Science.gov

Sample records for activity learners work

  1. Pairing Learners in Pair Work Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Neomy; Aldosari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Although pair work is advocated by major theories of second language (L2) learning and research findings suggest that pair work facilitates L2 learning, what is unclear is how to best pair students in L2 classes of mixed L2 proficiency. This study investigated the nature of pair work in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) class in a college in…

  2. "What Works" with Problem Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Elizabeth F.; Halley, Mari Kirsch

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of a structured, problem-solving dialog among teachers and between teacher and student to review successes in solving the instructional problems of a particular child and to develop an effective education plan which fosters student responsibility for learning and behavior. Uses a case study to illustrate the "What Works" process.…

  3. Learner Control: When Does It Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham-Wheat, Nancy

    This review of the literature on five learner control variables in computer-based instruction concludes that: (1) pacing left to learner control has been found ineffective because learners tend to procrastinate or to exit lessons prematurely; (2) sequence, or content flow, has been an ineffective variable left under learner control since…

  4. Capitalising on Learner Agency and Group Work in Learning Writing in English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the roles of learner agency and group work in learning writing in English as a foreign language (EFL). Through exploratory and participatory action research, this study examines how learner agency and group work function amidst the activity system of task-based EFL writing, especially how they influence and are influenced…

  5. Working Together Online to Enhance Learner Autonomy: Analysis of Learners' Perceptions of Their Online Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eneau, Jerome; Develotte, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study concerns the development of autonomy in adult learners working on an online learning platform as part of a professional master's degree programme in "French as a Foreign Language". Our goal was to identify the influence of reflective and collaborative dimensions on the construction of autonomy for online learners in this programme. The…

  6. Working with Bilingual Learners: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willenberg, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to provide a theoretical overview of bilingualism and discuss the key concepts and theories that inform classroom pedagogy with bilingual learners. Although some specific classroom strategies are introduced, the primary purpose is not to offer strategies, but rather to offer guiding principles based on theory and research to…

  7. Ethical and Organisational Tensions for Work-Based Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lesley J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on examples of the perceived tensions of the healthcare work-based learners as they experienced paradigm shifts in both practice and education. Design/methodology/approach: Examples are drawn from a qualitative study to examine work-based learning (WBL) workshops in a Dutch healthcare setting, and a developmental…

  8. The Orientation of Learner Language Use in Peer Work: Teacher Role, Learner Role and Individual Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Monika Maria

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the orientation of language-use practices during in-class peer work of second-year college learners of German in three different sections (classes) of a multi-section course, taught by three different teachers at a public American Midwestern research university. Qualitative analyses of recordings made over the course of an…

  9. Work-Integrated Learning with Work-Integrated Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellerstedt, Martin; Arvemo, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The digital era gives many new opportunities for higher education. Especially online education makes it possible to reach new groups of students like, for instance, full time working professionals. This case study investigates an online course in applied statistics constructed to attract "non-traditional students" such as full-time…

  10. Promoting Learner Engagement when Working with Adult English Language Learners. CAELA Network Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan Finn

    2010-01-01

    Teachers of adults learning English often compete with many demands on learners' attention. Concerns about family, jobs, money, and transportation; fatigue; and negative past experiences with education are some of the factors that might inhibit an adult learner's full engagement in class. In a study of learner engagement in adult literacy…

  11. English Language Learners. What Works Clearinghouse Topic Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    English language learners are students with a primary language other than English who have a limited range of speaking, reading, writing, and listening skills in English. English language learners also include students identified and determined by their school as having limited English proficiency and a language other than English spoken in the…

  12. Learning Geometry Problem Solving by Studying Worked Examples: Effects of Learner Guidance and Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokosmaty, Sahar; Sweller, John; Kalyuga, Slava

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that instruction that relies heavily on studying worked examples is more effective for less experienced learners compared to instruction emphasizing problem solving. However, the guidance associated with studying some worked examples may reduce the performance of more experienced learners. This study investigated…

  13. Challenges and Strategies of Working with Learners with Low Vision: Implications for Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalo, J. A.; Indoshi, F. C.; Agak, J. O.

    2012-01-01

    Learners with low vision can be trained to increase their visual functioning through a planned programme of visual experiences. Such a low vision training programme was introduced in Kenya in 1994. However, despite its implementation over the last 15 years, challenges still persist among teachers who work with such learners. The purpose of this…

  14. Evaluation of Nontraditional Age Learners' Experiences in Internet-Based Clinical Social Work Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanke, Jayme; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

    2015-01-01

    This study involves an evaluation of online learners' experiences with two Internet-based clinical social work courses. The evaluation sought to discover whether there were differences in learning between traditional (under 25 years old) and nontraditional age learners (25 years and over) who completed the asynchronous online course. The study…

  15. Content-Learning Tasks for Adult ESL Learners: Promoting Literacy for Work or School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Doreen E.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers of English as a second language (ESL) are often on the frontline of working with adult ESL learners who are facing a difficult developmental pathway to academic and/or economic success. These learners come to the task of learning English with widely varying schooling experiences, degrees of first language literacy, and English language…

  16. Language Learning Activities of Distance EFL Learners in the Turkish Open Education System as the Indicator of Their Learner Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altunay, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the noncompulsory language learning activities performed by a group of distance EFL learners in the Turkish Open Education System. Performance of these activities has been considered as an indicator of their learner autonomy. The data were collected through an online questionnaire and interviews. The study shows that in…

  17. Working with Black Adult Learners. A Practical Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadzie, Stella

    This guide identifies the key skills for the delivery of education and training for black adult learners in Britain. It provides a rich resource of examples of good practice and case studies of innovative approaches to policy development, curriculum, and support. Each section is structured to include introductory comments to clarify current…

  18. A Classical Mnemonic for Older Learners: A Trip That Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson-Tchabo, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A mnemonic procedure, a method of loci, was used with men and women over 60 years old in two studies of free recall. The learners take a mental trip through their residences stopping in order at 16 places. Experimental subjects were able to master the mnemonic and apply it effectively. (Author)

  19. Interactions between and among Heritage Language Learners and Second Language Learners during Collaborative Writing Activities: How Learners Attend to Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamics in the Spanish classroom between heritage language learner (HLL) dyads, second language learner (L2L) dyads, and mixed HLL-L2L dyads. Specifically, it examines oral, written and embodied discourse that informs our understanding of how learners attend to language. Analysis for this dissertation examined…

  20. Young Children: Active Learners in a Technological Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, June L., Ed.; Shade, Daniel D., Ed.

    This book addresses the issues of appropriate use of computers with young children and how children and early childhood educators interact with the computer in early childhood settings. Part 1, "Young Children as Active Learners," contains chapter 1: "Listen to the Children: Observing Young Children's Discoveries with the Microcomputer" (June L.…

  1. Learner-Interface Interaction for Technology-Enhanced Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Neelu; Khreisat, Laila; Sharma, Kiron

    2009-01-01

    Neelu Sinha, Laila Khreisat, and Kiron Sharma describe how learner-interface interaction promotes active learning in computer science education. In a pilot study using technology that combines DyKnow software with a hardware platform of pen-enabled HP Tablet notebook computers, Sinha, Khreisat, and Sharma created dynamic learning environments by…

  2. Facebook Activities and the Investment of L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafie, Latisha Asmaak; Yaacob, Aizan; Singh, Paramjit Kaur Karpal

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the investment of L2 learners in the English language on Facebook that they portrayed through their Facebook activities. It studied four informants consisted of diploma students in a Malaysian university. The study consisted of 14 weeks of online observation and semi-structured interviews. Data were collected from online…

  3. Does Translation Contribute to Learners' Free Active Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiyaban, Amir R.; Bagheri, Mohammad S.

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to find out whether or not using "translation" technique in vocabulary teaching would have any positive effects on the "free active" vocabulary of Iranian learners of English. To carry out the research, eighty-eight intermediate male and female students were chosen. The participants were divided into four "male…

  4. Methods for Evaluating Learner Activities with New Technologies: Guidelines for the Lab@Future Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwanza-Simwami, Daisy; Engestrom, Yrjo; Amon, Tomaz

    2009-01-01

    The task of evaluating learner activities with new technologies is becoming increasingly complex because traditional evaluation strategies do not adequately consider the unique and often dynamic characteristics of learners and activities carried out. Learner activities are largely driven by motives and relationships that exist in the context in…

  5. Acquisition of Mathematical Language: Suggestions and Activities for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirillo, Michelle; Bruna, Katherine Richardson; Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we describe aspects of mathematical language that could be problematic to English-language learners, provide recommendations for teaching English-language learners, and suggest activities intended to foster language development in mathematics. (Contains 1 figure.)

  6. A Teacher's Journey in Working with English Language Learners with and without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Rocio

    2010-01-01

    This piece presents a teacher's reflections on her experiences working with Latino English language learners with and without disabilities. The author's voice narrates her journey as a teacher, researcher, and teacher educator preparing professionals to work with bilingual populations. The beliefs and factors she identifies as influencing her…

  7. Discovering Me: Music Activities for Special Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith P.; And Others

    The book contains information on musical activities which were field tested in Project PASE (Program in the Arts for Special Education, Pennsylvania) classrooms with a wide range of exceptionalities from preschool age to adolescence. Activities are seen to help children become more aware of their bodies, feelings, and themselves; feel important…

  8. Transforming English Language Learners' Work Readiness: Case Studies in Explicit, Work-Specific Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrigal-Hopes, Diana L.; Villavicencio, Edna; Foote, Martha M.; Green, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the impact of a six-step framework for work-specific vocabulary instruction in adult English language learners (ELLs). Guided by research in English as a second language (ESL) methodology and the transactional theory, the researchers sought to unveil how these processes supported the acquisition and application of…

  9. Engaging Disaffected Learners in Key Stage 4 through Work-Related Learning in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Caroline; Laczik, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Work-Related Learning (WRL) has been enthusiastically embraced by UK governments since the 1990s as a means of reengaging learners in the final years of compulsory schooling. However, recent years have seen a policy shift away from WRL towards a more academic curriculum for all young people. Drawing on a qualitative study commissioned by the…

  10. Friendships and Group Work in Linguistically Diverse Mathematics Classrooms: Opportunities to Learn for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki

    2016-01-01

    This ethnographic study examined students' opportunities to learn in linguistically diverse mathematics classrooms in a Canadian elementary school. I specifically examined the contextual change of group work, which influenced opportunities to learn for newly arrived English language learners (ELLs). Based on analyses of video-recorded…

  11. Older Learners in SLA Research: A First Look at Working Memory, Feedback, and L2 Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Alison; Sachs, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of research into second-language (L2) development focuses on the role of cognitive factors and other individual differences. Studies of children and prime-of-life adult L2 learners suggest that differences exist in the learning processes of these groups. However, to date, little empirical work has been conducted with older adult…

  12. Preparing Candidates to Work with Diverse Learners: Experiences and Outcomes in a Graduate Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Salika A.; Mongillo, Geraldine; Hong, Carrie Eunyoung

    2013-01-01

    We used qualitative methods to explore how a graduate literacy program prepares in-service teacher education candidates to support the literacy development of diverse learners in the United States. Using data from program evaluations collected in 2009 and 2010, coursework, rubrics, candidates' work samples, and surveys from 24 respondents (a…

  13. Creating Independent and Interdependent Learners: Business and Education Working Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Standards Branch.

    In March 1990, Alberta's Education Minister established five teams to help implement Alberta's 3-year plan for education. Two of those teams, the Implementation Team on Business Involvement and Technology Integration (I-Team) and the Business Involvement Advisory Group (BIAG), worked to develop plans and recommendations regarding expanding…

  14. Learner-Based Factors in L2 Reading Comprehension and Processing Grammatical Form: Topic Familiarity and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeser, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines how topic familiarity and working memory capacity affect beginning Spanish learners' reading comprehension and their processing of future tense morphology. Participants included 94 adult learners from an accelerated, beginning Spanish course. In addition to completing a computerized version of a reading span test as a measure…

  15. Educating elementary-aged English learners in science: Scientists and teachers working together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banuelos, Gloria Rodriguez

    California's K-12 schools contain 40% of the nation's English learners, the majority of them enrolled at the elementary level. Traditionally, English learners in California have difficulty performing at the same level as their native English speaking counterparts on national achievement tests, such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress. In 1998, California voters passed Proposition 227 mandating that English learners be taught "overwhelmingly" in English, thus making teachers, many without expertise, responsible for teaching multilevel English proficient students subject matter. I studied the use of scientist-teacher partnerships as a resource for teachers of English learners. University scientists (graduate students) partnered with local elementary school teachers designed and implemented integrated science and English lessons for classrooms with at least 30% English learners. The study explored two major foci. First, integrated science and language lessons implemented by six scientist-teacher partnerships were investigated. Second, the responsibilities taken on by the team members during the implementation of integrated science and language lessons were examined. Three data sources were analyzed: (1) six lesson sequences comprised of 28 lessons; (2) 18 lesson worksheet; and (3) 24 participant Retrospective interview transcripts (12 scientists and 12 teachers). Lessons across were examined according to four analytical categories which included the following: (1) nature of the science activities (e.g. hands-on); nature of language activities (e.g. speaking); (2) nature of instructional practices (e.g. student grouping); and (3) responsibilities of teachers and scientists (e.g. classroom). A micro level analysis illustrates how one scientist-teacher team innovatively used a children's story, Goldilocks and the Three Bears, to teach the measurement of length and temperature. A macro level analysis identified three characteristics of science activities

  16. Promoting Physics Among Female Learners in the Western Cape Through Active Engagement (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendse, Gillian J.

    2009-04-01

    In 2006 the author organized a one-day intervention aimed at promoting physics among female learners at the University of Stellenbosch. The activities included an interactive lecture demonstration promoting active engagement, a hands-on session, and short presentations by female physicists addressing issues such as balancing family and career, breaking the stereotypes, and launching a successful career in physics. Each learner was expected to evaluate the program. In 2007 the author joined forces with Hip2B2 (Shuttleworth Foundation) to host a competition among grade-10 learners with the theme, ``promoting creativity through interactivity.'' The author was tasked by the Hip2B2-team to assist with a program for female learners planned for August 2008, coinciding with our national celebration of Women's Day. The event targeted 160 learners and took place in Durban, East London, Cape Town, and Johannesburg. The author shares some of the learners' experiences and personal triumphs.

  17. The Child as an Active Learner: Views, Practices, and Barriers in Chinese Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengling

    2006-01-01

    The Chinese view of the child is in the process of changing from the dependent child of traditional Chinese society to the child as an active learner in contemporary China. The view of the child as an active learner forces early childhood practitioners to rethink the features of the child's learning and development, individuality, and needs and…

  18. How Do Distance Learners Use Activities in Self-Instructional Materials?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Sanjaya; Gaba, Ashok Kumar

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of a study on the use of learning activities in self-instructional materials by distance learners of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). It shows that learners make use of the activities extensively as they have positive perceptions about benefits of Self-Assessment Questions and Terminal Questions given in the…

  19. Beginning Learners' Development of Interactional Competence: Alignment Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tecedor, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the development of interactional competence (Hall, 1993; He & Young, 1998) by beginning learners of Spanish as indexed by their use of alignment moves. Discourse analysis techniques and quantitative data analysis were used to explore how 52 learners expressed alignment and changes in participation patterns in two sets of…

  20. Training Learners to Use Quizlet Vocabulary Activities on Mobile Phones in Vietnam with Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone ownership among university students in Vietnam has reached almost 100%, exceeding that of Internet-capable desktop computers. This has made them increasingly popular to allow learners to carry out learning activities outside of the classroom, but some studies have suggested that learners are not always willing to engage in activities…

  1. Investigating Learner Attitudes toward E-Books as Learning Tools: Based on the Activity Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of e-books as learning tools in terms of learner satisfaction, usefulness, behavioral intention, and learning effectiveness. Based on the activity theory approach, this research develops a research model to understand learner attitudes toward e-books in two physical sizes: 10? and 7?. Results suggest that screen…

  2. Older Adult Learners: A Comparison of Active and Non-Active Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a 2004 follow-up study conducted in partnership with the University of Manitoba Continuing Education Division and local senior's organizations. The partnership was formed in 2002-03 to promote applied research on lifelong learning and older adults, develop new and complement existing educational activities, and explore new…

  3. Our Other Youth: Handbook of Guidelines for Teachers and Other Adults Who Work with At Risk Kids and Discouraged or Defeated Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrath, Jerry

    This guide for educators who work with discouraged and defeated learners recommends ways to prevent problems and offers approaches to develop positive attitudes. The introduction dispels common fictions about discouraged learners. Part 1, "Profiles of Our Other Youth: Discouraged and Defeated Learners," describes behavioral and life situations,…

  4. Learners' Interpersonal Beliefs and Generated Feedback in an Online Role-Playing Peer-Feedback Activity: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Yu-Hui; Hsu, Yu-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Peer feedback affords interaction and critical thinking opportunities for learners in online courses. However, various factors prevent learners from taking advantage of these promising benefits. This study explored learners' perceptions of the interpersonal factors in a role-playing peer-feedback activity, and examined the types of peer feedback…

  5. Preparing Early Childhood Teachers to Work With Young Dual Language Learners

    PubMed Central

    Zepeda, Marlene; Castro, Dina C.; Cronin, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Teacher preparation is clearly linked to the quality of early childhood programs. In order for young dual language learners (DLLs) to be academically successful, teacher preparation should focus on those skills and abilities relevant to students’ particular needs. This article reviews the content of professional preparation for early educators working with young DLLs and briefly discusses the importance of developing the cultural and linguistic diversity of the early childhood workforce. It identifies 6 content areas: (a) understanding language development, (b) understanding the relationship between language and culture, (c) developing skills and abilities to effectively teach DLLs, (d) developing abilities to use assessment in meaningful ways for DLLs, (e) developing a sense of professionalism, and (f) understanding how to work with families. PMID:26500692

  6. Sharing a Small World: Environmental Activities for Young Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains a collection of activities developed for pre-K through second grade students. All of the activities in this teacher's guide use an interdisciplinary approach and explore the human connection with all living things and their environment. Contents include: (1) "Sharing Space and Working Together"; (2) "Sharing Resources and…

  7. Implementation of Pair Work and Group Work for Creation of Interaction Opportunities for Learners in Large Classes: The Viability of the Two Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otienoh, Ruth O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on an action research carried out in two Kenyan Primary schools in Nairobi. The purpose was to implement group work and pair work to improve teaching and learning in large classes by creating interaction opportunities for learners. This was a mixed method study of dominant/less dominant design where interviews and structured…

  8. Active Ageing and Universities: Engaging Older Learners. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Chris; Ogg, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews the engagement of older learners (defined as those aged 50 and over) in education and training with particular reference to their involvement in higher education. The ageing of populations was one of the most important trends in the 20th century and will raise major challenges in this century. Appended are: (1) Selected UK…

  9. Innovative Strategies for Empowering Your Students to Become Active, Responsible Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, B.

    2011-09-01

    The economy continues to sputter along, and the repercussions are now hitting hard at publicly-funded colleges and universities, with enrollment increasing and funding decreasing. Funding agencies are starting to look at retention and completion rates as a way to allocate scarce dollars. Improving these rates is also one way to increase the future stream of tuition; students who can't pass introductory classes like ASTRO101 won't enroll and pay tuition for the next level, and they won't complete their degree. So what can you, a mere professor of astronomy, do? Tired of the "What do you want me to know?" questions? Provide your students with learner-centered structures to help them learn more deeply. Do your students resist active-engagement techniques and hate group work? Share empowerment strategies for helping students become active, responsible learners who can thrive in a learner-centered environment. Do you think that it's wrong for the freshman classes to be over-crowded, yet your sophomore classes don't get enough students or don't even exist? After using the proven curriculum of On Course, college and universities across the country have improved their retention across a wide range of disciplines (http://www.OnCourseWorkshop.com/Data.htm). Experience a sample of the fun and engaging activities developed over two decades to help students (1) accept personal responsibility, (2) discover self motivation, (3) master self-management, (4) use interdependence, (5) gain self-awareness, (6) adopt lifelong learning, (7) develop emotional intelligence, and (8) believe in themselves. Since this is only a one-hour workshop, we will focus on choices one and four: to be successful, students need to see themselves as the primary cause of their outcomes and experiences and to build mutually supportive relationships in our classroom and labs. Outcomes: (1) one ASTRO101 Course-ready activity to help students accept personal responsibility; (2) one ASTRO101 Course

  10. Separating "Inquiry Questions" and "Techniques" to Help Learners Move between the How and the Why of Biology Practical Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Judith M. D.; Taber, Keith S.

    2016-01-01

    School science practical activities have been criticised for exposing learners to a series of phenomena disconnected from the conceptual frameworks needed to understand them. Such activities are successful in the "domain of observables" but not the "domain of ideas". Few resources exist for classroom teachers wishing to improve…

  11. A Development of Game-Based Learning Environment to Activate Interaction among Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, Ryo; Shimokawa, Masayuki; Okamoto, Toshio

    Many studies and systems that incorporate elements such as “pleasure” and “fun” in the game to improve a learner's motivation have been developed in the field of learning environments. However, few are the studies of situations where many learners gather at a single computer and participate in a game-based learning environment (GBLE), and where the GBLE designs the learning process by controlling the interactions between learners such as competition, collaboration, and learning by teaching. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a framework of educational control that induces and activates interaction between learners intentionally to create a learning opportunity that is based on the knowledge understanding model of each learner. In this paper, we explain the design philosophy and the framework of our GBLE called “Who becomes the king in the country of mathematics?” from a game viewpoint and describe the method of learning support control in the learning environment. In addition, we report the results of the learning experiment with our GBLE, which we carried out in a junior high school, and include some comments by a principal and a teacher. From the results of the experiment and some comments, we noticed that a game may play a significant role in weakening the learning relationship among students and creating new relationships in the world of the game. Furthermore, we discovered that learning support control of the GBLE has led to activation of the interaction between learners to some extent.

  12. Open-Ended Activities: Differentiation through Learner Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, Nancy B.

    Open-ended activities have been advocated in the literature of gifted education as a way to allow students who are identified as gifted to work in their own interest areas, in their own learning styles, and at their own ability levels. They are recommended as a means to differentiate instruction, but little research documents this recommended…

  13. Making 21st Century Schools: Creating Learner-Centered Schoolplaces/Workplaces for a New Culture of Students at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearlman, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Learner-Centered, Information-Age schools have been proposed in "Educational Technology" and in other publications. This article reviews the experience of the New Technology Foundation, a school-development organization, working since 2001 to support 51 communities in 10 states to launch and implement 21st Century High Schools, based on the model…

  14. Strengthening Policies and Practices for the Initial Classification of English Learners: Insights from a National Working Session

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, H. Gary; Linquanti, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes and further develops ideas discussed at a national working session held on May 23, 2014, to examine issues and options associated with initially classifying English learners (ELs). It is the third in a series of guidance papers intended to support states in large-scale assessment consortia that are expected to move toward a…

  15. The Alchemy of Learning and Work: Negotiating Learner Knowledge in a Global Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabic, Snezana

    2008-01-01

    This article explores issues of literacy and identity of skilled migrants in an educational context in Australia as a learning society. First, it concentrates on forms of knowledge imposed on the learner and looks at how new discourses shape the self. Next, it tests the validity of the four pillars of education in the life of the learner. The…

  16. Word Function and Dictionary Use; A Work-Book for Advanced Learners of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Neile

    The present volume is designed as a workbook for advanced learners of English as a second or foreign language which will train them through instruction and exercises to use an all-English dictionary. The contents are based on the second edition of Hornby, Gatenby, and Wakefield's "The Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English," 1963, Oxford…

  17. Barriers to Sustainability in Mature-Age Adult Learners: Working toward Identity Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Akilah R.; Chen, Joseph C.

    2016-01-01

    While research on K-12 environmental education (EE) has been quite robust, there has been less focus on effective approaches for mature-age adult learners. This qualitative study examined perceptions of barriers to sustainability in American, mature-age adult learners. Results revealed two interacting, superordinate themes: personal relevance and…

  18. Lifeline Work: Community-Based Adult Learning and Learners' Personal Progression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macintyre, Janis

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores learner progression for participants in community-based adult learning (CBAL) provision in Scotland. It focuses on learners' perceptions of progression drawn from analysis of life history interviews carried out with ten adults who had participated in community-based adult learning. The analysis of data was undertaken in three…

  19. The Tip of the Iceberg: Factors Affecting Learner Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Teachers' informal discussions of learner motivation often emphasize the need to find ways to motivate learners, most usually through "fun" or "dynamic" activities. This paper starts from the assumption, however, that part of the work of the teacher is to avoid the "demotivation" of learners, and that there is a need to consider the overall…

  20. Learner-Centered Activities from the DVD-Format "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Yun

    This paper demonstrates how Taiwanese English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) college teachers and students collaborate and negotiate to design various learner-centered activities based on the Chinese film, "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon." These activities are intended to enhance students' listening and speaking abilities. The paper demonstrates eight…

  1. Active Advocacy: Working Together for Appropriate Services for Gifted Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiskow, Kyle; Fowler, V. Dianne; Christopher, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    The Jacob K. Javits Gifted and Talented Students Act of 1988 provided additional funding for gifted programs and research endeavors. Scholars and educators within the field recognized its passage as a true watershed moment. Despite its unquestioned impact on the lives of countless gifted students around the country, federal lawmakers routinely…

  2. Fostering Active Processing of Instructional Explanations of Learners with High and Low Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acuna, Santiago R.; Garcia Rodicio, Hector; Sanchez, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential advantages of instructional explanations, evidence indicates that they are usually ineffective. Subsequent work has shown that in order to make instructional explanations effective indeed, one successful strategy is to combine them with indications of the limitations in learners' understanding that they are intended to…

  3. How physical activity can work?

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    This review examines how physical activity can work for health during childhood and adolescence. Special emphasis is put on weight control and prevention of obesity-related morbidity. Both low sedentary and high exercise activities contribute to increased energy expenditure, improved weight control and prevention of obesity. Exercise, if intensity is at least moderate, has also a positive effect on fat distribution by decreasing the proportion of abdominal or visceral fat. The prevalence of clustered (multiple) cardiovascular risk factors is lower in children and adolescents, who are physically active or fit. However, the risks of obesity are greater than those from being sedentary, i.e., high physical activity reduces, but does not totally offset risks related to obesity. Good health in youth is easily lost by an unhealthy lifestyle in adulthood. An additional benefit of childhood physical activity is that it increases the likelihood of physical activity later in adulthood. PMID:18278627

  4. Reprising the Home Language Survey: Summary of a National Working Session on Policies, Practices, and Tools for Identifying Potential English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linquanti, Robert; Bailey, Alison L.

    2014-01-01

    This document is the first in a series of working papers that elaborate on a framework of four key stages in moving toward a common definition of English learner (EL), as described in the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) publication, "Toward a "Common Definition of English Learner": A Brief Defining Policy and…

  5. A "Dialogic" Approach to the Design of a Transcultural Communication Classroom Activity for Multilingual Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Celia Helen

    2011-01-01

    When preparing teaching materials about communication between people from different linguistic backgrounds, many factors require consideration; these include theoretical orientation, purpose, context, educational needs, study level, as well as the cultural backgrounds of the teachers and their target learners. The classroom activity described in…

  6. Cross-Language Activation in Children's Speech Production: Evidence from Second Language Learners, Bilinguals, and Trilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals,…

  7. Active Learning for Discovery and Innovation in Criminology with Chinese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jessica C. M.; Wu, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Whereas a great deal of literature based upon the context of Western societies has concluded criminology is an ideal discipline for active learning approach, it remains uncertain if this learning approach is applicable to Chinese learners in the discipline of criminology. This article describes and provides evidence of the benefits of using active…

  8. Flipping the Classroom for English Language Learners to Foster Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Hsiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a structured attempt to integrate flip teaching into language classrooms using a WebQuest active learning strategy. The purpose of this study is to examine the possible impacts of flipping the classroom on English language learners' academic performance, learning attitudes, and participation levels. Adopting a…

  9. Investigating the Use of Inquiry & Web-Based Activities with Inclusive Biology Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Waller, Patricia L.; Edwards, Lana; Darlene Kale, Santoro

    2007-01-01

    A Web-integrated biology program is used to explore how to best assist inclusive high school students to learn biology with inquiry-based activities. Classroom adaptations and instructional strategies teachers may use to assist in promoting biology learning with inclusive learners are discussed.

  10. Synthesizing Technology Adoption and Learners' Approaches towards Active Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kevin; Cheung, George; Wan, Kelvin; Brown, Ian; Luk, Green

    2015-01-01

    In understanding how active and blended learning approaches with learning technologies engagement in undergraduate education, current research models tend to undermine the effect of learners' variations, particularly regarding their styles and approaches to learning, on intention and use of learning technologies. This study contributes to further…

  11. Fashion Design: Designing a Learner-Active, Multi-Level High School Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Diane

    2009-01-01

    A high school fashion design teacher has much in common with the ringmaster of a three-ring circus. The challenges of teaching a hands-on course are to facilitate the entire class and to meet the needs of individual students. When teaching family and consumer sciences, the goal is to have a learner-active classroom. Revamping the high school's…

  12. 78 FR 11965 - Agency Information Collection (Learner's Perception (LP) Survey) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Learner's Perception (LP) Survey) Activities Under OMB Review...'s Perception (LP) Survey, VA Form 10-0439. OMB Control Number: 2900-0691. Type of Review: Extension... trainees perception of their clinical experience with VA versus non-VA facilities. VA will use the data...

  13. An Emergent Language Program Framework: Actively Involving Learners in Needs Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, William; Storer, Graeme

    1992-01-01

    Relates the experience of the staff of an aquaculture outreach program in Northeast Thailand in implementing an English for special purposes program. By actively involving learners in both the needs analysis and program design, teachers were able to adapt the program content to the requirements of the students. (15 references) (JL)

  14. How Do Detergents Work? A Qualitative Assay to Measure Amylase Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novo, M. Teresa; Casanoves, Marina; Garcia-Vallvé, Santi; Pujadas, Gerard; Mulero, Miquel; Valls, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    We present a practical activity focusing on two main goals: to give learners the opportunity to experience how the scientific method works and to increase their knowledge about enzymes in everyday situations. The exercise consists of determining the amylase activity of commercial detergents. The methodology is based on a qualitative assay using a…

  15. The Potential of Captioned Television for Adult Learners. Working Papers of Planning and Development Research. Working Paper 88-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehler, Audrey

    With the assistance of the Canadian Captioning Development Agency, TVOntario has undertaken to determine the efficacy of applying closed-captioned television to the needs of adult learners who are not hearing impaired. In this research study, actual and potential applications of closed-captioned television for hearing audiences in Canada, the…

  16. Synergy between Authentic Assessment Activities and Learner Autonomy: How Does This Promote Shared Authenticity in Online Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gikandi, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether and how authentic assessment activities and learner autonomy converged to productively engage both the teacher and learners in shared authenticity. The study employed case study methodology to investigate the phenomena within an online course in ICT designed for continuing professionals in…

  17. Popular Culture, English Out-of-Class Activities, and Learner Autonomy among Highly Proficient Secondary Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Hoi Wing

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on how and why proficient learners of English in Hong Kong participated in popular culture, out-of-class activities, with an emphasis on their development of learner autonomy. Autonomy in language learning is defined as an individual's ability and responsibility to take charge of his or her own learning [1]. Out-of-class…

  18. Factors That Promote Innovativeness and Being an Innovative Learner at Work--Results from PIAAC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Støren, Liv Anne

    2016-01-01

    In this article, innovative activity is considered in the light of broader conceptualisations of innovativeness and what it means to be innovative. Central to the definition of innovativeness used in the analysis is that the worker actively seeks new knowledge and uses it for work-related tasks. This is based on previous research emphasising…

  19. Working within the System: Teachers of English Learners Negotiating a Literacy Instruction Mandate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pease-Alvarez, Lucinda; Samway, Katharine Davies; Cifka-Herrera, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to reverse the reading crisis purported to plague public education, schools and districts are mandating prescriptive reading programs and teacher-centered instructional practices in hopes of improving the academic achievement of minority students, including English learners (ELs). The wide-spread implementation of these programs in…

  20. Working with Multilingual Learners and Vocabulary Knowledge for Secondary Schools: Developing Word Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Robyn; O'Brien, Katherine; Walsh, Maureen; West, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a 10 week vocabulary focused intervention based on the Word Generation program (Snow, 2002, 2010; SERP, 2011) in primary and secondary schools, which demonstrated clear improvements, particularly with students who are EAL/D learners. Teachers across English, Science, Maths and Social Sciences developed professional learning…

  1. Balancing Work, Family, and Student Roles: A Phenomenological Study of the Adult Female Graduate Online Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Charlene X.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain an understanding of the lived experiences of female adult learners pursuing graduate degrees online. As online graduate programs have become increasingly popular and more readily available in the last decade, more women than men are enrolling in online graduate programs in addition to…

  2. Alone, Confused, and Frustrated: Developing Empathy and Strategies for Working with English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Gay N.

