Science.gov

Sample records for activity learners observe

  1. Involving Learners in Planning TNO Observations with SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, C.; de Villiers, G.; Tlaka, C.

    2006-03-01

    We present a "real science project" at the Johannesburg Planetarium in which learners from less-well-resourced schools helped plan observations at SALT by "observing" home-made "minor planets" using cellphone cameras and photo-software.

  2. Young Children: Active Learners in a Technological Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, June L., Ed.; Shade, Daniel D., Ed.

    This book addresses the issues of appropriate use of computers with young children and how children and early childhood educators interact with the computer in early childhood settings. Part 1, "Young Children as Active Learners," contains chapter 1: "Listen to the Children: Observing Young Children's Discoveries with the…

  3. Facebook Activities and the Investment of L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafie, Latisha Asmaak; Yaacob, Aizan; Singh, Paramjit Kaur Karpal

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the investment of L2 learners in the English language on Facebook that they portrayed through their Facebook activities. It studied four informants consisted of diploma students in a Malaysian university. The study consisted of 14 weeks of online observation and semi-structured interviews. Data were collected from online…

  4. Learner Activities in a Collaborative CALL Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses different research approaches in CALL and makes a case for applying grounded theory (GT) to data gathered from an electronic role-play conducted in L2. The article shows that this method can help gain a better understanding of what learners do when engaged in the task. Through the process of open coding, four…

  5. Interactions between and among Heritage Language Learners and Second Language Learners during Collaborative Writing Activities: How Learners Attend to Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamics in the Spanish classroom between heritage language learner (HLL) dyads, second language learner (L2L) dyads, and mixed HLL-L2L dyads. Specifically, it examines oral, written and embodied discourse that informs our understanding of how learners attend to language. Analysis for this dissertation examined…

  6. Learner-Interface Interaction for Technology-Enhanced Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Neelu; Khreisat, Laila; Sharma, Kiron

    2009-01-01

    Neelu Sinha, Laila Khreisat, and Kiron Sharma describe how learner-interface interaction promotes active learning in computer science education. In a pilot study using technology that combines DyKnow software with a hardware platform of pen-enabled HP Tablet notebook computers, Sinha, Khreisat, and Sharma created dynamic learning environments by…

  7. Does Translation Contribute to Learners' Free Active Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiyaban, Amir R.; Bagheri, Mohammad S.

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to find out whether or not using "translation" technique in vocabulary teaching would have any positive effects on the "free active" vocabulary of Iranian learners of English. To carry out the research, eighty-eight intermediate male and female students were chosen. The participants were divided into…

  8. We are what we do: Examining learner-generated content in the anatomy laboratory through the lens of activity theory.

    PubMed

    Doubleday, Alison F; Wille, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Video and photography are often used for delivering content within the anatomical sciences. However, instructors typically produce these resources to provide instructional or procedural information. Although the benefits of learner-generated content have been explored within educational research, virtually no studies have investigated the use of learner-generated video and photograph content within anatomy dissection laboratories. This study outlines an activity involving learner-generated video diaries and learner-generated photograph assignments produced during anatomy laboratory sessions. The learner-generated photographs and videos provided instructors with a means of formative assessment and allowed instructors to identify evidence of collaborative behavior in the laboratory. Student questionnaires (n = 21) and interviews (n = 5), as well as in-class observations, were conducted to examine student perspectives on the laboratory activities. The quantitative and qualitative data were examined using the framework of activity theory to identify contradictions between student expectations of, and engagement with, the activity and the actual experiences of the students. Results indicate that learner-generated photograph and video content can act as a rich source of data on student learning processes and can be used for formative assessment, for observing collaborative behavior, and as a starting point for class discussions. This study stresses the idea that technology choice for activities must align with instructional goals. This research also highlights the utility of activity theory as a framework for assessing classroom and laboratory activities, demonstrating that this approach can guide the development of laboratory activities.

  9. Acquisition of Mathematical Language: Suggestions and Activities for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirillo, Michelle; Bruna, Katherine Richardson; Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we describe aspects of mathematical language that could be problematic to English-language learners, provide recommendations for teaching English-language learners, and suggest activities intended to foster language development in mathematics. (Contains 1 figure.)

  10. Learners' Perceptions of Instructional Design Practice in a Situated Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Nicholas; Quinn, James

    2009-01-01

    This case study investigated learners' perceptions of value from participating in a learning activity designed to model professional instructional design practice. Learners developed instructional design products for a corporate client in the context of a classroom-based course. The findings indicate that learners perceived different kinds of…

  11. The effect of learner's control of self-observation strategies on learning of front crawl.

    PubMed

    Marques, Priscila Garcia; Corrêa, Umberto Cesar

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of learner's control of self-observation strategies on motor skill learning. For this purpose, beginner and intermediate learner swimmers practised the front crawl. Seventy college students took part in this experiment. They comprised 40 novice learners, both male (n=19) and female (n=21), with an average age of 20.7 years (±0.44), and 30 intermediate learners, both male (n=17) and female (n=13), with an average age of 21.1 years (±0.86). The design involved a pretest (one day), four acquisition sessions (four days), and a retention test (one day). They were divided into three groups: (1) choice, which could choose to watch a video with their best or overall performance during practise; (2) yoked, which were paired to those of the choice group; and (3) control (did not watch any video). The measures included the performance of front crawl and self-efficacy. The results showed that: (1) beginners who chose a type of observation strategy had superior motor skill learning; (2) for intermediate learners, self-observation promoted better motor learning, regardless of the control of choices; (3) self-observation improved self-efficacy beliefs.

  12. Textbook Activities among Heritage and Non-Heritage Portuguese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Glaucia V.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past four decades, scholars have debated the pedagogical and sociolinguistic needs of heritage language learners. It is widely accepted that these learners present several characteristics that are different from those of foreign (or non-heritage) language learners. However, scholars have also pointed to similarities between the two groups…

  13. Does Active Learning Enhance Learner Outcomes? Evidence from Discussion Participation in Online Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bruce M.; Pollock, Philip H.; Hamann, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Discussion is one form of active learning, which has been linked to better learner outcomes. Little is known about the relationship between active learning through discussion and learner outcome in the online environment. Here, we construct an index of active learning online that includes the number of postings a student has read, the number of…

  14. Observations in the Computer Room: L2 Output and Learner Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Christine

    2004-01-01

    This article draws on second language theory, particularly output theory as defined by Swain (1995), in order to conceptualise observations made in a computer-assisted language learning setting. It investigates second language output and learner behaviour within an electronic role-play setting, based on a subject-specific problem solving task and…

  15. Observational Tools to Inform Instruction for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurkewecz, Thea

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the need for teachers to use observational tools to identify and understand their learners' cultural backgrounds and literacy skills, including the importance of preparing teacher candidates to become culturally responsive educators. This topic is critical because one of the new teacher certification exams in New York State,…

  16. Aspects on Learner-Biased Classroom Observational Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linhan

    2012-01-01

    This paper was designed to explore the means in the field of observing classroom teaching/learning from both a general, and an "English as a Foreign Language" (EFL), viewpoint. The aim was to browse the relevant literature, and lead to consider observation tools which might serve to research in EFL. This paper summarizes the reading by…

  17. Promoting Physics Among Female Learners in the Western Cape Through Active Engagement (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendse, Gillian J.

    2009-04-01

    In 2006 the author organized a one-day intervention aimed at promoting physics among female learners at the University of Stellenbosch. The activities included an interactive lecture demonstration promoting active engagement, a hands-on session, and short presentations by female physicists addressing issues such as balancing family and career, breaking the stereotypes, and launching a successful career in physics. Each learner was expected to evaluate the program. In 2007 the author joined forces with Hip2B2 (Shuttleworth Foundation) to host a competition among grade-10 learners with the theme, ``promoting creativity through interactivity.'' The author was tasked by the Hip2B2-team to assist with a program for female learners planned for August 2008, coinciding with our national celebration of Women's Day. The event targeted 160 learners and took place in Durban, East London, Cape Town, and Johannesburg. The author shares some of the learners' experiences and personal triumphs.

  18. How Do Distance Learners Use Activities in Self-Instructional Materials?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Sanjaya; Gaba, Ashok Kumar

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of a study on the use of learning activities in self-instructional materials by distance learners of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). It shows that learners make use of the activities extensively as they have positive perceptions about benefits of Self-Assessment Questions and Terminal Questions given in the…

  19. The neural coding of expected and unexpected monetary performance outcomes: dissociations between active and observational learning.

    PubMed

    Bellebaum, C; Jokisch, D; Gizewski, E R; Forsting, M; Daum, I

    2012-02-01

    Successful adaptation to the environment requires the learning of stimulus-response-outcome associations. Such associations can be learned actively by trial and error or by observing the behaviour and accompanying outcomes in other persons. The present study investigated similarities and differences in the neural mechanisms of active and observational learning from monetary feedback using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two groups of 15 subjects each - active and observational learners - participated in the experiment. On every trial, active learners chose between two stimuli and received monetary feedback. Each observational learner observed the choices and outcomes of one active learner. Learning performance as assessed via active test trials without feedback was comparable between groups. Different activation patterns were observed for the processing of unexpected vs. expected monetary feedback in active and observational learners, particularly for positive outcomes. Activity for unexpected vs. expected reward was stronger in the right striatum in active learning, while activity in the hippocampus was bilaterally enhanced in observational and reduced in active learning. Modulation of activity by prediction error (PE) magnitude was observed in the right putamen in both types of learning, whereas PE related activations in the right anterior caudate nucleus and in the medial orbitofrontal cortex were stronger for active learning. The striatum and orbitofrontal cortex thus appear to link reward stimuli to own behavioural reactions and are less strongly involved when the behavioural outcome refers to another person's action. Alternative explanations such as differences in reward value between active and observational learning are also discussed.

  20. Investigating Learner Attitudes toward E-Books as Learning Tools: Based on the Activity Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of e-books as learning tools in terms of learner satisfaction, usefulness, behavioral intention, and learning effectiveness. Based on the activity theory approach, this research develops a research model to understand learner attitudes toward e-books in two physical sizes: 10? and 7?. Results suggest that screen…

  1. Training Learners to Use Quizlet Vocabulary Activities on Mobile Phones in Vietnam with Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone ownership among university students in Vietnam has reached almost 100%, exceeding that of Internet-capable desktop computers. This has made them increasingly popular to allow learners to carry out learning activities outside of the classroom, but some studies have suggested that learners are not always willing to engage in activities…

  2. Beginning Learners' Development of Interactional Competence: Alignment Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tecedor, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the development of interactional competence (Hall, 1993; He & Young, 1998) by beginning learners of Spanish as indexed by their use of alignment moves. Discourse analysis techniques and quantitative data analysis were used to explore how 52 learners expressed alignment and changes in participation patterns in two sets of…

  3. Spoken Language Activation Alters Subsequent Sign Language Activation in L2 Learners of American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joshua T; Newman, Sharlene D

    2017-02-01

    A large body of literature has characterized unimodal monolingual and bilingual lexicons and how neighborhood density affects lexical access; however there have been relatively fewer studies that generalize these findings to bimodal (M2) second language (L2) learners of sign languages. The goal of the current study was to investigate parallel language activation in M2L2 learners of sign language and to characterize the influence of spoken language and sign language neighborhood density on the activation of ASL signs. A priming paradigm was used in which the neighbors of the sign target were activated with a spoken English word and compared the activation of the targets in sparse and dense neighborhoods. Neighborhood density effects in auditory primed lexical decision task were then compared to previous reports of native deaf signers who were only processing sign language. Results indicated reversed neighborhood density effects in M2L2 learners relative to those in deaf signers such that there were inhibitory effects of handshape density and facilitatory effects of location density. Additionally, increased inhibition for signs in dense handshape neighborhoods was greater for high proficiency L2 learners. These findings support recent models of the hearing bimodal bilingual lexicon, which posit lateral links between spoken language and sign language lexical representations.

  4. Learners' Interpersonal Beliefs and Generated Feedback in an Online Role-Playing Peer-Feedback Activity: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Yu-Hui; Hsu, Yu-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Peer feedback affords interaction and critical thinking opportunities for learners in online courses. However, various factors prevent learners from taking advantage of these promising benefits. This study explored learners' perceptions of the interpersonal factors in a role-playing peer-feedback activity, and examined the types of peer feedback…

  5. A Development of Game-Based Learning Environment to Activate Interaction among Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, Ryo; Shimokawa, Masayuki; Okamoto, Toshio

    Many studies and systems that incorporate elements such as “pleasure” and “fun” in the game to improve a learner's motivation have been developed in the field of learning environments. However, few are the studies of situations where many learners gather at a single computer and participate in a game-based learning environment (GBLE), and where the GBLE designs the learning process by controlling the interactions between learners such as competition, collaboration, and learning by teaching. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a framework of educational control that induces and activates interaction between learners intentionally to create a learning opportunity that is based on the knowledge understanding model of each learner. In this paper, we explain the design philosophy and the framework of our GBLE called “Who becomes the king in the country of mathematics?” from a game viewpoint and describe the method of learning support control in the learning environment. In addition, we report the results of the learning experiment with our GBLE, which we carried out in a junior high school, and include some comments by a principal and a teacher. From the results of the experiment and some comments, we noticed that a game may play a significant role in weakening the learning relationship among students and creating new relationships in the world of the game. Furthermore, we discovered that learning support control of the GBLE has led to activation of the interaction between learners to some extent.

  6. Learner-Centered Activities from the DVD-Format "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Yun

    This paper demonstrates how Taiwanese English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) college teachers and students collaborate and negotiate to design various learner-centered activities based on the Chinese film, "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon." These activities are intended to enhance students' listening and speaking abilities. The paper…

  7. What Does Metalinguistic Activity in Learners' Interaction during a Collaborative L2 Writing Task Look Like?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the metalinguistic activity that arose in the interaction of 7 groups of bilingual learners writing collaboratively in their second language (L2), English. A microanalysis of this interaction reveals that metalinguistic activity comprises 3 types of oral production: comments, speech actions, and text reformulations. Text…

  8. The Feasibility of Capturing Learner Interactions Based on Logs Informed by Eye-Tracking and Remote Observation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego, Jonathan P.; McAndrew, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Two small studies, one an "eye-tracking" study and the other a "remote observation" study, have been conducted to investigate ways to identify two kinds of online learner interactions: users flicking through the web pages in "browsing" action, and users engaging with the content of a page in "learning"…

  9. From Evaluation to Collaborative Reflection: Teacher Candidate Perceptions of a Digital Learner-Centered Classroom Observation Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Raymond; Krutka, Daniel G.; Mason, Katherine; Bergman, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    In efforts to promote a more learner-centered approach to supervision, faculty members at a Midwestern U.S. university piloted a new digital classroom observation form. Participants included middle/secondary teacher candidates (N = 28) in their final semester of their programs. The overall goal of this study was to gather teacher candidates'…

  10. The Effects of Pre-Reading Activities on Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Nahid Nemati; Mahmoudi, Asgar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three types of pre-reading activities (movie-watching, vocabulary presentation, and pre-reading summarization) on the reading comprehension of 76 elementary-level EFL Iranian learners. The participants were randomly assigned to one control and three experimental conditions and then a pretest was given to…

  11. Active Learning for Discovery and Innovation in Criminology with Chinese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jessica C. M.; Wu, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Whereas a great deal of literature based upon the context of Western societies has concluded criminology is an ideal discipline for active learning approach, it remains uncertain if this learning approach is applicable to Chinese learners in the discipline of criminology. This article describes and provides evidence of the benefits of using active…

  12. Investigating the Use of Inquiry & Web-Based Activities with Inclusive Biology Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Waller, Patricia L.; Edwards, Lana; Darlene Kale, Santoro

    2007-01-01

    A Web-integrated biology program is used to explore how to best assist inclusive high school students to learn biology with inquiry-based activities. Classroom adaptations and instructional strategies teachers may use to assist in promoting biology learning with inclusive learners are discussed.

  13. An Emergent Language Program Framework: Actively Involving Learners in Needs Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, William; Storer, Graeme

    1992-01-01

    Relates the experience of the staff of an aquaculture outreach program in Northeast Thailand in implementing an English for special purposes program. By actively involving learners in both the needs analysis and program design, teachers were able to adapt the program content to the requirements of the students. (15 references) (JL)

  14. Cross-Language Activation in Children's Speech Production: Evidence from Second Language Learners, Bilinguals, and Trilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals,…

  15. Flipping the Classroom for English Language Learners to Foster Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Hsiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a structured attempt to integrate flip teaching into language classrooms using a WebQuest active learning strategy. The purpose of this study is to examine the possible impacts of flipping the classroom on English language learners' academic performance, learning attitudes, and participation levels. Adopting a…

  16. Fashion Design: Designing a Learner-Active, Multi-Level High School Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Diane

    2009-01-01

    A high school fashion design teacher has much in common with the ringmaster of a three-ring circus. The challenges of teaching a hands-on course are to facilitate the entire class and to meet the needs of individual students. When teaching family and consumer sciences, the goal is to have a learner-active classroom. Revamping the high school's…

  17. Synthesizing Technology Adoption and Learners' Approaches towards Active Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kevin; Cheung, George; Wan, Kelvin; Brown, Ian; Luk, Green

    2015-01-01

    In understanding how active and blended learning approaches with learning technologies engagement in undergraduate education, current research models tend to undermine the effect of learners' variations, particularly regarding their styles and approaches to learning, on intention and use of learning technologies. This study contributes to further…

  18. The Creation of Standard-Setting Videos to Support Faculty Observations of Learner Performance and Entrustment Decisions.

    PubMed

    Calaman, Sharon; Hepps, Jennifer H; Bismilla, Zia; Carraccio, Carol; Englander, Robert; Feraco, Angela; Landrigan, Christopher P; Lopreiato, Joseph O; Sectish, Theodore C; Starmer, Amy J; Yu, Clifton E; Spector, Nancy D; West, Daniel C

    2016-02-01

    Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) provide a framework to standardize medical education outcomes and advance competency-based assessment. Direct observation of performance plays a central role in entrustment decisions; however, data obtained from these observations are often insufficient to draw valid high-stakes conclusions. One approach to enhancing the reliability and validity of these assessments is to create videos that establish performance standards to train faculty observers. Little is known about how to create videos that can serve as standards for assessment of EPAs.The authors report their experience developing videos that represent five levels of performance for an EPA for patient handoffs. The authors describe a process that begins with mapping the EPA to the critical competencies needed to make an entrustment decision. Each competency is then defined by five milestones (behavioral descriptors of performance at five advancing levels). Integration of the milestones at each level across competencies enabled the creation of clinical vignettes that were converted into video scripts and ultimately videos. Each video represented a performance standard from novice to expert. The process included multiple assessments by experts to guide iterative improvements, provide evidence of content validity, and ensure that the authors successfully translated behavioral descriptions and vignettes into videos that represented the intended performance level for a learner. The steps outlined are generalizable to other EPAs, serving as a guide for others to develop videos to train faculty. This process provides the level of content validity evidence necessary to support using videos as standards for high-stakes entrustment decisions.

  19. Popular Culture, English Out-of-Class Activities, and Learner Autonomy among Highly Proficient Secondary Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Hoi Wing

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on how and why proficient learners of English in Hong Kong participated in popular culture, out-of-class activities, with an emphasis on their development of learner autonomy. Autonomy in language learning is defined as an individual's ability and responsibility to take charge of his or her own learning [1]. Out-of-class…

  20. Fluency-dependent cortical activation associated with speech production and comprehension in second language learners.

    PubMed

    Shimada, K; Hirotani, M; Yokokawa, H; Yoshida, H; Makita, K; Yamazaki-Murase, M; Tanabe, H C; Sadato, N

    2015-08-06

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the brain regions underlying language task performance in adult second language (L2) learners. Specifically, we identified brain regions where the level of activation was associated with L2 fluency levels. Thirty Japanese-speaking adults participated in the study. All participants were L2 learners of English and had achieved varying levels of fluency, as determined by a standardized L2 English proficiency test, the Versant English Test (Pearson Education Inc., 2011). When participants performed the oral sentence building task from the production tasks administered, the dorsal part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (dIFG) showed activation patterns that differed depending on the L2 fluency levels: The more fluent the participants were, the more dIFG activation decreased. This decreased activation of the dIFG might reflect the increased automaticity of a syntactic building process. In contrast, when participants performed an oral story comprehension task, the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) showed increased activation with higher fluency levels. This suggests that the learners with higher L2 fluency were actively engaged in post-syntactic integration processing supported by the left pSTG. These data imply that L2 fluency predicts neural resource allocation during language comprehension tasks as well as in production tasks. This study sheds light on the neural underpinnings of L2 learning by identifying the brain regions recruited during different language tasks across different modalities (production vs. comprehension).

  1. Processing of action- but not stimulus-related prediction errors differs between active and observational feedback learning.

    PubMed

    Kobza, Stefan; Bellebaum, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Learning of stimulus-response-outcome associations is driven by outcome prediction errors (PEs). Previous studies have shown larger PE-dependent activity in the striatum for learning from own as compared to observed actions and the following outcomes despite comparable learning rates. We hypothesised that this finding relates primarily to a stronger integration of action and outcome information in active learners. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated brain activations related to action-dependent PEs, reflecting the deviation between action values and obtained outcomes, and action-independent PEs, reflecting the deviation between subjective values of response-preceding cues and obtained outcomes. To this end, 16 active and 15 observational learners engaged in a probabilistic learning card-guessing paradigm. On each trial, active learners saw one out of five cues and pressed either a left or right response button to receive feedback (monetary win or loss). Each observational learner observed exactly those cues, responses and outcomes of one active learner. Learning performance was assessed in active test trials without feedback and did not differ between groups. For both types of PEs, activations were found in the globus pallidus, putamen, cerebellum, and insula in active learners. However, only for action-dependent PEs, activations in these structures and the anterior cingulate were increased in active relative to observational learners. Thus, PE-related activity in the reward system is not generally enhanced in active relative to observational learning but only for action-dependent PEs. For the cerebellum, additional activations were found across groups for cue-related uncertainty, thereby emphasising the cerebellum's role in stimulus-outcome learning.

  2. Sharing a Small World: Environmental Activities for Young Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains a collection of activities developed for pre-K through second grade students. All of the activities in this teacher's guide use an interdisciplinary approach and explore the human connection with all living things and their environment. Contents include: (1) "Sharing Space and Working Together"; (2) "Sharing Resources and…

  3. Observations of Real-Time Captioning in the Elementary English Language Learner Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Nissa

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study reviews the effects of real-time captioning on vocabulary acquisition of a novice elementary English language learner (ELL). Triangulation of data was completed through review of teacher journaling, captioning transcripts, and student pretest and posttest assessments. Results illuminate improved retention and usage of…

  4. A Case for "Acquisitional Strategies": Some Methodological Observations on Investigation into Second Language Learners' Initial State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polomska, Margaret

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory application of the "acquisitional strategies" framework investigated English-speaking language learners' acquisition of preposition stranding in Dutch. Interesting syntactic and morphological contrasts in both English and Dutch render the framework a valuable empirical tool for evaluating language acquisition strategies. (Author/CB)

  5. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-03-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals.

  6. The effect of curricular activities on learner autonomy: the perspective of undergraduate mechanical engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, M.; Leite, C.; Mouraz, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study researches how first-year engineering students perceived the influence of curricular activities on their own learning autonomy, measured with an adaptation of the Personal Responsibility Orientation to Self-direction in Learning Scale (PRO-SDLS). Participants were questioned to assess the influence of the teacher's role. The results indicate that learners' characteristics (motivation and self-efficacy) contribute more to learner autonomy (LA) than the teaching-learning transaction (control and initiative), as in the original PRO-SDLS validation. The most autonomous learners presented higher values in all LA components and dimensions, but the differences were greater in motivation and initiative. The participants with higher LA were not as dependent on the teacher, regarding assessment, the completion of classroom tasks and deadlines. Regardless of the degree of autonomy in learning, all participants viewed teachers as the main source of information. Therefore, LA plays an important role in teaching activities planning. Suggestions for adjustments and more flexible learning scenarios are formulated.

  7. Model Eliciting Activities: Fostering 21st Century Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohlmann, Micah

    2013-01-01

    Real world mathematical modeling activities can develop needed and valuable 21st century skills. The knowledge and skills to become adept at mathematical modeling need to develop over time and students in the elementary grades should have experiences with mathematical modeling. For this to occur elementary teachers need to have positive…

  8. Spoken Language Activation Alters Subsequent Sign Language Activation in L2 Learners of American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joshua T.; Newman, Sharlene D.

    2017-01-01

    A large body of literature has characterized unimodal monolingual and bilingual lexicons and how neighborhood density affects lexical access; however there have been relatively fewer studies that generalize these findings to bimodal (M2) second language (L2) learners of sign languages. The goal of the current study was to investigate parallel…

  9. The challenge of "teaching" large groups of learners: strategies to increase active participation and learning.

    PubMed

    Nierenberg, D W

    1998-01-01

    While teaching in a tutorial, seminar, or problem-based learning group format may be the most fun and most active/interactive for both learner and faculty mentor, there are situations in medical student education in which various constraints require the use of the "lecture" format. Similar constraints may occur in the field of continuing medical education, or graduate medical education, as well. When this occurs, the faculty mentor can increase the active participation of the learners in the audience by continuously stressing seven key pedagogical (androgogical) principles. These include: 1) begin the learning exercise with a clinical example or anecdote to show the relevance of the material to the student; 2) frequently ask the students whether they have ever seen examples of what you describe in their previous experience with patients, personal experience, experience with relatives, etc.; 3) ask students frequently whether they have heard similar material presented differently in other courses; 4) recruit students to help solve "mystery cases"; 5) show examples of similar material from real life (e.g., patient descriptions, or even excerpts from favorite TV shows); 6) ask students to help summarize key points at the end of the session; and 7) allow, or even encourage, whispering during the class. Using some or all of these techniques can help turn a "lecture format" into a much more fun, interactive, and valuable session that emphasizes "learning" rather than "teaching."

  10. Innovative Strategies for Empowering Your Students to Become Active, Responsible Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, B.

    2011-09-01

    The economy continues to sputter along, and the repercussions are now hitting hard at publicly-funded colleges and universities, with enrollment increasing and funding decreasing. Funding agencies are starting to look at retention and completion rates as a way to allocate scarce dollars. Improving these rates is also one way to increase the future stream of tuition; students who can't pass introductory classes like ASTRO101 won't enroll and pay tuition for the next level, and they won't complete their degree. So what can you, a mere professor of astronomy, do? Tired of the "What do you want me to know?" questions? Provide your students with learner-centered structures to help them learn more deeply. Do your students resist active-engagement techniques and hate group work? Share empowerment strategies for helping students become active, responsible learners who can thrive in a learner-centered environment. Do you think that it's wrong for the freshman classes to be over-crowded, yet your sophomore classes don't get enough students or don't even exist? After using the proven curriculum of On Course, college and universities across the country have improved their retention across a wide range of disciplines (http://www.OnCourseWorkshop.com/Data.htm). Experience a sample of the fun and engaging activities developed over two decades to help students (1) accept personal responsibility, (2) discover self motivation, (3) master self-management, (4) use interdependence, (5) gain self-awareness, (6) adopt lifelong learning, (7) develop emotional intelligence, and (8) believe in themselves. Since this is only a one-hour workshop, we will focus on choices one and four: to be successful, students need to see themselves as the primary cause of their outcomes and experiences and to build mutually supportive relationships in our classroom and labs. Outcomes: (1) one ASTRO101 Course-ready activity to help students accept personal responsibility; (2) one ASTRO101 Course

  11. Hinode Observes an Active Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    The X-ray Telescope on the Japanese/NASA mission Hinode has been observing the full sun, nearly continuously, for an extended period. In this movie significant small-scale dynamic events can be obs...

  12. Annotation-Based Learner's Personality Modeling in Distance Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omheni, Nizar; Kalboussi, Anis; Mazhoud, Omar; Kacem, Ahmed Hadj

    2016-01-01

    Researchers in distance education are interested in observing and modeling learners' personality profiles, and adapting their learning experiences accordingly. When learners read and interact with their reading materials, they do unselfconscious activities like annotation which may be key feature of their personalities. Annotation activity…

  13. Chinese High-School Students in Physics Classroom as Active, Self-Regulated Learners: Cognitive, Motivational and Environmental Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neber, Heinz; He, Jing; Liu, Bang-Xiang; Schofield, Neville

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates whether Chinese high-school students are self-regulated learners. A social-cognitive model that distinguishes environmental, motivational, and cognitive components of this active approach to learning is described. This provides an appropriate framework for investigating this complex issue with eighth and tenth…

  14. From Passive to Active Learners: The "Lived Experience" of Nurses in a Specialist Nephrology Nursing Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridger, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the lived experience of learning for a group of staff nurses in the Middle East, who undertook a post-registration nursing education programme in the speciality of nephrology nursing (the NNP) between 2001 and 2002. The broad-based curriculum seeks to develop the staff nurses into active learners, able to…

  15. Identifying and Enhancing the Strengths of Gifted Learners, K-8: Easy-to-Use Activities and Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maccagnano, Ann Marie

    2007-01-01

    Educators can identify children's strengths early on and gain insight into each student's unique abilities by using the numerous ideas and informal assessments in this exciting guide. Gifted and talented specialist Ann Maccagnano offers K-8 teachers challenging activities and engaging lessons to develop and nurture gifted learners' talents.…

  16. MAI (Multi-Dimensional Activity Based Integrated Approach): A Strategy for Cognitive Development of the Learners at the Elementary Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basantia, Tapan Kumar; Panda, B. N.; Sahoo, Dukhabandhu

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive development of the learners is the prime task of each and every stage of our school education and its importance especially in elementary state is quite worth mentioning. Present study investigated the effectiveness of a new and innovative strategy (i.e., MAI (multi-dimensional activity based integrated approach)) for the development of…

  17. Comparison of the Effects of Reflection and Contemplation Activities on Service-Learners' Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Trae; Alrutz, Megan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which service-learners' mindfulness is affected by engagement in reflection (e.g., dialogue) and contemplation activities (e.g., labyrinth tracing). The results are compared within and between treatment groups, while covarying for participants' initial levels of mindfulness. While both dialogue and…

  18. The Impact of Vocabulary Enhancement Activities on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention among Male and Female EFL Learners in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Raftari, Shohreh; Bijami, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    In general, incidental vocabulary acquisition is represented as the "picking up" of new vocabularies when students are engaged in a variety of reading, listening, speaking, or writing activities. Research has shown when learners read extensively incidental vocabulary acquisition happens. Many EFL students cannot be involved in reading…

  19. IRAS observations of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1985-01-01

    The IRAS survey gives an unbiased view of the infrared properties of the active galaxies. Seyfert galaxies occupy much the same area in color-color plots as to normal infrared bright galaxies, but extend the range towards flatter 60 to 25 mm slopes. Statistically the Seyfert 1 galaxies can be distinguished from the Seyfert 2 galaxies, lying predominantly closer to the area with constant slopes between 25 and 200 mm. The infrared measurements of the Seyfert galaxies cannot distinguish between the emission mechanisms in these objects although they agree with the currently popular ideas; they do provide a measure of the total luminosity of the Seyferts. The quasar's position in the color-color diagrams continue the trend of the Seyferts. The quasar 3C48 is shown to be exceptional among the radio loud quasars in that it has a high infrared luminosity which dominates the power output of the quasar and is most likely associated with the underlying host galaxy.

  20. Using Web-Based Instruction to Promote Active Learning: Learners' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lina

    2005-01-01

    This article reports classroom research on learners' perspectives on Web-based instruction that utilizes the "Blackboard" course management system. The Web-based instruction aims to provide and support collaborative learning while fostering learners' autonomy and accountability. The article also provides a description of the course…

  1. Elementary School EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning: The Effects of Post-Reading Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atay, Derin; Kurt, Gokce

    2006-01-01

    As language learning involves the acquisition of thousands of words, teachers and learners alike would like to know how vocabulary learning can be fostered, especially in EFL settings where learners frequently acquire impoverished lexicons, despite years of formal study. Research indicates that reading is important but not sufficient for…

  2. Creative, Kinesthetic Activities to Motivate Young Learners to Communicate: A Conversation with Paula Garrett-Rucks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devall, Kelly Davidson

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a question and answer session in which Paula Garrett-Rucks discusses how creativity and kinesthetics motivate young language learners, the type of characteristics she might consider for different age groups in planning lessons, her views on the goals of world language teachers of young learners, and what a typical lesson…

  3. Factors Affecting the Implementation of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocols for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Carlos Trevino

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this sequential mixed methods case study was to explore the role of a teacher's attitude towards Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocols (SIOP) and how those attitudes affect the program's effectiveness. SIOP is a program designed to mitigate the effects of limited English proficiency and promote equal access to the curriculum…

  4. Assessing patient care: summary of the breakout group on assessment of observable learner performance.

    PubMed

    Takayesu, James Kimo; Kulstad, Christine; Wallenstein, Joshua; Gallahue, Fiona; Gordon, David; Leone, Katrina; Kessler, Chad

    2012-12-01

    There is an established expectation that physicians in training demonstrate competence in all aspects of clinical care prior to entering professional practice. Multiple methods have been used to assess competence in patient care, including direct observation, simulation-based assessments, objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), global faculty evaluations, 360-degree evaluations, portfolios, self-reflection, clinical performance metrics, and procedure logs. A thorough assessment of competence in patient care requires a mixture of methods, taking into account each method's costs, benefits, and current level of evidence. At the 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference on educational research, one breakout group reviewed and discussed the evidence supporting various methods of assessing patient care and defined a research agenda for the continued development of specific assessment methods based on current best practices. In this article, the authors review each method's supporting reliability and validity evidence and make specific recommendations for future educational research.

  5. Report on observational activity in (summer) 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zejda, M.

    2016-03-01

    A short report on the author's observational activity in 2015 and the last 20 years is given. In total this means almost 900 nights, about a half million of CCD frames and thousands of photometric measurements.

  6. Observing shadow motions: resonant activity within the observer's motor system?

    PubMed

    Alaerts, Kaat; Van Aggelpoel, Tinne; Swinnen, Stephan P; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2009-09-25

    Several studies have demonstrated that the human motor cortex is activated by the mere observation of actions performed by others. In the present study, we explored whether the perception of 'impoverished motion stimuli', such as shadow animations, is sufficient to activate motor areas. To do so, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied over the hand area of the primary motor cortex (M1) while subjects observed shadow animations depicting finger motions. Data showed that resonant motor responses in M1 were only found when a biological effector was recognized from the observed shadow animation. Interestingly, M1 responses were similar for observing shadow or real motions. Therefore, the loss of 'pictorial' movement features in a shadow animation appeared to have no effect on motor resonance in M1. In summary, these findings suggest that the 'recognition' of biological motion from sparse visual input is both necessary and sufficient to recruit motor areas. This supports the hypothesis that the motor system is involved in recognizing the actions performed by others.

  7. Investigative Research: How It Changes Learner Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Brian

    1993-01-01

    What matters about an educational activity is how learners respond to it. This article examines a program concerned with the learners' needs, through the expression of learners' own meanings, and advances the concept of investigative research as a suitable vehicle for more autonomous learning, through a change in learner status. (26 references)…

  8. The Built Environment Predicts Observed Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Cheryl; Wilson, Jeffrey S.; Schootman, Mario; Clennin, Morgan; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In order to improve our understanding of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity, it is important to identify associations between specific geographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors. Purpose: Examine relationships between observed physical activity behavior and measures of the built environment collected on 291 street segments in Indianapolis and St. Louis. Methods: Street segments were selected using a stratified geographic sampling design to ensure representation of neighborhoods with different land use and socioeconomic characteristics. Characteristics of the built environment on-street segments were audited using two methods: in-person field audits and audits based on interpretation of Google Street View imagery with each method blinded to results from the other. Segments were dichotomized as having a particular characteristic (e.g., sidewalk present or not) based on the two auditing methods separately. Counts of individuals engaged in different forms of physical activity on each segment were assessed using direct observation. Non-parametric statistics were used to compare counts of physically active individuals on each segment with built environment characteristic. Results: Counts of individuals engaged in physical activity were significantly higher on segments with mixed land use or all non-residential land use, and on segments with pedestrian infrastructure (e.g., crosswalks and sidewalks) and public transit. Conclusion: Several micro-level built environment characteristics were associated with physical activity. These data provide support for theories that suggest changing the built environment and related policies may encourage more physical activity. PMID:24904916

  9. Activities for Challenging Gifted Learners by Increasing Complexity in the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeone, Alyssa; Caruso, Lenora; Bettle, Kailyn; Chase, Ashley; Bryson, Bridget; Schneider, Jean S.; Rule, Audrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Gifted learners need opportunities for critical and creative thinking to stretch their minds and imaginations. Strategies for increasing complexity in the four core areas of language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies were addressed using the Common Core and Iowa Core Standards through several methods. Descriptive adjective object…

  10. Mathematics Learning with Multiple Solution Methods: Effects of Types of Solutions and Learners' Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Große, Cornelia S.

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly suggested to mathematics teachers to present learners different methods in order to solve one problem. This so-called "learning with multiple solution methods" is also recommended from a psychological point of view. However, existing research leaves many questions unanswered, particularly concerning the effects of…

  11. Mediated Vocabulary in Native Speaker-Learner Interactions during an Oral Portfolio Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tocaimaza-Hatch, C. Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    This project investigated vocabulary learning from a sociocultural perspective--in particular, the way in which lexical knowledge was mediated in Spanish second language (L2) learners' and native speakers' (NSs') interactions. Nine students who were enrolled in an advanced conversation course completed an oral portfolio assignment consisting of…

  12. Impact of Consciousness-Raising Activities on Young English Language Learners' Grammar Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatemipour, Hamidreza; Hemmati, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Grammar Consciousness-Raising (GCR) is an approach to teaching of grammar which learners instead of being taught the given rules, experience language data. The data challenge them to rethink, restructure their existing mental grammar and construct an explicit rule to describe the grammatical feature which the data illustrate (Ellis, 2002). And…

  13. The effects of data-driven learning activities on EFL learners' writing development.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qinqin

    2016-01-01

    Data-driven learning has been proved as an effective approach in helping learners solve various writing problems such as correcting lexical or grammatical errors, improving the use of collocations and generating ideas in writing, etc. This article reports on an empirical study in which data-driven learning was accomplished with the assistance of the user-friendly BNCweb, and presents the evaluation of the outcome by comparing the effectiveness of BNCweb and a search engine Baidu which is most commonly used as reference resource by Chinese learners of English as a foreign language. The quantitative results about 48 Chinese college students revealed that the experimental group which used BNCweb performed significantly better in the post-test in terms of writing fluency and accuracy, as compared with the control group which used the search engine Baidu. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of writing complexity. The qualitative results about the interview revealed that learners generally showed a positive attitude toward the use of BNCweb but there were still some problems of using corpora in the writing process, thus the combined use of corpora and other types of reference resource was suggested as a possible way to counter the potential barriers for Chinese learners of English.

  14. Fostering Active Processing of Instructional Explanations of Learners with High and Low Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acuna, Santiago R.; Garcia Rodicio, Hector; Sanchez, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential advantages of instructional explanations, evidence indicates that they are usually ineffective. Subsequent work has shown that in order to make instructional explanations effective indeed, one successful strategy is to combine them with indications of the limitations in learners' understanding that they are intended to…

  15. Developing Learners' Second Language Communicative Competence through Active Learning: Clickers or Communicative Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of clickers, the communicative approach and the lecture method on the communicative competence development of learners who were taught English a second language (ESL). Ninety nine pupils from three primary schools participated in the study. Quasi-experimental non-randomised pre-test posttest…

  16. Active Lessons for Active Brains: Teaching Boys and Other Experiential Learners, Grades 3-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Abigail Norfleet; Allison, Sandra Boyd; McKenzie, Caitlin Zimmerman

    2011-01-01

    If you're tired of repeating yourself to students who aren't listening, try a little less talk and a lot more action. The authors follow the best-selling "Teaching the Male Brain and Teaching the Female Brain" with this ready-to-use collection of mathematics, language arts, science, and classroom management strategies. Designed for active,…

  17. Earth observation archive activities at DRA Farnborough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, M. D.; Williams, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Space Sector, Defence Research Agency (DRA), Farnborough have been actively involved in the acquisition and processing of Earth Observation data for over 15 years. During that time an archive of over 20,000 items has been built up. This paper describes the major archive activities, including: operation and maintenance of the main DRA Archive, the development of a prototype Optical Disc Archive System (ODAS), the catalog systems in use at DRA, the UK Processing and Archive Facility for ERS-1 data, and future plans for archiving activities.

  18. Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, George T.; Carey, Robin J.; Kapushion, Blanche M.

    2016-01-01

    "Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book" includes activities and strategies to support the development of autonomous learners. More than 40 activities are included, all geared to the emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development of students. Teachers may use these activities and strategies with the entire class, small groups, or…

  19. HEROES Observations of a Quiescent Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, A. Y.; Christe, S.; Gaskin, J.; Wilson-Hodge, C.

    2014-12-01

    Hard X-ray (HXR) observations of solar flares reveal the signatures of energetic electrons, and HXR images with high dynamic range and high sensitivity can distinguish between where electrons are accelerated and where they stop. Even in the non-flaring corona, high-sensitivity HXR measurements may be able to detect the presence of electron acceleration. The High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) balloon mission added the capability of solar observations to an existing astrophysics balloon payload, HERO, which used grazing-incidence optics for direct HXR imaging. HEROES measures HXR emission from ~20 to ~75 keV with an angular resolution of 33" HPD. HEROES launched on 2013 September 21 from Fort Sumner, New Mexico, and had a successful one-day flight. We present the detailed analysis of the 7-hour observation of AR 11850, which sets new upper limits on the HXR emission from a quiescent active region, with corresponding constraints on the numbers of tens of keV energetic electrons present. Using the imaging capability of HEROES, HXR upper limits are also obtained for the quiet Sun surrounding the active region. We also discuss what can be achieved with new and improved HXR instrumentation on balloons.

  20. MESSENGER Observations of Substorm Activity at Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W. J.; Slavin, J. A.; Fu, S.; Raines, J. M.; Zong, Q. G.; Poh, G.; Jia, X.; Sundberg, T.; Gershman, D. J.; Pu, Z.; Zurbuchen, T.; Shi, Q.

