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Sample records for activity lets learners

  1. miR-Let7A Modulates Autophagy Induction in LPS-Activated Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juhyun; Oh, Yumi

    2015-01-01

    Microglia regulate the secretion of various immunomediators in central nervous system diseases. Microglial autophagy is the crucial process for cell's survival and cytokine productions. Recent studies have reported that several microRNAs are involved in the autophagy system. miR-Let7A is such a microRNA that plays a role in various inflammation responses, and is magnified as a key modulator particularly in the autophagy system. In present study, we investigated whether miR-Let7A is involved in autophagy in activating microglia. Overexpression of miR-Let7A in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells promoted the induction of the autophagy related factors such as LC3II, Beclin1, and ATG3. Our results suggest a potential role of miR-Let7A in the autophagy process of microglia during CNS inflammation. PMID:26113790

  2. Lin28-let7 Modulates Radiosensitivity of Human Cancer Cells With Activation of K-Ras

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Jee-Sun.; Kim, Jae-Jin; Byun, Ju-Yeon; Kim, In-Ah

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential of targeting Lin28-let7 microRNA regulatory network for overcoming the radioresistance of cancer cells having activated K-Ras signaling. Methods and Materials: A549 lung carcinoma cells and ASPC1 pancreatic cancer cells possessing K-RAS mutation were transfected with pre-let7a microRNA or Lin28 siRNA, respectively. Clonogenic assay, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western analysis were performed. The effects of Lin28 on SQ20B cells having wild-type K-RAS, and a normal fibroblast were also assessed. Results: The overexpression of let-7a decreased expression of K-Ras and radiosensitized A549 cells. Inhibition of Lin28, a repressor of let-7, attenuated K-Ras expression and radiosensitized A549 and ASPC1 cells. Neither SQ20B cells expressing wild-type K-RAS nor HDF, the normal human fibroblasts, were radiosensitized by this approach. Conclusions: The Lin28-let7 regulatory network may be a potentially useful therapeutic target for overcoming the radioresistance of human cancers having activated K-Ras signaling.

  3. Let's Get Moving! Physical Activity and Students with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menear, Kristi Sayers; Shapiro, Deborah R.

    2004-01-01

    Roughly 39% of children and youth with disabilities are physically active (Longmuir & Bar-Or, 2000). Increasing the number of individuals with disabilities who are physically active is a public health priority (Kosma, Cardinal & Rintala, 2002). This paper will highlight the current status of physical activity for persons with a disability by…

  4. "LET US Play": Maximizing Physical Activity "in" Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin; Beets, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Schools have been identified as a promising setting for increasing youth physical activity levels because of their broad reach and the amount of time youth spend in attendance. Specifically, physical education is one key time during the school day where youth can accumulate health-enhancing levels of physical activity. Indicators of quality…

  5. Learner Activities in a Collaborative CALL Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses different research approaches in CALL and makes a case for applying grounded theory (GT) to data gathered from an electronic role-play conducted in L2. The article shows that this method can help gain a better understanding of what learners do when engaged in the task. Through the process of open coding, four…

  6. The LET Procedure for Prosthetic Myocontrol: Towards Multi-DOF Control Using Single-DOF Activations

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Markus; Castellini, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous and proportional myocontrol of dexterous hand prostheses is to a large extent still an open problem. With the advent of commercially and clinically available multi-fingered hand prostheses there are now more independent degrees of freedom (DOFs) in prostheses than can be effectively controlled using surface electromyography (sEMG), the current standard human-machine interface for hand amputees. In particular, it is uncertain, whether several DOFs can be controlled simultaneously and proportionally by exclusively calibrating the intended activation of single DOFs. The problem is currently solved by training on all required combinations. However, as the number of available DOFs grows, this approach becomes overly long and poses a high cognitive burden on the subject. In this paper we present a novel approach to overcome this problem. Multi-DOF activations are artificially modelled from single-DOF ones using a simple linear combination of sEMG signals, which are then added to the training set. This procedure, which we named LET (Linearly Enhanced Training), provides an augmented data set to any machine-learning-based intent detection system. In two experiments involving intact subjects, one offline and one online, we trained a standard machine learning approach using the full data set containing single- and multi-DOF activations as well as using the LET-augmented data set in order to evaluate the performance of the LET procedure. The results indicate that the machine trained on the latter data set obtains worse results in the offline experiment compared to the full data set. However, the online implementation enables the user to perform multi-DOF tasks with almost the same precision as single-DOF tasks without the need of explicitly training multi-DOF activations. Moreover, the parameters involved in the system are statistically uniform across subjects. PMID:27606674

  7. The LET Procedure for Prosthetic Myocontrol: Towards Multi-DOF Control Using Single-DOF Activations.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Markus; Castellini, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous and proportional myocontrol of dexterous hand prostheses is to a large extent still an open problem. With the advent of commercially and clinically available multi-fingered hand prostheses there are now more independent degrees of freedom (DOFs) in prostheses than can be effectively controlled using surface electromyography (sEMG), the current standard human-machine interface for hand amputees. In particular, it is uncertain, whether several DOFs can be controlled simultaneously and proportionally by exclusively calibrating the intended activation of single DOFs. The problem is currently solved by training on all required combinations. However, as the number of available DOFs grows, this approach becomes overly long and poses a high cognitive burden on the subject. In this paper we present a novel approach to overcome this problem. Multi-DOF activations are artificially modelled from single-DOF ones using a simple linear combination of sEMG signals, which are then added to the training set. This procedure, which we named LET (Linearly Enhanced Training), provides an augmented data set to any machine-learning-based intent detection system. In two experiments involving intact subjects, one offline and one online, we trained a standard machine learning approach using the full data set containing single- and multi-DOF activations as well as using the LET-augmented data set in order to evaluate the performance of the LET procedure. The results indicate that the machine trained on the latter data set obtains worse results in the offline experiment compared to the full data set. However, the online implementation enables the user to perform multi-DOF tasks with almost the same precision as single-DOF tasks without the need of explicitly training multi-DOF activations. Moreover, the parameters involved in the system are statistically uniform across subjects.

  8. Interactions between and among Heritage Language Learners and Second Language Learners during Collaborative Writing Activities: How Learners Attend to Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamics in the Spanish classroom between heritage language learner (HLL) dyads, second language learner (L2L) dyads, and mixed HLL-L2L dyads. Specifically, it examines oral, written and embodied discourse that informs our understanding of how learners attend to language. Analysis for this dissertation examined…

  9. Argonaute-3 activates the let-7a passenger strand microRNA

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Julia; Diederichs, Sven

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNA duplices are separated into a guide and a passenger strand. By convention, the guide represents the active microRNA while the passenger is supposedly degraded. However, passenger strands also emerge as active microRNAs. It is unknown whether the guide-to-passenger-strand ratio can be actively regulated and which factors influence strand incorporation into the RISC. Here, we identify a microRNA with a variable guide-to-passenger-strand ratio along with its regulatory factor: Human Argonaute-3 specifically enhances the passenger strand expression and activity of the tumor suppressor microRNA let-7a. This post-maturational effect is mediated by the Ago3 PAZ and MID domains yielding an elevated affinity for let-7a-3p. Notably, this is independent of the 5′-terminal basepair stability, challenging the universality of the respective rule for microRNA strand selection. Thus, this study uncovers the first protein regulator of the ratio between microRNA guide and passenger strand expression and activity. PMID:24100239

  10. Learner-Interface Interaction for Technology-Enhanced Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Neelu; Khreisat, Laila; Sharma, Kiron

    2009-01-01

    Neelu Sinha, Laila Khreisat, and Kiron Sharma describe how learner-interface interaction promotes active learning in computer science education. In a pilot study using technology that combines DyKnow software with a hardware platform of pen-enabled HP Tablet notebook computers, Sinha, Khreisat, and Sharma created dynamic learning environments by…

  11. Young Children: Active Learners in a Technological Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, June L., Ed.; Shade, Daniel D., Ed.

    This book addresses the issues of appropriate use of computers with young children and how children and early childhood educators interact with the computer in early childhood settings. Part 1, "Young Children as Active Learners," contains chapter 1: "Listen to the Children: Observing Young Children's Discoveries with the…

  12. Facebook Activities and the Investment of L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafie, Latisha Asmaak; Yaacob, Aizan; Singh, Paramjit Kaur Karpal

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the investment of L2 learners in the English language on Facebook that they portrayed through their Facebook activities. It studied four informants consisted of diploma students in a Malaysian university. The study consisted of 14 weeks of online observation and semi-structured interviews. Data were collected from online…

  13. Does Translation Contribute to Learners' Free Active Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiyaban, Amir R.; Bagheri, Mohammad S.

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to find out whether or not using "translation" technique in vocabulary teaching would have any positive effects on the "free active" vocabulary of Iranian learners of English. To carry out the research, eighty-eight intermediate male and female students were chosen. The participants were divided into…

  14. Let's Move for Pacific Islander Communities: an Evidence-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    LaBreche, Mandy; Cheri, Ashley; Custodio, Harold; Fex, Cleo Carlos; Foo, Mary Anne; Lepule, Jonathan Tana; May, Vanessa Tui'one; Orne, Annette; Pang, Jane Ka'ala; Pang, Victor Kaiwi; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Schmidt-Vaivao, Dorothy; Surani, Zul; Talavou, Melevesi Fifita; Toilolo, Tupou; Palmer, Paula Healani; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2016-06-01

    Pacific Islander (PI) populations of Southern California experience high obesity and low physical activity levels. Given PI's rich cultural ties, efforts to increase physical activity using a community-tailored strategy may motivate members in a more sustainable manner. In this paper, we (1) detail the program adaptation methodology that was utilized to develop the Weaving an Islander Network for Cancer Awareness, Research and Training (WINCART) Center's PI Let's Move Program, a culturally tailored program aimed to increase physical activity levels among members of PI organizations in Southern California, and (2) share the program's pilot evaluation results on individual and organizational changes. The WINCART Center applied the National Cancer Institute's program adaptation guidelines to tailor the evidence-based Instant Recess program to fit the needs of PIs. The end product, the PI Let's Move Program, was piloted in 2012 with eight PI organizations, reaching 106 PI adults. At baseline, 52 % of participants reported that they were not physically active, with the average number of days engaged in medium-intensity physical activity at 2.09 days/week. After the 2-month program, participants increased the number of days that they engaged in medium-intensity physical activity from 2.09 to 2.90 days/week. Post-pilot results found that 82 % of participants reported intentions to engage in physical activity for at least the next 6 months. At baseline, only one organization was currently implementing a physical activity program, and none had implemented an evidence-based physical activity program tailored for PIs. After the 2-month timeframe, despite varying levels of capacity, all eight organizations were able to successfully implement the program. In conclusion, results from our program provide evidence that disparity populations, such as PIs, can be successfully reached through programs that are culturally tailored to both individuals and their community

  15. Acquisition of Mathematical Language: Suggestions and Activities for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirillo, Michelle; Bruna, Katherine Richardson; Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we describe aspects of mathematical language that could be problematic to English-language learners, provide recommendations for teaching English-language learners, and suggest activities intended to foster language development in mathematics. (Contains 1 figure.)

  16. Learners' Perceptions of Instructional Design Practice in a Situated Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Nicholas; Quinn, James

    2009-01-01

    This case study investigated learners' perceptions of value from participating in a learning activity designed to model professional instructional design practice. Learners developed instructional design products for a corporate client in the context of a classroom-based course. The findings indicate that learners perceived different kinds of…

  17. Mechanism of Activation of the Caenorhabditis Elegans Ras Homologue Let-60 by a Novel, Temperature-Sensitive, Gain-of-Function Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Eisenmann, D. M.; Kim, S. K.

    1997-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans let-60 gene encodes a Ras protein that mediates induction of the hermaphrodite vulva. To better understand how mutations constitutively activate Ras and cause unregulated cell division, we have characterized ga89, a temperature-sensitive, gain-of-function mutation in let-60 ras. At 25°, ga89 increases let-60 activity resulting in a multivulva phenotype. At 15°, ga89 decreases let-60 activity resulting in a vulvaless phenotype in let-60(ga89)/Df animals. The ga89 mutation causes a leucine (L) to phenylalanine (F) substitution at amino acid 19, a residue conserved in all Ras proteins. We introduced the L19F change into human H-Ras protein and found that the in vitro GTPase activity of H-Ras became temperature-dependent. Genetic experiments suggest that LET-60(L19F) interacts with GAP and GNEF, since mutations that decrease GAP and GNEF activity affect the multivulva phenotype of let-60(ga89) animals. These results suggest that the L19F mutation primarily affects the intrinsic rate of GTP hydrolysis by Ras, and that this effect may be sufficient to account for the activated-Ras phenotype caused by let-60(ga89). Our results suggest that a mutation in a human ras gene analogous to ga89 might contribute to oncogenic transformation. PMID:9178006

  18. Textbook Activities among Heritage and Non-Heritage Portuguese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Glaucia V.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past four decades, scholars have debated the pedagogical and sociolinguistic needs of heritage language learners. It is widely accepted that these learners present several characteristics that are different from those of foreign (or non-heritage) language learners. However, scholars have also pointed to similarities between the two groups…

  19. Does Active Learning Enhance Learner Outcomes? Evidence from Discussion Participation in Online Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bruce M.; Pollock, Philip H.; Hamann, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Discussion is one form of active learning, which has been linked to better learner outcomes. Little is known about the relationship between active learning through discussion and learner outcome in the online environment. Here, we construct an index of active learning online that includes the number of postings a student has read, the number of…

  20. Promoting Physics Among Female Learners in the Western Cape Through Active Engagement (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendse, Gillian J.

    2009-04-01

    In 2006 the author organized a one-day intervention aimed at promoting physics among female learners at the University of Stellenbosch. The activities included an interactive lecture demonstration promoting active engagement, a hands-on session, and short presentations by female physicists addressing issues such as balancing family and career, breaking the stereotypes, and launching a successful career in physics. Each learner was expected to evaluate the program. In 2007 the author joined forces with Hip2B2 (Shuttleworth Foundation) to host a competition among grade-10 learners with the theme, ``promoting creativity through interactivity.'' The author was tasked by the Hip2B2-team to assist with a program for female learners planned for August 2008, coinciding with our national celebration of Women's Day. The event targeted 160 learners and took place in Durban, East London, Cape Town, and Johannesburg. The author shares some of the learners' experiences and personal triumphs.

  1. How Do Distance Learners Use Activities in Self-Instructional Materials?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Sanjaya; Gaba, Ashok Kumar

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of a study on the use of learning activities in self-instructional materials by distance learners of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). It shows that learners make use of the activities extensively as they have positive perceptions about benefits of Self-Assessment Questions and Terminal Questions given in the…

  2. Stakeholders' Opinions on "Let the Schools Become Life" Project in Scope of Lifelong Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to find out the opinions of school administrators, teachers, staff, benefiting students and parents and other stakeholders of "Let the Schools Become Life" project being carried out in order to reveal the effectiveness and efficiency of the project. Data in this qualitative research was gathered by…

  3. Investigating Learner Attitudes toward E-Books as Learning Tools: Based on the Activity Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of e-books as learning tools in terms of learner satisfaction, usefulness, behavioral intention, and learning effectiveness. Based on the activity theory approach, this research develops a research model to understand learner attitudes toward e-books in two physical sizes: 10? and 7?. Results suggest that screen…

  4. Training Learners to Use Quizlet Vocabulary Activities on Mobile Phones in Vietnam with Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone ownership among university students in Vietnam has reached almost 100%, exceeding that of Internet-capable desktop computers. This has made them increasingly popular to allow learners to carry out learning activities outside of the classroom, but some studies have suggested that learners are not always willing to engage in activities…

  5. Beginning Learners' Development of Interactional Competence: Alignment Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tecedor, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the development of interactional competence (Hall, 1993; He & Young, 1998) by beginning learners of Spanish as indexed by their use of alignment moves. Discourse analysis techniques and quantitative data analysis were used to explore how 52 learners expressed alignment and changes in participation patterns in two sets of…

  6. Inclusive Instructional Design: Creating a "Learner" Version of Instructional Design That Fosters Active Learner Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gropper, George L.