    2008-01-01

    In many states, the rapidly increasing number of English language learners (ELLs) presents new challenges for undergraduate education programs. In addition, because areas with the most rapid growth generally have little history of educating the ELL population, there may be a corresponding lack of understanding of and empathy for ELLs. The author…

  3. Vocabulary Instruction for Struggling Students. What Works for Special-Needs Learners Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadasy, Patricia F.; Nelson, J. Ron

    2012-01-01

    Addressing a key skill in reading, writing, and speaking, this comprehensive book is grounded in cutting-edge research on vocabulary development. It presents evidence-based instructional approaches for at-risk students, including English language learners and those with learning difficulties. Coverage ranges from storybook reading interventions…

  4. Practical Ideas That Really Work for English Language Learners. [Complete Kit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Kathleen; Campos, David; Ryser, Gail R.

    2006-01-01

    The instructional ideas presented in this kit are specially designed for teaching 4th-12th grade students served in English Language Learners (ELL), limited English proficient (LEP), and English as a second language (ESL) programs. The kit includes a quick, easy to use criterion-referenced rating scale, an ideas matrix, and 37 research-based…

  5. Different Skills: Identifying Differentially Effective Teachers of English Language Learners. Working Paper 68

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Master, Ben; Loeb, Susanna; Whitney, Camille; Wyckoff, James

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to identify the characteristics and training experiences of teachers who are differentially effective at promoting academic achievement among English language learners (ELLs). Our analyses indicate that general skills such as those reflected by scores on teacher certification exams and experience teaching non-ELL students are less…

  6. Students Working with an English Learners' Dictionary on CD-ROM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Birgit

    This paper examines the growing literature on pedagogical lexicography and the growing focus on how well the learner uses the dictionary in second language learning. Dictionaries are becoming more user-friendly. This study used the writing task to reveal new insights into how students use a CD-ROM dictionary. It found a lack of dictionary-using…

  7. Setting the Foundation for Working with English Language Learners in the Secondary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Helen; Petron, Mary; Greybeck, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In many schools, an increasing number of students are learning English as their second language. Secondary teachers are faced with the challenge of teaching English Language Learners (ELLs) with little or no training. This article highlights ideas and strategies that teachers can incorporate to make their instruction more effective in meeting the…

  8. Teachers as Authors: Submitting Your Work to "Social Studies and the Young Learner"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCourt, Emily; Bennett, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article is a call for classroom teachers to become authors. The authors briefly describe a process that teachers can follow to write down their ideas, submit a paper for peer review, revise it, and celebrate its publication--whether as an article in "Social Studies and the Young Learner" ("SSYL") or as a handout to share with colleagues in…

  9. Getting Students to Work Actively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Stan; Harrell, J. W.; Horton, C. E.

    2007-05-01

    As researchers learn better ways to promote student learning in introductory physics, students learn better ways of circumventing these strategies. Many students remain motivated primarily to find the lowest energy output required to pass a course rather than to actually work at learning physics. We are redesigning our introductory courses, which are taught in a studio format, under the assumption that most students will do only the things they get credit for. By offering incentives for students to participate actively in the learning process, we expect to see an improvement in student performance. This poster describes both the studio format and the teaching strategies being implemented.

  10. Fluency-dependent cortical activation associated with speech production and comprehension in second language learners.

    PubMed

    Shimada, K; Hirotani, M; Yokokawa, H; Yoshida, H; Makita, K; Yamazaki-Murase, M; Tanabe, H C; Sadato, N

    2015-08-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the brain regions underlying language task performance in adult second language (L2) learners. Specifically, we identified brain regions where the level of activation was associated with L2 fluency levels. Thirty Japanese-speaking adults participated in the study. All participants were L2 learners of English and had achieved varying levels of fluency, as determined by a standardized L2 English proficiency test, the Versant English Test (Pearson Education Inc., 2011). When participants performed the oral sentence building task from the production tasks administered, the dorsal part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (dIFG) showed activation patterns that differed depending on the L2 fluency levels: The more fluent the participants were, the more dIFG activation decreased. This decreased activation of the dIFG might reflect the increased automaticity of a syntactic building process. In contrast, when participants performed an oral story comprehension task, the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) showed increased activation with higher fluency levels. This suggests that the learners with higher L2 fluency were actively engaged in post-syntactic integration processing supported by the left pSTG. These data imply that L2 fluency predicts neural resource allocation during language comprehension tasks as well as in production tasks. This study sheds light on the neural underpinnings of L2 learning by identifying the brain regions recruited during different language tasks across different modalities (production vs. comprehension). PMID:26026679

  11. Fluency-dependent cortical activation associated with speech production and comprehension in second language learners.

    PubMed

    Shimada, K; Hirotani, M; Yokokawa, H; Yoshida, H; Makita, K; Yamazaki-Murase, M; Tanabe, H C; Sadato, N

    2015-08-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the brain regions underlying language task performance in adult second language (L2) learners. Specifically, we identified brain regions where the level of activation was associated with L2 fluency levels. Thirty Japanese-speaking adults participated in the study. All participants were L2 learners of English and had achieved varying levels of fluency, as determined by a standardized L2 English proficiency test, the Versant English Test (Pearson Education Inc., 2011). When participants performed the oral sentence building task from the production tasks administered, the dorsal part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (dIFG) showed activation patterns that differed depending on the L2 fluency levels: The more fluent the participants were, the more dIFG activation decreased. This decreased activation of the dIFG might reflect the increased automaticity of a syntactic building process. In contrast, when participants performed an oral story comprehension task, the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) showed increased activation with higher fluency levels. This suggests that the learners with higher L2 fluency were actively engaged in post-syntactic integration processing supported by the left pSTG. These data imply that L2 fluency predicts neural resource allocation during language comprehension tasks as well as in production tasks. This study sheds light on the neural underpinnings of L2 learning by identifying the brain regions recruited during different language tasks across different modalities (production vs. comprehension).

  12. Learning by Doing: Engaging Students through Learner-Centered Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Karl L.; Csapo, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    With a shift of focus from teaching to learning in higher education, teachers often look for strategies to involve students actively in the learning process, especially since numerous studies have demonstrated that a student's active involvement in the learning process enhances learning. Active learning has resulted in positive learning outcomes.…

  13. Online Graduate Study Health Care Learners' Perceptions of Group Work and Helpful Instructional Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Kim; Melrose, Sherri

    2006-01-01

    Participating in small group activities has emerged as a trend in online learning events. However, little is known about how graduate students experience online group work and what instructional behaviors are perceived as helpful during the group process. This article discusses a qualitative research project that revealed how online health care…

  14. Performance indicators of work activity.

    PubMed

    Lahoz, Manoela de Assis; Camarotto, João Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of performance is a current topic in the management of people in companies, used as a parameter of effectiveness of processes and operations of production. The methods and models of the indicators of current use in the production have concentrated in the assessment of people's performance as determinative resource of the organizational success in the search for the competitiveness. Associated with the classic indicators of performance assessment of the production proceeding, other indicators are used in the assessment of risks and hazards, however with methods focused in the tasks, without connection with the real work activity. The present article explores literature on the models of performance measurement in use in companies and a field research to understand how companies interpret and use indicators that relate health and work, to direct future studies on the subject. Regarding the literature review, one can see that health indicators can be basically divided into two major groups: the legal and managerial indicators. When conducting case studies, it can be realized that companies do not have precisely the concept of health indicator, or were unable to define which of the indicators could be considered indicators of health, considering that absenteeism was the indicator mentioned by the four companies.

  15. We are what we do: Examining learner-generated content in the anatomy laboratory through the lens of activity theory.

    PubMed

    Doubleday, Alison F; Wille, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Video and photography are often used for delivering content within the anatomical sciences. However, instructors typically produce these resources to provide instructional or procedural information. Although the benefits of learner-generated content have been explored within educational research, virtually no studies have investigated the use of learner-generated video and photograph content within anatomy dissection laboratories. This study outlines an activity involving learner-generated video diaries and learner-generated photograph assignments produced during anatomy laboratory sessions. The learner-generated photographs and videos provided instructors with a means of formative assessment and allowed instructors to identify evidence of collaborative behavior in the laboratory. Student questionnaires (n = 21) and interviews (n = 5), as well as in-class observations, were conducted to examine student perspectives on the laboratory activities. The quantitative and qualitative data were examined using the framework of activity theory to identify contradictions between student expectations of, and engagement with, the activity and the actual experiences of the students. Results indicate that learner-generated photograph and video content can act as a rich source of data on student learning processes and can be used for formative assessment, for observing collaborative behavior, and as a starting point for class discussions. This study stresses the idea that technology choice for activities must align with instructional goals. This research also highlights the utility of activity theory as a framework for assessing classroom and laboratory activities, demonstrating that this approach can guide the development of laboratory activities.

  16. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-03-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals. PMID:22138311

  17. The effect of curricular activities on learner autonomy: the perspective of undergraduate mechanical engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, M.; Leite, C.; Mouraz, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study researches how first-year engineering students perceived the influence of curricular activities on their own learning autonomy, measured with an adaptation of the Personal Responsibility Orientation to Self-direction in Learning Scale (PRO-SDLS). Participants were questioned to assess the influence of the teacher's role. The results indicate that learners' characteristics (motivation and self-efficacy) contribute more to learner autonomy (LA) than the teaching-learning transaction (control and initiative), as in the original PRO-SDLS validation. The most autonomous learners presented higher values in all LA components and dimensions, but the differences were greater in motivation and initiative. The participants with higher LA were not as dependent on the teacher, regarding assessment, the completion of classroom tasks and deadlines. Regardless of the degree of autonomy in learning, all participants viewed teachers as the main source of information. Therefore, LA plays an important role in teaching activities planning. Suggestions for adjustments and more flexible learning scenarios are formulated.

  18. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-03-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals.

  19. Total Participation Techniques: Making Every Student an Active Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himmele, Persida; Himmele, William

    2011-01-01

    Yes, there are easy-to-use and incredibly effective alternatives to the "stand and deliver" approach to teaching that causes so many students to tune out--or even drop out. Here's your opportunity to explore dozens of ways to engage K-12 students in active learning and allow them to demonstrate the depth of their knowledge and understanding. The…

  20. Model Eliciting Activities: Fostering 21st Century Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohlmann, Micah

    2013-01-01

    Real world mathematical modeling activities can develop needed and valuable 21st century skills. The knowledge and skills to become adept at mathematical modeling need to develop over time and students in the elementary grades should have experiences with mathematical modeling. For this to occur elementary teachers need to have positive…

  1. Research and Development of Pennsylvania-Specific Adult Learner Competencies in Family, Work, and Community Contexts. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Barbara H.

    The Adult Learner Competencies Project included literature research and consultation with adult education practitioners in Pennsylvania to establish learner competencies that could be used by all adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) providers in the state. During the project, existing and emerging lists of adult learner competencies were…

  2. Does Concept-Mapping Strategy Work for Everyone? The Levels of Generativity and Learners' Self-Regulated Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kyu Yon; Lee, Hyeon Woo; Grabowski, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of concept-mapping strategies with three different generativity levels (expert-generated concept map, partially learner-generated concept map, fully learner-generated concept map) on knowledge acquisition. Interaction between learners' self-regulated learning (SRL) skills and different levels of…

  3. Practices and Prospects of Learner Autonomy: Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Asmari, AbdulRahman

    2013-01-01

    Language learning process works through the learners' own reflection on how they learn and it makes learners active in the sense that they learn to analyze their learning strategies. So they start making decisions, e.g., whether to improve them or not, and in which way. Generally, this trait is missing in traditional language teaching process and…

  4. Testing, Time Limits, and English Learners: Does Age of School Entry Affect How Quickly Students Can Learn English? IESP Working Paper #08-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Dylan

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act requires schools to begin testing new English Learners (EL) in English language arts within three years after they enter school and holds schools accountable for their performance on these exams. Yet very little empirical work has examined exactly how long it takes EL students to become proficient in English and how…

  5. Teacher Education That Works: Preparing Secondary-Level Math and Science Teachers for Success with English Language Learners through Content-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelliCarpini, Margo; Alonso, Orlando B.

    2014-01-01

    Little research exists on effective ways to prepare secondary mathematics and science teachers to work with English language learners (ELLs) in mainstream mathematics and science (subsequently referred to as STEM) classrooms. Given the achievement gap that exists between ELLs and their native-speaking counterparts in STEM subjects, as well as the…

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Working Memory Rating Scale for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Grimm, Ryan; Gerber, Michael; Orosco, Michael; Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS) was designed as a behavioral rating tool to assist teachers in identifying students at risk of working memory difficulties. The instrument was originally normed on 417 monolingual English-speaking children from the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the WMRS…

  7. English Language Learners: Experiences of Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments Who Work with This Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topor, Irene; Rosenblum, L. Penny

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This article presents a study that gathered data from 66 teachers of students with visual impairments about their preparation to work with children who are visually impaired and are learning English, and their knowledge of instructional strategies and methods of instruction. Methods: An online five-part survey was available to…

  8. How Do E-Book Readers Enhance Learning Opportunities for Distance Work-Based Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nie, Ming; Armellini, Alejandro; Witthaus, Gabi; Barklamb, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    We report on the incorporation of e-book readers into the delivery of two distance-taught master's programmes in Occupational Psychology (OP) and one in Education at the University of Leicester, UK. The programmes attract work-based practitioners in OP and Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages, respectively. Challenges in curriculum…

  9. Relationships between Vocabulary Size, Working Memory, and Phonological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Brenda K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goals of this study were to evaluate the impact of short-term phonological awareness (PA) instruction presented in children's first language (L1; Spanish) on gains in their L1 and second language (L2; English) and to determine whether relationships exist between vocabulary size, verbal working memory, and PA in Spanish-speaking…

  10. Identifying and Enhancing the Strengths of Gifted Learners, K-8: Easy-to-Use Activities and Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maccagnano, Ann Marie

    2007-01-01

    Educators can identify children's strengths early on and gain insight into each student's unique abilities by using the numerous ideas and informal assessments in this exciting guide. Gifted and talented specialist Ann Maccagnano offers K-8 teachers challenging activities and engaging lessons to develop and nurture gifted learners' talents.…

  11. Comparison of the Effects of Reflection and Contemplation Activities on Service-Learners' Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Trae; Alrutz, Megan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which service-learners' mindfulness is affected by engagement in reflection (e.g., dialogue) and contemplation activities (e.g., labyrinth tracing). The results are compared within and between treatment groups, while covarying for participants' initial levels of mindfulness. While both dialogue and…

  12. When Are Powerful Learning Environments Effective? The Role of Learner Activities and of Students' Conceptions of Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerjets, Peter H.; Hesse, Friedrich W.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to outline a theoretical and empirical perspective on how learners' conceptions of educational technology might influence their learning activities and thereby determine the power of computer-based learning environments. Starting with an introduction to the concept of powerful learning environments we outline how recent…

  13. The Impact of Vocabulary Enhancement Activities on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention among Male and Female EFL Learners in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Raftari, Shohreh; Bijami, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    In general, incidental vocabulary acquisition is represented as the "picking up" of new vocabularies when students are engaged in a variety of reading, listening, speaking, or writing activities. Research has shown when learners read extensively incidental vocabulary acquisition happens. Many EFL students cannot be involved in reading…

  14. From Passive to Active Learners: The "Lived Experience" of Nurses in a Specialist Nephrology Nursing Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridger, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the lived experience of learning for a group of staff nurses in the Middle East, who undertook a post-registration nursing education programme in the speciality of nephrology nursing (the NNP) between 2001 and 2002. The broad-based curriculum seeks to develop the staff nurses into active learners, able to…

  15. MAI (Multi-Dimensional Activity Based Integrated Approach): A Strategy for Cognitive Development of the Learners at the Elementary Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basantia, Tapan Kumar; Panda, B. N.; Sahoo, Dukhabandhu

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive development of the learners is the prime task of each and every stage of our school education and its importance especially in elementary state is quite worth mentioning. Present study investigated the effectiveness of a new and innovative strategy (i.e., MAI (multi-dimensional activity based integrated approach)) for the development of…

  16. Exploring Shifts in Middle School Learners' Modeling Activity While Generating Drawings, Animations, and Computational Simulations of Molecular Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson-Jerde, Michelle H.; Gravel, Brian E.; Macrander, Christopher A.

    2015-04-01

    Modeling and using technology are two practices of particular interest to K-12 science educators. These practices are inextricably linked among professionals, who engage in modeling activity with and across a variety of representational technologies. In this paper, we explore the practices of five sixth-grade girls as they generated models of smell diffusion using drawing, stop-motion animation, and computational simulation during a multi-day workshop. We analyze video, student discourse, and artifacts to address the questions: In what ways did learners' modeling practices, reasoning about mechanism, and ideas about smell shift as they worked across this variety of representational technologies? And, what supports enabled them to persist and progress in the modeling activity? We found that the girls engaged in two distinct modeling cycles that reflected persistence and deepening engagement in the task. In the first, messing about, they focused on describing and representing many ideas related to the spread of smell at once. In the second, digging in, they focused on testing and revising specific mechanisms that underlie smell diffusion. Upon deeper analysis, we found these cycles were linked to the girls' invention of "oogtom," a representational object that encapsulated many ideas from the first cycle and allowed the girls to restart modeling with the mechanistic focus required to construct simulations. We analyze the role of activity design, facilitation, and technological infrastructure in this pattern of engagement over the course of the workshop and discuss implications for future research, curriculum design, and classroom practice.

  17. Measurement for Work. Teaching Guide and Sample Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Margo; Bolton, Chris

    This document is intended to help Australian technical and further education instructors in New South Wales (TAFE NSW) identify teaching principles and learning activities that they can use to help adult learners master the mathematics processes, knowledge, and skills needed to perform basic measurement tasks in today's workplace. The materials…

  18. A Novel Method for Learner Assessment Based on Learner Annotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noorbehbahani, Fakhroddin; Samani, Elaheh Biglar Beigi; Jazi, Hossein Hadian

    2013-01-01

    Assessment is one of the most essential parts of any instructive learning process which aims to evaluate a learner's knowledge about learning concepts. In this work, a new method for learner assessment based on learner annotations is presented. The proposed method exploits the M-BLEU algorithm to find the most similar reference annotations…

  19. Current Research and Professional Practice: Reports of Work in Progress into the Assessment of Young Language Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea-Dickins, Pauline

    2000-01-01

    Introduces articles that follow discussing research in progress on assessing foreign language learners at the elementary school levels. The articles describe contexts in Austria, Norway, and Italy. (Author/VWL)

  20. Growth in literacy, cognition, and working memory in English language learners.

    PubMed

    Lee Swanson, H; Orosco, Michael J; Lussier, Catherine M

    2015-04-01

    This cohort sequential study explored the components of working memory that underlie English reading and language acquisition in elementary school children whose first language is Spanish. To this end, children (N=410) in Grades 1, 2, and 3 at Wave 1 were administered a battery of cognitive (short-term memory [STM], working memory [WM], rapid naming, phonological processing, and random letter and number generation), vocabulary, and reading measures in both Spanish and English. These same measures were administered 1 and 2 years later. The results showed that (a) a three-factor structure (phonological STM, visual-spatial WM, and verbal WM) captured the data within both language systems, (b) growth in both the executive and STM storage components was uniquely related to growth in second language (L2) reading and language acquisition, and (c) the contribution of growth in the executive component of WM to growth in L2 processing was independent of growth in storage, phonological knowledge, inhibition, and rapid naming speed. The results suggested that growth in the phonological storage system does not supersede growth of the executive component of WM as a major contributor to growth in children's L2 reading and language. PMID:25731085

  1. Growth in literacy, cognition, and working memory in English language learners.

    PubMed

    Lee Swanson, H; Orosco, Michael J; Lussier, Catherine M

    2015-04-01

    This cohort sequential study explored the components of working memory that underlie English reading and language acquisition in elementary school children whose first language is Spanish. To this end, children (N=410) in Grades 1, 2, and 3 at Wave 1 were administered a battery of cognitive (short-term memory [STM], working memory [WM], rapid naming, phonological processing, and random letter and number generation), vocabulary, and reading measures in both Spanish and English. These same measures were administered 1 and 2 years later. The results showed that (a) a three-factor structure (phonological STM, visual-spatial WM, and verbal WM) captured the data within both language systems, (b) growth in both the executive and STM storage components was uniquely related to growth in second language (L2) reading and language acquisition, and (c) the contribution of growth in the executive component of WM to growth in L2 processing was independent of growth in storage, phonological knowledge, inhibition, and rapid naming speed. The results suggested that growth in the phonological storage system does not supersede growth of the executive component of WM as a major contributor to growth in children's L2 reading and language.

  2. Conditions for Apprentices' Learning Activities at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messmann, Gerhard; Mulder, Regina H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how apprentices' learning activities at work can be fostered. This is a crucial issue as learning at work enhances apprentices' competence development and prepares them for professional development on the job. Therefore, we conducted a study with 70 apprentices in the German dual system and examined the…

  3. [Evolution of work duties in manufacturing activities].

    PubMed

    Guerra, F

    2001-01-01

    The present work deals with duties' evolution according to the aspect of the investment's increase in facilities and equipment for employ, of industry-wide agreement, of cost accounting, of added value, of plant lay-out, of job competence and of production technologies. The mutual relation between duties and risk of cumulative trauma disorders is studied in qualitative and quantitative way making use of active and waiting labour time allotment during the labour cycle, rest and fatigue factor, labour losses, collective and individual breaks, high repeated work and worked items' variability. In conclusion the paper presents elements and examples about investments in automation and organisation with relay-out.

  4. Chinese EFL Learners' Noticing of Recasts: Its Relation to Target Structures, Uptake, and Working Memory Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Recasts are one type of corrective feedback that reformulates all or part of a learner's erroneous utterance during communicative interaction without changing the meaning. Categorized as implicit and input-providing corrective feedback, recasts have become the focus of debate in the area of interaction research in recent years. The debate…

  5. Universal Design for Learning in the Classroom: Practical Applications. What Works for Special-Needs Learners Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Tracey E., Ed.; Meyer, Anne, Ed.; Rose, David H., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Clearly written and well organized, this book shows how to apply the principles of universal design for learning (UDL) across all subject areas and grade levels. The editors and contributors describe practical ways to develop classroom goals, assessments, materials, and methods that use UDL to meet the needs of all learners. Specific teaching…

  6. Preparing History Teachers to Work with English Learners through a Focus on the Academic Language of Historical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schall-Leckrone, Laura; McQuillan, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports empirical evidence about the influence of embedding language-based strategies into a history methods course to prepare novice history teachers to teach English learners (ELs). Mixed methods were used in an action research cycle to analyze participants' attitudes and preparedness to teach ELs history before and after being…

  7. The Social Construction of Academic Language in Teacher Education: Preparing Preservice Teachers to Work with English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalzo, Jennifer Noel

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of English language learners enrolled in public schools has brought national attention to issues surrounding the education of linguistically diverse students. Teacher education programs have come under scrutiny for not doing an "adequate job of preparing teachers to teach diverse populations" (Hollins & Guzman, 2005, p. 478).…

  8. Investigative Research: How It Changes Learner Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Brian

    1993-01-01

    What matters about an educational activity is how learners respond to it. This article examines a program concerned with the learners' needs, through the expression of learners' own meanings, and advances the concept of investigative research as a suitable vehicle for more autonomous learning, through a change in learner status. (26 references)…

  9. Supporting a Learner Community with Software Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taurisson, Neil; Tchounikine, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-agent approach that aims at supporting learners involved in a collective activity. We consider pedagogical situations where students have to explicitly define the articulation of their collective work and then achieve the different tasks they have defined. Our objective is to support these students by taking some of…

  10. Activity at work, innovation and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Béguin, P; Duarte, F; Lima, F; Pueyo, V

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present and discuss a French-Brazilian project (CAPES-COFECUB) centered on the relations between sustainable development, innovation and changes in work activities that accompany these innovations for sustainable development. Sustainable development calls for an integrated approach of three dimensions: social equity, economic viability and environmental sustainability. In order to achieve this integration, considerable innovations efforts are required. However, the work, understood as a productive act, is deeply lacking in the current researches. Starting from the idea that work is a "fundamental need" the goal of this project is to propose innovative methods that can be used for designing production systems from the perspective of sustainable development. PMID:22316705

  11. Teacher Perceptions of the Preparation Needed to Work Effectively with English Language Learners in the Secondary Mainstream Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervera, Constance M.

    2013-01-01

    The number of English language learners (ELLs) in the nation's classrooms is over five million, an increase of 57% in the last decade. California alone has 1.4 million ELLs in grades K-12 for the 2011-2012 school year, and one-third are secondary students who need to learn English and content in a very short time. These students usually come from…

  12. An Analysis of Spanish L2 Learners' Orientation through Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tocaimaza-Hatch, C. Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Orientation is defined as the way in which individuals view a task and the means they devise to fulfill it (Appel & Lantolf, 1994; Roebuck, 2000). This study investigated the orientation of twelve learners enrolled in a fourth-semester Spanish L2 university course through the analysis of their interactions during a collaborative…

  13. Mathematics Learning with Multiple Solution Methods: Effects of Types of Solutions and Learners' Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Große, Cornelia S.

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly suggested to mathematics teachers to present learners different methods in order to solve one problem. This so-called "learning with multiple solution methods" is also recommended from a psychological point of view. However, existing research leaves many questions unanswered, particularly concerning the effects of…

  14. The effects of data-driven learning activities on EFL learners' writing development.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qinqin

    2016-01-01

    Data-driven learning has been proved as an effective approach in helping learners solve various writing problems such as correcting lexical or grammatical errors, improving the use of collocations and generating ideas in writing, etc. This article reports on an empirical study in which data-driven learning was accomplished with the assistance of the user-friendly BNCweb, and presents the evaluation of the outcome by comparing the effectiveness of BNCweb and a search engine Baidu which is most commonly used as reference resource by Chinese learners of English as a foreign language. The quantitative results about 48 Chinese college students revealed that the experimental group which used BNCweb performed significantly better in the post-test in terms of writing fluency and accuracy, as compared with the control group which used the search engine Baidu. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of writing complexity. The qualitative results about the interview revealed that learners generally showed a positive attitude toward the use of BNCweb but there were still some problems of using corpora in the writing process, thus the combined use of corpora and other types of reference resource was suggested as a possible way to counter the potential barriers for Chinese learners of English. PMID:27536538

  15. Activities for Challenging Gifted Learners by Increasing Complexity in the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeone, Alyssa; Caruso, Lenora; Bettle, Kailyn; Chase, Ashley; Bryson, Bridget; Schneider, Jean S.; Rule, Audrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Gifted learners need opportunities for critical and creative thinking to stretch their minds and imaginations. Strategies for increasing complexity in the four core areas of language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies were addressed using the Common Core and Iowa Core Standards through several methods. Descriptive adjective object…

  16. Impact of Consciousness-Raising Activities on Young English Language Learners' Grammar Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatemipour, Hamidreza; Hemmati, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Grammar Consciousness-Raising (GCR) is an approach to teaching of grammar which learners instead of being taught the given rules, experience language data. The data challenge them to rethink, restructure their existing mental grammar and construct an explicit rule to describe the grammatical feature which the data illustrate (Ellis, 2002). And…

  17. The effects of data-driven learning activities on EFL learners' writing development.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qinqin

    2016-01-01

    Data-driven learning has been proved as an effective approach in helping learners solve various writing problems such as correcting lexical or grammatical errors, improving the use of collocations and generating ideas in writing, etc. This article reports on an empirical study in which data-driven learning was accomplished with the assistance of the user-friendly BNCweb, and presents the evaluation of the outcome by comparing the effectiveness of BNCweb and a search engine Baidu which is most commonly used as reference resource by Chinese learners of English as a foreign language. The quantitative results about 48 Chinese college students revealed that the experimental group which used BNCweb performed significantly better in the post-test in terms of writing fluency and accuracy, as compared with the control group which used the search engine Baidu. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of writing complexity. The qualitative results about the interview revealed that learners generally showed a positive attitude toward the use of BNCweb but there were still some problems of using corpora in the writing process, thus the combined use of corpora and other types of reference resource was suggested as a possible way to counter the potential barriers for Chinese learners of English.

