small field of view and limited duty cycle.

  18. Sensitivity of Active and Passive Microwave Observations to Soil Moisture during Growing Corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, J.; Monsivais-Huertero, A.; Liu, P.; De Roo, R. D.; England, A. W.; Nagarajan, K.

    2011-12-01

    Soil moisture (SM) in the root zone is a key factor governing water and energy fluxes at the land surface and its accurate knowledge is critical to predictions of weather and near-term climate, nutrient cycles, crop-yield, and ecosystem productivity. Microwave observations, such as those at L-band, are highly sensitive to soil moisture in the upper few centimeters (near-surface). The two satellite-based missions dedicated to soil moisture estimation include, the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and the planned NASA Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) [4] mission. The SMAP mission will include active and passive sensors at L-band to provide global observations of SM, with a repeat coverage of every 2-3 days. These observations can significantly improve root zone soil moisture estimates through data assimilation into land surface models (LSMs). Both the active (radar) and passive (radiometer) microwave sensors measure radiation quantities that are functions of soil dielectric constant and exhibit similar sensitivities to SM. In addition to the SM sensitivity, radar backscatter is highly sensitive to roughness of soil surface and scattering within the vegetation. These effects may produce a much larger dynamic range in backscatter than that produced due to SM changes alone. In this study, we discuss the field observations of active and passive signatures of growing corn at L-band from several seasons during the tenth Microwave, Water and Energy Balance Experiment (MicroWEX-10) conducted in North Central Florida, and to understand the sensitivity of these signatures to soil moisture under dynamic vegetation conditions. The MicroWEXs are a series of season-long field experiments conducted during the growing seasons of sweet corn, cotton, and energy cane over the past six years (for example, [22]). The corn was planted on July 5 and harvested on September 23, 2011 during MicroWEX-10. The size of the field was 0.04 km2 and the soils

  19. The Role of Private Speech in Cognitive Regulation of Learners: The Case of English as a Foreign Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarab, Mohamad Reza Anani; Gordani, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Investigations into the use of private speech by adult English foreign language (EFL) learners in regulating their mental activities have been an interesting area of research with a sociocultural framework. Following this line of research, 30 advanced adult EFL learners were selected via the administration of Oxford quick placement test and took a…

  20. More Evidence Concerning the Aspect Hypothesis: The Acquisition of English Progressive Aspect by Catalan-Spanish Instructed Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Carmen; Gilabert, Roger

    2011-01-01

    A robust finding from studies investigating the Aspect Hypothesis is that learners at the early stages of acquisition show a strong preference for using the progressive aspect as associated with activity verbs. As they advance in their acquisition of the second or foreign language, learners move from this prototypical association to associations…

  1. The Wonder of Reading: The Effect of Generative Study Strategies on EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension and Recall of Short Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazanfari, Mohammad; Sarani, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    EFL learners often tend to shift the major load of language learning task to the reading skill, due to insufficient access to the spoken mode of language. Experiences of practitioners as well as various research reports in the literature indicate that the more actively learners get engaged with the reading materials, the more profound their…

  2. Learning at a Distance through Mobile Devices: A Global Choice of Learners in the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethy, Satya

    2011-01-01

    In the techno-driven world, mobile learning is an indispensable element of teaching-learning activities. It helps distance learners in many ways by providing their required facilities. The paper discusses about these facilities in an eclectic and summary manner. Thus, by implication, it is popularized among distance learners across the globe.…

  3. Learner Centered Introductory Astronomy Community College Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, C. J.; Grill, M. R.; Genet, C. L.; Genet, R. M.

    2002-05-01

    In the fall of 2001, learner centered education principles were applied to an introductory astronomy course at the Superstition Mountain Campus of Central Arizona College (CAC). The course was cooperatively designed and managed by the students themselves (especially Sprague and Grill), an assistant course facilitator (C. Genet), and the course instructor and developer (R. Genet). Although some time was devoted to lectures accompanied by photographic slides and open to the public, the bulk of the time was devoted to student projects. Students built telescopes, including solar, zenith, and Galileo, took measurements, made calculations, mapped stars, and determined the circumference of the earth via zenith observations at Apache Junction and at Mt. Hopkins, 120 miles away. A three-day field trip to Lowell Observatory included a tour, observations through the famous 24-inch Clark refractor, and a conference on `Undergraduate Astronomical Research' which included talks on stellar photometry by G. W. Lockwood and R. M. Genet. A second three-day field trip included a tour and observations at Kitt Peak National Observatory (0.4 m telescope), a tour of the observatories on Mt. Hopkins, and a conference on `Learner-Centered Astronomy Education.' The community college students were joined by doctoral students and alumni from the Union Institute and University, as well as by Campua Dean James Stuckey from CAC and his wife Beverly Santos of Northern Arizona University. By allowing students the freedom to explore and expand their knowledge at a rate appropriate to each individual, the students attained levels of confidence not found in traditional teaching styles. We are pleased to acknowledge Dean Stuckey who made this class possible. We also wish to thank Wesley Lockwood and Robert Bargoon at Lowell Observatory, Robert Wilson at Kitt Peak National Observatory, and Daniel Brocious at the Smithsonian's Whipple Observatory for their invaluable assistance during our field trips.