    2015-01-01

    The author notes: "A personal anecdote is an apt opening to this article. An assignment I once had called for assessing texts in a pre-med curriculum. In reviewing a calculus text, a subject in which I had no expertise then or now, I had trouble following an "explanation." I was able to identify where and why the text let me down.…

  7. Spoken Language Activation Alters Subsequent Sign Language Activation in L2 Learners of American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joshua T; Newman, Sharlene D

    2017-02-01

    A large body of literature has characterized unimodal monolingual and bilingual lexicons and how neighborhood density affects lexical access; however there have been relatively fewer studies that generalize these findings to bimodal (M2) second language (L2) learners of sign languages. The goal of the current study was to investigate parallel language activation in M2L2 learners of sign language and to characterize the influence of spoken language and sign language neighborhood density on the activation of ASL signs. A priming paradigm was used in which the neighbors of the sign target were activated with a spoken English word and compared the activation of the targets in sparse and dense neighborhoods. Neighborhood density effects in auditory primed lexical decision task were then compared to previous reports of native deaf signers who were only processing sign language. Results indicated reversed neighborhood density effects in M2L2 learners relative to those in deaf signers such that there were inhibitory effects of handshape density and facilitatory effects of location density. Additionally, increased inhibition for signs in dense handshape neighborhoods was greater for high proficiency L2 learners. These findings support recent models of the hearing bimodal bilingual lexicon, which posit lateral links between spoken language and sign language lexical representations.

  8. Hormonal activation of let-7-C microRNAs via EcR is required for adult Drosophila melanogaster morphology and function

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Geetanjali; Sokol, Nicholas S.

    2012-01-01

    Steroid hormones and their nuclear receptors drive developmental transitions in diverse organisms, including mammals. In this study, we show that the Drosophila steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and its nuclear receptor directly activate transcription of the evolutionarily conserved let-7-complex (let-7-C) locus, which encodes the co-transcribed microRNAs miR-100, let-7 and miR-125. These small RNAs post-transcriptionally regulate the expression of target genes, and are required for the remodeling of the Drosophila neuromusculature during the larval-to-adult transition. Deletion of three 20E responsive elements located in the let-7-C locus results in reduced levels of let-7-C microRNAs, leading to neuromuscular and behavioral defects in adults. Given the evolutionary conservation of let-7-C microRNA sequences and temporal expression profiles, these findings indicate that steroid hormone-coupled control of let-7-C microRNAs is part of an ancestral pathway controlling the transition from larval-to-reproductive animal forms. PMID:22510985

  9. Learners' Interpersonal Beliefs and Generated Feedback in an Online Role-Playing Peer-Feedback Activity: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Yu-Hui; Hsu, Yu-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Peer feedback affords interaction and critical thinking opportunities for learners in online courses. However, various factors prevent learners from taking advantage of these promising benefits. This study explored learners' perceptions of the interpersonal factors in a role-playing peer-feedback activity, and examined the types of peer feedback…

  10. The LetE Protein Enhances Expression of Multiple LetA/LetS-Dependent Transmission Traits by Legionella pneumophila

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Michael A.; Swanson, Michele S.

    2004-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila colonizes freshwater amoebae and can also replicate within alveolar macrophages. When their nutrient supply is exhausted, replicating bacteria become cytotoxic, motile, and infectious, which is thought to promote transmission to a new amoeba. The differentiation of L. pneumophila is coordinated by the sigma factors RpoS and FliA and the two-component regulator LetA/LetS and is enhanced by the letE locus. Here we demonstrate that letE promotes motility by increasing expression of the flagellin gene flaA but has little impact on the transcription of fliA, the flagellar sigma factor gene. In addition to promoting motility, letE induces the characteristic shape, pigment, and heat resistance of stationary-phase L. pneumophila. To gain insight into how letE promotes the expression of the transmission phenotype, we designed molecular genetic experiments to discriminate between the following three models: letE mutations are polar on milX; letE encodes a small novel protein; or, by analogy to csrB, letE encodes a regulatory RNA that sequesters CsrA to relieve repression. We report that letE encodes an activator protein, as it does not complement an Escherichia coli csrB mutant, it directs the synthesis of an ∼12-kDa polypeptide, and a letE nonsense mutation eliminates function. A monocistronic letE RNA is abundant during the exponential phase, and its decay during the stationary phase requires RpoS and LetA/LetS. We also discuss how the LetE protein may interact with LetA/LetS and CsrA to enhance L. pneumophila differentiation to a transmissible form. PMID:15155631

  11. A Development of Game-Based Learning Environment to Activate Interaction among Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, Ryo; Shimokawa, Masayuki; Okamoto, Toshio

    Many studies and systems that incorporate elements such as “pleasure” and “fun” in the game to improve a learner's motivation have been developed in the field of learning environments. However, few are the studies of situations where many learners gather at a single computer and participate in a game-based learning environment (GBLE), and where the GBLE designs the learning process by controlling the interactions between learners such as competition, collaboration, and learning by teaching. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a framework of educational control that induces and activates interaction between learners intentionally to create a learning opportunity that is based on the knowledge understanding model of each learner. In this paper, we explain the design philosophy and the framework of our GBLE called “Who becomes the king in the country of mathematics?” from a game viewpoint and describe the method of learning support control in the learning environment. In addition, we report the results of the learning experiment with our GBLE, which we carried out in a junior high school, and include some comments by a principal and a teacher. From the results of the experiment and some comments, we noticed that a game may play a significant role in weakening the learning relationship among students and creating new relationships in the world of the game. Furthermore, we discovered that learning support control of the GBLE has led to activation of the interaction between learners to some extent.

  12. Knockdown of NEAT1 restrained the malignant progression of glioma stem cells by activating microRNA let-7e

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wei; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Xiaobai; Ma, Jun; Liu, Yunhui; Xue, Yixue

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1), a long non-coding RNA, promotes oncogenesis in various tumors, including human gliomas. Herein, we studied the expression and function of NEAT1 in glioma stem cells (GSCs). Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that NEAT1 was upregulated in GSCs. NEAT1 knockdown inhibited GSC cell proliferation, migration and invasion and promoted GSC apoptosis. A potential binding region between NEAT1 and microRNA let-7e was confirmed by dual-luciferase assays. Upregulation of NEAT1 reduced the expression of let-7e, and there was reciprocal repression between NEAT1 and let-7e in an Argonaute 2-dependent manner. Let-7e expression was lower expression in glioblastoma tissues and GSCs than in normal brain tissues and cells. Restoration of let-7e suppressed tumor function by inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion while promoting apoptosis in GSCs. NEAT1 knockdown and let-7e overexpression both reduced NRAS protein expression. NRAS was identified as a direct target of let-7e and promoted oncogenesis in GSCs. As NEAT1 promoted oncogenesis by downregulating let-7e expression, both of these genes could be considered for application in glioma therapy. PMID:27556696

  13. Learner-Centered Activities from the DVD-Format "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Yun

    This paper demonstrates how Taiwanese English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) college teachers and students collaborate and negotiate to design various learner-centered activities based on the Chinese film, "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon." These activities are intended to enhance students' listening and speaking abilities. The paper…

  14. What Does Metalinguistic Activity in Learners' Interaction during a Collaborative L2 Writing Task Look Like?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the metalinguistic activity that arose in the interaction of 7 groups of bilingual learners writing collaboratively in their second language (L2), English. A microanalysis of this interaction reveals that metalinguistic activity comprises 3 types of oral production: comments, speech actions, and text reformulations. Text…

  15. Let's Chat: A Conversational Dialogue System for Second Language Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Iain A. D.; File, Portia

    2007-01-01

    Early and intermediate second language (L2) learners often encounter difficulties when engaging in introductory social conversations, typically having had little opportunity to practise such interactions. This article describes a project to design and prototype a computer dialogue system, Let's Chat, which would allow learners to rehearse social…

  16. Let's Get AHEAD (Health-Education-Alcohol & Drug). Activities K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Program Development.

    This book of activities for use with elementary school students lists 10 salient points in each of three areas: health education, alcohol education, and drug education. Suggested activities are then described for students in kindergarten through third grade and for students in fourth through six grades. Activities are suggested in 10 categories:…

  17. Let's Get AHEAD (Health-Education-Alcohol & Drug). Activities 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Program Development.

    This book of activities for use with secondary school students lists 10 salient points in each of three areas: health education, alcohol education, and drug education. Suggested activities are then described for students in grades 7 and 8 and for students in grades 9 through 12. Activities are suggested in 10 categories: (1) human growth and…

  18. Let's Get Fit!: Fitness Activities for Children with Severe/Profound Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modell, Scott J.; Cox, Thomas Alan

    1999-01-01

    Guidelines for developing a physical activity program for students with severe/profound disabilities address medical clearance; levels of participation; staffing; equipment; and program components, including warm-up, range of motion/flexibility activities, aerobics, resistance training, and cool-down. (DB)

  19. Solid Waste Educational Resources and Activities: Let's Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    This contains games, activities, publications, and resources for students and teachers on how to reduce, reuse, recycle, and properly manage waste. It also contains a screen saver featuring runners-up from the Earth Day 2000 art contest. Activities and games include titles such as "Planet Protectors,""Recycle City,""Trash…

  20. The Effects of Pre-Reading Activities on Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Nahid Nemati; Mahmoudi, Asgar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three types of pre-reading activities (movie-watching, vocabulary presentation, and pre-reading summarization) on the reading comprehension of 76 elementary-level EFL Iranian learners. The participants were randomly assigned to one control and three experimental conditions and then a pretest was given to…

  1. Active Learning for Discovery and Innovation in Criminology with Chinese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jessica C. M.; Wu, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Whereas a great deal of literature based upon the context of Western societies has concluded criminology is an ideal discipline for active learning approach, it remains uncertain if this learning approach is applicable to Chinese learners in the discipline of criminology. This article describes and provides evidence of the benefits of using active…

  2. Investigating the Use of Inquiry & Web-Based Activities with Inclusive Biology Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Waller, Patricia L.; Edwards, Lana; Darlene Kale, Santoro

    2007-01-01

    A Web-integrated biology program is used to explore how to best assist inclusive high school students to learn biology with inquiry-based activities. Classroom adaptations and instructional strategies teachers may use to assist in promoting biology learning with inclusive learners are discussed.

  3. An Emergent Language Program Framework: Actively Involving Learners in Needs Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, William; Storer, Graeme

    1992-01-01

    Relates the experience of the staff of an aquaculture outreach program in Northeast Thailand in implementing an English for special purposes program. By actively involving learners in both the needs analysis and program design, teachers were able to adapt the program content to the requirements of the students. (15 references) (JL)

  4. Cross-Language Activation in Children's Speech Production: Evidence from Second Language Learners, Bilinguals, and Trilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals,…

  5. Flipping the Classroom for English Language Learners to Foster Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Hsiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a structured attempt to integrate flip teaching into language classrooms using a WebQuest active learning strategy. The purpose of this study is to examine the possible impacts of flipping the classroom on English language learners' academic performance, learning attitudes, and participation levels. Adopting a…

  6. Fashion Design: Designing a Learner-Active, Multi-Level High School Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Diane

    2009-01-01

    A high school fashion design teacher has much in common with the ringmaster of a three-ring circus. The challenges of teaching a hands-on course are to facilitate the entire class and to meet the needs of individual students. When teaching family and consumer sciences, the goal is to have a learner-active classroom. Revamping the high school's…

  7. Synthesizing Technology Adoption and Learners' Approaches towards Active Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kevin; Cheung, George; Wan, Kelvin; Brown, Ian; Luk, Green

    2015-01-01

    In understanding how active and blended learning approaches with learning technologies engagement in undergraduate education, current research models tend to undermine the effect of learners' variations, particularly regarding their styles and approaches to learning, on intention and use of learning technologies. This study contributes to further…

  8. Aberrant let7a/HMGA2 signaling activity with unique clinical phenotype in JAK2-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Cheng; You, Jie-Yu; Lung, Jrhau; Huang, Cih-En; Chen, Yi-Yang; Leu, Yu-Wei; Ho, Hsing-Ying; Li, Chian-Pei; Lu, Chang-Hsien; Lee, Kuan-Der; Hsu, Chia-Chen; Gau, Jyh-Pyng

    2017-03-01

    High mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) is an architectural transcription factor that is negatively regulated by let-7 microRNA through binding to it's 3'-untranslated region. Transgenic mice expressing Hmga2 with a truncation of its 3'-untranslated region has been shown to exhibit a myeloproliferative phenotype. To decipher the let-7-HMGA2 axis in myeloproliferative neoplasms, we employed an in vitro model supplemented with clinical correlation. Ba/F3 cells with inducible JAK2V617F expression (Ton.JAK2.V617F cells) showed upregulation of HMGA2 with concurrent let-7a repression. Ton.JAK2.V617F cells treated with a let-7a inhibitor exhibited further escalation of Hmga2 expression, while a let-7a mimic diminished the Hmga2 transcript level. Hmga2 overexpression conferred JAK2-mutated cells with a survival advantage through inhibited apoptosis. A pan-JAK inhibitor, INC424, increased the expression of let-7a, downregulated the level of Hmga2, and led to increased apoptosis in Ton.JAK2.V617F cells in a dose-dependent manner. In samples from 151 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms, there was a modest inverse correlation between the expression levels of let-7a and HMGA2 Overexpression of HMGA2 was detected in 29 (19.2%) of the cases, and it was more commonly seen in patients with essential thrombocythemia than in those with polycythemia vera (26.9% vs 12.7%, P=0.044). Patients with upregulated HMGA2 showed an increased propensity for developing major thrombotic events, and they were more likely to harbor one of the 3 driver myeloproliferative neoplasm mutations in JAK2, MPL and CALR Our findings suggest that, in a subset of myeloproliferative neoplasm patients, the let-7-HMGA2 axis plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of the disease that leads to unique clinical phenotypes.

  9. Popular Culture, English Out-of-Class Activities, and Learner Autonomy among Highly Proficient Secondary Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Hoi Wing

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on how and why proficient learners of English in Hong Kong participated in popular culture, out-of-class activities, with an emphasis on their development of learner autonomy. Autonomy in language learning is defined as an individual's ability and responsibility to take charge of his or her own learning [1]. Out-of-class…

  10. Let's Resolve Conflicts Together: High School Classroom Activities. Conflict Management Week, May 1-7, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management, Columbus.

    The week of May 1-7, 2000 has been designated by the Governor of Ohio to be Conflict Management Week With heightened awareness to issues of school safety, it is important for high schools to take an active role in promoting constructive responses to conflict. Conflict is a natural and inevitable part of living, but managing conflict is difficult…

  11. Let's Resolve Conflicts Together: Elementary School Classroom Activities. Conflict Management Week, May 1-7, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management, Columbus.

    With heightened awareness to issues of school safety, it is important for elementary schools to take an active role in promoting constructive responses to conflict. The week of May 1-7, 2000 has been designated as Conflict Management Week by the Governor of Ohio. Conflict is a natural and inevitable part of living; however, managing conflict is…

  12. Fluency-dependent cortical activation associated with speech production and comprehension in second language learners.