  18. Developing Learners' Second Language Communicative Competence through Active Learning: Clickers or Communicative Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of clickers, the communicative approach and the lecture method on the communicative competence development of learners who were taught English a second language (ESL). Ninety nine pupils from three primary schools participated in the study. Quasi-experimental non-randomised pre-test posttest…

  19. Active Lessons for Active Brains: Teaching Boys and Other Experiential Learners, Grades 3-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Abigail Norfleet; Allison, Sandra Boyd; McKenzie, Caitlin Zimmerman

    2011-01-01

    If you're tired of repeating yourself to students who aren't listening, try a little less talk and a lot more action. The authors follow the best-selling "Teaching the Male Brain and Teaching the Female Brain" with this ready-to-use collection of mathematics, language arts, science, and classroom management strategies. Designed for active,…

  20. Heritability of working memory brain activation.

    PubMed

    Blokland, Gabriëlla A M; McMahon, Katie L; Thompson, Paul M; Martin, Nicholas G; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Wright, Margaret J

    2011-07-27

    Although key to understanding individual variation in task-related brain activation, the genetic contribution to these individual differences remains largely unknown. Here we report voxel-by-voxel genetic model fitting in a large sample of 319 healthy, young adult, human identical and fraternal twins (mean ± SD age, 23.6 ± 1.8 years) who performed an n-back working memory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at a high magnetic field (4 tesla). Patterns of task-related brain response (BOLD signal difference of 2-back minus 0-back) were significantly heritable, with the highest estimates (40-65%) in the inferior, middle, and superior frontal gyri, left supplementary motor area, precentral and postcentral gyri, middle cingulate cortex, superior medial gyrus, angular gyrus, superior parietal lobule, including precuneus, and superior occipital gyri. Furthermore, high test-retest reliability for a subsample of 40 twins indicates that nongenetic variance in the fMRI brain response is largely due to unique environmental influences rather than measurement error. Individual variations in activation of the working memory network are therefore significantly influenced by genetic factors. By establishing the heritability of cognitive brain function in a large sample that affords good statistical power, and using voxel-by-voxel analyses, this study provides the necessary evidence for task-related brain activation to be considered as an endophenotype for psychiatric or neurological disorders, and represents a substantial new contribution to the field of neuroimaging genetics. These genetic brain maps should facilitate discovery of gene variants influencing cognitive brain function through genome-wide association studies, potentially opening up new avenues in the treatment of brain disorders. PMID:21795540

  1. Objects prompt authentic scientific activities among learners in a museum programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achiam, Marianne; Simony, Leonora; Kramer Lindow, Bent Erik

    2016-04-01

    Although the scientific disciplines conduct practical work in different ways, all consider practical work as the essential way of connecting objects and phenomena with ideas and the abstract. Accordingly, practical work is regarded as central to science education as well. We investigate a practical, object-based palaeontology programme at a natural history museum to identify how palaeontological objects prompt scientific activity among upper secondary school students. We first construct a theoretical framework based on an analysis of the programme's palaeontological content. From this, we build our reference model, which considers the specimens used in the programme, possible palaeontological interpretations of these specimens, and the conditions inherent in the programme. We use the reference model to analyse the activities of programme participants, and illustrate how these activities are palaeontologically authentic. Finally, we discuss our findings, examining the mechanism by which the specimens prompt scientific activities. We also discuss our discipline-based approach, and how it allows us to positively identify participants' activities as authentic. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings.

  2. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK WORKS BOTH WAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, P.-C.; Middelberg, E.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Norris, R. P.

    2013-09-01

    Simulations of galaxy growth need to invoke strong negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to suppress the formation of stars and thus prevent the over-production of very massive systems. While some observations provide evidence for such negative feedback, other studies find either no feedback or even positive feedback, with increased star formation associated with higher AGN luminosities. Here we report an analysis of several hundred AGNs and their host galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South using X-ray and radio data for sample selection. Combined with archival far-infrared data as a reliable tracer of star formation activity in the AGN host galaxies, we find that AGNs with pronounced radio jets exhibit a much higher star formation rate (SFR) than the purely X-ray-selected ones, even at the same X-ray luminosities. This difference implies that positive AGN feedback plays an important role, too, and therefore has to be accounted for in all future simulation work. We interpret this to indicate that the enhanced SFR of radio-selected AGNs arises because of jet-induced star formation, as is suggested by the different jet powers among our AGN samples, while the suppressed SFR of X-ray selected AGN is caused by heating and photo-dissociation of molecular gas by the hot AGN accretion disk.

  3. Using Reference Materials: An Activity that Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A common complaint of employers of entry-level workers is that those workers have no understanding of how to work as a member of a team. Cooperative learning is a step in that direction. Working together toward a common goal is an admirable quest: however, within this system the wayward student occasionally is allowed to "coast" while the…

  4. Group Work vs. Whole Class Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanveer, Asma

    2008-01-01

    Group work has only been recently introduced in the education system of Pakistan but many primary teachers, especially in the public schools, are still not aware of how different kinds of strategies that is group work and whole class teaching facilitate learning among students. This paper aims to provide an overview of teaching strategies to…

  5. Using What Learners Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Mary; Adams, Sharon

    2000-01-01

    This issue of "TAP into Learning" focuses on technology-assisted learning activities for students, in particular on those that use spreadsheets. Articles include: "Using What Learners Know"; "Activity: Grade 7 and 8 Math, Social Studies and Language Arts"; "Managing Growth: Collaborative Decision-Making in Urban Planning"; "Spreadsheets"; "Getting…

  6. Participatory Multimedia Learning: Engaging Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiili, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a participatory multimedia learning model for use in designing multimedia learning environments that support an active learning process, creative participation, and learner engagement. Participatory multimedia learning can be defined as learning with systems that enable learners to produce part of the…

  7. Exploring Work: Fun Activities for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA. Women's Educational Equity Act Dissemination Center.

    This document contains learning activities to help middle school girls begin the career planning process and resist gender-role stereotyping. The activities are designed for individuals and/or groups of girls either in classroom settings or in organizations such as Girl Scouts and 4-H Clubs. A total of 30 activities are organized into 4 sections…

  8. Growth in working memory and inhibition predicts literacy in English language learners: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Swanson, H Lee

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cross-sectional and growth effects in second language (L2) literacy are related to the executive component of working memory (WM) and whether inhibition may underlie the links between WM and reading in children whose first language (L1) is Spanish. Elementary school children (grades 1, 2 and 3) were administered a battery of cognitive [WM, short-term memory (STM), random generation, rapid naming, phonological processing], vocabulary and reading measures in both Spanish (L1) and English (L2) in Year 1 and again one year later. The regression analyses showed that L2 growth in WM significantly predicted growth in L2 reading skills even when inhibition was controlled. Further, the contributions of WM to reading growth in both L1 and L2 reading were independent of cross-language skills in phonological processing, STM, oral language and naming speed. Overall, the results suggest the mental activities that underlie WM and inhibition in predictions of L2 literacy reflect independent executive processes.

  9. Adult Learners' Week in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John

    2002-01-01

    Promotional materials and activities for Australia's Adult Learners Week, which are shaped by a variety of stakeholders , include media strategies and a website. Activities are evaluated using a market research company and website and telephone hotline statistics. (SK)

  10. Learner Agency within the Design of an EAP Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seppälä, Riina

    2015-01-01

    To meet the demands of today's society and working life, higher education should support the development of learner agency. How the agency of individual learners emerges in university courses and what kind of agency empowers the learners to face new challenges should be considered. In this article, the focus is on learner agency enabled and…

  11. The Effects of Pragmatic Consciousness-Raising Activities on the Development of Pragmatic Awareness and Use of Hearsay Evidential Markers for Learners of Japanese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narita, Ritsuko

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the effectiveness of pragmatic consciousness-raising (PCR) activities in the L2 pragmatic acquisition of hearsay evidential markers by learners of Japanese as a foreign language (JFL). PCR is essentially an inductive approach to facilitating awareness of how language forms are used appropriately in a given context.…

  12. The Development and Evaluation of an Achievement Test for Measuring the Efficacy of Task-Based Writing Activities to Enhance Iranian EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejad, Ferdows Mohsen; Khosravian, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability of an achievement test to measure the efficacy of task-based writing activities to improve Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension at the intermediate level in a private language institute in Ilam, Iran, namely Alefba language institute. To achieve the goal, the techniques for evaluating reliability…

  13. Active microwave users working group program planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Bare, J.; Brown, W. E., Jr.; Childs, L. F.; Dellwig, L. F.; Heighway, J. E.; Joosten, R.; Lewis, A. J.; Linlor, W.; Lundien, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed programmatic and technical development plan for active microwave technology was examined in each of four user activities: (1) vegetation; (2) water resources and geologic applications, and (4) oceanographic applications. Major application areas were identified, and the impact of each application area in terms of social and economic gains were evaluated. The present state of knowledge of the applicability of active microwave remote sensing to each application area was summarized and its role relative to other remote sensing devices was examined. The analysis and data acquisition techniques needed to resolve the effects of interference factors were reviewed to establish an operational capability in each application area. Flow charts of accomplished and required activities in each application area that lead to operational capability were structured.

  14. Why activity-based costing works.

    PubMed

    Gabram, S G; Mendola, R A; Rozenfeld, J; Gamelli, R L

    1997-01-01

    With advancing technology and the quest for delineating the true cost of a procedure or diagnostic test, cost accounting techniques are being re-explored in the health care setting. Activity-based costing (ABC), adopted from other businesses, is one such example that has applications in the health industry. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of health care costs among physician providers, emphasizing a new approach--activity-based costing. PMID:10169347

  15. Why activity-based costing works.

    PubMed

    Gabram, S G; Mendola, R A; Rozenfeld, J; Gamelli, R L

    1997-01-01

    With advancing technology and the quest for delineating the true cost of a procedure or diagnostic test, cost accounting techniques are being re-explored in the health care setting. Activity-based costing (ABC), adopted from other businesses, is one such example that has applications in the health industry. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of health care costs among physician providers, emphasizing a new approach--activity-based costing.

  16. Where's the Evidence that Active Learning Works?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Calls for reforms in the ways we teach science at all levels, and in all disciplines, are wide spread. The effectiveness of the changes being called for, employment of student-centered, active learning pedagogy, is now well supported by evidence. The relevant data have come from a number of different disciplines that include the learning sciences,…

  17. Peace Works: Classroom Activities for Peacemaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Classroom activities for examining effects of war and contemplating world peace are derived from the story of Sadako, a Japanese girl who died as a result of atomic bomb radiation. Making paper cranes, as Sadako did, and participating in schoolwide programs are suggested for primary, middle, and upper grades. (SLD)

  18. "Dealing With" Unexpected Learner Contributions in Whole Group Activities: An Examination of Novice Language Teacher Discursive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Drew S.

    2012-01-01

    The current paper examines the discursive practices of one novice English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher "dealing with" learners' unexpected contributions in whole group classroom interactions during teacher- and learner-initiated sequences-of-talk. The study draws from two fields of research: classroom discourse studies…

  19. The Influence of Working Memory and Phonological Processing on English Language Learner Children's Bilingual Reading and Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee; Orosco, Michael J.; Lussier, Cathy M.; Gerber, Michael M.; Guzman-Orth, Danielle A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we explored whether the contribution of working memory (WM) to children's (N = 471) 2nd language (L2) reading and language acquisition was best accounted for by processing efficiency at a phonological level and/or by executive processes independent of phonological processing. Elementary school children (Grades 1, 2, & 3) whose 1st…

  20. Trainers and Learners Constructing a Community of Practice: Masculine Work Cultures and Learning Safety in the Mining Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Margaret; Abrahamsson, Lena

    2003-01-01

    Interviews and observations involving 20 coal miners and 7 trainers found the group constructed a community of practice that reinforced the culture of masculinity. Miners learned safety measures through experience and from coworkers. Trainers viewed their work as simulated environments and codified practices, which implicitly devalue experiential…

  1. Objects Prompt Authentic Scientific Activities among Learners in a Museum Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achiam, Marianne; Simony, Leonora; Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    2016-01-01

    Although the scientific disciplines conduct practical work in different ways, all consider practical work as the essential way of connecting objects and phenomena with ideas and the abstract. Accordingly, practical work is regarded as central to science "education" as well. We investigate a practical, object-based palaeontology programme…

  2. Are One-to-One Computers Necessary? An Analysis of Collaborative Web Exploration Activities Supported by Shared Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chia-Jung; Liu, Chen-Chung; Shen, Yan-Jhih

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative web exploration, in which learners work together to explore the World Wide Web, has become a key learning activity in education contexts. Learners can use a shared computer with a shared display to explore the web together. However, such a shared-computer approach may limit active participation among learners. To address this issue,…

  3. Language through the Seasons: Dramatic Play Activities for Early Childhood Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amdur, Judith

    This workbook brings together activities to aid in motivating children to concentrate, listen, respond, think, and learn. The activities rely upon play-like tasks involving drama, music, and other forms of creative expression. The activities are organized by the season in which they are appropriate and include songs, dramatic sequences, stories,…

  4. Activity Based Learning as Self-Accessing Strategy to Promote Learners' Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravi, R.; Xavier, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Activity Based Learning (ABL) is unique and effective to attract out-of -school children to schools. It facilitates readiness for learning, instruction, reinforcement and evaluation. ABL has transformed the classrooms into hubs of activities and meaningful learning. Activity-based learning, naturally leads to cooperative learning. Since group…

  5. 29 CFR 525.23 - Work activities centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Work activities centers. 525.23 Section 525.23 Labor... OF WORKERS WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.23 Work activities centers. Nothing in these regulations shall be interpreted to prevent an employer from maintaining or establishing...

  6. 29 CFR 525.23 - Work activities centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Work activities centers. 525.23 Section 525.23 Labor... OF WORKERS WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.23 Work activities centers. Nothing in these regulations shall be interpreted to prevent an employer from maintaining or establishing...

  7. 29 CFR 525.23 - Work activities centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work activities centers. 525.23 Section 525.23 Labor... OF WORKERS WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.23 Work activities centers. Nothing in these regulations shall be interpreted to prevent an employer from maintaining or establishing...

  8. The Structural Challenge: A Simple Design-Based Science Activity to Foster Creativity among Kinaesthetic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Nazir; Subramaniam, R.

    2014-01-01

    A suitable way for teachers to present science content and foster creativity in less academically inclined students is by getting them to engage in design-based science activities and guiding them along the way. This study illustrates how a design-and-make activity was carried out with the aim of getting students to showcase their creativity while…

  9. Learner Uptake and Acquisition in Three Grammar-Oriented Production Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinders, Hayo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of three types of production activities on uptake (operationalized as correct suppliance of the target structure during the treatment) and acquisition of negative adverbs in English. It also investigates the relationship between uptake and acquisition. The three production activities included a dictation, an…

  10. Invisible Brain: Knowledge in Research Works and Neuron Activity.

    PubMed

    Segev, Aviv; Curtis, Dorothy; Jung, Sukhwan; Chae, Suhyun

    2016-01-01

    If the market has an invisible hand, does knowledge creation and representation have an "invisible brain"? While knowledge is viewed as a product of neuron activity in the brain, can we identify knowledge that is outside the brain but reflects the activity of neurons in the brain? This work suggests that the patterns of neuron activity in the brain can be seen in the representation of knowledge-related activity. Here we show that the neuron activity mechanism seems to represent much of the knowledge learned in the past decades based on published articles, in what can be viewed as an "invisible brain" or collective hidden neural networks. Similar results appear when analyzing knowledge activity in patents. Our work also tries to characterize knowledge increase as neuron network activity growth. The results propose that knowledge-related activity can be seen outside of the neuron activity mechanism. Consequently, knowledge might exist as an independent mechanism. PMID:27439199

  11. Invisible Brain: Knowledge in Research Works and Neuron Activity

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Aviv; Curtis, Dorothy; Jung, Sukhwan; Chae, Suhyun

    2016-01-01

    If the market has an invisible hand, does knowledge creation and representation have an “invisible brain”? While knowledge is viewed as a product of neuron activity in the brain, can we identify knowledge that is outside the brain but reflects the activity of neurons in the brain? This work suggests that the patterns of neuron activity in the brain can be seen in the representation of knowledge-related activity. Here we show that the neuron activity mechanism seems to represent much of the knowledge learned in the past decades based on published articles, in what can be viewed as an “invisible brain” or collective hidden neural networks. Similar results appear when analyzing knowledge activity in patents. Our work also tries to characterize knowledge increase as neuron network activity growth. The results propose that knowledge-related activity can be seen outside of the neuron activity mechanism. Consequently, knowledge might exist as an independent mechanism. PMID:27439199

  12. Role of Prefrontal Persistent Activity in Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Mitchell R.; Constantinidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is activated during working memory, as evidenced by fMRI results in human studies and neurophysiological recordings in animal models. Persistent activity during the delay period of working memory tasks, after the offset of stimuli that subjects are required to remember, has traditionally been thought of as the neural correlate of working memory. In the last few years several findings have cast doubt on the role of this activity. By some accounts, activity in other brain areas, such as the primary visual and posterior parietal cortex, is a better predictor of information maintained in visual working memory and working memory performance; dynamic patterns of activity may convey information without requiring persistent activity at all; and prefrontal neurons may be ill-suited to represent non-spatial information about the features and identity of remembered stimuli. Alternative interpretations about the role of the prefrontal cortex have thus been suggested, such as that it provides a top-down control of information represented in other brain areas, rather than maintaining a working memory trace itself. Here we review evidence for and against the role of prefrontal persistent activity, with a focus on visual neurophysiology. We show that persistent activity predicts behavioral parameters precisely in working memory tasks. We illustrate that prefrontal cortex represents features of stimuli other than their spatial location, and that this information is largely absent from early cortical areas during working memory. We examine memory models not dependent on persistent activity, and conclude that each of those models could mediate only a limited range of memory-dependent behaviors. We review activity decoded from brain areas other than the prefrontal cortex during working memory and demonstrate that these areas alone cannot mediate working memory maintenance, particularly in the presence of distractors. We finally discuss the discrepancy between

  13. The Cerebral Basis for Language Learner Strategies: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Osamu; Ikeda, Maiko; Mizumoto, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we validate Macaro's (2006) model of strategy use among language learners by assessing the amount of neural activity around the prefrontal cortex, the supposed locus of working memory (WM). We also examine whether WM activation during first language (L1) strategy deployment is lower than WM activation during second language (L2)…

  14. The Effect of a Timed Reading Activity on EFL Learners: Speed, Comprehension, and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Anna C-S

    2010-01-01

    To develop reading fluency, a 13-week timed reading activity was integrated into a normal curriculum with the aim of improving students' reading rates. Participants were 84 college students divided into an experimental and a control group. The test instruments involved pretests and posttests on reading speed and comprehension. Students'…

  15. Research on the Healthy Lifestyle Model, Active Ageing, and Loneliness of Senior Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Jui-Ying; Lu, Kuo-Song

    2014-01-01

    Taiwan has the fastest ageing population in the world. Thus, the government and local policy makers need to formulate policies not just for the nursing and care needs of the aged. They also need to actively promote the need for lifelong learning among seniors in order to achieve elderly-friendly objectives, such as health promotion and delays in…

  16. The Effect of Curricular Activities on Learner Autonomy: The Perspective of Undergraduate Mechanical Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, M.; Leite, C.; Mouraz, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study researches how first-year engineering students perceived the influence of curricular activities on their own learning autonomy, measured with an adaptation of the Personal Responsibility Orientation to Self-direction in Learning Scale (PRO-SDLS). Participants were questioned to assess the influence of the teacher's role. The results…

  17. Growing into Greatness: A Study of a Local History Group of Active-Retired Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Trudy; Byrne, Brid; Harris, Phyllis; Lalor, Maureen; O'Connor, Maura; O'Reilly, Kathleen; Quinn, Frank; Forde, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Research in Canada on the learning needs of older people looked at such issues as how to cope with changes in society, the need to make a contribution and the need to be influential. The White Paper on Adult Education "Learning for Life" notes that strategies for active ageing stress the critical importance of access to learning as a key tool in…

  18. The Effect of Post-Teaching Activity Type on Vocabulary Learning of Elementary EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Karim; Sharifi, Faranak

    2013-01-01

    Considering the significant role of vocabulary in learning a language, and teachers' great responsibility in providing opportunities to facilitate this learning, many studies have focused on the best means of achieving a good knowledge of vocabulary. This study set out to investigate the effect of four post-teaching activities, namely game,…

  19. Turning Reluctant Learners into Inspired Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanacore, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Motivation is a key factor in promoting academic success, and intrinsic motivation is especially important for developing autonomous learners. Reluctant learners, in particular, benefit from intrinsic motivation that makes learning relevant to their lives. In this article, the author describes commonalities of reluctant learners and presents…

  20. 20 CFR 220.142 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the claimant does his or her work satisfactorily, this may show that the claimant is working at the substantial gainful activity level. If the claimant is unable, because of his or her impairments, to do... level. (b) How well the claimant performs. The Board considers how well the claimant does his or...

  1. 20 CFR 220.142 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the claimant does his or her work satisfactorily, this may show that the claimant is working at the substantial gainful activity level. If the claimant is unable, because of his or her impairments, to do... level. (b) How well the claimant performs. The Board considers how well the claimant does his or...

  2. 20 CFR 220.142 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the claimant does his or her work satisfactorily, this may show that the claimant is working at the substantial gainful activity level. If the claimant is unable, because of his or her impairments, to do... level. (b) How well the claimant performs. The Board considers how well the claimant does his or...

  3. Maternal work and children's diet, activity, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy; Shier, Victoria

    2014-04-01

    Mothers' work hours are likely to affect their time allocation towards activities related to children's diet, activity and well-being. For example, mothers who work more may be more reliant on processed foods, foods prepared away from home and school meal programs for their children's meals. A greater number of work hours may also lead to more unsupervised time for children that may, in turn, allow for an increase in unhealthy behaviors among their children such as snacking and sedentary activities such as TV watching. Using data on a national cohort of children, we examine the relationship between mothers' average weekly work hours during their children's school years on children's dietary and activity behaviors, BMI and obesity in 5th and 8th grade. Our results are consistent with findings from the literature that maternal work hours are positively associated with children's BMI and obesity especially among children with higher socioeconomic status. Unlike previous papers, our detailed data on children's behaviors allow us to speak directly to affected behaviors that may contribute to the increased BMI. We show that children whose mothers work more consume more unhealthy foods (e.g. soda, fast food) and less healthy foods (e.g. fruits, vegetables, milk) and watch more television. Although they report being slightly more physically active, likely due to organized physical activities, the BMI and obesity results suggest that the deterioration in diet and increase in sedentary behaviors dominate.

  4. The Influence of Acute Physical Activity on Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Zach, Sima; Shalom, Eyal

    2016-04-01

    The effect of three types of physical activity on two types of working memory were investigated. Participants were 20 adult males who trained twice a week in volleyball two hours per session. Procedures included two pre and post intervention tests of working memory: the Digit span and Visual Memory Span subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Interventions included tactical volleyball formation, body-weight resistance exercises, 15 minutes of running, and sub-maximal aerobic activity. Volleyball activity improved memory performance to a greater extent than the other two activities. Results indicate that immediately after acute exercise there is an increase in working memory function, more evident after physical activity in which cognitive functioning is inherent. PMID:27166321

  5. The Influence of Acute Physical Activity on Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Zach, Sima; Shalom, Eyal

    2016-04-01

    The effect of three types of physical activity on two types of working memory were investigated. Participants were 20 adult males who trained twice a week in volleyball two hours per session. Procedures included two pre and post intervention tests of working memory: the Digit span and Visual Memory Span subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Interventions included tactical volleyball formation, body-weight resistance exercises, 15 minutes of running, and sub-maximal aerobic activity. Volleyball activity improved memory performance to a greater extent than the other two activities. Results indicate that immediately after acute exercise there is an increase in working memory function, more evident after physical activity in which cognitive functioning is inherent.

  6. Making Learning Communities Work: The Critical Role of Leader as Learner. New Directions for School Leadership. The Jossey-Bass Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Bogert, Rebecca, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Educational literature is replete with calls for schools to become learning communities. Educational leaders are charged with creating organizations that enhance adult as well as student growth. This publication was written by members of a community of learners who are deeply involved in an ongoing struggle of almost 2 decades to create…

  7. 20 CFR 404.1573 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General information about work activity. 404.1573 Section 404.1573 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful Activity §...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1573 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General information about work activity. 404.1573 Section 404.1573 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful Activity §...

  9. Learner Personas in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude

    2007-01-01

    In examining the titles of this year's conference presentations, the author noticed quite a few papers that focus on learner-specific issues, for instance, papers that address learning styles, learner needs, personality and learning, learner modeling and, more generally, pedagogical issues that deal with individual learner differences in…

  10. Cultural leisure activities, recovery and work engagement among hospital employees

    PubMed Central

    TUISKU, Katinka; VIRTANEN, Marianna; DE BLOOM, Jessica; KINNUNEN, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between cultural leisure activities, recovery experiences and two outcomes among hospital workers. The differences in recovery experiences (detachment, relaxation, mastery and control) and outcomes (work engagement and subjective recovery state) among hospital personnel (N=769) were analysed by the type (receptive or creative) and frequency of cultural activities. The cross-sectional data were collected by a digital questionnaire. Employees who reported both receptive and creative cultural leisure activities on a weekly basis had the highest relaxation, mastery and control experiences during off-job time. In addition, those with weekly creative activities had beneficial mastery experiences. There were no differences in recovery outcomes after adjustment for age, except in work engagement. Cultural leisure activities, and creative activities in particular, play an important role in certain aspects of recovery. PMID:26829973

  11. Preliminary Work Domain Analysis for Human Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Kerry; Miller, Matthew; Feigh, Karen

    2015-01-01

    A work domain analysis (WDA) of human extravehicular activity (EVA) is presented in this study. A formative methodology such as Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) offers a new perspective to the knowledge gained from the past 50 years of living and working in space for the development of future EVA support systems. EVA is a vital component of human spaceflight and provides a case study example of applying a work domain analysis (WDA) to a complex sociotechnical system. The WDA presented here illustrates how the physical characteristics of the environment, hardware, and life support systems of the domain guide the potential avenues and functional needs of future EVA decision support system development.

  12. Staff Development for Teaching Slow Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leff, Rhona

    2008-01-01

    If you have noticed that your teachers need more "tricks up their sleeves" for working with slow learners, you can initiate a staff-development plan for changing that. Here are some suggestions for using the time, resources, and staff that you already have to improve the teaching of slow learners.

  13. Flexible Querying of Lifelong Learner Metadata

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulovassilis, A.; Selmer, P.; Wood, P. T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the provision of flexible querying facilities over heterogeneous data arising from lifelong learners' educational and work experiences. A key aim of such querying facilities is to allow learners to identify possible choices for their future learning and professional development by seeing what others have done. We motivate and…

  14. TRANSLATE: New Strategic Approaches for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Jiménez, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This teaching tip shares a research-based instructional model that uses translation to improve the English reading comprehension of English Learners. Within this instruction, English learners work collaboratively in small groups and use translation to facilitate understandings of their required English language arts curriculum. Students are taught…

  15. Examining Student Cognitive and Affective Engagement and Reading Instructional Activities: Spanish-Speaking English Learners' Reading Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Ana Taboada; Gallagher, Melissa; Smith, Peet; Buehl, Michelle M.; Beck, Jori S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the key role of engagement in helping students succeed in school and beyond. Given the academic struggles that many English learners (ELs) face as they transition to middle school, exploring the facets of engagement in middle school ELs is needed. We established reader profiles for eight sixth grade Hispanic ELs and…

  16. We Are What We Do: Examining Learner-Generated Content in the Anatomy Laboratory through the Lens of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doubleday, Alison F.; Wille, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Video and photography are often used for delivering content within the anatomical sciences. However, instructors typically produce these resources to provide instructional or procedural information. Although the benefits of learner-generated content have been explored within educational research, virtually no studies have investigated the use of…

  17. Teacher-Made Tactile Science Materials with Critical and Creative Thinking Activities for Learners Including Those with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teske, Jolene K.; Gray, Phyllis; Kuhn, Mason A.; Clausen, Courtney K.; Smith, Latisha L.; Alsubia, Sukainah A.; Ghayoorad, Maryam; Rule, Audrey C.; Schneider, Jean Suchsland

    2014-01-01

    Gifted students with visual impairments are twice exceptional learners and may not evidence their advanced science aptitudes without appropriate accommodations for learning science. However, effective tactile science teaching materials may be easily made. Recent research has shown that when tactile materials are used with "all" students…

  18. Morphing into Adolescents: Active Word Learning for English-Language Learners and Their Classmates in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2010-01-01

    Many students arrive at middle school without the academic language skills they need to read sophisticated texts with comprehension. In particular, English language learners and students from low-income backgrounds attending underresourced, urban middle schools lack opportunities to learn the thousands of academic words they need to succeed. To…

  19. Style Shifts among Japanese Learners before and after Study Abroad in Japan: Becoming Active Social Agents in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwasaki, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on L2 Japanese sojourners often reported that learners overuse the plain style or haphazardly mix the plain and polite styles upon return. These styles, which are often associated with formal or informal contexts, also index complex social and situational meanings, and native speakers are reported to shift their styles to create…

  20. Education of natural science in the work of the Municipal Center for Extracurricular Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokin, I.

    2012-04-01

    In the description of my work I presented my own experience in the organizing and carrying out of extracurricular activities with the students, the used modes and methods of work, the obtained results and some good practices in the field of natural sciences. Organizing and carrying out of scientific festivals, participation in joint projects together with scientific organizations. Key words: European dimension, interactive methods, key competences, natural sciences, extracurricular activities. We are witnesses of a fundamental change in the pedagogical culture and practice in our schools to establish the parameters of the quality of training. The good scientific culture is an important part of the students' education. Unfortunately, at the present time the scientific and technological culture is on a low level. One of the contemporary problems and realities of the education in natural science school subjects, as a whole and in particular in the secondary education, is the decreased interest for the training in them and in particular in physics, as well as synchronization of the interrelations: school environment - society. In many countries there is a drop in the orientation of the students towards the science and technology - the problem of Science and Technology (S&T). The training of the young people often creates some problems. The teachers meet with the problem of insufficient motivation of the learners for study and difficulties that they encounter in the process of training. The students find it difficult to apply the mastered knowledge to an applied context. The knowledge is rather academic and rather remote from the context, in which the children live and communicate, which makes it nonfunctional. At present there are not enough extracurricular activities that should meet these necessities of the Bulgarian school. The reasons are various, but they mainly consist in the lack of a material base, an exchange of experience and good practices and motivation

  1. Science Activities That Work: Perceptions of Primary School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleton, Ken

    2002-06-01

    Many primary school teachers in Australia tend to be reluctant to teach science, partly because they are not confident in science and have limited science background knowledge. However, quite a number of primary school teachers still manage to teach some science. When they plan to teach science, many of them use the term science activities that work. Such activities seem to be related to science pedagogical content knowledge for some primary teachers. In order to better understand what the term activities that work means, twenty teachers from several schools were interviewed and asked what they understood by this expression. Themes that emerged suggest that activities that work are hands on, are interesting and motivating for the children, have a clear outcome or result, are manageable in the classroom, use equipment that is readily available, and are preferably used in a context where science is integrated into themes. Implications for curriculum and for preservice teacher education are considered.

  2. An Assessment-Prescriptive-Instructional Packet for Older Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Alice M.

    The purpose of this document is to suggest an assessment/prescriptive/instructional (API) process for working with older learners experiencing reading difficulties. Following a justification for the designing of materials specifically for older learners, the document explains how to collect data about learner's interests, attitudes, and reading…

  3. Working memory delay activity predicts individual differences in cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Fukuda, Keisuke; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K

    2015-05-01

    A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between estimates of working memory and cognitive abilities. Yet, the neural mechanisms that account for these relations are still not very well understood. The current study explored whether individual differences in working memory delay activity would be a significant predictor of cognitive abilities. A large number of participants performed multiple measures of capacity, attention control, long-term memory, working memory span, and fluid intelligence, and latent variable analyses were used to examine the data. During two working memory change detection tasks, we acquired EEG data and examined the contralateral delay activity. The results demonstrated that the contralateral delay activity was significantly related to cognitive abilities, and importantly these relations were because of individual differences in both capacity and attention control. These results suggest that individual differences in working memory delay activity predict individual differences in a broad range of cognitive abilities, and this is because of both differences in the number of items that can be maintained and the ability to control access to working memory. PMID:25436671

  4. Working Memory Delay Activity Predicts Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Unsworth, Nash; Fukuda, Keisuke; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K.