    2015-12-01

    MErcury Surface, Space ENviroment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) magnetic field and plasma measurements taken during crossings of Mercury's magnetotail from 2011 to 2014 have been investigated for substorms. A number of events with clear Earth-like growth phase and expansion phase signatures were found. The thinning of the plasma sheet and the increase of magnetic field intensity in the lobe were observed during the growth phase and plasma sheet was observed to thicken during the expansion phase, which are similar to the observations at Earth. But the time scale of Mercury's substorm is only several minutes comparing with the several hours at Earth [Sun et al., 2015a]. Detailed analysis of magnetic field fluctuations during the substorm expansion phase have revealed low frequency plasma waves, e.g. Pi2-like pulsations. The By fluctuations accompanying substorm dipolarizations are consistent with pulses of field-aligned currents near the high latitude edge of the plasma sheet. Further study shows that they are near-circularly polarized electromagnetic waves, most likely Alfvén waves. Soon afterwards the plasma sheet thickened and MESSENGER detected a series of compressional waves. We have also discussed their possible sources [Sun et al., 2015b]. Sun, W.-J., J. A. Slavin, S. Y. Fu, et al. (2015a), MESSENGER observations of magnetospheric substorm activity in Mercury's near magnetotail. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 3692-3699. doi: 10.1002/2015GL064052.Sun, W.-J., J. A. Slavin, S. Y. Fu, et al. (2015b), MESSENGER observations of Alfvénic and compressional waves during Mercury's substorms. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, in press. doi: 10.1002/ 2015GL065452.

  1. Positivity effect in healthy aging in observational but not active feedback-learning.

    PubMed

    Bellebaum, Christian; Rustemeier, Martina; Daum, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of healthy aging on the bias to learn from positive or negative performance feedback in observational and active feedback learning. In active learning, a previous study had already shown a negative learning bias in healthy seniors older than 75 years, while no bias was found for younger seniors. However, healthy aging is accompanied by a 'positivity effect', a tendency to primarily attend to stimuli with positive valence. Based on recent findings of dissociable neural mechanisms in active and observational feedback learning, the positivity effect was hypothesized to influence older participants' observational feedback learning in particular. In two separate experiments, groups of young (mean age 27) and older participants (mean age 60 years) completed an observational or active learning task designed to differentially assess positive and negative learning. Older but not younger observational learners showed a significant bias to learn better from positive than negative feedback. In accordance with previous findings, no bias was found for active learning. This pattern of results is discussed in terms of differences in the neural underpinnings of active and observational learning from performance feedback.

  2. Hippocampus activity differentiates good from poor learners of a novel lexicon.

    PubMed

    Breitenstein, Caterina; Jansen, Andreas; Deppe, Michael; Foerster, Ann-Freya; Sommer, Jens; Wolbers, Thomas; Knecht, Stefan

    2005-04-15

    Language proficiency is a key to academic and workplace success for native and non-native speakers. It is largely unknown, however, why some people pick up languages more easily than others. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (e-fMRI) to elucidate which brain regions are modulated during the acquisition of a novel lexicon and which of these learning-related activity changes correlated with general semantic language knowledge. Fourteen healthy young subjects learned a novel vocabulary of 45 concrete nouns via an associative learning principle over the course of five blocks during e-fMRI. As a control condition, subjects took part in a structurally identical "No-Learning" condition lacking any learning principle. Overall, increasing vocabulary proficiency was associated with (intercorrelated) modulations of activity within the left hippocampus and the left fusiform gyrus, regions involved in the binding and integration of multimodal stimuli, and with an increasing activation of the left inferior parietal cortex, the presumed neural store of phonological associations. None of these activity changes were observed during the control condition. Furthermore, subjects who showed less suppression of hippocampal activity over learning blocks scored higher on semantic knowledge in their native language and learned the novel vocabulary more efficiently. Our findings indicate that (a) the successful acquisition of a new lexicon depends on correlated amplitude changes between the left hippocampus and neocortical regions and (b) learning-related hippocampus activity is a stable marker of individual differences in the ability to acquire and master vocabularies.

  3. EUV Observations of Active Region Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, E. E.; Cirtain, J. W.; del Zanna, G.; Mason, H. E.; Martens, P. C.; Schmelz, J.; Golub, L.

    2005-05-01

    Data collected during SoHO JOP 146, in collaboration with TRACE, is used to investigate the physical characteristics of coronal active region loops as a function of time and position along and across loop structures. These data include TRACE images in all three EUV passbands, and simultaneous CDS spectroscopic observations. Preliminary measurements of the loop temperature both along the loop half-length and loop cross-section are presented as a function of time. We will show the temperature and density profiles of several structures as a function of position, show changes in temperature and density with time and characterize the coronal background emission. Questions raised by these results will be greatly advanced with the high resolution spectra available from the EIS on Solar-B.

  4. Using What Learners Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Mary; Adams, Sharon

    2000-01-01

    This issue of "TAP into Learning" focuses on technology-assisted learning activities for students, in particular on those that use spreadsheets. Articles include: "Using What Learners Know"; "Activity: Grade 7 and 8 Math, Social Studies and Language Arts"; "Managing Growth: Collaborative Decision-Making in Urban Planning"; "Spreadsheets"; "Getting…

  5. Development of Observational Activities for Introductory Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Kevin; Wilson, J.

    2007-05-01

    During the spring of 2006 new laboratory activities were developed for introductory astronomy classes at Georgia State University. The purpose of these labs was to develop hands-on astronomy activates. We first purchased Project Star refracting telescope kits and spectrometer kits, and a Meade Deep Sky Imager CCD. The new materials were tried on a single lab section of 22 students. For comparison purposes a traditional lab section from the same large lecture class was selected as a control group. The students in the experimental group constructed the telescopes and measured their telescope’s, light gathering ability and its angular resolution and compared them to the human eye, and its magnification. The students also built spectrometers and learned how to use them identify different types of light sources such as Mercury vapor lights, high and low pressure sodium lights, fluorescent lights, and other typical light sources. Each student then performed a light pollution investigation of their neighborhood using the spectroscopes they had constructed. In addition all students used these spectroscopes to observe solar Fraunhofer lines. In lab students used a small Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope and the Meade Deep Sky Imager to take photos of objects inside the lab room. After this they took telescopic pictures of the sun and moon on several occasions. The students rally enjoyed most of these activities. Student in the experimental group had slightly higher final exam scores than the students in the control group. However, the drop rate for the control group was higher then the experimental group and so the statistical significance of the result could not be determined. The authors would like to thank the Partnership for Reform in Science and Mathematics (PRISM), funded by NSF, for providing a mini-grant to support this work.

  6. Adult Learners' Week in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John

    2002-01-01

    Promotional materials and activities for Australia's Adult Learners Week, which are shaped by a variety of stakeholders , include media strategies and a website. Activities are evaluated using a market research company and website and telephone hotline statistics. (SK)

  7. Communicative Language Teaching: The Learner's View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    Several studies of the differences in teacher and learner perceptions of the usefulness of certain teaching techniques and activities reveal clear mismatches between learners' and teachers' views of language learning. The differences seem to be due to the sociocultural background and previous learning experiences of the learners and the influence…

  8. The Development and Evaluation of an Achievement Test for Measuring the Efficacy of Task-Based Writing Activities to Enhance Iranian EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejad, Ferdows Mohsen; Khosravian, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability of an achievement test to measure the efficacy of task-based writing activities to improve Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension at the intermediate level in a private language institute in Ilam, Iran, namely Alefba language institute. To achieve the goal, the techniques for evaluating reliability…

  9. Effects of an Online Learning Community on Active and Reflective Learners' Learning Performance and Attitudes in a Face-to-Face Undergraduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhan, Zehui; Xu, Fuyin; Ye, Huiwen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an Online Learning Community (OLC) on active and reflective learners' learning performance and attitude in a face-to-face undergraduate digital design course. 814 freshmen in an introductory digital design course were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: one offered students an OLC,…

  10. Exploring Work-Based Foundation Skills in the ABLE Classroom. Instructional Activities and Resources for the Adult Learner [and] Supplemental Handouts for Modules. Version 1.2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Priscilla; Van Horn, Barbara; Hamilton, KayLynn; Williams, Mary Kay

    This guide contains activities and resources to help adult learners develop the work-based foundation skills and knowledge areas included on the Foundation Skills Framework wheel (Institute for the Study of Adult Literacy 2000). Its four sections (basic employability skills, basic workplace knowledge, basic workplace skills, and lifelong learning…

  11. The Effects of Pragmatic Consciousness-Raising Activities on the Development of Pragmatic Awareness and Use of Hearsay Evidential Markers for Learners of Japanese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narita, Ritsuko

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the effectiveness of pragmatic consciousness-raising (PCR) activities in the L2 pragmatic acquisition of hearsay evidential markers by learners of Japanese as a foreign language (JFL). PCR is essentially an inductive approach to facilitating awareness of how language forms are used appropriately in a given context.…

  12. Digging Deeper into Learners' Experiences in MOOCs: Participation in Social Networks outside of MOOCs, Notetaking and Contexts Surrounding Content Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Collier, Amy; Schneider, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Researchers describe with increasing confidence "what" they observe participants doing in massive open online courses (MOOCs). However, our understanding of learner activities in open courses is limited by researchers' extensive dependence on log file analyses and clickstream data to make inferences about learner behaviors. Further, the…

  13. Models Constraints from Observations of Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffel, R.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Dametto, N. Z.; Ruschel-Dutra, D.; Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Martins, L. P.; Mason, R.; Ho, L. C.; Palomar XD Team

    2015-08-01

    Studying the unresolved stellar content of galaxies generally involves disentangling the various components contributing to the spectral energy distribution (SED), and fitting a combination of simple stellar populations (SSPs) to derive information about age, metallicity, and star formation history. In the near-infrared (NIR, 0.85-2.5 μm), the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase - the last stage of the evolution of intermediate-mass (M ≲ 6 M⊙) stars - is a particularly important component of the SSP models. These stars can dominate the emission of stellar populations with ages ˜ 0.2-2 Gyr, being responsible for roughly half of the luminosity in the K band. In addition, when trying to describe the continuum observed in active galactic nuclei, the signatures of the central engine and from the dusty torus cannot be ignored. Over the past several years we have developed a method to disentangle these three components. Our synthesis shows significant differences between Seyfert 1 (Sy 1) and Seyfert 2 (Sy 2) galaxies. The central few hundred parsecs of our galaxy sample contain a substantial fraction of intermediate-age populations with a mean metallicity near solar. Two-dimensional mapping of the near-infrared stellar population of the nuclear region of active galaxies suggests that there is a spatial correlation between the intermediate-age stellar population and a partial ring of low stellar velocity dispersion (σ*). Such an age is consistent with a scenario in which the origin of the low-σ* rings is a past event which triggered an inflow of gas and formed stars which still keep the colder kinematics of the gas from which they have formed. We also discuss the fingerprints of features attributed to TP-AGB stars in the spectra of the nuclear regions of nearby galaxies.

  14. "Dealing With" Unexpected Learner Contributions in Whole Group Activities: An Examination of Novice Language Teacher Discursive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Drew S.

    2012-01-01

    The current paper examines the discursive practices of one novice English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher "dealing with" learners' unexpected contributions in whole group classroom interactions during teacher- and learner-initiated sequences-of-talk. The study draws from two fields of research: classroom discourse studies…

  15. Reaching English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    In the authors' science classroom, students who are English Language Learners (ELL) seem to struggle less than they do with other content areas. She believes the "handson" nature of science motivates and encourages students to interact with others. This interaction spurs conversation among the students involved in the activity. If a child is…

  16. Exploring Shifts in Middle School Learners' Modeling Activity While Generating Drawings, Animations, and Computational Simulations of Molecular Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson-Jerde, Michelle H.; Gravel, Brian E.; Macrander, Christopher A.

    2015-04-01

    Modeling and using technology are two practices of particular interest to K-12 science educators. These practices are inextricably linked among professionals, who engage in modeling activity with and across a variety of representational technologies. In this paper, we explore the practices of five sixth-grade girls as they generated models of smell diffusion using drawing, stop-motion animation, and computational simulation during a multi-day workshop. We analyze video, student discourse, and artifacts to address the questions: In what ways did learners' modeling practices, reasoning about mechanism, and ideas about smell shift as they worked across this variety of representational technologies? And, what supports enabled them to persist and progress in the modeling activity? We found that the girls engaged in two distinct modeling cycles that reflected persistence and deepening engagement in the task. In the first, messing about, they focused on describing and representing many ideas related to the spread of smell at once. In the second, digging in, they focused on testing and revising specific mechanisms that underlie smell diffusion. Upon deeper analysis, we found these cycles were linked to the girls' invention of "oogtom," a representational object that encapsulated many ideas from the first cycle and allowed the girls to restart modeling with the mechanistic focus required to construct simulations. We analyze the role of activity design, facilitation, and technological infrastructure in this pattern of engagement over the course of the workshop and discuss implications for future research, curriculum design, and classroom practice.

  17. Miscellaneous observations of active galactic nuclei. II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, A. C.; Veron, P.; Veron-Cetty, M.-P.

    1998-01-01

    We observed 37 AGN candidates and classified them on the basis of their spectroscopic properties; three are confirmed QSOs, one is a BL Lac object, nine are Seyfert 1 galaxies, four Seyfert 2s, while twenty are HII regions. Based on observations collected at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS), France, and at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chili.

  18. Microvariability Observations of Three Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.; Hirschmann, A.; Jenks, A.; Keshishian, G.; Torres, Y.

    2000-12-01

    Microvariability observations are presented for three objects - the BL Lac object OQ 530, the OVV quasar 3CR 345, and the very high redshift quasar PSS 1057+4555. All objects were observed using the 0.76m telescope at the Rosemary Hill Observatory. The object OQ 530 was observed in the R band during three nights in June of 1997. Observations in the V and I bands were made of the OVV quasar 3CR 345 in May of 2000. The microvariability behavior reported here for OQ 530 and 3CR 345 is compared to the previously reported behavior for these objects. In addition, observations were carried out over four nights in March and May of 2000 to search for microvariability of the very high redshift (z = 4.10) quasar PSS 1057+4555. The data presented here for these three objects are discussed in relation to current models for microvariability.

  19. Who Benefits from Cooperative Learning with Movement Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoval, Ella; Shulruf, Boaz

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to identify learners who are most likely to benefit from a small group cooperative learning strategy, which includes tasks involving movement activities. The study comprised 158 learners from five second and third grade classes learning about angles. The research tools included structured observation of each learner and…

  20. When the School "Faucet" Turns Off, the Sociocultural "Sprinklers" Turn On: Observing Funds of Knowledge among First and Second Grade English Learners Who Experienced Summer Gains in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Shannon Kay

    2010-01-01

    Based on a mixed methods research design that included an examination of the impact of summer, case study analyses, and survey findings, English learners appear to have an advantage over their non-English learner peers in resisting summer loss and developing social competence. This study examined the effect of summer vacation on the oral reading…

  1. Empowering Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Pat; Stephens, Claire Gatrell

    2010-01-01

    Turning students into lifelong learners is not easily accomplished. How do school librarians ensure that students have a zeal for learning? How do they encourage, cajole, or entice students to want to learn? The answer lies in empowering students with the skills they need to enjoy researching as well as reading for information and pleasure. This…

  2. Frequency requirements for active earth observation sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The foundation and rationale for the selection of microwave frequencies for active remote sensing usage and for subsequent use in determination of sharing criteria and allocation strategies for the WARC-79 are presented.

  3. OBSERVING CORONAL NANOFLARES IN ACTIVE REGION MOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, Paola; DeLuca, Ed; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark; De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Title, Alan; Hansteen, Viggo; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Kuzin, Sergey; Walsh, Robert; DeForest, Craig

    2013-06-10

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial ({approx}0.''3-0.''4) and temporal (5.5 s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to {approx}15 s, significantly shorter than the minute-scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the 94 A channel, and by the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few 10{sup 23} erg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C observations suggest that future observations at comparable high spatial and temporal resolution, with more extensive temperature coverage, are required to determine the exact characteristics of the heating mechanism(s).

  4. Sciencing with Mother Goose: Observation Activities with Chicken Little.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Carolyn

    1996-01-01

    Provides sample observation activities to accompany the nursery tale of Chicken Little. Includes five activities that involve the skills of observing, communicating, comparing, ordering, and categorizing to engage students in hands-on science. (DDR)

  5. Observational Activities at Manipur University, India (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. Y.; Meitei, I. A.; Singh, S. A.; Singh, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) We have innovatively designed and constructed three observatories each costing a few hundred USD for housing three small Schmidt-Cassegrain type telescopes namely, Celestron CGE925, Celestron CGE1400, Meade 12-inch LX200GPS. These observatories are completely different in design and are found to be perfectly usable for doing serious work on astronomical observation and measurements. The observatory with the Celestron CGE1400 telescope has been inducted, since January 2012, as one of the observatories of the international “Orion Project” headquartered at Phoenix, Arizona, which is dedicated for photometric and spectroscopic observations of five bright variable stars of the Orion constellation namely, Betelgeuse (alpha Ori), Rigel (beta Ori), Mintaka (delta Ori), Alnilam (epsilon Ori) and Alnitak (zeta Ori). Using this observatory, we have been producing BVRI photometric data for the five stars of the Orion project. The other observatory with the Meade 12-inch LX200GPS telescope is being inducted into service for CCD photometric study of SU UMa stars in connection with implementation of a project funded by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). In the present paper, we would like to describe our self-built observatories, our observational facilities, the BVRI photometric data that we acquired for the Orion project, and our future plan for observation of variable stars of interest.

  6. Activity Based Learning as Self-Accessing Strategy to Promote Learners' Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravi, R.; Xavier, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Activity Based Learning (ABL) is unique and effective to attract out-of -school children to schools. It facilitates readiness for learning, instruction, reinforcement and evaluation. ABL has transformed the classrooms into hubs of activities and meaningful learning. Activity-based learning, naturally leads to cooperative learning. Since group…

  7. Student Activities, Electronic Learners, and the Future: Integrating a Technological Component into Your Role as an Advisor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Jason Foster

    1996-01-01

    Provides advice to faculty advisers of student organizations on understanding the learning styles, needs, cultures, and strengths of today's "electronic learners." Advisers need to understand technology-related learning patterns and become technologically literate to work with college students. (MDM)

  8. The Structural Challenge: A Simple Design-Based Science Activity to Foster Creativity among Kinaesthetic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Nazir; Subramaniam, R.

    2014-01-01

    A suitable way for teachers to present science content and foster creativity in less academically inclined students is by getting them to engage in design-based science activities and guiding them along the way. This study illustrates how a design-and-make activity was carried out with the aim of getting students to showcase their creativity while…

  9. Solar Activity Studies using Microwave Imaging Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the status of solar cycle 24 based on polar prominence eruptions (PEs) and microwave brightness enhancement (MBE) information obtained by the Nobeyama radioheliograph. The north polar region of the Sun had near-zero field strength for more than three years (2012-2015) and ended only in September 2015 as indicated by the presence of polar PEs and the lack of MBE. The zero-polar-field condition in the south started only around 2013, but it ended by June 2014. Thus the asymmetry in the times of polarity reversal switched between cycle 23 and 24. The polar MBE is a good proxy for the polar magnetic field strength as indicated by the high degree of correlation between the two. The cross-correlation between the high- and low-latitude MBEs is significant for a lag of approximately 5.5 to 7.3 years, suggesting that the polar field of one cycle indicates the sunspot number of the next cycle in agreement with the Babcock-Leighton mechanism of solar cycles. The extended period of near-zero field in the north-polar region should result in a weak and delayed sunspot activity in the northern hemisphere in cycle 25.

  10. Cassini UVIS Observations Show Active Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L.; Colwell, J. E.; UVIS Team

    2004-12-01

    The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) is part of the remote sensing payload of the NASA/ESA Cassini spacecraft. This spectrograph includes channels for extreme UV and far UV spectroscopic imaging, high speed photometry of stellar occultations, solar EUV occultation, and a hydrogen/deuterium absorption cell. We report our initial results from UVIS observations of Saturn's rings. Dynamic interactions between neutrals, ions, rings, moons and meteoroids produce a highly structured and time variable Saturn system Oxygen in the Saturn system dominates the magnetosphere. Observed fluctuations indicate close interactions with plasma sources. Stochastic events in the E ring may be the ultimate source. The spectral signature of water ice is seen on Phoebe and in Saturn's rings. Water ice is mixed non-uniformly with darker constituents. The high structure of the UV ring reflectance argues that collisional transport dominates ballistic transport in darkening the rings. Our preliminary results support the idea that rings are recycled fragments of moons: the current processes are more important than history and initial conditions. The spectra along the UVIS SOI radial scan indicate varying amounts of water ice. In the A ring, the ice fraction increases outward to a maximum at the outer edge. This large-scale variation is consistent with initially pure ice that has suffered meteoritic bombardment over the age of the Solar system (Cuzzi and Estrada 1998). We also see variations over scales of 1000 - 3000 km, which cannot be explained by this mechanism. Ballistic transport of spectrally neutral extrinsic pollutants from meteoroids striking the rings has a typical throw distance of 6000 km (Durisen et al 1989), too long to explain this finer structure. We propose a class of smaller renewal events, in which a small moon residing within the rings is shattered by an external impactor (Colwell and Esposito 1993, Barbara and Esposito 2002, Esposito and Colwell 2003). The

  11. Objects prompt authentic scientific activities among learners in a museum programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achiam, Marianne; Simony, Leonora; Kramer Lindow, Bent Erik

    2016-04-01

    Although the scientific disciplines conduct practical work in different ways, all consider practical work as the essential way of connecting objects and phenomena with ideas and the abstract. Accordingly, practical work is regarded as central to science education as well. We investigate a practical, object-based palaeontology programme at a natural history museum to identify how palaeontological objects prompt scientific activity among upper secondary school students. We first construct a theoretical framework based on an analysis of the programme's palaeontological content. From this, we build our reference model, which considers the specimens used in the programme, possible palaeontological interpretations of these specimens, and the conditions inherent in the programme. We use the reference model to analyse the activities of programme participants, and illustrate how these activities are palaeontologically authentic. Finally, we discuss our findings, examining the mechanism by which the specimens prompt scientific activities. We also discuss our discipline-based approach, and how it allows us to positively identify participants' activities as authentic. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings.

  12. Collaborative Syntactic Priming Activities and EFL Learners' Production of Wh-questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Kim; Chaikitmongkol, Wanpen

    2010-01-01

    Syntactic priming is the tendency for a speaker to produce a structure that was encountered in recent discourse and is measured by calculating how frequently speakers use the modelled structures as opposed to alternatives. Recent lab-based studies have shown that carrying out syntactic priming activities with trained interlocutors positively…

  13. The Effect of Curricular Activities on Learner Autonomy: The Perspective of Undergraduate Mechanical Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, M.; Leite, C.; Mouraz, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study researches how first-year engineering students perceived the influence of curricular activities on their own learning autonomy, measured with an adaptation of the Personal Responsibility Orientation to Self-direction in Learning Scale (PRO-SDLS). Participants were questioned to assess the influence of the teacher's role. The results…

  14. Growing into Greatness: A Study of a Local History Group of Active-Retired Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Trudy; Byrne, Brid; Harris, Phyllis; Lalor, Maureen; O'Connor, Maura; O'Reilly, Kathleen; Quinn, Frank; Forde, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Research in Canada on the learning needs of older people looked at such issues as how to cope with changes in society, the need to make a contribution and the need to be influential. The White Paper on Adult Education "Learning for Life" notes that strategies for active ageing stress the critical importance of access to learning as a key…

  15. Research on the Healthy Lifestyle Model, Active Ageing, and Loneliness of Senior Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Jui-Ying; Lu, Kuo-Song

    2014-01-01

    Taiwan has the fastest ageing population in the world. Thus, the government and local policy makers need to formulate policies not just for the nursing and care needs of the aged. They also need to actively promote the need for lifelong learning among seniors in order to achieve elderly-friendly objectives, such as health promotion and delays in…

  16. The Effect of a Timed Reading Activity on EFL Learners: Speed, Comprehension, and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Anna C-S

    2010-01-01

    To develop reading fluency, a 13-week timed reading activity was integrated into a normal curriculum with the aim of improving students' reading rates. Participants were 84 college students divided into an experimental and a control group. The test instruments involved pretests and posttests on reading speed and comprehension. Students'…

  17. Style Shifts among Japanese Learners before and after Study Abroad in Japan: Becoming Active Social Agents in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwasaki, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on L2 Japanese sojourners often reported that learners overuse the plain style or haphazardly mix the plain and polite styles upon return. These styles, which are often associated with formal or informal contexts, also index complex social and situational meanings, and native speakers are reported to shift their styles to create…

  18. Teacher-Made Tactile Science Materials with Critical and Creative Thinking Activities for Learners Including Those with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teske, Jolene K.; Gray, Phyllis; Kuhn, Mason A.; Clausen, Courtney K.; Smith, Latisha L.; Alsubia, Sukainah A.; Ghayoorad, Maryam; Rule, Audrey C.; Schneider, Jean Suchsland

    2014-01-01

    Gifted students with visual impairments are twice exceptional learners and may not evidence their advanced science aptitudes without appropriate accommodations for learning science. However, effective tactile science teaching materials may be easily made. Recent research has shown that when tactile materials are used with "all" students…

  19. Examining Student Cognitive and Affective Engagement and Reading Instructional Activities: Spanish-Speaking English Learners' Reading Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Ana Taboada; Gallagher, Melissa; Smith, Peet; Buehl, Michelle M.; Beck, Jori S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the key role of engagement in helping students succeed in school and beyond. Given the academic struggles that many English learners (ELs) face as they transition to middle school, exploring the facets of engagement in middle school ELs is needed. We established reader profiles for eight sixth grade Hispanic ELs and…

  20. Guiding Learners to near Native Fluency in English through an Adaptive Programme of Activities Which Includes Phoneme and Prosody Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Alistair; Attridge, Ann; Lapok, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Many students of English language find pronunciation difficult to master. This work in progress paper discusses an incremental and iterative approach towards developing requirements for software applications to assist learners with the perception and production of English pronunciation in terms of phonemes and prosody. It was found that prompts…

  1. Using Digital Storytelling as a Language Experience Approach Activity: Integrating English Language Learners into a Museum Field Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Knight, Jennifer Hatch

    2016-01-01

    Second language learners face countless obstacles in the classroom, including communication and comprehension limitations and difficulty building relationships with peers. Many teachers struggle to build an inclusive classroom environment and ensure all students, especially those with linguistic and other learning disadvantages, are learning. This…

  2. We Are What We Do: Examining Learner-Generated Content in the Anatomy Laboratory through the Lens of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doubleday, Alison F.; Wille, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Video and photography are often used for delivering content within the anatomical sciences. However, instructors typically produce these resources to provide instructional or procedural information. Although the benefits of learner-generated content have been explored within educational research, virtually no studies have investigated the use of…

  3. Learner Personas in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude

    2007-01-01

    In examining the titles of this year's conference presentations, the author noticed quite a few papers that focus on learner-specific issues, for instance, papers that address learning styles, learner needs, personality and learning, learner modeling and, more generally, pedagogical issues that deal with individual learner differences in…

  4. Learning from Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matos, Joao Filipe

    This paper is a reflection of the preparation of the Psychology of Mathematics Education Panel (PME26) that discuss the issue of "learning from learners." What it implies to be a learner is formulated in order to reflect upon the way teachers and/or researchers learn from learners. The idea of conceptualizing the notion of "learning from learners"…

  5. Context Matters: Systematic Observation of Place-Based Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Thomas L

    2016-12-01

    Physical activity is place-based, and being able to assess the number of people and their characteristics in specific locations is important both for public health surveillance and for practitioners in their design of physical activity spaces and programs. Although physical activity measurement has improved recently, many investigators avoid or are at a loss regarding the assessment of physical activity in explicit locations, especially in open environments where many people come and go in a seemingly indiscriminate fashion. Direct, systematic observation exceeds other methods in simultaneously assessing physical activity and the contexts in which it occurs. This commentary summarizes the development and use of 2 validated observation tools: the System for Observing Play and Leisure in Youth (SOPLAY) and System for Observing Play and Active Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). Their use is well supported by both behavior-analytic principles and social-ecological theory, and their methods have utility for both researchers and practitioners.

  6. Movement observation specifies motor programs activated by the action observed objective.

    PubMed

    Lago, Angel; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel

    2011-04-15

    There are human cortical areas that fire both when a person executes an action and when he observes someone performing a similar action. The observer activates a motor program that resembles the observed action. However, it is not known whether the motor program activated via action observation is muscle specific. In this study, using simple pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied over the primary motor cortex (M1), we investigated whether the Mirror System activates a muscle specific motor program, or codes the observed action in terms of its goal. The results showed that when subjects observed a static effector in front of an object, cortical excitability was enhanced even in muscles not involved in the observed movement, but that are able to achieve the goal of the action. When there was an effector-object interaction the motor program activated via action observation is muscle specific. These results suggest that when subjects observe an object related action there is an activation of a motor program based on the observed action goal, that is transformed into a muscle specific program when the subject shows an effector-object interaction.

  7. Observations of Teacher-Child Interactions in Classrooms Serving Latinos and Dual Language Learners: Applicability of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System in Diverse Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downer, Jason T.; Lopez, Michael L.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Hamagami, Aki; Pianta, Robert C.; Howes, Carollee

    2012-01-01

    With the rising number of Latino and dual language learner (DLL) children attending pre-k and the importance of assessing the quality of their experiences in those settings, this study examined the extent to which a commonly used assessment of teacher-child interactions, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS), demonstrated similar…

  8. Enhancing Writing Pedagogy with Learner Corpus Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotos, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Learner corpora have become prominent in language teaching and learning, enhancing data-driven learning (DDL) pedagogy by promoting "learning driven data" in the classroom. This study explores the potential of a local learner corpus by investigating the effects of two types of DDL activities, one relying on a native-speaker corpus (NSC)…

  9. The Tip of the Iceberg: Factors Affecting Learner Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Teachers' informal discussions of learner motivation often emphasize the need to find ways to motivate learners, most usually through "fun" or "dynamic" activities. This paper starts from the assumption, however, that part of the work of the teacher is to avoid the "demotivation" of learners, and that there is a need to consider the overall…

  10. Seeing It Their Way: Learners and Language Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    The starting point for curriculum planning for second language instruction is the learner, and a curriculum can claim to be learner-centered only if key factors about the learner are made the basis for curriculum design at all stages in the planning and development of learning activities and materials and in the sequencing of learning experiences.…

  11. Observational methods used to assess rat behavior: general activity.

    PubMed

    Paul, Carol Ann; Beltz, Barbara; Berger-Sweeney, Joanne

    2007-09-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe activity-inactivity continuum is an important parameter of behavior, and quantification of overall locomotor activity in the rat should identify it as a naturally nocturnal animal. Disruptions in nocturnal activity can be caused by damage in visual inputs to the brain or damage in the hypothalamus. Many commercial devices are available to measure activity automatically; some can be integrated with a computer to allow overnight monitoring in the absence of an observer. A less sophisticated but still accurate method of measuring activity is to create a home-made activity chamber by replacing the bottom of a box with Plexiglas or by marking lines on the bottom of a clean rat cage so that the observer can record rat activity by noting when the lines are crossed, while simultaneously recording other behaviors. Activity in rat pups can be observed as soon as they are 10 days old using smaller activity chambers. This protocol describes the construction of a home-made activity chamber and how to measure four activities: locomotion, rearing, circling, and grooming.

  12. Lurking and L2 Learners on a Facebook Group: The Voices of the Invisibles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafie, Latisha Asmaak; Yaacob, Aizan; Singh, Paramjit Kaur Karpal

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research investigates the practice of lurking among English as a second language (ESL) learners in a Facebook group discussion. Lurking is a term used to describe the activity of following and observing any online discussions or activities without contributing to the discussions. Lurkers are often accused of being invisible and…

  13. Expanded Perspectives on Autonomous Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two general perspectives on autonomous learners: psychological and sociocultural. These perspectives introduce a range of theoretically grounded facets of autonomous learners, facets such as the self-regulated learner, the emotionally intelligent learner, the self-determined learner, the mediated learner, the socioculturally…

  14. Between the Social and the Selfish: Learner Autonomy in Online Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores what it means to be an autonomous learner in an online social context. Using distinctions originally drawn by Jürgen Habermas, it argues that classic accounts of learner autonomy as teleological action are inadequate to explain learner activity in group settings. It points out that learners in such settings display attitudes…

  15. Interprofessional pharmacy observation activity for third-year dental students.

    PubMed

    Conway, Susan E; Smith, Winter J; Truong, Teresa H; Shadid, Jill

    2014-09-01

    Interprofessional learning is a key component of today's health sciences education. Within a two-course series in dental pharmacology and therapeutics, a dental curriculum was revised to provide an interprofessional activity to expose dental students to a community pharmacy setting. The objectives of this activity were to augment students' learning about drug laws and prescription writing, as well as to foster interprofessional relationships and collaboration between pharmacists and dentists. Dental students were scheduled for one-hour observations at community pharmacies on campus. Learning objectives to guide this activity focused on demonstrating community pharmacy operating procedures, identifying ways to minimize prescribing and dosing errors, and understanding how pharmacists can assist dentists in prescribing. Following the observation, students were required to submit a written assignment, which accounted for 14 percent of their course grade. All 119 dental students (100 percent) enrolled in the course for the summers of 2012 and 2013 completed the activity. The average grade on the written assignment was 96.2 out of 100. At the end of the course, students were asked to participate in an online course evaluation survey, for which response rates were 37 percent and 43 percent for 2012 and 2013, respectively. The students rated the pharmacy observation activity favorably on this course evaluation. The pharmacy observation activity provided a successful interprofessional component to the didactic pharmacy course and was well received by the dental students as well as the community pharmacists.

  16. Dynamics of active regions observed with Hinode XRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakao, Taro

    We present dynamics of active regions observed with the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) aboard Hinode. XRT is a grazing-incidence imager with a Walter Type-I-like mirror of 34 cm diameter with a back-illuminated CCD device. The XRT can image the X-ray corona of the Sun with angular resolution consistent with 1 arcsec CCD pixel size. In addition to this unprecedentedly-high angular resolution ever achieved as a solar X-ray telescope, enhanced sensitivity of the CCD towards longer X-ray wavelengths (particularly beyond 50 Angstroms) enables XRT to image, and perform temperature diagnostics on, a wide range of coronal plasmas from those as low as 1 MK to high-temperature plasmas even exceeding 10 MK. This adds a notable advantage to the XRT such that it can observe most, if not all, active phenomena taking place in and around active regions. Since the beginning of observations with XRT on 23 October 2006, the XRT has so far made various interesting observations regarding active regions. These include (1) continuous outflow of plasmas from the edge of a solar active region that is likely to be a source of (slow) solar wind, (2) clear signature of eruptions for activities even down to GOES B-level, (3) detailed structure and evolution of flaring loops, (4) formation of large-scale hot loops around active regions, and so on. Dynamic phenomena in and around active regions observed with Hinode XRT will be presented and their possible implications to the Sun-Earth connection investigation will be discussed.

  17. Listening to Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    This booklet looks at the role of learner feedback in the quality improvement process. It suggests how adult and community learning (ACL) providers can adapt and improve their practice to meet the needs of learners in the changed policy context. Chapter 1 explores why providers should listen to learners and finds that listening to learners…

  18. Learners' Interpretations of Recasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Helen; Jeon, K. Seon; MacGregor, David; Mackey, Alison

    2006-01-01

    A number of interaction researchers have claimed that recasts might be ambiguous to learners; that is, instead of perceiving recasts as containing corrective feedback, learners might see them simply as literal or semantic repetitions without any corrective element (Long, in press; Lyster & Ranta, 1997). This study investigates learners'…

  19. Learner and Faculty Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Sharon; Stanford, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This chapter identifies effective ways to address learner and faculty support. It introduces methods for building a successful learner support system by providing sufficient resources and proactively addressing learner motivation. It also addresses effective faculty support through institutional policies, resources, training, and course…

  20. Galileo SSI Observations of Volcanic Activity at Tvashtar Catena, Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milazzo, M. P.; Keszthely, L. P.; Radebaugh, J.; Davies, A. G.; Turtle, E. P.; Geissler, P.; Klaasen, K. P.; McEwen, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: We report on the analysis of the Galileo SSI's observations of the volcanic activity at Tvashtar Catena, Io as discussed by Milazzo et al. Galileo's Solid State Imager (SSI) observed Tvashtar Catena (63 deg N, 120 deg W) four times between November 1999 and October 2001, providing a unique look at the distinctive high latitude volcanism on Io. The November 1999 observation spatially resolved, for the first time, an active extraterrestrial fissure eruption. The brightness temperature of the lavas at the November 1999 fissure eruption was 1300 K. The second observation (orbit I27, February 2000) showed a large (approx. 500 sq km) region with many, small spots of hot, active lava. The third observation was taken in conjunction with a Cassini observation in December 2000 and showed a Pele-like plume deposition ring, while the Cassini images revealed a 400 km high Pele-type plume above the Catena. The final Galileo SSI observation of Tvashtar was acquired in October 2001, and all obvious (to SSI) activity had ceased, although data from Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) indicated that there was still significant thermal emission from the Tvashtar region. We have concentrated on analyzing the style of eruption during orbit I27 (February 2000). Comparison with a lava flow cooling model indicates that the behavior of the Tvashtar eruption during I27 does not match that of "simple" advancing lava flows. Instead, it may be an active lava lake or a complex set of lava flows with episodic, overlapping (in time and space) eruptions.

  1. Observed Helicity of Active Regions in Solar Cycle 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Blehm, Z.; Smith, J. E.; Six, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of a study of helicity in solar active regions during the peak of activity in solar cycle 21 from observations with the Marshall Space Flight Center's solar vector magnetograph. Using the force-free parameter alpha as the proxy for helicity, we calculated an average value of alpha for each of 60 active regions from a total of 449 vector magnetograms that were obtained during the period 1980 March to November. The signs of these average values of alpha were correlated with the latitude of the active regions to test the hemispheric rule of helicity that has been proposed for solar magnetic fields: negative helicity predominant in northern latitudes, positive in the southern ones. We have found that of the 60 regions that were observed, 30 obey the hemispheric rule and 30 do not.

  2. Fostering Learner Autonomy: Power and Reciprocity in the Relationship between Language Learner and Language Learning Adviser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciekanski, Maud

    2007-01-01

    Developments in lifelong learning and learner autonomy have given fresh impetus to the debate about learning without formal teaching. This paper concerns the educational relationship between learner and adviser in self-directed schemes. Two French self-directed language learning set-ups were observed, one situated at university level (Systeme…

  3. Observation procedures characterizing occupational physical activities: critical review.

    PubMed

    Denis, D; Lortie, M; Rossignol, M

    2000-01-01

    The first objective of this paper is to compare the observation procedures proposed to characterize physical work. The second objective is to examine the following 3 methodological issues: reliability, observer training, and internal validity. Seventy-two papers were reviewed, 38 of which proposed a new or modified observation grid. The observation variables identified were broken down into 7 categories as follows: posture, exertion, load handled, work environment, use of feet, use of hands, and activities or tasks performed. The review revealed the variability of existing procedures. The examination of methodological issues showed that observation data can be reliable and can present an adequate internal validity. However, little information about the conditions necessary to achieve good reliability was available.

  4. Regional Observation of Seismic Activity in Baekdu Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Geunyoung; Che, Il-Young; Shin, Jin-Soo; Chi, Heon-Cheol

    2015-04-01

    Seismic unrest in Baekdu Mountain area between North Korea and Northeast China region has called attention to geological research community in Northeast Asia due to her historical and cultural importance. Seismic bulletin shows level of seismic activity in the area is higher than that of Jilin Province of Northeast China. Local volcanic observation shows a symptom of magmatic unrest in period between 2002 and 2006. Regional seismic data have been used to analyze seismic activity of the area. The seismic activity could be differentiated from other seismic phenomena in the region by the analysis.

  5. Teaching Writing. Three Seasonal Activities to Hone Kids' Observation Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Brenda

    1997-01-01

    The seasonal activities presented are: observing herbs to encourage use of the senses in writing; watching a jack-o'-lantern wither to learn skills in writing details; and building snowmen to learn to explain a string of events in writing. (SM)

  6. First OSIRIS observations of active areas on comet 67P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, J.-B.; Sierks, H.; Oklay, N.; Agarwal, J.; Güttler, C.; Bodewits, D.; Osiris Team

    2014-04-01

    After a successful exit from hibernation, Rosetta started observing its final target comet 67P in March 2014 with the two OSIRIS cameras WAC and NAC (Wide Angle and Narrow Angle Camera) [1]. By the time of this conference, the spacecraft will have flown from 5 million to 50 km from the nucleus surface, reaching a resolution of 1 meter/pixel in the NAC images. During that period, the comet heliocentric distance varies from 4.3 to 3.2 AU and we will observe how the early activity develops. We know that cometary surfaces are not fully active; only a small fraction of the surface emits gas and dust. However we do not yet understand why it happens in that way, and what to expect on 67P. Recent publications using data from ground-based telescopes have proposed different interpretations for the distribution of active sources, from one to three at various latitudes [2, 3]. There is some evidence for different levels of activity in the northern and southern hemispheres, but these variations can only be constrained with close range data. In August 2014, OSIRIS will map the surface of the comet at high resolution, and perform weekly monitoring of the activity, especially the faintest jets. With these images and the inversion code COSSIM [4], we will be able to link observed features in the coma or on the limb to physical spots on the surface. On other comets visited by spacecrafts the activity has sometimes been associated with smooth areas, rough terrains, or specific morphologic features (cliff, crater, rim, . . . ). We will present a first look at how activity and terrain are linked on 67P, and look at variations of composition, morphology, or both. We will compare this identification of active areas to previous publications.

  7. Observational evidence for enhanced magnetic activity of superflare stars.

    PubMed

    Karoff, Christoffer; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; De Cat, Peter; Bonanno, Alfio; Fogtmann-Schulz, Alexandra; Fu, Jianning; Frasca, Antonio; Inceoglu, Fadil; Olsen, Jesper; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Shi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-24

    Superflares are large explosive events on stellar surfaces one to six orders-of-magnitude larger than the largest flares observed on the Sun throughout the space age. Due to the huge amount of energy released in these superflares, it has been speculated if the underlying mechanism is the same as for solar flares, which are caused by magnetic reconnection in the solar corona. Here, we analyse observations made with the LAMOST telescope of 5,648 solar-like stars, including 48 superflare stars. These observations show that superflare stars are generally characterized by larger chromospheric emissions than other stars, including the Sun. However, superflare stars with activity levels lower than, or comparable to, the Sun do exist, suggesting that solar flares and superflares most likely share the same origin. The very large ensemble of solar-like stars included in this study enables detailed and robust estimates of the relation between chromospheric activity and the occurrence of superflares.