    PubMed

    Shimada, K; Hirotani, M; Yokokawa, H; Yoshida, H; Makita, K; Yamazaki-Murase, M; Tanabe, H C; Sadato, N

    2015-08-06

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the brain regions underlying language task performance in adult second language (L2) learners. Specifically, we identified brain regions where the level of activation was associated with L2 fluency levels. Thirty Japanese-speaking adults participated in the study. All participants were L2 learners of English and had achieved varying levels of fluency, as determined by a standardized L2 English proficiency test, the Versant English Test (Pearson Education Inc., 2011). When participants performed the oral sentence building task from the production tasks administered, the dorsal part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (dIFG) showed activation patterns that differed depending on the L2 fluency levels: The more fluent the participants were, the more dIFG activation decreased. This decreased activation of the dIFG might reflect the increased automaticity of a syntactic building process. In contrast, when participants performed an oral story comprehension task, the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) showed increased activation with higher fluency levels. This suggests that the learners with higher L2 fluency were actively engaged in post-syntactic integration processing supported by the left pSTG. These data imply that L2 fluency predicts neural resource allocation during language comprehension tasks as well as in production tasks. This study sheds light on the neural underpinnings of L2 learning by identifying the brain regions recruited during different language tasks across different modalities (production vs. comprehension).

  13. We are what we do: Examining learner-generated content in the anatomy laboratory through the lens of activity theory.

    PubMed

    Doubleday, Alison F; Wille, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Video and photography are often used for delivering content within the anatomical sciences. However, instructors typically produce these resources to provide instructional or procedural information. Although the benefits of learner-generated content have been explored within educational research, virtually no studies have investigated the use of learner-generated video and photograph content within anatomy dissection laboratories. This study outlines an activity involving learner-generated video diaries and learner-generated photograph assignments produced during anatomy laboratory sessions. The learner-generated photographs and videos provided instructors with a means of formative assessment and allowed instructors to identify evidence of collaborative behavior in the laboratory. Student questionnaires (n = 21) and interviews (n = 5), as well as in-class observations, were conducted to examine student perspectives on the laboratory activities. The quantitative and qualitative data were examined using the framework of activity theory to identify contradictions between student expectations of, and engagement with, the activity and the actual experiences of the students. Results indicate that learner-generated photograph and video content can act as a rich source of data on student learning processes and can be used for formative assessment, for observing collaborative behavior, and as a starting point for class discussions. This study stresses the idea that technology choice for activities must align with instructional goals. This research also highlights the utility of activity theory as a framework for assessing classroom and laboratory activities, demonstrating that this approach can guide the development of laboratory activities.

  14. Sharing a Small World: Environmental Activities for Young Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains a collection of activities developed for pre-K through second grade students. All of the activities in this teacher's guide use an interdisciplinary approach and explore the human connection with all living things and their environment. Contents include: (1) "Sharing Space and Working Together"; (2) "Sharing Resources and…

  15. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-03-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals.

  16. The effect of curricular activities on learner autonomy: the perspective of undergraduate mechanical engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, M.; Leite, C.; Mouraz, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study researches how first-year engineering students perceived the influence of curricular activities on their own learning autonomy, measured with an adaptation of the Personal Responsibility Orientation to Self-direction in Learning Scale (PRO-SDLS). Participants were questioned to assess the influence of the teacher's role. The results indicate that learners' characteristics (motivation and self-efficacy) contribute more to learner autonomy (LA) than the teaching-learning transaction (control and initiative), as in the original PRO-SDLS validation. The most autonomous learners presented higher values in all LA components and dimensions, but the differences were greater in motivation and initiative. The participants with higher LA were not as dependent on the teacher, regarding assessment, the completion of classroom tasks and deadlines. Regardless of the degree of autonomy in learning, all participants viewed teachers as the main source of information. Therefore, LA plays an important role in teaching activities planning. Suggestions for adjustments and more flexible learning scenarios are formulated.

  17. Model Eliciting Activities: Fostering 21st Century Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohlmann, Micah

    2013-01-01

    Real world mathematical modeling activities can develop needed and valuable 21st century skills. The knowledge and skills to become adept at mathematical modeling need to develop over time and students in the elementary grades should have experiences with mathematical modeling. For this to occur elementary teachers need to have positive…

  18. Let's Meet Famous Artists. A Creative Art Activity Book. A Teacher's Guide Featuring 19 Famous Artists and Art Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinghorn, Harriet; And Others

    By studying the lives, important achievements, and works of famous artists, students may come to understand what those artists hoped to communicate to the world. By participating in art activities that are related to these artists' styles, students practice skills of observing, analyzing, and creating. This instructional guide provides…

  19. Spoken Language Activation Alters Subsequent Sign Language Activation in L2 Learners of American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joshua T.; Newman, Sharlene D.

    2017-01-01

    A large body of literature has characterized unimodal monolingual and bilingual lexicons and how neighborhood density affects lexical access; however there have been relatively fewer studies that generalize these findings to bimodal (M2) second language (L2) learners of sign languages. The goal of the current study was to investigate parallel…

  20. The challenge of "teaching" large groups of learners: strategies to increase active participation and learning.

    PubMed

    Nierenberg, D W

    1998-01-01

    While teaching in a tutorial, seminar, or problem-based learning group format may be the most fun and most active/interactive for both learner and faculty mentor, there are situations in medical student education in which various constraints require the use of the "lecture" format. Similar constraints may occur in the field of continuing medical education, or graduate medical education, as well. When this occurs, the faculty mentor can increase the active participation of the learners in the audience by continuously stressing seven key pedagogical (androgogical) principles. These include: 1) begin the learning exercise with a clinical example or anecdote to show the relevance of the material to the student; 2) frequently ask the students whether they have ever seen examples of what you describe in their previous experience with patients, personal experience, experience with relatives, etc.; 3) ask students frequently whether they have heard similar material presented differently in other courses; 4) recruit students to help solve "mystery cases"; 5) show examples of similar material from real life (e.g., patient descriptions, or even excerpts from favorite TV shows); 6) ask students to help summarize key points at the end of the session; and 7) allow, or even encourage, whispering during the class. Using some or all of these techniques can help turn a "lecture format" into a much more fun, interactive, and valuable session that emphasizes "learning" rather than "teaching."

  1. Innovative Strategies for Empowering Your Students to Become Active, Responsible Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, B.

    2011-09-01

    The economy continues to sputter along, and the repercussions are now hitting hard at publicly-funded colleges and universities, with enrollment increasing and funding decreasing. Funding agencies are starting to look at retention and completion rates as a way to allocate scarce dollars. Improving these rates is also one way to increase the future stream of tuition; students who can't pass introductory classes like ASTRO101 won't enroll and pay tuition for the next level, and they won't complete their degree. So what can you, a mere professor of astronomy, do? Tired of the "What do you want me to know?" questions? Provide your students with learner-centered structures to help them learn more deeply. Do your students resist active-engagement techniques and hate group work? Share empowerment strategies for helping students become active, responsible learners who can thrive in a learner-centered environment. Do you think that it's wrong for the freshman classes to be over-crowded, yet your sophomore classes don't get enough students or don't even exist? After using the proven curriculum of On Course, college and universities across the country have improved their retention across a wide range of disciplines (http://www.OnCourseWorkshop.com/Data.htm). Experience a sample of the fun and engaging activities developed over two decades to help students (1) accept personal responsibility, (2) discover self motivation, (3) master self-management, (4) use interdependence, (5) gain self-awareness, (6) adopt lifelong learning, (7) develop emotional intelligence, and (8) believe in themselves. Since this is only a one-hour workshop, we will focus on choices one and four: to be successful, students need to see themselves as the primary cause of their outcomes and experiences and to build mutually supportive relationships in our classroom and labs. Outcomes: (1) one ASTRO101 Course-ready activity to help students accept personal responsibility; (2) one ASTRO101 Course

  2. Let Me Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Christine A.

    This book describes an approach to enhancing student learning by being fully aware of each students' interactive learning patterns. The book explains how differences experienced in the classroom between learners and lessons are frequently due to the learner's inability to see the lesson's relevance, significance, or value. The book helps teachers…

  3. Let Social Interaction Flourish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Anny Fritzen

    2016-01-01

    The author describes lessons learned--through a high school project that grouped English language learners with native speakers to create a video--about ways to foster respectful, productive interaction among English learners and peers who are native speakers. The potential benefits of students who are just learning English interacting socially…

  4. Chinese High-School Students in Physics Classroom as Active, Self-Regulated Learners: Cognitive, Motivational and Environmental Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neber, Heinz; He, Jing; Liu, Bang-Xiang; Schofield, Neville

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates whether Chinese high-school students are self-regulated learners. A social-cognitive model that distinguishes environmental, motivational, and cognitive components of this active approach to learning is described. This provides an appropriate framework for investigating this complex issue with eighth and tenth…

  5. From Passive to Active Learners: The "Lived Experience" of Nurses in a Specialist Nephrology Nursing Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridger, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the lived experience of learning for a group of staff nurses in the Middle East, who undertook a post-registration nursing education programme in the speciality of nephrology nursing (the NNP) between 2001 and 2002. The broad-based curriculum seeks to develop the staff nurses into active learners, able to…

  6. Identifying and Enhancing the Strengths of Gifted Learners, K-8: Easy-to-Use Activities and Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maccagnano, Ann Marie

    2007-01-01

    Educators can identify children's strengths early on and gain insight into each student's unique abilities by using the numerous ideas and informal assessments in this exciting guide. Gifted and talented specialist Ann Maccagnano offers K-8 teachers challenging activities and engaging lessons to develop and nurture gifted learners' talents.…

  7. MAI (Multi-Dimensional Activity Based Integrated Approach): A Strategy for Cognitive Development of the Learners at the Elementary Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basantia, Tapan Kumar; Panda, B. N.; Sahoo, Dukhabandhu

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive development of the learners is the prime task of each and every stage of our school education and its importance especially in elementary state is quite worth mentioning. Present study investigated the effectiveness of a new and innovative strategy (i.e., MAI (multi-dimensional activity based integrated approach)) for the development of…

  8. Comparison of the Effects of Reflection and Contemplation Activities on Service-Learners' Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Trae; Alrutz, Megan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which service-learners' mindfulness is affected by engagement in reflection (e.g., dialogue) and contemplation activities (e.g., labyrinth tracing). The results are compared within and between treatment groups, while covarying for participants' initial levels of mindfulness. While both dialogue and…

  9. The Impact of Vocabulary Enhancement Activities on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention among Male and Female EFL Learners in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Raftari, Shohreh; Bijami, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    In general, incidental vocabulary acquisition is represented as the "picking up" of new vocabularies when students are engaged in a variety of reading, listening, speaking, or writing activities. Research has shown when learners read extensively incidental vocabulary acquisition happens. Many EFL students cannot be involved in reading…

  10. Using Web-Based Instruction to Promote Active Learning: Learners' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lina

    2005-01-01

    This article reports classroom research on learners' perspectives on Web-based instruction that utilizes the "Blackboard" course management system. The Web-based instruction aims to provide and support collaborative learning while fostering learners' autonomy and accountability. The article also provides a description of the course…

  11. Elementary School EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning: The Effects of Post-Reading Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atay, Derin; Kurt, Gokce

    2006-01-01

    As language learning involves the acquisition of thousands of words, teachers and learners alike would like to know how vocabulary learning can be fostered, especially in EFL settings where learners frequently acquire impoverished lexicons, despite years of formal study. Research indicates that reading is important but not sufficient for…

  12. Creative, Kinesthetic Activities to Motivate Young Learners to Communicate: A Conversation with Paula Garrett-Rucks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devall, Kelly Davidson

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a question and answer session in which Paula Garrett-Rucks discusses how creativity and kinesthetics motivate young language learners, the type of characteristics she might consider for different age groups in planning lessons, her views on the goals of world language teachers of young learners, and what a typical lesson…

  13. Let's Keep Moving!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obama, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    First Lady Michelle Obama lauds educators for following the lead of her Let's Move! program and taking action to curtail childhood obesity. The battle to make children healthier is being waged on a number of fronts by food companies, restaurants and schools. Progress has been made, she says, but more is needed.

  14. Let Nature Be the Teacher: Seasonal Natural History Activities for Parents and Other Educators To Share with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertz, Lucille N.

    This book is designed to provide parents and other adult companions with activities to do with children on outdoor walks. The activities offer adults and children a shared learning experience and have been adapted from the children's education program at Habitat Institute for the Environment (Massachusetts). The activities are arranged seasonally,…

  15. "Let's Think!" Two Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Anne

    2004-01-01

    "Let's Think!" is a cognitive acceleration programme aimed at developing thinking in children aged between 5 and 6. "Let's Think!" was described in "PSR" 69 (Robertson, 2001) using the acronym CASE @ KS1, as it was known before publication by NFER-Nelson. Since then, "Let's Think!" has spread beyond the…

  16. Let's Go! Kindergarten Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiesner, Eileen

    In this colorfully illustrated kindergarten activity, students read (and re-read) "My Blue Suitcase" (Sharon Katz), as an introduction to traveling. The book uses all of the basic forms of transportation and forms the transportation lesson outline. The activity gives the students the task of learning about each mode of transportation:…

  17. Let's Get Physical: K-12 Students Using Wearable Devices to Obtain and Learn about Data from Physical Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Victor R.; Drake, Joel; Williamson, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    Accessibility to wearable technology has exploded in the last decade. As such, this technology has potential to be used in classrooms in uniquely interactive and personally meaningful ways. Seeing this as a possible future for schools, we have been exploring approaches for designing activities to incorporate wearable physical activity data…

  18. Let Care Shine Through

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bondy, Elizabeth; Hambacher, Elyse

    2016-01-01

    Care is in the eyes of the receiver; it doesn't exist unless those being cared for experience it. The authors describe culturally relevant critical teacher care, an approach that considers the effects of students' cultural and socioeconomic conditions and that helps teachers find ways to show care to every learner--especially those from oppressed…

  19. Investigative Research: How It Changes Learner Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Brian

    1993-01-01

    What matters about an educational activity is how learners respond to it. This article examines a program concerned with the learners' needs, through the expression of learners' own meanings, and advances the concept of investigative research as a suitable vehicle for more autonomous learning, through a change in learner status. (26 references)…

  20. Let's Talk about Living in a World with Violence: An Activity Book for School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, James

    This activity book provides a direct, hands-on educational tool to help children ages 7-11 process their feelings, thoughts, and experiences as they relate to violence. The workbook is designed to: (1) foster a dialogue between child and adult as well as among children in group settings, while acknowledging the child's desire for privacy; (2) help…

  1. Let's Wiggle with 5-2-1-0: Curriculum Development for Training Childcare Providers to Promote Activity in Childcare Settings

    PubMed Central

    Venezia, Alexandra P.