  4. Observations of Small-scale IRIS Bombs (Reconnection Events) in an Evolving Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, C. A.; Tian, H.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) observations of small-scale bombs evolving with their host active region. Bombs appear most clearly in the IRIS 1330 Å and 1400 Å slit-jaw images as small (~1 arcsec), compact, intense brightenings at transition region temperatures. Their NUV/FUV emission spectra exhibit dramatic line splitting and strong absorption features indicative of bidirectional flows from magnetic reconnection embedded deep within the cool lower solar atmosphere. The bombs may contribute significantly to the heating of the solar atmosphere in active regions; however, it's unclear how prevalent the bombs are throughout the lifetime of an active region. Using a semi-automated detection method, we locate bombs within AR 11850 over the course of four observations from 06:00 UT on September 25, 2013 until 11:30 UT the next day. The active region is first observed in an emerging phase and rapidly grows into a mature active region with well-developed sunspots. The bomb occurrence rate drops dramatically as the active region fully emerges. We also find that the bombs fall into two distinct populations: one appears largely during active region emergence and contains a majority of the bombs, while the other population is present regardless of active region age. The first population of bombs is typically found embedded in the low-lying loops prominent in the young active region. Furthermore, we use Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (SDO/HMI) line-of-sight magnetograms to show that the bombs associated with the first population occur at the boundaries between the upward and downward flux of small, isolated bipolar regions. These regions dissipate as the active region emerges and reconfigures its magnetic field into two large network patches of upward and downward flux with a clear inversion line. The second, smaller population of bombs usually occurs far from the active region loop structures in the plage and

  5. Improving global fire carbon emissions estimates by combining moderate resolution burned area and active fire observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; Giglio, L.; Rogers, B. M.; van der Werf, G.

    2011-12-01

    In several important biomes, including croplands and tropical forests, many small fires exist that have sizes that are well below the detection limit for the current generation of burned area products derived from moderate resolution spectroradiometers. These fires likely have important effects on greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and regional air quality. Here we developed an approach for combining 1km thermal anomalies (active fires; MOD14A2) and 500m burned area observations (MCD64A1) to estimate the prevalence of these fires and their likely contribution to burned area and carbon emissions. We first estimated active fires within and outside of 500m burn scars in 0.5 degree grid cells during 2001-2010 for which MCD64A1 burned area observations were available. For these two sets of active fires we then examined mean fire radiative power (FRP) and changes in enhanced vegetation index (EVI) derived from 16-day intervals immediately before and after each active fire observation. To estimate the burned area associated with sub-500m fires, we first applied burned area to active fire ratios derived solely from within burned area perimeters to active fires outside of burn perimeters. In a second step, we further modified our sub-500m burned area estimates using EVI changes from active fires outside and within of burned areas (after subtracting EVI changes derived from control regions). We found that in northern and southern Africa savanna regions and in Central and South America dry forest regions, the number of active fires outside of MCD64A1 burned areas increased considerably towards the end of the fire season. EVI changes for active fires outside of burn perimeters were, on average, considerably smaller than EVI changes associated with active fires inside burn scars, providing evidence for burn scars that were substantially smaller than the 25 ha area of a single 500m pixel. FRP estimates also were lower for active fires outside of burn perimeters. In our

  6. Are Deaf Students Visual Learners?

    PubMed

    Marschark, Marc; Morrison, Carolyn; Lukomski, Jennifer; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol

    2013-06-01

    It is frequently assumed that by virtue of their hearing losses, deaf students are visual learners. Deaf individuals have some visual-spatial advantages relative to hearing individuals, but most have been are linked to use of sign language rather than auditory deprivation. How such cognitive differences might affect academic performance has been investigated only rarely. This study examined relations among deaf college students' language and visual-spatial abilities, mathematics problem solving, and hearing thresholds. Results extended some previous findings and clarified others. Contrary to what might be expected, hearing students exhibited visual-spatial skills equal to or better than deaf students. Scores on a Spatial Relations task were associated with better mathematics problem solving. Relations among the several variables, however, suggested that deaf students are no more likely to be visual learners than hearing students and that their visual-spatial skill may be related more to their hearing than to sign language skills. PMID:23750095

  7. New developments in the coordination of Earth observation from space activities: The role of the Committee on Earth Observations Satellites (CEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B.; Moodie, L.; Shaffer, L.; Williams, D.; Revah, I.

    1992-01-01

    The Committee on Earth Observations Satellites (CEOS) is outlined and the dynamics of the expanded CEOS with its increased focus on activities related to global climate change are examined. The participation of affiliate organizations at the Dec. 1991 Plenary is highlighted. The roles and current activities of constituted CEOS Working Groups on Data and on Sensor Calibration and Performance Validation are examined. The status of CEOS deliberations in Earth observation data policy is examined. The expanded CEOS is believed to be well suited to carry forward and help further the legacy already well established in the myriad of Earth observation activities associated with the 1992 International Space Year.