  8. Observational evidence for enhanced magnetic activity of superflare stars

    PubMed Central

    Karoff, Christoffer; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; De Cat, Peter; Bonanno, Alfio; Fogtmann-Schulz, Alexandra; Fu, Jianning; Frasca, Antonio; Inceoglu, Fadil; Olsen, Jesper; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Shi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Superflares are large explosive events on stellar surfaces one to six orders-of-magnitude larger than the largest flares observed on the Sun throughout the space age. Due to the huge amount of energy released in these superflares, it has been speculated if the underlying mechanism is the same as for solar flares, which are caused by magnetic reconnection in the solar corona. Here, we analyse observations made with the LAMOST telescope of 5,648 solar-like stars, including 48 superflare stars. These observations show that superflare stars are generally characterized by larger chromospheric emissions than other stars, including the Sun. However, superflare stars with activity levels lower than, or comparable to, the Sun do exist, suggesting that solar flares and superflares most likely share the same origin. The very large ensemble of solar-like stars included in this study enables detailed and robust estimates of the relation between chromospheric activity and the occurrence of superflares. PMID:27009381

  9. NIMS Observes Increased Activity at Loki Patera, Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Loki Patera, historically the most active and persistent hot spot on Io, is located on the hemisphere of Io always facing Jupiter. Loki Patera was the site of two plumes during the Voyager encounters, which were not seen during the early orbits of Galileo. Ground-based observers reported Loki Patera to be unusually dim during this time, marking a period of low volcanic activity.

    On 21 February 1997, during Galileo's sixth orbit, the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on the Galileo spacecraft observed Io in daylight from a range of approximately 703,000 km (440,000 miles). The image on the left shows Io at a wavelength of 2.95 microns. Loki Patera is seen to be relatively quiescent (at longer wavelengths which are more sensitive to thermal emission, Loki Patera is more noticeable).

    A few weeks later, on March 12th 1997, ground based observers using the Infra-Red Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, observed an intense brightening in the Loki region, so much that Loki was contributing 75% of Io's in-eclipse flux for this hemisphere. A large eruption was taking place! Other ground-based observations through March, April and May tracked the course of the activity and confirmed its location at Loki Patera.

    On 4 April 1997, NIMS again observed Io during the seventh orbit from a range of 556,000 km (348,000 miles), with Loki Patera positioned in darkness, close to the limb. The image on the right shows the increase in activity at Loki Patera, again at 2.95 microns. A preliminary single temperature fit to NIMS orbit seven Loki Patera hot spot data yields a temperature of 500 K and an area of over 800 square kilometers. That the image is so bright at this wavelength is an indication of the areal extent of the activity. It is also probable that some part of the volcanic material being erupted or exposed is at considerably higher temperatures than that of the 500 K single-temperature fit.

    Io is under observation by ground-based observers under

  10. MU radar observation of the strong activity of 2006 Quadrantids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, S.; Nakamura, T.; Watanabe, J.-I.; Tsutsumi, M.; Fujiwara, Y.; Ueda, M.; Yamamoto, M.-Y.; Mukai, T.

    Prominent activity of the 2006 Quadrantid meteor shower was observed from 18h through 21h UT on January 3 in Japan We carried out using a MU radar located in Shigaraki Japan which is a Mesosphere Stratosphere and Troposphere radar with a frequency and a peak power of 46 5 MHz and 1MW respectively The radar is consists of 475 Yagi antenna elements and the observation was performed in the meteor observation mode In order to calculate the ideal echo rate a response function which is the response of the radar system to a radiant in any position on the sky was considered Background activities were subtracted to estimate the Quadrantids activity with sufficient accuracy Velocity and echo height distribution were also derived Finally meteor radiant distribution RA 231 deg DEC 51 deg was calculated by using several thousands of echoes during Quadrantids activity A new system was installed to enhance the performance of the radar It consists of an Ultra Multi-channel Digital Receiving Subsystem and a Low-loss Signal Transfer Subsystem We will present the details of the 2006 Quadrantids characteristics by means of the new analysis method and the new system

  11. Action observation activates neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Luciano; Bimbi, Marco; Rodà, Francesca; Fogassi, Leonardo; Rozzi, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Prefrontal cortex is crucial for exploiting contextual information for the planning and guidance of behavioral responses. Among contextual cues, those provided by others’ behavior are particularly important, in primates, for selecting appropriate reactions and suppressing the inappropriate ones. These latter functions deeply rely on the ability to understand others’ actions. However, it is largely unknown whether prefrontal neurons are activated by action observation. To address this issue, we recorded the activity of ventrolateral prefrontal (VLPF) neurons of macaque monkeys during the observation of videos depicting biological movements performed by a monkey or a human agent, and object motion. Our results show that a population of VLPF neurons respond to the observation of biological movements, in particular those representing goal directed actions. Many of these neurons also show a preference for the agent performing the action. The neural response is present also when part of the observed movement is obscured, suggesting that these VLPF neurons code a high order representation of the observed action rather than a simple visual description of it. PMID:28290511

  12. OBSERVABILITY OF DUAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN MERGING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wassenhove, Sandor; Volonteri, Marta; Bellovary, Jillian; Mayer, Lucio; Callegari, Simone; Dotti, Massimo

    2012-03-20

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) have been detected in the centers of most nearby massive galaxies. Galaxies today are not only the products of billions of years of galaxy mergers, but also billions of years of SMBH activity as active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that is connected to galaxy mergers. In this context, detection of AGN pairs should be relatively common. Observationally, however, dual AGNs are scant, being just a few percent of all AGNs. In this Letter, we investigate the triggering of AGN activity in merging galaxies via a suite of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations. We follow the dynamics and accretion onto the SMBHs as they move from separations of tens of kiloparsecs to tens of parsecs. Our resolution, cooling, and star formation implementation produce an inhomogeneous, multi-phase interstellar medium, allowing us to accurately trace star formation and accretion onto the SMBHs. We study the impact of gas content, morphology, and mass ratio, focusing on AGN activity and dynamics across a wide range of relevant conditions. We test when the two AGNs are simultaneously detectable, for how long and at which separations. We find that strong dual AGN activity occurs during the late phases of the mergers, at small separations (<1-10 kpc) below the resolution limit of most surveys. Much of the SMBH accretion is not simultaneous, limiting the dual AGN fraction detectable through imaging and spectroscopy to a few percent, in agreement with observational samples.

  13. Underwater observations of active lava flows from Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tribble, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Underwater observation of active submarine lava flows from Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, in March-June 1989 revealed both pillow lava and highly channelized lava streams flowing down a steep and unconsolidated lava delta. The channelized streams were 0.7-1.5 m across and moved at rates of 1-3 m/s. The estimated flux of a stream was 0.7 m3/s. Jets of hydrothermal water and gas bubbles were associated with the volcanic activity. The rapidly moving channelized lava streams represent a previously undescribed aspect of submarine volcanism. -Author

  14. Chemical Bond Activation Observed with an X-ray Laser.

    PubMed

    Beye, Martin; Öberg, Henrik; Xin, Hongliang; Dakovski, Georgi L; Dell'Angela, Martina; Föhlisch, Alexander; Gladh, Jörgen; Hantschmann, Markus; Hieke, Florian; Kaya, Sarp; Kühn, Danilo; LaRue, Jerry; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Minitti, Michael P; Mitra, Ankush; Moeller, Stefan P; Ng, May Ling; Nilsson, Anders; Nordlund, Dennis; Nørskov, Jens; Öström, Henrik; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Persson, Mats; Schlotter, William F; Sellberg, Jonas A; Wolf, Martin; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Pettersson, Lars G M; Wurth, Wilfried

    2016-09-15

    The concept of bonding and antibonding orbitals is fundamental in chemistry. The population of those orbitals and the energetic difference between the two reflect the strength of the bonding interaction. Weakening the bond is expected to reduce this energetic splitting, but the transient character of bond-activation has so far prohibited direct experimental access. Here we apply time-resolved soft X-ray spectroscopy at a free-electron laser to directly observe the decreased bonding-antibonding splitting following bond-activation using an ultrashort optical laser pulse.

  15. Learner Development in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenden, Anita L.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on learner development, a learner-centered innovation in foreign language-second language instruction that responds to learner diversity by aiming to improve the language learner's ability to learn a language. Describes various ideas that shaped early practice in learner development, and provides an evaluation of the theory and practice in…

  16. Modeling Learner Variability in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude

    2008-01-01

    This article describes challenges and benefits of modeling learner variability in Computer-Assisted Language Learning. We discuss the learner model of "E-Tutor," a learner model that addresses learner variability by focusing on certain aspects and/or features of the learner's interlanguage. Moreover, we introduce the concept of phrase descriptors,…

  17. Improving Learners' Research Process Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, T. K.; Hunter, L.; Kluger-Bell, B.; Seagroves, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Professional Development Program (PDP) supports participants as they design inquiry activities that help learners improve their research process skills. These skills include the cognitive or reasoning skills that scientists and engineers use while doing research; for example, making a testable hypothesis, coordinating results from multiple experiments, or identifying and evaluating tradeoffs. Past work in the PDP indicated that additional support was needed to help participants design instructional activities that would teach these important skills. A new workshop was therefore developed for the 2009 PDP cycle, entitled "Improving Learners' Process Skills." In this workshop, participants worked in small groups to define specific science and engineering skills found in four past PDP activity designs. Participants distinguished between "simple tasks" and "authentic inquiry" activities that learners could perform as demonstration of the skill. Through this new workshop, participants were able to explicitly discuss ways in which individual process skills are unique or inter-related. In addition, by identifying a "simple task," participants were able to pinpoint areas in which their own designs could be improved to better focus on authentic inquiry tasks. In 2010, the workshop was slightly modified to help participants reconnect the research process skills with the activity content. In addition, the idea of using generic and context-specific scaffolds was also introduced. To make the participants feel like they were contributing to the PDP community, four activity designs actively being worked on in the 2010 cycle were used. Based on participant feedback, this "Improving Learners' Process Skills" workshop should be strongly considered for future returning participants.

  18. Active Region Moss: Doppler Shifts from Hinode/EIS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen E.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Studying the Doppler shifts and the temperature dependence of Doppler shifts in moss regions can help us understand the heating processes in the core of the active regions. In this paper we have used an active region observation recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) onboard Hinode on 12-Dec- 2007 to measure the Doppler shifts in the moss regions. We have distinguished the moss regions from the rest of the active region by defining a low density cut-off as derived by Tripathi et al. (2010). We have carried out a very careful analysis of the EIS wavelength calibration based on the method described in Young, O Dwyer and Mason (2012). For spectral lines having maximum sensitivity between log T = 5.85 and log T = 6.25 K, we find that the velocity distribution peaks at around 0 km/s with an estimated error of 4 km/s. The width of the distribution decreases with temperature. The mean of the distribution shows a blue shift which increases with increasing temperature and the distribution also shows asymmetries towards blue-shift. Comparing these results with observables predicted from different coronal heating models, we find that these results are consistent with both steady and impulsive heating scenarios. Further observational constraints are needed to distinguish between these two heating scenarios.

  19. Photometric observations of the energetics of small solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.K.; Chapman, G.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The energetics of small solar active regions was investigated using for the analysis the photometric solar images taken from July 29 to September 6, 1984 with the San Fernando Observatory's 28-cm vacuum telescope, vacuum spectroheliograph, and dual 512 element Reticon linear diode arrays. Ten small newly formed regions were observed, whose entire sunspot evolution apparently occurred within the observed disk crossing. Seven of these showed a net energy excess of a few times 10 to the 33th ergs during this time. These results are discussed in connection with the 0.1 percent decline in solar irradiance observed by the SMM/ACRIM and Nimbus 7/ERB radiometers between 1980 and 1986. 35 refs.

  20. Continuous gravity observations at active volcanoes through superconducting gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Daniele; Greco, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    Continuous gravity measurements at active volcanoes are usually taken through spring gravimeters that are easily portable and do not require much power to work. However, intrinsic limitations dictate that, when used in continuous, these instruments do not provide high-quality data over periods longer than some days. Superconducting gravimeters (SG), that feature a superconducting sphere in a magnetic field as the proof mass, provide better-quality data than spring gravimeters, but are bigger and need mains electricity to work, implying that they cannot be installed close to the active structures of high volcanoes. An iGrav SG was installed on Mt. Etna (Italy) in September 2014 and has worked almost continuously since then. It was installed about 6km from the active craters in the summit zone of the volcano. Such distance is normally too much to observe gravity changes due to relatively fast (minutes to days) volcanic processes. Indeed, mass redistributions in the shallowest part of the plumbing system induce short-wavelength gravity anomalies, centered below the summit craters. Nevertheless, thanks to the high precision and long-term stability of SGs, it was possible to observe low-amplitude changes over a wide range of timescales (minutes to months), likely driven by volcanic activity. Plans are in place for the implementation of a mini-array of SGs at Etna.

  1. The impact of chromospheric activity on observed initial mass functions

    SciTech Connect

    Stassun, Keivan G.; Scholz, Aleks; Dupuy, Trent J.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.

    2014-12-01

    Using recently established empirical calibrations for the impact of chromospheric activity on the radii, effective temperatures, and estimated masses of active low-mass stars and brown dwarfs, we reassess the shape of the initial mass function (IMF) across the stellar/substellar boundary in the Upper Sco star-forming region (age ∼ 5-10 Myr). We adjust the observed effective temperatures to warmer values using the observed strength of the chromospheric Hα emission, and redetermine the estimated masses of objects using pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks in the H-R diagram. The effect of the activity-adjusted temperatures is to shift the objects to higher masses by 3%-100%. While the slope of the resulting IMF at substellar masses is not strongly changed, the peak of the IMF does shift from ≈0.06 to ≈0.11 M {sub ☉}. Moreover, for objects with masses ≲ 0.2 M {sub ☉}, the ratio of brown dwarfs to stars changes from ∼80% to ∼33%. These results suggest that activity corrections are essential for studies of the substellar mass function, if the masses are estimated from spectral types or from effective temperatures.

  2. Learner Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Carola

    2011-01-01

    This article presents first results of an ethnographic research project in a Luxembourgish primary school that accompanied the development of a school project by children from the fifth grade. Analysing the data children themselves collected with Kodak Zi8 cameras in order to document their project activities, it investigates their possibilities…

  3. Using VHF Lightning Observations to Monitor Explosive Volcanic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, S. A.; Thomas, R. J.; McNutt, S. R.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Edens, H. E.

    2011-12-01

    Lightning is an integral part of explosive volcanic eruptions and volcanic lightning measurements are a useful tool for volcano monitoring. VHF measurements of volcanic lightning can be made remotely, at distances of up to 100 km. A strategically placed network of 6 or more VHF ground stations could locate lightning in eruption columns from several regional volcanoes, and a minimum of two stations could be used to monitor a single volcano. Such a network would be particularly useful for detection or confirmation of explosive activity in situations where volcanoes are remotely located, and thus lack visual observations, or are not well instrumented with seismic networks. Furthermore, clouds are fully transparent to VHF signals, making lightning detection possible even when weather obscures visual observations. Recent VHF observations of volcanic lightning at Augustine Volcano (Alaska, USA, 2006), Redoubt Volcano (Alaska, USA, 2009) and Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland, 2010) have shown that two basic types of VHF signals are observed during volcanic eruptions, one of which is unique to volcanic activity. The unique signal, referred to as a 'continual RF' signal, was caused by very high rates of small 'vent discharges' occurring directly above the vent in the eruption column and was unlike any observations of lightning in meteorological thunderstorms. Vent discharges were observed to begin immediately following an explosive eruption. The second type of signal is from conventional lightning discharges, such as upward directed 'near-vent lightning' and isolated 'plume lightning.' Near-vent lightning was observed to begin 1-2 minutes following the onset of an explosive eruption while plume lightning began 4 or more minutes after the onset. At Redoubt the plume lightning occurred at such high rates that it rivaled lightning rates of supercell thunderstorms on the Great Plains of the United States. While both types of lightning signals can be used as indicators that explosive

  4. Separating "Inquiry Questions" and "Techniques" to Help Learners Move between the How and the Why of Biology Practical Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Judith M. D.; Taber, Keith S.

    2016-01-01

    School science practical activities have been criticised for exposing learners to a series of phenomena disconnected from the conceptual frameworks needed to understand them. Such activities are successful in the "domain of observables" but not the "domain of ideas". Few resources exist for classroom teachers wishing to improve…

  5. Both novelty and expertise increase action observation network activity

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Sook-Lei; Sheng, Tong; Margetis, John L.; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Our experiences with others affect how we perceive their actions. In particular, activity in bilateral premotor and parietal cortices during action observation, collectively known as the action observation network (AON), is modulated by one's expertise with the observed actions or individuals. However, conflicting reports suggest that AON activity is greatest both for familiar and unfamiliar actions. The current study examines the effects of different types and amounts of experience (e.g., visual, interpersonal, personal) on AON activation. fMRI was used to scan 16 healthy participants without prior experience with individuals with amputations (novices), 11 experienced occupational therapists (OTs) who had varying amounts of experience with individuals with amputations, and one individual born with below-elbow residual limbs (participant CJ), as they viewed video clips of goal-matched actions performed by an individual with residual limbs and by an individual with hands. Participants were given increased visual exposure to actions performed by both effectors midway through the scanning procedure. Novices demonstrated a large AON response to the initial viewing of an individual with residual limbs compared to one with hands, but this signal was attenuated after they received visual exposure to both effectors. In contrast, OTs, who had moderate familiarity with residual limbs, demonstrated a lower AON response upon initial viewing—similar to novices after they received visual exposure. At the other extreme, CJ, who has extreme familiarity with residual limbs both visually and motorically, shows a largely increased left-lateralized AON response, exceeding that of novices and experienced OTs, when viewing the residual limb compared to hand actions. These results suggest that a nuanced model of AON engagement is needed to explain how cases of both extreme experience (CJ) and extreme novelty (novices) can result in the greatest AON activity. PMID:24062656

  6. Observations of Preflare Activity with TRACE and Yohkoh [Invited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, H. P.

    2002-01-01

    Despite several decades of observational and theoretical effort, a complete understanding of solar flares remains elusive. It has been especially difficult to understand how the evolution of the magnetic field triggers a flare and drives the release of energy. In this talk I will review TRACE and Yohkoh observations of pre-flare and impulsive phase dynamics related to nonthermal broadening, flare ribbon evolution, and breakout reconnection. Studies of these phenomena suggest that pre-flare activity is a potentially rich source of information on the mechanisms that power a flare. For example, Yohkoh BCS measurements of nonthermal broadening have shown that the largest nonthermal velocities can occur before the onset of significant hard X-ray emission. This suggests that nonthermal broadening is a signature of a turbulent phase of the flare, which can begin several minutes before the onset of the hard x-ray emission. TRACE observations have also yielded evidence for ribbon brightenings that precede the onset of the hard X-ray emission. The analysis of very high cadence TRACE data, however, indicates that energy release during the pre-flare and impulsive phases of the flare is occurring on different loops. Finally, comparisons of pre-flare TRACE images with potential field extrapolations have shown that pre-flare activity associated with a null point in the field is an essential component of eruptive flares. Understanding the relationships between these phenomena will require coordinated observations between many instruments. I will discuss how future observations from Yohkoh, TRACE, SoHO, HESSI, Stereo, Solar-B, and ground-based observatories will be used to advance our understanding of flare physics.

  7. High Spatial Resolution Fe XII Observations of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Paola; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo

    2016-08-01

    We use UV spectral observations of active regions with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to investigate the properties of the coronal Fe xii 1349.4 Å emission at unprecedented high spatial resolution (˜0.33″). We find that by using appropriate observational strategies (i.e., long exposures, lossless compression), Fe xii emission can be studied with IRIS at high spatial and spectral resolution, at least for high-density plasma (e.g., post-flare loops and active region moss). We find that upper transition region (TR; moss) Fe xii emission shows very small average Doppler redshifts ({v}{{D}} ˜ 3 km s-1) as well as modest non-thermal velocities (with an average of ˜24 km s-1 and the peak of the distribution at ˜15 km s-1). The observed distribution of Doppler shifts appears to be compatible with advanced three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations in which impulsive heating is concentrated at the TR footpoints of a hot corona. While the non-thermal broadening of Fe xii 1349.4 Å peaks at similar values as lower resolution simultaneous Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) measurements of Fe xii 195 Å, IRIS observations show a previously undetected tail of increased non-thermal broadening that might be suggestive of the presence of subarcsecond heating events. We find that IRIS and EIS non-thermal line broadening measurements are affected by instrumental effects that can only be removed through careful analysis. Our results also reveal an unexplained discrepancy between observed 195.1/1349.4 Å Fe xii intensity ratios and those predicted by the CHIANTI atomic database.

  8. Learners' perceptions of learners regarded as having a homosexual orientation in an independent secondary school environment.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Hendrik P; Myburgh, Chris; Poggenpoel, Marie

    2012-10-04

    In schools today discrimination based on sexual orientation takes place on a regular basis. This form of discrimination leads to aggression towards learners perceived to be homosexual, as well as towards those with a homosexual orientation. For more than 15 years South Africa has been a democratic country with laws that protect learners who have a homosexual orientation. Nevertheless, aggression and discrimination towards these learners still occur in schools. Aggression often leads to verbal and physical bullying of the victims by perpetrators. The objectives of this research were to explore and describe Grade 11 learners' experiences of aggression towards learners perceived to be homosexual as well as those with a homosexual orientation in an independent secondary school environment. The research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual in nature. The data for this investigation consisted of essays based on a published newspaper photograph, phenomenological group interviews, observations and field notes. Tesch's method of data analysis was used, and an independent coder assisted. Three themes were identified, discussed and supported by a literature control: that learners experience that it is right and acceptable to have a homosexual orientation; that they experience ambivalence towards homosexual orientation of learners; and experienced feelings that it is wrong to have a homosexual orientation. Recommended guidelines are provided to address aggression towards learners perceived to be homosexual and those with a homosexual orientation.

  9. Active region upflows. I. Multi-instrument observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanninathan, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Galsgaard, K.; Huang, Z.; Doyle, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Context. We study upflows at the edges of active regions, called AR outflows, using multi-instrument observations. Aims: This study intends to provide the first direct observational evidence of whether chromospheric jets play an important role in furnishing mass that could sustain coronal upflows. The evolution of the photospheric magnetic field, associated with the footpoints of the upflow region and the plasma properties of active region upflows is investigated with the aim of providing information for benchmarking data-driven modelling of this solar feature. Methods: We spatially and temporally combine multi-instrument observations obtained with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board the Hinode, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Interferometric BI-dimensional Spectro-polarimeter installed at the National Solar Observatory, Sac Peak, to study the plasma parameters of the upflows and the impact of the chromosphere on active region upflows. Results: Our analysis shows that the studied active region upflow presents similarly to those studied previously, i.e. it displays blueshifted emission of 5-20 kms-1 in Fe xii and Fe xiii and its average electron density is 1.8 × 109 cm-3 at 1 MK. The time variation of the density is obtained showing no significant change (in a 3σ error). The plasma density along a single loop is calculated revealing a drop of 50% over a distance of ~20 000 km along the loop. We find a second velocity component in the blue wing of the Fe xii and Fe xiii lines at 105 kms-1 reported only once before. For the first time we study the time evolution of this component at high cadence and find that it is persistent during the whole observing period of 3.5 h with variations of only ±15 kms-1. We also, for the first time, study the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field at high cadence and find that magnetic flux diffusion is

  10. English Language Learners interactions with various science curriculum features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norland, Jennifer Jane

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of eighth grade English Language Learners in an inclusive science classroom. There is a paucity of research in this area. Central to this study was the students' perceptions and interactions with five different science curriculum features; teacher presentation and guided notes, worksheets, homework, labs, and practice and review activities. The student participants were English Language Learners from two language proficiency levels and the teacher was a provisionally licensed first year science teacher. The aggregate data included individual interviews with the students and teacher, classroom observations, and the collection of classroom artifacts. The findings revealed: (a) students' comprehension of the material was inconsistent throughout all of the curriculum features and differences were observed not only between but also within the two proficiency levels; (b) classroom organizational issues created challenges for both the teacher and the students; (c) off task behavior was most prevalent during the teacher's one-to-one instruction and interfered with learning; (d) differences between levels of language proficiency were observed among students who preferred to work independently and were comfortable asking the teacher for assistance and the students who preferred working with and receiving assistance from peers; and (e) language proficiency rather than cultural differences appeared to be the greatest barrier to classroom success. Overall, English language proficiency was a crucial determinant in the English Language Learners success in the inclusive classroom. Additionally, implications suggest that a limited teaching skill set could adversely affect the success of students in inclusive classrooms.

  11. Multi-wavelength Observations of Solar Active Region NOAA 7154

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, M. E.; Nitta, N. V.; Frank. Z. A.; Dame, L.; Suematsu, Y.

    2000-01-01

    We report on observations of a solar active region in May 1992 by the Solar Plasma Diagnostic Experiment (SPDE) in coordination with the Yohkoh satellite (producing soft X-ray images) and ground-based observatories (producing photospheric magnetograms and various filtergrams including those at the CN 3883 A line). The main focus is a study of the physical conditions of hot (T is approximately greater than 3 MK) coronal loops at their foot-points. The coronal part of the loops is fuzzy but what appear to be their footpoints in the transition region down to the photosphere are compact. Despite the morphological similarities, the footpoint emission at 10(exp 5) K is not quantitatively correlated with that at approximately 300 km above the tau (sub 5000) = 1 level, suggesting that the heat transport and therefore magnetic field topology in the intermediate layer is complicated. High resolution imaging observations with continuous temperature coverage are crucially needed.

  12. Inference of other's internal neural models from active observation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Joong; Cho, Sung-Bae

    2015-02-01

    Recently, there have been several attempts to replicate theory of mind, which explains how humans infer the mental states of other people using multiple sensory input, with artificial systems. One example of this is a robot that observes the behavior of other artificial systems and infers their internal models, mapping sensory inputs to the actuator's control signals. In this paper, we present the internal model as an artificial neural network, similar to biological systems. During inference, an observer can use an active incremental learning algorithm to guess an actor's internal neural model. This could significantly reduce the effort needed to guess other people's internal models. We apply an algorithm to the actor-observer robot scenarios with/without prior knowledge of the internal models. To validate our approach, we use a physics-based simulator with virtual robots. A series of experiments reveal that the observer robot can construct an "other's self-model", validating the possibility that a neural-based approach can be used as a platform for learning cognitive functions.

  13. Dusty Winds in Active Galactic Nuclei: Reconciling Observations with Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hönig, Sebastian F.; Kishimoto, Makoto

    2017-04-01

    This Letter presents a revised radiative transfer model for the infrared (IR) emission of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). While current models assume that the IR is emitted from a dusty torus in the equatorial plane of the AGNs, spatially resolved observations indicate that the majority of the IR emission from ≲100 pc in many AGNs originates from the polar region, contradicting classical torus models. The new model CAT3D-WIND builds upon the suggestion that the dusty gas around the AGNs consists of an inflowing disk and an outflowing wind. Here, it is demonstrated that (1) such disk+wind models cover overall a similar parameter range of observed spectral features in the IR as classical clumpy torus models, e.g., the silicate feature strengths and mid-IR spectral slopes, (2) they reproduce the 3–5 μm bump observed in many type 1 AGNs unlike torus models, and (3) they are able to explain polar emission features seen in IR interferometry, even for type 1 AGNs at relatively low inclination, as demonstrated for NGC3783. These characteristics make it possible to reconcile radiative transfer models with observations and provide further evidence of a two-component parsec-scale dusty medium around AGNs: the disk gives rise to the 3–5 μm near-IR component, while the wind produces the mid-IR emission. The model SEDs will be made available for download.

  14. Observations on studies useful to asbestos operations and management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmoth, R.C.; Powers, T.J.; Millette, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Asbestos-containing materials found in buildings may release asbestos fibers into the air. Some of these fibers will eventually settle and attach to room surfaces (walls, furnishings, equipment, floors, and carpet) as part of normal dust. Activities like dusting, sweeping and vacuuming are likely to re-entrain the dust causing exposure to airborne asbestos. The paper discusses data that are largely observational in nature, but are illustrative of general trends of interest to those individuals dealing with the day-to-day problems of asbestos in buildings.

  15. VLBA Observations of AGN Activity in NGC 2617

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jencson, J.; Kundert, Kara; Mioduszewski, Amy; Lucy, Adrian; Kadowaki, Jennifer; Mellon, Samuel N.

    2013-08-01

    NGC 2617 is an active galaxy at z=0.0142 (~60 Mpc, 1 mas = 0.3 pc). A strong outburst was discovered by the All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) in NGC 2617 at 2013 UT Apr. 10.27. A follow-up optical spectrum indicated a dramatic spectral type change from a Type 1.8 Seyfert to a Type 1 Seyfert within the last decade (Shappee et al. 2013, ATel #5010). Additional follow-up observations by Swift/BAT (Shappee et al.

  16. Research of Earthquake Potential from Active Fault Observation in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien-Liang, C.; Hu, J. C.; Liu, C. C.; En, C. K.; Cheng, T. C. T.

    2015-12-01

    We utilize GAMIT/GLOBK software to estimate the precise coordinates for continuous GPS (CGPS) data of Central Geological Survey (CGS, MOEA) in Taiwan. To promote the software estimation efficiency, 250 stations are divided by 8 subnets which have been considered by station numbers, network geometry and fault distributions. Each of subnets include around 50 CGPS and 10 international GNSS service (IGS) stations. After long period of data collection and estimation, a time series variation can be build up to study the effect of earthquakes and estimate the velocity of stations. After comparing the coordinates from campaign-mode GPS sites and precise leveling benchmarks with the time series from continuous GPS stations, the velocity field is consistent with previous measurement which show the reliability of observation. We evaluate the slip rate and slip deficit rate of active faults in Taiwan by 3D block model DEFNODE. First, to get the surface fault traces and the subsurface fault geometry parameters, and then establish the block boundary model of study area. By employing the DEFNODE technique, we invert the GPS velocities for the best-fit block rotate rates, long term slip rates and slip deficit rates. Finally, the probability analysis of active faults is to establish the flow chart of 33 active faults in Taiwan. In the past two years, 16 active faults in central and northern Taiwan have been assessed to get the recurrence interval and the probabilities for the characteristic earthquake occurred in 30, 50 and 100 years.

  17. Observations on Multi-Slug Activity - Implications for Volcanic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pering, T. D.; McGonigle, A. J. S.; James, M. R.; Lane, S. J.; Capponi, A.; Tamburello, G.; Aiuppa, A.

    2014-12-01

    The study of single gas slugs in volcanic conduits has received a large amount of focus within the literature. However, the more complex behaviour associated with the rise and burst of multiple slugs has yet to be considered in detail in a volcanic context. Here we combine observations and analyses of such activity using a three-pronged approach consisting of existing gas mass data collected during rapid slug driven activity at Mt. Etna, scaled laboratory analogue experiments, and computer simulations using the Ansys Fluent® fluid dynamics software. Particular focus was applied to the process of coalescence and wake capture during slug expansion and rise. The results indicate a variety of potential features and relationships, including: promotion of coalescence at distances further than predicted wake lengths, approximate maximum gas volume fraction and minimum magma viscosity values for the occurrence of stable multi-slug activity, and in the laboratory regimes a series of linear trends are associated with overall gas volume fraction and burst volume. A previously observed phenomenon at Mt. Etna, whereby larger slug bursting events are subject to a longer repose period prior to the following event, than smaller events, is also evident in the lab setting. By combining all acquired and modelled data, we derive an approximate relation, using existing formulae for slug base rise speed (Viana et al. 2003) and wake length (Campos and Guedes de Carvalho, 1988), to describe a minimum repose period which is likely to follow the burst of a slug at the surface. The outlined work has significant fluid dynamic implications for possible magma and conduit properties which can allow multi-slug activity at volcanic targets.

  18. Gamma-Ray Observations of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madejski, Grzegorz (Greg); Sikora, Marek

    2016-09-01

    This article reviews the recent observational results regarding γ-ray emission from active galaxies. The most numerous discrete extragalactic γ-ray sources are AGNs dominated by relativistic jets pointing in our direction (commonly known as blazars), and they are the main subject of the review. They are detected in all observable energy bands and are highly variable. The advent of the sensitive γ-ray observations, afforded by the launch and continuing operation of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and the AGILE Gamma-ray Imaging Detector, as well as by the deployment of current-generation Air Cerenkov Telescope arrays such as VERITAS, MAGIC, and HESS-II, continually provides sensitive γ-ray data over the energy range of ˜100 MeV to multi-TeV. Importantly, it has motivated simultaneous, monitoring observations in other bands, resulting in unprecedented time-resolved broadband spectral coverage. After an introduction, in Sections 3, 4, and 5, we cover the current status and highlights of γ-ray observations with (mainly) Fermi but also AGILE and put those in the context of broadband spectra in Section 6. We discuss the radiation processes operating in blazars in Section 7, and we discuss the content of their jets and the constraints on the location of the energy dissipation regions in, respectively, Sections 8 and 9. Section 10 covers the current ideas for particle acceleration processes in jets, and Section 11 discusses the coupling of the jet to the accretion disk in the host galaxy. Finally, Sections 12, 13, and 14 cover, respectively, the contribution of blazars to the diffuse γ-ray background, the utility of blazars to study the extragalactic background light, and the insight they provide for study of populations of supermassive black holes early in the history of the Universe.

  19. The SMM UV observations of Active Region 5395

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Stephen A.; Gurman, Joseph B.

    1989-01-01

    The Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter (UVSP) on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft was used extensively to study the spatial morphology and time variability of solar active regions in the far UV (at approx. wavelength of 1370 A) since July 1985. The normal spatial resolution of UVSP observations in this 2nd-order mode is 10 sec., and the highest temporal resolution is 64 milliseconds. To make a full-field, 4 min. by 4 min. image this wavelength using 5 sec. raster steps takes about 3 minutes. UVSP can also make observations of the Sun at approx. wavelength of 2790 with 3 sec. spatial resolution when operated in its 1st-order mode; a full-field image at this wavelength (a so-called SNEW image) takes about 8 minutes. UVSP made thousands of observations (mostly in 2nd-order) of AR 5395 during its transit across the visible solar hemisphere (from 7 to 19 March, inclusive). During this period, UVSP's duty cycle for observing AR 5395 was roughly 40 percent, with the remaining 60 percent of the time being fairly evenly divided between aeronomy studies of the Earth's atmosphere and dead time due to Earth occultation of the Sun. UVSP observed many of the flares tagged to AR 5395, including 26 GOES M-level flares and 3 X-level flares, one of which produced so much UV emission that the safety software of UVSP turned off the detector to avoid damage due to saturation. Images and light curves of some of the more spectacular of the AR 5395 events are presented.

  20. Conceptualizing Learner Support Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Ward Mitchell; Bruce, Ronald R.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of computer-based online help systems for instructional software focuses on three types of learner support: for optimizing use of a computer program; for learning content; and for monitoring and enhancing learning. Proposes a multi-dimensional model of learner-support space defined by the intrusiveness of the delivery methods and…

  1. The Lifelong Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Ronald

    Designed to provide a general guide and stimuli for lifelong learning, this book examines all the positive factors of independent study. Lifelong learning is defined as self-directed growth free from the traditional schooling procedures. Chapters discuss the following: the lifelong learner; profiles of such learners in action; how to be…

  2. The Learner's Permit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Daniel R.

    2003-01-01

    Considers the role and value of an extended learner's period in a graduated driver-licensing system through a review of the literature. Concludes that further research is needed on the safety benefits and optional features of the learner period. (Contains 1 figure, 3 tables, and 41 references.) (AUTHOR/WFA)

  3. Focus on the Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C.

    1988-01-01

    Ways in which curriculum development and methodology in teaching English as a Second Language can take account of learners are discussed. In addition, ways that teachers and researchers can collaborate in the process of developing a learner-center curriculum are examined. (28 references) (LB)

  4. Understanding Oral Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, W. Jay

    2012-01-01

    A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral…

  5. A Learner Centered Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Florence N.

    This paper proposes a learner-centered educational system, focusing on aspects that are intrinsically associated with the modern educational system, such as the curriculum, school community, parents, learners, and educational support personnel. It examines: primary level preparation (literacy, numeracy, and basic knowledge; examination and…

  6. Improving the EFL Learners' Speaking Ability through Interactive Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzuki; Prayogo, Johannes Ananto; Wahyudi, Arwijati

    2016-01-01

    This present research was aimed to improve the EFL learners' speaking ability and their classroom activities through the implementation of Interactive Storytelling Strategy. Therefore, this study was directed to explore the beneficial of Interactive Storytelling that closely related to the EFL learners' everyday activities at their home and…

  7. UV Observations of Prominence Activation and Cool Loop Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Therese A.; Landi, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the thermal and dynamic properties of dynamic structures in and around a prominence channel observed on the limb on 17 April 2003. Observations were taken with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory's Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SOHO/SUMER) in lines formed at temperatures from 80,000 to 1.6 MK. The instrument was pointed to a single location and took a series of 90 s exposures. Two-dimensional context was provided by the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) in the UV and EUV and the Kanzelhohe Solar Observatory in H-alpha. Two dynamic features were studied in depth: an activated prominence and repeated motions in a loop near the prominence. We calculated three-dimensional geometries and trajectories, differential emission measure, and limits on the mass, pressure, average density, and kinetic and thermal energies. These observations provide important tests for models of dynamics in prominences and cool (approx. 10(exp 5) K)loops, which will ultimately lead to a better understanding the mechanism(s) leading to energy and mass flow in these solar features.

  8. Learner-Content-Interface as an Approach for Self-Reliant and Student-Centered Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolay, Robin; Schwennigcke, Bastian; Sahl, Sarah; Martens, Alke

    2015-01-01

    Conceptualization and implementation of computer supported teaching and training is currently not tailored to the paradigm of learner centration. Many technical solutions lack transparency and consistency regarding the supported learner activities. An insight into learners activities correlated to learning tasks is needed. In this paper we outline…

  9. The Arctic Observing Viewer: A Web-mapping Application for U.S. Arctic Observing Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, R. P.; Manley, W. F.; Gaylord, A. G.; Kassin, A.; Villarreal, S.; Barba, M.; Dover, M.; Escarzaga, S. M.; Habermann, T.; Kozimor, J.; Score, R.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    interoperable resources in this way will help to ensure improved capacities for conducting activities such as assessing the status of arctic observing efforts, optimizing logistic operations, and for quickly accessing external and project-focused web resources for more detailed information and access to scientific data and derived products.

  10. The Arctic Observing Viewer: A Web-mapping Application for U.S. Arctic Observing Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassin, A.; Gaylord, A. G.; Manley, W. F.; Villarreal, S.; Tweedie, C. E.; Cody, R. P.; Copenhaver, W.; Dover, M.; Score, R.; Habermann, T.

    2014-12-01

    way will help to ensure improved capacities for conducting activities such as assessing the status of arctic observing efforts, optimizing logistic operations, and for quickly accessing external and project-focused web resources for more detailed information and data.

  11. Observational and Theoretical Constraints on Plume Activity at Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, F.; Pappalardo, R.; Cuzzi, J.

    2007-12-01

    The recently-detected plume activity on Enceladus [1] has raised the question of whether Europa, too, might be active. The few Galileo images devoted to searches for plumes yielded no detections; comparisons between Voyager and Galileo images suggest that less than ~1mm of resurfacing has happened in the past 20 years over lengthscales of a few km [2]. Cassini observations of Europa's oxygen torus [3] suggest a column abundance and loss rate roughly consistent with modelled O sputtering rates [4,5]. However, the tenuous atmosphere does appear to be spatially non- uniform [6]. The observations suggest that plumes or other non-sputtering sources produce vapour at rates less than roughly 10~kg/s, or less than 10% of the Enceladus plume rate [1]. One possible source of vapour on Europa is shear heating [7,8]. For nominal Europa parameters the predicted rate of vapour production is roughly 1~kg/s per km of fault and the vapour exit velocity is ~450~m/s, much less than Europa's escape velocity. These results suggest that the bulk of the vapour will reimpact the surface after forming a plume approximately 70~km high. The resulting thermal anomaly due to vapour recondensation is ~2~K. To generate a total vapour production rate of 10~kg/s requires roughly 10~km of active faults. If there is a single plume, the local resurfacing rate is ~0.05~mm/yr, compatible with the observational resurfacing constraints [2]. Using a global lineament map [9] and assuming equi-spaced active faults, areas predicted to show most intense shear heating are two regions near the S pole (at ~90° and ~270° longitude) and one smaller patch near the N pole at ~270°. Shear heating, in addition to vapour production, may also cause elevated surface temperatures resulting in thermal segregation of ice [10]. These predictions may be compared with existing observations from Galileo, Cassini, and Earth-based telescopes [e.g. 6], and may assist in the planning of potential future spacecraft missions. [1

  12. InSAR observations of active volcanoes in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Rivera, A. M.; Chaussard, E.; Amelung, F.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last decade satellite-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has developed into a well-known technique to gauge the status of active volcanoes. The InSAR technique can detect the ascent of magma to shallow levels of the volcanic plumbing system because new arriving magma pressurizes the system. This is likely associated with the inflation of the volcanic edifice and the surroundings. Although the potential of InSAR to detect magma migration is well known, the principal limitation was that only for few volcanoes frequent observations were acquired. The ALOS-1 satellite of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) acquired a global L-band data set of 15-20 acquisitions during 2006-2011. Here we use ALOS InSAR and Small Baseline (SB) time-series methods for a ground deformation survey of Latin America with emphasis on the northern Andes. We present time-dependent ground deformation data for the volcanoes in Colombia, Ecuador and Peru and interpret the observations in terms of the dynamics of the volcanic systems.

  13. High-Resolution Observations of a Filament showing Activated Barb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Anand; Martin, Sara F.; Mathew, Shibu; Srivastava, Nandita

    2012-07-01

    Analysis of a filament showing an activated barb using observations from the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 2010 August 20 are presented. The DOT takes Doppler images in Hα, among other wavelengths, in a region about 110 × 110 arcsec^{2} in area, at a cadence of 30~seconds. The offline image restoration technique of speckle reconstruction is applied to obtain diffraction limited images. The filament developed a new barb in 10~minutes, which disappeared within the next 35~minutes. Such a rapid formation and disappearance of a filament barb is unusual, and has not been reported earlier. Line-of-sight velocity maps were constructed from the Doppler images of the target filament. We observe flows in the filament spine towards the barb location prior to its formation, and flows in the barb towards the spine during its disappearance. Photospheric magnetograms from Heliospheric Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, at a cadence of 45~seconds, were used to determine the changes in magnetic flux in the region surrounding the barb location. The variation of magnetic flux in this duration supports the view that barbs are rooted in minor magnetic polarity. Our analysis shows that barbs can be short-lived and formation and disappearance of the barb was associated with cancellation of magnetic flux.

  14. Gamma-Ray Burst Precursor Activity as Observed with BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshut, Thomas M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Paciesas, William S.; vanParadijs, Jan; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Briggs, Michael S.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.

    1995-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst time histories often consist of multiple episodes of emission with the count rate dropping to the background level between adjacent episodes. We define precursor activity as any case in which the first episode (referred to as the precursor episode) has a lower peak intensity than that of the remaining emission (referred to as the main episode) and is separated from the remaining burst emission by a background interval that is at least as long as the remaining emission. We find that approx. 3% of the bursts observed with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) satisfy this definition. We present the results of a study of the properties of these events. The spatial distribution of these sources is consistent with that of the larger set of all BATSE gamma-ray bursts: inhomogeneous and isotropic. A correlation between the duration of the precursor emission and the duration of the main episode emission is observed at about the 3 sigma confidence level. We find no meaningful significant correlations between or among any of the other characteristics of the precursor or main episode emission. It appears that the characteristics of the main episode emission are independent of the existence of the precursor emission.