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are increasing in preschool children in the US. Policy, systems, and environmental change interventions in childcare settings can improve obesity-related behaviors. The aim of this study was to develop and pilot an intervention to train childcare providers to promote physical activity (PA) in childcare classrooms. An evidence scan, key informant (n = 34) and focus group (n = 20) interviews with childcare directors and staff, and environmental self-assessment of childcare facilities (n = 22) informed the design of the training curriculum. Feedback from the interviews indicated that childcare providers believed in the importance of teaching children about PA and were supportive of training teachers to incorporate PA into classroom settings. The Promoting Physical Activity in Childcare Setting Curriculum was developed and training was implemented with 16 teachers. Participants reported a positive experience with the hands-on training and reported acquiring new knowledge that they intended to implement in their childcare settings. Our findings highlight the feasibility of working with childcare staff to develop PA training and curriculum. Next steps include evaluating the curriculum in additional childcare settings and childcare staff implementation of the curriculum to understand the effectiveness of the training on PA levels of children. PMID:27462468

  2. Novel MicroRNA Reporter Uncovers Repression of Let-7 by GSK-3β

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rong; Abdelmohsen, Kotb

    2013-01-01

    Several members of the let-7 microRNA family are downregulated in ovarian and other cancers. They are thought to act as tumor suppressors by lowering growth-promoting and anti-apoptotic proteins. In order to measure cellular let-7 levels systematically, we have developed a highly sensitive let-7 reporter assay system based on the expression of a chimeric mRNA that contains the luciferase coding region and a 3′-untranslated region (UTR) bearing two let-7-binding sites. In cells expressing the reporter construct, termed pmirGLO-let7, luciferase activity was high when let-7 was absent, while luciferase activity was low when let-7 levels were elevated. The ovarian cancer cell lines BG-1 and UCI-101 were transfected with the let-7 reporter and surveyed with a library of kinase inhibitors in order to identify pathways affecting let-7 activity. Among the inhibitors causing changes in endogenous let-7 abundance, the lowering of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3)β function specifically increased let-7 levels and lowered luciferase activity. Similarly, silencing GSK-3β increased both mature and primary-let-7 levels in BG-1 cells, and decreased BG-1 cell survival. Further studies identified p53 as a downstream effector of the GSK-3β-mediated repression of let-7 biosynthesis. Our studies highlight GSK-3β as a novel therapeutic target in ovarian tumorigenesis. PMID:23840442

  3. The Let's Play! Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistrett, Susan

    This final report reviews activities and achievements of the "Let's Play!" project, an effort to apply assistive technology (AT) to promote the play skills of infants and toddlers with disabilities within their natural environments. The federally supported project was designed to assist county early intervention programs and developed,…

  4. Let's Not Waste Time: Using Temporal Information in Clustered Activity Estimation with Spatial Adjacency Restrictions (CAESAR) for Parcellating FMRI Data.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ronald J; Jylänki, Pasi; van Gerven, Marcel A J

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed a Bayesian approach for functional parcellation of whole-brain FMRI measurements which we call Clustered Activity Estimation with Spatial Adjacency Restrictions (CAESAR). We use distance-dependent Chinese restaurant processes (dd-CRPs) to define a flexible prior which partitions the voxel measurements into clusters whose number and shapes are unknown a priori. With dd-CRPs we can conveniently implement spatial constraints to ensure that our parcellations remain spatially contiguous and thereby physiologically meaningful. In the present work, we extend CAESAR by using Gaussian process (GP) priors to model the temporally smooth haemodynamic signals that give rise to the measured FMRI data. A challenge for GP inference in our setting is the cubic scaling with respect to the number of time points, which can become computationally prohibitive with FMRI measurements, potentially consisting of long time series. As a solution we describe an efficient implementation that is practically as fast as the corresponding time-independent non-GP model with typically-sized FMRI data sets. We also employ a population Monte-Carlo algorithm that can significantly speed up convergence compared to traditional single-chain methods. First we illustrate the benefits of CAESAR and the GP priors with simulated experiments. Next, we demonstrate our approach by parcellating resting state FMRI data measured from twenty participants as taken from the Human Connectome Project data repository. Results show that CAESAR affords highly robust and scalable whole-brain clustering of FMRI timecourses.

  5. Activities for Challenging Gifted Learners by Increasing Complexity in the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeone, Alyssa; Caruso, Lenora; Bettle, Kailyn; Chase, Ashley; Bryson, Bridget; Schneider, Jean S.; Rule, Audrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Gifted learners need opportunities for critical and creative thinking to stretch their minds and imaginations. Strategies for increasing complexity in the four core areas of language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies were addressed using the Common Core and Iowa Core Standards through several methods. Descriptive adjective object…

  6. Mathematics Learning with Multiple Solution Methods: Effects of Types of Solutions and Learners' Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Große, Cornelia S.

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly suggested to mathematics teachers to present learners different methods in order to solve one problem. This so-called "learning with multiple solution methods" is also recommended from a psychological point of view. However, existing research leaves many questions unanswered, particularly concerning the effects of…

  7. Mediated Vocabulary in Native Speaker-Learner Interactions during an Oral Portfolio Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tocaimaza-Hatch, C. Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    This project investigated vocabulary learning from a sociocultural perspective--in particular, the way in which lexical knowledge was mediated in Spanish second language (L2) learners' and native speakers' (NSs') interactions. Nine students who were enrolled in an advanced conversation course completed an oral portfolio assignment consisting of…

  8. Impact of Consciousness-Raising Activities on Young English Language Learners' Grammar Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatemipour, Hamidreza; Hemmati, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Grammar Consciousness-Raising (GCR) is an approach to teaching of grammar which learners instead of being taught the given rules, experience language data. The data challenge them to rethink, restructure their existing mental grammar and construct an explicit rule to describe the grammatical feature which the data illustrate (Ellis, 2002). And…

  9. The effects of data-driven learning activities on EFL learners' writing development.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qinqin

    2016-01-01

    Data-driven learning has been proved as an effective approach in helping learners solve various writing problems such as correcting lexical or grammatical errors, improving the use of collocations and generating ideas in writing, etc. This article reports on an empirical study in which data-driven learning was accomplished with the assistance of the user-friendly BNCweb, and presents the evaluation of the outcome by comparing the effectiveness of BNCweb and a search engine Baidu which is most commonly used as reference resource by Chinese learners of English as a foreign language. The quantitative results about 48 Chinese college students revealed that the experimental group which used BNCweb performed significantly better in the post-test in terms of writing fluency and accuracy, as compared with the control group which used the search engine Baidu. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of writing complexity. The qualitative results about the interview revealed that learners generally showed a positive attitude toward the use of BNCweb but there were still some problems of using corpora in the writing process, thus the combined use of corpora and other types of reference resource was suggested as a possible way to counter the potential barriers for Chinese learners of English.

  10. Fostering Active Processing of Instructional Explanations of Learners with High and Low Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acuna, Santiago R.; Garcia Rodicio, Hector; Sanchez, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential advantages of instructional explanations, evidence indicates that they are usually ineffective. Subsequent work has shown that in order to make instructional explanations effective indeed, one successful strategy is to combine them with indications of the limitations in learners' understanding that they are intended to…

  11. Developing Learners' Second Language Communicative Competence through Active Learning: Clickers or Communicative Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of clickers, the communicative approach and the lecture method on the communicative competence development of learners who were taught English a second language (ESL). Ninety nine pupils from three primary schools participated in the study. Quasi-experimental non-randomised pre-test posttest…

  12. Active Lessons for Active Brains: Teaching Boys and Other Experiential Learners, Grades 3-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Abigail Norfleet; Allison, Sandra Boyd; McKenzie, Caitlin Zimmerman

    2011-01-01

    If you're tired of repeating yourself to students who aren't listening, try a little less talk and a lot more action. The authors follow the best-selling "Teaching the Male Brain and Teaching the Female Brain" with this ready-to-use collection of mathematics, language arts, science, and classroom management strategies. Designed for active,…

  13. Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, George T.; Carey, Robin J.; Kapushion, Blanche M.

    2016-01-01

    "Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book" includes activities and strategies to support the development of autonomous learners. More than 40 activities are included, all geared to the emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development of students. Teachers may use these activities and strategies with the entire class, small groups, or…

  14. Letting the poor speak.

    PubMed

    2000-09-29

    This paper comments on two documents prepared by the Washington-based World Bank: the "World Development Report" and the three-volume study "Voices of the Poor." The author provides a brief overview of these documents then examines their potential impact on the delegates to the annual meetings of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in Prague on September 19-28, 2000. The author further examines the implication of the new strategies embraced by the global lenders--"opportunity, empowerment, security." Apart from these strategies, the World Bank sets out other strategies like spreading the benefits of technology, as it calls for the elimination of absolute poverty by 2015. However, the most crucial tack is the one illustrated by the way the reports were made: letting the poor speak and responding to their cries.

  15. The LIN28/let-7 Pathway in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Balzeau, Julien; Menezes, Miriam R.; Cao, Siyu; Hagan, John P.

    2017-01-01

    Among all tumor suppressor microRNAs, reduced let-7 expression occurs most frequently in cancer and typically correlates with poor prognosis. Activation of either LIN28A or LIN28B, two highly related RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and proto-oncogenes, is responsible for the global post-transcriptional downregulation of the let-7 microRNA family observed in many cancers. Specifically, LIN28A binds the terminal loop of precursor let-7 and recruits the Terminal Uridylyl Transferase (TUTase) ZCCHC11 that polyuridylates pre-let-7, thereby blocking microRNA biogenesis and tumor suppressor function. For LIN28B, the precise mechanism responsible for let-7 inhibition remains controversial. Functionally, the decrease in let-7 microRNAs leads to overexpression of their oncogenic targets such as MYC, RAS, HMGA2, BLIMP1, among others. Furthermore, mouse models demonstrate that ectopic LIN28 expression is sufficient to drive and/or accelerate tumorigenesis via a let-7 dependent mechanism. In this review, the LIN28/let-7 pathway is discussed, emphasizing its role in tumorigenesis, cancer stem cell biology, metabolomics, metastasis, and resistance to ionizing radiation and several chemotherapies. Also, emerging evidence will be presented suggesting that molecular targeting of this pathway may provide therapeutic benefit in cancer.

  16. 77 FR 16566 - Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request, Proposed Collection: Let's Move Museums, Let's Move...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... Move Museums, Let's Move Gardens AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services, The National... Let's Move Museums, Let's Move Gardens will collect information museums programs, exhibitions and food... clearance of the Let's Move Museums, Let's Move Gardens collection. The 60-day notice for the Let's...

  17. MicroRNA 138, let-7b, and 125a inhibitors differentially alter sleep and EEG delta-wave activity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Clinton, James M.; Krueger, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep deprivation was previously reported to alter microRNA (miRNA) levels in the brain; however, the direct effects of any miRNA on sleep have only been described recently. We determined miRNA 138 (miR-138), miRNA let-7b (let-7b), and miRNA 125a-5p (miR-125a) levels in different brain areas at the transitions between light and dark. In addition, we examined the extent to which inhibiting these miRNAs affects sleep and EEG measures. We report that the levels of multiple miRNAs differ at the end of the sleep-dominant light period vs. the end of the wake-dominant dark period in cortical areas, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. For instance, in multiple regions of the cortex, miR-138, let-7b, and miR-125a expression was higher at the end of the dark period compared with the end of the light period. Intracerebroventricular injection of a specific inhibitor (antiMIR) to miR-138 suppressed sleep and nonrapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) EEG delta power. The antiMIR to let-7b did not affect time in state but decreased NREMS EEG delta power, whereas the antiMIR to miR-125a failed to affect sleep until after 3 days and did not affect EEG delta power on any day. We conclude that miRNAs are uniquely expressed at different times and in different structures in the brain and have discrete effects and varied timings on several sleep phenotypes and therefore, likely play a role in the regulation of sleep. PMID:23104698

  18. [Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    The teacher directed problem solving activities package contains 17 units: Future Community Design, Let's Build an Elevator, Let's Construct a Catapult, Let's Design a Recreational Game, Let's Make a Hand Fishing Reel, Let's Make a Wall Hanging, Let's Make a Yo-Yo, Marooned in the Past, Metrication, Mousetrap Vehicles, The Multi System…

  19. Let's Talk about Digital Learners in the Digital Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallardo-Echenique, Eliana Esther; Marqués-Molías, Luis; Bullen, Mark; Strijbos, Jan-Willem

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a literature review of the concept of "Digital Natives" and related terms. More specifically, it reports on the idea of a homogeneous generation of prolific and skilled users of digital technology born between 1980 and 1994. In all, 127 articles published between 1991 and 2014 were reviewed. On the basis of the…

  20. Let's Go to the Zoo! Sites for Young Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLoup, Jean W.; Ponterio, Robert

    2005-01-01

    While the debate over the optimal age for second language (L2) acquisition continues into the 21st century--that is, whether or not there is a clearly established critical period beyond which L2 learning cannot take place--most people believe (rightly or wrongly) that "earlier is better." In this article, the authors begin with the premise that…

  1. High-let radiation carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.; Powers-Risius, P.; Alpen, E.L.; Ainsworth, E.J.; Ullrich, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent results for neutron radiation-induced tumors are presented to illustrate the complexities of the dose-response curves for high-LET radiation. It is suggested that in order to derive an appropriate model for dose-response curves for the induction of tumors by high-LET radiation it is necessary to take into account dose distribution, cell killing and the susceptibility of the tissue under study. Preliminary results for the induction of Harderian gland tumors in mice exposed to various heavy ion beams are presented. The results suggest that the effectiveness of the heavy ion beams increases with increasing LET. The slopes of the dose-response curves for the different high-LET radiations decrease between 20 and 40 rads and therefore comparisons of the relative effectiveness should be made from data obtained at doses below about 20 to 30 rads.

  2. High-LET radiation carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, R. J. M.; Ullrich, R. L.; Powers-Risius, P.; Alpen, E. L.; Ainsworth, E. J.

    Recent results for neutron radiation-induced tumors are presented to illustrate the complexities of the dose-response curves for high-LET radiation. It is suggested that in order to derive an appropriate model for dose-response curves for the induction of tumors by high-LET radiation it is necessary to take into account dose distribution, cell killing and the susceptibility of the tissue under study. Preliminary results for the induction of Harderian gland tumors in mice exposed to various heavy ion beams are presented. The results suggest that the effectiveness of the heavy ion beams increases with increasing LET. The slopes of the dose-response curves for the different high-LET radiations decrease between 20 and 40 rads and therefore comparisons of the relative effectiveness should be made from data obtained at doses below about 20-30 rads.

  3. LETS: Lunar Environments Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Schneider, Todd; Craven, Paul; Norwood, Joey

    2008-01-01

    The Environmental Effects Branch (EM50) at the Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a unique capability within the agency, namely the Lunar Environment Test System (LETS). LETS is a cryo-pumped vacuum chamber facility capable of high vacuum (10-7 Torr). LETS is a cylindrical chamber, 30 in. (0.8 m) diameter by 48 in. (1.2 m) long thermally controlled vacuum system. The chamber is equipped with a full array of radiation sources including vacuum ultraviolet, electron, and proton radiation. The unique feature of LETS is that it contains a large lunar simulant bed (18 in. x 40 in. x 6 in.) holding 75 kg of JSC-1a simulant while operating at a vacuum of 10-7 Torr. This facility allows three applications: 1) to study the charging, levitation and migration of dust particles, 2) to simulate the radiation environment on the lunar surface, and 3) to electrically charge the lunar simulant enhancing the attraction and adhesion of dust particles to test articles more closely simulating the lunar surface dust environment. LETS has numerous diagnostic instruments including TREK electrostatic probes, residual gas analyzer (RGA), temperature controlled quartz crystal microbalance (TQCM), and particle imaging velocimeter (PIV). Finally, LETS uses continuous Labview data acquisition for computer monitoring and system control.

  4. Using What Learners Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Mary; Adams, Sharon

    2000-01-01

    This issue of "TAP into Learning" focuses on technology-assisted learning activities for students, in particular on those that use spreadsheets. Articles include: "Using What Learners Know"; "Activity: Grade 7 and 8 Math, Social Studies and Language Arts"; "Managing Growth: Collaborative Decision-Making in Urban Planning"; "Spreadsheets"; "Getting…

  5. Adult Learners' Week in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John

    2002-01-01

    Promotional materials and activities for Australia's Adult Learners Week, which are shaped by a variety of stakeholders , include media strategies and a website. Activities are evaluated using a market research company and website and telephone hotline statistics. (SK)

  6. Communicative Language Teaching: The Learner's View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    Several studies of the differences in teacher and learner perceptions of the usefulness of certain teaching techniques and activities reveal clear mismatches between learners' and teachers' views of language learning. The differences seem to be due to the sociocultural background and previous learning experiences of the learners and the influence…

  7. MYC protein inhibits transcription of the microRNA cluster MC-let-7a-1~let-7d via noncanonical E-box.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zifeng; Lin, Sheng; Li, Julia Jun; Xu, Zhenhua; Yao, Hong; Zhu, Xiao; Xie, Dan; Shen, Zan; Sze, Johnny; Li, Kui; Lu, Gang; Chan, Danny Tat-Ming; Poon, Wai Sang; Kung, Hsiang-fu; Lin, Marie Chia-mi

    2011-11-18

    The human microRNA cluster MC-let-7a-1∼let-7d, with three members let-7a-1, let-7f-1, and let-7d, is an important cluster of the let-7 family. These microRNAs play critical roles in regulating development and carcinogenesis. Therefore, precise control of MC-let-7a-1∼let-7d level is critical for cellular functions. In this study, we first showed that the expression of these three members was significantly reduced in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells as compared with the immortalized human liver L02 cells. We demonstrated that the MC-let-7a-1∼let-7d cluster was encoded by a single polycistronic transcript driven by a 10-kb upstream promoter, with two MYC-binding sites. Importantly, MYC inhibited MC-let-7a-1∼let-7d promoter activity via binding to the noncanonical E-box 3 downstream of the transcription start sites, whereas it enhanced promoter activity by binding to the canonical E-box 2 upstream of the transcription start sites. We found that although the binding affinity of MYC to E-box 2 was stronger than E-box 3, the binding quantum of MYC to E-box 3 was significantly higher in cancerous HepG2 cells as compared with the noncancerous L02 cells. In addition, forced expression of let-7 could reverse the MYC-mediated cell proliferation. These findings suggested that in L02 cells with a low level of MYC, MYC binds mainly to E-box 2 to enhance MC-let-7a-1∼let-7d expression. However, in HepG2 cells with an elevated MYC, the extra MYC could bind to E-box 3 to suppress the transcription of MC-let-7a-1∼let-7d and thus enable HepG2 cells to maintain a high level of MYC and a low level of let-7 microRNAs simultaneously.