  8. Sensing Planet Earth - Chalmers' MOOCs on Earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobiger, Thomas; Stöhr, Christian; Murtagh, Donal; Forkman, Peter; Galle, Bo; Mellquist, Johan; Soja, Maciej; Berg, Anders; Carvajal, Gisela; Eriksson, Leif; Haas, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of universities around the globe produce and conduct Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). In the beginning of 2016, Chalmers University of Technology ran two MOOCs on the topic of Earth observations on the edX platform. Both four week long courses were at introductory level and covered topics related to solid Earth, atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and cryosphere. It was discussed how one can measure and trace global change and use remote sensing tools for disaster monitoring. Research has attempted to assess the learners' motivations to participate in MOOCs, but there is a need for further case studies about motivations, opportunities and challenges for teachers engaging in MOOC development. In our presentation, we are going to report about the experiences gained from both the MOOC production and the actual course run from the instructors' perspective. After brief introduction to MOOCs in general and at Chalmers in particular, we share experiences and challenges of developing lecture and assessment material, the video production and coordination efforts between and within different actors involved in the production process. Further, we reflect upon the actual run of the course including course statistics and feedback from the learners. We discuss issues such as learner activation and engagement with the material, teacher-learner and student-student interaction as well as the scalability of different learning activities. Finally, we will present our lessons-learned and conclusions on the applicability of MOOCs in the field of Earth science teaching.

  9. Retrieval of Precipitation Profiles from Multiresolution, Multifrequency Active and Passive Microwave Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecu, Mircea; Olson, William S.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.

    2004-04-01

    In this study, a technique for estimating vertical profiles of precipitation from multifrequency, multiresolution active and passive microwave observations is investigated. The technique is applicable to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations, and it is based on models that simulate high-resolution brightness temperatures as functions of observed reflectivity profiles and a parameter related to the raindrop size distribution. The modeled high-resolution brightness temperatures are used to determine normalized brightness temperature polarizations at the microwave radiometer resolution. An optimal estimation procedure is employed to minimize the differences between the simulated and observed normalized polarizations by adjusting the drop size distribution parameter. The impact of other unknowns that are not independent variables in the optimal estimation, but affect the retrievals, is minimized through statistical parameterizations derived from cloud model simulations. The retrieval technique is investigated using TRMM observations collected during the Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX). These observations cover an area extending from 5° to 12°N latitude and from 166° to 172°E longitude from July to September 1999 and are coincident with various ground-based observations, facilitating a detailed analysis of the retrieved precipitation. Using the method developed in this study, precipitation estimates consistent with both the passive and active TRMM observations are obtained. Various parameters characterizing these estimates, that is, the rain rate, precipitation water content, drop size distribution intercept, and the mass- weighted mean drop diameter, are in good qualitative agreement with independent experimental and theoretical estimates. Combined rain estimates are, in general, higher than the official TRMM precipitation radar (PR)-only estimates for the area and the period considered in the study. Ground-based precipitation estimates, derived

  10. Top 10 research questions related to assessing physical activity and its contexts using systematic observation.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Thomas L; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-03-01

    Numerous methods are available to assess physical activity (PA) but systematic observation (SO) excels in being able to provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. As SO is particularly useful for determining how activity is influenced by the immediate physical and social environments, its use is becoming more popular. Observation tools have the advantages of flexibility, high internal validity, low inference, and low participant burden, while their disadvantages include the need for careful observer training and recalibration, inaccessibility to certain environments, and potential participant reactivity. There is a need for both scientists and practitioners to have additional information on observation techniques and systems relative to making environmental and policy decisions about PA, and in this article, we describe concepts and identify questions related to using SO in researching PA behavior. We present 10 general questions in 3 sections, including those related to: (a) ensuring data accuracy through the selection of the most appropriate methodological protocols; (b) investigating PA in school settings, including physical education, recess, and other programs; and (c) investigating PA in community settings (e.g., parks, recreation centers, youth and adult sport programs) and homes. PMID:25664670

  11. Performance monitoring and empathy during active and observational learning in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Patrizia; Norra, Christine; Juckel, Georg; Suchan, Boris; Bellebaum, Christian

    2015-07-01

    Previous literature established a link between major depressive disorder (MDD) and altered reward processing as well as between empathy and (observational) reward learning. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of MDD on the electrophysiological correlates - the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300 - of active and observational reward processing and to relate them to trait cognitive and affective empathy. Eighteen patients with MDD and 16 healthy controls performed an active and an observational probabilistic reward-learning task while event- related potentials were recorded. Also, participants were assessed with regard to self-reported cognitive and affective trait empathy. Relative to healthy controls, patients with MDD showed overall impaired learning and attenuated FRN amplitudes, irrespective of feedback valence and learning type (active vs. observational), but comparable P300 amplitudes. In the patient group, but not in controls, higher trait perspective taking scores were significantly correlated with reduced FRN amplitudes. The pattern of results suggests impaired prediction error processing and a negative effect of higher trait empathy on feedback-based learning in patients with MDD. PMID:26057196

  12. Symphony: A case study for exploring and describing design methods and guidelines for learner-centered design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, Christopher