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between estimates of working memory and cognitive abilities. Yet, the neural mechanisms that account for these relations are still not very well understood. The current study explored whether individual differences in working memory delay activity would be a significant predictor of cognitive abilities. A large number of participants performed multiple measures of capacity, attention control, long-term memory, working memory span, and fluid intelligence, and latent variable analyses were used to examine the data. During two working memory change detection tasks, we acquired EEG data and examined the contra-lateral delay activity. The results demonstrated that the contralateral delay activity was significantly related to cognitive abilities, and importantly these relations were because of individual differences in both capacity and attention control. These results suggest that individual differences in working memory delay activity predict individual differences in a broad range of cognitive abilities, and this is because of both differences in the number of items that can be maintained and the ability to control access to working memory. PMID:25436671

  5. Spicing Up Information Literacy Tutorials: Interactive Class Activities that Worked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovic, Neda

    2010-01-01

    Constructivist learning theories promote students' engagement as one of the key factors in successful learning and knowledge building. Research indicates that the short attention span of adult learners, their need to "learn-by-doing," interact and multitask in the learning process can be accommodated with a positive outcome by introducing…

  6. School to Work: Using Active Learning to Teach Business Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmas, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    To succeed as tomorrow's workers in the knowledge society of the new century--a world characterized by ceaseless change, boundless knowledge and endless doubt, today's business writing students must develop the skills and traits needed to become creative problem-solvers, flexible team-players and risk-taking life-time learners (Bereiter, 2002a).…

  7. Perception of Learner Proficiency: Its Impact on the Interaction between an ESL Learner and Her Higher and Lower Proficiency Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Yuko; Swain, Merrill

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we explore one aspect of language awareness that has rarely been explored--awareness (i.e. perception) of the language proficiency of the "other learner" in pair work settings. We examine how Mai, a Japanese ESL learner, perceives her peer's L2 proficiency during pair problem solving, and how her perception of learner proficiency…

  8. The influence of body posture, arm movement, and work stress on trapezius activity during computer work.

    PubMed

    Mork, Paul Jarle; Westgaard, Rolf H

    2007-11-01

    The study aimed to determine the influence of arm posture and movement on trapezius activity of computer workers, considering the full workday. A second aim was to investigate if work periods perceived as stressful were associated with elevated or more sustained muscle activity pattern. Twenty-six computer workers performing call-center (n=11), help desk (n=7), or secretarial (n=8) work tasks participated. Bilateral trapezius surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity and heart rate was recorded throughout the workday. Simultaneous inclinometer recordings from left thigh and upper arms identified periods with sitting, standing, and walking, as well as arm posture and movement. Perceived work stress and tension were recorded on visual analog scales (VAS) every hour. Trapezius sEMG activity was low in seated posture [group median 1.8 and 0.9% of activity at maximal voluntary contraction (%EMGmax) for dominant and non-dominant side] and was elevated in standing (3.0 and 2.5% EMGmax) and walking (3.9 and 3.4% EMGmax). In seated posture (mean duration 79% of workday) arm movement consistently influenced trapezius activity, accounting for approximately 20% of intra-individual variation in trapezius activity. Arm elevation was on average not associated with trapezius activity when seated; however, considerable individual variation was observed. There was no indication of increase in trapezius activity or more sustained activity pattern, nor in heart rate, in high-stress versus low-stress periods, comparing periods with seated posture for the subjects reporting contrasts of at least two VAS units in stress (n=16) or tension (n=14) score. PMID:17653757

  9. "Working." Student Activity Sheets for Selected Interviews Contained in "Working" by Studs Terkel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakin, David; And Others

    These student activity sheets are intended to accompany a vocational English program based on Studs Terkel's book, "Working," a collection of more than 100 interviews with people about their jobs. The 30 interviews selected for inclusion in the curriculum either illustrate occupations taught in the schools or deal with occupations related to those…

  10. Counselor Technical Activity in Cases with Improving Working Alliances and Continuing-Poor Working Alliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivlighan, Dennis M., Jr.; Schmitz, Patrick J.

    1992-01-01

    Clients, 15 student volunteers paired with 15 counselors trainees for 4 sessions, rated strength of working alliance for each counseling session and scored counselor technical activity on various dimensions. Counselors were rated as relatively more challenging, thematically focused, and here-and-now oriented in improving dyads (eight dyads) than…

  11. Student Perceptions of Learner-Centered Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlfarth, DeDe; Sheras, Daniel; Bennett, Jessica L.; Simon, Bethany; Pimentel, Jody H.; Gabel, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    The learner-centered paradigm departs from traditional teaching models by focusing on students more than teachers and learning more than teaching. Thus, classes are more egalitarian; they emphasize critical thinking, active learning, and real-world assignments. Graduate students in learner-centered classrooms were surveyed about perceptions of…

  12. Engaging Learner Support: An Investigation of Faculty-Library Collaboration to Provide Live Course-Specific Learner Support in the Online Classroom Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration between faculty and learner support can create seamless services for e-learners. Providing access to learning materials and activities with co-located tailored learner support creates an environment in which e-learners can easily access everything they need for an enhanced, supported, and more focused learning experience. The…

  13. The Learners' Mental Models of Television in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumalee, Chaijaroen

    1999-01-01

    Examines the learners' mental models of television in actual media classroom activity by which knowledge was constructed. Findings revealed how media capabilities and the instructional designs that employ them interact with the learners and the task characteristics to influence the formation of the learners' mental models and their learning…

  14. The Development of Expert Learners in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Saemah; Mahmud, Zuria; Yassin, Siti Fatimah Mohd; Amir, Ruslin; Ilias, Khadijah Wan

    2010-01-01

    The term "expert learner" refers to students who are actively engaged with the materials learned and take responsibility for their own learning. Literature reviews suggested the use of metacognitive approach to help develop students to become expert learners. Research on development of expert learners can be traced from movements that…

  15. Matrix of Basic Learner Outcomes for Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partners in Career Education, Arlington, TX.

    The document provides a means of organizing the career education learner outcomes for Texas students into a scope and sequence to be used as a framework for continued development of learner activities. The 177 learner outcomes (objectives) are presented in the following nine categories: career planning and decision making, career and occupational…

  16. Working Memory Training: Improving Intelligence--Changing Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    The main objectives of the study were: to investigate whether training on working memory (WM) could improve fluid intelligence, and to investigate the effects WM training had on neuroelectric (electroencephalography--EEG) and hemodynamic (near-infrared spectroscopy--NIRS) patterns of brain activity. In a parallel group experimental design,…

  17. Social Work with Religious Volunteers: Activating and Sustaining Community Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Diana R.; Myers, Dennis M.; Wolfer, Terry A.

    2008-01-01

    Social workers in diverse community practice settings recruit and work with volunteers from religious congregations. This article reports findings from two surveys: 7,405 congregants in 35 Protestant congregations, including 2,570 who were actively volunteering, and a follow-up survey of 946 volunteers. It compares characteristics of congregation…

  18. Predictors of Political Activism among Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swank, Eric W.

    2012-01-01

    This article identifies factors inspiring greater political participation among undergraduate social work students (N=125). When separating students into self-identified liberals and conservatives, the study uses resource, mobilizing, and framing variables to explain greater levels of activism. After several multivariate regressions, this article…

  19. Predicting Work Activities with Divergent Thinking Tests: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Maria M.; Cowdery, Edwina M.; King, Kelly E.; Montang, Melissa A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether divergent thinking test scores obtained from engineering students during college predicted creative work activities fifteen years later. Results showed that a subscore of the "Owens Creativity Test", which assesses divergent thinking about mechanical objects, correlated significantly with self-ratings of creative work…

  20. Meta-Coordination Activities: Exploring Articulation Work in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Coordination of distributed activities is central to organizational work. The effective functioning of organizations hinges on their ability to manage interdependencies both within (intra-) and between (inter-) various departments. However, more than just the management of these individual dependencies is required for smooth coordination in…

  1. English Learners Program Guide. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This guide is designed as a reference for District and School personnel working with English learners (ELs). The content of the guide represents a compilation of information, examples, and resources. This guide is a living document and subject to frequent updates. It is recommended to review the document online rather than printing a hard copy.

  2. Human temporal cortical single neuron activity during working memory maintenance.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Leona; Corina, David; Ojemann, George

    2016-06-01

    The Working Memory model of human memory, first introduced by Baddeley and Hitch (1974), has been one of the most influential psychological constructs in cognitive psychology and human neuroscience. However the neuronal correlates of core components of this model have yet to be fully elucidated. Here we present data from two studies where human temporal cortical single neuron activity was recorded during tasks differentially affecting the maintenance component of verbal working memory. In Study One we vary the presence or absence of distracting items for the entire period of memory storage. In Study Two we vary the duration of storage so that distractors filled all, or only one-third of the time the memory was stored. Extracellular single neuron recordings were obtained from 36 subjects undergoing awake temporal lobe resections for epilepsy, 25 in Study one, 11 in Study two. Recordings were obtained from a total of 166 lateral temporal cortex neurons during performance of one of these two tasks, 86 study one, 80 study two. Significant changes in activity with distractor manipulation were present in 74 of these neurons (45%), 38 Study one, 36 Study two. In 48 (65%) of those there was increased activity during the period when distracting items were absent, 26 Study One, 22 Study Two. The magnitude of this increase was greater for Study One, 47.6%, than Study Two, 8.1%, paralleling the reduction in memory errors in the absence of distracters, for Study One of 70.3%, Study Two 26.3% These findings establish that human lateral temporal cortex is part of the neural system for working memory, with activity during maintenance of that memory that parallels performance, suggesting it represents active rehearsal. In 31 of these neurons (65%) this activity was an extension of that during working memory encoding that differed significantly from the neural processes recorded during overt and silent language tasks without a recent memory component, 17 Study one, 14 Study two

  3. Human temporal cortical single neuron activity during working memory maintenance.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Leona; Corina, David; Ojemann, George

    2016-06-01

    The Working Memory model of human memory, first introduced by Baddeley and Hitch (1974), has been one of the most influential psychological constructs in cognitive psychology and human neuroscience. However the neuronal correlates of core components of this model have yet to be fully elucidated. Here we present data from two studies where human temporal cortical single neuron activity was recorded during tasks differentially affecting the maintenance component of verbal working memory. In Study One we vary the presence or absence of distracting items for the entire period of memory storage. In Study Two we vary the duration of storage so that distractors filled all, or only one-third of the time the memory was stored. Extracellular single neuron recordings were obtained from 36 subjects undergoing awake temporal lobe resections for epilepsy, 25 in Study one, 11 in Study two. Recordings were obtained from a total of 166 lateral temporal cortex neurons during performance of one of these two tasks, 86 study one, 80 study two. Significant changes in activity with distractor manipulation were present in 74 of these neurons (45%), 38 Study one, 36 Study two. In 48 (65%) of those there was increased activity during the period when distracting items were absent, 26 Study One, 22 Study Two. The magnitude of this increase was greater for Study One, 47.6%, than Study Two, 8.1%, paralleling the reduction in memory errors in the absence of distracters, for Study One of 70.3%, Study Two 26.3% These findings establish that human lateral temporal cortex is part of the neural system for working memory, with activity during maintenance of that memory that parallels performance, suggesting it represents active rehearsal. In 31 of these neurons (65%) this activity was an extension of that during working memory encoding that differed significantly from the neural processes recorded during overt and silent language tasks without a recent memory component, 17 Study one, 14 Study two

  4. Working memory training: improving intelligence--changing brain activity.

    PubMed

    Jaušovec, Norbert; Jaušovec, Ksenija

    2012-07-01

    The main objectives of the study were: to investigate whether training on working memory (WM) could improve fluid intelligence, and to investigate the effects WM training had on neuroelectric (electroencephalography - EEG) and hemodynamic (near-infrared spectroscopy - NIRS) patterns of brain activity. In a parallel group experimental design, respondents of the working memory group after 30 h of training significantly increased performance on all tests of fluid intelligence. By contrast, respondents of the active control group (participating in a 30-h communication training course) showed no improvements in performance. The influence of WM training on patterns of neuroelectric brain activity was most pronounced in the theta and alpha bands. Theta and lower-1 alpha band synchronization was accompanied by increased lower-2 and upper alpha desynchronization. The hemodynamic patterns of brain activity after the training changed from higher right hemispheric activation to a balanced activity of both frontal areas. The neuroelectric as well as hemodynamic patterns of brain activity suggest that the training influenced WM maintenance functions as well as processes directed by the central executive. The changes in upper alpha band desynchronization could further indicate that processes related to long term memory were also influenced.

  5. SNAPPS: a learner-centered model for outpatient education.

    PubMed

    Wolpaw, Terry M; Wolpaw, Daniel R; Papp, Klara K

    2003-09-01

    The unique character of medical education in the outpatient setting has created challenges in teaching and learning that cannot be solved by the adaptation of traditional inpatient approaches. Previous work and the authors' own observational study describe a relatively passive learner focused on reporting history and physical examination data to the preceptor. Based on the work of Bordage in cognitive learning, and that of Osterman and Kottkamp on reflective practice for educators, the authors have developed a collaborative model for case presentations in the outpatient setting that links learner initiation and preceptor facilitation in an active learning conversation. This learner-centered model for case presentations to the preceptor follows a mnemonic called SNAPPS consisting of six steps: (1) Summarize briefly the history and findings; (2) Narrow the differential to two or three relevant possibilities; (3) Analyze the differential by comparing and contrasting the possibilities; (4) Probe the preceptor by asking questions about uncertainties, difficulties, or alternative approaches; (5) Plan management for the patient's medical issues; and (6) Select a case-related issue for self-directed learning. The authors conducted a pilot study of SNAPPS, introducing the model to both third-year medical students and their preceptors. Feedback was enthusiastic and underscored the importance of the paired approach. SNAPPS represents a paradigm shift in ambulatory education that engages the learner and creates a collaborative learning conversation in the context of patient care. PMID:14507619

  6. Exploring Lifelong Learners Engaged in an Astronomy-Related Massively Open Online Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, Chris David; Wenger, Matthew; Formanek, Martin; Romine, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Massively open online courses (MOOCs) are becoming increasingly popular ways to reach diverse lifelong learners all over the world. Although MOOCs resemble more formal classes (e.g. videos of content, quizzes, activities), they are often used by informal audiences from home. Recently, MOOCs have become more utilized by universities to conduct outreach as they explore how to use MOOCs to reach new potential learners. Despite the rapid adaption of MOOCs, little is known about individuals who choose to take a MOOC, how they interact with the course materials, and what motivates them to finish the course.We present results of a study of lifelong learners engaged in an astronomy "101" MOOC. Through analysis of registered learners' behaviors as well as self-reported responses to a survey about science, we were able to characterize a subset of the learners engaged in the MOOC during its first offering. Overall, 25363 learners from over 100 countries registered for the MOOC. Of those, 14900 accessed at least one part of the course. Learners were recruited to complete a survey of their knowledge and attitudes towards science. Of the learner group who opened the course, 2889 individuals completed the survey, 2465 of those were able to be linked to their usage of the MOOC through a unique identifier.Learners represented a wide-range of ages, professions, and previous science experience. The best predictors for MOOC completion were engagement in the first activity and first writing assignment and engagement in the online forum. Learners were very interested in science prior to their registration, had higher basic science knowledge that most undergraduate students enrolled in a parallel astronomy course, and used online searches and science sites to get their information about science. As we reach out to a worldwide audience to learners in these massively open online courses, understanding their motivations and behaviors will be essential. This work is helping us understand and

  7. Activity theory as a framework for analyzing and redesigning work.

    PubMed

    Engeström, Y

    2000-07-01

    Cultural-historical activity theory is a new framework aimed at transcending the dichotomies of micro- and macro-, mental and material, observation and intervention in analysis and redesign of work. The approach distinguishes between short-lived goal-directed actions and durable, object-oriented activity systems. A historically evolving collective activity system, seen in its network relations to other activity systems, is taken as the prime unit of analysis against which scripted strings of goal-directed actions and automatic operations are interpreted. Activity systems are driven by communal motives that are often difficult to articulate for individual participants. Activity systems are in constant movement and internally contradictory. Their systemic contradictions, manifested in disturbances and mundane innovations, offer possibilities for expansive developmental transformations. Such transformations proceed through stepwise cycles of expansive learning which begin with actions of questioning the existing standard practice, then proceed to actions of analyzing its contradictions and modelling a vision for its zone of proximal development, then to actions of examining and implementing the new model in practice. New forms of work organization increasingly require negotiated 'knotworking' across boundaries. Correspondingly, expansive learning increasingly involves horizontal widening of collective expertise by means of debating, negotiating and hybridizing different perspectives and conceptualizations. Findings from a longitudinal intervention study of children's medical care illuminate the theoretical arguments.

  8. Portfolios for a Community of Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousculp, Edwin E.; Maring, Gerald H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a content area reading course for undergraduates in which teachers and students worked cooperatively as a community of learners, embodying rather than "talking about" reading-writing connections. (SR)

  9. Expanded Perspectives on Autonomous Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two general perspectives on autonomous learners: psychological and sociocultural. These perspectives introduce a range of theoretically grounded facets of autonomous learners, facets such as the self-regulated learner, the emotionally intelligent learner, the self-determined learner, the mediated learner, the socioculturally…

  10. Transformation in Higher Education: A Learner-Needs Segmentation Leads to Improved Learner Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Gayla; Finley, Donna S.; Patterson, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Segmentation is a marketing concept that can be applied in a post-secondary context. This article delineates the outcome of applying a learner-needs segmentation that resulted in significantly improved learner satisfaction scores in a professional faculty at a large public university. Our original work described the purpose and value of…

  11. Listening to Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    This booklet looks at the role of learner feedback in the quality improvement process. It suggests how adult and community learning (ACL) providers can adapt and improve their practice to meet the needs of learners in the changed policy context. Chapter 1 explores why providers should listen to learners and finds that listening to learners…

  12. Learner and Faculty Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Sharon; Stanford, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This chapter identifies effective ways to address learner and faculty support. It introduces methods for building a successful learner support system by providing sufficient resources and proactively addressing learner motivation. It also addresses effective faculty support through institutional policies, resources, training, and course…

  13. Between the Social and the Selfish: Learner Autonomy in Online Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores what it means to be an autonomous learner in an online social context. Using distinctions originally drawn by Jürgen Habermas, it argues that classic accounts of learner autonomy as teleological action are inadequate to explain learner activity in group settings. It points out that learners in such settings display attitudes…

  14. Predicting flow at work: investigating the activities and job characteristics that predict flow states at work.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Karina; Cleal, Bryan

    2010-04-01

    Flow (a state of consciousness where people become totally immersed in an activity and enjoy it intensely) has been identified as a desirable state with positive effects for employee well-being and innovation at work. Flow has been studied using both questionnaires and Experience Sampling Method (ESM). In this study, we used a newly developed 9-item flow scale in an ESM study combined with a questionnaire to examine the predictors of flow at two levels: the activities (brainstorming, planning, problem solving and evaluation) associated with transient flow states and the more stable job characteristics (role clarity, influence and cognitive demands). Participants were 58 line managers from two companies in Denmark; a private accountancy firm and a public elder care organization. We found that line managers in elder care experienced flow more often than accountancy line managers, and activities such as planning, problem solving, and evaluation predicted transient flow states. The more stable job characteristics included in this study were not, however, found to predict flow at work.

  15. Communication Strategies in Primary Schools in Botswana: Interventions Using Cooks, Teacher Aides and Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokibelo, Eureka B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the micro planning activities that schools engage in to address learners' needs to make education work in rural primary schools of Botswana. The national language plan prescribes the use of English and Setswana only as languages of instruction at the primary school level. However, this plan is not practical in some regions…

  16. Cooperative Learning and Learner-Centered Projects for Lower-Level University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servetter, Bob

    This paper describes a learner centered, cooperative learning group project in a post-secondary English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) classroom in Japan. The objectives of the cooperative learning project were fivefold: students would learn to work enthusiastically toward activating target language learning acquired in the past; do research on a…

  17. Current research and case work activities of criminalistics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Seta, S

    1996-06-28

    The current research and case work activities of criminalistics in Japan are described. The selected forensic science disciplines are forensic osteology including specialized technology of skull identification, forensic serology, forensic DNA analysis of poisonous materials, forensic hair and fiber analysis, trace evidence analysis, document analysis, forensic psychology mainly concerned with the so-called lie-detector, forensic image analysis, voice print analysis, fire and explosion analysis, forensic engineering, firearm and toolmark analysis. The current activity of the Training Institute of Forensic Science at the National Research Institute of Police Science is also briefly described with special regard to the education and training course of forensic DNA typing analysis. Instruments for analytical and methodological use are listed according to the availability in evidence sample analyses.

  18. Influence of computer work under time pressure on cardiac activity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ping; Hu, Sijung; Yu, Hongliu

    2015-03-01

    Computer users are often under stress when required to complete computer work within a required time. Work stress has repeatedly been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The present study examined the effects of time pressure workload during computer tasks on cardiac activity in 20 healthy subjects. Heart rate, time domain and frequency domain indices of heart rate variability (HRV) and Poincaré plot parameters were compared among five computer tasks and two rest periods. Faster heart rate and decreased standard deviation of R-R interval were noted in response to computer tasks under time pressure. The Poincaré plot parameters showed significant differences between different levels of time pressure workload during computer tasks, and between computer tasks and the rest periods. In contrast, no significant differences were identified for the frequency domain indices of HRV. The results suggest that the quantitative Poincaré plot analysis used in this study was able to reveal the intrinsic nonlinear nature of the autonomically regulated cardiac rhythm. Specifically, heightened vagal tone occurred during the relaxation computer tasks without time pressure. In contrast, the stressful computer tasks with added time pressure stimulated cardiac sympathetic activity.

  19. Factors associated with active commuting to work among women.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Melissa; Child, Stephanie; Campbell, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Active commuting (AC), the act of walking or biking to work, has notable health benefits though rates of AC remain low among women. This study used a social-ecological framework to examine the factors associated with AC among women. A convenience sample of employed, working women (n = 709) completed an online survey about their mode of travel to work. Individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental influences were assessed. Basic descriptive statistics and frequencies described the sample. Simple logistic regression models examined associations with the independent variables with AC participation and multiple logistic regression analysis determined the relative influence of social ecological factors on AC participation. The sample was primarily middle-aged (44.09±11.38 years) and non-Hispanic White (92%). Univariate analyses revealed several individual, interpersonal, institutional, community and environmental factors significantly associated with AC. The multivariable logistic regression analysis results indicated that significant factors associated with AC included number of children, income, perceived behavioral control, coworker AC, coworker AC normative beliefs, employer and community supports for AC, and traffic. The results of this study contribute to the limited body of knowledge on AC participation for women and may help to inform gender-tailored interventions to enhance AC behavior and improve health.

  20. Factors associated with active commuting to work among women.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Melissa; Child, Stephanie; Campbell, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Active commuting (AC), the act of walking or biking to work, has notable health benefits though rates of AC remain low among women. This study used a social-ecological framework to examine the factors associated with AC among women. A convenience sample of employed, working women (n = 709) completed an online survey about their mode of travel to work. Individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental influences were assessed. Basic descriptive statistics and frequencies described the sample. Simple logistic regression models examined associations with the independent variables with AC participation and multiple logistic regression analysis determined the relative influence of social ecological factors on AC participation. The sample was primarily middle-aged (44.09±11.38 years) and non-Hispanic White (92%). Univariate analyses revealed several individual, interpersonal, institutional, community and environmental factors significantly associated with AC. The multivariable logistic regression analysis results indicated that significant factors associated with AC included number of children, income, perceived behavioral control, coworker AC, coworker AC normative beliefs, employer and community supports for AC, and traffic. The results of this study contribute to the limited body of knowledge on AC participation for women and may help to inform gender-tailored interventions to enhance AC behavior and improve health. PMID:24512572

  1. Learner Development in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenden, Anita L.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on learner development, a learner-centered innovation in foreign language-second language instruction that responds to learner diversity by aiming to improve the language learner's ability to learn a language. Describes various ideas that shaped early practice in learner development, and provides an evaluation of the theory and practice in…

  2. Learner Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Carola

    2011-01-01

    This article presents first results of an ethnographic research project in a Luxembourgish primary school that accompanied the development of a school project by children from the fifth grade. Analysing the data children themselves collected with Kodak Zi8 cameras in order to document their project activities, it investigates their possibilities…

  3. Assessing tomorrow's learners: in competency-based education only a radically different holistic method of assessment will work. Six things we could forget.

    PubMed

    Schuwirth, Lambert; Ash, Julie

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we are challenging six traditional notions about assessment that are unhelpful when designing 'assessment for learning'-programmes for competency-based education. We are arguing for the following: Reductionism is not the only way to assure rigour in high-stakes assessment; holistic judgements can be equally rigorous. Combining results of assessment parts only because they are of the same format (like different stations in an OSCE) is often not defensible; instead there must be a logically justifiable combination. Numbers describe the quality of the assessment. Therefore, manipulating the numbers is usually not the best way to improve its quality. Not every assessment moment needs to be a decision moment, disconnecting both makes combining summative and formative functions of assessment easier. Standardisation is not the only route to equity. Especially with diverse student groups tailoring is more equitable than standardisation. The most important element to standardise is the quality of the process and not the process itself. Finally, most assessment is too much focussed on detecting deficiencies and not on valuing individual student differences. In competency-based education--especially with a focus on learner orientation--this 'deficiency-model' is not as well aligned as a 'differences-model'.

  4. Developmental relationships as the active ingredient: a unifying working hypothesis of "what works" across intervention settings.

    PubMed

    Li, Junlei; Julian, Megan M

    2012-04-01

    Developmental relationships are characterized by reciprocal human interactions that embody an enduring emotional attachment, progressively more complex patterns of joint activity, and a balance of power that gradually shifts from the developed person in favor of the developing person. The working hypothesis of this article is that developmental relationships constitute the active ingredient of effective interventions serving at-risk children and youth across settings. In the absence of developmental relationships, other intervention elements yield diminished or minimal returns. Scaled-up programs and policies serving children and youth often fall short of their potential impact when their designs or implementation drift toward manipulating other "inactive" ingredients (e.g., incentive, accountability, curricula) instead of directly promoting developmental relationships. Using empirical studies as case examples, this study demonstrates that the presence or absence of developmental relationships distinguishes effective and ineffective interventions for diverse populations across developmental settings. The conclusion is that developmental relationships are the foundational metric with which to judge the quality and forecast the impact of interventions for at-risk children and youth. It is both critical and possible to give foremost considerations to whether program, practice, and policy decisions promote or hinder developmental relationships among those who are served and those who serve.

  5. An Analysis of Learners in Introductory Astronomy Massive Open Online Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Formanek, Martin; Impey, Chris David; Wenger, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    We describe learners enrolled in three iterations of introductory astronomy massive open online courses (MOOCs). These courses are offered through commercial providers and facilitated by an instructional team at the University of Arizona. We describe an ongoing study of those who enroll, engage in, and complete these courses. The course has undergone several revisions, including integrating pedagogical techniques, found to be effective for in-person courses, to increase engagement including peer review, online discussions, and the use of cohorts. In its current version, learners enroll on a continual basis and complete 11 weeks of course content; they watch videos, complete content quizzes, submit writing assignments, complete peer review of other students’ work, and complete online citizen science projects. Tens of thousands of students has signed up for these courses but completion rates are much lower, around 10%. We have collected survey data from over 8,500 of these learners to assess their basic science knowledge, attitudes towards science and technology, motivations for taking the courses, and information about other ways they engage in science related activities. We present information about these learners, including their demographics, motivations, how they use the courses, and what factors lead to increased engagement and completion. Additionally, we present how survey data from these learners compare to 26 years of data we have collected from parallel group of undergraduate non-science major students enrolled in astronomy courses at the University of Arizona. Overall, we find that learners who enroll in the MOOCs have more interest in science and higher basic science knowledge that undergraduates who pay tuition for a similar course. Our work is helping us understand how to better serve learners in MOOCs and bridge more traditional courses with these types of courses.

  6. Working postures and physical activity among registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Schall, Mark C; Fethke, Nathan B; Chen, Howard

    2016-05-01

    Nurses report a high prevalence of musculoskeletal discomfort, particularly of the low back and neck/shoulder. This study characterized the full-shift upper arm and trunk postures and movement velocities of registered nurses using inertial measurement units (IMUs). Intensity of occupational physical activity (PA) was also ascertained using a waist-worn PA monitor and using the raw acceleration data from each IMU. Results indicated that nurses spent a relatively small proportion of their work time with the arms or trunk in extreme postures, but had few opportunities for rest and recovery in comparison to several other occupational groups. Comparisons between nurses in different PA groups suggested that using a combination of accelerometers secured to several body locations may provide more representative estimates of physical demands than a single, waist-worn PA monitor. The findings indicate a need for continued field-based research with larger sample sizes to facilitate the development of maximally effective intervention strategies. PMID:26851483

  7. Activities of the IERS Working Group on prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooden, W.

    2008-04-01

    The International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) established a Working Group on Prediction (WGP) to investigate what IERS prediction products are useful to the user community in addition to making a detailed examination of the fundamental properties of the different input data sets and algorithms. The major goals and objectives of the WGP are to determine the desired Earth orientation prediction products, the importance of observational accuracy, which types of input data provide an optimal prediction, the strengths and weaknesses of various prediction algorithms, and the interactions between series and algorithms that are beneficial or harmful. To focus the research efforts of the WGP, the user community was polled to ascertain what prediction products are needed and at what level of accuracy. The current status of WGP activities and the anticipated future directions are presented.

  8. Activities of the EMRAS Tritium/C14 Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.A.; Balonov, M.; Venter, A

    2005-07-15

    A new model evaluation program, Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS), was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency in September 2003. EMRAS includes a working group (WG) on modeling tritium and C-14 transfer through the environment to biota and man. The main objective of this WG is to develop and test models of the uptake, formation and translocation of organically bound tritium (OBT) in food crops, animals and aquatic systems. To the extent possible, the WG is carrying out its work by comparing model predictions with experimental data to identify the modeling approaches and assumptions that lead to the best agreement between predictions and observations. Results for scenarios involving a chronically contaminated aquatic ecosystem and short-term exposure of soybeans are presently being analyzed. In addition, calculations for scenarios involving chronically contaminated terrestrial food chains and hypothetical short-term releases are currently underway, and a pinetree scenario is being developed. The preparation of datasets on tritium dynamics in large animals and fish is being encouraged, since these are the areas of greatest uncertainty in OBT modeling. These activities will be discussed in this paper.

  9. Learners in Action, Winter 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This Winter 2005 issue of "Learners in Action" contains the following: (1) Proud Dad Turns Family Life Around (Nick Prince); (2) Learners Make a Great Impression at Conference; (3) The Story behind the Story; and (4) Learner Resources.

  10. The Work Activity and Participation Outcomes Framework: a new look at work disability outcomes through the lens of the ICF.

    PubMed

    AlHeresh, Rawan A; Keysor, Julie J

    2015-06-01

    Work disability is common among people with chronic conditions. The terminology in the field is variable and often used interchangeably and there is a lack of comprehensive frameworks to describe work as an outcome. Varied operationalization of work disability makes it difficult to establish precise estimates of the impact of chronic musculoskeletal conditions on work. A new conceptual framework was developed using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and was named 'Work Activity and Participation Outcome (Work APO) Framework' which clarified definitions in the field. Applying the framework to people at risk of work disability and evaluating their outcomes could advance the literature.