  8. Let's Explore Yellowstone!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This presents several classroom activities that have been adapted from the Expedition Yellowstone program activities for fourth, fifth and sixth graders. Language arts, science, math, and social studies activities are presented. Expedition Yellowstone activities focus on the geology, ecology, animal life, and history of Yellowstone Park. (IAH)

  9. The Development and Evaluation of an Achievement Test for Measuring the Efficacy of Task-Based Writing Activities to Enhance Iranian EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejad, Ferdows Mohsen; Khosravian, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability of an achievement test to measure the efficacy of task-based writing activities to improve Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension at the intermediate level in a private language institute in Ilam, Iran, namely Alefba language institute. To achieve the goal, the techniques for evaluating reliability…

  10. Effects of an Online Learning Community on Active and Reflective Learners' Learning Performance and Attitudes in a Face-to-Face Undergraduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhan, Zehui; Xu, Fuyin; Ye, Huiwen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an Online Learning Community (OLC) on active and reflective learners' learning performance and attitude in a face-to-face undergraduate digital design course. 814 freshmen in an introductory digital design course were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: one offered students an OLC,…

  11. Exploring Work-Based Foundation Skills in the ABLE Classroom. Instructional Activities and Resources for the Adult Learner [and] Supplemental Handouts for Modules. Version 1.2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Priscilla; Van Horn, Barbara; Hamilton, KayLynn; Williams, Mary Kay

    This guide contains activities and resources to help adult learners develop the work-based foundation skills and knowledge areas included on the Foundation Skills Framework wheel (Institute for the Study of Adult Literacy 2000). Its four sections (basic employability skills, basic workplace knowledge, basic workplace skills, and lifelong learning…

  12. The Effects of Pragmatic Consciousness-Raising Activities on the Development of Pragmatic Awareness and Use of Hearsay Evidential Markers for Learners of Japanese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narita, Ritsuko

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the effectiveness of pragmatic consciousness-raising (PCR) activities in the L2 pragmatic acquisition of hearsay evidential markers by learners of Japanese as a foreign language (JFL). PCR is essentially an inductive approach to facilitating awareness of how language forms are used appropriately in a given context.…

  13. Let's Meet Famous Women Artists. A Creative Art Activity Book. A Teacher's Guide Featuring 19 Famous Women Artists' Biographies and Enrichment/Research Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badman, Jacqueline; Lewis-Spicer, Lisa

    This activity guide showcases the work of 19 women artists who have made outstanding contributions to the world of art in spite of the incredible obstacles society placed upon them. Artists, alphabetically presented, include: Sofonisba Anguissola, Rosa Bonheur, Deborah Butterfield, Rosalba Carriera, Janet Fish, Helen Frankenthaler, Giovanna…

  14. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Learning Chinese with a Cognitive Model of the Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosek, Michal; Lison, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We present an intelligent tutoring system that lets students of Chinese learn words and grammatical constructions. It relies on a Bayesian, linguistically motivated cognitive model that represents the learner's knowledge. This model is dynamically updated given observations about the learner's behaviour in the exercises, and employed at runtime to…

  15. "Dealing With" Unexpected Learner Contributions in Whole Group Activities: An Examination of Novice Language Teacher Discursive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Drew S.

    2012-01-01

    The current paper examines the discursive practices of one novice English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher "dealing with" learners' unexpected contributions in whole group classroom interactions during teacher- and learner-initiated sequences-of-talk. The study draws from two fields of research: classroom discourse studies…

  16. Let Them Blow Bubbles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korenic, Eileen

    1988-01-01

    Describes a series of activities and demonstrations involving the science of soap bubbles. Starts with a recipe for bubble solution and gives instructions for several activities on topics such as density, interference colors, optics, static electricity, and galaxy formation. Contains some background information to help explain some of the effects.…

  17. Reaching English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    In the authors' science classroom, students who are English Language Learners (ELL) seem to struggle less than they do with other content areas. She believes the "handson" nature of science motivates and encourages students to interact with others. This interaction spurs conversation among the students involved in the activity. If a child is…

  18. Let's Celebrate the Environment!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adie, N. Susan

    1987-01-01

    Describes annual Environmental Awareness Week at Seneca Falls' (New York) Frank Knight Elementary School. Discusses how the event is planned: initial communication, outside resources, contacts, publicity, schedules, professional communications, helpful hints, and follow-up activities. Includes six photographs. (NEC)

  19. Let's Make Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang-Jensen, Valerie

    1986-01-01

    A learning experience designed to expand primary students' knowledge of what is and is not magic is described. Included are activities involving language arts, math, art, class discussion, and motor skills. (MT)

  20. Let's Explore Aviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvin, Jean

    1977-01-01

    Presents an intermediate level social studies unit dealing with air education, social aspects of aviation, and the importance of aviation to industry and transportation. Includes objectives, twelve activities, and evaluative procedures. (SL)

  1. Letting Thoughts Take Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Chuck; Wheeler, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Scientists are conducting research into electroencephalograms (EEGs) of brainwave activity, and electromyography (EMG) of muscle activity, in order to develop systems which can control an aircraft with only a pilot's thoughts. This article describes some EEG and EMG signals, and how they might be analyzed and interpreted to operate an aircraft. The development of a system to detect and interpret fine muscle movements is also profiled in the article.

  2. Exploring Shifts in Middle School Learners' Modeling Activity While Generating Drawings, Animations, and Computational Simulations of Molecular Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson-Jerde, Michelle H.; Gravel, Brian E.; Macrander, Christopher A.

    2015-04-01

    Modeling and using technology are two practices of particular interest to K-12 science educators. These practices are inextricably linked among professionals, who engage in modeling activity with and across a variety of representational technologies. In this paper, we explore the practices of five sixth-grade girls as they generated models of smell diffusion using drawing, stop-motion animation, and computational simulation during a multi-day workshop. We analyze video, student discourse, and artifacts to address the questions: In what ways did learners' modeling practices, reasoning about mechanism, and ideas about smell shift as they worked across this variety of representational technologies? And, what supports enabled them to persist and progress in the modeling activity? We found that the girls engaged in two distinct modeling cycles that reflected persistence and deepening engagement in the task. In the first, messing about, they focused on describing and representing many ideas related to the spread of smell at once. In the second, digging in, they focused on testing and revising specific mechanisms that underlie smell diffusion. Upon deeper analysis, we found these cycles were linked to the girls' invention of "oogtom," a representational object that encapsulated many ideas from the first cycle and allowed the girls to restart modeling with the mechanistic focus required to construct simulations. We analyze the role of activity design, facilitation, and technological infrastructure in this pattern of engagement over the course of the workshop and discuss implications for future research, curriculum design, and classroom practice.

  3. Play Sheets. Let's Play! Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Buffalo. Center for Assistive Technology.

    This collection of play sheets for parents and early intervention personnel was developed by the "Let's Play! Project," a 3-year federally supported project that worked to promote play in infants and toddlers with disabilities through the use of "low-tech" assistive technology. Each single page guide provides guidance to…

  4. Let's Hear It for Herps!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Let's Hear It for the Herps!" Contents are organized into the…

  5. Empowering Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Pat; Stephens, Claire Gatrell

    2010-01-01

    Turning students into lifelong learners is not easily accomplished. How do school librarians ensure that students have a zeal for learning? How do they encourage, cajole, or entice students to want to learn? The answer lies in empowering students with the skills they need to enjoy researching as well as reading for information and pleasure. This…

  6. Let's Just Be Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, Julia

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses her experiences using the "Facebook" social networking website, and the evolution of its use from a window on students' opinions and activities, to an uncomfortable forum where response to grades were visible in real time, and because of the instructor's known potential presence, students may have been intimidated from sharing…

  7. Let's Go Bananas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Helen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on primary science unit of activities designed to teach students concepts about bananas. Real bananas are used as students investigate and use the process skills of observation, measurement, and communication. Using bananas as a theme, science, mathematics, social studies, music, and writing are integrated into the curriculum of…

  8. Let's Teach Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadas, Maria; Molina, Marta; Gallardo, Sandra; Martinez-Santaolalla, Manuel; Penas, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Making constructions with paper is called "origami" and is considered an art. The objective for many fans of origami is to design new figures never constructed before. From the point of view of mathematics education, origami is an interesting didactic activity. In this article, the authors propose to help High School students understand new…

  9. Let s make progress together!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriana, Mazare; Liliana, Gheorghian

    2015-04-01

    Let's make progress together! The "Theodor Balan" Secondary School in the urban area of Suceava County in northeastern Romania is involved in several different projects. In order to extend previous successful projects with the students, parents, teachers, businesses and local government representatives in science symposiums for civic projects within the concept of sustainable development, the school is continuing to develop various successful programs. "The battle" continues both in nature and in the classrooms, in order to preserve the environment and to discover new resources. To raise awareness about the importance of existing resources even at the level of individuals there is a constant concern for keeping up to date on what already exists and is well known, but at the same time to remove "barriers" and discover new horizons and resources. Scientific activities held in our school are an effective way to educate students and the community to which they belong. In our community, we discovered sources of drinking water polluted by nitrites from fertilizers used in agriculture. In order to inform and educate people in the area, our teachers have organized several educational activities. Its purpose was: -Knowledge of the importance of water for the environment and human health. -Reducing water pollution. Students have informed their families' about sustainable development acquired at school. In this way, the school manages to educate and change people's ideas. The ways and methods of adults' learning were practiced within a Grundtvig training course "It's never too late learning to learn" in February 2014, in Florence, Italy. The GIFT 2014 was a great occasion for the teachers and students, the county's educational department and the participants at the National Colloquia of Physics to discover new materials provided at the Conference and the latest news and topics in the world of science. The theme trips at the physics laboratories of "Alexandru Ioan Cuza

  10. Activity Based Learning as Self-Accessing Strategy to Promote Learners' Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravi, R.; Xavier, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Activity Based Learning (ABL) is unique and effective to attract out-of -school children to schools. It facilitates readiness for learning, instruction, reinforcement and evaluation. ABL has transformed the classrooms into hubs of activities and meaningful learning. Activity-based learning, naturally leads to cooperative learning. Since group…

  11. Student Activities, Electronic Learners, and the Future: Integrating a Technological Component into Your Role as an Advisor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Jason Foster

    1996-01-01

    Provides advice to faculty advisers of student organizations on understanding the learning styles, needs, cultures, and strengths of today's "electronic learners." Advisers need to understand technology-related learning patterns and become technologically literate to work with college students. (MDM)

  12. Let There Be Light!

    PubMed

    Raykova, Doroteya; Koos, Björn; Asplund, Anna; Gelléri, Márton; Ivarsson, Ylva; Danielson, U Helena; Söderberg, Ola

    2016-11-29

    The invention of the microscope has been fundamental for the understanding of tissue architecture and subcellular structures. With the advancement of higher magnification microscopes came the development of various molecular biology tools such as Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and in situ proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) to monitor protein interactions. Microscopy has become a commonly used method for the investigation of molecular events within the cell, for the identification of key players in signaling networks, and the activation of these pathways. Multiple approaches are available for functional analyses in single cells. They provide information not only on the localization of proteins at a given time point, but also on their expression levels and activity states, allowing us to pinpoint hallmarks of different cellular identities within tissues in health and disease. Clever solutions to increase the sensitivity of molecular tools, the possibilities for multiplexing, as well as image resolution have recently been introduced; however, these methods have their pros and cons. Therefore, one needs to carefully consider the biological question of interest along with the nature of the sample before choosing the most suitable method or combination of methods. Herein, we review a few of the most exciting microscopy-based molecular techniques for proteomic analysis and cover the benefits as well as the disadvantages of their use.

  13. Let There Be Light!

    PubMed Central

    Raykova, Doroteya; Koos, Björn; Asplund, Anna; Gelléri, Márton; Ivarsson, Ylva; Danielson, U. Helena; Söderberg, Ola

    2016-01-01

    The invention of the microscope has been fundamental for the understanding of tissue architecture and subcellular structures. With the advancement of higher magnification microscopes came the development of various molecular biology tools such as Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and in situ proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) to monitor protein interactions. Microscopy has become a commonly used method for the investigation of molecular events within the cell, for the identification of key players in signaling networks, and the activation of these pathways. Multiple approaches are available for functional analyses in single cells. They provide information not only on the localization of proteins at a given time point, but also on their expression levels and activity states, allowing us to pinpoint hallmarks of different cellular identities within tissues in health and disease. Clever solutions to increase the sensitivity of molecular tools, the possibilities for multiplexing, as well as image resolution have recently been introduced; however, these methods have their pros and cons. Therefore, one needs to carefully consider the biological question of interest along with the nature of the sample before choosing the most suitable method or combination of methods. Herein, we review a few of the most exciting microscopy-based molecular techniques for proteomic analysis and cover the benefits as well as the disadvantages of their use. PMID:28248246

  14. Embryonic morphogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans integrates the activity of LET-502 Rho-binding kinase, MEL-11 myosin phosphatase, DAF-2 insulin receptor and FEM-2 PP2c phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Piekny, A J; Wissmann, A; Mains, P E

    2000-12-01

    let-502 rho-binding kinase and mel-11 myosin phosphatase regulate Caenorhabditis elegans embryonic morphogenesis. Genetic analysis presented here establishes the following modes of let-502 action: (i) loss of only maternal let-502 results in abnormal early cleavages, (ii) loss of both zygotic and maternal let-502 causes elongation defects, and (iii) loss of only zygotic let-502 results in sterility. The morphogenetic function of let-502 and mel-11 is apparently redundant with another pathway since elimination of these two genes resulted in progeny that underwent near-normal elongation. Triple mutant analysis indicated that unc-73 (Rho/Rac guanine exchange factor) and mlc-4 (myosin light chain) act in parallel to or downstream of let-502/mel-11. In contrast mig-2 (Rho/Rac), daf-2 (insulin receptor), and age-1 (PI3 kinase) act within the let-502/mel-11 pathway. Mutations in the sex-determination gene fem-2, which encodes a PP2c phosphatase (unrelated to the MEL-11 phosphatase), enhanced mutations of let-502 and suppressed those of mel-11. fem-2's elongation function appears to be independent of its role in sexual identity since the sex-determination genes fem-1, fem-3, tra-1, and tra-3 had no effect on mel-11 or let-502. By itself, fem-2 affects morphogenesis with low penetrance. fem-2 blocked the near-normal elongation of let-502; mel-11 indicating that fem-2 acts in a parallel elongation pathway. The action of two redundant pathways likely ensures accurate elongation of the C. elegans embryo.

  15. LETS: An Expressional Loop Notation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    r - ..’ -rI- x- - r ,11 V~ The Expressional Metaphor 2- Waters i "The Expressional Metaphor ’lhe key property of expressions which makes them...development of a notation which has the property of decomposability. Viewing Loops as Expressions Involving Sequences In order to represent loops as...a DEFUNS or LETS. For example, the function EPLIST takes in a discnbodied plist and returns two values: a sequence of the property names. and a

  16. The Structural Challenge: A Simple Design-Based Science Activity to Foster Creativity among Kinaesthetic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Nazir; Subramaniam, R.