    Learner-centered design is an evolving software design perspective addressing the needs of learners---a specific audience trying to work in and understand new work practices in which they have a novice or naive understanding. Learner-centered design involves designing software that incorporates work support features (or scaffolding features) informed by social constructivist learning theories. By adopting a constructivist "learning by doing" perspective, scaffolds should support learners so they can mindfully engage in previously inaccessible work activity, which in turn allows those learners to progressively gain a better understanding of the new work. While there is an intuitive notion of "learner-centered design", there is less specific design information for developing learner-centered software. As a result, learner-centered software results from "educated guesses" and ad-hoc design approaches rather than from systematic design methods. Thus there is a need for specific design guidance to facilitate the development of learner-centered tools that help learners see the tasks, terminology, tools, etc. in the new work context and engage in that work. The research in this dissertation provides a more specific base of learner-centered design descriptions, methods, and guidelines to analyze work practices and design and evaluate scaffolds. The research approach involves using the development of Symphony---a scaffolded integrated tool environment for high-school students learning the work of computational science inquiry---as a case study to develop the learner-centered design approach. Symphony incorporates a variety of science tools with process scaffolding to support students in performing complex air pollution investigations. Six ninth-grade students used Symphony to investigate air quality questions for several weeks in an environmental science class. The student testing helped assess the effectiveness of the software scaffolding and in turn, the learner

  13. Modeling the effects of multicontextual physics instruction on learner expectations and understanding of force and motion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deese Becht, Sara-Maria Francis

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold involving both practical and theoretical modeling components. The practical component, an experiential-learning phase, investigated a study population for effects that increasing levels of multicontextual physics activities have on student understanding of Newtonian systems of motion. This contextual-learning model measured learner convictions and non-response gaps and analyzed learner response trends on context, technology, challenge, growth, and success. The theoretical component, a model-building phase, designed a dynamic-knowing model for learning along a range of experiential tasks, from low to high context, monitored for indicators of learning in science and mathematics: learner academic performance and ability, learner control and academic attitude, and a learner non- response gap. This knowing model characterized a learner's process-of-knowing on a less to more expert- like learner-response continuum using performance and perspective indices associated with level of contextual- imagery referent system. Data for the contextual-learning model were collected on 180 secondary subjects: 72 middle and 108 high, with 36 physics subjects as local experts. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups differing only on context level of force and motion activities. Three levels of information were presented through context-based tasks: momentum constancy as inertia, momentum change as impulse, and momentum rate of change as force. The statistical analysis used a multi-level factorial design with repeated measures and discriminate analysis of response-conviction items. Subject grouping criteria included school level, ability level in science and mathematics, gender and race. Assessment criteria used pre/post performance scores, confidence level in physics concepts held, and attitude towards science, mathematics, and technology. Learner indices were computed from logit- transforms applied to learner outcomes

  14. Time-resolved observation of thermally activated rupture of a capillary-condensed water nanobridge

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, Wan; Sung, Baekman; Kim, Jongwoo; Kwon, Soyoung; Kim, Bongsu; Jhe, Wonho

    2015-01-05

    The capillary-condensed liquid bridge is one of the most ubiquitous forms of liquid in nature and contributes significantly to adhesion and friction of biological molecules as well as microscopic objects. Despite its important role in nanoscience and technology, the rupture process of the bridge is not well understood and needs more experimental works. Here, we report real-time observation of rupture of a capillary-condensed water nanobridge in ambient condition. During slow and stepwise stretch of the nanobridge, we measured the activation time for rupture, or the latency time required for the bridge breakup. By statistical analysis of the time-resolved distribution of activation time, we show that rupture is a thermally activated stochastic process and follows the Poisson statistics. In particular, from the Arrhenius law that the rupture rate satisfies, we estimate the position-dependent activation energies for the capillary-bridge rupture.

  15. Observation of acoustic-gravity waves in the upper atmosphere during severe storm activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    A nine-element continuum wave spectrum, high-frequency, Doppler sounder array has been used to detect upper atmospheric wave-like disturbances during periods with severe weather activity, particularly severe thunderstorms and tornadoes. Five events of severe weather activity, including extreme tornado outbreak of April 3, 1974, were chosen for the present study. The analysis of Doppler records shows that both infrasonic waves and gravity waves were excited when severe storms appeared in the north Alabama area. Primarily, in the case of tornado activity, S-shaped Doppler fluctuations or Doppler fold-backs are observed, while quasi-sinusoidal fluctuations are more common in the case of thunderstorm activity. A criterion for the production of Doppler fold-backs is derived and compared with possible tornado conditions.