  11. Working Memory-Related Neural Activity Predicts Future Smoking Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Loughead, James; Wileyto, E Paul; Ruparel, Kosha; Falcone, Mary; Hopson, Ryan; Gur, Ruben; Lerman, Caryn

    2015-01-01

    Brief abstinence from smoking impairs cognition, particularly executive function, and this has a role in relapse to smoking. This study examined whether working memory-related brain activity predicts subsequent smoking relapse above and beyond standard clinical and behavioral measures. Eighty treatment-seeking smokers completed two functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions (smoking satiety vs 24 h abstinence challenge) during performance of a visual N-back task. Brief counseling and a short-term quit attempt followed. Relapse during the first 7 days was biochemically confirmed by the presence of the nicotine metabolite cotinine. Mean percent blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal change was extracted from a priori regions of interest: bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial frontal/cingulate gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Signal from these brain regions and additional clinical measures were used to model outcome status, which was then validated with resampling techniques. Relapse to smoking was predicted by increased withdrawal symptoms, decreased left DLPFC and increased PCC BOLD percent signal change (abstinence vs smoking satiety). Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated 81% area under the curve using these predictors, a significant improvement over the model with clinical variables only. The combination of abstinence-induced decreases in left DLPFC activation and reduced suppression of PCC may be a prognostic marker for poor outcome, specifically early smoking relapse. PMID:25469682

  12. An Irish Adult Learner in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Narrative Account of My Experience of Working with Teacher Educators in Lesotho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Rosarii

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a narrative account of the author's experience of working with teacher educators in Lesotho, Africa. It describes research projects developed in conjunction with the author's counterparts in Lesotho. Although the research project work is yet in its infancy, the author reflects on insights gained from working as an Irish…

  13. Can the Enhancement of Group Working in Classrooms Provide a Basis for Effective Communication in Support of School-Based Cognitive Achievement in Classrooms of Young Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutnick, Peter; Berdondini, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study was part of the SPRinG project (Social Pedagogy Research into Group Work). The review notes group work in "authentic" classrooms rarely fulfils its interactive or attainment potential. SPRinG classes undertook a programme of relational training to enhance children's group working skills while control classes…

  14. A Minds-On Approach to Active Learning in General Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    Minds-on engagement in active learning is explored through the experiences of Margaret Sanders, a general music teacher. Minds-on learners think about their experiences. They are actively involved as questioners and problem solvers while they complete musical tasks and reflect on their work after it is completed. Minds-off learners focus on their…

  15. English Language Learners interactions with various science curriculum features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norland, Jennifer Jane

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of eighth grade English Language Learners in an inclusive science classroom. There is a paucity of research in this area. Central to this study was the students' perceptions and interactions with five different science curriculum features; teacher presentation and guided notes, worksheets, homework, labs, and practice and review activities. The student participants were English Language Learners from two language proficiency levels and the teacher was a provisionally licensed first year science teacher. The aggregate data included individual interviews with the students and teacher, classroom observations, and the collection of classroom artifacts. The findings revealed: (a) students' comprehension of the material was inconsistent throughout all of the curriculum features and differences were observed not only between but also within the two proficiency levels; (b) classroom organizational issues created challenges for both the teacher and the students; (c) off task behavior was most prevalent during the teacher's one-to-one instruction and interfered with learning; (d) differences between levels of language proficiency were observed among students who preferred to work independently and were comfortable asking the teacher for assistance and the students who preferred working with and receiving assistance from peers; and (e) language proficiency rather than cultural differences appeared to be the greatest barrier to classroom success. Overall, English language proficiency was a crucial determinant in the English Language Learners success in the inclusive classroom. Additionally, implications suggest that a limited teaching skill set could adversely affect the success of students in inclusive classrooms.

  16. Grading Exceptional Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers often grapple with the challenge of giving report card grades to students with learning disabilities and English language learners. The authors offer a five-step model that "offers a fair, accurate, and legal way to adapt the grading process for exceptional learners." The model begins with a high-quality reporting system for all students…

  17. A Learner Centered Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Florence N.

    This paper proposes a learner-centered educational system, focusing on aspects that are intrinsically associated with the modern educational system, such as the curriculum, school community, parents, learners, and educational support personnel. It examines: primary level preparation (literacy, numeracy, and basic knowledge; examination and…

  18. The Lifelong Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Ronald

    Designed to provide a general guide and stimuli for lifelong learning, this book examines all the positive factors of independent study. Lifelong learning is defined as self-directed growth free from the traditional schooling procedures. Chapters discuss the following: the lifelong learner; profiles of such learners in action; how to be…

  19. Learner-Centered Teaching Techniques in Astronomy 101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L. V.; Marschall, L. A.; Prather, E.

    2003-12-01

    We present preliminary results of studies done on learner-centered teaching techniques with students in Astronomy 101. Results for two classes taught at Gettysburg College this fall will be presented. One class used learner-centered activities, the other did not. A diagnostic survey was given to both classes before and after. Specific newly designed activities were tested as well.

  20. Work Engagement, Performance, and Active Learning: The Role of Conscientiousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Arnold B.; Demerouti, Evangelia; ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines whether the relationship between work engagement and job performance is moderated by the extent to which individuals are inclined to work hard, careful, and goal-oriented. On the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that conscientiousness strengthens the relationship between work engagement and supervisor ratings…

  1. Nobody Knows the Stories of Others: High School English Language Learners Find Their Poetic Voices by Responding to Works of Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulla, Amanda Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This essay tells the story of a collaboration between an English education professor in a large urban university and a high school English teacher working in a school whose population consists almost entirely of new immigrants. The English education professor serves as a visiting teaching artist, introducing the students to studies of works of…

  2. Relative desirability of leisure activities and work parameters in a simulation of isolated work stations. [long term space flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullins, W. R., Jr.; Rogers, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    The kinds of activities that are attractive to man in long duration isolation are delineated considering meaningful work as major activity and a choice of leisure/living provisions. The dependent variables are the relative distribution between various work, leisure, and living activities where external constraints on the subject's freedom of choice are minimized. Results indicate that an average of at least five hours per day of significant meaningful work is required for satisfactory enjoyment of the situation; most other parameters of the situation have less effects on overall performance and satisfaction

  3. Working Papers in Educational Linguistics, Spring 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel-White, Kimberly, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of "Working Papers in Educational Linguistics" begins with "Negative Evidence in Language Classroom Activities: A Study of Its Availability and Accessibility to Language Learners" (Teresa Pica and Gay N. Washburn), which revisits the issue of negative evidence in second language classrooms. The second paper, "Reassessing Parent…

  4. Learner-Centered Teaching in Nonmajors Introductory Biology: The Impact of Giving Students Choices

    PubMed Central

    Hurney, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Learner-centered teaching represents more than creating a course where students are actively engaged. Rather it is articulated by a shift in the balance of power, function of content, role of the instructor, purpose of assessment, and/or responsibility for learning in a course. To make the learning environment in a large-enrollment nonmajors Biology course more learner-centered, students were given the responsibility to: 1) select course topics, 2) determine the types and weights of course assignments used to assess learning, and 3) individually decide, prior to being assigned work, the weight of exams and projects. Combined survey results from two learner-centered sections of the course (n = 137) indicate that a majority of the students found that choosing the topics enhanced their learning of course material. Students also reported that they put more effort into the parts of the course that they had weighted more heavily. In addition, results support that students are reflective of the learner-centered environment, confident in their ability to learn biological topics and more interested in biology than they thought they would be. Finally, course averages from the learner-centered courses were significantly higher than course grades from instructor-centered versions of the course. PMID:23653800

  5. Learner-Content-Interface as an Approach for Self-Reliant and Student-Centered Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolay, Robin; Schwennigcke, Bastian; Sahl, Sarah; Martens, Alke

    2015-01-01

    Conceptualization and implementation of computer supported teaching and training is currently not tailored to the paradigm of learner centration. Many technical solutions lack transparency and consistency regarding the supported learner activities. An insight into learners activities correlated to learning tasks is needed. In this paper we outline…

  6. Managing Highway Maintenance: Maintenance Activities, Work Units, and Classifying Work, Unit 6, Level 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Offices of Research and Development.

    Part of the series "Managing Highway Maintenance," the unit explains how maintenance work should be described, measured, and classified. It is designed for supervisors who need to know the mechanics of describing work. The format is a programed, self-instruction approach in which information is presented in progressive segments or frames. (EA)

  7. Architecture. Intermediate ThemeWorks. An Integrated Activity Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kelly

    This resource book offers an activity bank of learning experiences related to the theme of architecture. The activities, which are designed for use with students in grades 4-6, require active engagement of the students and integrate language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, and art experiences. Activities exploring the architectural…

  8. The Effect of Collaboration on Iranian EFL Learners' Writing Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jafari, Narges; Ansari, Dariush Nejad

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at finding the effect of group work on Iranian EFL learners' writing accuracy. Moreover, the effect of gender on text production has also been investigated. Over a month, sixty Iranian EFL learners were chosen as the participants of this study. They were divided into two groups. The experimental group wrote collaboratively while…

  9. Assessing School Principals in a Community of Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The role of the school principal in a community of learners is discussed. A "community of learners" refers to a group of individuals with common interests who share ideals and learn from each other. The principal must work with teachers, providing support and receiving support in helping students achieve optimal results. A community of learners…

  10. Learner Negotiation of L2 Form in Transcription Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennim, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Negotiation of language form is thought to engage learning processes by helping learners to notice gaps in their developing L2 and find target-like ways of filling them. Self-transcription, where learners work together to find language errors in recordings of their own oral output, is an awareness raising exercise that encourages such negotiation.…

  11. Investigating the Promise of Learner Corpora: Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendar, Nick; Chapelle, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers working with learner corpora promise quantitative results that would be of greater practical value in areas such as CALL than those from small-scale and qualitative studies. However, learner corpus research has not yet had an impact on practices in teaching and assessment. Significant methodological issues need to be examined if…

  12. PKS: An Ontology-Based Learning Construct for Lifelong Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manganello, Flavio; Falsetti, Carla; Spalazzi. Luca; Leo, Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses adult lifelong learners, i.e., persons interested in learning or compelled to learn during their working life but not able to, or not interested in participating in formal learning. These learners are motivated and self-aware enough to self-direct their learning, are presumed to be novices with respect to the needed knowledge…

  13. Emotional Contagion at Work: An In-Class Experiential Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Rebecca A. Bull; Palanski, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an in-class exercise designed to demonstrate the concept of emotional contagion. Empirical research has found that leader emotional displays at work relate to various member work attitudes and performance. However, students may have a difficult time understanding how and why emotions can influence organizational outcomes.…

  14. Active biofeedback changes the spatial distribution of upper trapezius muscle activity during computer work.

    PubMed

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen; Madeleine, Pascal

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal effects of advanced biofeedback by inducing active and passive pauses on the trapezius activity pattern using high-density surface electromyography (HD-EMG). Thirteen healthy male subjects performed computer work with superimposed feedback either eliciting passive (rest) or active (approximately 30% MVC) pauses based on fuzzy logic design and a control session with no feedback. HD-EMG signals of upper trapezius were recorded using a 5 x 13 multichannel electrode grid. From the HD-EMG recordings, two-dimensional maps of root mean square (RMS), relative rest time (RRT) and permuted sample entropy (PeSaEn) were obtained. The centre of gravity (CoG) and entropy of maps were used to quantify changes in the spatial distribution of muscle activity. PeSaEn as a measure of temporal heterogeneity for each channel, decreased over the whole map in response to active pause (P < 0.05) underlining a more homogenous activation pattern. Concomitantly, the CoG of RRT maps moved in caudal direction and the entropy of RMS maps as a measure of spatial heterogeneity over the whole recording grid, increased in response to active pause session compared with control session (no feedback) (P < 0.05). Active pause compared with control resulted in more heterogeneous coordination of trapezius compared with no feedback implying a more uneven spatial distribution of the biomechanical load. The study introduced new aspects in relation to the potential benefit of superimposed muscle contraction in relation to the spatial organization of muscle activity during computer work.

  15. Better Policies for Dual Language Learners: Bridging Research, Policy, Implementation, and Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Conor P.

    2015-01-01

    On December 11, 2014, "New America" convened a group of leading experts on dual language learners (DLLs) to launch its new Dual Language Learners National Work Group. The group aimed to address three questions: (1) What are the key best practices for dual language learner instruction, policy, and research?; (2) What are the areas of…

  16. Reading-Strategy Use by English as a Second Language Learners in Online Reading Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ho-Ryong; Kim, Deoksoon

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates adult English language learners' reading-strategy use when they read online texts in hypermedia learning environments. The learners joined the online Independent English Study Group (IESG) and worked both individually and collaboratively. This qualitative case study aims (a) to assess college-level ESL learners' use of…

  17. Acculturation and physical activity in a working class multiethnic population

    PubMed Central

    Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Colditz, Graham; Stoddard, Anne M.; Emmons, Karen M.; Sorensen, Glorian

    2008-01-01

    Background Determinants of physical activity in minority populations remain under-explored. Acculturation is one proposed mechanism for the disparities that exist between racial and ethnic groups in health outcomes. Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated the relation of language acculturation and generation in the US since migration with leisure-time and occupational activity. A low-income, multiethnic urban population was recruited from Massachusetts small businesses (SB) (n = 1725) and health centers (HC) (n = 2205). Baseline data were collected between May 2000 and February 2002. Results Individuals with low acculturation reported leisure-time activity 3–5 MET hours/week lower than those who were highly acculturated (P < 0.05). Generation predicted leisure-time activity only in SB participants. In the HC, least acculturated participants reported occupational activity 10–12 MET hours/week higher than highly acculturated participants. In SB men, acculturation was inversely associated with occupational activity; in SB women, language acculturation was positively associated with occupational activity. Generation was not predictive of occupational activity. Conclusion Language acculturation and generation were positively associated with leisure-time activity. Language acculturation is also associated with occupational activity. Acculturation is important to consider when designing public health interventions. PMID:16481031

  18. Firefighters’ Physical Activity across Multiple Shifts of Planned Burn Work

    PubMed Central

    Chappel, Stephanie E.; Aisbett, Brad; Vincent, Grace E.; Ridgers, Nicola D.

    2016-01-01

    Little is currently known about the physical activity patterns of workers in physically demanding populations. The aims of this study were to (a) quantify firefighters’ physical activity and sedentary time within (2-h periods) and across planned burn shifts; and (b) examine whether firefighters’ activity levels during one shift or 2-h period was associated with their activity levels in the following shift or 2-h period. Thirty-four salaried firefighters (26 men, 8 women) wore an Actical accelerometer for 28 consecutive days. Time spent sedentary (SED) and in light- (LPA), moderate- (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) were derived using validated cut-points. Multilevel analyses (shift, participant) were conducted using generalised linear latent and mixed models. Firefighters spent the majority of a planned burn shift (average length 10.4 h) or 2-h period engaged in LPA (69% and 70%, respectively). No significant associations were observed between SED and physical activity levels between consecutive planned burned shifts or 2-h periods. The physical activity that a firefighter engaged in during one shift (or 2-h period) did not subsequently affect their physical activity levels in the subsequent shift (or 2-h period). Further research is needed to establish how workers in physically demanding populations are able to sustain their activity levels over long periods of time. PMID:27706057

  19. Activity Theory as a Framework for Project Work in Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David W. L.; Wong, Angela F. L.

    2000-01-01

    Proposes activity theory as a framework for student project work that is a form of open-ended contextual activity-based learning emphasizing problem solving as a collaborative effort. Topics include project work from a Vygotskian perspective of activity theory; and the design of a prototype for Web-based project work. (LRW)

  20. Schoolyard Inquiry for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westervelt, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    This article presents outdoor inquiry activities to help English Language Learner (ELL) students learn life science concepts. As a public high school ELL science teacher, the author of this article use these place-based and scaffolded inquiry activities outside to reinforce concepts she teaches in the classroom all year long. Through inductive…

  1. Factors Driving Learner Success in Online Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vu, Phu; Cao, Vien; Vu, Lan; Cepero, Jude

    2014-01-01

    This study examined factors that contributed to the success of online learners in an online professional development course. Research instruments included an online survey and learners' activity logs in an online professional development course for 512 in-service teachers. The findings showed that there were several factors affecting online…

  2. Star wars and strategic defense initiatives: work activity and health symptoms of unionized bank tellers during work reorganization.

    PubMed

    Seifert, A M; Messing, K; Dumais, L

    1997-01-01

    Work activity and health symptoms of bank tellers whose work was undergoing reorganization were examined during a university-union study of the health effects of work in women's traditional jobs. Data were gathered through collective and individual interviews, analysis of work activity, and a questionnaire administered to 305 tellers. Employees worked in a standing posture over 80 percent of the time. More than two-thirds frequently suffered pain in back, legs, and feet. The average teller had been involved in 3.7 robberies as a direct victim and six as a witness. Work required feats of memory and concentration. In order to meet job demands, tellers engaged in supportive activities and teamwork. The introduction of individualized objectives threatened the employees' ability to collaborate and induced distress. More than twice as many tellers as other female workers in Québec experience psychological distress (Ilfeld scale), related to: robbery during the past two years (odds ratio = 1.7; confidence interval = 1.0-2.9); difficult relations with superiors (O.R. = 2.6; C.I. = 1.3-5.3); and full-time work (O.R. = 2.3; C.I. = 1.3-3.9). Diverse methods enriched the analysis, and union participation allowed the proposal of concrete correction measures.

  3. Star wars and strategic defense initiatives: work activity and health symptoms of unionized bank tellers during work reorganization.

    PubMed

    Seifert, A M; Messing, K; Dumais, L

    1997-01-01

    Work activity and health symptoms of bank tellers whose work was undergoing reorganization were examined during a university-union study of the health effects of work in women's traditional jobs. Data were gathered through collective and individual interviews, analysis of work activity, and a questionnaire administered to 305 tellers. Employees worked in a standing posture over 80 percent of the time. More than two-thirds frequently suffered pain in back, legs, and feet. The average teller had been involved in 3.7 robberies as a direct victim and six as a witness. Work required feats of memory and concentration. In order to meet job demands, tellers engaged in supportive activities and teamwork. The introduction of individualized objectives threatened the employees' ability to collaborate and induced distress. More than twice as many tellers as other female workers in Québec experience psychological distress (Ilfeld scale), related to: robbery during the past two years (odds ratio = 1.7; confidence interval = 1.0-2.9); difficult relations with superiors (O.R. = 2.6; C.I. = 1.3-5.3); and full-time work (O.R. = 2.3; C.I. = 1.3-3.9). Diverse methods enriched the analysis, and union participation allowed the proposal of concrete correction measures. PMID:9285277

  4. 20 CFR 416.973 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....973 Section 416.973 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME... given the opportunity to work, despite your impairment, because of family relationship, past association... and gainful regardless of whether you spend more time or less time at the job than workers who are...

  5. Celebrating the World of Work: Interviews and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Susan Conklin

    This document, which is intended for use with students in grades K-5, profiles more than 40 far-ranging jobs and serves as a first step toward introducing students to the world of work while fostering an appreciation for cultural diversity and a job well done. Each of the book's 42 chapters is devoted to a different career and opens with an…

  6. Analyzing Student Work as a Professional Development Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Angela S.

    2005-01-01

    When worthwhile mathematical tasks are used in classrooms, they should also become a crucial element of assessment. For teachers, using these tasks in classrooms requires a different way to analyze student thinking than the traditional assessment model. Looking carefully at students' written work on worthwhile mathematical tasks and listening…

  7. Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

  8. Exploring Shifts in Middle School Learners' Modeling Activity While Generating Drawings, Animations, and Computational Simulations of Molecular Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson-Jerde, Michelle H.; Gravel, Brian E.; Macrander, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Modeling and using technology are two practices of particular interest to K-12 science educators. These practices are inextricably linked among professionals, who engage in modeling activity with and across a variety of representational technologies. In this paper, we explore the practices of five sixth-grade girls as they generated models of…

  9. You Can Be in a Group and Still Not Cooperate. Collaborative Approaches and Cooperative Learning Activities for Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parma City School District, OH.

    This handbook defines and describes the benefits of both collaborative approaches and cooperative techniques. An introduction uses watercolor marbling as a metaphor for collaborative approaches and cooperative activities. Section I provides research results regarding problems of adult literacy programs, skills employers want, and Bloom's taxonomy.…

  10. Comparing Learner Community Behavior in Multiple Presentations of a Massive Open Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Silvia Elena; Savage, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) can create large scale communities of learners who collaborate, interact and discuss learning materials and activities. MOOCs are often delivered multiple times with similar content to different cohorts of learners. However, research into the differences of learner communication, behavior and expectation between…

  11. The Effect of Reading on Second-Language Learners' Production in Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collentine, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Tasks provide engaging ways to involve learners in meaningful, real-world activities with the foreign language (FL). Yet selecting classroom tasks suitable to learners' linguistic readiness is challenging, and task-based research is exploring the relationship between learners' overall abilities (e.g., reading, grammatical) and the complexity and…

  12. Learner Autonomy as a Predictor of Course Success and Final Grades in Community College Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Cherng-Jyh; Liu, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This study employed a quantitative research design to examine the predictive relationships between: (a) learner autonomy and course success; and (b) learner autonomy and final grades in community college online courses. Learner autonomy was defined as the characteristic of an individual who exhibited intentional behavior in learning activities.…

  13. Structure and correlates of spillover from nonwork to work: an examination of nonwork activities, well-being, and work outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Tracy D; Boies, Kathleen

    2009-10-01

    Employees today are involved in many different types of activities outside of work, including family, volunteering, leisure, and so on. The purpose of this study was to understand how participation in such nonwork activities can both enrich and interfere with well-being and behavior at work. Four dimensions of nonwork-to-work spillover were examined to better understand this process (i.e., positive emotional, negative emotional, positive behavioral, and negative behavioral). Survey data were collected in 2 waves from 293 staff and faculty members of a large Canadian university (N = 108 matched surveys from both waves). We found that volunteering is associated with increased well-being and work satisfaction, and that it creates positive emotional and behavioral, and negative behavioral spillovers. We also found that sports, recreation, and fitness are associated with improved well-being and positive emotional spillover. Negative spillover is associated with negative outcomes. PMID:19839661

  14. Teaching Communicative Effectiveness to Life Long Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Gordon

    Faculty from the Department of Speech at Mexico State University set out to design a course in interpersonal and public communication for lifelong learners that would be relevant and appeal to both older adults and younger traditional-aged students working toward certification as a gerontological care provider. The course was designed to teach…

  15. Integrating Literacy and Inquiry for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guccione, Lindsey M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the course of one year in a first-grade classroom, English learners (ELs) used several literacy practices to construct meaning from expository text. The teacher modeling, guided practice, and independent use of the five most frequent practices are explained in detail, with accompanying photographs of student work. The author describes how…

  16. Providing Support for English Language Learner Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Elia; Armour, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    Encouraging literacy and academic success among English language learners (ELLs) is becoming an increasingly common challenge for educators. In the course of the authors work of training teachers or providing training for implementation of materials, they have found that the resources of the school library media center are invaluable for helping…

  17. Analysis of exposure due to work on activated components

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    In this brief note the author summarized analysis of the exposure incurred in various maintenance jobs involving activated accelerator and beam line components at Fermilab. A tabulation was made of parameters associated with each job. Included are rather terse descriptions of the various tasks. The author presented various plots of the quantities in the table. All exposure rates are mR/hr while all exposures accumulated are mR. The exposure rates were generally measured at the Fermilab standard one foot distance from the activated component. Accumulated exposures are taken from the self-reading pocket dosimeter records maintained by the radiation control technicians.

  18. How do verbal short-term memory and working memory relate to the acquisition of vocabulary and grammar? A comparison between first and second language learners.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show that verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is related to vocabulary learning, whereas verbal working memory (VWM) is related to grammar learning in children learning a second language (L2) in the classroom. In this study, we investigated whether the same relationships apply to children learning an L2 in a naturalistic setting and to monolingual children. We also investigated whether relationships with verbal memory differ depending on the type of grammar skill investigated (i.e., morphology vs. syntax). Participants were 63 Turkish children who learned Dutch as an L2 and 45 Dutch monolingual children (mean age = 5 years). Children completed a series of VSTM and VWM tasks, a Dutch vocabulary task, and a Dutch grammar task. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that VSTM and VWM represented two separate latent factors in both groups. Structural equation modeling showed that VSTM, treated as a latent factor, significantly predicted vocabulary and grammar. VWM, treated as a latent factor, predicted only grammar. Both memory factors were significantly related to the acquisition of morphology and syntax. There were no differences between the two groups. These results show that (a) VSTM and VWM are differentially associated with language learning and (b) the same memory mechanisms are employed for learning vocabulary and grammar in L1 children and in L2 children who learn their L2 naturalistically.

  19. How do verbal short-term memory and working memory relate to the acquisition of vocabulary and grammar? A comparison between first and second language learners.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show that verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is related to vocabulary learning, whereas verbal working memory (VWM) is related to grammar learning in children learning a second language (L2) in the classroom. In this study, we investigated whether the same relationships apply to children learning an L2 in a naturalistic setting and to monolingual children. We also investigated whether relationships with verbal memory differ depending on the type of grammar skill investigated (i.e., morphology vs. syntax). Participants were 63 Turkish children who learned Dutch as an L2 and 45 Dutch monolingual children (mean age = 5 years). Children completed a series of VSTM and VWM tasks, a Dutch vocabulary task, and a Dutch grammar task. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that VSTM and VWM represented two separate latent factors in both groups. Structural equation modeling showed that VSTM, treated as a latent factor, significantly predicted vocabulary and grammar. VWM, treated as a latent factor, predicted only grammar. Both memory factors were significantly related to the acquisition of morphology and syntax. There were no differences between the two groups. These results show that (a) VSTM and VWM are differentially associated with language learning and (b) the same memory mechanisms are employed for learning vocabulary and grammar in L1 children and in L2 children who learn their L2 naturalistically. PMID:26340756

  20. Education on antibiotic use. Education systems and activities that work.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, José Miguel; Cobo, Javier; San Juan, Rafael; Montejo, Miguel; Fariñas, M Carmen

    2013-09-01

    Education is a cornerstone of antimicrobial stewardships programs, because 50% of inappropriate antimicrobial prescriptions are a consequence of an imbalance between the high levels of knowledge required for the appropriate use of antibiotics and the scarce training offered to medical specialists. For this reason, programs optimizing antimicrobial (PROA) are essentially based on support and educational activities for prescribers. The educational activities are difficult to evaluate. In our country, the application of educational activities in antimicrobial training programs is very heterogeneous, although it has improved in recent years. We recommend the following educational measures, which are prioritized in order of effectiveness. Interactive educational interventions are the most effective. These are non-compulsory interventions based on real prescriptions in clinical practice and include educational outreach visits, audits and counseling interviews with feedback and multifaceted interventions. Passive educational strategies, with posters, newsletters, and dissemination of guidelines, are only marginally effective in changing antimicrobial prescribing practices and have not shown a sustained effect. These measures need extensive professional involvement and should be combined with more active approaches. Currently, interventions can be enhanced with some teaching tools in electronic format. Both interactive and passive educational measures should be integrated into the PROA and should have institutional support. Finally, we recommend including antimicrobials in the training plans of all clinical specialties.

  1. Knowledge Representations Underlying Covert Metalinguistic Activity: A Working Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Covert metalinguistic activity has received little attention in the field of second language (L2) education, even though the few studies that have examined this type of attention to language note that it plays a role in L2 learning and use. However, little is known about this phenomenon. The study reported in this article focuses on the knowledge…

  2. Activating Aesthetics: Working with Heidegger and Bourdieu for Engaged Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grierson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to investigate art in public urban space via a process of activating aesthetics as a way of enhancing pedagogies of engagement. It does this firstly by addressing the question of aesthetics in Enlightenment and twentieth-century frames; then it seeks to understand how artworks may be approached ontologically and…

  3. Our Economy: How It Works. Activities and Investigation. Teacher's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Elmer U.

    To help junior and senior high school students develop a better understanding of the United States' economy, this teacher's guide presents a series of learning activities centered around eight general themes. The topics (corresponding to the document's eight chapters) include both international and global economic issues as well as current…

  4. Words Work: Activities for Developing Vocabulary, Style, and Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnicelli, Thomas A.

    This book offers integrated activities in which students explore words and, at the same time, develop their language arts and thinking skills. The book states that this way teachers can pay more attention to word study, without sacrificing other parts of the English curriculum and without resorting to word lists and memorization. In the first…

  5. From Research to Reality: Activities and Strategies That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olliphant, Jo Ann

    Six specific second language learning theories are presented and for each, an example of a practical, classroom application is provided. The theories include the following: (1) it is important to create a positive atmosphere in the classroom because cognitive learning increases when self-concept improves; (2) activities that employ multiple senses…

  6. Optimizing literacy in English language learners.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Maria Adelaida; Gray, Shelley

    2007-02-01

    Children in the United States who are English language learners characteristically do not exhibit the same levels of reading achievement as their peers. The article describes the development of English literacy in English language learners and the relationship between a child's second language (L2) and his or her native language (L1) in literacy development. It is organized first to consider the issue of language of instruction and language transfer, specifically the aspects of L1 literacy that appear to transfer to the second language (L2), English. It then discusses general principles for professionals working to optimize English literacy development in different models of literacy instruction for English language learners. We conclude that using the child's L1 provides the children with strong language and literacy skills in both languages.

  7. Working Group 5: Measurements technology and active experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E.; Barfield, J. N.; Faelthammar, C.-G.; Feynman, J.; Quinn, J. N.; Roberts, W.; Stone, N.; Taylor, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Technology issues identified by working groups 5 are listed. (1) New instruments are needed to upgrade the ability to measure plasma properties in space. (2) Facilities should be developed for conducting a broad range of plasma experiments in space. (3) The ability to predict plasma weather within magnetospheres should be improved and a capability to modify plasma weather developed. (4) Methods of control of plasma spacecraft and spacecraft plasma interference should be upgraded. (5) The space station laboratory facilities should be designed with attention to problems of flexibility to allow for future growth. These issues are discussed.