    2014-01-01

    A suitable way for teachers to present science content and foster creativity in less academically inclined students is by getting them to engage in design-based science activities and guiding them along the way. This study illustrates how a design-and-make activity was carried out with the aim of getting students to showcase their creativity while…

  17. Hippocampus activity differentiates good from poor learners of a novel lexicon.

    PubMed

    Breitenstein, Caterina; Jansen, Andreas; Deppe, Michael; Foerster, Ann-Freya; Sommer, Jens; Wolbers, Thomas; Knecht, Stefan

    2005-04-15

    Language proficiency is a key to academic and workplace success for native and non-native speakers. It is largely unknown, however, why some people pick up languages more easily than others. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (e-fMRI) to elucidate which brain regions are modulated during the acquisition of a novel lexicon and which of these learning-related activity changes correlated with general semantic language knowledge. Fourteen healthy young subjects learned a novel vocabulary of 45 concrete nouns via an associative learning principle over the course of five blocks during e-fMRI. As a control condition, subjects took part in a structurally identical "No-Learning" condition lacking any learning principle. Overall, increasing vocabulary proficiency was associated with (intercorrelated) modulations of activity within the left hippocampus and the left fusiform gyrus, regions involved in the binding and integration of multimodal stimuli, and with an increasing activation of the left inferior parietal cortex, the presumed neural store of phonological associations. None of these activity changes were observed during the control condition. Furthermore, subjects who showed less suppression of hippocampal activity over learning blocks scored higher on semantic knowledge in their native language and learned the novel vocabulary more efficiently. Our findings indicate that (a) the successful acquisition of a new lexicon depends on correlated amplitude changes between the left hippocampus and neocortical regions and (b) learning-related hippocampus activity is a stable marker of individual differences in the ability to acquire and master vocabularies.

  18. Objects prompt authentic scientific activities among learners in a museum programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achiam, Marianne; Simony, Leonora; Kramer Lindow, Bent Erik

    2016-04-01

    Although the scientific disciplines conduct practical work in different ways, all consider practical work as the essential way of connecting objects and phenomena with ideas and the abstract. Accordingly, practical work is regarded as central to science education as well. We investigate a practical, object-based palaeontology programme at a natural history museum to identify how palaeontological objects prompt scientific activity among upper secondary school students. We first construct a theoretical framework based on an analysis of the programme's palaeontological content. From this, we build our reference model, which considers the specimens used in the programme, possible palaeontological interpretations of these specimens, and the conditions inherent in the programme. We use the reference model to analyse the activities of programme participants, and illustrate how these activities are palaeontologically authentic. Finally, we discuss our findings, examining the mechanism by which the specimens prompt scientific activities. We also discuss our discipline-based approach, and how it allows us to positively identify participants' activities as authentic. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings.

  19. Dynein-mediated trafficking negatively regulates LET-23 EGFR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Skorobogata, Olga; Meng, Jassy; Gauthier, Kimberley; Rocheleau, Christian E.

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is essential for animal development, and increased signaling underlies many human cancers. Identifying the genes and cellular processes that regulate EGFR signaling in vivo will help to elucidate how this pathway can become inappropriately activated. Caenorhabditis elegans vulva development provides an in vivo model to genetically dissect EGFR signaling. Here we identified a mutation in dhc-1, the heavy chain of the cytoplasmic dynein minus end–directed microtubule motor, in a genetic screen for regulators of EGFR signaling. Despite the many cellular functions of dynein, DHC-1 is a strong negative regulator of EGFR signaling during vulva induction. DHC-1 is required in the signal-receiving cell and genetically functions upstream or in parallel to LET-23 EGFR. LET-23 EGFR accumulates in cytoplasmic foci in dhc-1 mutants, consistent with mammalian cell studies in which dynein is shown to regulate late endosome trafficking of EGFR with the Rab7 GTPase. However, we found different distributions of LET-23 EGFR foci in rab-7 versus dhc-1 mutants, suggesting that dynein functions at an earlier step of LET-23 EGFR trafficking to the lysosome than RAB-7. Our results demonstrate an in vivo role for dynein in limiting LET-23 EGFR signaling via endosomal trafficking. PMID:27654944

  20. Collaborative Syntactic Priming Activities and EFL Learners' Production of Wh-questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Kim; Chaikitmongkol, Wanpen

    2010-01-01

    Syntactic priming is the tendency for a speaker to produce a structure that was encountered in recent discourse and is measured by calculating how frequently speakers use the modelled structures as opposed to alternatives. Recent lab-based studies have shown that carrying out syntactic priming activities with trained interlocutors positively…

  1. The Effect of Curricular Activities on Learner Autonomy: The Perspective of Undergraduate Mechanical Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, M.; Leite, C.; Mouraz, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study researches how first-year engineering students perceived the influence of curricular activities on their own learning autonomy, measured with an adaptation of the Personal Responsibility Orientation to Self-direction in Learning Scale (PRO-SDLS). Participants were questioned to assess the influence of the teacher's role. The results…

  2. Growing into Greatness: A Study of a Local History Group of Active-Retired Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Trudy; Byrne, Brid; Harris, Phyllis; Lalor, Maureen; O'Connor, Maura; O'Reilly, Kathleen; Quinn, Frank; Forde, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Research in Canada on the learning needs of older people looked at such issues as how to cope with changes in society, the need to make a contribution and the need to be influential. The White Paper on Adult Education "Learning for Life" notes that strategies for active ageing stress the critical importance of access to learning as a key…

  3. Research on the Healthy Lifestyle Model, Active Ageing, and Loneliness of Senior Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Jui-Ying; Lu, Kuo-Song

    2014-01-01

    Taiwan has the fastest ageing population in the world. Thus, the government and local policy makers need to formulate policies not just for the nursing and care needs of the aged. They also need to actively promote the need for lifelong learning among seniors in order to achieve elderly-friendly objectives, such as health promotion and delays in…

  4. The Effect of a Timed Reading Activity on EFL Learners: Speed, Comprehension, and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Anna C-S

    2010-01-01

    To develop reading fluency, a 13-week timed reading activity was integrated into a normal curriculum with the aim of improving students' reading rates. Participants were 84 college students divided into an experimental and a control group. The test instruments involved pretests and posttests on reading speed and comprehension. Students'…

  5. High LET, passive space radiation dosimetry and spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.; Keegan, R. P.; Frigo, L. A.; Sanner, D.; Rowe, V.

    1995-01-01

    The development of high linear energy transfer (LET), passive radiation dosimetry and spectrometry is needed for the purpose of accurate determination of equivalent doses and assessment of health risks to astronauts on long duration missions. Progress in the following research areas is summerized: intercomparisons of cosmic ray equivalent dose and LET spectra measurements between STS missions and between astronauts; increases LET spectra measurement accuracy with ATAS; space radiation measurements for intercomparisons of passive (PNTD, TLD, TRND, Emulsion) and active (TEPC, RME-111) dosimeters; interaction of cosmic ray particles with nuclei in matter; radiation measurements after long duration space exposures; ground based dosimeter calibrations; neutron detector calibrations; radiation measurements on Soviet/Russian spacecraft; space radiation measurements under thin shielding; and space radiation.

  6. Microdosimetry Calculations for Low-Let Microbeam Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Walt E.; Miller, John H.; Lynch, Donald J.; Lewis, Robert R.

    2004-04-30

    The bystander effect, responses of cells not traversed by particles of a radiation field, has generated a flurry of activity in the radiation biology community. The conventional wisdom that health risks are determined by the response of individual cells to DNA damage is being challenged. Much of the current data on bystander effects was obtained in experiments with high LET radiation where most of the cells are bystanders and their responses are more easily observed. Even at a low fluence, radiation fields composed of low-LET particles tend to produce a uniform distribution of dose at the cellular level, which makes bystanders more difficult to identify. Despite these difficulties, experimental results on bystander effects induced by low-LET radiation are becoming available through application of focused x-ray sources (1) and electron microbeams (2). We have applied Monte Carlo track-structure simulations (3) to calculate microdosimetric quantities that are useful in the design of experiments with these facilities.

  7. High LET, passive space radiation dosimetry and spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.; Benton, E.R.; Keegan, R.P.; Frigo, L.A.; Sanner, D.; Rowe, V.

    1995-03-01

    The development of high linear energy transfer (LET), passive radiation dosimetry and spectrometry is needed for the purpose of accurate determination of equivalent doses and assessment of health risks to astronauts on long duration missions. Progress in the following research areas is summerized: intercomparisons of cosmic ray equivalent dose and LET spectra measurements between STS missions and between astronauts; increases LET spectra measurement accuracy with ATAS; space radiation measurements for intercomparisons of passive (PNTD, TLD, TRND, Emulsion) and active (TEPC, RME-111) dosimeters; interaction of cosmic ray particles with nuclei in matter; radiation measurements after long duration space exposures; ground based dosimeter calibrations; neutron detector calibrations; radiation measurements on Soviet/Russian spacecraft; space radiation measurements under thin shielding; and space radiation. Separate abstracts were prepared for articles from this report.

  8. Killing, letting die and moral perception.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Grant

    1994-10-01

    There are a number of arguments that purport to show, in general terms, that there is no difference between killing and letting die. These are used to justify active euthanasia on the basis of the reasons given for allowing patients to die. I argue that the general and abstract arguments fail to take account of the complex and particular situations which are found in the care of those with terminal illness. When in such situations, there are perceptions and intuitions available that do not easily find propositional form but lead most of those whose practice is in the care of the dying to resist active euthanasia. I make a plea for their intuitions to be heeded above the sterile voice of abstract premises and arguments by examining the completeness of the outline form of the pro-euthanasia argument. In doing so, I make use of Nussbaum's discussion of moral perception and general claims to be found in the literature of moral particularism.

  9. LETS v. 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Aldridge, David F.; Bartel, Lewis C.

    2016-07-14

    Program LETS calculates the electric current distribution (in space and time) along an electrically energized steel-cased geologic borehole situated within the subsurface earth. The borehole is modeled as an electrical transmission line that “leaks” current into the surrounding geology. Parameters pertinent to the transmission line current calculation (i.e., series resistance and inductance, shunt capacitance and conductance) are obtained by sampling the electromagnetic (EM) properties of a three-dimensional (3D) geologic earth model along a (possibly deviated) well track.

  10. Style Shifts among Japanese Learners before and after Study Abroad in Japan: Becoming Active Social Agents in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwasaki, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on L2 Japanese sojourners often reported that learners overuse the plain style or haphazardly mix the plain and polite styles upon return. These styles, which are often associated with formal or informal contexts, also index complex social and situational meanings, and native speakers are reported to shift their styles to create…

  11. Teacher-Made Tactile Science Materials with Critical and Creative Thinking Activities for Learners Including Those with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teske, Jolene K.; Gray, Phyllis; Kuhn, Mason A.; Clausen, Courtney K.; Smith, Latisha L.; Alsubia, Sukainah A.; Ghayoorad, Maryam; Rule, Audrey C.; Schneider, Jean Suchsland

    2014-01-01

    Gifted students with visual impairments are twice exceptional learners and may not evidence their advanced science aptitudes without appropriate accommodations for learning science. However, effective tactile science teaching materials may be easily made. Recent research has shown that when tactile materials are used with "all" students…

  12. Examining Student Cognitive and Affective Engagement and Reading Instructional Activities: Spanish-Speaking English Learners' Reading Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Ana Taboada; Gallagher, Melissa; Smith, Peet; Buehl, Michelle M.; Beck, Jori S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the key role of engagement in helping students succeed in school and beyond. Given the academic struggles that many English learners (ELs) face as they transition to middle school, exploring the facets of engagement in middle school ELs is needed. We established reader profiles for eight sixth grade Hispanic ELs and…

  13. Guiding Learners to near Native Fluency in English through an Adaptive Programme of Activities Which Includes Phoneme and Prosody Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Alistair; Attridge, Ann; Lapok, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Many students of English language find pronunciation difficult to master. This work in progress paper discusses an incremental and iterative approach towards developing requirements for software applications to assist learners with the perception and production of English pronunciation in terms of phonemes and prosody. It was found that prompts…

  14. Using Digital Storytelling as a Language Experience Approach Activity: Integrating English Language Learners into a Museum Field Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Knight, Jennifer Hatch

    2016-01-01

    Second language learners face countless obstacles in the classroom, including communication and comprehension limitations and difficulty building relationships with peers. Many teachers struggle to build an inclusive classroom environment and ensure all students, especially those with linguistic and other learning disadvantages, are learning. This…

  15. We Are What We Do: Examining Learner-Generated Content in the Anatomy Laboratory through the Lens of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doubleday, Alison F.; Wille, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Video and photography are often used for delivering content within the anatomical sciences. However, instructors typically produce these resources to provide instructional or procedural information. Although the benefits of learner-generated content have been explored within educational research, virtually no studies have investigated the use of…

  16. High-LET radiation carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.; Powers-Risius, P.; Alpen, E.L.; Ainsworth, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    The dose-response curves for the induction of tumors by high-LET radiation are complex and are insufficiently understood. There is no model or formulation to describe the dose-response relationship over a range 0 to 100 rad. Evidence suggests that at doses below 20 rad the response is linear, at least for life shortening and some tumor systems. Thus, limiting values of RBEs for the induction of cancer in various tissues can be determined, but it will require sufficient data obtained at low single doses or with small fractions. The results obtained from experiments with heavy ions indicate an initial linear response with a plateauing of the curve at a tumor incidence level that is dependent on the type of tissue. The RBE values for the heavy ions using /sup 60/Co gamma rays as the reference radiation increase with the estimated LET from 4 for /sup 4/H to about 27 for /sup 56/Fe, /sup 40/Ar. The dose-responses and RBEs for /sup 56/Fe and /sup 40/Ar are similar to those for fission neutrons. These findings suggest the possibility that the effectiveness for tumor induction reaches a maximum. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Learner Personas in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude

    2007-01-01

    In examining the titles of this year's conference presentations, the author noticed quite a few papers that focus on learner-specific issues, for instance, papers that address learning styles, learner needs, personality and learning, learner modeling and, more generally, pedagogical issues that deal with individual learner differences in…

  18. Learning from Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matos, Joao Filipe

    This paper is a reflection of the preparation of the Psychology of Mathematics Education Panel (PME26) that discuss the issue of "learning from learners." What it implies to be a learner is formulated in order to reflect upon the way teachers and/or researchers learn from learners. The idea of conceptualizing the notion of "learning from learners"…

  19. Temporal and spatial regulation of let-7a in the uterus during embryo implantation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hong-Fei; Jin, Xiao-Hua; Song, Pei-Pei; Cui, Yi; Liu, Chun-Mei; Ma, Xu

    2010-02-01

    Mammalian embryonic implantation requires reciprocal interactions between implantation-competent blastocysts and a receptive uterus. Some microRNAs might play a key role during embryo implantation in the mouse, but the let-7a expression profiles in the rat uterus during peri-implantation are unknown. In the study, the expression of let-7a in the uterus during early pregnancy, pseudopregnancy, artificial decidualization and activation of delayed implantation was detected by Northern blotting and in situ hybridization. The effect of steroid hormones on let-7a expression was also detected by Northern blotting and in situ hybridization. Here, we found that the expression level of let-7a was higher on gestation day 6-7 (g.d. 6-7) in rats than on g.d.4-5 and g.d.8-9. Let-7a was specifically localized in glandular and luminal epithelia and decidua. The expression of let-7a was not significantly different in the pseudopregnant uterus and increased significantly in the uteri of rats subjected to artificial decidualization and activation of delayed implantation. Treatment with estradiol-17beta or progesterone significantly increased let-7a expression. Thus, let-7a expression was significantly induced by the process of embryo invasion, and this increased expression level was mainly induced by active blastocysts and decidualization during the window of implantation, implying that let-7a may participate in endometrial decidualization. Steroid hormones, estradiol-17beta or progesterone stimulated let-7a expression.