  16. Towards Observational Astronomy of Jets in Active Galaxies from General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anantua, Richard; Roger Blandford, Jonathan McKinney and Alexander Tchekhovskoy

    2016-01-01

    We carry out the process of "observing" simulations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) with relativistic jets (hereafter called jet/accretion disk/black hole (JAB) systems) from ray tracing between image plane and source to convolving the resulting images with a point spread function. Images are generated at arbitrary observer angle relative to the black hole spin axis by implementing spatial and temporal interpolation of conserved magnetohydrodynamic flow quantities from a time series of output datablocks from fully general relativistic 3D simulations. We also describe the evolution of simulations of JAB systems' dynamical and kinematic variables, e.g., velocity shear and momentum density, respectively, and the variation of these variables with respect to observer polar and azimuthal angles. We produce, at frequencies from radio to optical, fixed observer time intensity and polarization maps using various plasma physics motivated prescriptions for the emissivity function of physical quantities from the simulation output, and analyze the corresponding light curves. Our hypothesis is that this approach reproduces observed features of JAB systems such as superluminal bulk flow projections and quasi-periodic oscillations in the light curves more closely than extant stylized analytical models, e.g., cannonball bulk flows. Moreover, our development of user-friendly, versatile C++ routines for processing images of state-of-the-art simulations of JAB systems may afford greater flexibility for observing a wide range of sources from high power BL-Lacs to low power quasars (possibly with the same simulation) without requiring years of observation using multiple telescopes. Advantages of observing simulations instead of observing astrophysical sources directly include: the absence of a diffraction limit, panoramic views of the same object and the ability to freely track features. Light travel time effects become significant for high Lorentz factor and small angles between

  17. Analysis of nearly simultaneous X-ray and optical observations of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, James Raymond

    Rosemary Hill optical and EINSTEIN X-ray observations of a sample of 36 active galactic nuclei (AGN) were reduced and analyzed. Seventy-two X-ray observations of these sources were reduced, nineteen of which yielded spectral information. Of these spectral observations, significant hydrogen column densities above the galactic value were required for nine of the eleven sources which were observed more than once by EINSTEIN. Correlations between the X-ray and optical luminosities were investigated using the Jefferys method of least squares. This method allows for errors in both variables. The results indicate a strong correlation between the X-ray and optical luminosities for the entire sample. Division of the sample into groups with similar optical variability characteristics show that the less violently violent variable AGN are more highly correlated than the violently variable blazars. Infrared and radio observations were combined with the X-ray and optical observations of six AGN. These sources were modelled in terms of the synchrotron-self-Compton model. The turnover frequency falls between the infrared and radio data and reliable estimates of this parameter are difficult to estimate. Therefore the results were found as a function of the turnover frequency. Four sources required relativistic bulk motion or beaming. Multifrequency spectra made at different times for one individual source, 0235+164, required different amounts of beaming to satisfy the X-ray observations. Sizes of the emitting regions for the sources modelled ranged from 0.5 parsec to 1.0 parsec.

  18. Retrieval of Precipitation Profiles from Multiresolution, Multifrequency, Active and Passive Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grecu, Mircea; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Olson, William S.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a technique for estimating vertical profiles of precipitation from multifrequency, multiresolution active and passive microwave observations is investigated using both simulated and airborne data. The technique is applicable to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite multi-frequency active and passive observations. These observations are characterized by various spatial and sampling resolutions. This makes the retrieval problem mathematically more difficult and ill-determined because the quality of information decreases with decreasing resolution. A model that, given reflectivity profiles and a small set of parameters (including the cloud water content, the intercept drop size distribution, and a variable describing the frozen hydrometeor properties), simulates high-resolution brightness temperatures is used. The high-resolution simulated brightness temperatures are convolved at the real sensor resolution. An optimal estimation procedure is used to minimize the differences between simulated and observed brightness temperatures. The retrieval technique is investigated using cloud model synthetic and airborne data from the Fourth Convection And Moisture Experiment. Simulated high-resolution brightness temperatures and reflectivities and airborne observation strong are convolved at the resolution of the TRMM instruments and retrievals are performed and analyzed relative to the reference data used in observations synthesis. An illustration of the possible use of the technique in satellite rainfall estimation is presented through an application to TRMM data. The study suggests improvements in combined active and passive retrievals even when the instruments resolutions are significantly different. Future work needs to better quantify the retrievals performance, especially in connection with satellite applications, and the uncertainty of the models used in retrieval.

  19. Cortical activity prior to, and during, observation and execution of sequential finger movements.

    PubMed

    Calmels, Claire; Holmes, Paul; Jarry, Gilbert; Lévèque, Jean-Michel; Hars, Magaly; Stam, Cornelis J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide further evidence for the existence of a mirror neuron system in humans using electroencephalography during the observation and execution of non-object-related movements. Event-related desynchronization and synchronization (ERD/ERS) were used to characterize brain activity prior to, and during, observation and execution of a finger movement in four frequency bands (7-10 Hz, 10-13 Hz, 13-20 Hz, and 20-30 Hz). Electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded from 19 electrode sites in eight participants. In all the frequency bands and electrode sites, results revealed that there was no significant differences in EEG cortical activity between the observation condition and the execution conditions. Comparison of the two stages of the movement (i.e., pre-movement and movement) in the observation and execution conditions showed, in most cases, that pre-movement ERD values were less than movement ERD values. Whilst there was not an identical match of EEG cortical indices, this study provides further support for the existence of a mirror neuron system in humans. The incomplete congruence may be explained by the different behaviors, the nature of the task and factors in the observed action coded by the mirror system. PMID:17136468

  20. Learners and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Frank

    2002-01-01

    Behavioral, humanistic, cognitive, constructivist, and neuroscience theories of learning are briefly described. In the training of outdoor activity instructors/teachers, the curriculum should contain modules on various learning styles so that participants have equal opportunities to digest outdoor experiences and interpret them in a manner that…

  1. Arctic chlorine activation and ozone depletion: Comparison of chemistry transport models with satellite observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grooß, J.-U.; Wegner, T.; Müller, R.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Feng, W.; Santee, M. L.