  15. High-energy gamma-ray observations of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.

    1994-01-01

    During the period from 1992 May to early 1992 November, the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory obtained high-energy gamma-ray data for most of the sky. A total of 18 active galaxies have been seen with high certainty, and it is expected that more will be found in the data when a more thorough analysis is complete. All of those that have been seen are radio-loud quasars or BL Lacertae objects; most have already been identified as blazars. No Seyfert galaxies have been found thus far. If the spectra are represented as a power law in energy, spectral slopes ranging from approximately -1.7 to -2.4 are found. A wide range of z-values exits in the observed sample, eight having values in excess of 1.0. Time variations have been seen, with the timescale for a significant change being as short as days in at least one case. These results imply the existence of very large numbers of relativistic particles, probably close to the central object. Although a large extrapolation is required, their existence also suggests that these active galactic nuclei may be the source of the extragalactic cosmic rays.

  16. MESSENGER observations of substorm activity in Mercury's near magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei-Jie; Slavin, James; Fu, Suiyan; Raines, Jim; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Yao, Zhonghua; Pu, Zuyin; Shi, Quanqi; Poh, Gangkai; Boardsen, Scott; Imber, Suzanne; Sundberg, Torbjörn; Anderson, Brian; Korth, Haje; Baker, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    MESSENGER magnetic field and plasma measurements taken during crossings of Mercury's magnetotail from 2011 to 2014 have been examined for evidence of substorm activity. A total of 32 events were found during which an Earth-like growth phase was followed by clear near-tail expansion phase signatures. During the growth phase, the lobe of the tail loads with magnetic flux while the plasma sheet thins due to the increased lobe magnetic pressure. MESSENGER is often initially in the plasma sheet and then moves into the lobe during the growth phases. The averaged time scale of the loading is around 1 min, consistent with previous observations of Mercury's Dungey cycle. The dipolarization front that marks the initiation of the substorm expansion phase is only a few seconds in duration. The spacecraft then abruptly enters the plasma sheet due to the plasma sheet expansion as reconnection-driven flow from the near-Mercury neutral line encounters the stronger magnetic fields closer to the planet. Substorm activity in the near tail of Mercury is quantitatively very similar to the Earth despite the very compressed time scale.

  17. Equatorial wave activity derived from fluctuations in observed convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, John W.; Salby, Murry L.

    1994-01-01

    The spectrum of equatorial wave activity propagating vertically into the stratosphere is calculated from high-resolution imagery of the global convective pattern. Synoptic Global Cloud Imagery (GCI), constructed from six satellites simultaneously observing the earth, is used to diabatically force the linearized primitive equations. Having resolution of 0.5 deg and 3 h, that imagery captures the dominant scales of organized convection, including several harmonics of the diurnal cycle. Its global coverage with high space-time resolution allows the GCI to represent heating variability and dynamical behavior excited by it over a wide range of scales. The dynamical response above the heating is evaluated globally in terms of a space-time spectrum of Hough modes, one which includes planetary-scale Kelvin waves, Rossby waves, and gravity waves down to the resolution of the GCI. The geopotential response, which is indicative of temperature fluctuations observed by satellite, is very red in frequency. Therefore, planetary-scale waves with periods longer than two days dominate the spectrum of geopotential, while high-frequency gravity waves make a comparatively small contribution. Some 80% of the geopotential variance is accounted for by the Kelvin and gravest-symmetric Rossby modes, while the Rossby-gravity mode is comparatively weak. In horizontal eddy motion, the excited wave spectrum is still dominated by planetary-scale components. However, meridional wind fluctuations associated with the Rossby-gravity mode have variance comparable to that of zonal wind fluctuations associated with the Kelvin mode, even though the Rossby-gravity mode is nearly invisible in the geopotential response. Estimates of tropospheric heating lead to amplitudes and propagation characteristics that are broadly consistent with satellite and radiosonde observations of wave activity in the lower stratosphere. The space-time spectrum of EP flux is significantly whiter than the response in either

  18. Assessing physical activity during youth sport: the Observational System for Recording Activity in Children: Youth Sports.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alysia; McDonald, Samantha; McIver, Kerry; Pate, Russell; Trost, Stewart

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and interrater reliability of the Observational System for Recording Activity in Children: Youth Sports (OSRAC:YS). Children (N = 29) participating in a parks and recreation soccer program were observed during regularly scheduled practices. Physical activity (PA) intensity and contextual factors were recorded by momentary time-sampling procedures (10-second observe, 20-second record). Two observers simultaneously observed and recorded children's PA intensity, practice context, social context, coach behavior, and coach proximity. Interrater reliability was based on agreement (Kappa) between the observer's coding for each category, and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) for percent of time spent in MVPA. Validity was assessed by calculating the correlation between OSRAC:YS estimated and objectively measured MVPA. Kappa statistics for each category demonstrated substantial to almost perfect interobserver agreement (Kappa = 0.67-0.93). The ICC for percent time in MVPA was 0.76 (95% C.I. = 0.49-0.90). A significant correlation (r = .73) was observed for MVPA recorded by observation and MVPA measured via accelerometry. The results indicate the OSRAC:YS is a reliable and valid tool for measuring children's PA and contextual factors during a youth soccer practice.

  19. Learners' Perception of Corrective Feedback in Pair Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Reiko

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines Japanese language learners' perception of corrective feedback (CF) in pair work in relation to their noticing and understanding of their partners' CF and the factors that influence it. This study focuses on three learners, who worked together in pair work. The data collection methods consist of classroom observation,…

  20. Beyond Beginning Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongsma, Kathy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses materials for middle grade and high school learners. Explains useful resources for teaching struggling writers. Details a publishing tool, a reading comprehension assessment, and a Scholastic Assessment Tests (SAT) preparation text. (PM)

  1. Active Region Magnetic Structure Observed in the Photosphere and Chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leka, K. D.; Metcalf, Thomas R.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic flux above sunspots and plage in NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Active Region 8299 has been measured in the photosphere and the chromosphere. We investigate the vertical magnetic structure above the umbrae, penumbrae and plage regions using quantitative statistical comparisons of the photospheric and chromospheric vector magnetic flux data. The results include: (1) a decrease in flux with height, (2) the direct detection of the superpenumbral canopy in the chromosphere, (3) values for dB/dz which are consistent with earlier investigations when derived from a straight difference between the two datasets but quite low when derived from the delta x B = 0 condition, (4) a monolithic structure in the umbra which extends well into the upper chromosphere with a very complex and varied structure in the penumbra and plage, as evidenced by (5) a uniform magnetic scale height in the umbrae with an abrupt jump to widely varying scale heights in the penumbral and plage regions. Further, we find (6) evidence for a very large (delta z approximately equals 3Mm) height difference between the atmospheric layers sampled in the two magnetograms, almost a factor of three larger than that implied by atmospheric models. We additionally test the apropriateness of using photospheric magnetic flux as a boundary for field-line extrapolations, and find a better agreement with observed coronal structure when the chromospheric flux is used as a boundary.

  2. Visual observations of glottic activity during didgeridoo performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izdebski, Krzysztof; Hyde, Lydia; Ward, Ronald R.; Ross, Joel C.

    2012-02-01

    Australian didgeridoo is a reed-less hollow conically shape wooden tubular wind instrument typically measuring up to 150 cm in length, with distal and proximal diameters ranging from 150 to 30 mm. This tube allows a player to produce only a narrow variety of sound and sounds effects because it is coupled directly to the player's vocal tract. The typical frequency of the tube typically called the drone, is approximately within 60 to 100 Hz range. This tone generation modulated by lip vibration is supported by circular breathing, allowing for an uninterrupted (indefinite) length of sound generation. Inhalation introduces sound pulsation, while specific tonal effects can be consciously created by manipulation of the player's lips and/or the vocal tract, including conscious phonation using vocal folds vibration, all used to enrich both the sound and the artistic meaning of the played sequence. Though the results of the research on the acoustics of this instrument are often reported in the literature, physiologic data regarding vocal tract configurations, and especially on the behavior of the vocal folds in regulation of ventilation and in phonation, remain less than underreported. The data presented here comprises (as far as we were able to determine) the first ever physiologic account of vocal fold activity in a didgeridoo player observed with help of trans-nasal endoscopy. Our focus was to reveal the work of t

  3. Independence Pending: Teacher Behaviors Preceding Learner Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesler, Rebecca A.

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to identify the teacher behaviors that preceded learners' active participation in solving musical and technical problems and describe learners' roles in the problem-solving process. I applied an original model of problem solving to describe the behaviors of teachers and students in 161 rehearsal frames…

  4. Supporting Learners' Appropriation of a Web-Based Learning Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasseneur-Coffinet, Dorothée; Smyrniou, Georgia; Tchounikine, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an approach and tools that can help learners appropriate a Web-based learning curriculum and become active participants in their learning. The approach is based on a detailed modeling of the curriculum and intends to equip the learners with different computer-based tools facilitating a multiple point of view perception of the…

  5. Practices and Prospects of Learner Autonomy: Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Asmari, AbdulRahman

    2013-01-01

    Language learning process works through the learners' own reflection on how they learn and it makes learners active in the sense that they learn to analyze their learning strategies. So they start making decisions, e.g., whether to improve them or not, and in which way. Generally, this trait is missing in traditional language teaching process and…

  6. Maximising Asian ESL Learners' Communicative Oral English via Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Chamkaur

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes that activities based on a variety of drama-based techniques could be valuable in giving Asian ESL learners opportunities to use communicative spoken English confidently and without restraint during their time in English-language-speaking countries. These learners often get anxious when in situations where they are required to…

  7. Factors Driving Learner Success in Online Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vu, Phu; Cao, Vien; Vu, Lan; Cepero, Jude

    2014-01-01

    This study examined factors that contributed to the success of online learners in an online professional development course. Research instruments included an online survey and learners' activity logs in an online professional development course for 512 in-service teachers. The findings showed that there were several factors affecting online…

  8. Exploring Shifts in Middle School Learners' Modeling Activity While Generating Drawings, Animations, and Computational Simulations of Molecular Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson-Jerde, Michelle H.; Gravel, Brian E.; Macrander, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Modeling and using technology are two practices of particular interest to K-12 science educators. These practices are inextricably linked among professionals, who engage in modeling activity with and across a variety of representational technologies. In this paper, we explore the practices of five sixth-grade girls as they generated models of…

  9. Design Issues Related to the Evaluation of Learner--Computer Interaction in a Web-Based Environment: Activities v. Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemard, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    If web-based technology is increasingly becoming the central plank of contemporary teaching and learning processes, there is still too little evidence to suggest that it is delivering purposeful learning activities beyond its widely perceived potential as a learning resource providing content and learning objects. This is due in part to the…

  10. Language-Building Activities and Interaction Variations with Mixed-Ability ESL University Learners in a Content-Based Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serna Dimas, Héctor Manuel; Ruíz Castellanos, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of both language-building activities and a variety of teacher/student interaction patterns increase both oral language participation and content learning in a course of manual therapy with mixed-language ability students. In this article, the researchers describe their collaboration in a content-based course in English with English…

  11. Community Resources. Teacher Guidebook and Student Activity Book. Adult Basic Education Project REAL: Relevant Education for Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, S. Keith

    This packet contains both a teacher's guide and a student activity book designed to help adult students locate and use community resources. Both booklets cover the following topics: the public library, Social Security, postal services, use of the telephone and the telephone directory, the newspaper, the Cooperative Extension Service, reference…

  12. You Can Be in a Group and Still Not Cooperate. Collaborative Approaches and Cooperative Learning Activities for Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parma City School District, OH.

    This handbook defines and describes the benefits of both collaborative approaches and cooperative techniques. An introduction uses watercolor marbling as a metaphor for collaborative approaches and cooperative activities. Section I provides research results regarding problems of adult literacy programs, skills employers want, and Bloom's taxonomy.…

  13. Exploring South African Grade 11 Learners' Perceptions of Classroom Inquiry: Validation of a Research Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudu, Washington T.; Vhurumuku, Elaosi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the adoption and validation of a research instrument, on determining learners' levels of perception of classroom inquiry based on data collected from South African Grade 11 learners. The Learners' Perception of Classroom Inquiry (LPCI) instrument consists only of Likert-type items which rank activities according to how often…

  14. The Effect of Reading on Second-Language Learners' Production in Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collentine, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Tasks provide engaging ways to involve learners in meaningful, real-world activities with the foreign language (FL). Yet selecting classroom tasks suitable to learners' linguistic readiness is challenging, and task-based research is exploring the relationship between learners' overall abilities (e.g., reading, grammatical) and the complexity and…

  15. Comparing Learner Community Behavior in Multiple Presentations of a Massive Open Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Silvia Elena; Savage, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) can create large scale communities of learners who collaborate, interact and discuss learning materials and activities. MOOCs are often delivered multiple times with similar content to different cohorts of learners. However, research into the differences of learner communication, behavior and expectation between…

  16. Comparing Learner Community Behavior in Multiple Presentations of a Massive Open Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Silvia Elena; Savage, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) can create large scale communities of learners who collaborate, interact and discuss learning materials and activities. MOOCs are often delivered multiple times with similar content to different cohorts of learners. However, research into the differences of learner communication, behavior and expectation between…

  17. Lidar research activities and observations at NARL site, Gadanki, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellapragada, Bhavani Kumar

    2016-05-01

    The National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), a unit of Department of Space (DOS), located at Gadanki village (13.5°N, 79.2°E, 370 m AMSL) in India, is involved in the development of lidar remote sensing technologies for atmospheric research. Several advanced lidar technologies employing micropulse, polarization, Raman and scanning have been developed at this site and demonstrated for atmospheric studies during the period between 2008 and 2015. The technology of micropulse lidar, operates at 532 nm wavelength, was successfully transferred to an industry and the commercial version has been identified for Indian Lidar network (I-LINK) programme. Under this lidar network activity, several lidar units were installed at different locations in India to study tropospheric aerosols and clouds. The polarization sensitive lidar technology was realized using a set of mini photomultiplier tube (PMT) units and has the capability to operate during day and night without a pause. The lidar technology uses a compact flashlamp pumped Qswitched laser and employs biaxial configuration between the transmitter and receiver units. The lidar technology has been utilized for understanding the polarization characteristics of boundary layer aerosols during the mixed layer development. The demonstrated Raman lidar technology, uses the third harmonic wavelength of Nd:YAG laser, provides the altitude profiles of aerosol backscattering, extinction and water vapor covering the boundary layer range and allows operation during nocturnal periods. The Raman lidar derived height profiles of aerosol backscattering and extinction coefficient, lidar ratio, and watervapor mixing ratio inform the tropical boundary layer aerosol characteristics. The scanning lidar technology uses a near infrared laser wavelength for probing the lower atmosphere and has been utilized for high resolution cloud profiling during convective periods. The lidar technology is also used for rain rate measurement during

  18. Direct Observations Of Microbial Activity At Extreme Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A.; Scott, J. H.; Cody, G. D.; Fogel, M.; Hazen, R. M.; Hemley, R. J.; Huntress, W. T.

    2002-12-01

    Microbial communities adapt to a wide range of pressures, temperatures, salinities, pH, and oxidation states. Although, significant attention has been focused on the effects of high and low temperature on physiology, there is some evidence that elevated pressure may also manifest interesting effects on cellular physiology, such as enzyme inactivation, cell-membrane breach, and suppression of protein interactions with various substrates. However, exactly how these factors affect intact cells is not well understood. In this study, we have adapted diamond anvil cells to explore the effects of high pressure on microbial life. We used the rate of microbial formate oxidation as a probe of metabolic viability. The utilization of formate by microorganisms is a fundamental metabolic process in anaerobic environments. We monitored in-situ microbial formate oxidation via molecular spectroscopy for Shewanella oneidensis strain MR1 and Escherichia coli strain MG1655 at high pressures (68 to 1060 MPa). At pressures of 1200 to 1600 MPa, living bacteria resided in fluid inclusions in ice-VI crystals and continued to be viable upon subsequent release to ambient pressures (0.1 MPa). Furthermore, direct microscopic observations indicate that these cells maintain their ability for cellular division upon decompression from such high pressures. Evidence of microbial viability and activity at these extreme pressures expands by an order of magnitude the range of conditions representing the habitable zone in the solar system. These results imply that pressure may not be a significant impediment to life. The maximum pressure explored in this work is equivalent to a depth of ~ 50 km below Earth's crust, or ~ 160 km in a hypothetical ocean. The pressures encountered at the depths of thick ice caps and deep crustal subsurface may not be a limiting factor for the existence of life. This suggests that deep (water/ice) layers of Europa, Callisto, or Ganymede, subduction zones on Earth, and the

  19. Active Bleeding after Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Observational Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Fellahi, Jean-Luc; Bertet, Héléna; Faucanie, Marie; Amour, Julien; Blanloeil, Yvonnick; Lanquetot, Hervé; Ouattara, Alexandre; Picot, Marie Christine

    2016-01-01

    Main Objectives To estimate the incidence of active bleeding after cardiac surgery (AB) based on a definition directly related on blood flow from chest drainage; to describe the AB characteristics and its management; to identify factors of postoperative complications. Methods AB was defined as a blood loss > 1.5 ml/kg/h for 6 consecutive hours within the first 24 hours or in case of reoperation for hemostasis during the first 12 postoperative hours. The definition was applied in a prospective longitudinal observational study involving 29 French centers; all adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were included over a 3-month period. Perioperative data (including blood product administration) were collected. To study possible variation in clinical practice among centers, patients were classified into two groups according to the AB incidence of the center compared to the overall incidence: “Low incidence” if incidence is lower and “High incidence” if incidence is equal or greater than overall incidence. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors of postoperative complications. Results Among 4,904 patients, 129 experienced AB (2.6%), among them 52 reoperation. Postoperative bleeding loss was 1,000 [820;1,375] ml and 1,680 [1,280;2,300] ml at 6 and 24 hours respectively. Incidence of AB varied between centers (0 to 16%) but was independent of in-centre cardiac surgical experience. Comparisons between groups according to AB incidence showed differences in postoperative management. Body surface area, preoperative creatinine, emergency surgery, postoperative acidosis and red blood cell transfusion were risk factors of postoperative complication. Conclusions A blood loss > 1.5 ml/kg/h for 6 consecutive hours within the first 24 hours or early reoperation for hemostasis seems a relevant definition of AB. This definition, independent of transfusion, adjusted to body weight, may assess real time bleeding occurring

  20. Do ePortfolios Contribute to Learners' Reflective Thinking Activities? : A Preliminary Study of Nursing Staff Users.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Kuo, Kuang-Ming; Talley, Paul C; Chen, Hsiu-Chin; Wang, Jhi-Joung

    2015-09-01

    The purposes of this study are threefold: 1) to find out what characteristics are required for the successful use of ePortfolios; 2) to discover what activities best represent reflective thinking during the use of ePortfolios; and, 3) to investigate the interrelationship between nursing staff users' perceived success levels with ePortfolios and with their reflective thinking activities. Survey methodology was used to gather responses from 78 nurses from a medical center located in southern Taiwan via questionnaires. Factor analysis and canonical correlation analysis were used to analyze the collected data. The results demonstrated that system quality, information quality, and user satisfaction are important variables in successful ePortfolio usage; while habitual action, understanding, reflection, and critical reflection are major variables of reflective thinking. Further, we found a significant relationship exists between the relative success of ePortfolios and reflective thinking activities of ePortfolios users. The subject hospital should pay special attention to important characteristics including system quality, information quality, and user satisfaction when employing ePortfolios to help nursing staff users to achieve their learning goals through this form of reflective thinking.

  1. PORTAAL: A Classroom Observation Tool Assessing Evidence-Based Teaching Practices for Active Learning in Large Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Classes.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Sarah L; Converse, Mercedes; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that active learning works better than a completely passive lecture. Despite this evidence, adoption of these evidence-based teaching practices remains low. In this paper, we offer one tool to help faculty members implement active learning. This tool identifies 21 readily implemented elements that have been shown to increase student outcomes related to achievement, logic development, or other relevant learning goals with college-age students. Thus, this tool both clarifies the research-supported elements of best practices for instructor implementation of active learning in the classroom setting and measures instructors' alignment with these practices. We describe how we reviewed the discipline-based education research literature to identify best practices in active learning for adult learners in the classroom and used these results to develop an observation tool (Practical Observation Rubric To Assess Active Learning, or PORTAAL) that documents the extent to which instructors incorporate these practices into their classrooms. We then use PORTAAL to explore the classroom practices of 25 introductory biology instructors who employ some form of active learning. Overall, PORTAAL documents how well aligned classrooms are with research-supported best practices for active learning and provides specific feedback and guidance to instructors to allow them to identify what they do well and what could be improved.

  2. PORTAAL: A Classroom Observation Tool Assessing Evidence-Based Teaching Practices for Active Learning in Large Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Classes

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Sarah L.; Converse, Mercedes; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that active learning works better than a completely passive lecture. Despite this evidence, adoption of these evidence-based teaching practices remains low. In this paper, we offer one tool to help faculty members implement active learning. This tool identifies 21 readily implemented elements that have been shown to increase student outcomes related to achievement, logic development, or other relevant learning goals with college-age students. Thus, this tool both clarifies the research-supported elements of best practices for instructor implementation of active learning in the classroom setting and measures instructors’ alignment with these practices. We describe how we reviewed the discipline-based education research literature to identify best practices in active learning for adult learners in the classroom and used these results to develop an observation tool (Practical Observation Rubric To Assess Active Learning, or PORTAAL) that documents the extent to which instructors incorporate these practices into their classrooms. We then use PORTAAL to explore the classroom practices of 25 introductory biology instructors who employ some form of active learning. Overall, PORTAAL documents how well aligned classrooms are with research-supported best practices for active learning and provides specific feedback and guidance to instructors to allow them to identify what they do well and what could be improved. PMID:26033871

  3. Global Night-Time Lights for Observing Human Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hipskind, Stephen R.; Elvidge, Chris; Gurney, K.; Imhoff, Mark; Bounoua, Lahouari; Sheffner, Edwin; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Pettit, Donald R.; Fischer, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We present a concept for a small satellite mission to make systematic, global observations of night-time lights with spatial resolution suitable for discerning the extent, type and density of human settlements. The observations will also allow better understanding of fine scale fossil fuel CO2 emission distribution. The NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey recommends more focus on direct observations of human influence on the Earth system. The most dramatic and compelling observations of human presence on the Earth are the night light observations taken by the Defence Meteorological System Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Beyond delineating the footprint of human presence, night light data, when assembled and evaluated with complementary data sets, can determine the fine scale spatial distribution of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding fossil fuel carbon emissions is critical to understanding the entire carbon cycle, and especially the carbon exchange between terrestrial and oceanic systems.

  4. A Novel Method for Learner Assessment Based on Learner Annotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noorbehbahani, Fakhroddin; Samani, Elaheh Biglar Beigi; Jazi, Hossein Hadian

    2013-01-01

    Assessment is one of the most essential parts of any instructive learning process which aims to evaluate a learner's knowledge about learning concepts. In this work, a new method for learner assessment based on learner annotations is presented. The proposed method exploits the M-BLEU algorithm to find the most similar reference annotations…

  5. Talking Science in Multilingual Contexts in South Africa: Possibilities and Challenges for Engagement in Learners Home Languages in High School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msimanga, Audrey; Lelliott, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature of learner engagement with science content during small group discussions in which learners use their home languages. We observed that learners reverted to their home languages in small group discussions, yet very little is known about the dynamics of learner engagement when they use their home languages in…

  6. Activities and future plan of earth observation by satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakura, Yukio

    1980-09-01

    The Earth Observation Center of NASDA has been receiving MSS (multispectral scanner) and RBV (return beam vidicon) data from NASAs Landsat satellites since January 1979. The data are widely used for research and applications by government institutions, universities, industries, etc. The first of Japanese Earth observation satellite series, MOS-1 (Marine Observation Satellite-1) which carries MESSR (visible and near-IR radiometer of push-broom scanning type), VTIR (visible and thermal IR radiometer), and MSR (microwave scanning radiometer), is under development with target date of its launch in 1984 FY.

  7. Cassini Observes the Active South Pole of Enceladus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porco, C. C.; Helfenstein P.; Thomas, P. C.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Wisdom, J.; West, R.; Neukum, G.; Denk, T.; Wagner, R.; Roatsch, T.; Kieffer, S.; Turtle, E.; McEwen, A.; Johnson, T. V.; Rathbun, J.; Veverka, J.; Wilson, D.; Perry, J.; Spitale, J.; Brahic, A.; Burns, J. A.; DelGenio, A. D.; Dones, L.; Murray, C. D.; Squyres, S.

    2007-01-01

    Cassini has identified a geologically active province a the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus. The shape of Enceladus suggests a possible intense heating epoch in the past by capture into a 1:4 secondary spin/orbit resonance.

  8. Supporting a Learner Community with Software Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taurisson, Neil; Tchounikine, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-agent approach that aims at supporting learners involved in a collective activity. We consider pedagogical situations where students have to explicitly define the articulation of their collective work and then achieve the different tasks they have defined. Our objective is to support these students by taking some of…

  9. Motivating Literacy Learners in Today's World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, J., Ed.; Parkhill, F., Ed.; Gillon, G., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Motivating Literacy Learners in Today's World" provides insights into a broad spectrum of children's literacy learning. Motivation is the key theme and the authors show how this can be achieved through reading for pleasure; in writing activities at a number of levels; and through oral language development. Chapters include: (1)…

  10. Goals, the Learner, and the Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers, principals, and supervisors need to determine the kinds of learners being taught in the school/class setting. Are pupils good by nature, bad, or neutral? Concepts held pertaining to each pupil assist in determining objectives, learning activities, and evaluation techniques. The Puritans believed that individuals were born evil or sinful.…

  11. Quantitative observations of cavitation activity in a viscoelastic medium.

    PubMed

    Collin, Jamie R T; Coussios, Constantin C

    2011-11-01

    Quantitative experimental observations of single-bubble cavitation in viscoelastic media that would enable validation of existing models are presently lacking. In the present work, single bubble cavitation is induced in an agar gel using a 1.15 MHz high intensity focused ultrasound transducer, and observed using a focused single-element passive cavitation detection (PCD) transducer. To enable quantitative observations, a full receive calibration is carried out of a spherically focused PCD system by a bistatic scattering substitution technique that uses an embedded spherical scatterer and a hydrophone. Adjusting the simulated pressure received by the PCD by the transfer function on receive and the frequency-dependent attenuation of agar gel enables direct comparison of the measured acoustic emissions with those predicted by numerical modeling of single-bubble cavitation using a modified Keller-Miksis approach that accounts for viscoelasticity of the surrounding medium. At an incident peak rarefactional pressure near the cavitation threshold, period multiplying is observed in both experiment and numerical model. By comparing the two sets of results, an estimate of the equilibrium bubble radius in the experimental observations can be made, with potential for extension to material parameter estimation. Use of these estimates yields good agreement between model and experiment.

  12. Hypermedia Design as Learner Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Amy M.

    2008-01-01

    A number of available resources offer guidance about hypermedia design strategies, many of which rely on principles of user-centered design. Many recent efforts, however, have focused more on developing "learner-centered" hypermedia. Learner-centered hypermedia is designed to help learners achieve their educational goals, rather than offer mere…

  13. Modeling the Compton Hump Reverberation Observed in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoormann, Janie; Beheshtipour, Banafsheh; Krawczynski, Henric

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, observations of the Iron K alpha reverberation in supermassive black holes have provided a new way to probe the inner accretion flow. Furthermore, a time lag between the direct coronal emission and the reprocessed emission forming the Compton Hump in AGN has been observed. In order to model this Compton Hump reverberation we performed general relativistic ray tracing studies of the accretion disk surrounding supermassive black holes, taking into account both the radial and angular dependence of the ionization parameter. We are able to model emission not only from a lamp-post corona but also implementing 3D corona geometries. Using these results we are able to model the observed data to gain additional insight into the geometry of the corona and the structure of the inner accretion disk.

  14. Doing Your Part To Help Your Child Become SMART (Successful, Motivated, Autonomous, Responsible, Thoughtful): Six Workshops on Parenting SMART Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattes, Beth; Walsh, Jackie; Hickman, Mickey

    A SMART Learner is a lifelong learner who can adapt to rapid change and who possesses characteristics associated with success in and out of school. These workshop materials to help parents help their children become SMART learners provide: information from current research and best practice; learning activities that will actively engage parents in…

  15. Electrophysiological evidence for enhanced attentional deployment in spatial learners.

    PubMed

    Drisdelle, Brandi Lee; Konishi, Kyoko; Diarra, Moussa; Bohbot, Veronique D; Jolicoeur, Pierre; West, Greg L

    2017-02-22

    Visual spatial attention is important during navigation processes that rely on a cognitive map, because spatial relationships between environmental landmarks need to be selected, encoded, and learned. People who navigate using this strategy are spatial learners, and this process relies on the hippocampus. Conversely, response learners memorize a series of actions to navigate, which relies on the caudate nucleus. Response learning, which is more efficient, is thought to involve less demanding cognitive operations, and is related to reduced grey matter in the hippocampus. To test if navigational strategy can impact visual attention performance, we investigated if spatial and response learners showed differences in attentional engagement used during a visual spatial task. We tested 40 response learners and 39 spatial learners, as determined by the 4-on-8 Virtual Maze (4/8 VM), on a target detection task designed to elicit an N2pc component (an index visual spatial attention). Spatial learners produced a larger N2pc amplitude during target detection compared to response learners. This relationship might represent an increase in goal-directed attention towards target stimuli or a more global increase in cognitive function that has been previously observed in spatial learners.

  16. Observation of extraordinary optical activity in planar chiral photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Kuniaki; Bai, Benfeng; Meng, Xiangfeng; Karvinen, Petri; Turunen, Jari; Svirko, Yuri P; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto

    2008-05-12

    Control of light polarization is a key technology in modern photonics including application to optical manipulation of quantum information. The requisite is to obtain large rotation in isotropic media with small loss. We report on extraordinary optical activity in a planar dielectric on-waveguide photonic crystal structure, which has no in-plane birefringence and shows polarization rotation of more than 25 degrees for transmitted light. We demonstrate that in the planar chiral photonic crystal, the coupling of the normally incident light wave with low-loss waveguide and Fabry-Pérot resonance modes results in a dramatic enhancement of the optical activity.

  17. Thunderstorm activity according to VLF observations at Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druzhin, G. I.; Cherneva, N. V.; Melnikov, A. N.

    2009-12-01

    The azimuthal distribution of lightning discharges and cyclone epicenters at a distance of up to 4000 km from the observation point at Kamchatka is given. The azimuths of lightning discharges were determined using an ELF finder, and the cyclone epicenters were determined from meteorological maps. Time dependences of the distribution of received radiations from lightning discharges have been obtained.

  18. Gender agreement violations modulate beta oscillatory dynamics during sentence comprehension: A comparison of second language learners and native speakers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ashley Glen; Lemhӧfer, Kristin; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; Schriefers, Herbert

    2016-08-01

    For native speakers, many studies suggest a link between oscillatory neural activity in the beta frequency range and syntactic processing. For late second language (L2) learners on the other hand, the extent to which the neural architecture supporting syntactic processing is similar to or different from that of native speakers is still unclear. In a series of four experiments, we used electroencephalography to investigate the link between beta oscillatory activity and the processing of grammatical gender agreement in Dutch determiner-noun pairs, for Dutch native speakers, and for German L2 learners of Dutch. In Experiment 1 we show that for native speakers, grammatical gender agreement violations are yet another among many syntactic factors that modulate beta oscillatory activity during sentence comprehension. Beta power is higher for grammatically acceptable target words than for those that mismatch in grammatical gender with their preceding determiner. In Experiment 2 we observed no such beta modulations for L2 learners, irrespective of whether trials were sorted according to objective or subjective syntactic correctness. Experiment 3 ruled out that the absence of a beta effect for the L2 learners in Experiment 2 was due to repetition of the target nouns in objectively correct and incorrect determiner-noun pairs. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that when L2 learners are required to explicitly focus on grammatical information, they show modulations of beta oscillatory activity, comparable to those of native speakers, but only when trials are sorted according to participants' idiosyncratic lexical representations of the grammatical gender of target nouns. Together, these findings suggest that beta power in L2 learners is sensitive to violations of grammatical gender agreement, but only when the importance of grammatical information is highlighted, and only when participants' subjective lexical representations are taken into account.

  19. Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Helfrich addresses two perspectives from which to think about observation in the classroom: that of the teacher observing her classroom, her group, and its needs, and that of the outside observer coming into the classroom. Offering advice from her own experience, she encourages and defends both. Do not be afraid of the disruption of outside…

  20. Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joosten, Albert Max

    2016-01-01

    Joosten begins his article by telling us that love and knowledge together are the foundation for our work with children. This combination is at the heart of our observation. With this as the foundation, he goes on to offer practical advice to aid our practice of observation. He offers a "List of Objects of Observation" to help guide our…

  1. Active commuting to elementary school and adiposity: An observational study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active commuting to school (ACS; walking or cycling to school) appears promising for decreasing children's obesity risk, although long-term studies are sparse. The aim was to examine whether kindergarten ACS was associated with fifth grade adiposity. This study was a secondary analysis of the Early ...

  2. Fragile Identities: Exploring Learner Identity, Learner Autonomy and Motivation through Young Learners' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Terry Eric

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in the fields of motivation and learner autonomy in language learning has begun to explore their relationships to the construct of identity. This article builds on this through the voices of a group of six learners of French or German in a secondary school in England, over a two-year period. These young learners initially reveal a…

  3. Observations of actively forming lava tubes and associated structures, Hawaii.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.

    1971-01-01

    Fluid basalts were erupted in August, 1970, from a vent near Alae Crater and flowed southeast. Forming exclusively in pahoehoe basalt, tubes in general evolve from lava channels by crustal formation, although some tubes develop directly from the vent. The observation discussed shows that channel crusts and tube roofs form in several ways. Lava channels usually form along the axis of highest velocity within the flow and are often centered along older lava channels, stream beds, rifts, grabens, or fracture zones.

  4. Active Control of Compressor Surge Using a Real Time Observer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Engines at the Georgia No. 98-GT-475, 1998. Institute of Technology sponsored by the U.S. Army 12. Grauer , F., Volgmann, W., Stoff, H. and Breuer...Verlag, 1991. 11-10 PAPER -11, J. Prasad Question (F. Grauer , Germany) Was the detector influenced by the blade passing frequencies? Reply No, the...observer could be selected to operate over a range of frequencies, thus eliminat- ing other frequencies. Question (F. Grauer , Germany) Do you expect your

  5. ACTIVITY ANALYSES FOR SOLAR-TYPE STARS OBSERVED WITH KEPLER. I. PROXIES OF MAGNETIC ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    He, Han; Wang, Huaning; Yun, Duo

    2015-11-15

    Light curves of solar-type stars often show gradual fluctuations due to rotational modulation by magnetic features (starspots and faculae) on stellar surfaces. Two quantitative measures of modulated light curves are employed as the proxies of magnetic activity for solar-type stars observed with Kepler telescope. The first is named autocorrelation index i{sub AC}, which describes the degree of periodicity of the light curve; the second is the effective fluctuation range of the light curve R{sub eff}, which reflects the depth of rotational modulation. The two measures are complementary and depict different aspects of magnetic activities on solar-type stars. By using the two proxies i{sub AC} and R{sub eff}, we analyzed activity properties of two carefully selected solar-type stars observed with Kepler (Kepler ID: 9766237 and 10864581), which have distinct rotational periods (14.7 versus 6.0 days). We also applied the two measures to the Sun for a comparative study. The result shows that both the measures can reveal cyclic activity variations (referred to as i{sub AC}-cycle and R{sub eff}-cycle) on the two Kepler stars and the Sun. For the Kepler star with the faster rotation rate, i{sub AC}-cycle and R{sub eff}-cycle are in the same phase, while for the Sun (slower rotator), they are in the opposite phase. By comparing the solar light curve with simultaneous photospheric magnetograms, it is identified that the magnetic feature that causes the periodic light curve during solar minima is the faculae of the enhanced network region, which can also be a candidate of magnetic features that dominate the periodic light curves on the two Kepler stars.

  6. Multi-wavelength Observations of Microflares Near an Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bein, B.; Veronig, A.; Rybak, J.; Gömöry, P.; Berkebile-Stoiser, S.; Sütterlin, P.

    We study the multi-wavelength characteristics of a microflaring active region (AR 10898) near disc centre. The analysed data were from the 4^{th} of July 2006, and were recorded by DOT (Hα, Ca II H), RHESSI (X-rays), TRACE (EUV) and SOHO/MDI (magnetograms). The identified microflare events were studied with respect to their magnetic field configuration and their multi-wavelength time evolution.

  7. Supporting Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Jo Ann; Hodges, Thomas E.; Brown, Clara Lee

    2010-01-01

    English Language Learners (ELLs) have an increasing presence in the nations' classrooms. From 1991 to 2004 the number of ELLs nearly doubled in grades K-12. Furthermore, new forms of accountability have school personnel concerned with the progress--or lack of progress--of the ELLs. "Principles and Standards" also reflects this concern: The Equity…

  8. California's English Learner Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    English Learner (EL) students in California's schools are numerous and diverse, and they lag behind their native-English-speaking peers. Closing the achievement gap for EL students has been a long-standing goal for California educators, and there are some signs of success. Now that EL funding and curriculum issues are receiving a fresh level of…

  9. School Learners & Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Jenni, Ed.

    This document presents papers from a conference held in November 1995 in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, convened by the Education Policy Unit (EPU) of the University of Natal as part of research concerning the provision of library-based resources for school learners. Following an introduction are two chapters: "Identifying the Inherited Problems in…

  10. Literacy and the Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Education, Inc. Reports, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This journal issue focuses on the learner, looks at why literacy has become a major concern and examines the changes brought about by the mastery of new skills. "Literacy/Illiteracy in an International Perspective" (Carman St. John Hunter) frames the discussion by stressing that literacy and illiteracy are moving targets, not fixed by…

  11. Serving the Online Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettcher, Judith V.

    2007-01-01

    Systems and services for recruiting, advising, and support of online students have seldom been at the top of the list when planning online and distance learning programs. That is now changing: Forces pushing advising and support services into the foreground include recognition of the student learner as "customer" and the increasing…

  12. Gender and Learner Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindal, Huda; Reid, Norman; Whitehead, Rex

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that girls and boys perform differently in traditional examinations in most countries. This study looks at a sample of 754 school students in Kuwait (aged about 13) and explores how boys and girls differ in the performance in a range of tests related to learner characteristics. The fundamental question is how boys and girls…

  13. Helping Young Hispanic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E.; Jensen, Bryant

    2007-01-01

    Hispanics are the largest and youngest ethnic group in the United States. Moreover, young Hispanic children make up approximately 80 percent of the U.S. English language learner population. They are a heterogeneous group, born both inside and outside the United States and having origins in Mexico, Cuba, Central America, South America, and the…

  14. The Transliterate Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Thomas et al. have defined transliteracy as "the ability to read, write and interact across a range of platforms, tools and media from signing and orality through handwriting, print, TV, radio and film, to digital social networks" (Transliteracy Research Group). The learner who is transliterate builds knowledge, communicates, and interacts across…

  15. Learner Autonomy Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illes, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article explores whether the perception of learner autonomy that is promoted in language pedagogy is suitable for preparing students to perform successfully in the changed circumstances of the use of English. Recent developments, which include the growing role of English as a lingua franca and computer-mediated communication (CMC), give rise…

  16. Helping Gifted Learners Soar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Whenever educators talk about raising achievement, grade-level standards are most frequently the end goal for student learning. But what about students who have already met some, if not all, of those standards and who master material quickly and in-depth? Advanced and gifted learners often languish in our schools because teachers don't have the…

  17. The Savvy Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dealtry, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This article defines the cultural nature and scale of change in learning consciousness that has to take place when the organizationally-based adult learner makes the transition from formal prescriptive learning practice to self-owned, self-directed learning. It articulates some of the learning-to-learn process models that introduce, accelerate,…

  18. of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashidi, Nasser; Mortazavi, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of Iranian university EFL students. Participants in the present study were a total of 67 EFL learners, studying at Shiraz Azad University as senior English Translation students. The instruments utilized for data collection were three tests: A…

  19. Assessing Preschool Children's Physical Activity: The Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Almeida, M. Joao C. A.; Pate, Russell R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present initial information concerning a new direct observation system--the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version. The system will allow researchers to record young children's physical activity levels while also coding the topography of their physical activity, as well as detailed…

  20. Active Antenna for the VLF to HF Observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burhans, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    A simple and low cost method of fabricating an active antenna preamplifier system covering the range of 10 KHz to 10 MHz for use with tunable communications receivers is described. The same type of system can be used with airborne VLF navigation receivers. By operating a high impedance preamplifier as a wide band device directly at the base of a short vertical antenna, the signal can be driven back to the receiver on a length of coaxial cable. The antenna can be as short as I meter and still give excellent results when the capacity to ground at the antenna is low.

  1. Hinode Observations of an Eruption from a Sigmoidal Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, L. M.; Wallace, A. J.; Kliem, B.

    2012-08-01

    We analyse the evolution of a bipolar active region which produces an eruption during its decay phase. The soft X-ray arcade develops high shear over a time span of two days and transitions to sigmoidal shortly before the eruption. We propose that the continuous sigmoidal soft X-ray threads indicate that a flux rope has formed which is lying low in the solar atmosphere with a bald patch separatrix surface topology. The formation of the flux rope is driven by the photospheric evolution which is dominated by fragmentation of the main polarities, motion due to supergranular flows and cancellation at the polarity inversion line.

  2. Kepler Observations of Rapid Optical Variability in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Edelson, R.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Gandhi, P.

    2012-01-01

    Over three quarters in 2010 - 2011, Kepler monitored optical emission from four active galactic nuclei (AGN) with approx 30 min sampling, > 90% duty cycle and approx < 0.1% repeatability. These data determined the AGN optical fluctuation power spectral density functions (PSDs) over a wide range in temporal frequency. Fits to these PSDs yielded power law slopes of -2.6 to -3.3, much steeper than typically seen in the X-rays. We find evidence that individual AGN exhibit intrinsically different PSD slopes. The steep PSD fits are a challenge to recent AGN variability models but seem consistent with first order MRI theoretical calculations of accretion disk fluctuations.