  8. Pre-stimulus BOLD-network activation modulates EEG spectral activity during working memory retention.

    PubMed

    Kottlow, Mara; Schlaepfer, Anthony; Baenninger, Anja; Michels, Lars; Brandeis, Daniel; Koenig, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) processes depend on our momentary mental state and therefore exhibit considerable fluctuations. Here, we investigate the interplay of task-preparatory and task-related brain activity as represented by pre-stimulus BOLD-fluctuations and spectral EEG from the retention periods of a visual WM task. Visual WM is used to maintain sensory information in the brain enabling the performance of cognitive operations and is associated with mental health. We tested 22 subjects simultaneously with EEG and fMRI while performing a visuo-verbal Sternberg task with two different loads, allowing for the temporal separation of preparation, encoding, retention and retrieval periods. Four temporally coherent networks (TCNs)-the default mode network (DMN), the dorsal attention, the right and the left WM network-were extracted from the continuous BOLD data by means of a group ICA. Subsequently, the modulatory effect of these networks' pre-stimulus activation upon retention-related EEG activity in the theta, alpha, and beta frequencies was analyzed. The obtained results are informative in the context of state-dependent information processing. We were able to replicate two well-known load-dependent effects: the frontal-midline theta increase during the task and the decrease of pre-stimulus DMN activity. As our main finding, these two measures seem to depend on each other as the significant negative correlations at frontal-midline channels suggested. Thus, suppressed pre-stimulus DMN levels facilitated later task related frontal midline theta increases. In general, based on previous findings that neuronal coupling in different frequency bands may underlie distinct functions in WM retention, our results suggest that processes reflected by spectral oscillations during retention seem not only to be "online" synchronized with activity in different attention-related networks but are also modulated by activity in these networks during preparation intervals. PMID:25999828

  9. 20 CFR 617.17 - Availability and active search for work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Availability and active search for work. 617.17 Section 617.17 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...) § 617.17 Availability and active search for work. (a) Extended Benefit work test applicable. Except...

  10. 20 CFR 617.17 - Availability and active search for work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Availability and active search for work. 617.17 Section 617.17 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...) § 617.17 Availability and active search for work. (a) Extended Benefit work test applicable. Except...

  11. 20 CFR 617.17 - Availability and active search for work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Availability and active search for work. 617.17 Section 617.17 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...) § 617.17 Availability and active search for work. (a) Extended Benefit work test applicable. Except...

  12. 20 CFR 617.17 - Availability and active search for work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Availability and active search for work. 617.17 Section 617.17 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...) § 617.17 Availability and active search for work. (a) Extended Benefit work test applicable. Except...

  13. 20 CFR 617.17 - Availability and active search for work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Availability and active search for work. 617.17 Section 617.17 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...) § 617.17 Availability and active search for work. (a) Extended Benefit work test applicable. Except...

  14. After the Sunset: Sustaining School-to-Work Intermediary Activity. School-to-Work Intermediary Project. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobe, Terry

    The now defunct School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994 provided start-up funding for states to establish comprehensive career development systems. Survey results of 21 intermediary organizations that used funding from the act to provide learning experiences for youth showed that the loss of federal funding affected activities in various ways,…

  15. Part-Time Work and Hurried Adolescence: The Links between Work Intensity, Social Activities, Health Behaviors, and Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safron, Deborah J.; Schulenberg, John E.; Bachman Jerald G.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines adolescents' part-time work intensity and its relation to participation in various activities as well as substance use. Two theoretical perspectives are considered: the "time trade-off perspective"; and "the precocious development perspective." Results provide evidence for a combination of both perspectives. (Author)

  16. Morphological Family Size Effects in Young First and Second Language Learners: Evidence of Cross-Language Semantic Activation in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zeeuw, Marlies; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined to what extent young second language (L2) learners showed morphological family size effects in L2 word recognition and whether the effects were grade-level related. Turkish-Dutch bilingual children (L2) and Dutch (first language, L1) children from second, fourth, and sixth grade performed a Dutch lexical decision task on words…

  17. 76 FR 67558 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Work-Study Allowance) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Work-Study Allowance) Activity: Comment Request... comments for information needed to determine a claimant's eligibility for work-study benefits. DATES.... Application for Work-Study Allowance, VA Form 22-8691. b. Student Work-Study Agreement (Advance Payment),...

  18. Making activity-based funding work for mental health.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Sebastian P; Hickie, Ian B

    2013-06-01

    The implementation of activity-based funding (ABF) in mental health from 1 July 2013 has significant risks and benefits. It is critical that the process of implementation is consistent with Australia's cherished goal of establishing a genuine and effective model of community-based mental health care. The infrastructure to support the application of ABF to mental health is currently weak and requires considerable development. States and territories are struggling to meet existing demand for largely hospital-based acute mental health care. There is a risk that valuable ABF-driven Commonwealth growth funds may be used to prop up these systems rather than drive the emergence of new models of community-based care. Some of these new models exist now and this article provides a short description. The aim is to help the Independent Hospital Pricing Authority better understand the landscape of mental health into which it now seeks to deploy ABF.

  19. Initial Work Toward A Robotically Assisted Extravehicular Activity Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jonathan M.; Peters, Benjamin J.; Laske, Evans A.; McBryan, Emily R.

    2016-01-01

    The Space Suit RoboGlove (SSRG) is a glove designed to provide additional grasp strength or endurance for an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) crew member, since a pressurized space suit gloved hand performance is a fraction of what the unencumbered human hand can achieve. There have been past efforts to improve space suit gloved hand performance by employing novel materials and construction techniques to the glove design, as well as integrating powered assistance devices into the gloves. These past efforts were not completely successful and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) decided to develop a new glove based on the NASA/General Motors RoboGlove technology. The resulting SSRG used a unique approach to integrate the robotic actuators and sensors into a Phase VI EVA glove that resulted in a space suit glove that provided grasp augmentation to the user while the augmentation is activated, and also functioned as a normal glove when the augmentation is disabled. Care was taken to avoid adding excessive bulk to the glove or affecting tactility by choosing low-profile sensors and locating the actuators at a distance from the fingers. Conduits were used to guide robotic tendons from linear actuators, across the wrist, and to the fingers. The electromechanical design, softgoods integration, control system, and early test results of the first generation SSRG are presented in this paper. These early test results showed that this sensor integration did not impact tactile feedback in the glove and that the actuators provided potential for increased grip strength and reduction in grasp fatigue over time.

  20. Teaching English to Less-Able Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gefen, Raphael

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the "less-able" student via a description of the strategies used by the good language learner. Such strategies include a positive, active, and tolerant approach to learning the language, with a willingness to practice the language. The less-able needs a constant sense of achievement to continue. (PJM)

  1. Goals, the Learner, and the Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers, principals, and supervisors need to determine the kinds of learners being taught in the school/class setting. Are pupils good by nature, bad, or neutral? Concepts held pertaining to each pupil assist in determining objectives, learning activities, and evaluation techniques. The Puritans believed that individuals were born evil or sinful.…

  2. Effective Strategies for Engaging Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Phillips, Kathleen M.; Jessee, Tammy; McCabe, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    Innovative methods in teaching should be used in every college classroom to enhance student engagement, support any teaching environment and encourage inquiry among learners. Adults learn best by participation in relevant experiences and utilization of practical information. When adult students are active in their learning they are able to develop…

  3. Workplace Learning in Malaysia: The Learner's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Idris, Khairuddin

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers a scenario of workplace learning as practiced in Malaysia. Based on survey research, the article describes learner profiles, learning provision and pattern. The analysis shows that Malaysians participate in formal workplace learning as part of their employment activities. Workplace learning in Malaysia is contextual, promoted by…

  4. Motivating Literacy Learners in Today's World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, J., Ed.; Parkhill, F., Ed.; Gillon, G., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Motivating Literacy Learners in Today's World" provides insights into a broad spectrum of children's literacy learning. Motivation is the key theme and the authors show how this can be achieved through reading for pleasure; in writing activities at a number of levels; and through oral language development. Chapters include: (1) Motivating…

  5. Fragile Identities: Exploring Learner Identity, Learner Autonomy and Motivation through Young Learners' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Terry Eric

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in the fields of motivation and learner autonomy in language learning has begun to explore their relationships to the construct of identity. This article builds on this through the voices of a group of six learners of French or German in a secondary school in England, over a two-year period. These young learners initially reveal a…

  6. We're All Adults Here: Clarifying and Maintaining Boundaries with Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Melanie; Schwartz, Harriet L.

    2012-01-01

    Working with adult learners presents a unique set of interpersonal boundary questions. In this chapter, the authors discuss the characteristics of working with adult learners that have led them to explore questions about boundaries between them and their students. They then identify how they might define, set, maintain, adjust, and work close to…

  7. Doing Your Part To Help Your Child Become SMART (Successful, Motivated, Autonomous, Responsible, Thoughtful): Six Workshops on Parenting SMART Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattes, Beth; Walsh, Jackie; Hickman, Mickey

    A SMART Learner is a lifelong learner who can adapt to rapid change and who possesses characteristics associated with success in and out of school. These workshop materials to help parents help their children become SMART learners provide: information from current research and best practice; learning activities that will actively engage parents in…

  8. Teachers as Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiman-Nemser, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    In "Teachers as Learners", a collection of landmark essays, noted teacher educator and scholar Sharon Feiman-Nemser shines a light on teacher learning. Arguing that serious and sustained teacher learning is a necessary condition for ambitious student learning, she examines closely how teachers acquire, generate, and use knowledge about teaching…

  9. The Transliterate Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Thomas et al. have defined transliteracy as "the ability to read, write and interact across a range of platforms, tools and media from signing and orality through handwriting, print, TV, radio and film, to digital social networks" (Transliteracy Research Group). The learner who is transliterate builds knowledge, communicates, and interacts across…

  10. Gender and Learner Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindal, Huda; Reid, Norman; Whitehead, Rex

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that girls and boys perform differently in traditional examinations in most countries. This study looks at a sample of 754 school students in Kuwait (aged about 13) and explores how boys and girls differ in the performance in a range of tests related to learner characteristics. The fundamental question is how boys and girls…

  11. Serving the Online Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettcher, Judith V.

    2007-01-01

    Systems and services for recruiting, advising, and support of online students have seldom been at the top of the list when planning online and distance learning programs. That is now changing: Forces pushing advising and support services into the foreground include recognition of the student learner as "customer" and the increasing expectations…

  12. of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashidi, Nasser; Mortazavi, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of Iranian university EFL students. Participants in the present study were a total of 67 EFL learners, studying at Shiraz Azad University as senior English Translation students. The instruments utilized for data collection were three tests: A…

  13. Novice Learners in Cyberspace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youn, Soonkyoung

    2004-01-01

    Since the Internet was introduced in the field of Educational Technology, it has predominantly been seen as an instructional tool. A number of educational technologists point out that the Internet can be a powerful instructional tool that encourages learners to be involved in problem-solving by using a great deal of information and to enlarge and…

  14. School Learners & Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Jenni, Ed.

    This document presents papers from a conference held in November 1995 in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, convened by the Education Policy Unit (EPU) of the University of Natal as part of research concerning the provision of library-based resources for school learners. Following an introduction are two chapters: "Identifying the Inherited Problems in the…

  15. California's English Learner Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    English Learner (EL) students in California's schools are numerous and diverse, and they lag behind their native-English-speaking peers. Closing the achievement gap for EL students has been a long-standing goal for California educators, and there are some signs of success. Now that EL funding and curriculum issues are receiving a fresh level of…

  16. Libraries and Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josey, E. J., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Of the 13 essays presented in this special issue on libraries and adult education, 8 focus on programs and services from the public library for adult learners. These essays provide information on: (1) an Education Information Centers Program (EIC) designed to complement employment skills training provided under the Comprehensive Employment and…

  17. Empowering Leaders & Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umphrey, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Trevor Greene, the 2013 MetLife/NASSP National High School Principal of the Year, empowers staff members and students to be the best teachers and learners they can be and provides the community resources to support them. In this article, Greene, principal of Toppenish High School in Washington, shares his biggest motivator as a school leader and…

  18. Learner Autonomy Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illes, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article explores whether the perception of learner autonomy that is promoted in language pedagogy is suitable for preparing students to perform successfully in the changed circumstances of the use of English. Recent developments, which include the growing role of English as a lingua franca and computer-mediated communication (CMC), give rise…

  19. Helping Young Hispanic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E.; Jensen, Bryant

    2007-01-01

    Hispanics are the largest and youngest ethnic group in the United States. Moreover, young Hispanic children make up approximately 80 percent of the U.S. English language learner population. They are a heterogeneous group, born both inside and outside the United States and having origins in Mexico, Cuba, Central America, South America, and the…

  20. The Savvy Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dealtry, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This article defines the cultural nature and scale of change in learning consciousness that has to take place when the organizationally-based adult learner makes the transition from formal prescriptive learning practice to self-owned, self-directed learning. It articulates some of the learning-to-learn process models that introduce, accelerate,…

  1. Professional Learning Communities Facilitator's Guide for the What Works Clearinghouse™ Practice Guide: Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and Middle School. REL 2015-105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimino, Joseph A.; Taylor, Mary Jo; Morris, Joan

    2015-01-01

    This facilitator's guide is designed to assist professional learning communities (PLCs) in applying evidence-based strategies to help K-8 English learners acquire the language and literacy skills needed to succeed academically. Through this collaborative learning experience, educators will expand their knowledge base as they read, discuss, share,…

  2. Professional Learning Communities Facilitator's Guide Handouts for the What Works Clearinghouse™ Practice Guide: Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and Middle School. REL 2015-105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimino, Joseph A.; Taylor, Mary Jo; Morris, Joan

    2015-01-01

    These handouts, which are meant to accompany the facilitator's guide, are designed to assist professional learning communities (PLCs) in applying evidence-based strategies to help K-8 English learners acquire the language and literacy skills needed to succeed academically. The facilitator's guide uses a five-step process for collaborative…

  3. English Second Language, General, Special Education, and Speech/Language Personal Teacher Efficacy, English Language Arts Scientifically-Validated Intervention Practice, and Working Memory Development of English Language Learners in High and Low Performing Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    The researcher investigated teacher factors contributing to English language arts (ELA) achievement of English language learners (ELLs) over 2 consecutive years, in high and low performing elementary schools with a Hispanic/Latino student population greater than or equal to 30 percent. These factors included personal teacher efficacy, teacher…

  4. The Effects of Working Possible Selves on Second Language Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Minyoung

    2015-01-01

    Working possible selves--currently activated images of an ideal or feared future self--have been argued to guide one's motivation and actions. This study investigated how possible selves affect L2 learners' motivational behaviors of persistence and effort as shown in essay revision and proofreading. One hundred and twelve ESL students were…

  5. 20 CFR 664.470 - Are paid work experiences allowable activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are paid work experiences allowable... LABOR YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program Design, Elements, and Parameters § 664.470 Are paid work experiences allowable activities? Funds under the Act may be used to...

  6. 20 CFR 664.470 - Are paid work experiences allowable activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are paid work experiences allowable... LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program Design, Elements, and Parameters § 664.470 Are paid work experiences allowable activities? Funds under the Act...

  7. 20 CFR 664.470 - Are paid work experiences allowable activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are paid work experiences allowable... LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program Design, Elements, and Parameters § 664.470 Are paid work experiences allowable activities? Funds under the Act...

  8. 20 CFR 664.470 - Are paid work experiences allowable activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are paid work experiences allowable... LABOR YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program Design, Elements, and Parameters § 664.470 Are paid work experiences allowable activities? Funds under the Act may be used to...

  9. Divisions of Labour: Activity Theory, Multi-Professional Working and Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmington, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon, but also critiques, activity theory by combining analysis of how an activity theory derived research intervention attempted to address both everyday work practices and organisational power relationships among children's services professionals. It offers two case studies of developmental work research (DWR) interventions in…

  10. Developing Adult Learners: Strategies for Teachers and Trainers. First Edition. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kathleen; Marienau, Catherine; Fiddler, Morris

    This book is designed to influence adult educators to make more intentional choices toward developmental growth in their work with adult learners. Part 1 provides a rationale for attending to developmental growth of adult learners and a framework of intentions to encourage such development. Chapter 1 describes characteristics of adult learners and…

  11. Listening to the Learners' Voices in HE: How Do Students Reflect on Their Use of Technology for Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Amanda; Hyde, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    The importance of the Learner's Voice and thus of listening to students' views has been evidenced in various high profile initiatives in the UK. The work presented here is from the JISC Learners' Experiences of E-Learning Phase 2 Learners' Journeys STROLL project. The seven JISC funded projects were set up in 2007 to investigate inter alia the…

  12. An Automatic Collocation Writing Assistant for Taiwanese EFL Learners: A Case of Corpus-Based NLP Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yu-Chia; Chang, Jason S.; Chen, Hao-Jan; Liou, Hsien-Chin

    2008-01-01

    Previous work in the literature reveals that EFL learners were deficient in collocations that are a hallmark of near native fluency in learner's writing. Among different types of collocations, the verb-noun (V-N) one was found to be particularly difficult to master, and learners' first language was also found to heavily influence their collocation…

  13. Negotiation Moves and Recasts in Relation to Error Types and Learner Repair in the Foreign Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Frank A.

    2002-01-01

    Assessed the provision and use of implicit negative feedback in the interactional context of adult beginning learners of Spanish working in dyads in the foreign language classroom. Relationships among error types, feedback types, and immediate learner repair were also examined. Findings indicate learners did not provide explicit negative feedback…

  14. Ergonomic analysis of New York apple harvest work using a Posture-Activities-Tools-Handling (PATH) work sampling approach.

    PubMed

    Earle-Richardson, G; Fulmer, S; Jenkins, P; Mason, C; Bresee, C; May, J

    2004-08-01

    Although back, neck, and shoulder strains are common among migrant and seasonal orchard workers, little data currently exist regarding the ergonomic factors contributing to this problem. We adapted Posture-Activities-Tools-Handling (PATH) instruments and methods for ergonomic job analysis of apple harvest work in three New York orchards, and used the resulting protocol to quantify hazardous activities, loads, and postures. Using a prototype developed previously, we trained twelve contract orchard observers with classroom training and supervised orchard practice. The PATH data were then collected on 14 orchard workers over four days (2,900 observations). Mean coefficients of variation ranged from a low of 0.212 (standing leg neutral) to a high of 0.603 (trunk moderate flexion). Most frequently observed activities were: picking (62.9%), placing and moving apples in the bag (8. 7%), and walking (8.1%). Weight bearing (>10 lb, >4.54 kg) was observed 78.5% of the time throughout a range of activities. Apple harvest work is comparable with other ergonomically high-risk occupations. Future research should focus on low-cost interventions that reduce load and awkward postures.

  15. Understanding Academic Work as Practical Activity--and Preparing (Business-School) Academics for Praxis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasanen, Keijo

    2009-01-01

    This text suggests a way of framing academic work and outlines a design for a preparatory event based on this understanding. It conceives academic work as "practical activity" and potential "praxis" in emergence by focusing on four issues: how can I do this work (tactical stance), what can I accomplish and achieve in it (political), why are my…

  16. How Teachers Manage Individual and Small-Group Work in Active Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kierstead, Janet

    1986-01-01

    Describes how teachers manage multitask classroom activities by defining teacher and student work cycles, sorting students into attention categories by assessing their work daily, and providing assistance to students according to need. Includes figures illustrating student's and teacher's work cycles and the three levels of classroom decision…

  17. Construing Systems of Management among Primary Headteachers: Moving Forward from Work Activity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Norah; Connolly, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A study used a Personal Construct Theory/Repertory Grid approach to examine the work of 12 Welsh primary headteachers. Analysis of thematic work-activity grids suggests principals have a more coherent view of their work (as centered on children and education) than Henry Mintzberg's observational studies portrayed. (Contains 36 references.) (MLH)

  18. Simulated shift work in rats perturbs multiscale regulation of locomotor activity

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Wan-Hsin; Escobar, Carolina; Yugay, Tatiana; Lo, Men-Tzung; Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.; Shea, Steven A.; Buijs, Ruud M.; Hu, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Motor activity possesses a multiscale regulation that is characterized by fractal activity fluctuations with similar structure across a wide range of timescales spanning minutes to hours. Fractal activity patterns are disturbed in animals after ablating the master circadian pacemaker (suprachiasmatic nucleus, SCN) and in humans with SCN dysfunction as occurs with aging and in dementia, suggesting the crucial role of the circadian system in the multiscale activity regulation. We hypothesized that the normal synchronization between behavioural cycles and the SCN-generated circadian rhythms is required for multiscale activity regulation. To test the hypothesis, we studied activity fluctuations of rats in a simulated shift work protocol that was designed to force animals to be active during the habitual resting phase of the circadian/daily cycle. We found that these animals had gradually decreased mean activity level and reduced 24-h activity rhythm amplitude, indicating disturbed circadian and behavioural cycles. Moreover, these animals had disrupted fractal activity patterns as characterized by more random activity fluctuations at multiple timescales from 4 to 12 h. Intriguingly, these activity disturbances exacerbated when the shift work schedule lasted longer and persisted even in the normal days (without forced activity) following the shift work. The disrupted circadian and fractal patterns resemble those of SCN-lesioned animals and of human patients with dementia, suggesting a detrimental impact of shift work on multiscale activity regulation. PMID:24829282

  19. Simulated shift work in rats perturbs multiscale regulation of locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Wan-Hsin; Escobar, Carolina; Yugay, Tatiana; Lo, Men-Tzung; Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Scheer, Frank A J L; Shea, Steven A; Buijs, Ruud M; Hu, Kun

    2014-07-01

    Motor activity possesses a multiscale regulation that is characterized by fractal activity fluctuations with similar structure across a wide range of timescales spanning minutes to hours. Fractal activity patterns are disturbed in animals after ablating the master circadian pacemaker (suprachiasmatic nucleus, SCN) and in humans with SCN dysfunction as occurs with aging and in dementia, suggesting the crucial role of the circadian system in the multiscale activity regulation. We hypothesized that the normal synchronization between behavioural cycles and the SCN-generated circadian rhythms is required for multiscale activity regulation. To test the hypothesis, we studied activity fluctuations of rats in a simulated shift work protocol that was designed to force animals to be active during the habitual resting phase of the circadian/daily cycle. We found that these animals had gradually decreased mean activity level and reduced 24-h activity rhythm amplitude, indicating disturbed circadian and behavioural cycles. Moreover, these animals had disrupted fractal activity patterns as characterized by more random activity fluctuations at multiple timescales from 4 to 12 h. Intriguingly, these activity disturbances exacerbated when the shift work schedule lasted longer and persisted even in the normal days (without forced activity) following the shift work. The disrupted circadian and fractal patterns resemble those of SCN-lesioned animals and of human patients with dementia, suggesting a detrimental impact of shift work on multiscale activity regulation.

  20. The association between work performance and physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Nicolaas P; Martinson, Brian; Kessler, Ronald C; Beck, Arne L; Simon, Gregory E; Wang, Philip

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the association between lifestyle-related modifiable health risks (physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity) and work performance. Data were obtained from 683 workers. Dependent variables included number of work loss days, quantity and quality of work performed, overall job performance, extra effort exerted, and interpersonal relationships. Results indicated that higher levels of physical activity related to reduced decrements in quality of work performed and overall job performance; higher cardiorespiratory fitness related to reduced decrements in quantity of work performed, and a reduction in extra effort exerted to perform the work; obesity related to more difficulty in getting along with coworkers; severe obesity related to a higher number of work loss days. It is concluded that lifestyle-related modifiable health risk factors significantly impact employee work performance.

  1. The Systemic-Structural Theory of Activity: Applications to the Study of Human Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedny, Gregory Z.; Harris, Steven Robert

    2005-01-01

    This article offers an introduction to the central concepts and principles of the Systemic-Structural Theory of Activity (SSTA), an activity-theoretical approach specifically tailored to the analysis and design of human work. In activity theory, cognition is understood both as a process and as a structured system of actions. Building on the…

  2. Simulations with Elaborated Worked Example Modeling: Beneficial Effects on Schema Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Debra K.; Reinhard, Karl J.; Carter, David O.; Brooks, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Worked examples have been effective in enhancing learning outcomes, especially with novice learners. Most of this research has been conducted in laboratory settings. This study examined the impact of embedding elaborated worked example modeling in a computer simulation practice activity on learning achievement among 39 undergraduate students…

  3. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues, such as stimulus similarity, lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual's VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity, and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change-detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); and similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM.

  4. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues, such as stimulus similarity, lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual's VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity, and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change-detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); and similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM. PMID:26018644

  5. Using a Network of Strategies Rubric to become a Self-Regulated Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Maribeth Cassidy

    2011-01-01

    Clay's work regarding how learners develop independent, strategic control over the process of constructing meaning from written texts indicates that all learners need a flexible repertoire of strategies as a network for: (a) "problem solving" or working on text on the run, (b) "self-monitoring" of the message for clarity and coherence, and (c)…

  6. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    PubMed Central

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  7. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women.

    PubMed

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  8. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women.

    PubMed

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-08-15

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies.

  9. Developmental Differences in Prefrontal Activation during Working Memory Maintenance and Manipulation for Different Memory Loads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolles, Dietsje D.; Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to keep information active in working memory is one of the cornerstones of cognitive development. Prior studies have demonstrated that regions which are important for working memory performance in adults, such as dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), and superior parietal cortex, become…

  10. 76 FR 31682 - Agency Information Collection (Time Record (Work-Study Program)) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Time Record (Work-Study Program)) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title: Time Record (Work-Study Program), VA Form 22-8690. OMB Control Number: 2900-0379. Type...

  11. People* Working . . . *Especially Women . . . A Book of Materials, Activities, and Ideas for the Classroom Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiant, Sharon

    This bibliography lists publications and other media, historical facts, and suggestions for activities that show women as working and accomplishing people. Materials are from all grade levels (K-12) and many subject areas. Arrangement is in three sections. Part I deals with women who have worked but not for wages, the pioneer, the homemaker, and…

  12. 76 FR 72997 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... for additional language. The NPRM was published on January 12, 2011 (76 FR 2200), and the final rule... announcement of working group activities and status reports of December 7, 2010 (75 FR 76070). The 44th full..., 2006 (71 FR 50275), and was open for comment until October 23, 2006. The working group agreed...

  13. 77 FR 58608 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... announcement of working group activities and status reports of April 23, 2012 (77 FR 24257). The 46th full RSAC... published on August 24, 2006 (71 FR 50275), and was open for comment until October 23, 2006. The working... communication, emergency egress, and rescue access, was published on February 1, 2008 (73 FR 6370). The...

  14. Job Socialization: The Carry-Over Effects of Work on Political and Leisure Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasek, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    A model of job socialization based on the joint effect of decision latitude and psychological demands are developed to predict how behaviors learned on the job would carry over to leisure and political activities out-side of work. The model is tested with a longitudinal national random sample of the Swedish male work force (1:1,000) in 1968 and…

  15. Pageant Princesses and Math Whizzes: Understanding Children's Activities as a Form of Children's Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Hilary

    2009-01-01

    Organized children's activities qualify as children's work, in much the same way that school work does. Both produce transferable use value and create capital that contributes to the future production of goods and services. To illustrate this argument, this article draws on qualitative research primarily based on interviews with the parents of…

  16. The Effects of an Afterschool Physical Activity Program on Working Memory in Preadolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamijo, Keita; Pontifex, Matthew B.; O'Leary, Kevin C.; Scudder, Mark R.; Wu, Chien-Ting; Castelli, Darla M.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of a 9-month randomized control physical activity intervention aimed at improving cardiorespiratory fitness on changes in working memory performance in preadolescent children relative to a waitlist control group. Participants performed a modified Sternberg task, which manipulated working memory demands based…

  17. Internal desynchronization in a model of night-work by forced activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Delgado, R; Angeles-Castellanos, M; Buijs, M R; Escobar, C

    2008-06-26

    Individuals engaged in shift- or night-work show disturbed diurnal rhythms, out of phase with temporal signals associated to the light/dark (LD) cycle, resulting in internal desynchronization. The mechanisms underlying internal desynchrony have been mainly investigated in experimental animals with protocols that induce phase shifts of the LD cycle and thus modify the activity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In this study we developed an animal model of night-work in which the light-day cycle remained stable and rats were required to be active in a rotating wheel for 8 h daily during their sleeping phase (W-SP). This group was compared with rats that were working in the wheel during their activity phase (W-AP) and with undisturbed rats (C). We provide evidence that forced activity during the sleeping phase (W-SP group) alters not only activity, but also the temporal pattern of food intake. In consequence W-SP rats showed a loss of glucose rhythmicity and a reversed rhythm of triacylglycerols. In contrast W-AP rats did not show such changes and exhibited metabolic rhythms similar to those of the controls. The three groups exhibited the nocturnal corticosterone increase, in addition the W-SP and W-AP groups showed increase of plasma corticosterone associated with the start of the working session. Forced activity during the sleep phase did not modify SCN activity characterized by the temporal patterns of PER1 and PER2 proteins, which remained in phase with the LD cycle. These observations indicate that a working regimen during the sleeping period elicits internal desynchronization in which activity combined with feeding uncouples metabolic functions from the biological clock which remains fixed to the LD cycle. The present data suggest that in the night worker the combination of work and eating during working hours may be the cause of internal desynchronization.

  18. Work-Based, Community Service-Learning Activities for Students in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobart L.

    This resource guide provides information on community service-learning activities for rural students. The guide is based on focus-group sessions in which participants from five rural Appalachian counties identified community service activities that would enhance students' academic success, improve their transition from school to work, and address…

  19. 20 CFR 664.470 - Are paid work experiences allowable activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are paid work experiences allowable activities? 664.470 Section 664.470 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program...

  20. Dissociation of Active Working Memory and Passive Recognition in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Active cognitive control of working memory is central in most human memory models, but behavioral evidence for such control in nonhuman primates is absent and neurophysiological evidence, while suggestive, is indirect. We present behavioral evidence that monkey memory for familiar images is under active cognitive control. Concurrent cognitive…

  1. The Effects of Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    In work-related instrumental learning contexts, the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory predict skill adaptation as an outcome. This prediction was tested by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants' response and error rates…

  2. Happiness Indices among Persons with Profound and Severe Disabilities during Leisure and Work Activities: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Dickie C. T.; Spevack, Sara; Hiebert, Rene; Martin, Toby L.; Goodman, Ryan; Martin, Todd G.; Harapiak, Shayla; Martin, Garry L.