  20. Let-7b Inhibits Human Cancer Phenotype by Targeting Cytochrome P450 Epoxygenase 2J2

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shenglan; Gong, Wei; Wang, Yan; Cianflone, Katherine; Tang, Jiarong; Wang, Dao Wen

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules of 20 to 22 nucleotides that regulate gene expression by binding to their 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR). Increasing data implicate altered miRNA participation in the progress of cancer. We previously reported that CYP2J2 epoxygenase promotes human cancer phenotypes. But whether and how CYP2J2 is regulated by miRNA is not understood. Methods and Results Using bioinformatics analysis, we found potential target sites for miRNA let-7b in 3′UTR of human CYP2J2. Luciferase and western blot assays revealed that CYP2J2 was regulated by let-7b. In addition, let-7b decreased the enzymatic activity of endogenous CYP2J2. Furthermore, let-7b may diminish cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis of tumor cells via posttranscriptional repression of CYP2J2. Tumor xenografts were induced in nude mice by subcutaneous injection of MDA-MB-435 cells. The let-7b expression vector, pSilencer-let-7b, was injected through tail vein every 3 weeks. Let-7b significantly inhibited the tumor phenotype by targeting CYP2J2. Moreover, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to determine the expression levels of let-7b and CYP2J2 protein from 18 matched lung squamous cell cancer and adjacent normal lung tissues; the expression level of CYP2J2 was inversely proportional to that of let-7b. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the decreased expression of let-7b could lead to the high expression of CYP2J2 protein in cancerous tissues. These findings suggest that miRNA let-7b reduces CYP2J2 expression, which may contribute to inhibiting tumor phenotypes. PMID:22761738

  1. Loss of MYC and E-box3 binding contributes to defective MYC-mediated transcriptional suppression of human MC-let-7a-1~let-7d in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zifeng; Lin, Sheng; Zhang, Ji; Xu, Zhenhua; Xiang, Yu; Yao, Hong; Ge, Lei; Xie, Dan; Kung, Hsiang-fu; Lu, Gang; Poon, Wai Sang; Liu, Quentin; Lin, Marie Chia-mi

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we reported that MYC oncoprotein down-regulates the transcription of human MC-let-7a-1~let-7d microRNA cluster in hepatocarcinoma (HCC). Surprisingly, in silico analysis indicated that let-7 miRNA expression levels are not reduced in glioblastoma (GBM). Here we investigated the molecular basis of this differential expression. Using human GBM U87 and U251 cells, we first demonstrated that forced over-expression of MYC indeed could not down-regulate the expression of human MC-let-7a-1~let-7d microRNA cluster in GBM. Furthermore, analysis of MC-let-7a-1~let-7d promoter in GBM indicated that MYC failed to inhibit the promoter activity. Pearson's correlation and Linear Regression analysis using the expression data from GSE55092 (HCC) and GSE4290 (GBM) demonstrated a converse relationship of MC-let-7a-1~let-7d and MYC only in HCC but not in GBM. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we examined whether MYC could bind to the non-canonical E-box 3 located in the promoter of MC-let-7a-1~let-7d. Results from both chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) and super-shift assays clearly demonstrated the loss of MYC and E-box 3 binding in GBM, suggesting for the first time that a defective MYC and E-box3 binding in GBM is responsible for the differential MYC mediated transcriptional inhibition of MC-let-7a-1~let-7d and potentially other tumor suppressors. MYC and let-7 are key oncoprotein and tumor suppressor, respectively. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of their regulations will provide new insight and have important implications in the therapeutics of GBM as well as other cancers. PMID:27409345

  2. Loss of MYC and E-box3 binding contributes to defective MYC-mediated transcriptional suppression of human MC-let-7a-1~let-7d in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zifeng; Lin, Sheng; Zhang, Ji; Xu, Zhenhua; Xiang, Yu; Yao, Hong; Ge, Lei; Xie, Dan; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Lu, Gang; Poon, Wai Sang; Liu, Quentin; Lin, Marie Chia-Mi

    2016-08-30

    Previously, we reported that MYC oncoprotein down-regulates the transcription of human MC-let-7a-1~let-7d microRNA cluster in hepatocarcinoma (HCC). Surprisingly, in silico analysis indicated that let-7 miRNA expression levels are not reduced in glioblastoma (GBM). Here we investigated the molecular basis of this differential expression. Using human GBM U87 and U251 cells, we first demonstrated that forced over-expression of MYC indeed could not down-regulate the expression of human MC-let-7a-1~let-7d microRNA cluster in GBM. Furthermore, analysis of MC-let-7a-1~let-7d promoter in GBM indicated that MYC failed to inhibit the promoter activity. Pearson's correlation and Linear Regression analysis using the expression data from GSE55092 (HCC) and GSE4290 (GBM) demonstrated a converse relationship of MC-let-7a-1~let-7d and MYC only in HCC but not in GBM. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we examined whether MYC could bind to the non-canonical E-box 3 located in the promoter of MC-let-7a-1~let-7d. Results from both chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) and super-shift assays clearly demonstrated the loss of MYC and E-box 3 binding in GBM, suggesting for the first time that a defective MYC and E-box3 binding in GBM is responsible for the differential MYC mediated transcriptional inhibition of MC-let-7a-1~let-7d and potentially other tumor suppressors. MYC and let-7 are key oncoprotein and tumor suppressor, respectively. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of their regulations will provide new insight and have important implications in the therapeutics of GBM as well as other cancers.

  3. Enhancing Writing Pedagogy with Learner Corpus Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotos, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Learner corpora have become prominent in language teaching and learning, enhancing data-driven learning (DDL) pedagogy by promoting "learning driven data" in the classroom. This study explores the potential of a local learner corpus by investigating the effects of two types of DDL activities, one relying on a native-speaker corpus (NSC)…

  4. Let Freedom Ring! Bulletin, 1937, No. 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Harold G.; Calhoun, Dorothy; Hatch, Roy W.; Cohen, Philip H.; Schramm, Rudolf

    1937-01-01

    This volume of "Let Freedom Ring!" contains the scripts of the 13 national broadcasts of the radio series of that name presented in the spring of 1937 over the national network of the Columbia Broadcast System. In "Let Freedom Ring!" you will find the courage, the struggle, the triumph of men and women who fought to win and safeguard liberties…

  5. Superoxide Dismutase Protects Osteoprogenitors from Irradiation with Low-LET but Not High-LET Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreurs, A.-S.; Tran, L.; Alwood, J. S.; Tahimic, C. G.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation-induced bone loss appears to be a two-stage process: first an early increase in pro-resorption cytokines and increased bone resorption by osteoclasts, followed by a decrease in bone formation by osteoblasts. This results in a net loss of mass in mineralized bone tissue. The molecular mechanisms underlying the imbalance in bone remodeling caused by exposure to radiation are not fully understood. We hypothesized that the radiation-induced rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) damages osteoblast progenitors, leading to a decrease in number and activity of differentiated progeny. We have shown that a diet high in antioxidant capacity prevents radiation-induced bone loss in adult mice (Schreurs et al. 2016) by reducing the early increase in pro-resotption cytokines. Here, we investigated the damaging effects of radiation exposure on cells in the osteoblast lineage, testing if addition of the exogenous antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) can mitigate radiation damage. Osteoprogenitors were grown in vitro from the marrow of 16wk old, male C57Bl/6 mice. Cells were irradiated 3 days after plating (day 0) with either gamma (Cs-137, 0.1-5Gy) or iron (Fe-56, 600 MeV/n, 0.5-2Gy), and then grown until day 10. SOD or vehicle was added 2 hours before irradiation (SOD at 200U/ml), twice a day and up to day 5, for a total of 2 days treatment. Cell behavior was assessed by: (a) colony number (counted on day 7), (b) DNA content (surrogate for cell number) to assess cell growth (percent change between day 3 and day 10) and (c) alkaline phosphatase activity (osteoblast differentiation marker). Results show that SOD protected cells from the adverse effects of low-LET ionizing radiation, but not high-LET radiation. These novel results provide an interesting platform to explore further diverse effects and damages caused by low-LET and high-LET, pointing toward different mechanisms and possible intervention strategies for radiation-induced bone loss.

  6. The Tip of the Iceberg: Factors Affecting Learner Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Teachers' informal discussions of learner motivation often emphasize the need to find ways to motivate learners, most usually through "fun" or "dynamic" activities. This paper starts from the assumption, however, that part of the work of the teacher is to avoid the "demotivation" of learners, and that there is a need to consider the overall…

  7. Seeing It Their Way: Learners and Language Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    The starting point for curriculum planning for second language instruction is the learner, and a curriculum can claim to be learner-centered only if key factors about the learner are made the basis for curriculum design at all stages in the planning and development of learning activities and materials and in the sequencing of learning experiences.…

  8. Pro-inflammatory Signaling in a 3D Organotypic Skin Model after Low LET Irradiation—NF-κB, COX-2 Activation, and Impact on Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Acheva, Anna; Schettino, Giuseppe; Prise, Kevin M.

    2017-01-01

    Nearly 85% of radiotherapy patients develop acute radiation dermatitis, which is an inflammatory reaction of the skin at the treatment field and in the surrounding area. The aims of this study were to unravel the mechanisms of radiation-induced inflammatory responses after localized irradiation in a human 3D organotypic skin culture model. This could provide possible inflammatory targets for reduction of skin side effects. 3D organotypic skin cultures were set up and locally irradiated with 225 kVp X-rays, using a combination of full exposure and partial shielding (50%) of the cultures. The secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the phenotype, and the differentiation markers expression of the cultures were assessed up to 10 days postirradiation. The pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathways have been studied. The results showed fast activation of NF-κB, most likely triggered by DNA damage in the irradiated cells, followed by upregulation of p38 MAPK and COX-2 in the irradiated and surrounding, non-irradiated, areas of the 3D cultures. The application of the COX-2 inhibitor sc-236 was effective at reducing the COX-2 mRNA levels 4 h postirradiation. The same inhibitor also suppressed the PGE2 secretion significantly 72 h after the treatment. The expression of a pro-inflammatory phenotype and abnormal differentiation markers of the cultures were also reduced. However, the use of an NF-κB inhibitor (Bay 11-7085) did not have the predicted positive effect on the cultures phenotype postirradiation. Radiation-induced pro-inflammatory responses have been observed in the 3D skin model. The activated signaling pathways involved NF-κB transcription factor and its downstream target COX-2. Further experiments aiming to suppress the inflammatory response via specific inhibitors showed that COX-2 is a suitable target for reduction of the normal skin inflammatory responses at radiotherapy, while NF

  9. Pro-inflammatory Signaling in a 3D Organotypic Skin Model after Low LET Irradiation-NF-κB, COX-2 Activation, and Impact on Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Acheva, Anna; Schettino, Giuseppe; Prise, Kevin M

    2017-01-01

    Nearly 85% of radiotherapy patients develop acute radiation dermatitis, which is an inflammatory reaction of the skin at the treatment field and in the surrounding area. The aims of this study were to unravel the mechanisms of radiation-induced inflammatory responses after localized irradiation in a human 3D organotypic skin culture model. This could provide possible inflammatory targets for reduction of skin side effects. 3D organotypic skin cultures were set up and locally irradiated with 225 kVp X-rays, using a combination of full exposure and partial shielding (50%) of the cultures. The secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the phenotype, and the differentiation markers expression of the cultures were assessed up to 10 days postirradiation. The pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathways have been studied. The results showed fast activation of NF-κB, most likely triggered by DNA damage in the irradiated cells, followed by upregulation of p38 MAPK and COX-2 in the irradiated and surrounding, non-irradiated, areas of the 3D cultures. The application of the COX-2 inhibitor sc-236 was effective at reducing the COX-2 mRNA levels 4 h postirradiation. The same inhibitor also suppressed the PGE2 secretion significantly 72 h after the treatment. The expression of a pro-inflammatory phenotype and abnormal differentiation markers of the cultures were also reduced. However, the use of an NF-κB inhibitor (Bay 11-7085) did not have the predicted positive effect on the cultures phenotype postirradiation. Radiation-induced pro-inflammatory responses have been observed in the 3D skin model. The activated signaling pathways involved NF-κB transcription factor and its downstream target COX-2. Further experiments aiming to suppress the inflammatory response via specific inhibitors showed that COX-2 is a suitable target for reduction of the normal skin inflammatory responses at radiotherapy, while NF

  10. Expanded Perspectives on Autonomous Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two general perspectives on autonomous learners: psychological and sociocultural. These perspectives introduce a range of theoretically grounded facets of autonomous learners, facets such as the self-regulated learner, the emotionally intelligent learner, the self-determined learner, the mediated learner, the socioculturally…

  11. Cataractogenesis following high-LET radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Sato, Tatsuhiko

    Biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation differs with its linear energy transfer (LET) such that high-LET radiation is more effective for various biological endpoints than low-LET radiation. Human exposure to high-LET radiation occurs in cancer patients, nuclear workers, aviators, astronauts and other space travellers. From the radiation protection viewpoint, the ocular lens is among the most radiosensitive tissues in the body, and cataract (a clouding of the normally transparent lens) is classified as tissue reactions (formerly called nonstochastic or deterministic effects) with a threshold below which no effect would occur. To prevent radiation cataracts, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended an equivalent dose limit for the lens according to the threshold for vision-impairing cataracts. ICRP recommended the threshold of >8Gy in 1984 and an occupational dose limit of 150mSv/year in 1980. These remained unchanged until 2011, when ICRP recommended lowering the threshold to 0.5Gy and the dose limit to 20mSv/year (averaged over 5 years with no single year exceeding 50mSv). Although such reduction of the threshold was based on findings from low-LET radiation, the dose limit was recommended in Sv. Historically, the lens is the exceptional tissue for which ICRP had assigned a special factor in addition to a general radiation weighting factor, predicated on a belief that the lens is more vulnerable to high-LET radiation than other tissues. Considering such radiosensitive nature of the lens, a deeper understanding of a cataractogenic potential of high-LET radiation is indispensable. This review is thus designed to provide an update on the current knowledge as to high-LET radiation cataractogenesis. To this end, changes in ICRP recommendations on lenticular radiation protection, epidemiological and biological findings on high-LET cataractogenesis are reviewed, and future research needs are then discussed.

  12. Between the Social and the Selfish: Learner Autonomy in Online Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores what it means to be an autonomous learner in an online social context. Using distinctions originally drawn by Jürgen Habermas, it argues that classic accounts of learner autonomy as teleological action are inadequate to explain learner activity in group settings. It points out that learners in such settings display attitudes…

  13. Reflective Practice and Inquiry: Let's Talk More about Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, Kerry; Ussher, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Reflective practice and inquiry are aspects of teacher professional practice that characterise teachers as learners. Reflective practice in some form is considered in contemporary education as an essential activity for teachers and teacher educators. "Inquiry as professional development" and "inquiry as research", on the other…

  14. Listening to Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    This booklet looks at the role of learner feedback in the quality improvement process. It suggests how adult and community learning (ACL) providers can adapt and improve their practice to meet the needs of learners in the changed policy context. Chapter 1 explores why providers should listen to learners and finds that listening to learners…

  15. Learners' Interpretations of Recasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Helen; Jeon, K. Seon; MacGregor, David; Mackey, Alison

    2006-01-01

    A number of interaction researchers have claimed that recasts might be ambiguous to learners; that is, instead of perceiving recasts as containing corrective feedback, learners might see them simply as literal or semantic repetitions without any corrective element (Long, in press; Lyster & Ranta, 1997). This study investigates learners'…

  16. Learner and Faculty Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Sharon; Stanford, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This chapter identifies effective ways to address learner and faculty support. It introduces methods for building a successful learner support system by providing sufficient resources and proactively addressing learner motivation. It also addresses effective faculty support through institutional policies, resources, training, and course…

  17. When To Let Your Teenager Start Dating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are other parents letting their teens date yet? Love and Relationships While parent-teen conversations must encompass ... both deserve the best, right?” Call It Puppy Love, It’s Still Love Adults generally take a cynical ...