    2009-04-01

    The accurate simulation of Arctic stratospheric ozone depletion has been an issue for two decades. However, there are still notable quantitative discrepancies between the models and observations. We show results from the SLIMCAT and CLaMS 3D chemistry-transport models that differ in some aspects of simulated chlorine activation and descent in the polar vortex. Consequently, the estimates of accumulated ozone depletion in the polar vortex for these two models in cold Arctic winters still largely disagree. As shown recently by Santee et al. (JGR, 2008) using MLS and ACE data, the extent of chlorine activation for the cold Arctic winter of 2004/2005 within the basic SLIMCAT model is overestimated with the likely consequence of too much simulated ozone depletion. In contrast, the CLaMS simulation for the same winter shows too little chlorine activation compared to observations, and therefore likely too little loss. For SLIMCAT the version used by Santee et al. has been updated to replace the equilibrium treatment of NAT PSCs with a Lagrangian microphysical scheme. This leads to smaller regions of NAT particles and less denitrification, in better agreement with observations. The impact of this on the modeled extent of chlorine activation will be discussed. For CLaMS we have changed the parameterization of heterogeneous reactions on liquid aerosols from Carslaw et al. to that of Shi et al. (2001), with which chlorine activation on liquid aerosol becomes more efficient. In turn, the simulated chlorine activation agrees better with the observations. The impact of these model changes on chlorine activation and ozone loss will be assessed and remaining model-observation discrepancies will be discussed in terms of different model formulations. We will also show the impact of recent lab measurements of Cl2O2 absorption cross sections by von Hobe et al. (2009) on the simulated ozone depletion. References: von Hobe, M., F. Stroh, H. Beckers, T. Benter, and H. Willner, The UV

  2. Coordinated Observations of X-ray and High-resolution EUV Active Region Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    The recently-launched High-resolution Coronal imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket provided the highest resolution images of coronal loops and other small-scale structures in the 193 Angstrom passband to date. With just 5 minutes of observations, the instrument recorded a variety of dynamic coronal events -- including even a small B-class flare. We will present our results comparing these extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations with X-ray imaging from Hinode/XRT as well as EUV AIA data to identify sources of hot plasma rooted in the photosphere and track their affect on the overall topology and dynamics of the active region.

  3. Coordinated Observations of X-ray and High-Resolution EUV Active Region Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The recently-launched High-resolution Coronal imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket provided the highest resolution images of coronal loops and other small-scale structures in the 193 Angstrom passband to date. With just 5 minutes of observations, the instrument recorded a variety of dynamic coronal events -- including even a small B-class flare. We will present our results comparing these extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations with X-ray imaging from Hinode/XRT as well as EUV AIA data to identify sources of hot plasma rooted in the photosphere and track their affect on the overall topology and dynamics of the active region.

  4. Combined X-Ray and mm-Wave Observations of Radio Quiet Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behar, E.

    2016-06-01

    A connection between the X-ray and radio sources in radio quiet active galaxies (AGNs) will be demonstrated. High radio frequency, i.e., mm-wave observations are promising probes of the X-ray emitting inner regions of the accretion disks in radio quiet AGNs. An argument for simultaneous observations in X-rays and in mm waves will be made, in order to promote these as one of the future science goals of X-ray and AGN astronomy in the next decade. Preliminary results from an exploratory campaign with several space and ground based telescopes will be presented.

  5. Spontaneous brain activity observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging as a potential biomarker in neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Kun; Liu, Yong; Song, Ming; Song, Sonya W.

    2010-01-01

    As functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have yielded increasing amounts of information about the brain’s spontaneous activity, they have revealed fMRI’s potential to locate changes in brain hemodynamics that are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In this paper, we review studies that support the notion that changes in brain spontaneous activity observed by fMRI can be used as potential biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment evaluation in neuropsychiatric disorders. We first review the methods used to study spontaneous activity from the perspectives of (1) the properties of local spontaneous activity, (2) the spatial pattern of spontaneous activity, and (3) the topological properties of brain networks. We also summarize the major findings associated with major neuropsychiatric disorders obtained using these methods. Then we review the pilot studies that have used spontaneous activity to discriminate patients from normal controls. Finally, we discuss current challenges and potential research directions to further elucidate the clinical use of spontaneous brain activity in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22132039

  6. Observations of actively forming lava tubes and associated structures, Hawaii, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.