  3. C IV Doppler shifts observed in active region filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Doppler shift properties of 21 active region filaments were studied using C IV Dopplergram data. Most are associated with corridors of weak magnetic field that separate opposite polarity strong fields seen in photospheric magnetograms. A majority of the filaments are relatively blue shifted, although several lie very close to the dividing lines between blue and red shift. Only one filament in the samples is clearly red shifted. A new calibration procedure for Dopplergrams indicates that sizable zero point offsets are often required. The center-to-limb behavior of the resulting absolute Doppler shifts suggests that filament flows are usually quite small. It is possible that they vanish.

  4. Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kripalani, Lakshmi A.

    2016-01-01

    The adult who is inexperienced in the art of observation may, even with the best intentions, react to a child's behavior in a way that hinders instead of helping the child's development. Kripalani outlines the need for training and practice in observation in order to "understand the needs of the children and...to understand how to remove…

  5. Synchronous behaviour of cetaceans observed with active acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godø, Olav Rune; Sivle, Lise Doksæter; Patel, Ruben; Torkelsen, Terje

    2013-12-01

    Scientific split-beam echosounders are sensitive instruments for observing biomass densities and individual behaviour. Earlier studies have demonstrated that these instruments can be used to study diving behaviour of cetaceans. In this paper, we go into more detail about the recorded signal to see if and how acoustic split-beam data can be used to extract information about synchronous behaviour and other species related characteristics. Data of several cetacean individuals were collected by a moored echosounder pinging upwards from about 900 m in the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone. In this paper, we discuss methodological issues associated with using split-beam tracking of large marine animals. Further we demonstrate that target tracking of cetaceans can be used to study solo dives as well as behavioural synchrony. We also show that paired signals can easily be interpreted as false synchrony due to the size of the animals. In such cases a rough estimate of the diameter, and hence size, of the animals can be estimated. We emphasise on four examples that clarify methodological challenges including synchronous swimmers as well as large single cetaceans that might be interpreted as two synchronous swimmers. The applied technology requires that the animals remain in a narrow acoustic beam for long enough time to extract behavioural information. The technology can be improved by developing automatic tracking of cetaceans with a steerable transducer. This will substantially increase the search volume and enable tracking of cetaceans over longer periods and thus, produce more realistic information about the whale behaviour.

  6. All Aboard! The Polar Express Is Traveling to Science--Understanding the States of Matter While Differentiating Instruction for Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vowell, Julie; Phillips, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This standards-based science lesson introduces young learners to scientific inquiry and critical thinking by using activities to demonstrate three phases of matter (solid, liquid, and gas). By learning about the states of matter through a 5E instructional approach, students are encouraged to observe changes in the states of matter and to discuss…

  7. Land-cover observations as part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS): Progress, activities, and prospects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herold, M.; Woodcock, C.E.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Townshend, J.; Brady, M.; Steenmans, C.; Schmullius, C. C.

    2008-01-01

    The international land-cover community has been working with GEO since 2005 to build the foundations for land-cover observations as an integral part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) has provided the platform to elevate the societal relevance of land cover monitoring and helped to link a diverse set of global, regional, and national activities. A dedicated 2007-2009 GEO work plan task has resulted in achievements on the strategic and implementation levels. Integrated Global Observations of the Land (IGOL), the land theme of the Integrated Global Observation Strategy (IGOS), has been approved and is now in the process of transition into GEO implementation. New global land-cover maps at moderate spatial resolutions (i.e., GLOBCOVER) are being produced using guidelines and standards of the international community. The Middecadal Global Landsat Survey for 2005-2006 is extending previous 1990 and 2000 efforts for global, high-quality Landsat data. Despite this progress, essential challenges for building a sustained global land-cover-observing system remain, including: international cooperation on the continuity of global observations; ensuring consistency in land monitoring approaches; community engagement and country participation in mapping activities; commitment to ongoing quality assurance and validation; and regional networking and capacity building.

  8. Active Microwave Remote Sensing Observations of Weddell Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drinkwater, Mark R.

    1997-01-01

    Since July 1991, the European Space Agency's ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites have acquired radar data of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The Active Microwave Instrument on board ERS has two modes; SAR and Scatterometer. Two receiving stations enable direct downlink and recording of high bit-rate, high resolution SAR image data of this region. When not in an imaging mode, when direct SAR downlink is not possible, or when a receiving station is inoperable, the latter mode allows normalized radar cross-section data to be acquired. These low bit-rate ERS scatterometer data are tape recorded, downlinked and processed off-line. Recent advances in image generation from Scatterometer backscatter measurements enable complementary medium-scale resolution images to be made during periods when SAR images cannot be acquired. Together, these combined C-band microwave image data have for the first time enabled uninterrupted night and day coverage of the Weddell Sea region at both high (25 m) and medium-scale (-20 km) resolutions. C-band ERS-1 radar data are analyzed in conjunction with field data from two simultaneous field experiments in 1992. Satellite radar signature data are compared with shipborne radar data to extract a regional and seasonal signature database for recognition of ice types in the images. Performance of automated sea-ice tracking algorithms is tested on Antarctic data to evaluate their success. Examples demonstrate that both winter and summer ice can be effectively tracked. The kinematics of the main ice zones within the Weddell Sea are illustrated, together with the complementary time-dependencies in their radar signatures. Time-series of satellite images are used to illustrate the development of the Weddell Sea ice cover from its austral summer minimum (February) to its winter maximum (September). The combination of time-dependent microwave signatures and ice dynamics tracking enable various drift regimes to be defined which relate closely to the circulation of the

  9. Development and Testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children: Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIver, Kerry L.; Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the development and pilot testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity-Elementary School (OSRAC-E) Version. Method: This system was developed to observe and document the levels and types of physical activity and physical and social contexts of physical activity in elementary school students…

  10. Some New Observations on Activation Energy of Crystal Growth for Thermally Activated Crystallization.

    PubMed

    Mehta, N; Kumar, A

    2016-02-18

    Calorimetric study of glass/crystal phase transformation in disordered semiconductors is a significant tool for understanding their crystallization kinetics. Such studies provide the basis for practical application of glasses. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is one of the advanced techniques for the analysis of thermally induced crystallization in glassy or amorphous systems. We are reporting the nonisothermal DSC measurements on four amorphous systems of Se70Te30 alloy with Ag, Cd, Sb, and Zn as chemical modifiers. In general, the rate constant (K) shows Arrhenian dependence on temperature (T), i.e., K = K0 exp (-Eg/RT) where Eg is the activation energy of crystal growth and K0 is called the pre-exponential factor of rate constant. In the present work, an experiment is designed to see the effect of composition on the activation energy of crystal growth. We have found Meyer-Neldel relation (MNR) between Eg and K0 for present systems. Another interesting feature of present work is the observation of further relation between Meyer-Neldel prefactor and Meyer-Neldel energy.

  11. Development and Testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children: Elementary School

    PubMed Central

    McIver, Kerry L.; Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study describes the development and pilot testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity-Elementary School (OSRAC-E) version. Methods This system was developed to observe and document the levels and types of physical activity and physical and social contexts of physical activity in elementary school students during the school day. Inter-observer agreement scores and summary data were calculated. Results All categories had Kappa statistics above 0.80, with the exception of the activity initiator category. Inter-observer agreement scores were 96% or greater. The OSRAC-E was shown to be a reliable observation system that allows researchers to assess physical activity behaviors, the contexts of those behaviors, and the effectiveness of physical activity interventions in the school environment. Conclusion The OSRAC-E can yield data with high interobserver reliability and provide relatively extensive contextual information about physical activity of students in elementary schools. PMID:26889587

  12. Risk-Free Volcano Observations Using an Unmanned Autonomous Helicopter: seismic observations near the active vent of Sakurajima volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohminato, T.; Kaneko, T.; Koyama, T.; Yasuda, A.; Watanabe, A.; Takeo, M.; Honda, Y.; Kajiwara, K.; Kanda, W.; Iguchi, M.; Yanagisawa, T.

    2010-12-01

    Observations in the vicinity of summit area of active volcanoes are important not only for understanding physical processes in the volcanic conduit but also for eruption prediction and volcanic hazards mitigation. It is, however, challenging to install observation sensors near active vents because of the danger of sudden eruptions. We need safe and efficient ways of installing sensors near the summit of active volcanoes. We have been developing an volcano observation system based on an unmanned autonomous vehicle (UAV) for risk-free volcano observations. Our UAV is an unmanned autonomous helicopter manufactured by Yamaha-Motor Co., Ltd. The UAV is 3.6m long and weighs 84kg with maximum payload of 10kg. The UAV can aviate autonomously along a previously programmed path within a meter accuracy using real-time kinematics differential GPS equipment. The maximum flight time and distance from the operator are 90 minutes and 5km, respectively. We have developed various types of volcano observation techniques adequate for the UAV, such as aeromagnetic survey, taking infrared and visible images from onboard high-resolution cameras, volcanic ash sampling in the vicinity of active vents. Recently, we have developed an earthquake observation module (EOM), which is exclusively designed for the UAV installation in the vicinity of active volcanic vent. In order to meet the various requirements for UAV installation, the EOM is very compact, light-weight (5-6kg), and is solar-powered. It is equipped with GPS for timing, a communication device using cellular-phone network, and triaxial accelerometers. Our first application of the EOM installation using the UAV is one of the most active volcanoes in Japan, Sakurajima volcano. Since 2006, explosive eruptions have been continuing at the reopened Showa crater at the eastern flank near the summit of Sakurajima. Entering the area within 2 km from the active craters is prohibited, and thus there were no observation station in the vicinity

  13. Learner Preferences and Achievement Under Differing Amounts of Learner Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; Sullivan, Howard J.; Leader, Lars F.; Jones, Elizabeth E. K.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the effects of program mode (i.e., a lean program version containing a basic amount of learner practice versus a full mode containing expanded practice) and learner preference (matched or unmatched) for amount of practice on the achievement, time-in-program, and attitudes of university undergraduate students. Students preferred the lean…

  14. Demonized Learners in Sociocultural Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Within the frameworks of Sociocultural theory, particularly Vygotskian sociocultural theory and ZPD, Lave and Wenger's CoP, and contemporary sociocultural theory, this paper seeks to examine the unfavourable scholarly portrayal of learners and their identities based on learners' behaviours, attitudes, and beliefs about the social element of…

  15. College Centers for Older Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Judith L.

    Across the nation, colleges are discovering a new group of students: retired learners. Special programs are emerging to meet the unique needs and interests of this mature population. This booklet describes these programs under the generic title, College Centers for Older Learners (CCOLs). CCOLs offer a stimulating college environment for older…

  16. The Generative Adolescent Mathematical Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the personal epistemologies of generative adolescent mathematical learners. A generative disposition defined a learner who operated mathematically in ways that reflect an internalized authority for knowing and a constructive orientation to knowledge. Drawing upon the radical constructivist teaching…

  17. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…

  18. Assistive Software for Disabled Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sharon; Baggaley, Jon

    2004-01-01

    Previous reports in this series (#32 and 36) have discussed online software features of value to disabled learners in distance education. The current report evaluates four specific assistive software products with useful features for visually and hearing impaired learners: "ATutor", "ACollab", "Natural Voice", and "Just Vanilla". The evaluative…

  19. The Adult Learner: Four Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, John A., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Topics concerning the adult learner that are relevant to institutional researchers are addressed in four articles: marketing, predicting success for adult students, enrollment projection, and follow-up studies of adult learners. In "Institutional Research in Support of Marketing the Adult Student," Lydia Jurand notes the importance of…

  20. High Ability and Learner Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindal, Huda; Reid, Norman; Whitehead, Rex

    2013-01-01

    The outstandingly able learner has been conceptualised, in terms of test and examination performance, as the learner showing superior academic performance which is markedly better than that of peers and in ways regarded as of value by wider society. In Kuwait, such superior examination performance leads to a classification regarded as being…

  1. Learner Intonation -- A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Nancy

    This study is concerned with problems in language learners' intonation of English. Ten intonation problems were found in the learner speech of two adult Spanish-speaking males: (1) range of pitch, (2) initial rise, (3) final fall, (4) rise to final stressed syllable, (5) placement of prominence, (6) final rise for questions, (7) total question…

  2. Sensitizing ESL Learners to Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Jasti Appa

    2008-01-01

    This article evaluates the efficacy of explicit genre-based instruction by sensitizing the ESL learners to the concept of genre. The main questions addressed are: How does sensitizing ESL learners to the rhetorical move structure of a genre, the communicative purposes of these moves, and linguistic features that realize these moves help them to…

  3. Iranian EFL Learners' Compliment Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allami, Hamid; Montazeri, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the knowledge of Iranian EFL learners in responding to compliments in English, with a focus on the variables of gender, age and educational background. The data were collected through a 24-item English Discourse Completion Task (DCT) to which 40 male and female EFL learners were asked to provide short…

  4. Learner Autonomy and New Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raya, Manuel Jimenez; Fernandez, Jose Maria Perez

    2002-01-01

    Presents paths for theoretical research and practical procedures that may help teachers make new technology pedagogically relevant. Discusses the need to develop learner autonomy to help students process information in meaningful ways and become independent learners by developing effective learning strategies, transfer skills, and a greater sense…

  5. Profiling Mobile English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Jason; Diem, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an app-embedded survey to profile language learner demographics. A total of 3,759 EFL language learners from primarily eight L1 backgrounds (French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Russian, Spanish and Thai) responded to the survey embedded within a popular English grammar app. This app has over 500,000…

  6. Effective Instruction for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sanchez, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or…

  7. Learner Control in Hypermedia Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Contrary to system-controlled multimedia learning environments, hypermedia systems are characterized by a high level of interactivity. This interactivity is referred to as learner control in the respective literature. For several reasons this learner control is seen as a major advantage of hypermedia for learning and instruction. For instance,…

  8. Learners' Perceptions and Attitudes: Implications for Willingness to Communicate in an L2 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Saint Leger, Diane; Storch, Neomy

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates learners' perceptions of their speaking abilities, of their contributions to oral class activities (whole class and small group discussions) as well as their attitudes towards these activities, and how such perceptions and attitudes influenced the learners' willingness to communicate in the L2. The study employed a range of…

  9. Motivation Classification and Grade Prediction for MOOCs Learners

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    While MOOCs offer educational data on a new scale, many educators find great potential of the big data including detailed activity records of every learner. A learner's behavior such as if a learner will drop out from the course can be predicted. How to provide an effective, economical, and scalable method to detect cheating on tests such as surrogate exam-taker is a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a grade predicting method that uses student activity features to predict whether a learner may get a certification if he/she takes a test. The method consists of two-step classifications: motivation classification (MC) and grade classification (GC). The MC divides all learners into three groups including certification earning, video watching, and course sampling. The GC then predicts a certification earning learner may or may not obtain a certification. Our experiment shows that the proposed method can fit the classification model at a fine scale and it is possible to find a surrogate exam-taker. PMID:26884747

  10. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Assessing Physical Activity and Its Contexts Using Systematic Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Numerous methods are available to assess physical activity (PA) but systematic observation (SO) excels in being able to provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. As SO is particularly useful for determining how activity is influenced by the immediate physical and social environments, its use is becoming more…

  11. Ten Helpful Ideas for Teaching English to Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Joan Kang

    2006-01-01

    This article offers ten suggestions for teaching young learners between the age of 7 and 12 based on language-teaching principles. They include supplementing activities with visuals, realia and movement; involving students in making visuals and realia; moving from activity to activity; teaching in themes; using stories and contexts familiar to…

  12. Familiarity modulates motor activation while other species' actions are observed: a magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Amoruso, Lucia; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2016-03-01

    Observing other people's actions facilitates the observer's motor system as compared with observing the same individuals at rest. This motor activation is thought to result from mirror-like activity in fronto-parietal areas, which enhances the excitability of the primary motor cortex via cortico-cortical pathways. Although covert motor activation in response to observed actions has been widely investigated between conspecifics, how humans cope with other species' actions has received less attention. For example, it remains unclear whether the human motor system is activated by observing other species' actions, and whether prior familiarity with the non-conspecific agent modulates this activation. Here, we combined single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation and motor-evoked potential recording to explore the impact of familiarity on motor activation during the observation of non-conspecific actions. Videos displaying actions performed either by a conspecific (human) or by a non-conspecific (dog) were shown to individuals who had prior familiarity or no familiarity at all with the non-conspecific agent. We found that, whereas individuals with long-lasting familiarity showed similar levels of motor activation for human and canine actions, individuals who had no familiarity showed higher motor activation for human than for canine actions. These findings suggest that the human motor system is flexible enough to resonate with other species, and that familiarity plays a key role in tuning this ability.

  13. Activation differences in observation of hand movements for imitation or velocity judgement.

    PubMed

    Suchan, Boris; Melde, Cornelia; Herzog, Hans; Hömberg, Volker; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2008-03-17

    We aimed to investigate the brain areas engaged in observation of hand movements with the intention of imitation or judging movement velocity. Both processes reflect different analytic approaches in movement observation. We were interested if these two processes can be distinguished or share common activation foci. Twelve healthy, right-handed volunteers were required to observe video clips of hand gestures and of object related grasping movements while the regional cerebral blood flow was measured using positron emission tomography. The subjects were instructed either to imitate the actions or to judge the velocity of the observed movements after scanning. Action observation with the instruction to judge movement velocity engaged bilaterally the temporo-occipital junction and adjacent visual cortical areas. In contrast, observation with the instruction to imitate them afterwards, yielded large activation clusters covering the left parietal and premotor cortex. Both contrasts demonstrated activation in the inferior frontal cortex, however, on opposite sides. Results suggest that movement observation with the goal of imitation activated specific areas of the parietal cortex in the dominant hemisphere probably related to programming of the movement kinematics. In contrast, observation with the goal to characterize the velocity of the finger movements activated the ventral visual pathways. Thus, movement observation recruits non-overlapping cortical networks, depending on the information attended to which are characterised by a dorsal ventral dissociation.

  14. Learning Difficulties in English for Rural Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2010-01-01

    The present study illuminates and diagnoses the learning problems of the rural learners in English Grammar at standard VI. Present study may be useful to ameliorate the rural learners for acquiring competencies in English and eliminates the problems of the learners. It paves way to the teachers to diagnose the learning hurdles of the learners and…

  15. Model Learner Outcomes for Service Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Audrey M.

    This guide to model learner outcomes for service occupations contains four chapters: (1) education values, learner values, philosophy, mission, and goals; (2) introduction, goals, and eight program-level learner outcomes; (3) general learner outcomes and outcomes for housing occupations, child care occupations, cosmetology and personal services,…

  16. Preparing Learners for e-Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piskurich, George M., Ed.

    This book presents methods business organizations and educational institutions can use to prepare their learners to become successful e-learners. "Preparing e-Learners for Self- Directed Learning" (Long) discusses self-direction as a prerequisite to e-learning and gives a list of ways to help enhance learners' self-directedness.…

  17. Computer Aided Prediction of Biological Activity Spectra: Study of Correlation between Predicted and Observed Activities for Coumarin-4-Acetic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Basanagouda, M.; Jadhav, V. B.; Kulkarni, M. V.; Rao, R. Nagendra

    2011-01-01

    Coumarin-4-acetic acids have been synthesized from various phenols and citric acid under Pechmann cyclisation conditions. All the compounds have been evaluated for antiinflammatory and analgesic activity in acute models. Compounds have also been evaluated for their ulcerogenic potential. Using the computer program, prediction of activity spectra for substances, prediction results and their Pharma Expert software, we have found a correlation between the observed and predicted antiinflammatory activity. PMID:22131629

  18. Modulation of brain activity during action observation: influence of perspective, transitivity and meaningfulness.

    PubMed

    Hétu, Sébastien; Mercier, Catherine; Eugène, Fanny; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Jackson, Philip L

    2011-01-01

    The coupling process between observed and performed actions is thought to be performed by a fronto-parietal perception-action system including regions of the inferior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule. When investigating the influence of the movements' characteristics on this process, most research on action observation has focused on only one particular variable even though the type of movements we observe can vary on several levels. By manipulating the visual perspective, transitivity and meaningfulness of observed movements in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study we aimed at investigating how the type of movements and the visual perspective can modulate brain activity during action observation in healthy individuals. Importantly, we used an active observation task where participants had to subsequently execute or imagine the observed movements. Our results show that the fronto-parietal regions of the perception action system were mostly recruited during the observation of meaningless actions while visual perspective had little influence on the activity within the perception-action system. Simultaneous investigation of several sources of modulation during active action observation is probably an approach that could lead to a greater ecological comprehension of this important sensorimotor process.

  19. Abnormal brain activation during movement observation in patients with conversion paralysis.

    PubMed

    Burgmer, Markus; Konrad, Carsten; Jansen, Andreas; Kugel, Harald; Sommer, Jens; Heindel, Walter; Ringelstein, Erich B; Heuft, Gereon; Knecht, Stefan

    2006-02-15

    Dissociative paralysis in conversion disorders has variably been attributed to a lack of movement initiation or an inhibition of movement. While psychodynamic theory suggests altered movement conceptualization, brain activation associated with observation and replication of movements has so far not been assessed neurobiologically. Here, we measured brain activation by functional magnetic resonance imaging during observation and subsequent imitative execution of movements in four patients with dissociative hand paralysis. Compared to healthy controls conversion disorder patients showed decreased activation of cortical hand areas during movement observation. This effect was specific to the side of their dissociative paralysis. No brain activation compatible with movement inhibition was observed. These findings indicate that in dissociative paralysis, there is not only derangement of movement initiation but already of movement conceptualization. This raises the possibility that strategies targeted at reestablishing appropriate movement conceptualization may contribute to the therapy of dissociative paralysis.

  20. Celebrating the Earth: Stories, Experiences, and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livo, Norma J.

    Young learners are invited to learn about the natural world through engaging activities that encourage the observation, exploration, and appreciation of nature. Weaving together a stimulating tapestry of folktales, personal narratives, and hands-on activities, this book teaches children about the earth and all of its creatures--birds, plants,…

  1. Active buildings: modelling physical activity and movement in office buildings. An observational study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lee; Ucci, Marcella; Marmot, Alexi; Spinney, Richard; Laskowski, Marek; Sawyer, Alexia; Konstantatou, Marina; Hamer, Mark; Ambler, Gareth; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Health benefits of regular participation in physical activity are well documented but population levels are low. Office layout, and in particular the number and location of office building destinations (eg, print and meeting rooms), may influence both walking time and characteristics of sitting time. No research to date has focused on the role that the layout of the indoor office environment plays in facilitating or inhibiting step counts and characteristics of sitting time. The primary aim of this study was to investigate associations between office layout and physical activity, as well as sitting time using objective measures. Methods and analysis Active buildings is a unique collaboration between public health, built environment and computer science researchers. The study involves objective monitoring complemented by a larger questionnaire arm. UK office buildings will be selected based on a variety of features, including office floor area and number of occupants. Questionnaires will include items on standard demographics, well-being, physical activity behaviour and putative socioecological correlates of workplace physical activity. Based on survey responses, approximately 30 participants will be recruited from each building into the objective monitoring arm. Participants will wear accelerometers (to monitor physical activity and sitting inside and outside the office) and a novel tracking device will be placed in the office (to record participant location) for five consecutive days. Data will be analysed using regression analyses, as well as novel agent-based modelling techniques. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and scientific presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University College London Research Ethics Committee (Reference number 4400/001). PMID:24227873

  2. Observations of Children's Interactions with Teachers, Peers, and Tasks across Preschool Classroom Activity Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booren, Leslie M.; Downer, Jason T.; Vitiello, Virginia E.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This descriptive study examined classroom activity settings in relation to children's observed behavior during classroom interactions, child gender, and basic teacher behavior within the preschool classroom. A total of 145 children were observed for an average of 80 min during 8 occasions across 2 days using the Individualized…

  3. Observing and Understanding Arterial and Venous Circulation Differences in a Physiology Laboratory Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altermann, Caroline; Gonçalves, Rithiele; Lara, Marcus Vinícius S.; Neves, Ben-Hur S.; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to describe three simple practical experiments that aim to observe and discuss the anatomic and physiological functions and differences between arteries and veins as well as the alterations observed in skin blood flow in different situations. For this activity, students were divided in small groups. In each…

  4. Respect and Autonomy in Children's Observation and Participation in Adults' Activities.

    PubMed

    García, Fernando A

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines Peruvian Quechua children's learning by observing and pitching in. The children concentrate attentively when they observe the activities of the adults and they exercise autonomy in the context of adults' encouragement of measured behaviors while always showing respectful silence in the presence of their elders.

  5. Active Use of Parks in Flanders (Belgium): An Exploratory Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Hecke, Linde; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Clarys, Peter; Van Dyck, Delfien; Veitch, Jenny; Deforche, Benedicte

    2016-01-01

    Parks have the potential to increase physical activity at the community level by providing opportunities to be active. In order to inform interventions to promote physical activity in parks, insight is needed concerning park user characteristics, the activity level of park users, the types of activities performed and associations between park areas and temporal variables with observed physical activity levels. Park user characteristics (sex, age, ethnicity and activity level) were recorded within pre-defined park areas in two parks in Ghent (Belgium) using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). Most park users were male, adult, and engaged in vigorous-intensity physical activity (48%). Most popular activities were biking (38%), sitting (23%) and walking (15%); accordingly, trails were used most and had the highest levels of physical activity compared to other park areas. Parks were used least frequently in the morning, during the weekend and by seniors. Therefore, active park use during morning periods, on weekend days and by seniors should be promoted and urban planners should consider that different park areas can possibly elicit varying activity levels among park users. PMID:28042849

  6. Directly Observed Physical Activity among 3-Year-Olds in Finnish Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soini, Anne; Villberg, Jari; Sääkslahti, Arja; Gubbels, Jessica; Mehtälä, Anette; Kettunen, Tarja; Poskiparta, Marita

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to determine 3-year-olds' physical activity levels and how these vary across season, gender, time of day, location, and the physical and social environment in childcare settings in Finland. A modified version of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P) was used to…

  7. Periodic Properties and Inquiry: Student Mental Models Observed during a Periodic Table Puzzle Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kathleen G.; Long, George R.; Briggs, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    The mental models of both novice and advanced chemistry students were observed while the students performed a periodic table activity. The mental model framework seems to be an effective way of analyzing student behavior during learning activities. The analysis suggests that students do not recognize periodic trends through the examination of…

  8. BEACHES: An Observational System for Assessing Children's Eating and Physical Activity Behaviors and Associated Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children's Health Evaluation System (BEACHES) codes direct observations of children's dietary and physical activity behaviors and associated environmental events, including physical location, antecedents, and consequences. The system's reliability and validity was assessed in a study of 42 children (ages…

  9. 2009 C. H. McCloy Lecture. Seeing Is Believing: Observing Physical Activity and Its Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Direct (systematic) observation has been a mainstay of my research for over three decades. I believe it is an important tool for assessing physical activity, because it can simultaneously provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. It is particularly useful for those interested in using ecological and…

  10. Factors Affecting Learners' Attention to Teacher Talk in Nine ESL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Weiqing

    2015-01-01

    With classroom observation and stimulated recall interviews as research instruments, the present study investigated some of the factors that affected learners' attention to teacher talk in nine English as a Second Language (ESL) classrooms. The results revealed five such factors, namely, learners' self evaluation of their language knowledge, the…

  11. Social Interaction within a Web 2.0 Learning Environment: The Impact on Learner Social Presence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinman, Debbie Cinque

    2010-01-01

    In this case study, the researcher observed the social interactions within a Web 2.0 learning environment to examine the nature of the learner social presence. Social presence is essential to facilitate group cooperation and plays a central role in establishing learners' sense of belonging and social cohesion to the group. Social presence is…

  12. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Learning Chinese with a Cognitive Model of the Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosek, Michal; Lison, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We present an intelligent tutoring system that lets students of Chinese learn words and grammatical constructions. It relies on a Bayesian, linguistically motivated cognitive model that represents the learner's knowledge. This model is dynamically updated given observations about the learner's behaviour in the exercises, and employed at runtime to…

  13. The Acquisition of Tense and Agreement by Early Child Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ming-Ching

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the acquisition of tense and agreement morphology by child L2 learners in an early stage of language acquisition. The objectives of this study are twofold. The first is to observe the development of verb inflections and syntactic competence over time from an early stage by Chinese child L2 learners of English. The…

  14. How Do Teachers and Learners Perceive Corrective Feedback in the Japanese Language Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Reiko

    2010-01-01

    This study examined Japanese language teachers' and learners' perceptions of corrective feedback (CF), focusing on the cases in which the learners responded to the teachers' CF. Data were collected from the second-year course of an Australian university for 1 semester by classroom observation and audio recording and stimulated recall interviews.…

  15. Exploratory Research on the Effect of Autonomous Learners to Team Learning within Healthcare Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Patricia R.; Chalofsky, Neal

    2005-01-01

    How does individual learning impact team learning? Through an exploratory case study, data was collected from questionnaires, documentation review, observations, and interviews. Three themes emerged describing how an autonomous learner affected team learning. The results indicated that the autonomous learner influenced team learning through…

  16. Non-LTE Inversion of Spectropolarimetric and Spectroscopic Observations of a Small Active-region Filament Observed at the VTT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, P.; Balthasar, H.; Kuckein, C.; Koza, J.; Gömöry, P.; Rybák, J.; Kučera, A.; Heinzel, P.

    2016-04-01

    An active region mini-filament was observed by VTT simultaneously in the HeI 10 830 Å triplet by the TIP 1 spectropolarimeter, in Hα by the TESOS Fabry-Pérot interferometer, and in Ca II 8542 Å by the VTT spectrograph. The spectropolarimetric data were inverted using the HAZEL code and Hα profiles were modelled solving a NLTE radiative transfer in a simple isobaric and isothermal 2D slab irradiated both from bottom and sides. It was found that the mini-filament is composed of horizontal fluxtubes, along which the cool plasma of T˜10 000 K can flow by very large - even supersonic - velocities.

  17. Is Brain Activity during Action Observation Modulated by the Perceived Fairness of the Actor?

    PubMed Central

    Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving other people’s actions triggers activity in premotor and parietal areas, brain areas also involved in executing and sensing our own actions. Paralleling this phenomenon, observing emotional states (including pain) in others is associated with activity in the same brain areas as activated when experiencing similar emotions directly. This emotion perception associated activity has been shown to be affected by the perceived fairness of the actor, and in-group membership more generally. Here, we examine whether action observation associated brain activity is also affected by the perceived social fairness of the actors. Perceived fairness was manipulated using an alternating iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma game between the participant and two confederates, one of whom played fairly and the other unfairly. During fMRI scanning the participants watched movies of the confederates performing object-directed hand actions, and then performed hand actions themselves. Mass-univariate analysis showed that observing the actions triggered robust activation in regions associated with action execution, but failed to identify a strong modulation of this activation based on perceived fairness. Multivariate pattern analysis, however, identified clusters potentially carrying information about the perceived fairness of the actor in the middle temporal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right middle cingulate cortex, right angular gyrus, and right superioroccipital gyrus. Despite being identified by a whole-brain searchlight analysis (and so without anatomical restriction), these clusters fall into areas frequently associated with action observation. We conclude that brain activity during action observation may be modulated by perceived fairness, but such modulation is subtle; robust activity is associated with observing the actions of both fair and unfair individuals. PMID:26820995

  18. Is Brain Activity during Action Observation Modulated by the Perceived Fairness of the Actor?

    PubMed

    Etzel, Joset A; Valchev, Nikola; Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving other people's actions triggers activity in premotor and parietal areas, brain areas also involved in executing and sensing our own actions. Paralleling this phenomenon, observing emotional states (including pain) in others is associated with activity in the same brain areas as activated when experiencing similar emotions directly. This emotion perception associated activity has been shown to be affected by the perceived fairness of the actor, and in-group membership more generally. Here, we examine whether action observation associated brain activity is also affected by the perceived social fairness of the actors. Perceived fairness was manipulated using an alternating iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game between the participant and two confederates, one of whom played fairly and the other unfairly. During fMRI scanning the participants watched movies of the confederates performing object-directed hand actions, and then performed hand actions themselves. Mass-univariate analysis showed that observing the actions triggered robust activation in regions associated with action execution, but failed to identify a strong modulation of this activation based on perceived fairness. Multivariate pattern analysis, however, identified clusters potentially carrying information about the perceived fairness of the actor in the middle temporal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right middle cingulate cortex, right angular gyrus, and right superioroccipital gyrus. Despite being identified by a whole-brain searchlight analysis (and so without anatomical restriction), these clusters fall into areas frequently associated with action observation. We conclude that brain activity during action observation may be modulated by perceived fairness, but such modulation is subtle; robust activity is associated with observing the actions of both fair and unfair individuals.

  19. Relationship between observational learning and health belief with physical activity among adolescents girl in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rostamian, Marzieh; Kazemi, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activities among adolescents affects health during pubescence and adolescence and decrease in physical activities among adolescents has become a global challenge. The aim of the present study was to define the relation between the level of physical activity among adolescent girls and their health beliefs as personal factor and level of observational learning as environmental factor. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted on 400 students aged from 11 to 19 years in Isfahan, Iran. Information regarding the duration of physical activity with moderate/severe intensity was measured in four dimensions of leisure time (exercising and hiking), daily activities, and transportation-related activities using the International Physical Activity questionnaire. Health belief structures included perceived sensitivity, intensity of perceived threat, perceived benefits, and barriers and self-efficacy; observational learning was measured using a researcher-made questionnaire. Results: Results showed that perceived barriers, observational learning, and level of self-efficacy were related to the level of physical activity in all dimensions. In addition, the level of physical activity at leisure time, transportation, and total physical activity were dependent on the intensity of perceived threats (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study showed that the intensity of perceived threats, perceived barriers and self-efficacy structures, and observational learning are some of the factors related to physical activity among adolescent girls, and it is possible that by focusing on improving these variables through interventional programs physical activity among adolescent girls can be improved. PMID:28194200

  20. EUV observations of the active sun from the Harvard experiment on ATM. [Apollo Telescope Mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noyes, R. W.; Foukal, P. V.; Reeves, E. M.; Schmahl, E. J.; Timothy, J. G.; Vernazza, J. E.; Withbroe, G. L.; Huber, M. C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Some extreme UV observations of solar active regions made with a scanning spectroheliometer are described. Spectroheliograms constructed from digital data using a computer-driven cathode-ray tube display show clearly how the appearance of an active region changes as a function of temperature. Flare studies indicate that the impulsive rise in EUV emission occurs essentially simultaneously at all levels from the transition zone to the corona. Observations of sunspots reveal a very intense emission in transition zone lines. A matrix of Mg x rasters covering the entire sun reveals several hundred bright points having dimensions of 30 arc seconds or less. Other observations include coronal holes and prominences.

  1. Learner Agency and the Use of Affordances in Language-Exchange Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Tae youn

    2016-01-01

    Language exchange refers to a learning partnership between two learners with different native languages who collaborate to help each other improve their proficiency in the other's language. The purpose of this study is to examine the ways in which language-exchange participants activate learner agency to construct opportunities for learning in…

  2. A Critical Analysis of Learner Participation in Virtual Worlds: How Can Virtual Worlds Inform Our Pedagogy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panichi, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory case study of learner participation within the context of online language learning in virtual world platforms. Data for this investigation was collected through a case study of a Business English course within a qualitative Case-Study Research framework. This study examines learner activity in virtual worlds in…

  3. "Can We Do That Again?" Engaging Learners and Developing beyond the "Wow" Factor in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astall, Chris; Bruce, Warren

    2010-01-01

    Adding Mentos to an open bottle of Diet Coke can produce a fountain of liquid and froth extending several metres high. This activity can engage a wide audience of learners in a relevant and meaningful way, provide a model for creative science teaching, and help to develop learners' attitudes towards school science as a subject. In this paper, the…

  4. A Multi-Perspective Investigation into Learners' Interaction in Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çardak, Çigdem Suzan

    2016-01-01

    This article focusses on graduate level students' interactions during asynchronous CMC activities of an online course about the teaching profession in Turkey. The instructor of the course designed and facilitated a semester-long asynchronous CMC on forum discussions, and investigated the interaction of learners in multiple perspectives: learners'…

  5. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Self-Regulatory Vocabulary Strategy Use and Their Vocabulary Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amirian, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Mallahi, Omid; Zaghi, Damoon

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulation is referred to as learners' self-generated ideas and actions which are systematically directed towards achieving educational goals and require learners' active participation in the learning process (Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994). The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL students' self-regulation capacity…

  6. Toward a Unified Modeling of Learner's Growth Process and Flow Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Challco, Geiser C.; Andrade, Fernando R. H.; Borges, Simone S.; Bittencourt, Ig I.; Isotani, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Flow is the affective state in which a learner is so engaged and involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter. In this sense, to help students in the skill development and knowledge acquisition (referred to as learners' growth process) under optimal conditions, the instructional designers should create learning scenarios that favor…

  7. Effectiveness of a Learner-Directed Model for e-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Stella; Barker, Trevor; Kumar, Vivekanandan Suresh

    2016-01-01

    It is a hard task to strike a balance between extents of control a learner exercises and the amount of guidance, active or passive, afforded by the learning environment to guide, support, and motivate the learner. Adaptive systems strive to find the right balance in a spectrum that spans between self-control and system-guidance. They also concern…

  8. Language-Related Computer Use: Focus on Young L2 English Learners in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundqvist, Pia; Sylvén, Liss Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study investigating young English language learners (YELLs) in Sweden in 4th grade (N = 76, aged 10-11). Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire and a one-week language diary. The main purpose was to examine the learners' L2 English language-related activities outside of school in general, and their…

  9. The Interplay between Language, Gestures, Dragging and Diagrams in Bilingual Learners' Mathematical Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Oi-Lam

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of considering bilingual learners' non-linguistic forms of communication for understanding their mathematical thinking. In particular, I provide a detailed analysis of communication involving a pair of high school bilingual learners during an exploratory activity where a touchscreen-based dynamic geometry…

  10. Guiding Learners into Reengagement through the SCALE Environment: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verginis, Ilias; Gouli, Evangelia; Gogoulou, Agoritsa; Grigoriadou, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the facilities offered by the open learner model maintained in the web-based, adaptive, activity-oriented learning environment SCALE (Supporting Collaboration and Adaptation in a Learning Environment), in order to guide online students who become disengaged and support their reengagement. The open learner model (OLM_SCALE)…

  11. Capitalising on Learner Agency and Group Work in Learning Writing in English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the roles of learner agency and group work in learning writing in English as a foreign language (EFL). Through exploratory and participatory action research, this study examines how learner agency and group work function amidst the activity system of task-based EFL writing, especially how they influence and are influenced…

  12. Learner-Centered Psychological Principles: A Framework for School Redesign and Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.

    Educators, concerned with disturbing trends in school failure, are arguing for more learner-centered models of schooling. Such a reform effort requires set principles that emphasize the active and reflective nature of learning and learners; 14 such principles are reported here. The immediate goal of this report is to provide a framework that can…

  13. The Relationship between Reading Proficiency and Reading Strategy Use: A Study of Adult ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…

  14. Choosing to Interact: Exploring the Relationship between Learner Personality, Attitudes, and Tutorial Dialogue Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezen-Can, Aysu; Boyer, Kristy Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The tremendous effectiveness of intelligent tutoring systems is due in large part to their interactivity. However, when learners are free to choose the extent to which they interact with a tutoring system, not all learners do so actively. This paper examines a study with a natural language tutorial dialogue system for computer science, in which…

  15. Evoking the Power of Learners

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Our mandate, as Lamaze International childbirth educators, is to assist women in making healthy pregnancy, birth, and parenting choices. Being mindful of health promotion theory and using learning tasks and dialogue education to provide information creates a collaborative Lamaze class where the teacher is the facilitator and the learners are accountable for their learning. This column offers Lamaze educators a deeper understanding of adult learners and our roles in their birth education. PMID:22942625

  16. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants’ Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions

    PubMed Central

    Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition. PMID:26111226

  17. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants' Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Sarah A; Schiavio, Andrea; Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition.

  18. Light Bridge in a Developing Active Region. I. Observation of Light Bridge and its Dynamic Activity Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toriumi, Shin; Katsukawa, Yukio; Cheung, Mark C. M.

    2015-10-01

    Light bridges, the bright structures that divide the umbra of sunspots and pores into smaller pieces, are known to produce a wide variety of activity events in solar active regions (ARs). It is also known that the light bridges appear in the assembling process of nascent sunspots. The ultimate goal of this series of papers is to reveal the nature of light bridges in developing ARs and the occurrence of activity events associated with the light bridge structures from both observational and numerical approaches. In this first paper, exploiting the observational data obtained by Hinode, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, and the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we investigate the detailed structure of the light bridge in NOAA AR 11974 and its dynamic activity phenomena. As a result, we find that the light bridge has a weak, horizontal magnetic field, which is transported from the interior by a large-scale convective upflow and is surrounded by strong, vertical fields of adjacent pores. In the chromosphere above the bridge, a transient brightening occurs repeatedly and intermittently, followed by a recurrent dark surge ejection into higher altitudes. Our analysis indicates that the brightening is the plasma heating due to magnetic reconnection at lower altitudes, while the dark surge is the cool, dense plasma ejected from the reconnection region. From the observational results, we conclude that the dynamic activity observed in a light bridge structure such as chromospheric brightenings and dark surge ejections are driven by magnetoconvective evolution within the light bridge and its interaction with the surrounding magnetic fields.

  19. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China.

  20. Enhanced activation of motor execution networks using action observation combined with imagination of lower limb movements.

    PubMed

    Villiger, Michael; Estévez, Natalia; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kiper, Daniel; Kollias, Spyros S; Eng, Kynan; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    The combination of first-person observation and motor imagery, i.e. first-person observation of limbs with online motor imagination, is commonly used in interactive 3D computer gaming and in some movie scenes. These scenarios are designed to induce a cognitive process in which a subject imagines himself/herself acting as the agent in the displayed movement situation. Despite the ubiquity of this type of interaction and its therapeutic potential, its relationship to passive observation and imitation during observation has not been directly studied using an interactive paradigm. In the present study we show activation resulting from observation, coupled with online imagination and with online imitation of a goal-directed lower limb movement using functional MRI (fMRI) in a mixed block/event-related design. Healthy volunteers viewed a video (first-person perspective) of a foot kicking a ball. They were instructed to observe-only the action (O), observe and simultaneously imagine performing the action (O-MI), or imitate the action (O-IMIT). We found that when O-MI was compared to O, activation was enhanced in the ventralpremotor cortex bilaterally, left inferior parietal lobule and left insula. The O-MI and O-IMIT conditions shared many activation foci in motor relevant areas as confirmed by conjunction analysis. These results show that (i) combining observation with motor imagery (O-MI) enhances activation compared to observation-only (O) in the relevant foot motor network and in regions responsible for attention, for control of goal-directed movements and for the awareness of causing an action, and (ii) it is possible to extensively activate the motor execution network using O-MI, even in the absence of overt movement. Our results may have implications for the development of novel virtual reality interactions for neurorehabilitation interventions and other applications involving training of motor tasks.

  1. Learners' Satisfaction Level with Online Student Portal as a Support System in an Open and Distance eLearning Environment (ODeL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secreto, Percia V.; Pamulaklakin, Rhodora L.