    2002-01-01

    Happiness indices were observed during naturally occurring work and leisure activities for individuals with severe (n=12) and profound (n=7) disabilities. Both groups showed more happiness indices during leisure activities, although the difference for the profound group was smaller. There was also a significant difference between groups for…

  3. Emotion at Work: A Contribution to Third-Generation Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-01-01

    Second-generation cultural-historical activity theory, which drew its inspiration from Leont'ev's work, constituted an advance over Vygotsky's first-generation theory by explicitly articulating the dialectical relation between individual and collective. As part of an effort to develop third-generation-historical activity theory, I propose in this…

  4. Grammatical Processing in Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clahsen, Harald; Felser, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    The ability to process the linguistic input in real time is crucial for successfully acquiring a language, and yet little is known about how language learners comprehend or produce language in real time. Against this background, we have conducted a detailed study of grammatical processing in language learners using experimental psycholinguistic…

  5. Effective Instruction for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sanchez, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or…

  6. Orienting Adult Learners to College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Tara S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes pilot program at University of Louisville (Kentucky) which was designed to assist in orienting adult learners to the collegiate environment. Addresses special concerns of adult learners, including child care, career planning, academic support, personal support, and financial aid. Explains program development and presentation, materials,…

  7. Profiling Mobile English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Jason; Diem, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an app-embedded survey to profile language learner demographics. A total of 3,759 EFL language learners from primarily eight L1 backgrounds (French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Russian, Spanish and Thai) responded to the survey embedded within a popular English grammar app. This app has over 500,000…

  8. Iranian EFL Learners' Compliment Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allami, Hamid; Montazeri, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the knowledge of Iranian EFL learners in responding to compliments in English, with a focus on the variables of gender, age and educational background. The data were collected through a 24-item English Discourse Completion Task (DCT) to which 40 male and female EFL learners were asked to provide short…

  9. Assistive Software for Disabled Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sharon; Baggaley, Jon

    2004-01-01

    Previous reports in this series (#32 and 36) have discussed online software features of value to disabled learners in distance education. The current report evaluates four specific assistive software products with useful features for visually and hearing impaired learners: "ATutor", "ACollab", "Natural Voice", and "Just Vanilla". The evaluative…

  10. High Ability and Learner Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindal, Huda; Reid, Norman; Whitehead, Rex

    2013-01-01

    The outstandingly able learner has been conceptualised, in terms of test and examination performance, as the learner showing superior academic performance which is markedly better than that of peers and in ways regarded as of value by wider society. In Kuwait, such superior examination performance leads to a classification regarded as being…

  11. The Generative Adolescent Mathematical Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the personal epistemologies of generative adolescent mathematical learners. A generative disposition defined a learner who operated mathematically in ways that reflect an internalized authority for knowing and a constructive orientation to knowledge. Drawing upon the radical constructivist teaching…

  12. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…

  13. Sensitizing ESL Learners to Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Jasti Appa

    2008-01-01

    This article evaluates the efficacy of explicit genre-based instruction by sensitizing the ESL learners to the concept of genre. The main questions addressed are: How does sensitizing ESL learners to the rhetorical move structure of a genre, the communicative purposes of these moves, and linguistic features that realize these moves help them to…

  14. Learner Intonation -- A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Nancy

    This study is concerned with problems in language learners' intonation of English. Ten intonation problems were found in the learner speech of two adult Spanish-speaking males: (1) range of pitch, (2) initial rise, (3) final fall, (4) rise to final stressed syllable, (5) placement of prominence, (6) final rise for questions, (7) total question…

  15. Evaluation of Active Working Fluids for Brayton Cycles in Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, J. C.; Courville, G. E.; Scott, J. H.

    2004-02-01

    The main parameter of interest for space thermal power conversion to electricity is specific power, defined as the total electric power output per unit of system mass, rather than the cycle thermal efficiency. For a closed Brayton cycle, performance with two active working fluids, nitrogen tetroxide and aluminum chloride, is compared to that with an inert mixture of helium and xenon having a molecular mass of 40. A chemically active working fluid is defined here as a chemical compound that has a relatively high molecular weight at temperatures appropriate for the compressor inlet and dissociates to a lighter molecular weight fluid at typical turbine inlet temperatures. The active working fluids may have the advantage of a higher net turbomachinery work output and an advantageous enhancement of the heat transfer coefficient in the heat exchangers. The fundamental theory of the active working fluid concept is presented to demonstrate these potential advantages. Scoping calculations of the heat exchanger mass for a selected spacecraft application of 36.4 kW of electrical power output show that the nitrogen tetroxide active working fluid has an advantageous 7% to 30% lower mass-to-power ratio than that for the inert noble gas mixture, depending on the allowable turbine inlet temperature. The calculations for the aluminum chloride system suggest only a slight improvement in performance relative to the inert noble gas mixture.

  16. Reports from the field: engaging learners as interpreters for developing health messages -- designing the 'Familias Sin Plomo' English as a Second Language curriculum project.

    PubMed

    Handley, Margaret A; Santos, Maricel G; McClelland, Jeff

    2009-09-01

    California has a recently documented problem of trans-national environmental lead exposures in imported foods from Mexico but there is limited health information available in immigrant communities about this problem. This report highlights collaborative work with English as a Second Language (ESL) learners to critically review research data on lead exposures and reframe prevention messages about lead contamination of imported foods. These messages are now integrated into ESL curricula for dissemination to Spanish-speaking populations that are disproportionately affected by lead poisoning. This 'learners as interpreters' approach is a participatory method that can be applied across a wide range of public health activities. ESL learners emerged as ideal partners in developing curriculum for lead poisoning prevention for several reasons: the parents expressed strong interest in lead poisoning prevention, several have children under age 6 when lead screenings are recommended, and many have emigrated from regions in Mexico where lead hazards were identified.

  17. The activation of mechanisms linking judgements of work design and management with musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Randall, Raymond; Griffiths, Amanda; Cox, Tom; Welsh, Claire

    2002-01-15

    The report of work-related musculoskeletal pain may be related to worker evaluations of the design and management of work through two mechanisms: one biomechanical and the other stress-related. This study of engineering workers (n = 204) explored the validity of these mechanisms using sequential logistic regression. Analyses suggested that workers' ratings of the adequacy of the design and management of their work were related to their report of work-related musculoskeletal pain. However, the mechanisms appeared to be activated in certain conditions. The reporting of pain in the upper body was both biomechanically- and stress-related, whereas that in the lower body was only biomechanically-related. It is argued that the mechanism activated appeared to be determined by the anatomical location of the pain, and probably the variance shared between the different aspects of work design and management, on the one hand, and the mechanical load of the job, on the other. PMID:11964192

  18. Motivation Classification and Grade Prediction for MOOCs Learners

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    While MOOCs offer educational data on a new scale, many educators find great potential of the big data including detailed activity records of every learner. A learner's behavior such as if a learner will drop out from the course can be predicted. How to provide an effective, economical, and scalable method to detect cheating on tests such as surrogate exam-taker is a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a grade predicting method that uses student activity features to predict whether a learner may get a certification if he/she takes a test. The method consists of two-step classifications: motivation classification (MC) and grade classification (GC). The MC divides all learners into three groups including certification earning, video watching, and course sampling. The GC then predicts a certification earning learner may or may not obtain a certification. Our experiment shows that the proposed method can fit the classification model at a fine scale and it is possible to find a surrogate exam-taker. PMID:26884747

  19. Motivation Classification and Grade Prediction for MOOCs Learners.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    While MOOCs offer educational data on a new scale, many educators find great potential of the big data including detailed activity records of every learner. A learner's behavior such as if a learner will drop out from the course can be predicted. How to provide an effective, economical, and scalable method to detect cheating on tests such as surrogate exam-taker is a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a grade predicting method that uses student activity features to predict whether a learner may get a certification if he/she takes a test. The method consists of two-step classifications: motivation classification (MC) and grade classification (GC). The MC divides all learners into three groups including certification earning, video watching, and course sampling. The GC then predicts a certification earning learner may or may not obtain a certification. Our experiment shows that the proposed method can fit the classification model at a fine scale and it is possible to find a surrogate exam-taker.

  20. Learners' Perceptions and Attitudes: Implications for Willingness to Communicate in an L2 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Saint Leger, Diane; Storch, Neomy

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates learners' perceptions of their speaking abilities, of their contributions to oral class activities (whole class and small group discussions) as well as their attitudes towards these activities, and how such perceptions and attitudes influenced the learners' willingness to communicate in the L2. The study employed a range of…

  1. Dynamic trajectory of multiple single-unit activity during working memory task in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Yi, Hu; Bai, Wenwen; Tian, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Working memory plays an important role in complex cognitive tasks. A popular theoretical view is that transient properties of neuronal dynamics underlie cognitive processing. The question raised here as to how the transient dynamics evolve in working memory. To address this issue, we investigated the multiple single-unit activity dynamics in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during a Y-maze working memory task. The approach worked by reconstructing state space from delays of the original single-unit firing rate variables, which were further analyzed using kernel principal component analysis (KPCA). Then the neural trajectories were obtained to visualize the multiple single-unit activity. Furthermore, the maximal Lyapunov exponent (MLE) was calculated to quantitatively evaluate the neural trajectories during the working memory task. The results showed that the neuronal activity produced stable and reproducible neural trajectories in the correct trials while showed irregular trajectories in the incorrect trials, which may establish a link between the neurocognitive process and behavioral performance in working memory. The MLEs significantly increased during working memory in the correctly performed trials, indicating an increased divergence of the neural trajectories. In the incorrect trials, the MLEs were nearly zero and remained unchanged during the task. Taken together, the trial-specific neural trajectory provides an effective way to track the instantaneous state of the neuronal population during the working memory task and offers valuable insights into working memory function. The MLE describes the changes of neural dynamics in working memory and may reflect different neuronal population states in working memory. PMID:26441626

  2. Role of yoga and physical activity in work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dentists

    PubMed Central

    Koneru, Suneetha; Tanikonda, Rambabu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Work-related musculoskeletal pain is one of the occupational hazards in dentists. Aims: To find the prevalence and severity of musculoskeletal pain in dentists, to compare musculoskeletal pain among dentists practicing yoga, those practicing physical activities, and those without any physical activity, and also to know the effects of sex, age, and workload on musculoskeletal pain. Materials and Methods: A self-reporting work-related questionnaire and the Nordic questionnaire for analysis of musculoskeletal disorders were given to graduated dentists attending Indian dental conference in Mumbai, to know the musculoskeletal pain experienced in the last 12 months and feedback was obtained from 220 dentists. Results: The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in dentists was 34.5%. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was 10.5%, 21.7%, and 45.6% in dentists with regular yoga practice, other physical activity, and no physical activity, respectively. There was statistically significant difference in the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among dentists who were practicing yoga when compared with those in no regular activity group. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, there was significant role of physical activity on the quality and quantity of work-related musculoskeletal disorders experienced by dentists. Yoga was found to be more effective than other modes of physical activities. More research is needed on musculoskeletal problems in dentists, with an emphasis on larger sample sizes and correlating other factors like age and sex of the dentists, duration of practice, years of practicing yoga, and working hours per week. PMID:26236679

  3. Physical activity and sedentary time: male perceptions in a university work environment.

    PubMed

    George, Emma S; Kolt, Gregory S; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Guagliano, Justin M

    2014-03-01

    Promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary time in males can be challenging, and interventions tailored specifically for males are limited. Understanding male perceptions of physical activity and sedentary behavior is important to inform development of relevant interventions, especially for males working in an office setting. As part of a larger intervention study to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time, male university employees aged 35 to 64 years were invited to partake in focus groups to discuss benefits, motivators, and barriers related to physical activity and sedentary time. Five semistructured focus group sessions, ranging from 50 to 70 minutes in duration, were conducted on two campuses at an Australian university. A total of 15 participants (9 academic/faculty staff and 6 professional staff), with a mean (± SD) age of 46.1 (±8.0) years took part in the study. Health and family were commonly discussed motivators for physical activity, whereas time constraints and work commitments were major barriers to physical activity participation. Sedentary time was a perceived "by-product" of participants' university employment, as a substantial proportion of their days were spent sitting, primarily at a computer. Participants believed that physical activity should be recognized as a legitimate activity at work, embedded within the university culture and endorsed using a top-down approach. It is important to encourage breaks in sedentary time and recognize physical activity as a legitimate health-promoting activity that is supported and encouraged during working hours. These findings can be used as a platform from which to develop targeted strategies to promote physical activity in male university employees.

  4. Ten Helpful Ideas for Teaching English to Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Joan Kang

    2006-01-01

    This article offers ten suggestions for teaching young learners between the age of 7 and 12 based on language-teaching principles. They include supplementing activities with visuals, realia and movement; involving students in making visuals and realia; moving from activity to activity; teaching in themes; using stories and contexts familiar to…

  5. Development of Active Control within Working Memory: Active Retrieval versus Monitoring in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blain-Brière, Bénédicte; Bouchard, Caroline; Bigras, Nathalie; Cadoret, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare children's performance on two mnemonic functions that engage the lateral prefrontal cortex. Brain imaging studies in adults have shown that the mid-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex is specifically involved in active controlled retrieval, and the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is specifically involved in…

  6. Heparanase procoagulant activity, factor Xa, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 are increased in shift work female nurses.

    PubMed

    Nadir, Yona; Saharov, Gleb; Hoffman, Ron; Keren-Politansky, Anat; Tzoran, Inna; Brenner, Benjamin; Shochat, Tamar

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate on an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in shift workers, although the underlying mechanism is obscure. Heparanase directly enhances tissue factor (TF) activity leading to increased factor Xa production and subsequent activation of the coagulation system. In the present study, a comparison of coagulation markers among healthy shift working (SW) vs. healthy daytime working (DW) female nurses was performed. Thirty SW and 30 DW female nurses were enrolled. For each of the 60 participants, blood was drawn between 7:00 and 8:00 a.m. and at least 8 h after the last work shift. Plasma was studied for coagulation marker that included TF/heparanase procoagulant activity, TF activity, heparanase procoagulant activity, heparanase level, factor Xa level, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), plasminogen, α2-antiplasmin, fibrinogen, global protein C, von Willebrand factor, and D-dimer by chromogenic assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Sleep quality was assessed by self-report according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The heparanase procoagulant activity increased by 2-fold and the TF/heparanase procoagulant activity increased by 1.5-fold in SW nurses compared to DW nurses (P < 0.05). Factor Xa levels and PAI-1 levels were significantly higher among SW nurses compared to the DW group (22 vs. 18 ng/ml, P < 0.05, and 32 vs. 22 ng/ml, P < 0.005, respectively). No significant differences were found in the other tested coagulation markers between the study groups. Heparanase procoagulant activity, factor Xa level, and PAI-1 level were significantly higher in SW nurses compared to the DW group. These alterations of blood coagulation activation may potentially contribute to cardiovascular and cancer morbidity.

  7. The Beliefs of Two Expert EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Much of the research into "expert" language learners has focused largely on their learning strategies or styles. Less attention has been paid to other expert learner characteristics, such as learner beliefs. However, the importance of learners' beliefs in guiding their behaviours and how they interpret their experiences is widely recognised. This…

  8. Preparing Learners for e-Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piskurich, George M., Ed.

    This book presents methods business organizations and educational institutions can use to prepare their learners to become successful e-learners. "Preparing e-Learners for Self- Directed Learning" (Long) discusses self-direction as a prerequisite to e-learning and gives a list of ways to help enhance learners' self-directedness. "Identifying…

  9. Learning Difficulties in English for Rural Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2010-01-01

    The present study illuminates and diagnoses the learning problems of the rural learners in English Grammar at standard VI. Present study may be useful to ameliorate the rural learners for acquiring competencies in English and eliminates the problems of the learners. It paves way to the teachers to diagnose the learning hurdles of the learners and…

  10. Model Learner Outcomes for Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Richard C.; Hessler, Edward

    This document provides curriculum planners with models of learner outcomes that can be incorporated into a science curriculum and science essential learner outcomes. The first chapter includes a list of educational system values and learner values, philosophy of education, the mission for public education, and learner goals that describe the…

  11. Circadian Activity Rhythms and Sleep in Nurses Working Fixed 8-hr Shifts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jiunn-Horng; Miao, Nae-Fang; Tseng, Ing-Jy; Sithole, Trevor; Chung, Min-Huey

    2015-05-01

    Shift work is associated with adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of shift work on circadian activity rhythms (CARs) and objective and subjective sleep quality in nurses. Female day-shift (n = 16), evening-shift (n = 6), and night-shift (n = 13) nurses wore a wrist actigraph to monitor the activity. We used cosinor analysis and time-frequency analysis to study CARs. Night-shift nurses exhibited the lowest values of circadian rhythm amplitude, acrophase, autocorrelation, and mean of the circadian relative power (CRP), whereas evening-shift workers exhibited the greatest standard deviation of the CRP among the three shift groups. That is, night-shift nurses had less robust CARs and evening-shift nurses had greater variations in CARs compared with nurses who worked other shifts. Our results highlight the importance of assessing CARs to prevent the adverse effects of shift work on nurses' health. PMID:25332463

  12. Dissociated sequential activity and stimulus encoding in the dorsomedial striatum during spatial working memory

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghpour, Hessameddin; Wiskerke, Joost; Choi, Jung Yoon; Taliaferro, Joshua P; Au, Jennifer; Witten, Ilana B

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the striatum has an important role in spatial working memory. The neural dynamics in the striatum have been described in tasks with short delay periods (1–4 s), but remain largely uncharacterized for tasks with longer delay periods. We collected and analyzed single unit recordings from the dorsomedial striatum of rats performing a spatial working memory task with delays up to 10 s. We found that neurons were activated sequentially, with the sequences spanning the entire delay period. Surprisingly, this sequential activity was dissociated from stimulus encoding activity, which was present in the same neurons, but preferentially appeared towards the onset of the delay period. These observations contrast with descriptions of sequential dynamics during similar tasks in other brains areas, and clarify the contribution of the striatum to spatial working memory. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19507.001 PMID:27636864

  13. Expanding Roles: Teacher Educators' Perspectives on Educating English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Shannon; Peercy, Megan Madigan

    2014-01-01

    Although the underpreparation of teachers to work with English learners is a documented problem in teacher education, little research has addressed teacher educators' perspectives in guiding prospective teachers to educate English learners. This case study of one 13-month elementary certification program highlights teacher educators'…

  14. An Intelligent E-Learning System Based on Learner Profiling and Learning Resources Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzouveli, Paraskevi; Mylonas, Phivos; Kollias, Stefanos

    2008-01-01

    Taking advantage of the continuously improving, web-based learning systems plays an important role for self-learning, especially in the case of working people. Nevertheless, learning systems do not generally adapt to learners' profiles. Learners have to spend a lot of time before reaching the learning goal that is compatible with their knowledge…

  15. The Effectiveness of E-Learning Systems: A Review of the Empirical Literature on Learner Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorgenfrei, Christian; Smolnik, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    E-learning systems are considerably changing education and organizational training. With the advancement of online-based learning systems, learner control over the instructional process has emerged as a decisive factor in technology-based forms of learning. However, conceptual work on the role of learner control in e-learning has not advanced…

  16. A Learner-Centered Molecular Modeling Exercise for Allied Health Majors in a Biochemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Terace M.; Ershler, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Learner-centered molecular modeling exercises in college science courses can be especially challenging for nonchemistry majors as students typically have a higher degree of anxiety and may not appreciate the relevance of the work. This article describes a learner-centered project given to allied health majors in a Biochemistry course. The project…

  17. Practice Makes Better? A Study of Meditation Learners in a Classroom Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chin-Yen; Kuo, Tsung-Hsien; Kuo, Yen-Ku; Kuo, Yen-Lin; Ho, Li-An; Lin, Chien-Ting

    2007-01-01

    The study investigates the effect of length of meditation history on various factors, namely learning motivation, learning outcome and classroom climate. Data were collected from working adult learners (n = 450) attending meditation classes in two large cities in Taiwan. The investigation categorized learners based on meditation experience, namely…

  18. Effects of Peer-Tutor Competences on Learner Cognitive Load and Learning Performance during Knowledge Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Ya-Ping; Brouns, Francis; van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    In Learning Networks, learners need to share knowledge with others to build knowledge. In particular, when working on complex tasks, they often need to acquire extra cognitive resources from others to process a high task load. However, without support high task load and organizing knowledge sharing themselves might easily overload learners'…

  19. Concept-Based Teaching and Spanish Modality in Heritage Language Learners: A Vygotskyan Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Frazier, Elena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed how six Heritage language learners at the university level gained conscious awareness and control of the concept of modality as revealed in student verbalizations (Vygotsky, 1998) throughout five different written communicative events. This work took place in the only course designed for Heritage language learners at a large…

  20. "Coded and Uncoded Error Feedback: Effects on Error Frequencies in Adult Colombian EFL Learners' Writing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale study into the effects of uncoded correction (writing the correct forms above each error) and coded annotations (writing symbols that encourage learners to self-correct) on Colombian university-level EFL learners' written work. The study finds that while both coded annotations and uncoded correction appear to…

  1. Journal between Peer Learners: An Innovative Project to Motivate EFL Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiaohong; Shen, Lei; Lu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Writing is one of the most challenging skills for many EFL learners to master. It is also considered to be the most difficult to teach. To motivate students to write more without burdening teachers with additional rating work, college English teachers at a university in China introduced a journal project. Peer learners were paired anonymously and…

  2. Orthographic Consistency and Individual Learner Differences in Second Language Literacy Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sun-A; Packard, Jerome; Christianson, Kiel; Anderson, Richard C.; Shin, Jeong-Ah

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether orthographic consistency and individual learner differences including working memory (WM), first language (L1) background, and second language (L2) proficiency affect Chinese L2 learners' literacy acquisition. Seventy American college students in beginning or intermediate Chinese classes participated in a character…

  3. Evaluation of three methodologies for assessing work activity during computer use.

    PubMed

    Homan, Michelle M; Armstrong, Thomas J

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to evaluate three separate methodologies for gathering work activity information among computer users. These methodologies included worker self-report, work sampling, and activity monitoring. A repeated measures design was employed whereby data were collected simultaneously on each subject (n = 51) across three consecutive workdays. Exposure information gathered included keying time, mouse usage, and time spent performing various work tasks (i.e., writing, proofreading, handling documents). Subjects were recruited to represent a wide range of keyboard activity and mouse usage. The study found that worker self-reports overestimated actual keyboard usage by a factor of approximately 1.5 for workers using the keyboard an average of 4 hours per day to a factor of 4 for workers using the keyboard an average of 30 min per day. On average, there was an approximate twofold difference between worker self-reported keying time and that obtained via activity monitoring and work sampling. This trend was similar with regard to time spent using the computer mouse. Worker self-reported mouse usage was approximately twofold higher than that obtained via activity monitoring or work sampling. Self-reported exposure information not only resulted in different estimates, but showed greater variance compared with the other methodologies. The results of this study suggest that the use of worker self-reported exposure information on keying time and mouse usage may not represent an accurate account of time spent performing these tasks. In the context of epidemiological studies work sampling and/or activity monitoring would be more suitable methodologies for obtaining such information.

  4. Cross-modal activation of auditory regions during visuo-spatial working memory in early deafness.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hao; Qin, Wen; Liang, Meng; Ming, Dong; Wan, Baikun; Li, Qiang; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-09-01

    Early deafness can reshape deprived auditory regions to enable the processing of signals from the remaining intact sensory modalities. Cross-modal activation has been observed in auditory regions during non-auditory tasks in early deaf subjects. In hearing subjects, visual working memory can evoke activation of the visual cortex, which further contributes to behavioural performance. In early deaf subjects, however, whether and how auditory regions participate in visual working memory remains unclear. We hypothesized that auditory regions may be involved in visual working memory processing and activation of auditory regions may contribute to the superior behavioural performance of early deaf subjects. In this study, 41 early deaf subjects (22 females and 19 males, age range: 20-26 years, age of onset of deafness < 2 years) and 40 age- and gender-matched hearing controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a visuo-spatial delayed recognition task that consisted of encoding, maintenance and recognition stages. The early deaf subjects exhibited faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task than did the hearing controls. Compared with hearing controls, deaf subjects exhibited increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the recognition stage. This increased activation amplitude predicted faster and more accurate working memory performance in deaf subjects. Deaf subjects also had increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the maintenance stage and in the right superior temporal gyrus during the encoding stage. These increased activation amplitude also predicted faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task in deaf subjects. These findings suggest that cross-modal plasticity occurs in auditory association areas in early deaf subjects. These areas are involved in visuo-spatial working memory. Furthermore, amplitudes of cross-modal activation during the maintenance stage were

  5. Nursing Activities Score: nursing work load in a burns Intensive Care Unit1

    PubMed Central

    Camuci, Marcia Bernadete; Martins, Júlia Trevisan; Cardeli, Alexandrina Aparecida Maciel; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Objective to evaluate the nursing work load in a Burns Intensive Care Unit according to the Nursing Activities Score. Method an exploratory, descriptive cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. The Nursing Activities Score was used for data collection between October 2011 and May 2012, totalling 1,221 measurements, obtained from 50 patients' hospital records. Data for qualitative variables was described in tables; for the quantitative variables, calculations using statistical measurements were used. Results the mean score for the Nursing Activities Score was 70.4% and the median was 70.3%, corresponding to the percentage of the time spent on direct care to the patient in 24 hours. Conclusion the Nursing Activities Score provided information which involves the process of caring for patients hospitalized in a Burns Intensive Care Unit, and indicated that there is a high work load for the nursing team of the sector studied. PMID:26107842

  6. Differential associations between impulsivity and risk-taking and brain activations underlying working memory in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Karni; Rutherford, Helena J.V.; Mencl, W. Einar; Lacadie, Cheryl M.; Potenza, Marc N.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    Increased impulsivity and risk-taking are common during adolescence and relate importantly to addictive behaviors. However, the extent to which impulsivity and risk-taking relate to brain activations that mediate cognitive processing is not well understood. Here we examined the relationships between impulsivity and risk-taking and the neural correlates of working memory. Neural activity was measured in 18 adolescents (13–18 years) while they engaged in a working memory task that included verbal and visuospatial components that each involved encoding, rehearsal and recognition stages. Risk-taking and impulsivity were assessed using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the adolescent version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale -11 (BIS-11A), respectively. We found overlapping as well as distinct regions subserving the different stages of verbal and visuospatial working memory. In terms of risk-taking, we found a positive correlation between BART scores and activity in subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, dorsal striatum) recruited during verbal rehearsal, and an inverse correlation between BART scores and cortical regions (e.g., parietal and temporal regions) recruited during visuospatial rehearsal. The BIS-11A evidenced that motor impulsivity was associated with activity in regions recruited during all stages of working memory, while attention and non-planning impulsivity was only associated with activity in regions recruited during recognition. In considering working memory, impulsivity and risk-taking together, both impulsivity and risk-taking were associated with activity in regions recruited during rehearsal; however, during verbal rehearsal, differential correlations were found. Specifically, positive correlations were found between: (1) risk-taking and activity in subcortical regions, including the thalamus and dorsal striatum; and, (2) motor impulsivity and activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus, insula, dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal

  7. Differential associations between impulsivity and risk-taking and brain activations underlying working memory in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Karni; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mencl, W Einar; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C

    2014-11-01

    Increased impulsivity and risk-taking are common during adolescence and relate importantly to addictive behaviors. However, the extent to which impulsivity and risk-taking relate to brain activations that mediate cognitive processing is not well understood. Here we examined the relationships between impulsivity and risk-taking and the neural correlates of working memory. Neural activity was measured in 18 adolescents (13-18 years) while they engaged in a working memory task that included verbal and visuospatial components that each involved encoding, rehearsal and recognition stages. Risk-taking and impulsivity were assessed using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the adolescent version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11A), respectively. We found overlapping as well as distinct regions subserving the different stages of verbal and visuospatial working memory. In terms of risk-taking, we found a positive correlation between BART scores and activity in subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, dorsal striatum) recruited during verbal rehearsal, and an inverse correlation between BART scores and cortical regions (e.g., parietal and temporal regions) recruited during visuospatial rehearsal. The BIS-11A evidenced that motor impulsivity was associated with activity in regions recruited during all stages of working memory, while attention and non-planning impulsivity was only associated with activity in regions recruited during recognition. In considering working memory, impulsivity and risk-taking together, both impulsivity and risk-taking were associated with activity in regions recruited during rehearsal; however, during verbal rehearsal, differential correlations were found. Specifically, positive correlations were found between: (1) risk-taking and activity in subcortical regions, including the thalamus and dorsal striatum; and, (2) motor impulsivity and activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus, insula, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Therefore

  8. Toward Enriched Conceptions of Work Learning: Participation, Expansion, and Translation among Individuals with/in Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Tara

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that understandings of work learning within human resource development (HRD) theory can be fruitfully enriched by more fully incorporating practice-based perspectives. Three contemporary theories that analyze learning as a relation of individuals with and/or in activity are discussed: the participational perspective of situated…

  9. Electronic Learning Courses as a Means to Activate Students' Independent Work in Studying Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurygin, Viktor Yurjevich; Krasnova, Lyubov Alekseevna

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are special requirements to the system of higher education, focused not only on imparting knowledge to students, but also on the formation of the continuous need for independent self-education, self-creative approach to getting knowledge throughout their active life. In this regard, the role of students' independent work with its…

  10. When Talking Won't Work: Implementing Experiential Group Activities with Addicted Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Hirshhorn, Meredith A.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional talk therapy, particularly cognitive behavioral techniques, are often ineffective when working with addicted clients for many reasons. By tapping into the power of the group modality, experiential activities can serve as a powerful facilitator of insight and behavior change. The authors provide a brief review of the literature followed…

  11. Portraying the Work of Instructional Designing: An Activity-Oriented Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathbun, Gail A.

    This study tested the usefulness of an activity-oriented approach in describing and explaining the work of designing an international distance education course in business entrepreneurship at Indiana University. The course was team taught with an instructor at the City University of Hong Kong; video conferencing and Internet-based technologies…

  12. Connecting Social Work and Activism in the Arts through Continuing Professional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawdon, Kathryn; Moxley, David

    2016-01-01

    The authors place a continuing education conference devoted to linking the arts, social practice, and social work within the context of a movement to advance arts activism. They illustrate how social workers, artists, and community arts activists can collaborate in building public awareness about serious social issues, creating alternative…

  13. Unesco's Activities to Facilitate Access of Developing Countries to Protected Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alam, A. M. N.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the operational activities of UNESCO to facilitate easy access of developing countries to works protected by copyright. Particular reference is made to collection of data, economic situation, formation of national copyright information centers, copyright data bank services, reprographic reproduction, preparation of model contracts,and…

  14. 20 CFR 632.122 - Unionization and antiunionization activities; work stoppages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unionization and antiunionization activities; work stoppages. 632.122 Section 632.122 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Prevention of Fraud...

  15. 75 FR 51525 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... announcement of working group activities and status reports of January 29, 2010 (75 FR 4904). The 41st full... October 11, 2005. The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) was published on August 24, 2006 (71 FR 50275... published on February 1, 2008 (73 FR 6370). The Task Force met on October 17-18, 2007, and reached...

  16. Working through: In-Session Processes that Promote Between-Session Thoughts and Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jesse; Quirk, Kelley; Hilsenroth, Mark J.; Rodolfa, Emil

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether clients' ratings of the working alliance as well as their perception of cognitive-behavioral (CB) and psychodynamic-interpersonal (PI) techniques (delivered by therapists who used both) were associated with clients' intersession processes (i.e., their thoughts about therapy and therapeutic activity between sessions).…

  17. Recent Science and Engineering Graduates Working in Energy-Related Activities, 1979 and 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sharon E.

    Employment and professional activities of recent science and engineering graduates who described their work as energy-related were examined. The survey included graduates who received bachelor's or master's degrees between 1972 and 1979 and was conducted in 1976, 1978, 1979, and 1980. Data indicated that the number of graduates who reported…

  18. 20 CFR 404.1584 - Evaluation of work activity of blind people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of work activity of blind people. 404.1584 Section 404.1584 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness §...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1584 - Evaluation of work activity of blind people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evaluation of work activity of blind people. 404.1584 Section 404.1584 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness §...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1584 - Evaluation of work activity of blind people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evaluation of work activity of blind people. 404.1584 Section 404.1584 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness §...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1584 - Evaluation of work activity of blind people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evaluation of work activity of blind people. 404.1584 Section 404.1584 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness §...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1584 - Evaluation of work activity of blind people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evaluation of work activity of blind people. 404.1584 Section 404.1584 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness §...

  3. 77 FR 24257 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... announcement of working group activities and status reports of November 28, 2011 (76 FR 72997). The 45th full... Rulemaking (NPRM) was published on August 24, 2006 (71 FR 50275), and was open for comment until October 23... emergency communication, emergency egress, and rescue access, was published on February 1, 2008 (73 FR...