    1971-01-01

    A ground examination is made of lave tubes and channels. The surface morphology and the changes noted through lava flow activity are cited, and compared to earlier aerial observations. The lava activity was believed to be caused by a small lava lake exposed by the collapse of a crust covering it. Drainage of the lake was caused by a fissure erruption. New tubes or extensions of existing ones were noted from the flow. Molten lava was not seen in any tubes examined on the ground, but some of the flows were not sufficiently cooled to allow subsurface examination and survey of the tubes.

  7. In Situ Spectroscopic Observation of Activation and Transformation of Tantalum Suboxides

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ke; Liu, Zhi; Cruz, Tirma Herranz; Salmeron, Miquel; Liang, Hong

    2009-12-16

    Using ambient pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (AP-XPS), we were able to observe the process of oxidation of tantalum with different morphological parameters. Being able to trace surface evolution during oxidation, we evaluated activation energy of oxidation under the influence of strain and grain boundaries. It was found that the metal oxidized through three different stages and there was a transition stage where the phase transformation from suboxides to the equilibrium state of pentoxide. The applied stress and surface defects reduced the activation energy oxidation.

  8. The INAF contribution to the ASI Space Debris program: observational activities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pupillo, G.; Salerno, E.; Bartolini, M.; Di Martino, M.; Mattana, A.; Montebugnoli, S.; Portelli, C.; Pluchino, S.; Schillirò, F.; Konovalenko, A.; Nabatov, A.; Nechaeva, M.

    Space debris are man made objects orbiting around Earth that pose a serious hazard for both present and future human activities in space. Since 2007 the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) carried out a number of radar campaigns in the framework of the ASI ``Space Debris'' program. The observations were performed by using bi- and multi-static radars, composed of the INAF 32-m Italian radiotelescopes located at Medicina and Noto (used as receivers) and the 70-m parabolic antenna at Evpatoria (Ukraine) used as transmitter. The 32 m Ventspils antenna in Latvia also participated in the last campaign at the end of June 2010. Several kinds of objects in various orbital regions (radar calibrators, rocket upper stages, debris of different sizes) were observed and successfully detected. Some unknown objects were also discovered in LEO during the beam-park sessions. In this paper we describe some results of the INAF-ASI space debris research activity.

  9. VLA observations of solar active regions at 6 and 20 cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alissandrakis, C. E.; Kundu, M. R.; Shevgaonkar, K. R.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution observations are presented of two active regions at 6 and 20 cm over a period of 5 days, together with H-alpha and photospheric magnetic fields. The large-scale emission at 20 cm is associated with the H-alpha plage. In one region the strongest source was over the neutral line, near the tip of an active-region filament, which indicates that the emission probably originated in small-scale coronal loops. In the second region the peak of the emission was near a well-developed sunspot. Neither region showed evidence of large-scale loops joining their preceding and following parts. Several other sources were observed at 20 cm; a source associated with an H-alpha plage region crossed by a filament and one associated with a small bipolar region are briefly discussed. The 6-cm emission from a well-developed spot showed clearly the characteristics expected from gyroresonance model computations.

  10. Observing and understanding arterial and venous circulation differences in a physiology laboratory activity.

    PubMed

    Altermann, Caroline; Gonçalves, Rithiele; Lara, Marcus Vinícius S; Neves, Ben-Hur S; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present article is to describe three simple practical experiments that aim to observe and discuss the anatomic and physiological functions and differences between arteries and veins as well as the alterations observed in skin blood flow in different situations. For this activity, students were divided in small groups. In each group, a volunteer is recruited for each experiment. The experiments only require a sphygmomanometer, rubber bands, and a clock and allow students to develop a hypothesis to explain the different responses to the interruption of arterial and venous blood flow. At the end, students prepare a short report, and the results are discussed. This activity allows students to perceive the presence of physiology in their daily lives and helps them to understand the concepts related to the cardiovascular system and hemodynamics. PMID:26628667

  11. Subretinal Fluid in Eyes with Active Ocular Toxoplasmosis Observed Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Qing; Heussen, Florian M.; Keane, Pearse A.; Stübiger, Nicole; Sadda, Srinivas R.; Pleyer, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical finding of subretinal fluid (SRF) in the posterior pole by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in eyes with active ocular toxoplasmosis (OT). Design Retrospective case series. Participants Thirty-eight eyes from 39 patients with active OT. Methods Eyes with active OT which underwent SD-OCT were reviewed. SRFs in the posterior pole were further analyzed. Main Outcome Measures Presence of SRF; its accompanying features, e.g. retinal necrosis, cystoid macular edema (CME), choroidal neovascularization (CNV); and longitudinal changes of SRF, including maximum height and total volume before and after treatment. Results SRF presented in 45.5% (or 15/33) of eyes with typical active OT and in 51.3% (or 20/39) of eyes with active OT. The mean maximum height and total volume of SRF were 161.0 (range: 23–478) µm and 0.47 (range: 0.005–4.12) mm3, respectively. For 12 eyes with SRF related to active retinal necrosis, SRF was observed with complete absorption after conventional anti-toxoplasmosis treatment. The mean duration for observation of SRF clearance was 33.8 (range: 7–84) days. The mean rate of SRF clearance was 0.0128 (range: 0.0002–0.0665) mm3/day. Conclusions SRF (i.e., serous retinal detachment) is a common feature in patients with active OT when SD-OCT is performed. The majority of SRF was associated with retinal necrosis and reacted well to conventional therapy, regardless of total fluid volume. However, SRF accompanying with CME or CNV responded less favorably or remained refractory to conventional or combined intravitreal treatment, even when the SRF was small in size. PMID:26010656