    2015-01-01

    Learner support in an open, distance and online learning is defined as "all activities and elements in education that respond to a known learner or group of learners, and which are designed to assist in the cognitive, affective, and systemic realms of the learning process" (Brindley, et. al, 2004). Teaching and tutoring, advising and…

  2. Dynamics in Restructuring Active Regions Observed During Soho/Yohkoh/Gbo Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Deng, Y.; Mandrini, C. H.; Rudawy, P.; Nitta, N.; Mason, H.; Fletcher, L.; Martens, P.; Brynildsen, N.

    JOP17 and JOP 33 are SOHO Joint Observing Programs in collaboration with Yohkoh/SXT and ground based observatories (GBO's), dedicated to observe dynamical events through the atmosphere. During runs of these programs we observed in restructuring active regions (ARs), surges, subflares, bright knots, but not large flares and jets. From these observations we have been able to derive some of the responses of the coronal and chromospheric plasma to the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field. Emerging flux in an AR led to the formation of Arch Filament Systems in the chromosphere, hot loops and knots in the transition region, and X-ray loops. Frequent surges have been observed in relation to parasitic or mixed polarities, but coronal jets have not yet been found. We discuss the possible mechanisms acting during the restructuring of the active regions (reconnection or ``sea-serpent'' geometries)

  3. What are you doing? How active and observational experience shape infants' action understanding

    PubMed Central

    Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold

    2014-01-01

    From early in life, infants watch other people's actions. How do young infants come to make sense of actions they observe? Here, we review empirical findings on the development of action understanding in infancy. Based on this review, we argue that active action experience is crucial for infants' developing action understanding. When infants execute actions, they form associations between motor acts and the sensory consequences of these acts. When infants subsequently observe these actions in others, they can use their motor system to predict the outcome of the ongoing actions. Also, infants come to an understanding of others’ actions through the repeated observation of actions and the effects associated with them. In their daily lives, infants have plenty of opportunities to form associations between observed events and learn about statistical regularities of others’ behaviours. We argue that based on these two forms of experience—active action experience and observational experience—infants gradually develop more complex action understanding capabilities. PMID:24778386

  4. A Learner-led, Discussion-based Elective on Emerging Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To implement a learner-led, discussion-based course aimed at exposing second-year pharmacy learners to the study of emerging infectious diseases from a global health perspective and to assess the role and importance of pharmacists in the management of disease outbreaks. Design. Learners examined literature pertinent to an emerging infectious disease in a 3-credit, discussion-based course and participated in peer discussion led by a designated learner. Instructional materials included journal articles, audio-visual presentations, documentaries, book chapters, movies, newspaper/magazine articles, and other materials. Learning outcomes were measured based on the ability of learners to perform critical thinking and analysis, communicate with their peers, and participate in class discussions. Assessment. The course was offered to 2 consecutive cohorts consisting of 14 and 16 learners, respectively. Overall, every learner in the first cohort achieved a final grade of A for the course. In the second cohort, the overall grade distribution consisted of grades of A, B, and C for the course. Learner evaluations indicated that the active-learning, discussion-based environment significantly enhanced interest in the topic and overall performance in the course. Conclusion. The elective course on emerging infectious diseases provided in-depth exposure to disease topics normally not encountered in the pharmacy curriculum. Learners found the material and format valuable, and the course enhanced their appreciation of infectious diseases, research methodology, critical thinking and analysis, and their roles as pharmacists. PMID:26430268

  5. A Learner-led, Discussion-based Elective on Emerging Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Clinton

    2015-08-25

    Objective. To implement a learner-led, discussion-based course aimed at exposing second-year pharmacy learners to the study of emerging infectious diseases from a global health perspective and to assess the role and importance of pharmacists in the management of disease outbreaks. Design. Learners examined literature pertinent to an emerging infectious disease in a 3-credit, discussion-based course and participated in peer discussion led by a designated learner. Instructional materials included journal articles, audio-visual presentations, documentaries, book chapters, movies, newspaper/magazine articles, and other materials. Learning outcomes were measured based on the ability of learners to perform critical thinking and analysis, communicate with their peers, and participate in class discussions. Assessment. The course was offered to 2 consecutive cohorts consisting of 14 and 16 learners, respectively. Overall, every learner in the first cohort achieved a final grade of A for the course. In the second cohort, the overall grade distribution consisted of grades of A, B, and C for the course. Learner evaluations indicated that the active-learning, discussion-based environment significantly enhanced interest in the topic and overall performance in the course. Conclusion. The elective course on emerging infectious diseases provided in-depth exposure to disease topics normally not encountered in the pharmacy curriculum. Learners found the material and format valuable, and the course enhanced their appreciation of infectious diseases, research methodology, critical thinking and analysis, and their roles as pharmacists.

  6. Brood surveys and hunter observations used to predict gobbling activity wild turkeys in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palumbo, Matthew D.; Vilella, Francisco; Strickland, Bronson K.; Wang, Guiming; Godwin, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks utilize data from turkey hunter observations and brood surveys from across the state to manage wild turkey Meleagris gallopavo populations. Since 1995, hunters have collected gobbling and jake observation data, while the Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks' personnel and cooperating wildlife managers of several natural resource agencies throughout the state have collected brood survey data. Both sources of data serve to forecast poult recruitment and gobbling activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate if these data can serve as a viable predictor of gobbling activity. We used three mixed models to investigate the relationship between the number of jakes observed per hour of hunting 1 y prior and the total number of poults per hens 2 y prior (model 1), number of gobblers heard per hour of hunting and the number of jakes observed per hour of hunting 1 y prior (model 2), the number of gobblers heard per hour of hunting and the total number poults per total hens observed 2 y prior (model 3) using data from 1995 to 2008 among five wild turkey management regions encompassing the state. We incorporated region as a random effect to account for spatial variation. We found the number of jakes observed per hour of hunting 1 y prior correlated with the total number of poults per total hens observed 2 y prior. We also found the number of gobblers heard per hour of hunting correlated with the number of jakes observed per hour of hunting 1 y prior. Additionally, we found that the total poults per total hens observed 2 y prior was correlated to the number of gobblers heard per hour of hunting. Our results show promise for using indices of gobbling activity, jake observations, and brood surveys to estimate gobbling activity.

  7. Increased premotor cortex activation in high functioning autism during action observation.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Tom J; Bittar, Richard G; McGillivray, Jane A; Cox, Ivanna I; Stokes, Mark A

    2015-04-01

    The mirror neuron (MN) hypothesis of autism has received considerable attention, but to date has produced inconsistent findings. Using functional MRI, participants with high functioning autism or Asperger's syndrome were compared to typically developing individuals (n=12 in each group). Participants passively observed hand gestures that included waving, pointing, and grasping. Concerning the MN network, both groups activated similar regions including prefrontal, inferior parietal and superior temporal regions, with the autism group demonstrating significantly greater activation in the dorsal premotor cortex. Concerning other regions, participants with autism demonstrated increased activity in the anterior cingulate and medial frontal gyrus, and reduced activation in calcarine, cuneus, and middle temporal gyrus. These results suggest that during observation of hand gestures, frontal cortex activation is affected in autism, which we suggest may be linked to abnormal functioning of the MN system.

  8. Urban school leadership for elementary science education: Meeting the needs of English Language Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcon, Maricela H.

    Science education reform and state testing accountability call upon principals to become instructional leaders in science. Specifically, elementary school principals must take an active role in science instruction to effectively improve science education for all students including English Language Learners. As such, the research questioned posed in this study centered on How are elementary school principals addressing the academic needs of Latino Spanish-speaking English language learners within science education? This study employed a qualitative research design to identify the factors contributing to the exemplary performance in science, as measured by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS), for English Language Learner students in three high poverty bilingual elementary schools based on a multiple case study. As part of the data collection process, interviews were conducted with three school principals, three science academic support teachers, and two 5th grade bilingual teachers. Additionally, observations were acquired through school principal shadowing. The findings revealed four attributes necessary for effective instructional leadership in science education. First, Positive School Culture was defined as the core that linked the other three instructional leadership attributes and thus increased their effectiveness. Second, Clear Goals and Expectations were set by making science a priority and ensuring that English language learners were transitioning from Spanish to English instruction by the fifth grade. Third, Critical Resourcing involved hiring a science academic support teacher, securing a science classroom on campus, and purchasing bilingual instructional materials. Fourth, principal led and supported Collaboration in which teachers met to discuss student performance based data in addition to curriculum and instruction. These research findings are vital because by implementing these best practices of elementary school principals, educators

  9. Observing Campaign to Monitor Magnetically-Active Dwarfs for Long-Term Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2009-10-01

    Dr. Styliani (Stella) Kafka of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institute of Washington, requests AAVSO observers to perform long-term photometric monitoring on a number of magnetically active dwarf stars, with an observing frequency of one observation every three days taken with one or more filters. When multiple filters are available, the preferred observations are (in order of precedence): Rc, V, Ic, and B. Please observe such that you obtain a signal to noise of at least 50 (100 or higher is preferred). These objects are all nearby dwarfs known or suspected to have magnetic activity, primarily of the UV Ceti (flare star) or BY Draconis subtypes. Long-term photometric monitoring of these objects will be used in conjunction with other multiwavelength observations from ground-based facilities including the Magellan 6.5-meter and DuPont 2.5-meter telescopes in Chile to understand the long-term magnetic activity cycles of these stars. Such a study can reveal information about the physical natures of these stars, but also about their near space environments and habitability for life. These objects are red, and the variability amplitudes are low, often well below 0.1 magnitudes. The long-term variability due to stellar activity cycles may be much lower. Photometric accuracy rather than the number of observations are key to the success of this project. Unaccounted-for atmospheric effects such as extinction will likely overwhelm any long-term signal from these stars. Observers are strongly urged to fully calibrate their systems and to carefully reduce and transform their photometry to standard photometric passbands, including corrections for airmass/atmospheric extinction. Parameters for 40 objects are given. Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database.

  10. Ground-based observations of time variability in multiple active volcanoes on Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathbun, Julie A.; Spencer, John R.

    2010-10-01

    Since before the beginning of the Galileo spacecraft's Jupiter orbital tour, we have observed Io from the ground using NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We obtained images of Io in reflected sunlight and in-eclipse at 2.3, 3.5, and 4.8 μm. In addition, we have measured the 3.5 μm brightness of an eclipsed Io as it is occulted by Jupiter. These lightcurves enable us to measure the brightness and one-dimensional location of active volcanoes on the surface. During the Galileo era, two volcanoes were observed to be regularly active: Loki and either Kanehekili and/or Janus. At least 12 other active volcanoes were observed for shorter periods of time, including one distinguishable in images that include reflected sunlight. These data can be used to compare volcano types and test volcano eruption models, such as the lava lake model for Loki.

  11. Monitoring the Stellar Activity of Transit-Hosting Stars II: supporting HST exoplanet atmosphere observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Paul Anthony; Evans, Tom; Sing, David K.; Aigrain, Suzanne

    2012-02-01

    We propose to use the CTIO 1.3m telescope with ANDICAM to monitor 5 bright stars that host transiting exoplanets in an effort to characterise their activity. These observations will provide critical ground-based support for our large HST program that has been granted 124 orbits to perform a survey of UV-optical atmospheric transmission spectra for 8 hot Jupiters using the STIS instrument (Cycle 19, Prog 12473, PI D Sing). They are required because active stellar regions inevitably contaminate measured planetary light curves by causing the apparent planet-to-star radius to vary in a wavelength dependent manner. Regular ground-based photometric monitoring performed using the CTIO 1.3m telescope will allow us to determine the spot activity at the time of the HST observations, so that the stellar baseline flux can be accurately normalised for every transit observed, enabling transmission spectra from multiple visits to be combined.

  12. Advancing the science for active surveillance: rationale and design for the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership.

    PubMed

    Stang, Paul E; Ryan, Patrick B; Racoosin, Judith A; Overhage, J Marc; Hartzema, Abraham G; Reich, Christian; Welebob, Emily; Scarnecchia, Thomas; Woodcock, Janet

    2010-11-02

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 mandated that the FDA develop a system for using automated health care data to identify risks of marketed drugs and other medical products. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership is a public-private partnership among the FDA, academia, data owners, and the pharmaceutical industry that is responding to the need to advance the science of active medical product safety surveillance by using existing observational databases. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership's transparent, open innovation approach is designed to systematically and empirically study critical governance, data resource, and methodological issues and their interrelationships in establishing a viable national program of active drug safety surveillance by using observational data. This article describes the governance structure, data-access model, methods-testing approach, and technology development of this effort, as well as the work that has been initiated.

  13. Passive and Active Detection of Clouds: Comparisons between MODIS and GLAS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahesh, Ashwin; Gray, Mark A.; Palm, Stephen P.; Hart, William D.; Spinhirne, James D.

    2003-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), launched on board the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite in January 2003 provides space-borne laser observations of atmospheric layers. GLAS provides opportunities to validate passive observations of the atmosphere for the first time from space with an active optical instrument. Data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer aboard the Aqua satellite is examined along with GLAS observations of cloud layers. In more than three-quarters of the cases, MODIS scene identification from spectral radiances agrees with GLAS. Disagreement between the two platforms is most significant over snow-covered surfaces in the northern hemisphere. Daytime clouds detected by GLAS are also more easily seen in the MODIS data as well, compared to observations made at night. These comparisons illustrate the capabilities of active remote sensing to validate and assess passive measurements, and also to complement them in studies of atmospheric layers.

  14. Simultaneous Broadband Observations of jet-dominated active galaxies with NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furniss, Amy

    2014-08-01

    The exceptionally energetic particle populations at work within powerful relativistic jets associated with active galaxies make these sources natural targets for the NuSTAR hard X-ray instrument. This space-based satellite can observe their emission between 3 and 70 keV with unprecedented sensitivity. This emission is likely due to the synchrotron process, and particles responsible for the hard X-ray emission are also expected to produce gamma-rays via inverse Compton process observed by instruments such as Fermi Large Area Telescope, VERITAS, MAGIC and HESS. Since the launch of NuSTAR, the instrument has led simultaneous broadband campaigns on multiple gamma-ray emitting jetted active galaxies. NuSTAR was able to observe Mrk 421 during unprecedented low and high states, as well as variability in Mrk 501 consistent with a magnetic reconnection event. Additionally, the extreme blazar 1ES 0229+200 was observed with NuSTAR, together with ground based gamma-ray instruments, providing the first complete picture of the broadband emission. These invaluable observations of BL Lac-type objects were supplemented with NuSTAR observations of the exceptionally variable flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 279, observed during the highest gamma-ray state yet observed by the Fermi LAT instrument. We will share the results from these multiwavelength campaigns, with particular emphasis on the implications for the study of the most relativistic particle populations at work within the Universe.

  15. Space-weather Parameters for 1,000 Active Regions Observed by SDO/HMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobra, M.; Liu, Y.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Sun, X.

    2013-12-01

    We present statistical studies of several space-weather parameters, derived from observations of the photospheric vector magnetic field by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, for a thousand active regions. Each active region has been observed every twelve minutes during the entirety of its disk passage. Some of these parameters, such as energy density and shear angle, indicate the deviation of the photospheric magnetic field from that of a potential field. Other parameters include flux, helicity, field gradients, polarity inversion line properties, and measures of complexity. We show that some of these parameters are useful for event prediction.

  16. Characterization of Activity at Loki from Galileo and Ground-based Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, R. R.; Lopes, R. M.

    2004-01-01

    While Loki is the most active volcanic center on Io, major questions remain concerning the nature of that activity. Rathbun et al. showed that the activity was semi-periodic, and suggested it was due to a resurfacing wave which swept across a lava lake as the crust cooled and become unstable. However in 2001 new observations showed that an intermediate level, less periodic mode of activity had apparently begun. Galileo-NIMS observations of Loki clearly show that the highest temperatures are found near the edge of the patera, consistent with disruption of a lava lake at the margins. NIMS observations also show gradients in temperature across the patera which, when modeled in terms of lava cooling models, are generally consistent with ages expected for the resurfacing wave but may also be consistent with spreading flows. We present a further analysis of NIMS data from I24 and I32 which help define the nature of the temperature variations present in Loki patera, along with Galileo-SSI images from the G1-I32 flybys which show albedo changes apparently correlated with the "periodic" activity measured from ground-based observations.

  17. Active region coronal loops observed at the total solar eclipse of February 16, 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanaoka, Yoishiro; Kurokawa, Hiroki; Saito, Sumisaburo

    Coronal loop structures above an active region observed at the total eclipse of February 16, 1980 in Kenya are analyzed. Temperatures and densities of the loops are derived from three monochromatic images of Fe X λ6374 (1×106K or cool corona), Fe XIV λ5303 (2×106K or hot corona), and continuum. These monochromatic images are processed for the analyses, and pure images of the active region corona are obtained. Results from a morphological diagnostics are presented.

  18. Versatile illumination platform and fast optical switch to give standard observation camera gated active imaging capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasser, R.; Peyronneaudi, Benjamin; Yon, Kevin; Aubry, Marie

    2015-10-01

    CILAS, subsidiary of Airbus Defense and Space, develops, manufactures and sales laser-based optronics equipment for defense and homeland security applications. Part of its activity is related to active systems for threat detection, recognition and identification. Active surveillance and active imaging systems are often required to achieve identification capacity in case for long range observation in adverse conditions. In order to ease the deployment of active imaging systems often complex and expensive, CILAS suggests a new concept. It consists on the association of two apparatus working together. On one side, a patented versatile laser platform enables high peak power laser illumination for long range observation. On the other side, a small camera add-on works as a fast optical switch to select photons with specific time of flight only. The association of the versatile illumination platform and the fast optical switch presents itself as an independent body, so called "flash module", giving to virtually any passive observation systems gated active imaging capacity in NIR and SWIR.

  19. Effective instruction for English learners.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sánchez, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or instructing them. Margarita Calderón, Robert Slavin, and Marta Sánchez identify the elements of effective instruction and review a variety of successful program models. During 2007-08, more than 5.3 million English learners made up 10.6 percent of the nation's K-12 public school enrollment. Wide and persistent achievement disparities between these English learners and English-proficient students show clearly, say the authors, that schools must address the language, literacy, and academic needs of English learners more effectively. Researchers have fiercely debated the merits of bilingual and English-only reading instruction. In elementary schools, English learners commonly receive thirty minutes of English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction but attend general education classes for the rest of the day, usually with teachers who are unprepared to teach them. Though English learners have strikingly diverse levels of skills, in high school they are typically lumped together, with one teacher to address their widely varying needs. These in-school factors contribute to the achievement disparities. Based on the studies presented here, Calderón, Slavin, and Sánchez assert that the quality of instruction is what matters most in educating English learners. They highlight comprehensive reform models, as well as individual components of these models: school structures and leadership; language and literacy instruction; integration of language, literacy, and content instruction in secondary schools; cooperative learning; professional development; parent and family support teams; tutoring; and monitoring implementation and outcomes

  20. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  1. LIGHT BRIDGE IN A DEVELOPING ACTIVE REGION. I. OBSERVATION OF LIGHT BRIDGE AND ITS DYNAMIC ACTIVITY PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    Toriumi, Shin; Katsukawa, Yukio; Cheung, Mark C. M.

    2015-10-01

    Light bridges, the bright structures that divide the umbra of sunspots and pores into smaller pieces, are known to produce a wide variety of activity events in solar active regions (ARs). It is also known that the light bridges appear in the assembling process of nascent sunspots. The ultimate goal of this series of papers is to reveal the nature of light bridges in developing ARs and the occurrence of activity events associated with the light bridge structures from both observational and numerical approaches. In this first paper, exploiting the observational data obtained by Hinode, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, and the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we investigate the detailed structure of the light bridge in NOAA AR 11974 and its dynamic activity phenomena. As a result, we find that the light bridge has a weak, horizontal magnetic field, which is transported from the interior by a large-scale convective upflow and is surrounded by strong, vertical fields of adjacent pores. In the chromosphere above the bridge, a transient brightening occurs repeatedly and intermittently, followed by a recurrent dark surge ejection into higher altitudes. Our analysis indicates that the brightening is the plasma heating due to magnetic reconnection at lower altitudes, while the dark surge is the cool, dense plasma ejected from the reconnection region. From the observational results, we conclude that the dynamic activity observed in a light bridge structure such as chromospheric brightenings and dark surge ejections are driven by magnetoconvective evolution within the light bridge and its interaction with the surrounding magnetic fields.

  2. CAN A LONG NANOFLARE STORM EXPLAIN THE OBSERVED EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ACTIVE REGION CORES?

    SciTech Connect

    Mulu-Moore, Fana M.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Warren, Harry P.

    2011-11-20

    All theories that attempt to explain the heating of the high-temperature plasma observed in the solar corona are based on short bursts of energy. The intensities and velocities measured in the cores of quiescent active regions, however, can be steady over many hours of observation. One heating scenario that has been proposed to reconcile such observations with impulsive heating models is the 'long nanoflare storm', where short-duration heating events occur infrequently on many sub-resolution strands; the emission of the strands is then averaged together to explain the observed steady structures. In this Letter, we examine the emission measure distribution predicted for such a long nanoflare storm by modeling an arcade of strands in an active region core. Comparisons of the computed emission measure distributions with recent observations indicate that the long nanoflare storm scenario implies greater than five times more 1 MK emission than is actually observed for all plausible combinations of loop lengths, heating rates, and abundances. We conjecture that if the plasma had 'super coronal' abundances, the model may be able to match the observations at low temperatures.

  3. Study Partners Recommendation for xMOOCs Learners

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) provide an opportunity for people to access free courses offered by top universities in the world and therefore attracted great attention and engagement from college teachers and students. However, with contrast to large scale enrollment, the completion rate of these courses is really low. One of the reasons for students to quit learning process is problems which they face that could not be solved by discussing them with classmates. In order to keep them staying in the course, thereby further improving the completion rate, we address the task of study partner recommendation for students based on both content information and social network information. By analyzing the content of messages posted by learners in course discussion forum, we investigated the learners' behavior features to classify the learners into three groups. Then we proposed a topic model to measure learners' course knowledge awareness. Finally, a social network was constructed based on their activities in the course forum, and the relationship in the network was then employed to recommend study partners for target learner combined with their behavior features and course knowledge awareness. The experiment results show that our method achieves better performance than recommending method only based on content information. PMID:25663836

  4. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Observation Of Catalytically Active Intermediates Produced By Laser Photolysis Of Iron Pentacarbonyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquette, Michael S.

    1984-05-01

    The pulsed laser excitation of iron pentacarbonyl in solutions of 1-pentene photoinitiates a highly active catalytic process for isomerization of the olefin. This process is observed in situ by rapid scanning FTIR spectroscopy, allowing subsecond acquisition of spectra. These are deconvoluted into discrete spectral components which are assigned molecular formulas. Specific activities have been obtained for two catalytically significant complexes from a correlation of catalytic activity with compositional changes. A similar interpretation of multipulse and cw experiments allowed development of a comprehensive cycle of thermal and photochemical interconversions among components.

  5. Focus on Form, Learner Uptake and Subsequent Lexical Gains in Learners' Oral Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcon-Soler, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study reports findings on the relationship between focus on form, learner uptake and subsequent lexical gains in learners' oral production. The data for the study consisted in 17 45-minute audio-recorded teacher-led conversations, 204 learners' diaries (17 sessions x 12 learners) reporting what they had learned after each…

  6. Teacher Perceptions of Learner-Learner Engagement at a Cyber High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borup, Jered

    2016-01-01

    Distance education has historically contained little or no learner-learner interactions. Currently the Internet allows for unprecedented levels of learner-learner interaction and has the potential to transform how students learn online. However, many courses offered online focus more on flexibility and independence than on interaction and…

  7. Affective Dimensions of the Japanese Foreign Language Learner: Implications for Psychological Learner Development in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuchi, Naoko Tani; Sakamoto, Robin

    2005-01-01

    As learner-centred approaches are gaining popularity in many language classrooms, the affective dimensions of learners and the interaction effects of learners and teachers have become an important theme for research and assessment. This paper explores how Japanese learners of English as a foreign language evolve in two geographically distinct…

  8. Observational Evidence of Aerosol Enhancement of Lightning Activity and Convective Invigoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Tianle; Remer, Lorraine A.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Yu, Hongbin

    2011-01-01

    Lightning activity over the West Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines is usually much less frequent than over the nearby maritime continents. However, in 2005 the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) aboard the TRMM satellite observed anomalously high lightning activity in that area. In the same year the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measured anomalously high aerosol loading. The high aerosol loading was traced to volcanic activity, and not to any factor linked to meteorology, disentangling the usual convolution between aerosols and meteorology. We show that in general lightning activity is tightly correlated with aerosol loadings at both inter-annual and biweekly time scales. We estimate that a approximately 60% increase in aerosol loading leads to more than 150% increase in lightning flashes. Aerosols increase lightning activity through modification of cloud microphysics. Cloud ice particle sizes are reduced and cloud glaciation is delayed to colder temperature when aerosol loading is increased. TRMM precipitation radar measurements indicate that anomalously high aerosol loading is associated with enhanced cloud mixed phase activity and invigorated convection over the maritime ocean. These observed associations between aerosols, cloud microphysics, morphology and lightning activity are not related to meteorological variables or ENSO events. The results have important implications for understanding the variability of lightning and resulting aerosol-chemistry interactions.

  9. A study of solar preflare activity using two-dimensional radio and SMM-XRP observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.; Gopalswamy, N.; Saba, J. L. R.; Schmelz, J. T. S.; Strong, K. T.

    1987-01-01

    A study of type III activity at meter-decameter wavelengths in the preflare phase of the February 3, 1986 flare is presented, using data obtained with the Clark Lake Multifrequency Radioheliograph. This activity is compared with similar type III burst activity during the impulsive phase, and it is found that there is a displacement of burst sources between the onset and end times of the activity. A comparison of this displacement at three frequencies suggests that the type III emitting electrons gain access progressively to diverging and different field lines relative to the initial field lines. The energetics of the type III emitting electrons are inferred from observations and compared with those of the associated hard X-ray emitting electrons. The soft X-ray data from SMM-XRP show enhanced emission measure, density, and temperature in the region associated with the preflare type III activity.

  10. Feedback in Technology-Based Instruction: Learner Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefevre, David; Cox, Benita

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates learner preferences for the format of feedback?when using technology-based instruction (TBI). The primary method of data collection was to provide subjects with a range of options for TBI feedback following responses to multiple-choice questions and then observe their choices. A software tool both presented the feedback…

  11. When Everyone Is a Probe, Everyone Is a Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenfeld, Boris; Krupa, Tatiana; Lebedev, Arseny; Stafeev, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Most students globally have mobile devices and the Global Students Laboratory (GlobalLab) project is integrating mobility into learning. First launched in 1991, GlobalLab builds a community of learners engaged in collaborative, distributed investigations. Long relying on stationary desktop computers, or students inputting their observations by…

  12. More Than 50 Ways to Learner-Centered Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Laura; Hubble, Deborah

    Designed for teachers of kindergarten through grade 6, this book contains practical and innovative ideas on fostering literacy generated from discussions with teachers from the United States and Canada, visits to their classrooms, and observations of their interactions with students. The book addresses all levels of learner-centered literacy…

  13. "Modified" Extensive Reading for English-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Anh

    2006-01-01

    Based on a number of publications within the last five years, this article starts with an observation that vocabulary instruction for English-Language Learners is still not given adequate attention. In an attempt to improve the situation, the author suggests a modified approach to extensive reading for vocabulary and reading development. The…

  14. Perceptions of an EL Learner on Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkaya, Odilea Rocha; Drower, Iris S.

    2012-01-01

    This single case study addresses an action research design (Wolcott, 1994) that utilizes observations, interviews, and documents to access what teaching and learning techniques have improved the acquisition of vocabulary of a single intermediate English language (EL) learner from Turkey. Findings are reported and discussed in terms of the…

  15. Developing Academic Language in English Language Learners through Sheltered Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Deborah J.; Fidelman, Carolyn G.; Louguit, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a study examining the effects of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) model instruction on the academic language performance of middle and high school English language learners. The SIOP model is an approach for teaching content curriculum to students learning through a new language. Teachers employ techniques…

  16. Targeted Observation of ELL Instruction as a Tool in the Preparation of School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baecher, Laura; Knoll, Marcia; Patti, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Preparing school administrators to promote effective instruction of English language learners (ELLs) is an important dimension of today's educational leadership programs, requiring innovative program activities. This study explores school leadership candidates' use of an observation tool targeted to ELL instruction that incorporated guided video…

  17. Operational Control Procedures for the Activated Sludge Process, Part I - Observations, Part II - Control Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Alfred W.

    This is the first in a series of documents developed by the National Training and Operational Technology Center describing operational control procedures for the activated sludge process used in wastewater treatment. Part I of this document deals with physical observations which should be performed during each routine control test. Part II…

  18. Magnetoseismology of Active Regions using Multi-wavelength Observations from GONG and SDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Sushanta; Jain, Kiran; Kholikov, Shukur; Hill, Frank; Cally, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The structure and dynamics of active regions beneath the surface show significant uncertainties due to our limited understanding of the wave interaction with magnetic field. Recent numerical simulations further demonstrate that the atmosphere above the photospheric levels also modifies the seismic observables at the surface. Thus the key to improve helioseismic interpretation beneath the active regions requires a synergy between models and helioseismic inferences from observations. In this context, using data from Global Oscillation Network Group and from Helioseismic Magnetic Imager and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory, we characterize the spatio-temporal power distribution in and around active regions. Specifically, we focus on the power enhancements seen around active regions as a function of wave frequencies, strength, inclination of magnetic field and observation height as well as the relative phases of the observables and their cross-coherence functions. It is expected that these effects will help us to comprehend the interaction of acoustic waves with magnetic field in the solar photosphere.

  19. Assimilation of active and passive microwave observations for improved estimates of soil moisture and crop growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Ensemble Kalman Filter-based data assimilation framework that links a crop growth model with active and passive (AP) microwave models was developed to improve estimates of soil moisture (SM) and vegetation biomass over a growing season of soybean. Complementarities in AP observations were incorpo...

  20. Potentials of Physical Activity Promotion in Preschools--An Overview of Results of an Ethnographic Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pape, Natalie; Sterdt, Elena; Azouagh, Karima; Kramer, Silke; Walter, Ulla; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses exemplary differences between preschools with systematic physical activity (PA) programmes and preschools without PA programmes in Germany. Two preschools from each group were visited in the context of a focused ethnographic observation to examine the educational practice, PA and social behaviour of preschool children. The…

  1. PeV Neutrinos Observed by IceCube from Cores of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2013-01-01

    I show that the high energy neutrino flux predicted to arise from active galactic nuclei cores can explain the PeV neutrinos detected by IceCube without conflicting with the constraints from the observed extragalactic cosmic-ray and gamma-ray backgrounds.

  2. FLOWS AT THE EDGE OF AN ACTIVE REGION: OBSERVATION AND INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect

    Boutry, C.; Buchlin, E.; Vial, J.-C.; Regnier, S.

    2012-06-10

    Upflows observed at the edges of active regions have been proposed as the source of the slow solar wind. In the particular case of Active Region (AR) 10942, where such an upflow has been already observed, we want to evaluate the part of this upflow that actually remains confined in the magnetic loops that connect AR 10942 to AR 10943. Both active regions were visible simultaneously on the solar disk and were observed by STEREO/SECCHI EUVI. Using Hinode/EIS spectra, we determine the Doppler shifts and densities in AR 10943 and AR 10942 in order to evaluate the mass flows. We also perform magnetic field extrapolations to assess the connectivity between AR 10942 and AR 10943. AR 10943 displays a persistent downflow in Fe XII. Magnetic extrapolations including both ARs show that this downflow can be connected to the upflow in AR 10942. We estimate that the mass flow received by AR 10943 areas connected to AR 10942 represents about 18% of the mass flow from AR 10942. We conclude that the upflows observed on the edge of active regions represent either large-scale loops with mass flowing along them (accounting for about one-fifth of the total mass flow in this example) or open magnetic field structures where the slow solar wind originates.

  3. The function of the earth observing system - Data information system Distributed Active Archive Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    The functionality of the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) which are significant elements of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is discussed. Each DAAC encompasses the information management system, the data archival and distribution system, and the product generation system. The EOSDIS DAACs are expected to improve the access to earth science data set needed for global change research.

  4. Reputation in an economic game modulates premotor cortex activity during action observation.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Harry; Apps, Matthew; Tsakiris, Manos

    2016-09-01

    Our interactions with other people - and our processing of their actions - are shaped by their reputation. Research has identified an Action Observation Network (AON) which is engaged when observing other people's actions. Yet, little is known about how the processing of others' actions is influenced by another's reputation. Is the response of the AON modulated by the reputation of the actor? We developed a variant of the ultimatum game in which participants watched either the visible or occluded actions of two 'proposers'. These actions were tied to decisions of how to split a pot of money although the proposers' decisions on each trial were not known to participants when observing the actions. One proposer made fair offers on the majority of trials, establishing a positive reputation, whereas the other made predominantly, unfair offers resulting in a negative reputation. We found significant activations in two regions of the left dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC). The first of these showed a main effect of reputation with greater activation for the negative reputation proposer than the positive reputation proposer. Furthermore individual differences in trust ratings of the two proposers covaried with activation in the right primary motor cortex (M1). The second showed an interaction between visibility and reputation driven by a greater effect of reputation when participants were observing an occluded action. Our findings show that the processing of others' actions in the AON is modulated by an actor's reputation, and suggest a predictive role for the PMC during action observation.

  5. NuSTAR X-ray observations of small flares and non-flaring active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, I. G.; Grefenstette, B.; Smith, D. M.; Marsh, A.; Glesener, L.; Krucker, S.; Hudson, H. S.; White, S.; Madsen, K.; Caspi, A.; Vogel, J.; Shih, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present imaging spectroscopy of the Sun with the NuSTAR hard X-ray (HXR) telescope, an astrophysics mission that uses focusing optics to directly image X-rays between ~2-80 keV. Although not optimized for solar observations, NuSTAR's high sensitivity can probe previously inaccessible X-ray emission from the Sun - crucial for searching for high temperature and non-thermal emission from "non-flaring" active regions. We present analysis of the first NuSTAR solar observations, that began in late 2014 and continued through 2015. These include using its imaging spectroscopy capabilities to derive the thermal characteristics of several "non-flaring" active regions, providing limits to the high temperature emission. We also show NuSTAR observations of several small microflares that were also observed by Hinode/XRT (in multiple thicker filters sensitive to higher temperatures) and RHESSI. This combination of three separate X-ray telescopes provides a broad observational characterization of active region heating by these very small microflares.

  6. Explicit and Implicit Feedback, Modified Output, and SLA: Does Explicit and Implicit Feedback Promote Learning and Learner-Learner Interactions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Rebecca; Nuevo, Ana Maria; Egi, Takako

    2011-01-01

    Research on interactional feedback has typically focused on feedback learners receive from native speakers (i.e., NS-learner contexts). However, for many second language (L2) learners, the majority of their opportunities to engage in interaction occur with other learners (i.e., learner-learner contexts). The literature has suggested that feedback…

  7. Summary of solar activity observed at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory: 1980-1983. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Rock, K.; Fisher, R.; Garcia, C.; Yasukawa, E.

    1983-11-01

    The following technical note summarizes solar activity observed during the first four years operation of the experiment systems of the Coronal Dynamics Project, which are located at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory. This short report has been produced with the general aim of providing users of Mauna Loa observations with a summary of data for specific events. So that this table might be as useful as possible, a comprehensive review of three sources was performed. The plain language logs, identified as the so-called observer's logs, the now-discontinued activity logs, and the prominence monitor quality control logs were the sources from which the information in the following tables was obtained. It is expected that this review will be of particular use to those investigators who intend to use both the K-coronameter data base and the SMM Coronagraph-Polarimeter data for the study of coronal transient events.

  8. Preseismic Velocity Changes Observed from Active Source Monitoringat the Parkfield SAFOD Drill Site

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, Thomas; Niu, Fenglin; Silver, Paul G.; Daley, Thomas M.; Cheng, Xin; Majer, Ernest L.

    2008-06-10

    Measuring stress changes within seismically active fault zones has been a long-sought goal of seismology. Here we show that such stress changes are measurable by exploiting the stress dependence of seismic wave speed from an active source cross-well experiment conducted at the SAFOD drill site. Over a two-month period we observed an excellent anti-correlation between changes in the time required for an S wave to travel through the rock along a fixed pathway--a few microseconds--and variations in barometric pressure. We also observed two large excursions in the traveltime data that are coincident with two earthquakes that are among those predicted to produce the largest coseismic stress changes at SAFOD. Interestingly, the two excursions started approximately 10 and 2 hours before the events, respectively, suggesting that they may be related to pre-rupture stress induced changes in crack properties, as observed in early laboratory studies.

  9. The Enhanced Musical Rhythmic Perception in Second Language Learners

    PubMed Central

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M. Paula; Roor, Drikus A.; Chen, Ao; Sadakata, Makiko

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that mastering languages with distinct rather than similar rhythmic properties enhances musical rhythmic perception. This study investigates whether learning a second language (L2) contributes to enhanced musical rhythmic perception in general, regardless of first and second languages rhythmic properties. Additionally, we investigated whether this perceptual enhancement could be alternatively explained by exposure to musical rhythmic complexity, such as the use of compound meter in Turkish music. Finally, it investigates if an enhancement of musical rhythmic perception could be observed among L2 learners whose first language relies heavily on pitch information, as is the case with tonal languages. Therefore, we tested Turkish, Dutch and Mandarin L2 learners of English and Turkish monolinguals on their musical rhythmic perception. Participants’ phonological and working memory capacities, melodic aptitude, years of formal musical training and daily exposure to music were assessed to account for cultural and individual differences which could impact their rhythmic ability. Our results suggest that mastering a L2 rather than exposure to musical rhythmic complexity could explain individuals’ enhanced musical rhythmic perception. An even stronger enhancement of musical rhythmic perception was observed for L2 learners whose first and second languages differ regarding their rhythmic properties, as enhanced performance of Turkish in comparison with Dutch L2 learners of English seem to suggest. Such a stronger enhancement of rhythmic perception seems to be found even among L2 learners whose first language relies heavily on pitch information, as the performance of Mandarin L2 learners of English indicates. Our findings provide further support for a cognitive transfer between the language and music domain. PMID:27375469

  10. The Enhanced Musical Rhythmic Perception in Second Language Learners.

    PubMed

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M Paula; Roor, Drikus A; Chen, Ao; Sadakata, Makiko

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that mastering languages with distinct rather than similar rhythmic properties enhances musical rhythmic perception. This study investigates whether learning a second language (L2) contributes to enhanced musical rhythmic perception in general, regardless of first and second languages rhythmic properties. Additionally, we investigated whether this perceptual enhancement could be alternatively explained by exposure to musical rhythmic complexity, such as the use of compound meter in Turkish music. Finally, it investigates if an enhancement of musical rhythmic perception could be observed among L2 learners whose first language relies heavily on pitch information, as is the case with tonal languages. Therefore, we tested Turkish, Dutch and Mandarin L2 learners of English and Turkish monolinguals on their musical rhythmic perception. Participants' phonological and working memory capacities, melodic aptitude, years of formal musical training and daily exposure to music were assessed to account for cultural and individual differences which could impact their rhythmic ability. Our results suggest that mastering a L2 rather than exposure to musical rhythmic complexity could explain individuals' enhanced musical rhythmic perception. An even stronger enhancement of musical rhythmic perception was observed for L2 learners whose first and second languages differ regarding their rhythmic properties, as enhanced performance of Turkish in comparison with Dutch L2 learners of English seem to suggest. Such a stronger enhancement of rhythmic perception seems to be found even among L2 learners whose first language relies heavily on pitch information, as the performance of Mandarin L2 learners of English indicates. Our findings provide further support for a cognitive transfer between the language and music domain.

  11. EEG analysis of the brain activity during the observation of commercial, political, or public service announcements.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Astolfi, Laura; Tabarrini, Alessandro; Salinari, Serenella; Mattia, Donatella; Cincotti, Febo; Bianchi, Luigi; Sorrentino, Domenica; Aloise, Fabio; Soranzo, Ramon; Babiloni, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    The use of modern brain imaging techniques could be useful to understand what brain areas are involved in the observation of video clips related to commercial advertising, as well as for the support of political campaigns, and also the areas of Public Service Announcements (PSAs). In this paper we describe the capability of tracking brain activity during the observation of commercials, political spots, and PSAs with advanced high-resolution EEG statistical techniques in time and frequency domains in a group of normal subjects. We analyzed the statistically significant cortical spectral power activity in different frequency bands during the observation of a commercial video clip related to the use of a beer in a group of 13 normal subjects. In addition, a TV speech of the Prime Minister of Italy was analyzed in two groups of swing and "supporter" voters. Results suggested that the cortical activity during the observation of commercial spots could vary consistently across the spot. This fact suggest the possibility to remove the parts of the spot that are not particularly attractive by using those cerebral indexes. The cortical activity during the observation of the political speech indicated a major cortical activity in the supporters group when compared to the swing voters. In this case, it is possible to conclude that the communication proposed has failed to raise attention or interest on swing voters. In conclusions, high-resolution EEG statistical techniques have been proved to able to generate useful insights about the particular fruition of TV messages, related to both commercial as well as political fields.

  12. Long Term Preservation of Earth Observation Data in Europe - Challenge and Cooperation Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molch, K.; Albani, M.

    2014-12-01

    Earth observation data are unique snapshots of the Earth and the atmosphere. As such they constitute a humankind asset in their importance for monitoring changes in global environmental conditions. With spaceborne Earth observation (EO) missions dating back to the 1970s, 40 years worth of observations are now available in EO data archives worldwide. Data holdings are growing exponentially, e.g. with the Sentinel series of high resolution EO satellites of the European Copernicus Program - which introduces a new dimension of data volumes to be handled. As other EO data holders around the globe, the European Space Agency (ESA) and its member states are committed to keeping the valuable EO data assets safe, accessible, and useable for an unlimited timespan. Rapidly evolving information technology and changing user requirements call for a dedicated and coordinated approach to EO data long term preservation. In Europe collaborative EO data stewardship activities are coordinated by ESA within the ESA long term data preservation (LTDP) program. With a view to the entire data set life cycle of historic and current missions an active LTDP working group addresses a wide range of relevant technical and organizational topics. Studies investigate archiving and access technologies, user expectations, or applicable standards; guidelines and best practices recommend preservation workflows, steps to take in curating individual data sets, the composition of the preserved data set, or concepts for introducing persistent identifiers. Fostering an active international exchange, the activities and documents developed within this European LTDP framework extend beyond Europe by being introduced to the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). The paper describes the European LTDP cooperation framework, discusses individual focus areas and current activities, and highlights the interaction with global data stewardship initiatives.