  4. 75 FR 76070 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... announcement of working group activities and status reports of August 20, 2010 (75 FR 51525). The 42nd full... Rulemaking (NPRM) was published on August 24, 2006 (71 FR 50275), and was open for comment until October 23... emergency communication, emergency egress, and rescue access, was published on February 1, 2008 (73 FR...

  5. A Role for Prefrontal Calcium-Sensitive Protein Phosphatase and Kinase Activities in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runyan, Jason D.; Moore, Anthony N.; Dash, Pramod K.

    2005-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is involved in the integration and interpretation of information for directing thoughts and planning action. Working memory is defined as the active maintenance of information in mind and is thought to lie at the core of many prefrontal functions. Although dopamine and other neurotransmitters have been implicated, the…

  6. Guided Participation in Three Youth Activism Organizations: Facilitation, Apprenticeship, and Joint Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Multiracial youth activism groups, based in working class and poor neighborhoods, seek to improve social conditions by organizing grassroots campaigns. Campaigns such as these, which require sophisticated planning, organizing, and advocacy skills, are noteworthy not just for their political impact, but also because of the insights they provide…

  7. Using Activity Theory to Understand How People Learn to Negotiate the Conditions of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthen, Helena

    2008-01-01

    In a typical workplace in the United States, two knowledge-producing activity systems are in motion. Each produces knowledge about how to do the work of that workplace, but they are differently motivated: one toward productivity, and the other toward earning a living. The conflict between these two systems is addressed through the process of…

  8. The Good Second Language Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naiman, N.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Reports on a research study designed to find out more about the successful second language learner. By means of interviews, a list of the learning strategies of good language students was developed. (PMP)

  9. Activities of the US-Japan Safety Monitor Joint Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Richard L. Savercool; Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01

    This paper documents the activities of the US-Japan exchange in the area of personnel safety at magnetic and laser fusion experiments. A near-miss event with a visiting scientist to the US in 1992 was the impetus for forming the Joint Working Group on Fusion Safety. This exchnge has been under way for over ten years and has provided many safety insights for both US and Japanese facility personnel at national institutes and at universities. The background and activities of the Joint Working Group are described, including the facilities that have been visited for safety walkthroughs, the participants from both countries, and the main safety issues examined during visits. Based on these visits, some operational safety ideas to enhance experiment safety are given. The near-term future plans of the Safety Monitor Joint Working group are also discussed.

  10. The regulation of work activity and the new labor and production contexts.

    PubMed

    Silva, Elaine Cristina; Bento, Paulo Eduardo Gomes

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, there has been a rise in the use o lean production model techniques. Through this approach, companies become more flexible, a fact that increases the interest in studies regarding the introduction of this model in businesses and its impacts on working conditions. Important observations concerning ergonomics, such as the theme of work activity regulation, have been highlighted in such studies. This article aims to discuss strategies and regulations adopted by the workers on assembly lines that are considered flexible. The article presents the results of a study in a company that adopts some lean production techniques. The study was analyzed using the activity analysis as one of the premises of the Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA). Many aspects of the traditional assembly line remain present in the scenario that was studied, however a new language was employed and aspects in the nature of regulations demonstrate that the relation with lean production techniques influence the operators' operational modes.

  11. Integration of Nevada Test Site (NTS) Work Control Programs and Incorporating Integrated Safety Management (ISM) into Activity Level Work Planning and Control

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Kinney and Kevin Breen

    2008-08-30

    This session will examine a method developed by Federal and Contractor personnel at the Nevada Site Office (NSO) to improve the planning and execution of work activities utilizing an Activity Level Work Control process in response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2004-1, Oversight of Complex, High-Hazard Nuclear Operations. The process was initially developed during Fiscal Year (FY) 2007, and implementation is commencing during the fourth quarter of FY 2008. This process will significantly enhance the flexibility and the appropriate rigor in the performance of work activities.

  12. Can Cognitive Activities during Breaks in Repetitive Manual Work Accelerate Recovery from Fatigue? A Controlled Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Hallman, David M.; Lyskov, Eugene; Hygge, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Neurophysiologic theory and some empirical evidence suggest that fatigue caused by physical work may be more effectively recovered during “diverting” periods of cognitive activity than during passive rest; a phenomenon of great interest in working life. We investigated the extent to which development and recovery of fatigue during repeated bouts of an occupationally relevant reaching task was influenced by the difficulty of a cognitive activity between these bouts. Eighteen male volunteers performed three experimental sessions, consisting of six 7-min bouts of reaching alternating with 3 minutes of a memory test differing in difficulty between sessions. Throughout each session, recordings were made of upper trapezius muscle activity using electromyography (EMG), heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) using electrocardiography, arterial blood pressure, and perceived fatigue (Borg CR10 scale and SOFI). A test battery before, immediately after and 1 hour after the work period included measurements of maximal shoulder elevation strength (MVC), pressure pain threshold (PPT) over the trapezius muscles, and a submaximal isometric contraction. As expected, perceived fatigue and EMG amplitude increased during the physical work bouts. Recovery did occur between the bouts, but fatigue accumulated throughout the work period. Neither EMG changes nor recovery of perceived fatigue during breaks were influenced by cognitive task difficulty, while heart rate and HRV recovered the most during breaks with the most difficult task. Recovery of perceived fatigue after the 1 hour work period was also most pronounced for the most difficult cognitive condition, while MVC and PPT showed ambiguous patterns, and EMG recovered similarly after all three cognitive protocols. Thus, we could confirm that cognitive tasks between bouts of fatiguing physical work can, indeed, accelerate recovery of some factors associated with fatigue, even if benefits may be moderate and some responses may

  13. Can cognitive activities during breaks in repetitive manual work accelerate recovery from fatigue? A controlled experiment.

    PubMed

    Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Hallman, David M; Lyskov, Eugene; Hygge, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Neurophysiologic theory and some empirical evidence suggest that fatigue caused by physical work may be more effectively recovered during "diverting" periods of cognitive activity than during passive rest; a phenomenon of great interest in working life. We investigated the extent to which development and recovery of fatigue during repeated bouts of an occupationally relevant reaching task was influenced by the difficulty of a cognitive activity between these bouts. Eighteen male volunteers performed three experimental sessions, consisting of six 7-min bouts of reaching alternating with 3 minutes of a memory test differing in difficulty between sessions. Throughout each session, recordings were made of upper trapezius muscle activity using electromyography (EMG), heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) using electrocardiography, arterial blood pressure, and perceived fatigue (Borg CR10 scale and SOFI). A test battery before, immediately after and 1 hour after the work period included measurements of maximal shoulder elevation strength (MVC), pressure pain threshold (PPT) over the trapezius muscles, and a submaximal isometric contraction. As expected, perceived fatigue and EMG amplitude increased during the physical work bouts. Recovery did occur between the bouts, but fatigue accumulated throughout the work period. Neither EMG changes nor recovery of perceived fatigue during breaks were influenced by cognitive task difficulty, while heart rate and HRV recovered the most during breaks with the most difficult task. Recovery of perceived fatigue after the 1 hour work period was also most pronounced for the most difficult cognitive condition, while MVC and PPT showed ambiguous patterns, and EMG recovered similarly after all three cognitive protocols. Thus, we could confirm that cognitive tasks between bouts of fatiguing physical work can, indeed, accelerate recovery of some factors associated with fatigue, even if benefits may be moderate and some responses may be

  14. The topography of alpha-band activity tracks the content of spatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Foster, Joshua J; Sutterer, David W; Serences, John T; Vogel, Edward K; Awh, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is a system for the online storage of information. An emerging view is that neuronal oscillations coordinate the cellular assemblies that code the content of WM. In line with this view, previous work has demonstrated that oscillatory activity in the alpha band (8-12 Hz) plays a role in WM maintenance, but the exact contributions of this activity have remained unclear. Here, we used an inverted spatial encoding model in combination with electroencephalography (EEG) to test whether the topographic distribution of alpha-band activity tracks spatial representations held in WM. Participants in three experiments performed spatial WM tasks that required them to remember the precise angular location of a sample stimulus for 1,000-1,750 ms. Across all three experiments, we found that the topographic distribution of alpha-band activity tracked the specific location that was held in WM. Evoked (i.e., activity phase-locked to stimulus onset) and total (i.e., activity regardless of phase) power across a range of low-frequency bands transiently tracked the location of the sample stimulus following stimulus onset. However, only total power in the alpha band tracked the content of spatial WM throughout the memory delay period, which enabled reconstruction of location-selective channel tuning functions (CTFs). These findings demonstrate that alpha-band activity is directly related to the coding of spatial representations held in WM and provide a promising method for tracking the content of this online memory system.

  15. The topography of alpha-band activity tracks the content of spatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Foster, Joshua J; Sutterer, David W; Serences, John T; Vogel, Edward K; Awh, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is a system for the online storage of information. An emerging view is that neuronal oscillations coordinate the cellular assemblies that code the content of WM. In line with this view, previous work has demonstrated that oscillatory activity in the alpha band (8-12 Hz) plays a role in WM maintenance, but the exact contributions of this activity have remained unclear. Here, we used an inverted spatial encoding model in combination with electroencephalography (EEG) to test whether the topographic distribution of alpha-band activity tracks spatial representations held in WM. Participants in three experiments performed spatial WM tasks that required them to remember the precise angular location of a sample stimulus for 1,000-1,750 ms. Across all three experiments, we found that the topographic distribution of alpha-band activity tracked the specific location that was held in WM. Evoked (i.e., activity phase-locked to stimulus onset) and total (i.e., activity regardless of phase) power across a range of low-frequency bands transiently tracked the location of the sample stimulus following stimulus onset. However, only total power in the alpha band tracked the content of spatial WM throughout the memory delay period, which enabled reconstruction of location-selective channel tuning functions (CTFs). These findings demonstrate that alpha-band activity is directly related to the coding of spatial representations held in WM and provide a promising method for tracking the content of this online memory system. PMID:26467522

  16. Individual differences in neural activity during a facial expression vs. identity working memory task.

    PubMed

    Neta, Maital; Whalen, Paul J

    2011-06-01

    Facial expressions of emotion constitute a critical portion of our non-verbal social interactions. In addition, the identity of the individual displaying this expression is critical to these interactions as they embody the context in which these expressions will be interpreted. To identify any overlapping and/or unique brain circuitry involved in the processing of these two information streams in a laboratory setting, participants performed a working memory (WM) task (i.e., n-back) in which they were instructed to monitor either the expression (EMO) or the identity (ID) of the same set of face stimuli. Consistent with previous work, during both the EMO and ID tasks, we found a significant increase in activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) supporting its generalized role in WM. Further, individuals that showed greater DLPFC activity during both tasks also showed increased amygdala activity during the EMO task and increased lateral fusiform gyrus activity during the ID task. Importantly, the level of activity in these regions significantly correlated with performance on the respective tasks. These findings provide support for two separate neural circuitries, both involving the DLPFC, supporting working memory for the faces and expressions of others. PMID:21349341

  17. The Exploitative Nature of Work-Based Studies: A Sketch of an Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that, if education is considered as a means of increasing human capital, then the potential exists for exploitation of the learners through the inequitable distribution of the value accruing from their research activities. To illustrate the argument, I discuss these issues through the lens of a work-based professional doctorate…

  18. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China. PMID:25134668

  19. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China.

  20. The Relationship between Reading Proficiency and Reading Strategy Use: A Study of Adult ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…

  1. Toward a Unified Modeling of Learner's Growth Process and Flow Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Challco, Geiser C.; Andrade, Fernando R. H.; Borges, Simone S.; Bittencourt, Ig I.; Isotani, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Flow is the affective state in which a learner is so engaged and involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter. In this sense, to help students in the skill development and knowledge acquisition (referred to as learners' growth process) under optimal conditions, the instructional designers should create learning scenarios that favor…

  2. Language-Related Computer Use: Focus on Young L2 English Learners in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundqvist, Pia; Sylvén, Liss Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study investigating young English language learners (YELLs) in Sweden in 4th grade (N = 76, aged 10-11). Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire and a one-week language diary. The main purpose was to examine the learners' L2 English language-related activities outside of school in general, and…

  3. A Critical Analysis of Learner Participation in Virtual Worlds: How Can Virtual Worlds Inform Our Pedagogy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panichi, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory case study of learner participation within the context of online language learning in virtual world platforms. Data for this investigation was collected through a case study of a Business English course within a qualitative Case-Study Research framework. This study examines learner activity in virtual worlds in…

  4. The Interplay between Language, Gestures, Dragging and Diagrams in Bilingual Learners' Mathematical Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Oi-Lam

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of considering bilingual learners' non-linguistic forms of communication for understanding their mathematical thinking. In particular, I provide a detailed analysis of communication involving a pair of high school bilingual learners during an exploratory activity where a touchscreen-based dynamic geometry…

  5. Effectiveness of a Learner-Directed Model for e-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Stella; Barker, Trevor; Kumar, Vivekanandan Suresh

    2016-01-01

    It is a hard task to strike a balance between extents of control a learner exercises and the amount of guidance, active or passive, afforded by the learning environment to guide, support, and motivate the learner. Adaptive systems strive to find the right balance in a spectrum that spans between self-control and system-guidance. They also concern…

  6. Learner Agency and the Use of Affordances in Language-Exchange Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Tae youn

    2016-01-01

    Language exchange refers to a learning partnership between two learners with different native languages who collaborate to help each other improve their proficiency in the other's language. The purpose of this study is to examine the ways in which language-exchange participants activate learner agency to construct opportunities for learning in…

  7. A Multi-Perspective Investigation into Learners' Interaction in Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çardak, Çigdem Suzan

    2016-01-01

    This article focusses on graduate level students' interactions during asynchronous CMC activities of an online course about the teaching profession in Turkey. The instructor of the course designed and facilitated a semester-long asynchronous CMC on forum discussions, and investigated the interaction of learners in multiple perspectives: learners'…

  8. Choosing to Interact: Exploring the Relationship between Learner Personality, Attitudes, and Tutorial Dialogue Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezen-Can, Aysu; Boyer, Kristy Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The tremendous effectiveness of intelligent tutoring systems is due in large part to their interactivity. However, when learners are free to choose the extent to which they interact with a tutoring system, not all learners do so actively. This paper examines a study with a natural language tutorial dialogue system for computer science, in which…

  9. "Can We Do That Again?" Engaging Learners and Developing beyond the "Wow" Factor in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astall, Chris; Bruce, Warren

    2010-01-01

    Adding Mentos to an open bottle of Diet Coke can produce a fountain of liquid and froth extending several metres high. This activity can engage a wide audience of learners in a relevant and meaningful way, provide a model for creative science teaching, and help to develop learners' attitudes towards school science as a subject. In this paper, the…

  10. Peer Outreach Work as Economic Activity: Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions among Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    George, Annie; Blankenship, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers’ economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers’ relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers. PMID:25775122

  11. Does Project Work Suit All Pupils?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusholme, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    "Project work" is far from being a new phenomenon in the mathematics curriculum. Students reporting their findings of the "project" in a scrapbook format may be a novel approach. Asking learners to assess their "effort rating" is unusual self-assessment. But, there is far more detail in this account of project work. Grouping learners by "mindset…

  12. The variability of the trunk forward bending in standing activities during work vs. leisure time.

    PubMed

    Villumsen, Morten; Madeleine, Pascal; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Holtermann, Andreas; Samani, Afshin

    2017-01-01

    High level of occupational physical activity (PA), contrary to leisure time activities, is generally associated with detrimental health outcomes. We hypothesized that this contrast may be associated with a different pattern of exposure variability in PA, e.g., forward bending of the trunk. The study was conducted on 657 blue-collar workers. Two accelerometers were used to identify the body posture and forward bending of the trunk during work and leisure time. The pattern of forward bending was analyzed using exposure variation analysis (EVA). The recordings comprised of 2.6 ± 0.97 working days in average, with 19.9 ± 8.1 h work and 22.9 ± 8.9 h leisure. The standard deviation and entropy of the EVA profile indicated 11% and 6% (for about 80% of subjects) less variable pattern during work compared with the leisure time, respectively. These new findings contribute to the understanding the paradoxical outcomes of PA during work and leisure. PMID:27633222

  13. Work, food and physical activity. A qualitative study of coping strategies among men in three occupations.

    PubMed

    Wandel, Margareta; Roos, Gun

    2005-02-01

    Life style diseases contribute heavily to inequalities in health. Thus, there is a need for a better understanding of factors affecting health-related habits, such as diet and exercise, among different groups of people. In this study, the work situation is chosen as a point of departure for analyses on health-related perceptions and habits among men from three different occupations: 20 carpenters, 15 engineers and 11 drivers in Oslo, Norway. The data were collected by in depth semi-structured interviews. There were clear differences in the way men in the three types of work view food, meals, the body and physical activity. The distribution of different types of meals throughout the day was also tied to the type of work. This was linked to notions of food as fuel for immediate body functioning, vis a vis body shape and future health. The differences observed are most likely a mixture and mutual reinforcement of demands related to the work situation as well as the socio-cultural background, level of knowledge and education. Benefits at work were also different; those in higher positions (engineers) received most healthy benefits, such as fruit baskets, healthy lunches, and participation in physical activities. These may contribute to the already large differences in health practices.

  14. A Learner-led, Discussion-based Elective on Emerging Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Clinton

    2015-08-25

    Objective. To implement a learner-led, discussion-based course aimed at exposing second-year pharmacy learners to the study of emerging infectious diseases from a global health perspective and to assess the role and importance of pharmacists in the management of disease outbreaks. Design. Learners examined literature pertinent to an emerging infectious disease in a 3-credit, discussion-based course and participated in peer discussion led by a designated learner. Instructional materials included journal articles, audio-visual presentations, documentaries, book chapters, movies, newspaper/magazine articles, and other materials. Learning outcomes were measured based on the ability of learners to perform critical thinking and analysis, communicate with their peers, and participate in class discussions. Assessment. The course was offered to 2 consecutive cohorts consisting of 14 and 16 learners, respectively. Overall, every learner in the first cohort achieved a final grade of A for the course. In the second cohort, the overall grade distribution consisted of grades of A, B, and C for the course. Learner evaluations indicated that the active-learning, discussion-based environment significantly enhanced interest in the topic and overall performance in the course. Conclusion. The elective course on emerging infectious diseases provided in-depth exposure to disease topics normally not encountered in the pharmacy curriculum. Learners found the material and format valuable, and the course enhanced their appreciation of infectious diseases, research methodology, critical thinking and analysis, and their roles as pharmacists. PMID:26430268

  15. A Learner-led, Discussion-based Elective on Emerging Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To implement a learner-led, discussion-based course aimed at exposing second-year pharmacy learners to the study of emerging infectious diseases from a global health perspective and to assess the role and importance of pharmacists in the management of disease outbreaks. Design. Learners examined literature pertinent to an emerging infectious disease in a 3-credit, discussion-based course and participated in peer discussion led by a designated learner. Instructional materials included journal articles, audio-visual presentations, documentaries, book chapters, movies, newspaper/magazine articles, and other materials. Learning outcomes were measured based on the ability of learners to perform critical thinking and analysis, communicate with their peers, and participate in class discussions. Assessment. The course was offered to 2 consecutive cohorts consisting of 14 and 16 learners, respectively. Overall, every learner in the first cohort achieved a final grade of A for the course. In the second cohort, the overall grade distribution consisted of grades of A, B, and C for the course. Learner evaluations indicated that the active-learning, discussion-based environment significantly enhanced interest in the topic and overall performance in the course. Conclusion. The elective course on emerging infectious diseases provided in-depth exposure to disease topics normally not encountered in the pharmacy curriculum. Learners found the material and format valuable, and the course enhanced their appreciation of infectious diseases, research methodology, critical thinking and analysis, and their roles as pharmacists. PMID:26430268

  16. Increased brain activation during working memory processing after pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)

    PubMed Central

    Westfall, Daniel R.; West, John D.; Bailey, Jessica N.; Arnold, Todd W.; Kersey, Patrick A.; Saykin, Andrew J.; McDonald, Brenna C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The neural substrate of post-concussive symptoms following the initial injury period after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in pediatric populations remains poorly elucidated. This study examined neuropsychological, behavioral, and brain functioning in adolescents post-mTBI to assess whether persistent differences were detectable up to a year post-injury. Methods Nineteen adolescents (mean age 14.7 years) who experienced mTBI 3–12 months previously (mean 7.5 months) and 19 matched healthy controls (mean age 14.0 years) completed neuropsychological testing and an fMRI auditory-verbal N-back working memory task. Parents completed behavioral ratings. Results No between-group differences were found for cognition, behavior, or N-back task performance, though the expected decreased accuracy and increased reaction time as task difficulty increased were apparent. However, the mTBI group showed significantly greater brain activation than controls during the most difficult working memory task condition. Conclusion Greater working memory task-related activation was found in adolescents up to one year post-mTBI relative to controls, potentially indicating compensatory activation to support normal task performance. Differences in brain activation in the mTBI group so long after injury may indicate residual alterations in brain function much later than would be expected based on the typical pattern of natural recovery, which could have important clinical implications. PMID:26684070

  17. Learners' Satisfaction Level with Online Student Portal as a Support System in an Open and Distance eLearning Environment (ODeL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secreto, Percia V.; Pamulaklakin, Rhodora L.

    2015-01-01

    Learner support in an open, distance and online learning is defined as "all activities and elements in education that respond to a known learner or group of learners, and which are designed to assist in the cognitive, affective, and systemic realms of the learning process" (Brindley, et. al, 2004). Teaching and tutoring, advising and…

  18. Working together may be better: activation of reward centers during a cooperative maze task.

    PubMed

    Krill, Austen L; Platek, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    Humans use theory of mind when predicting the thoughts and feelings and actions of others. There is accumulating evidence that cooperation with a computerized game correlates with a unique pattern of brain activation. To investigate the neural correlates of cooperation in real-time we conducted an fMRI hyperscanning study. We hypothesized that real-time cooperation to complete a maze task, using a blind-driving paradigm, would activate substrates implicated in theory of mind. We also hypothesized that cooperation would activate neural reward centers more than when participants completed the maze themselves. Of interest and in support of our hypothesis we found left caudate and putamen activation when participants worked together to complete the maze. This suggests that cooperation during task completion is inherently rewarding. This finding represents one of the first discoveries of a proximate neural mechanism for group based interactions in real-time, which indirectly supports the social brain hypothesis.

  19. Activity-silent’ working memory in prefrontal cortex: a dynamic coding framework

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) provides the functional backbone to high-level cognition. Maintenance in WM is often assumed to depend on the stationary persistence of neural activity patterns that represent memory content. However, accumulating evidence suggests that persistent delay activity does not always accompany WM maintenance but instead seems to wax and wane as a function of the current task relevance of memoranda. Furthermore, new methods for measuring and analysing population-level patterns show that activity states are highly dynamic. At first glance, these dynamics seem at odds with the very nature of WM. How can we keep a stable thought in mind while brain activity is constantly changing? This review considers how neural dynamics might be functionally important for WM maintenance. PMID:26051384

  20. How Do They Do It: Working Women Meeting Physical Activity Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Gell, Nancy M.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify factors that facilitate adherence to physical activity among employed women. Methods Participants were 103 employed women (Mean 44.4 years ±11.8). Measures included physical activity by accelerometry, location by global positioning systems, and psychosocial constructs, perception of worksite policies and the built environment by questionnaire. Results Meeting physical activity recommendations was significantly associated with use of the built environment, self-regulation, perception of higher land-use mix diversity, and perception of lower infrastructure and safety for walking. Perception of worksite policies, self-efficacy, and social support were not associated with meeting recommendations. Conclusions The findings provide evidence that working women’s physical activity behavior is influenced by both psychosocial and environmental factors. PMID:24765681

  1. Using Art to Teach History to Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Lois McFadyen

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how using authentic artwork, such as that of Bernice Sims, as an instructional strategy can help young learners inquire about historical events. The accompanying lesson illustrates how to use Sims's works and life experiences to gain new perspectives and a greater understanding of the civil rights movement and social justice…

  2. Accommodating the Special Learner in Secondary General Music Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanWeelden, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    It can be challenging to know which accommodations for special learners can be used within the various secondary general music class settings. Fortunately, there have been several recent music education and therapy articles based on special education practices that have addressed techniques for working with students with special needs in music.…

  3. Assessing Adult Learners in Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Joyce A.

    2016-01-01

    Jones International University (JIU) offers online programs from the associate degree to the doctorate. JIU students are working professionals who seek to improve employability and prospects for advancement. Recognizing that learning in adulthood is social and embedded in the learner's life context, JIU designed instruction to give learners…

  4. Developmentally Sensitive Assistance and Development: Collaboration between Japanese EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, Allan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which Japanese learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) are able to offer mediation to their peers while engaging in pair work, and whether that mediation is sensitive to the needs of their partner. Grounded in sociocultural theory, the study assesses the extent to which the study participants identify…

  5. Becoming One Community: Reading and Writing with English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Kathleen; Whaley, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Written for the general classroom teacher whose class includes English language learners (ELLs), as well as for ELL teachers working in general classrooms, this book portrays ELL students in grades 3-6 who learn essential reading and writing skills and are full members of the classroom community. Throughout the book, the authors emphasize the…

  6. Meeting the Challenge: Teaching Strategies for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddu, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This article begins with a scenario that reflects a growing concern for both teacher and adult learner in today's college history classroom. A student in his sixties remembers his experience as a young man growing up during this time period in American history, while the professor knows only what others have told him plus the scholarly works he…

  7. Using Blogs to Share Learner-Generated Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Learner-generated content (LGC) has always been produced as part of the learning process; however, it often generally goes no further than the teacher. Research has shown that by exposing LGC to a wider audience, students are motivated to produce work of a higher quality. The process of publishing and sharing LGC also helps students develop key…

  8. Teaching Music to Special Learners: Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de l'Etoile, Shannon K.

    2005-01-01

    The educational practice called inclusion has brought increasing numbers of children with disabilities into the music classroom, many times without the teacher being informed of these students' unique needs. In order for music teachers to successfully teach in an inclusive classroom, they must be prepared to work effectively with special learners,…

  9. Context and Identity: Exploring Adult Learners' Experiences of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askham, Phil

    2008-01-01

    This article examines a longitudinal case study exploring the experience of a cohort of part-time, adult, work-based learners, mostly experiencing higher education for the first time. A wide range of instruments, including diaries and interviews, were used to collect data to explore, in some depth, the nature of the learning experience. Data…

  10. Exemplary Teachers of English Language Learners: A Knowledge Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    The number of English language learners (ELL) in schools continues to rise. However, statistics reveal that the majority of classroom teachers have no training in working with ELLs (NCES, 2011). Because of this, it is critical to understand how teachers can be successfully prepared to teach ELLs. Through in-depth inquiry, this study explored what…

  11. Practices That Promote English Reading for English Learners (Els)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, Rebecca S.; Harris, Bryn; McClain, Maryellen Brunson

    2014-01-01

    Schools are becoming increasingly diversified; however, training and professional development related to working with English language learners (ELs), especially in the area of English reading, is limited. In this article, we identify three "Big Ideas" of effective and collaborative practices that promote English reading achievement for…

  12. Narrative, Self-Assessment, and Reflective Learners and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramp, Mary Kay; Humphreys, W. Lee

    1992-01-01

    A classroom research project investigated whether having students tell their own stories about learning might provide a mode and a context for self-assessment of their formal work in relation to their experience and growth as learners. Two courses involving sustained reading of major segments of the Hebrew Bible/Christian Old Testament taught at…

  13. Professional Development in Action: Improving Teaching for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casteel, Catherine J., Ed.; Ballantyne, Keira Gebbie, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph showcases professional development projects by school districts and colleges of education that train teachers to work successfully with English learners (ELs) across the nation. The papers presented in this monograph offer real-life examples of successful and innovative practices, including institutionalized mentoring programs, new…

  14. Syntactic and Semantic Specifications in Online English Learners' Dictionaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizo-Rodriguez, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Among the multifarious linguistic resources currently available on the Internet, learners of English as a foreign language, as well as teachers and translators, can effortlessly access a vast variety of electronic dictionaries well suited to a multiplicity of lookup operations. A particular kind of lexicographical work on the Web is the…

  15. Building Multicultural Transitions for Ethnically Diverse Learners with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Lynn K.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Obiakor, Festus E.; Rotz, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities tend to experience fewer successful outcomes in postsecondary transition than do youth without disabilities. Ethnically diverse learners have added challenges, such as worldviews, values, language, family involvement, level of acculturation, expectations, decision-making style, meaning of work, importance of money and…

  16. Twice-Exceptional Learners: The Journey toward a Shared Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Lois; Baum, Susan; Pereles, Daphne; Hughes, Claire

    2015-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the unique needs of twice-exceptional (2e) learners have challenged educators. Because of this challenge, much work has been done in different areas across the country in creating appropriate learning environments for serving this population. However, no unified way has been developed to bring together the best research and…

  17. Beyond Redemption? Locating the Experience of Adult Learners and Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Anne B.; Connolly, Brid; Grummell, Bernie; Finnegan, Fergal

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to continue the conversation initiated by Denis O'Sullivan in the 2008 issue of the "Adult Learner". O'Sullivan raises several important points about the nature of Irish adult education and the need to develop a rigorous theoretical basis for the authors' work. The authors wish to engage with O'Sullivan's observations of the…

  18. The Uniqueness of EFL Teachers: Perceptions of Japanese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    Building on the work of Borg (2006), this article reports on a study of Japanese English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' perceptions of some of the unique characteristics of EFL teachers that distinguish them from teachers of other subjects. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire to which 163 college-level EFL students in Japan…

  19. High-Skilled Newcomers' Identity: Learners or Experts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Søreide, Gunn Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the negotiation of learner and worker identities in a group of high-skilled newcomers who participate in an introductory and mentoring programme. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes the interdependence of learning, work and identity and a constructivist approach to identity as a point…

  20. The Association Between Eye Movements and Cerebellar Activation in a Verbal Working Memory Task.

    PubMed

    Peterburs, Jutta; Cheng, Dominic T; Desmond, John E

    2016-09-01

    It has been argued that cerebellar activations during cognitive tasks may masquerade as cognition, while actually reflecting processes related to movement planning or motor learning. The present study investigated whether the cerebellar load effect for verbal working memory, that is, increased activations in lobule VI/Crus I and lobule VIIB/VIIIA, is related to eye movements and oculomotor processing. Fifteen participants performed an fMRI-based Sternberg verbal working memory task. Oculomotor and cognitive task demands were manipulated by using closely and widely spaced stimuli, and high and low cognitive load. Trial-based quantitative eye movement parameters were obtained from concurrent eye tracking. Conventional MRI analysis replicated the cerebellar load effect in lobules VI and VIIB/VIIIa. With quantitative eye movement parameters as regressors, analysis yielded very similar activation patterns. While load effect and eye regressor generally recruited spatially distinct neocortical and cerebellar regions, conjunction analysis showed that a small subset of prefrontal areas implicated in the load effect also responded to the eye regressor. The present results indicate that cognitive load-dependent activations in lateral superior and posteroinferior cerebellar regions in the Sternberg task are independent of eye movements occurring during stimulus encoding. This is inconsistent with the notion that cognitive load-dependent cerebellar activations merely reflect oculomotor processing. PMID:26286918