  12. Brain activity during observation and motor imagery of different balance tasks: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Taube, Wolfgang; Mouthon, Michael; Leukel, Christian; Hoogewoud, Henri-Marcel; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Keller, Martin

    2015-03-01

    After immobilization, patients show impaired postural control and increased risk of falling. Therefore, loss of balance control should already be counteracted during immobilization. Previously, studies have demonstrated that both motor imagery (MI) and action observation (AO) can improve motor performance. The current study elaborated how the brain is activated during imagination and observation of different postural tasks to provide recommendations about the conception of non-physical balance training. For this purpose, participants were tested in a within-subject design in an fMRI-scanner in three different conditions: (a) AO + MI, (b) AO, and (c) MI. In (a) participants were instructed to imagine themselves as the person pictured in the video whereas in (b) they were instructed simply to watch the video. In (c) subjects closed their eyes and kinesthetically imagined the task displayed in the video. Two tasks were evaluated in each condition: (i) static standing balance and (ii) dynamic standing balance (medio-lateral perturbation). In all conditions the start of a new trial was indicated every 2 sec by a sound. During AO + MI of the dynamic task, participants activated motor centers including the putamen, cerebellum, supplementary motor area, premotor cortices (PMv/d) and primary motor cortex (M1). MI showed a similar pattern but no activity in M1 and PMv/d. In the SMA and cerebellum, activity was generally higher in the dynamic than in the static condition. AO did not significantly activate any of these brain areas. Our results showed that (I) mainly AO + MI, but also MI, activate brain regions important for balance control; (II) participants display higher levels of brain activation in the more demanding balance task; (III) there is a significant difference between AO + MI and AO. Consequently, best training effects should be expected when participants apply MI during AO (AO + MI) of challenging postural tasks. PMID:25461711

  13. Recasts, Metalinguistic Feedback, and Learners' Perceptions: A Case of Persian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassaei, Ehsan; Moinzadeh, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we present the results of an experiment with 30 Persian EFL learners in which we explored the learners' perceptions of recasts and metalinguistic corrective feedback. The participant learners received either recasts or metalinguistic feedback for their errors during task-based interactions with their interlocutors and then…

  14. The Attitudes of Field Dependence Learners for Learner Interface Design (LID) in e-Learning Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sözcü, Ömer Faruk; Ipek, Ismail; Kinay, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore relationships between learners' cognitive styles of field dependence and learner variables in the preference of learner Interface design, attitudes in e-Learning instruction and experience with e-Learning in distance education. Cognitive style has historically referred to a psychological dimension…

  15. Promoting Learner Engagement when Working with Adult English Language Learners. CAELA Network Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan Finn

    2010-01-01

    Teachers of adults learning English often compete with many demands on learners' attention. Concerns about family, jobs, money, and transportation; fatigue; and negative past experiences with education are some of the factors that might inhibit an adult learner's full engagement in class. In a study of learner engagement in adult literacy…

  16. Strategy-Based Instruction: A Learner-Focused Approach to Developing Learner Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Le Thi Cam; Gu, Yongqi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of strategy-based instruction (SBI) on the promotion of learner autonomy (LA). LA was conceptualized and operationally defined as learner self-initiation and learner self-regulation. An intervention study was conducted with the participation of 37 students in an experimental group, and 54 students in two control…

  17. Learner Agency in Language Learning: The Story of a Distance Learner of EFL in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Junhong

    2014-01-01

    Learner agency plays a key role in self-regulated learning. Yet, there is a paucity of research into its role in the distance learning context. Using reflective narratives written by a distance learner of English in China, this longitudinal case study aims to investigate the ways in which learner agency mediates the language learning in the…

  18. Learner-Generated Noticing of Written L2 Input: What Do Learners Notice and Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eun Sung

    2011-01-01

    This study explored learners' self-generated noticing of L2 input. It is motivated by previous research on input enhancement which suggested that learners are able to notice certain aspects of input on their own without any external means to direct their attention. Drawing on insights that learner-generated noticing is largely mediated by…

  19. Providing Effective Learner Support for Part-Time Learners. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Philip; Crawley, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Learner support, defined as the strategies which empower learners to establish and fulfill their learning, career and personal potential, continues to be a key issue in current thinking in the post-16 education sector. An earlier project report from the West Country Learning and Skills Research Network (WCLSRN) showed that part-time learners were…

  20. Re-Awakening the Learner: Creating Learner-Centric, Standards-Driven Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Copper; Giddings, Gene

    2012-01-01

    Transformation of public education requires the reawakening of the sleeping giant in the room: the learners. Students, teachers, and principals must develop a learner-centric, standards-driven school. "Reawakening the Learner" is a guide to creating just such an environment. Continua describe the journey of teachers, teacher leaders, and…