  13. Collaborative Revision in L2 Writing: Learners' Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memari Hanjani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    L2 learning literature has reflected on the problems surrounding the application of teacher written feedback and peer feedback in EFL contexts. To address the disadvantages of these feedback forms, this exploratory case study examined EFL learners' reactions to a collaborative revision activity. Interview data were collected from eight native…

  14. Administrative Roles in Helping Faculty Adapt to Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Keith A.

    Since the number of adult students engaging in higher education activities is growing rapidly and is expected to continue to climb, this paper is intended to help administrators develop a perspective from which to view adult learners on college campuses and craft programs to help faculty work more effectively with adult students. The first section…

  15. Motivation and Interlanguage Pragmatics in Iranian English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khorshidi, Hassan Rasouli; Nimchahi, Abdolreza Bagherzadeh

    2013-01-01

    It is generally believed that interlanguage pragmatics and motivation play important roles in learning. Motivation is important because it determines the extent of the learner's active involvement and attitude toward learning. The major purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of integrative and instrumental motivation on the…

  16. The Campus Leadership as a Community of Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Randy

    Students are increasingly expected to be able to think critically, solve complex problems, and communicate clearly. Educators are expected to facilitate that learning in a variety of situations for an increasingly individualized student population. Therefore, educators who attempt to change their practices must become active learners. A school…

  17. Boosting Language Skills of English Learners through Dramatization and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfader, Christa Mulker; Brouillette, Liane

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an arts integration program that uses drama and dance to promote foundational literacy skills, with an emphasis on the oral development of English Language Learners (ELLs). Previous research indicates that arts activities afford a beneficial opportunity for young students to practice language skills, but many teachers have…

  18. A Study of Pharmacists' Behavior as Lifelong Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Alan L.; DeMuth, James E.

    1992-01-01

    A national survey of 355 licensed pharmacists investigated their perceptions of themselves as lifelong learners, participation in various professional and leisure activities, attitudes predicting lifelong learning behavior, and respondent characteristics. The two analytical models used arrived at different demographic and other variables…

  19. Are Online Learners Frustrated with Collaborative Learning Experiences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capdeferro, Neus; Romero, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Online education increasingly puts emphasis on collaborative learning methods. Despite the pedagogical advantages of collaborative learning, online learners can perceive collaborative learning activities as frustrating experiences. The purpose of this study was to characterize the feelings of frustration as a negative emotion among online learners…

  20. Learner Experiences in Web-Based Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Jeong-Bae

    2007-01-01

    The World Wide Web offers a global database of authentic materials that can enhance language learning and teaching. This study examines the use of the web for language learning through a study of English as a second language (ESL) learners' experiences in web-based language learning (WBLL) activities in an English language intensive course for…

  1. Language Development for English Language Learners. Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Mabel O.; Moughamian, Ani; Francis, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This Facilitator's Guide has been prepared for presenters of the "Language Development for English Language Learners" professional development module. It accompanies the 67-slide PowerPoint presentation with speaker's notes and contains materials to help prepare for a professional development session, including activity instructions, handouts,…

  2. Adults as Learners. Increasing Participation and Facilitating Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, K. Patricia

    The literature on adult learners is reviewed, and two models of adult learning are developed. Demographic, social, and technological trends that stimulate the increasing demand for learning opportunities are examined, and the views of those who see dangers in new pressures on adults to participate in organized learning activities are considered.…

  3. Adapting a Social Studies Lesson to Include English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Lake, Vickie E.; Rice, Diana C.

    2005-01-01

    If one were to search for classroom strategies for English Language Learners (ELLs), it would not take much time to find many different types of activities that are all useful with ELLs. Additionally, if one were to search for social studies strategies to use with native English speakers, he or she would have little difficulty in finding a variety…

  4. Using Young Adult Literature with Adolescent Learners of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Elizabeth L.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses (1) a rationale for using young adult literature with adolescent English-as-a-Second-Language learners; (2) an approach to teaching the novel "Make Lemonade" by Virginia Euwer Wolff; (3) activities in which students engaged and samples of their work; and (4) implications for teachers who explore young adult literature with…

  5. Study of Seismic Activity Using Geophysical and Radio Physical Equipment for Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvavadze, N.; Tsereteli, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most dangerous and destructive natural hazards are earthquakes, which is confirmed by recent earthquakes such as Nepal 2015, Japan and Turkey 2011. Because of this, study of seismic activity is important. Studying any process, it is necessary to use different methods of observation, which allows us to increase accuracy of obtained data. Seismic activity is a complex problem and its study needs different types of observation methods. Two main problems of seismic activity study are: reliable instrumental observations and earthquake short-term predictions. In case of seismic risks it is necessary to have reliable accelerometer data. One of the most promising field in earthquake short-term prediction is very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic wave propagation in ionosphere observation. To study Seismic activity of Caucasus region, was created observation complex using Accelerometer, Velocimeter and VLF electromagnetic waves received from communication stations (located in different area of the world) reflected from low ionosphere. System is created and operates at Tbilisi State University Ionosphere Observatory, near Tbilisi in Tabakhmela 42.41'70 N, 44.80'92 E, Georgia. Data obtained is sent to a local server located at M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics, TSU, for storage and processing. Diagram for complex is presented. Also data analysis methods were created and preliminary processing was done. In this paper we present some of the results: Earthquake data from ionosphere observations as well as local earthquakes recorded with accelerometer and velocimeter. Complex is first in 6 that will be placed around Georgia this year. We plan on widening network every year.

  6. ISEE 3 plasmoid and TCR observations during an extended interval of substorm activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, J. A.; Smith, M. F.; Mazur, E. L.; Baker, D. N.; Iyemori, T.; Singer, H. J.; Greenstadt, E. W.

    1992-01-01

    On April 9-11, 1983, the ISEE 3 spacecraft was continuously located within the earth's magnetotail for more than 36 hours at downstream distances of X = -76 to -80 R(e). During this span of time, 12 major intervals of substorm activity were observed in the AL index with good ISEE 3 telemetry coverage for 11 of them. In addition, there were two small substorms outside of these intervals, both with complete observations in the distant tail. This unusual ISEE 3 data set provides a unique opportunity to test the predictions of the near-earth neutral line model. In particular, the hypothesis that energy stored in the tail lobes during the growth phase is later dissipated, in part, through the release of one or more plasmoids following expansion phase onset is examined. Clear growth phase enhancements in the lobe magnetic field intensity preceded the onsets of nine of the substorms. Plasmoids, or their lobe signatures, traveling compression regions (TCRs), were observed at ISEE 3 in association with all 11 of the major substorm intervals for which there were ISEE observations, as well as for the two small substorms. No plasmoids or TCRs were observed in the absence of substorm activity. If these ISEE 3 observations are representative, then the release of plasmoids down the tail may be a feature common to all substorms.

  7. Optimal strategies for observation of active galactic nuclei variability with Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giomi, Matteo; Gerard, Lucie; Maier, Gernot

    2016-07-01

    Variable emission is one of the defining characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGN). While providing precious information on the nature and physics of the sources, variability is often challenging to observe with time- and field-of-view-limited astronomical observatories such as Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). In this work, we address two questions relevant for the observation of sources characterized by AGN-like variability: what is the most time-efficient way to detect such sources, and what is the observational bias that can be introduced by the choice of the observing strategy when conducting blind surveys of the sky. Different observing strategies are evaluated using simulated light curves and realistic instrument response functions of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a future gamma-ray observatory. We show that strategies that makes use of very small observing windows, spread over large periods of time, allows for a faster detection of the source, and are less influenced by the variability properties of the sources, as compared to strategies that concentrate the observing time in a small number of large observing windows. Although derived using CTA as an example, our conclusions are conceptually valid for any IACTs facility, and in general, to all observatories with small field of view and limited duty cycle.

  8. Prominent activity of the blazar OJ 287 in 2005. XMM-Newton and multiwavelength observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, S.; Raiteri, C. M.; Rizzi, N.; Agudo, I.; Foschini, L.; Fiorucci, M.; Takalo, L. O.; Villata, M.; Ostorero, L.; Sillanpää, A.; Valtonen, M.; Tosti, G.; Wagner, S. J.; Aller, H.; Aller, M. F.; Arai, A.; Arkharov, A. A.; Bakis, V.; Bagaglia, M.; Böttcher, M.; Buemi, C.; Carosati, D.; Chen, W. P.; Efimov, Y.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Erdem, A.; Fuhrmann, L.; Frasca, A.; Fullhart, M.; Goyal, A.; Heidt, J.; Hovatta, T.; Hroch, F.; Ibrahimov, M. A.; Jilková, L.; Joshi, M.; Kamada, M.; Katsuura, M.; Kinoshita, D.; Kostov, A.; Kotaka, D.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Krejcová, T.; Krichbaum, T.; Gopal-Krishna; Kurosaki, M.; Kurtanidze, O.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lanteri, L.; Larionov, V.; Lee, C.-U.; Letho, H.; Leto, P.; Li, J.; Lindfors, E.; Münz, F.; Marilli, E.; Matsubara, Y.; Mizoguchi, S.; Mondal, S.; Nakamura, K.; Nieppola, E.; Nilsson, K.; Nishiyama, S.; Nucciarelli, G.; Ogino, A.; Ohlert, J.; Oksanen, A.; Ovcharov, E.; Pak, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pullen, C.; Pursimo, T.; Ros, J. A.; Sadakane, K.; Sadun, A. C.; Sagar, R.; Sohnk, B.-W.; Sumitomo, N.; Tanaka, K.; Trigilio, C.; Torniainenk I.; Tornikoski, M.; Umana, G.; Ungerechts, H.; Valtaoja, E.; Volvach, A.; Webb, J. R.; Wu, J.; Yim, H.-S.; Zhang, Y.

    Two guest-observer XMM-Newton pointings of the blazar OJ 287 in 2005 are introduced, along with part of the radio, mm, near-IR, and optical data obtained during a coordinated and intensive WEBT campaign, during longer-term monitoring observations performed by teams of the ENIGMA network, and during other independent observing programs (like VLBA observations). In that year OJ 287 showed an interesting variable behavior in the optical band. An optical outburst, well matched by our WEBT observations, is claimed in the period Oct.-Nov. 2005, and the XMM-Newton X-ray observations are performed in correspondence with two active optical states (an intermediate flare and such outburst). X-ray data indicates different flux levels, spectral slopes, and emission components, and VLBA radio maps are consistent with a jet precession model. This appreciable observing effort is still ongoing (a further XMM-Newton pointing is planned in 2008), joined with further parallel/multi-monitoring observing programmes devoted to this interesting object.

  9. Learner Control in Computer Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    An investigation of how secondary students coped when taught binary arithmetic through a computer assisted instruction program used four treatment groups: learner control, learner control with advice; random program control, and adaptive program control. The random group performed less well, but no differences were found between learner and…

  10. Technology Applications for the Exceptional Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Janet

    This paper is a series of lesson plans designed to assist teachers with the instruction of the exceptional learner. The focus is on identifying what the exceptional learner needs, and provides specific lesson plans that met those needs. Exceptional learners experience difficulty with spelling, organization, and metacognition. Detailed directions…

  11. Becoming a Strategic Language Learner in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines what it means to be a strategic language learner in the context of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). It looks at the possible roles for language learner strategies at their crucial intersection with language learning technology. We will first consider what language learner strategies have been represented in…

  12. Factors Influencing Chinese Language Learners' Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Ko-Yin

    2011-01-01

    This survey study, which involved 134 language learners enrolled in first-year Chinese as a foreign language classrooms in the US universities, intended to address the research question, "Do learners' strategy use differ based on the following learner differences: (1) gender; (2) home language/culture; and (3) number of other foreign languages…

  13. An Open Learner Model for Trainee Pilots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gakhal, Inderdip; Bull, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential for simple open learner models for highly motivated, independent learners, using the example of trainee pilots. In particular we consider whether such users access their learner model to help them identify their current knowledge level, areas of difficulty and specific misconceptions, to help them plan their…

  14. The Adult Learner: Some Things We Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin J.; Pete, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses the "warrior" who rises to the challenge of teaching the adult learner. The discussion is designed as a catalyst for dialogue about the adult learner and to uncover the complexities of teaching this rare and riveting species. This book is organized around three interlocking themes: some things we know about the adult learner;…

  15. Educating Young Children: Active Learning Practices for Preschool and Child Care Programs [and] A Study Guide to Educating Young Children: Exercises for Adult Learners. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann, Mary; Weikart, David P.

    High/Scope preschool curriculum is a model for developing high-quality early childhood programs that encourage and support children's initiatives and active learning experiences. This revised manual for early childhood practitioners and students presents essential strategies adults can use to make active learning a reality in their programs. The…

  16. Sensitivity of Active and Passive Microwave Observations to Soil Moisture during Growing Corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, J.; Monsivais-Huertero, A.; Liu, P.; De Roo, R. D.; England, A. W.; Nagarajan, K.

    2011-12-01

    Soil moisture (SM) in the root zone is a key factor governing water and energy fluxes at the land surface and its accurate knowledge is critical to predictions of weather and near-term climate, nutrient cycles, crop-yield, and ecosystem productivity. Microwave observations, such as those at L-band, are highly sensitive to soil moisture in the upper few centimeters (near-surface). The two satellite-based missions dedicated to soil moisture estimation include, the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and the planned NASA Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) [4] mission. The SMAP mission will include active and passive sensors at L-band to provide global observations of SM, with a repeat coverage of every 2-3 days. These observations can significantly improve root zone soil moisture estimates through data assimilation into land surface models (LSMs). Both the active (radar) and passive (radiometer) microwave sensors measure radiation quantities that are functions of soil dielectric constant and exhibit similar sensitivities to SM. In addition to the SM sensitivity, radar backscatter is highly sensitive to roughness of soil surface and scattering within the vegetation. These effects may produce a much larger dynamic range in backscatter than that produced due to SM changes alone. In this study, we discuss the field observations of active and passive signatures of growing corn at L-band from several seasons during the tenth Microwave, Water and Energy Balance Experiment (MicroWEX-10) conducted in North Central Florida, and to understand the sensitivity of these signatures to soil moisture under dynamic vegetation conditions. The MicroWEXs are a series of season-long field experiments conducted during the growing seasons of sweet corn, cotton, and energy cane over the past six years (for example, [22]). The corn was planted on July 5 and harvested on September 23, 2011 during MicroWEX-10. The size of the field was 0.04 km2 and the soils

  17. Pastime in a pub: observations of young adults' activities and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Bot, Sander M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Knibbe, Ronald A; Meeus, Wim H J

    2007-03-01

    Alcohol consumption typically takes place in a time-out situation, which can be spent by engaging in several leisure time activities. Usually, conversation is the dominant pastime in a bar, but this may take place during other activities, like watching TV or playing games. These activities may inhibit drinking because of the physical difficulties of drinking and being active at the same time. Findings of an observational study on drinking in young adults (N=238) in a bar lab will be discussed. In the present study, we followed the ad-lib drinking of peer groups (7-9 persons) during 1-h periods. The results suggest that (1) selection of activities is not related to initial drinking level or personality characteristics; (2) active pastime is related to slower drinking than passive pastime (in males); (3) male problem drinkers appear to compensate for the "lost" amount of drinking after an active phase; and (4) involvement in active pastime is not related to total alcohol consumption. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. New developments in the coordination of Earth observation from space activities: The role of the Committee on Earth Observations Satellites (CEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B.; Moodie, L.; Shaffer, L.; Williams, D.; Revah, I.

    1992-01-01

    The Committee on Earth Observations Satellites (CEOS) is outlined and the dynamics of the expanded CEOS with its increased focus on activities related to global climate change are examined. The participation of affiliate organizations at the Dec. 1991 Plenary is highlighted. The roles and current activities of constituted CEOS Working Groups on Data and on Sensor Calibration and Performance Validation are examined. The status of CEOS deliberations in Earth observation data policy is examined. The expanded CEOS is believed to be well suited to carry forward and help further the legacy already well established in the myriad of Earth observation activities associated with the 1992 International Space Year.

  19. Processing morphologically complex words in second-language learners: the effect of proficiency.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lijuan; Chen, Baoguo

    2014-07-01

    The present study explored how the processing of morphologically complex words in second-language (L2) learners changes as their proficiency increases. ERPs were recorded from highly proficient and less proficient L2 learners, using the repetition priming paradigm. Three experimental conditions were investigated: morphological related/unrelated pairs, semantically related/unrelated pairs, and form related/unrelated pairs. The presence of priming in each condition was assessed by comparing responses to targets preceded by related primes with those preceded by unrelated primes. ERP results showed that highly proficient L2 learners demonstrated priming effect within 350-550 ms in the morphological condition, associating with an N400 reduction, while less proficient L2 learners showed no morphological priming effect within the N400 range. Besides, form priming effect was observed in both highly proficient and less proficient L2 learners within 400-450 ms and 450-500 ms, and semantic inhibiting effect was observed in both groups within 450-500 ms, suggesting that less proficient L2 learners were equally sensitive to the word form and meaning. The ERP results indicate that highly proficient L2 learners manifest rule-based decomposition, while less proficient L2 learners rely more on lexical storage in processing morphologically complex words. Less proficient L2 learners have not developed the decomposing mechanism, despite their sensitivity to word form and meaning. The way in which morphologically complex words are processed in L2 learners does change as their proficiency increases, validating the predictions of the declarative/procedural model.

  20. Time-resolved observation of thermally activated rupture of a capillary-condensed water nanobridge

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, Wan; Sung, Baekman; Kim, Jongwoo; Kwon, Soyoung; Kim, Bongsu; Jhe, Wonho

    2015-01-05

    The capillary-condensed liquid bridge is one of the most ubiquitous forms of liquid in nature and contributes significantly to adhesion and friction of biological molecules as well as microscopic objects. Despite its important role in nanoscience and technology, the rupture process of the bridge is not well understood and needs more experimental works. Here, we report real-time observation of rupture of a capillary-condensed water nanobridge in ambient condition. During slow and stepwise stretch of the nanobridge, we measured the activation time for rupture, or the latency time required for the bridge breakup. By statistical analysis of the time-resolved distribution of activation time, we show that rupture is a thermally activated stochastic process and follows the Poisson statistics. In particular, from the Arrhenius law that the rupture rate satisfies, we estimate the position-dependent activation energies for the capillary-bridge rupture.

  1. Towards Observational Astronomy of Jets in Active Galaxies from General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anantua, Richard; Roger Blandford, Jonathan McKinney and Alexander Tchekhovskoy

    2016-01-01

    We carry out the process of "observing" simulations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) with relativistic jets (hereafter called jet/accretion disk/black hole (JAB) systems) from ray tracing between image plane and source to convolving the resulting images with a point spread function. Images are generated at arbitrary observer angle relative to the black hole spin axis by implementing spatial and temporal interpolation of conserved magnetohydrodynamic flow quantities from a time series of output datablocks from fully general relativistic 3D simulations. We also describe the evolution of simulations of JAB systems' dynamical and kinematic variables, e.g., velocity shear and momentum density, respectively, and the variation of these variables with respect to observer polar and azimuthal angles. We produce, at frequencies from radio to optical, fixed observer time intensity and polarization maps using various plasma physics motivated prescriptions for the emissivity function of physical quantities from the simulation output, and analyze the corresponding light curves. Our hypothesis is that this approach reproduces observed features of JAB systems such as superluminal bulk flow projections and quasi-periodic oscillations in the light curves more closely than extant stylized analytical models, e.g., cannonball bulk flows. Moreover, our development of user-friendly, versatile C++ routines for processing images of state-of-the-art simulations of JAB systems may afford greater flexibility for observing a wide range of sources from high power BL-Lacs to low power quasars (possibly with the same simulation) without requiring years of observation using multiple telescopes. Advantages of observing simulations instead of observing astrophysical sources directly include: the absence of a diffraction limit, panoramic views of the same object and the ability to freely track features. Light travel time effects become significant for high Lorentz factor and small angles between

  2. The Art of Observation: A Pedagogical Framework.

    PubMed

    Wellbery, Caroline; McAteer, Rebecca A

    2015-12-01

    Observational skills, honed through experience with the literary and visual arts, bring together in a timely manner many of the goals of the medical humanities, providing thematic cohesion through the act of seeing while aiming to advance clinical skills through a unified practice. In an arts observation pedagogy, nature writing serves as an apt model for precise, clinically relevant linguistic noticing because meticulous attention to the natural world involves scientific precision; additionally, a number of visual metaphors employed in medicine are derived from close observation of the natural world. Close reading reinforces observational skills as part of integrative, multidisciplinary clinical practice. Literary precision provides an educational bridge to recognizing the importance of detail in the clinical realm. In weighing multiple perspectives, observation applied to practice helps learners understand the nuances of the role of witness, activating reflection consonant with the viewer's professional identity. The realization that seeing is highly filtered through the observer's values allows the act of observation to come under scrutiny, opening the observer's gaze to disturbance and challenging the values and precepts of the prevailing medical culture. Application of observational skills can, for example, help observers recognize and address noxious effects of the built environment. As learners describe what they see, they also develop the communication skills needed to articulate both problems and possible improvements within their expanding sphere of influence. The ability to craft this speech as public narrative can lead to interventions with positive impacts on physicians, their colleagues, and patients.

  3. Analysis of nearly simultaneous X-ray and optical observations of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, James Raymond

    Rosemary Hill optical and EINSTEIN X-ray observations of a sample of 36 active galactic nuclei (AGN) were reduced and analyzed. Seventy-two X-ray observations of these sources were reduced, nineteen of which yielded spectral information. Of these spectral observations, significant hydrogen column densities above the galactic value were required for nine of the eleven sources which were observed more than once by EINSTEIN. Correlations between the X-ray and optical luminosities were investigated using the Jefferys method of least squares. This method allows for errors in both variables. The results indicate a strong correlation between the X-ray and optical luminosities for the entire sample. Division of the sample into groups with similar optical variability characteristics show that the less violently violent variable AGN are more highly correlated than the violently variable blazars. Infrared and radio observations were combined with the X-ray and optical observations of six AGN. These sources were modelled in terms of the synchrotron-self-Compton model. The turnover frequency falls between the infrared and radio data and reliable estimates of this parameter are difficult to estimate. Therefore the results were found as a function of the turnover frequency. Four sources required relativistic bulk motion or beaming. Multifrequency spectra made at different times for one individual source, 0235+164, required different amounts of beaming to satisfy the X-ray observations. Sizes of the emitting regions for the sources modelled ranged from 0.5 parsec to 1.0 parsec.

  4. Evidence for Steady Heating: Observations of an Active Region Core with Hinode and TRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Harry P.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Brooks, David H.

    2010-03-01

    The timescale for energy release is an important parameter for constraining the coronal heating mechanism. Observations of "warm" coronal loops (~1 MK) have indicated that the heating is impulsive and that coronal plasma is far from equilibrium. In contrast, observations at higher temperatures (~3 MK) have generally been consistent with steady heating models. Previous observations, however, have not been able to exclude the possibility that the high temperature loops are actually composed of many small-scale threads that are in various stages of heating and cooling and only appear to be in equilibrium. With new observations from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer and X-ray Telescope (XRT) on Hinode we have the ability to investigate the properties of high temperature coronal plasma in extraordinary detail. We examine the emission in the core of an active region and find three independent lines of evidence for steady heating. We find that the emission observed in XRT is generally steady for hours, with a fluctuation level of approximately 15% in an individual pixel. Short-lived impulsive heating events are observed, but they appear to be unrelated to the steady emission that dominates the active region. Furthermore, we find no evidence for warm emission that is spatially correlated with the hot emission, as would be expected if the high temperature loops are the result of impulsive heating. Finally, we also find that intensities in the "moss," the footpoints of high temperature loops, are consistent with steady heating models provided that we account for the local expansion of the loop from the base of the transition region to the corona. In combination, these results provide strong evidence that the heating in the core of an active region is effectively steady, that is, the time between heating events is short relative to the relevant radiative and conductive cooling times.

  5. Retrieval of Precipitation Profiles from Multiresolution, Multifrequency, Active and Passive Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grecu, Mircea; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Olson, William S.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a technique for estimating vertical profiles of precipitation from multifrequency, multiresolution active and passive microwave observations is investigated using both simulated and airborne data. The technique is applicable to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite multi-frequency active and passive observations. These observations are characterized by various spatial and sampling resolutions. This makes the retrieval problem mathematically more difficult and ill-determined because the quality of information decreases with decreasing resolution. A model that, given reflectivity profiles and a small set of parameters (including the cloud water content, the intercept drop size distribution, and a variable describing the frozen hydrometeor properties), simulates high-resolution brightness temperatures is used. The high-resolution simulated brightness temperatures are convolved at the real sensor resolution. An optimal estimation procedure is used to minimize the differences between simulated and observed brightness temperatures. The retrieval technique is investigated using cloud model synthetic and airborne data from the Fourth Convection And Moisture Experiment. Simulated high-resolution brightness temperatures and reflectivities and airborne observation strong are convolved at the resolution of the TRMM instruments and retrievals are performed and analyzed relative to the reference data used in observations synthesis. An illustration of the possible use of the technique in satellite rainfall estimation is presented through an application to TRMM data. The study suggests improvements in combined active and passive retrievals even when the instruments resolutions are significantly different. Future work needs to better quantify the retrievals performance, especially in connection with satellite applications, and the uncertainty of the models used in retrieval.

  6. The role of space-based observation in understanding and responding to active tectonics and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J. R.; Walters, R. J.; Wright, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    The quantity and quality of satellite-geodetic measurements of tectonic deformation have increased dramatically over the past two decades improving our ability to observe active tectonic processes. We now routinely respond to earthquakes using satellites, mapping surface ruptures and estimating the distribution of slip on faults at depth for most continental earthquakes. Studies directly link earthquakes to their causative faults allowing us to calculate how resulting changes in crustal stress can influence future seismic hazard. This revolution in space-based observation is driving advances in models that can explain the time-dependent surface deformation and the long-term evolution of fault zones and tectonic landscapes.

  7. Coordinated Observations of X-ray and High-resolution EUV Active Region Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    The recently-launched High-resolution Coronal imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket provided the highest resolution images of coronal loops and other small-scale structures in the 193 Angstrom passband to date. With just 5 minutes of observations, the instrument recorded a variety of dynamic coronal events -- including even a small B-class flare. We will present our results comparing these extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations with X-ray imaging from Hinode/XRT as well as EUV AIA data to identify sources of hot plasma rooted in the photosphere and track their affect on the overall topology and dynamics of the active region.

  8. Coordinated Observations of X-ray and High-Resolution EUV Active Region Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The recently-launched High-resolution Coronal imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket provided the highest resolution images of coronal loops and other small-scale structures in the 193 Angstrom passband to date. With just 5 minutes of observations, the instrument recorded a variety of dynamic coronal events -- including even a small B-class flare. We will present our results comparing these extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations with X-ray imaging from Hinode/XRT as well as EUV AIA data to identify sources of hot plasma rooted in the photosphere and track their affect on the overall topology and dynamics of the active region.

  9. More than a "Basic Skill": Breaking down the Complexities of Summarizing for ABE/ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette-Schramm, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the complex cognitive and linguistic challenges of summarizing expository text at vocabulary, syntactic, and rhetorical levels. It then outlines activities to help ABE/ESL learners develop corresponding skills.

  10. Radio Observation of Solar-Activity-Related mHz Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiep, N. V.; Nhung, P. T.; Darriulat, P.; Diep, P. N.; Anh, P. T.; Dong, P. N.; Hoai, D. T.; Thao, N. T.

    2014-03-01

    The VATLY radio telescope, operating at 1.415 GHz in Ha Noi, has been used to track the Sun in the summer - autumn months in 2012. Evidence has been obtained for solar activity, including occasional flares and variable oscillations with amplitudes at the percent level and periods of about 6 min. Comparison with data collected at the same frequency by the Learmonth Observatory in Australia suggests that the observed oscillations were associated with solar activity. A joint analysis of both data sets is presented, evaluating the correlations between them. We describe the common and different main features.

  11. Active extragalactic sources - Nearly simultaneous observations from 20 centimeters to 1400 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landau, R.; Golisch, B.; Jones, T. J.; Jones, T. W.; Pedelty, J.; Rudnick, L.; Sitko, M. L.; Kenney, J.; Roellig, T.; Salonen, E.

    1986-01-01

    IRAS, IUE, and ground-based optical, NIR, mm and submm, and radio observations obtained mainly on Apr. 9-23, 1983, are reported for 19 active extragalactic sources and eight control sources. The overall spectra of the compact active sources are shown to be well represented by continuous-curvature functions such as parabolas. The spectra are found to be consistent with models involving continuous particle injection (with synchrotron losses) or first-order Fermi acceleration (with escape and synchrotron losses), but not with models using relativistic Maxwellian electron distributions.

  12. Patterns of cortical activity during the observation of Public Service Announcements and commercial advertisings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the present research we were interested to study the cerebral activity of a group of healthy subjects during the observation a documentary intermingled by a series of TV advertisements. In particular, we desired to examine whether Public Service Announcements (PSAs) are able to elicit a different pattern of activity, when compared with a different class of commercials, and correlate it with the memorization of the showed stimuli, as resulted from a following subject’s verbal interview. Methods We recorded the EEG signals from a group of 15 healthy subjects and applied the High Resolution EEG techniques in order to estimate and map their Power Spectral Density (PSD) on a realistic cortical model. The single subjects’ activities have been z-score transformed and then grouped to define four different datasets, related to subjects who remembered and forgotten the PSAs and to subjects who remembered and forgotten cars commercials (CAR) respectively, which we contrasted to investigate cortical areas involved in this encoding process. Results The results we here present show that the cortical activity elicited during the observation of the TV commercials that were remembered (RMB) is higher and localized in the left frontal brain areas when compared to the activity elicited during the vision of the TV commercials that were forgotten (FRG) in theta and gamma bands for both categories of advertisements (PSAs and CAR). Moreover, the cortical maps associated with the PSAs also show an increase of activity in the alpha and beta band. Conclusions In conclusion, the TV advertisements that will be remembered by the experimental population have increased their cerebral activity, mainly in the left hemisphere. These results seem to be congruent with and well inserted in the already existing literature, on this topic, related to the HERA model. The different pattern of activity in different frequency bands elicited by the observation of PSAs may be justified by the

  13. Observations of actively forming lava tubes and associated structures, Hawaii, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.

    1971-01-01

    A ground examination is made of lave tubes and channels. The surface morphology and the changes noted through lava flow activity are cited, and compared to earlier aerial observations. The lava activity was believed to be caused by a small lava lake exposed by the collapse of a crust covering it. Drainage of the lake was caused by a fissure erruption. New tubes or extensions of existing ones were noted from the flow. Molten lava was not seen in any tubes examined on the ground, but some of the flows were not sufficiently cooled to allow subsurface examination and survey of the tubes.

  14. In Situ Spectroscopic Observation of Activation and Transformation of Tantalum Suboxides

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ke; Liu, Zhi; Cruz, Tirma Herranz; Salmeron, Miquel; Liang, Hong

    2009-12-16

    Using ambient pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (AP-XPS), we were able to observe the process of oxidation of tantalum with different morphological parameters. Being able to trace surface evolution during oxidation, we evaluated activation energy of oxidation under the influence of strain and grain boundaries. It was found that the metal oxidized through three different stages and there was a transition stage where the phase transformation from suboxides to the equilibrium state of pentoxide. The applied stress and surface defects reduced the activation energy oxidation.

  15. Periodogram Analysis on Solar Activities Based on El Campo Solar Radar Observation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ye; Zhi-ning, Qu; Min, Wang; Guan-nan, Gao; Jun, Lin; Zhi-chun, Duan

    2016-10-01

    Solar radar can transmit radar waves toward the Sun actively at a specific waveband and receive the reflected waves. By analyzing the echoes, we can obtain the information of motion, magnetic field, and other properties of the solar atmosphere. The El Campo solar radar has done regular observations on the solar corona for 8 years from 1961 to 1969, to trace the variation of solar activities. We have made a periodicity analysis on the obtained data with the Lomb-Scargle periodogram algorithm, and found that there are the 200 day and 540 day periods existed in the variation of the measured solar radar cross section. In addition, we have selected the larger radar cross sections (≥ 20σ⊙) to compare with the Dst indexes. Finally, we have summarized the El Campo solar radar experiment and give a prospect for the future development of the solar radar observation.

  16. Observing and understanding arterial and venous circulation differences in a physiology laboratory activity.

    PubMed

    Altermann, Caroline; Gonçalves, Rithiele; Lara, Marcus Vinícius S; Neves, Ben-Hur S; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present article is to describe three simple practical experiments that aim to observe and discuss the anatomic and physiological functions and differences between arteries and veins as well as the alterations observed in skin blood flow in different situations. For this activity, students were divided in small groups. In each group, a volunteer is recruited for each experiment. The experiments only require a sphygmomanometer, rubber bands, and a clock and allow students to develop a hypothesis to explain the different responses to the interruption of arterial and venous blood flow. At the end, students prepare a short report, and the results are discussed. This activity allows students to perceive the presence of physiology in their daily lives and helps them to understand the concepts related to the cardiovascular system and hemodynamics.

  17. The INAF contribution to the ASI Space Debris program: observational activities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pupillo, G.; Salerno, E.; Bartolini, M.; Di Martino, M.; Mattana, A.; Montebugnoli, S.; Portelli, C.; Pluchino, S.; Schillirò, F.; Konovalenko, A.; Nabatov, A.; Nechaeva, M.

    Space debris are man made objects orbiting around Earth that pose a serious hazard for both present and future human activities in space. Since 2007 the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) carried out a number of radar campaigns in the framework of the ASI ``Space Debris'' program. The observations were performed by using bi- and multi-static radars, composed of the INAF 32-m Italian radiotelescopes located at Medicina and Noto (used as receivers) and the 70-m parabolic antenna at Evpatoria (Ukraine) used as transmitter. The 32 m Ventspils antenna in Latvia also participated in the last campaign at the end of June 2010. Several kinds of objects in various orbital regions (radar calibrators, rocket upper stages, debris of different sizes) were observed and successfully detected. Some unknown objects were also discovered in LEO during the beam-park sessions. In this paper we describe some results of the INAF-ASI space debris research activity.

  18. Individual Learner Differences in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabski, Janusz; Wojtaszek, Adam

    2011-01-01

    "Individual Learner Differences in SLA" addresses the apparently insoluble conflict between the unquestionably individual character of the process of second language acquisition/foreign language learning and the institutionalised, often inflexible character of formal instruction in which it takes place. How, then, is success in SLA so prevalent?

  19. Facilitating Creativity in Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Kuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Creativity in education research has received increasing attention, although the major focus of this research has been on children. Despite pleas by several adult educators for promoting creativity, very few studies have focused on adult learners, leaving to it to be explored what approaches are useful for adult educators to facilitate creativity…

  20. Motivational Profiles of Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothes, Ana; Lemos, Marina S.; Gonçalves, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated profiles of autonomous and controlled motivation and their effects in a sample of 188 adult learners from two Portuguese urban areas. Using a person-centered approach, results of cluster analysis and multivariate analysis of covariance revealed four motivational groups with different effects in self-efficacy, engagement,…

  1. Teacher Investment in Learner Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Jenelle

    2009-01-01

    From a sociocultural perspective, teacher identity is constructed in relation to others, including other teachers and students. Drawing on positioning theory and the concept of investment, this study analyzed the case of a secondary English teacher who negotiated his teacher identity in relation to English language learners (ELLs). Findings…

  2. Grading Exceptional and Struggling Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    How can you ensure that you are grading your exceptional students fairly? Teachers receive very little guidance for grading students with disabilities, English learners, and those receiving services through a response-to-intervention (RTI) process. This practitioner-friendly book provides teachers and administrators with an effective framework for…

  3. Developing Collections to Empower Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Sue C.

    2014-01-01

    "Developing Collections to Empower Learners" examines collection development in the context of today's shifts toward digital resources while emphasizing the foundational beliefs of the school library profession. Writer Sue Kimmel includes practical advice about needs assessment, planning, selection, acquisitions, evaluation, and…

  4. Are Deaf Students Visual Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschark, Marc; Morrison, Carolyn; Lukomski, Jennifer; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol

    2013-01-01

    It is frequently assumed that by virtue of their hearing losses, deaf students are visual learners. Deaf individuals have some visual-spatial advantages relative to hearing individuals, but most have been linked to use of sign language rather than auditory deprivation. How such cognitive differences might affect academic performance has been…

  5. Shifting Power to the Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Decades of reform have resulted in a system of further education that treats adults like children, with limited control over the qualifications they choose to pursue. This needs to change. Money must follow learners, not government contracts, and so create a genuinely demand-led system. The author proposes new financial and regulatory structures…

  6. English Language Learner Engineering Collaborative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendergraft, Katy; Daugherty, Michael K.; Rossetti, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to develop an engineering design project that would deliver the necessary content and reach out to the English Language Learner (ELL) community, faculty in the Engineering Academy at Springdale High School in Springdale, Arkansas instituted the ELL Engineering Collaborative. The ELL Engineering Collaborative has four primary goals…

  7. Teaching Reading to Struggling Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minskoff, Esther

    2005-01-01

    Identifying the best way to help students who struggle with reading--whether they have learning disabilities, are English language learners, or just need extra support--is a challenge for any teacher. Schools can make that task easier with this indispensable resource, a complete guide to addressing each student's specific instructional needs and…

  8. Reading and the Special Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Carolyn N., Ed.; Hicks, John S., Ed.

    Compiled from papers presented at the annual Reading/Special Education Institute at Fordham University, this collection of essays addresses reading problems of special education students. The book is divided into three sections. The first section covers reading assessment and reading intervention; section 2 addresses the specific learner and the…

  9. Learner-Centered Online Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This chapter offers a theoretical rationale and an explanation of evidence for using research-validated, learner-centered principles and practices in online course development, highlighting the evidence-based practices that have been used successfully to develop online courses that engage and retain students.

  10. English Language Learners: Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hector-Mason, Anestine; Bardack, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This annotated bibliography represents a first step toward compiling a comprehensive overview of current research on issues related to English language learners (ELLs). It is intended to be a resource for researchers, policymakers, administrators, and educators who are engaged in efforts to bridge the divide between research, policy, and practice…

  11. English Learners Program Guide. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This guide is designed as a reference for District and School personnel working with English learners (ELs). The content of the guide represents a compilation of information, examples, and resources. This guide is a living document and subject to frequent updates. It is recommended to review the document online rather than printing a hard copy.

  12. Distance Learners: Welcome to Campus!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwitzer, Alan M.; Duggan, Mary H.

    2005-01-01

    Old Dominion University's distance learning program, called TELETECHNET, brings the main-campus college experience to geographically distant learners at sites across Virginia and as far away as the state of Washington, as well as to military personnel on Navy bases, carriers, and submarines. In an interesting turnabout, the Summer Institute for…

  13. Rich Environments for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentham, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Unaware of the messages a bare adult learning environment sends and its effect on adult learners, a trainer attends an intensive Reggio Emilia course and learns that the physical environment is the "third teacher"--for adults as well as for children. Using principles of Reggio, she offers suggestions for enhancing adult learning spaces and…

  14. Learner Differences in Hint Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Ilya M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Aleven, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Although ITSs are supposed to adapt to differences among learners, so far, little attention has been paid to how they might adapt to differences in how students learn from help. When students study with an Intelligent Tutoring System, they may receive multiple types of help, but may not comprehend and make use of this help in the same way. To…

  15. Faculty Development: Assessing Learner Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Barbara A.; Overfield, Karen

    This study addressed the challenges of developing a faculty professional development workshop on assessment, measurement, and evaluation of achievement in adult learners. The setting for the workshop was a system of postsecondary career colleges throughout the United States. The curriculum development model of D. Kirkpatrick (1994) was used as a…

  16. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF LEARNER'S ERRORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CORDER, S.P.

    ERRORS (NOT MISTAKES) MADE IN BOTH SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING AND CHILD LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PROVIDE EVIDENCE THAT A LEARNER USES A DEFINITE SYSTEM OF LANGUAGE AT EVERY POINT IN HIS DEVELOPMENT. THIS SYSTEM, OR "BUILT-IN SYLLABUS," MAY YIELD A MORE EFFICIENT SEQUENCE THAN THE INSTRUCTOR-GENERATED SEQUENCE BECAUSE IT IS MORE MEANINGFUL TO THE…

  17. Learners in Action, Summer 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This Summer 2005 issue of "Learners in Action" contains the following articles: (1) Bridging Barriers to Learning (Glenn Kissman); (2) Education Really Is a Family Affair; (3) Sabrina's Story; (4) SARAW Helps Students Find Their Voice; (5) Literacy Changes Lives; and (6) Seeing STARs in Alberta.

  18. Language Learners' Perceptions of Accent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Julie; Wennerstrom, Ann; Richard, Dara; Wu, Su Hui

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzed the accent perceptions of a group of 37 English language learners and 10 American undergraduate students. Each subject listened to a one-minute passage read by four speakers with different accents of English: General American, British English, Chinese English, and Mexican English. Participants then attempted to identify the…

  19. for Teachers of English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molle, Daniella

    2013-01-01

    For more than a decade, the professional development literature has shown that most teachers are not adequately prepared to teach English learners (ELs)--that holds true for both specialist and mainstream teachers (see, for example, August & Hakuta, 1997; Beykont, 2002). Research that focuses on professional development for teachers of ELs,…

  20. Learners' Use of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ally, Mohamed; Cleveland-Innes, Martha; Boskic, Natasha; Larwill, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study exploring the generativity (Gibbons, Nelson, & Richards, 2000; Parrish, 2004) and discoverability (Friesen, 2001) of learning objects in the hands of the learner. Through the convergence of two separate pilot projects--the Canadian EduSource initiative through Athabasca University, and the…

  1. Adult Learners in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bash, Lee

    1999-01-01

    Adult learners comprise almost 50 percent of all students enrolled in higher Education. Some argue they are pioneering change in today's higher educational landscape. This book is designed to assist faculty members and administrators who want to understand how the impact of adult learning programs has and is helping to transform the academy and…

  2. Can You Keep Learners Online?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielinski, Dave

    2000-01-01

    Reasons people do not complete online training courses include (1) no incentives, (2) lack of connectedness, (3) learner preference for instructor-led courses, (4) poor course design, (5) "some is enough," and (6) lack of perks. Course delivery must consider three elements: the technology, course design, and the learning environment. (JOW)

  3. Observation and Interpretation of Photospheric Line Asymmetry Changes Near Active Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    from Solar Stellar Granulation , ed. R.Ruffen & G Severino, Dec 88, by KluwerPr _c_, pp 27J221 17 COSATI CODES 18 SUBJECT TERMS (Cortinue On reverse if...necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP ’olar granulation ,’ Convection solar active regions,’ Magnetic ( ffields, ///rf...scale solar granulation produces the well-known convective blue-shift of photospheric lines, when the lines are observed with insufficient spatial

  4. The plasmapause revisited. [Explorer 45 observation at various magnetic activity levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, N. C.; Grebowsky, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A statistical investigation is conducted concerning the plasmapause behavior observed from Explorer 45 during various levels of magnetic activity. Aspects of data handling are reported and the implications of a constant density level for a plasmapause definition are discussed. The average local time dependence of the gradient saturation events and the sharp saturation events detected on Explorer 45 is shown with the aid of graphs. Other graphs show the results of the statistical processing operations. The significance of the obtained data is discussed.

  5. Using the EXIST Active Shields for Earth Occultation Observations of X-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Colleen A.; Fishman, Gerald; Hong, Jae-Sub; Gridlay, Jonathan; Krawczynski, Henric

    2005-01-01

    The EXIST active shields, now being planned for the main detectors of the coded aperture telescope, will have approximately 15 times the area of the BATSE detectors; and they will have a good geometry on the spacecraft for viewing both the leading and training Earth's limb for occultation observations. These occultation observations will complement the imaging observations of EXIST and can extend them to higher energies. Earth occultatio observations of the hard X-ray sky with BATSE on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory developed and demonstrated the capabilities of large, flat, uncollimated detectors for this method. With BATSE, a catalog of 179 X-ray sources was monitored twice every spacecraft orbit for 9 years at energies above about 25 keV, resulting in 83 definite detections and 36 possible detections with 5-sigma detection sensitivities of 3.5-20 mcrab (20-430 keV) depending on the sky location. This catalog included four transients discovered with this technique and many variable objects (galactic and extragalactic). This poster will describe the Earth occultation technique, summarize the BATSE occultation observations, and compare the basic observational parameters of the occultation detector elements of BATSE and EXIST.

  6. A THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF ACTIVE REGION 7986: COMPARISON OF SIMULATIONS WITH OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, Yung; Mikić, Zoran; Lionello, Roberto; Downs, Cooper; Linker, Jon A.

    2016-01-20

    In the present study, we use a forward modeling method to construct a 3D thermal structure encompassing active region 7986 of 1996 August. The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emissions are then computed and compared with observations. The heating mechanism is inspired by a theory on Alfvén wave turbulence dissipation. The magnetic structure is built from a Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/MDI magnetogram and an estimated torsion parameter deduced from observations. We found that the solution to the equations in some locations is in a thermal nonequilibrium state. The time variation of the density and temperature profiles leads to time dependent emissions, which appear as thin, loop-like structures with uniform cross-section. Their timescale is consistent with the lifetime of observed coronal loops. The dynamic nature of the solution also leads to plasma flows that resemble observed coronal rain. The computed EUV emissions from the coronal part of the fan loops and the high loops compare favorably with SOHO/EIT observations in a quantitative comparison. However, the computed emission from the lower atmosphere is excessive compared to observations, a symptom common to many models. Some factors for this discrepancy are suggested, including the use of coronal abundances to compute the emissions and the neglect of atmospheric opacity effects.

  7. Modeling active region transient brightenings observed with X-ray telescope as multi-stranded loops

    SciTech Connect

    Kobelski, Adam R.; McKenzie, David E.; Donachie, Martin

    2014-05-10

    Strong evidence exists that coronal loops as observed in extreme ultraviolet and soft X-rays may not be monolithic isotropic structures, but can often be more accurately modeled as bundles of independent strands. Modeling the observed active region transient brightenings (ARTBs) within this framework allows for the exploration of the energetic ramifications and characteristics of these stratified structures. Here we present a simple method of detecting and modeling ARTBs observed with the Hinode X-Ray Telescope (XRT) as groups of zero-dimensional strands, which allows us to probe parameter space to better understand the spatial and temporal dependence of strand heating in impulsively heated loops. This partially automated method can be used to analyze a large number of observations to gain a statistical insight into the parameters of coronal structures, including the number of heating events required in a given model to fit the observations. In this article, we present the methodology and demonstrate its use in detecting and modeling ARTBs in a sample data set from Hinode/XRT. These initial results show that, in general, multiple heating events are necessary to reproduce observed ARTBs, but the spatial dependence of these heating events cannot yet be established.

  8. WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF ACTIVE BODIES IN THE MAIN BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, James M.; Mainzer, A. K.; Masiero, Joseph R.; Blauvelt, Erin K.; Cherry, De'Andre; Grav, Tommy; Walker, Russell G.; McMillan, Robert S.; Scotti, James V.; Fernandez, Yan R.; Kramer, Emily; Meech, Karen J.; Tholen, David J.; Riesen, Timm; Urban, Laurie; Khayat, Alain; Lisse, Carey M.; Cutri, Roc M.; Dailey, John W.; Pearman, George; Collaboration: WISE Team; and others

    2012-03-01

    We report results based on mid-infrared photometry of five active main belt objects (AMBOs) detected by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) spacecraft. Four of these bodies, P/2010 R2 (La Sagra), 133P/Elst-Pizarro, (596) Scheila, and 176P/LINEAR, showed no signs of activity at the time of the observations, allowing the WISE detections to place firm constraints on their diameters and albedos. Geometric albedos were in the range of a few percent, and on the order of other measured comet nuclei. P/2010 A2 was observed on 2010 April 2-3, three months after its peak activity. Photometry of the coma at 12 and 22 {mu}m combined with ground-based visible-wavelength measurements provides constraints on the dust particle mass distribution (PMD), dlog n/dlog m, yielding power-law slope values of {alpha} = -0.5 {+-} 0.1. This PMD is considerably more shallow than that found for other comets, in particular inbound particle fluence during the Stardust encounter of comet 81P/Wild 2. It is similar to the PMD seen for 9P/Tempel 1 in the immediate aftermath of the Deep Impact experiment. Upper limits for CO{sub 2} and CO production are also provided for each AMBO and compared with revised production numbers for WISE observations of 103P/Hartley 2.

  9. Thermal radiance observations of an active lava flow during the June 1984 eruption of Mount Etna

    SciTech Connect

    Pieri, D.C.; Glaze, L.S.; Abrams, M.J. )

    1990-10-01

    The thermal budget of an active lava flow observed on 20 June 1984 from the Southeast crater of Mount Etna, Sicily, Italy, was analyzed from data taken by the Landsat Thematic Mapper. The Thematic Mapper images constitute one of the few satellite data sets of sufficient spatial and spectral resolution to allow calibrated measurements on the distribution and intensity of thermal radiation from active lava flows. Using radiance data from two reflective infrared channels, we can estimate the temperature and areas of the hottest parts of the active flow, which correspond to hot (>500{degree}C) fractures or zones at the flow surface. Using this techniques, we estimate that only 10%-20% of the total radiated thermal power output is emitted by hot zones or fractures, which constitute less than 1% of the observed surface area. Generally, it seems that only where hot fractures or zones constitute greater than about 1% of the surface area of the flow will losses from such features significantly reduce internal flow temperatures. Using our radiance observations as boundary conditions for a multicomponent thermal model of flow interior temperature, we infer that, for the parts of this flow subject to analysis, the boundary layer and flow thickness effects dominate over radiant zones in controlling the depression of core temperature.

  10. Active Region Moss: Doppler Shifts from Hinode/Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen E.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-07-01

    Studying the Doppler shifts and the temperature dependence of Doppler shifts in moss regions can help us understand the heating processes in the core of the active regions. In this paper, we have used an active region observation recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board Hinode on 2007 December 12 to measure the Doppler shifts in the moss regions. We have distinguished the moss regions from the rest of the active region by defining a low-density cutoff as derived by Tripathi et al. in 2010. We have carried out a very careful analysis of the EIS wavelength calibration based on the method described by Young et al. in 2012. For spectral lines having maximum sensitivity between log T = 5.85 and log T = 6.25 K, we find that the velocity distribution peaks at around 0 km s-1 with an estimated error of 4-5 km s-1. The width of the distribution decreases with temperature. The mean of the distribution shows a blueshift which increases with increasing temperature and the distribution also shows asymmetries toward blueshift. Comparing these results with observables predicted from different coronal heating models, we find that these results are consistent with both steady and impulsive heating scenarios. However, the fact that there are a significant number of pixels showing velocity amplitudes that exceed the uncertainty of 5 km s-1 is suggestive of impulsive heating. Clearly, further observational constraints are needed to distinguish between these two heating scenarios.

  11. Volcanic activity before and after large tectonic earthquakes: Observations and statistical significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggert, Silke; Walter, Thomas R.

    2009-06-01

    The study of volcanic triggering and interaction with the tectonic surroundings has received special attention in recent years, using both direct field observations and historical descriptions of eruptions and earthquake activity. Repeated reports of clustered eruptions and earthquakes may imply that interaction is important in some subregions. However, the subregions likely to suffer such clusters have not been systematically identified, and the processes responsible for the observed interaction remain unclear. We first review previous works about the clustered occurrence of eruptions and earthquakes, and describe selected events. We further elaborate available databases and confirm a statistically significant relationship between volcanic eruptions and earthquakes on the global scale. Moreover, our study implies that closed volcanic systems in particular tend to be activated in association with a tectonic earthquake trigger. We then perform a statistical study at the subregional level, showing that certain subregions are especially predisposed to concurrent eruption-earthquake sequences, whereas such clustering is statistically less significant in other subregions. Based on this study, we argue that individual and selected observations may bias the perceptible weight of coupling. The activity at volcanoes located in the predisposed subregions (e.g., Japan, Indonesia, Melanesia), however, often unexpectedly changes in association with either an imminent or a past earthquake.

  12. Social observation enhances cross-environment activation of hippocampal place cell patterns.

    PubMed

    Mou, Xiang; Ji, Daoyun

    2016-10-03

    Humans and animals frequently learn through observing or interacting with others. The local enhancement theory proposes that presence of social subjects in an environment facilitates other subjects' understanding of the environment. To explore the neural basis of this theory, we examined hippocampal place cells, which represent spatial information, in rats as they stayed in a small box while a demonstrator rat running on a separate, nearby linear track, and as they ran on the same track themselves. We found that place cell firing sequences during self-running on the track also appeared in the box. This cross-environment activation occurred even prior to any self-running experience on the track and was absent without a demonstrator. Our data thus suggest that social observation can facilitate the observer's spatial representation of an environment without actual self-exploration. This finding may contribute to neural mechanisms of local enhancement.

  13. Very-High-Energy Gamma-Ray Observations of Active Galactic Nuclei with VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, John

    2016-08-01

    VERITAS is an array of four imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes for very-high-energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) gamma-ray astronomy that has been in full scientific operation since 2007. The VERITAS collaboration is conducting several key science projects, one of which is the study of active galactic nuclei (AGN). So far, VERITAS has invested more than 3000 hours in observations of AGN, with approximately 150 objects observed. The program has resulted in the successful detection of 34 AGN as VHE gamma-ray sources, with the majority belonging to the blazar AGN subclass. Significant effort is made to acquire multiwavelength data coincident with the VERITAS observations. An overview of the VERITAS AGN program and its key results will be presented.

  14. The Effects of an Enhanced Quality Physical Education Programme on the Physical Activity Levels of Grade 7 Learners in Potchefstroom, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Haili; du Toit, Dorita; Toriola, Abel L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The absence of Physical Education (PE) from the South African school curriculum before its reintroduction in recent years contributed to health concerns regarding the low physical activity (PA) levels of children and adolescents in South Africa. Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of a once-a-week enhanced quality PE programme on…

  15. WD 1145+017 photometric observations during eight months of high activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gary, B. L.; Rappaport, S.; Kaye, T. G.; Alonso, R.; Hambschs, F.-J.

    2017-03-01

    WD 1145+017 was observed from 2015 November to 2016 July, for the purpose of characterizing transit behaviour of the white dwarf by dust clouds thought to be produced by fragments of an asteroid in close orbit with the star. Fortuitously, most of these observations were carried out during a time when the overall 'dip' activity was dramatically enhanced over that during its discovery with Kepler K2. By the end of our reported observations, the dip activity had declined to a level close to its K2 discovery state. Three notable events were observed. In 2016 January, a large number of dust clouds appeared that had an orbital period of 4.4912 h, and this event also marked the end of a three-month interval dominated by the K2 'A' period. The second event was a 2016 April 21 appearance of four dip features with drift lines in a waterfall (date versus phase) diagram that diverged from their origin date, at a location away from the 'A' asteroid, and which lasted for two weeks. The third event was the sudden appearance of a dip feature with a period of 4.6064 h, which is essentially the same as the K2 'B' period. The evolution of dip shape, depth, and total fade amount provide constraints on dust production and loss mechanisms. Collisions can account for the sudden appearance of dust clouds, and the sudden increase in dust amount, but another mechanism for continual dust production is also required.

  16. Simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and Very Large Array (VLA) observations of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Very Large Array observations at 20 cm wavelength can detect the hot coronal plasma previously observed at soft x ray wavelengths. Thermal cyclotron line emission was detected at the apex of coronal loops where the magnetic field strength is relatively constant. Detailed comparison of simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Satellite and VLA data indicate that physical parameters such as electron temperature, electron density, and magnetic field strength can be obtained, but that some coronal loops remain invisible in either spectral domain. The unprecedent spatial resolution of the VLA at 20 cm wavelength showed that the precursor, impulsive, and post-flare components of solar bursts originate in nearby, but separate loops or systems of loops.. In some cases preburst heating and magnetic changes are observed from loops tens of minutes prior to the impulsive phase. Comparisons with soft x ray images and spectra and with hard x ray data specify the magnetic field strength and emission mechanism of flaring coronal loops. At the longer 91 cm wavelength, the VLA detected extensive emission interpreted as a hot 10(exp 5) K interface between cool, dense H alpha filaments and the surrounding hotter, rarefield corona. Observations at 91 cm also provide evidence for time-correlated bursts in active regions on opposite sides of the solar equator; they are attributed to flare triggering by relativistic particles that move along large-scale, otherwise-invisible, magnetic conduits that link active regions in opposite hemispheres of the Sun.

  17. Observations of cold magnetospheric ions at geosynchronous orbit during times of high activity

    SciTech Connect

    Elphic, R.C.; Weiss, L.A.; Thomsen, M.F.; McComas, D.J.; Bame, S.J.

    1994-10-01

    Flowing, cold magnetospheric ions have been observed in conjunction with geosynchronous orbit magnetopause crossings since the earliest ATS and OGO missions. The authors have reported on the occurrence and convection of low-energy (10-100 eV) ions seen by multiple satellites in association with geosynchronous orbit magnetopause and low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) encounters. More generally, Los Alamos 3-D plasma instruments observe these ions following storm sudden commencements (SSCs), when activity levels are high. The ions appear to be convecting radially outward and usually westward at speeds of a few to several tens of kilometers per second. Often the energy spectra reveal peaks at energies appropriate for cold convecting H{sup +}, He{sup +} and O{sup +}. The occurrence frequency distribution of these dense cold ions is peaked near 1400 LT, with an overall range from 1000 to beyond 1800 LT. This local time distribution is greatly skewed from the overall plasmaspheric distribution, which peaks closer to 1800 LT. Multisatellite observations show that the ions are seen first at late afternoon local times and then at progressively earlier and earlier local times (though usually no earlier than 1000 LT). This apparent evolution in local time suggests that the late-afternoon plasmaspheric plasma moves out and dawnward during times of increased magnetospheric activity. The three-satellite observations also allow the authors to track cold plasma convection at multiple points in the magnetosphere, and potentially provide a glimpse of the large-scale convection pattern.

  18. Sensing Planet Earth - Chalmers' MOOCs on Earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobiger, Thomas; Stöhr, Christian; Murtagh, Donal; Forkman, Peter; Galle, Bo; Mellquist, Johan; Soja, Maciej; Berg, Anders; Carvajal, Gisela; Eriksson, Leif; Haas, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of universities around the globe produce and conduct Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). In the beginning of 2016, Chalmers University of Technology ran two MOOCs on the topic of Earth observations on the edX platform. Both four week long courses were at introductory level and covered topics related to solid Earth, atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and cryosphere. It was discussed how one can measure and trace global change and use remote sensing tools for disaster monitoring. Research has attempted to assess the learners' motivations to participate in MOOCs, but there is a need for further case studies about motivations, opportunities and challenges for teachers engaging in MOOC development. In our presentation, we are going to report about the experiences gained from both the MOOC production and the actual course run from the instructors' perspective. After brief introduction to MOOCs in general and at Chalmers in particular, we share experiences and challenges of developing lecture and assessment material, the video production and coordination efforts between and within different actors involved in the production process. Further, we reflect upon the actual run of the course including course statistics and feedback from the learners. We discuss issues such as learner activation and engagement with the material, teacher-learner and student-student interaction as well as the scalability of different learning activities. Finally, we will present our lessons-learned and conclusions on the applicability of MOOCs in the field of Earth science teaching.

  19. Some observations on the cholesterol esterifying and cholesterol ester hydrolyzing activities in dog plasma.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Kamo-Yamada, F; Cho, S; Sugano, M

    1980-05-01

    Cholesterol esterification and cholesterol ester hydrolysis in dog plasma were investigated. Esterification proceeded linearly for 60 min, and the amounts of cholesterol esterified were in the range of 0.13-0.18 mumol/ml/h. No change of acyl composition had occurred in newly formed cholesterol esters during incubation. With the addition of Na taurocholate (10 mM), complete inhibition of the esterifying activity and maximal activation of the hydrolase activity were observed. Approximately 50% of cholesterol esters present in plasma was hydrolyzed in 10 min of incubation, and the reaction was completed within 60 min. The maximal rate of hydrolysis was estimated to be 4.0-5.4 mumol/ml/h, and polyunsaturated esters were hydrolyzed more rapidly than saturated ones. The esterifying activity was detected in high density (HDL) and very high density lipoproteins (VHDL), while the hydrolytic activity was found only in VHDL. Each lipoprotein fraction served as a good substrate for hydrolysis, while HDL was the sole substrate for esterification. The optimal pH of the hydrolytic activity in VHDL lay in a broad range between 6.8 and 7.2 and the apparent Km was determined as 12.5 x 10(-3) mM for cholesteryl oleate.

  20. Geomagnetic activity during 10 - 11 solar cycles that has been observed by old Russian observatories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredyn, Tomasz; Wysokinski, Arkadiusz; Kobylinski, Zbigniew; Bialy, Jerzy

    2016-07-01

    A good knowledge of solar-terrestrial relations during past solar activity cycles could give the appropriate tools for a correct space weather forecast. The paper focuses on the analysis of the historical collections of the ground based magnetic observations and their operational indices from the period of two sunspot solar cycles 10 - 11, period 1856 - 1878 (Bartels rotations 324 - 635). We use hourly observations of H and D geomagnetic field components registered at Russian stations: St. Petersburg - Pavlovsk, Barnaul, Ekaterinburg, Nertshinsk, Sitka, and compare them to the data obtained from the Helsinki observatory. We compare directly these records and also calculated from the data of the every above mentioned station IHV indices introduced by Svalgaard (2003), which have been used for further comparisons in epochs of assumed different polarity of the heliospheric magnetic field. We used also local index C9 derived by Zosimovich (1981) from St. Petersburg - Pavlovsk data. Solar activity is represented by sunspot numbers. The correlative and continuous wavelet analyses are applied for estimation of the correctness of records from different magnetic stations. We have specially regard to magnetic storms in the investigated period and the special Carrington event of 1-2 Sep 1859. Generally studied magnetic time series correctly show variability of the geomagnetic activity. Geomagnetic activity presents some delay in relation to solar one as it is seen especially during descending and minimum phase of the even 11-year cycle. This pattern looks similarly in the case of 16 - 17 solar cycles.

  1. UVCS Observations of Slow Plasma Flow in the Corona Above Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, R.; Habbal, S. R.

    2005-05-01

    The elusive source of slow solar wind has been the subject of ongoing discussion and debate. Observations of solar wind speed near the Earth orbit, first with IPS (interplanetary scintillation) and later with Ulysses in situ measurements, have suggested that some slow solar wind may be associated with active regions (Kojima & Kakinuma 1987; Woo, Habbal & Feldman 2004). The ability of SOHO UVCS Doppler dimming measurements to provide estimates of solar wind speed in the corona (Kohl et al. 1995) has made it possible to investigate the distribution of flow near the Sun. In this paper, we will present results confirming that active regions are one of the sources of slow wind. Insight into the relationship between coronal streamers, active regions and plasma flow will also be discussed.

  2. ERPs show that classroom-instructed late second language learners rely on the same prosodic cues in syntactic parsing as native speakers.

    PubMed

    Nickels, Stefanie; Opitz, Bertram; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2013-12-17

    The loss of brain plasticity after a 'critical period' in childhood has often been argued to prevent late language learners from using the same neurocognitive mechanisms as native speakers and, therefore, from attaining a high level of second language (L2) proficiency [7,11]. However, more recent behavioral and electrophysiological research has challenged this 'Critical Period Hypothesis', demonstrating that even late L2 learners can display native-like performance and brain activation patterns [17], especially after longer periods of immersion in an L2 environment. Here we use event-related potentials (ERPs) to show that native-like processing can also be observed in the largely under-researched domain of speech prosody - even when L2 learners are exposed to their second language almost exclusively in a classroom setting. Participants listened to spoken sentences whose prosodic boundaries would either cooperate or conflict with the syntactic structure. Previous work had shown that this paradigm is difficult for elderly native speakers, however, German L2 learners of English showed very similar ERP components for on-line prosodic phrasing as well as for prosody-syntax mismatches (garden path effects) as the control group of native speakers. These data suggest that L2 immersion is not always necessary to master complex L2 speech processing in a native-like way.

  3. Multiwavelength Optical Observations of Two Chromospherically Active Binary Systems: V789 Mon and GZ Leo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez, M. C.; Montes, D.; Fernández-Figueroa, M. J.; De Castro, E.; Cornide, M.

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes a multiwavelength optical study of chromospheres in two X-ray/EUV-selected active binary stars with strong Hα emission, V789 Mon (2RE J0725 - 002) and GZ Leo (2RE J1101+223). The goal of the study is to determine radial velocities and fundamental stellar parameters in chromospherically active binary systems in order to include them in the activity-rotation and activity-age relations. We carried out high-resolution echelle spectroscopic observations and applied spectral-subtraction technique in order to measure emission excesses due to chromosphere. The detailed study of activity indicators allowed us to characterize the presence of different chromospheric features in these systems and enabled to include them in a larger activity-rotation survey. We computed radial velocities of the systems using cross-correlation with the radial velocity standards. The double-line spectral binarity was confirmed and the orbital solutions improved for both systems. In addition, other stellar parameters such as spectral types, projected rotational velocities (vsin i) and the equivalent width of the lithium Li I λ6707.8 Å absorption line were determined. Based on observations collected with the 2.2 m telescope at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto (Almería, Spain), operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC) and with the 2.1 m Otto Struve Telescope at McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin (USA).

  4. Estimating Sea Surface Salinity and Wind Using Combined Passive and Active L-Band Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Chaubell, Mario J.

    2012-01-01

    Several L-band microwave radiometer and radar missions have been, or will be, operating in space for land and ocean observations. These include the NASA Aquarius mission and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, both of which use combined passive/ active L-band instruments. Aquarius s passive/active L-band microwave sensor has been designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. SMAP s primary objectives are for soil moisture and freeze/thaw detection, but it will operate continuously over the ocean, and hence will have significant potential for ocean surface research. In this innovation, an algorithm has been developed to retrieve simultaneously ocean surface salinity and wind from combined passive/active L-band microwave observations of sea surfaces. The algorithm takes advantage of the differing response of brightness temperatures and radar backscatter to salinity, wind speed, and direction, thus minimizing the least squares error (LSE) measure, which signifies the difference between measurements and model functions of brightness temperatures and radar backscatter. The algorithm uses the conjugate gradient method to search for the local minima of the LSE. Three LSE measures with different measurement combinations have been tested. The first LSE measure uses passive microwave data only with retrieval errors reaching 1 to 2 psu (practical salinity units) for salinity, and 1 to 2 m/s for wind speed. The second LSE measure uses both passive and active microwave data for vertical and horizontal polarizations. The addition of active microwave data significantly improves the retrieval accuracy by about a factor of five. To mitigate the impact of Faraday rotation on satellite observations, the third LSE measure uses measurement combinations invariant under the Faraday rotation. For Aquarius, the expected RMS SSS (sea surface salinity) error will be less than about 0.2 psu for low winds, and increases to 0.3 psu at 25 m/s wind speed

  5. Evaluation of Physical Activity Counseling in Primary Care Using Direct Observation of the 5As

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Jennifer K.; Antognoli, Elizabeth; Flocke, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The 5As (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange) are recommended as a strategy for brief physical activity counseling in primary care. There is no reference standard for measurement, however, and patient participation is not well understood. This study’s objectives were to (1) develop a coding scheme to measure the 5As using audio-recordings of primary care visits and (2) describe the degree to which patients and physicians accomplish the 5As. METHODS We developed a coding scheme using previously published definitions of the 5As, direct-observation measures, and evaluation of audio-recorded discussions of physical activity. We applied the coding scheme to 361 audio-recorded visits by patients reporting low levels of physical activity and 28 physicians in northeast Ohio. RESULTS The coding scheme achieved good inter-rater agreement for each of the 5As (κ = 0.62–1.0). A total of 135 visits included discussion of physical activity. Although ask tasks occurred in 91% of visits, it infrequently elicited sufficient detail about current activity. Patient readiness to change physical activity (assess) was infrequently directly elicited by the physician (24%), but readiness was commonly expressed by the patient in response to an assessment of current level of physical activity (53%). Ambivalence was infrequently followed by physician assistance (49%). CONCLUSIONS Our newly developed measure showed that (1) physicians infrequently assess patient readiness to change, (2) patient expressions of ambivalence are common, and (3) specific mention of recommended guidelines for exercise is nearly absent. Future work should increase clinician skills in exploring ambivalence and readiness to change, as well as improve explicit mention of recommended guidelines for physical activity. PMID:21911760

  6. Multi-wavelength and High-resolution Observations of Solar Eruptive Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y. D.

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, various solar eruptive activities have been observed in the solar atmosphere, such as solar flares, filament eruptions, jets, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) waves. Previous observations have indicated that solar magnetic field plays a dominant role in the processes of all kinds of solar activities. Since many large-scale solar eruptive activities can cause significant effects on the space environment of the Earth as well as the human life, studying and forecasting the solar activities are urgent tasks for us. In addition, the Sun is the nearest star to the Earth, so that people can directly observe and study it in detail. Hence, studying the Sun can also provide a reference to study other stars in the universe. This thesis focuses on the multi-wavelength and high-resolution observations of three types of solar eruptive activities: filament eruptions, coronal jets, and coronal MHD waves. By analyzing various observations taken by ground-based and space-borne instruments, we try to understand the inherent physical mechanisms, and construct models to interpret different kinds of solar eruptive activities. The triggering mechanism and the cause of a failed filament eruption are studied in Chapter 3, which indicates that the energy released in the flare is a key factor to the fate of the filament. Two successive filament eruptions are studied in Chapter 4, which indicates that the magnetic implosion could be the physical linkage between them, and the structures of coronal magnetic fields are important for producing sympathetic eruptions. A magnetic unwinding jet and a blowout jet are studied in Chapters 5 and 6, respectively. The former exhibits obvious radial expansion, which undergoes three distinct phases: the slow expansion phase, the fast expansion phase, and the steady phase. In addition, calculation indicates that the non-potential magnetic field in the jet can supply sufficient energy for producing the unwinding

  7. Beyond Classroom Discourse: Learning as Participation in Native Speaker-Learner and Learner-Learner Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshi, Saori

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with the notion of learning as changing participation (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Rogoff, 1998; Sfard, 1998; Young & Miller, 2004), the present qualitative study investigated how social interaction between learners of Japanese as a foreign language and native speaker classroom guests contributed to the students' use of second language…

  8. Plurilingual Learners' Beliefs and Practices toward Native and Nonnative Language Mediation during Learner-Learner Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payant, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing number of plurilingual learners in the world today (Hammarberg, 2010), the present multiple case study examines four plurilingual participants' beliefs toward first language (L1) and second language (L2) mediation in the acquisition of French as a third language (L3). During a 16-week classroom-based study in a French university…

  9. Photospheric and Coronal Observations of Abrupt Magnetic Restructuring in Two Flaring Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    For two major X-class flares observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A) spacecraft when they were close to quadrature, we compare major, abrupt changes in the photospheric magnetic vector field to changes in the observed coronal magnetic structure during the two flares. The Lorentz force changes in strong photospheric fields within active regions are estimated from time series of SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) vector magnetograms. These show that the major changes occurred in each case near the main neutral line of the region and in two neighboring twisted opposite-polarity sunspots. In each case the horizontal parallel field strengthened significantly near the neutral line while the azimuthal field in the sunspots decreased, suggesting that a flux rope joining the two sunspots collapsed across the neutral line with reduced magnetic pressure because of a reduced field twist component. At the same time, the coronal extreme ultraviolet (EUV) loop structure was observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard SDO and the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) on STEREO-A to decrease significantly in height during each eruption, discontinuous changes signifying ejection of magnetized plasma, and outward-propagating continuous but abrupt changes consistent with loop contraction. An asymmetry in the observed EUV loop changes during one of the flares matches an asymmetry in the photospheric magnetic changes associated with that flare. The observations are discussed in terms of the well-known tether-cutting and breakout flare initiation models.

  10. Measurement of energetic radiation caused by thunderstorm activities by a sounding balloon and ground observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, T.

    2015-12-01

    Energetic radiation caused by thunderstorm activity is observed at various places, such as the ground, high mountain areas, and artificial satellites. In order to investigate the radiation source and its energy distribution, we measured energetic radiation by a sounding balloon, and the ground observation. On the measurement inside/above the thundercloud, we conducted a sounding observation using a radiosonde mounted two GM tubes (for gamma-rays, and for beta/gamma-rays), in addition to meteorological instruments. The balloon passed through a region of strong echoes in a thundercloud shown by radar image, at which time an increase in counting rate of the GM tube about 2 orders of magnitude occurred at the altitude from 5 km to 7.5 km. Furthermore, the counting rate of two GM tubes indicated the tendency different depending on movement of a balloon. This result suggests that the ratio for the gamma-rays (energetic photons) of the beta-rays (energetic electrons) varies according to the place in the thundercloud. Furthermore, we carried out a ground observation of the energetic gamma rays during winter thunderstorm at a coastal area facing the Sea of Japan. Two types of the energetic radiation have been observed at this time. We report the outline of these measurements and analysis in the session of the AGU meeting.

  11. Active dust devils in Gusev crater, Mars: Observations from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeley, R.; Whelley, P.L.; Arvidson, R. E.; Cabrol, N.A.; Foley, D.J.; Franklin, B.J.; Geissler, P.G.; Golombek, M.P.; Kuzmin, R.O.; Landis, G.A.; Lemmon, M.T.; Neakrase, L.D.V.; Squyres, S. W.; Thompson, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    A full dust devil "season" was observed from Spirit from 10 March 2005 (sol 421, first active dust devil observed) to 12 December 2005 (sol 691, last dust devil seen); this corresponds to the period Ls 173.2?? to 339.5??, or the southern spring and summer on Mars. Thermal Emission Spectrometer data suggest a correlation between high surface temperatures and a positive thermal gradient with active dust devils in Gusev and that Spirit landed in the waning stages of a dust devil season as temperatures decreased. 533 active dust devils were observed, enabling new characterizations; they ranged in diameter from 2 to 276 m, with most in the range of 10-20 m in diameter, and occurred from about 0930 to 1630 hours local true solar time (with the maximum forming around 1300 hours) and a peak occurrence in southern late spring (Ls ??? 250??). Horizontal speeds of the dust devils ranged from <1 to 21 m/s, while vertical wind speeds within the dust devils ranged from 0.2 to 8.8 m/s. These data, when combined with estimates of the dust content within the dust devils, yield dust fluxes of 3.95 ?? 10-9 to 4.59-4 kg/m2/s. Analysis of the dust devil frequency distribution over the inferred dust devil zone within Gusev crater yields ???50 active dust devils/km2/sol, suggesting a dust loading into the atmosphere of ???19 kg/km2/sol. This value is less than one tenth the estimates by Cantor et al. (2001) for regional dust storms on Mars. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Effects of sports participation on psychiatric symptoms and brain activations during sports observation in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Sassa, T; Shibuya, T; Kato, M; Koeda, M; Murai, T; Matsuura, M; Asai, K; Suhara, T; Okubo, Y

    2012-03-20

    Weight gain has been identified as being responsible for increased morbidity and mortality rates of schizophrenia patients. For the management of weight gain, exercise is one of the most acknowledged interventions. At the same time, exercise and sports have been recognized for their positive impact on psychiatric symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the neurobiological basis for this remains poorly understood. We aimed to examine the effect of sports participation on weight gain, psychiatric symptoms and brain activation during sports observation in schizophrenia patients. Thirteen schizophrenia patients who participated in a 3-month program, including sports participation and 10 control schizophrenia patients were studied. In both groups, body mass index (BMI), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and brain activation during observation of sports-related actions measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging were accessed before and after a 3-month interval. BMI and general psychopathology scale of PANSS were significantly reduced in the program group but not in the control group after a 3-month interval. Compared with baseline, activation of the body-selective extrastriate body area (EBA) in the posterior temporal-occipital cortex during observation of sports-related actions was increased in the program group. In this group, increase in EBA activation was associated with improvement in the general psychopathology scale of PANSS. Sports participation had a positive effect not only on weight gain but also on psychiatric symptoms in schizophrenia. EBA might mediate these beneficial effects of sports participation. Our findings merit further investigation of neurobiological mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of sports for schizophrenia.

  13. Analysis of nearly simultaneous x-ray and optical observations of active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Rosemary Hill optical and EINSTEIN X-ray observations of a sample of 36 galactic nuclei (AGN) were reduced and analyzed. Seventy-two x-ray observations of these sources were reduced, nineteen of which yielded spectral information. Of these spectra observations, significant hydrogen column densities above the galactic value were required for nine of the active galactic nuclei. X-ray variability was detected in eight of the eleven sources which were observed more than once by EINSTEIN. Correlations between the x-ray and optical luminosities were investigated using the Jefferys method of least squares. This method allows for errors in both variables. The results indicate a strong correlation between the x-ray and optical luminosities for the entire sample. Division of the sample into groups with similar optical variability characteristics show that the less violently violent variable AGN are more highly correlated than the violently variable blazars. Infrared and radio observations were combined with the x-ray and optical observations of six AGN. These sources were modelled in terms of the synchrotron-self-Compton model. The turnover frequency falls between the infrared and radio data and reliable estimates of this parameter are difficult to estimate. Therefore the results were found as a function of the turnover frequency. Four sources required relativistic bulk motion or beaming. Multifrequency spectra made at different times for one individual source, 0235+164, required different amounts of beaming to satisfy the x-ray observations. Sizes of the emitting regions for the sources modelled ranged from 0.5 parsec to 1.0 parsec.

  14. Rayleigh lidar observations of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. S.; Gardner, C. S.; Liu, C. H.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-two monochromatic gravity wave events were observed in the 25 to 55 km altitude region during 16 nights of Rayleigh lidar measurements at Poker Flat, Alaska and Urbana, Illinois. The measured wave parameters were compared to previous radar and lidar measurements of gravity wave activity. Vertical wavelengths, lambda(z), between 2 and 11.5 km with vertical phase velocities, c(z), between 0.1 and 1 m/s were observed. Measured values of lambda(z) and c(z) were used to infer observed wave periods, T(ob), between 50 and 1000 minutes and horizontal wavelengths, lambda(x), from 25 to 2000 km. Dominant wave activity was found at vertical wavelengths between 2 to 4 km and 7 to 10 km. No seasonal variations were evident in the observed wave parameters. Vertical and horizontal wavelengths showed a clear tendency to increase with T(ob), which is consistent with recent sodium lidar studies of monochromatic wave events near the mesopause. Measured power law relationships between the wave parameters were lambda(z) varies as T(ob) sup 0.96, lambda(x) varies as T(ob) sup 1.8, and c(z) varies as T(ob) sup -0.85. The kinetic energy calculated for the monochromatic wave events varied as k(z) sup -2, k(x) sup -1, and f(ob) sup -1.7. The atmospheric scale heights calculated for each observation date range from 6.5 to 7.6 km with a mean value of 7 km. The increase of rms wind perturbations with altitude indicated an amplitude growth length of 20.9 km. The altitude profile of kinetic energy density decreased with height, suggesting that waves in this altitude region were subject to dissipation or saturation effects.

  15. Validation of a New Counter for Direct Observation of Physical Activity in Parks

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bing; Cohen, Deborah A.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Marsh, Terry; Williamson, Stephanie; Raaen, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Prior tools to observe large groups of people in parks have not allowed disaggregation of physical activity levels by age group and gender simultaneously, making it impossible to determine which subgroups engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This study aims to examine the reliability of a 12-button counter to simultaneously assess MVPA by age and gender subgroups in park settings. Methods A total of 1,160 pairs of observations were conducted in 481 target areas of 19 neighborhood parks in the great Los Angeles area between June 2013 and March 2014. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by Pearson’s correlation, intra-class correlation (ICC), and agreement probability in the total metabolic equivalents (METs) and METs spent in MVPA. Cosine similarity was used to check the resemblance of distributions among age and gender categories. Pictures taken in a total of 112 target areas at the beginning of the observations were used as a second check on the reliability of direct observation. Results Inter-rater reliability was high for the total METs and METs in all age and gender categories (between 0.82 and 0.97), except for male seniors (correlations and ICC between 0.64 and 0.77, agreement probability 0.85 to 0.86). Reliability was higher for total METs than for METs spent in MVPA. Correlation and ICC between observers’ measurement and picture-based counts are also high (between 0.79 and 0.94). Conclusion Trained observers can reliably use the 12-button counter to accurately assess PA distribution and disparities by age and gender. PMID:26103584

  16. Evidence for Widespread Cooling in an Active Region Observed with the SDO Atmospheric Imaging Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viall, Nicholeen M.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A well known behavior of EUV light curves of discrete coronal loops is that the peak intensities of cooler channels or spectral lines are reached at progressively later times. This time lag is understood to be the result of hot coronal loop plasma cooling through these lower respective temperatures. However, loops typically comprise only a minority of the total emission in active regions. Is this cooling pattern a common property of active region coronal plasma, or does it only occur in unique circumstances, locations, and times? The new SDO/AIA data provide a wonderful opportunity to answer this question systematically for an entire active region. We measure the time lag between pairs of SDO/AIA EUV channels using 24 hours of images of AR 11082 observed on 19 June 2010. We find that there is a time-lag signal consistent with cooling plasma, just as is usually found for loops, throughout the active region including the diffuse emission between loops for the entire 24 hour duration. The pattern persists consistently for all channel pairs and choice of window length within the 24 hour time period, giving us confidence that the plasma is cooling from temperatures of greater than 3 MK, and sometimes exceeding 7 MK, down to temperatures lower than approx. 0.8 MK. This suggests that the bulk of the emitting coronal plasma in this active region is not steady; rather, it is dynamic and constantly evolving. These measurements provide crucial constraints on any model which seeks to describe coronal heating.

  17. Forward modeling transient brightenings and microflares around an active region observed with Hi-C

    SciTech Connect

    Kobelski, Adam R.; McKenzie, David E.

    2014-10-20

    Small-scale flare-like brightenings around active regions are among the smallest and most fundamental of energetic transient events in the corona, providing a testbed for models of heating and active region dynamics. In a previous study, we modeled a large collection of these microflares observed with Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT) using EBTEL and found that they required multiple heating events, but could not distinguish between multiple heating events on a single strand, or multiple strands each experiencing a single heating event. We present here a similar study, but with extreme-ultraviolet data of Active Region 11520 from the High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket. Hi-C provides an order of magnitude improvement to the spatial resolution of XRT, and a cooler temperature sensitivity, which combine to provide significant improvements to our ability to detect and model microflare activity around active regions. We have found that at the spatial resolution of Hi-C (≈0.''3), the events occur much more frequently than expected (57 events detected, only 1 or 2 expected), and are most likely made from strands of the order of 100 km wide, each of which is impulsively heated with multiple heating events. These findings tend to support bursty reconnection as the cause of the energy release responsible for the brightenings.

  18. Activity associated with coronal mass ejections at solar minimum - SMM observations from 1984-1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Cyr, O. C.; Webb, D. F.

    1991-01-01

    Seventy-three coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed by the coronagraph aboard SMM between 1984 and 1986 were examined in order to determine the distribution of various forms of solar activity that were spatially and temporally associated with mass ejections during solar minimum phase. For each coronal mass ejection a speed was measured, and the departure time of the transient from the lower corona estimated. Other forms of solar activity that appeared within 45 deg longitude and 30 deg latitude of the mass ejection and within +/-90 min of its extrapolated departure time were explored. The statistical results of the analysis of these 73 CMEs are presented, and it is found that slightly less than half of them were infrequently associated with other forms of solar activity. It is suggested that the distribution of the various forms of activity related to CMEs does not change at different phases of the solar cycle. For those CMEs with associations, it is found that eruptive prominences and soft X-rays were the most likely forms of activity to accompany the appearance of mass ejections.

  19. Kanji Learning Attitudes and Self-Directed Learning by Learners of Japanese as a Foreign Language: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamage, Gayathri Haththotuwa

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal qualitative study investigates how cultural experiences of staying in Japan may affect attitudes and self-directed learning of kanji among learners of Japanese as a foreign language. Six beginner learners pursued semester-long weekly kanji learning sessions and their diachronic behaviours were observed and recorded for attitudes…

  20. Ulysses observations of electron and proton components in a magnetic cloud and related wave activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osherovich, V. A.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Phillips, J. L.; Balogh, A.

    1995-01-01

    In addition to a smooth rotation of the magnetic field vector, magnetic clouds have a low proton temperature T(sub p). Their expansion in the solar wind leads to depletion and therefore the ion component cools down. It has been shown recently that the electron component in magnetic clouds behaves differently: when the cloud expands, electron temperature Te anti correlates with density and therefore Te increases in the cloud, creating favorable conditions for the rise of ion-acoustic waves. For the magnetic cloud observed by Ulysses on June 10 - 12, 1993 at 4.64 AU at S 32.5 deg, we present observations for both electron and proton components and related plasma wave activity. Our results confirm the anti correlation between T(sub e) and electron density and also exhibit a high ratio of T(sub e)/T(sub P) in the cloud. Since Landau damping is not effective for T(sub e)/T(sub p) much greater than 1, Doppler shifted ion acoustic waves are expected in the cloud. Calculation of ion acoustic wave frequencies in the cloud and comparison with observed wave activity confirm this expectation. As in our previous work, we show that the electron component in the cloud obeys a polytropic law with gamma is less than 1 (gamma approximately equals 0.3-0.4). The dynamics of the magnetic cloud are determined to a large degree by the dominating electron pressure.