  18. "Let It Rest:" Reflecting on Instructional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontichiaro, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Top Chef is one of America's top food television shows. In one episode, lead judge Tom Colicchio, chef and restaurant owner, chides a contestant for hurriedly slicing a piece of meat as soon as it had emerged from the oven. The meat was fully cooked, but the competitor had not "let it rest," or let it steep in its own juices outside the oven for…

  19. MSFC Lunar Environments Test System (LETS) System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, Paul; Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd; Norwood, Joey; Abbas, Mian; Alexander, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    A review of the NASA MSFC Lunar Environment Test System (LETS) System Development is presented. The contents include: 1) MSFC LETS Chamber Status; 2) LETS Simulant Containment Box Development; 3) Tests Conducted in LETS To date: Simulant Dust Migration; 4) Summary; and 5) Forward Work.

  20. Let-7e modulates the inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells through ceRNA crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zongwei; Ge, Junfeng; Wang, Zhe; Ren, Jianwei; Wang, Xiaowei; Xiong, Hui; Gao, Jing; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Qunye

    2017-01-01

    The inflammatory responses of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) are critical in the development of many cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Let-7e is an important regulator of endothelial function and inflammation. However, the effects and mechanisms of let-7e on VECs inflammation have not been studied until recently. Thus, we investigated these issues and found that in addition to proliferation, apoptosis and cell adhesion, let-7e was also implicated in the regulation of inflammatory responses through a complex network, including IκBβ and lncRNA lnc-MKI67IP-3. Let-7e promoted NF-κB activation and translocation to the nucleus by inhibiting its target gene (IκBβ) expression and subsequently increased the expression of inflammatory and adhesion molecules. Meanwhile, lnc-MKI67IP-3 acted as a sponge or competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for let-7e, suppressing its pro-inflammatory effects, and let-7e decreased lnc-MKI67IP-3 expression, thereby forming a positive feedback loop to aggravate inflammation. Moreover, let-7e, lnc-MKI67IP-3 and IκBβ were also abnormal in oxLDL-treated VECs and atherosclerotic plaques. The present study revealed let-7e as a pro-inflammatory mediator and a novel regulatory mechanism for the NF-κB pathway through ceRNA crosstalk, comprising let-7e and its target IκBβ and the ceRNA lnc-MKI67IP-3. Thus, this molecule might play important roles in the inflammatory responses of VECs and development of atherosclerosis. PMID:28195197

  1. Learner Development in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenden, Anita L.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on learner development, a learner-centered innovation in foreign language-second language instruction that responds to learner diversity by aiming to improve the language learner's ability to learn a language. Describes various ideas that shaped early practice in learner development, and provides an evaluation of the theory and practice in…

  2. Modeling Learner Variability in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude

    2008-01-01

    This article describes challenges and benefits of modeling learner variability in Computer-Assisted Language Learning. We discuss the learner model of "E-Tutor," a learner model that addresses learner variability by focusing on certain aspects and/or features of the learner's interlanguage. Moreover, we introduce the concept of phrase descriptors,…

  3. Improving Learners' Research Process Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, T. K.; Hunter, L.; Kluger-Bell, B.; Seagroves, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Professional Development Program (PDP) supports participants as they design inquiry activities that help learners improve their research process skills. These skills include the cognitive or reasoning skills that scientists and engineers use while doing research; for example, making a testable hypothesis, coordinating results from multiple experiments, or identifying and evaluating tradeoffs. Past work in the PDP indicated that additional support was needed to help participants design instructional activities that would teach these important skills. A new workshop was therefore developed for the 2009 PDP cycle, entitled "Improving Learners' Process Skills." In this workshop, participants worked in small groups to define specific science and engineering skills found in four past PDP activity designs. Participants distinguished between "simple tasks" and "authentic inquiry" activities that learners could perform as demonstration of the skill. Through this new workshop, participants were able to explicitly discuss ways in which individual process skills are unique or inter-related. In addition, by identifying a "simple task," participants were able to pinpoint areas in which their own designs could be improved to better focus on authentic inquiry tasks. In 2010, the workshop was slightly modified to help participants reconnect the research process skills with the activity content. In addition, the idea of using generic and context-specific scaffolds was also introduced. To make the participants feel like they were contributing to the PDP community, four activity designs actively being worked on in the 2010 cycle were used. Based on participant feedback, this "Improving Learners' Process Skills" workshop should be strongly considered for future returning participants.

  4. LET spectra measurements from the STS-35 CPDs

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    Linear energy transfer (LET) spectra derived form automated track analysis system (ATAS) track parameter measurements for crew passive dosimeters (CPD`s) flown with the astronauts on STS-35 are plotted. The spread between the seven individual spectra is typical of past manual measurements of sets of CPD`s. This difference is probably due to the cumulative net shielding variations experienced by the CPD`s as the astronauts carrying them went about their activities on the Space Shuttle. The STS-35 mission was launched on Dec. 2, 1990, at 28.5 degrees inclination and 352-km altitude. This is somewhat higher than the nominal 300-km flights and the orbit intersects more of the high intensity trapped proton region in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). However, in comparison with APD spectra measured on earlier lower altitude missions (STS-26, -29, -30, -32), the flux spectra are all roughly comparable. This may be due to the fact that the STS-35 mission took place close to solar maximum (Feb. 1990), or perhaps to shielding differences. The corresponding dose and dose equivalent spectra for this mission are shown. The effect of statistical fluctuations at the higher LET values, where track densities are small, is very noticeable. This results in an increased spread within the dose rate and dose equivalent rate spectra, as compared to the flux spectra. The contribution to dose and dose equivalent per measured track is much greater in the high LET region and the differences, though numerically small, are heavily weighted in the integral spectra. The optimum measurement and characterization of the high LET tails of the spectra represent an important part of the research into plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) response. The integral flux, dose rate, dose equivalent rate and mission dose equivalent for the seven astronauts are also given.

  5. Learner Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Carola

    2011-01-01

    This article presents first results of an ethnographic research project in a Luxembourgish primary school that accompanied the development of a school project by children from the fifth grade. Analysing the data children themselves collected with Kodak Zi8 cameras in order to document their project activities, it investigates their possibilities…

  6. Defining a Possible Low LET Bystander Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Charles R. Geard

    2009-05-04

    Current radiation protection guidelines assume a linear response to ionizing radiations down through doses where epidemiological studies provide very limited to no information as to the propriety of such assumptions. The bystander response is a non-targeted effect which might impact such guidelines. These studies while clearly affirming a bystander response for high LET radiations, do not provide such affirmation for environmentally relevant low dose, low LET radiations. Caution and further study are necessary before making judgements that could impact on current standards.

  7. Mitochondria regulate DNA damage and genomic instability induced by high LET radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Davidson, Mercy M.; Hei, Tom K.

    2014-04-01

    High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation including α particles and heavy ions is the major type of radiation found in space and is considered a potential health risk for astronauts. Even though the chance that these high LET particles traversing through the cytoplasm of cells is higher than that through the nuclei, the contribution of targeted cytoplasmic irradiation to the induction of genomic instability and other chromosomal damages induced by high LET radiation is not known. In the present study, we investigated whether mitochondria are the potential cytoplasmic target of high LET radiation in mediating cellular damage using a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depleted (ρ0) human small airway epithelial (SAE) cell model and a precision charged particle microbeam with a beam width of merely one micron. Targeted cytoplasmic irradiation by high LET α particles induced DNA oxidative damage and double strand breaks in wild type ρ+ SAE cells. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in autophagy and micronuclei, which is an indication of genomic instability, together with the activation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitochondrial inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) signaling pathways in ρ+ SAE cells. In contrast, ρ0 SAE cells exhibited a significantly lower response to these same endpoints examined after cytoplasmic irradiation with high LET α particles. The results indicate that mitochondria are essential in mediating cytoplasmic radiation induced genotoxic damage in mammalian cells. Furthermore, the findings may shed some light in the design of countermeasures for space radiation.

  8. Let's Make Metric Ice Cream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Marianna

    1975-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity which involved sixth grade students in a learning situation including making ice cream, safety procedures in a science laboratory, calibrating a thermometer, using metric units of volume and mass. (EB)

  9. Conceptualizing Learner Support Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Ward Mitchell; Bruce, Ronald R.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of computer-based online help systems for instructional software focuses on three types of learner support: for optimizing use of a computer program; for learning content; and for monitoring and enhancing learning. Proposes a multi-dimensional model of learner-support space defined by the intrusiveness of the delivery methods and…

  10. The Lifelong Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Ronald

    Designed to provide a general guide and stimuli for lifelong learning, this book examines all the positive factors of independent study. Lifelong learning is defined as self-directed growth free from the traditional schooling procedures. Chapters discuss the following: the lifelong learner; profiles of such learners in action; how to be…

  11. The Learner's Permit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Daniel R.

    2003-01-01

    Considers the role and value of an extended learner's period in a graduated driver-licensing system through a review of the literature. Concludes that further research is needed on the safety benefits and optional features of the learner period. (Contains 1 figure, 3 tables, and 41 references.) (AUTHOR/WFA)

  12. Focus on the Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C.

    1988-01-01

    Ways in which curriculum development and methodology in teaching English as a Second Language can take account of learners are discussed. In addition, ways that teachers and researchers can collaborate in the process of developing a learner-center curriculum are examined. (28 references) (LB)

  13. Understanding Oral Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, W. Jay

    2012-01-01

    A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral…

  14. A Learner Centered Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Florence N.

    This paper proposes a learner-centered educational system, focusing on aspects that are intrinsically associated with the modern educational system, such as the curriculum, school community, parents, learners, and educational support personnel. It examines: primary level preparation (literacy, numeracy, and basic knowledge; examination and…

  15. Improving the EFL Learners' Speaking Ability through Interactive Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzuki; Prayogo, Johannes Ananto; Wahyudi, Arwijati

    2016-01-01

    This present research was aimed to improve the EFL learners' speaking ability and their classroom activities through the implementation of Interactive Storytelling Strategy. Therefore, this study was directed to explore the beneficial of Interactive Storytelling that closely related to the EFL learners' everyday activities at their home and…

  16. A'Una ("Let's Go!")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brescia, Bill

    The guide, intended to aid students (grades four and above) in making their bodies a good home for their spirit, provides a variety of athletic activities and traditional Indian recipes for use in the classroom or in cultural programs. Apart from running (the major American Indian means of maintaining physical fitness), instructions are given for…

  17. Let's Talk about Student Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doree, Suzanne; Jardine, Richard; Linton, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This article offers our ideas on why it is important to teach our students how to speak about mathematics and some practical resources for incorporating speaking activities, helping students prepare, evaluating student presentations, and getting your department to talk about student presentations. The ideas in this article were compiled when the…

  18. TASK: Let's Have a Party!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, James

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a creative way to demystify contemporary art for students. TASK is artist Oliver Herring's creation, where participants actively interpret instructions found on little pieces of paper--what he calls "tasks." An art classroom has all the key ingredients for a TASK event: (1) people; (2) materials; (3) space;…

  19. Let's Go to the Circus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ARIN Intermediate Unit 28, Indiana, PA.

    The teaching guide for a circus unit to be used with handicapped children, 4 to 8 years of age, contains lists of instructional materials and lesson plans for 9 days. The unit described to be a culminating activity for the latter part of the year, is said to increase motor, academic, and perceptual skills of mentally, physically, emotionally…

  20. Cover Story: Let's Move Together!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Mary S.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the inclusion of movement education and motor activities of a kindergarten teacher in her class. She was becoming increasingly annoyed with the intense focus on academics at the expense of other important parts of her program. According to her, the children need exercise, and social skills, and music, and being outdoors.…

  1. Learner-Content-Interface as an Approach for Self-Reliant and Student-Centered Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolay, Robin; Schwennigcke, Bastian; Sahl, Sarah; Martens, Alke

    2015-01-01

    Conceptualization and implementation of computer supported teaching and training is currently not tailored to the paradigm of learner centration. Many technical solutions lack transparency and consistency regarding the supported learner activities. An insight into learners activities correlated to learning tasks is needed. In this paper we outline…

  2. Depression of p53-independent Akt survival signals after high-LET radiation in mutated p53 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Takeo; Takahashi, Akihisa; Nakagawa, Yosuke

    Although mutations and deletions in the p53 tumor suppressor gene lead to resistance to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, high-LET radiation efficiently induces cell lethality and apoptosis regardless of the p53 gene status. Recently, it has been suggested that the induction of p53-independent apoptosis takes place through the activation of Caspase-9 which results in the cleavage of Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). This study was designed to examine if high-LET radiation depresses the activities of serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt) and Akt-related proteins. Human gingival cancer cells (Ca9-22 cells) harboring a mutated p53 (mp53) gene were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays or Fe-ion beams. The cellular contents of Akt-related proteins participating in cell survival signals were analyzed with Western blotting analysis 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 6 h after irradiation. Cell cycle distributions after irradiation were assayed with flow cytometric analysis.Akt-related protein levels were decreased when cells were irradiated with high-LET radiation. High-LET radiation increased G _{2}/M phase arrests and suppressed the progression of the cell cycle much more efficiently when compared to low-LET radiation. These results suggest that high-LET radiation enhances apoptosis through the activation of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9, and depresses cell growth by suppressing Akt-related signals, even in the mp53 cells.

  3. A role of uridylation pathway for blockade of let-7 microRNA biogenesis by Lin28B

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hiroshi I; Katsura, Akihiro; Miyazono, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    The precise control of microRNA (miRNA) biosynthesis is crucial for gene regulation. Lin28A and Lin28B are selective inhibitors of biogenesis of let-7 miRNAs involved in development and tumorigenesis. Lin28A selectively inhibits let-7 biogenesis through cytoplasmic uridylation of precursor let-7 by TUT4 terminal uridyl transferase and subsequent degradation by Dis3l2 exonuclease. However, a role of this uridylation pathway remains unclear in let-7 blockade by Lin28B, a paralog of Lin28A, while Lin28B is reported to engage a distinct mechanism in the nucleus to suppress let-7. Here we revisit a functional link between Lin28B and the uridylation pathway with a focus on let-7 metabolism in cancer cells. Both Lin28A and Lin28B interacted with Dis3l2 in the cytoplasm, and silencing of Dis3l2 upregulated uridylated pre-let-7 in both Lin28A- and Lin28B-expressing cancer cell lines. In addition, we found that amounts of let-7 precursors influenced intracellular localization of Lin28B. Furthermore, we found that MCPIP1 (Zc3h12a) ribonuclease was also involved in degradation of both non-uridylated and uridylated pre-let-7. Cancer transcriptome analysis showed association of expression levels of Lin28B and uridylation pathway components, TUT4 and Dis3l2, in various human cancer cells and hepatocellular carcinoma. Collectively, these results suggest that cytoplasmic uridylation pathway actively participates in blockade of let-7 biogenesis by Lin28B. PMID:26080928

  4. Molecular Control of Innate Immune Response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection by Intestinal let-7 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Daoyong; Wang, Dayong

    2017-01-01

    The microRNA (miRNA) let-7 is an important miRNA identified in Caenorhabditis elegans and has been shown to be involved in the control of innate immunity. The underlying molecular mechanisms for let-7 regulation of innate immunity remain largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for intestinal let-7 in the regulation of innate immunity. Infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 decreased let-7::GFP expression. Intestine- or neuron-specific activity of let-7 was required for its function in the regulation of innate immunity. During the control of innate immune response to P. aeruginosa PA14 infection, SDZ-24 was identified as a direct target for intestinal let-7. SDZ-24 was found to be predominantly expressed in the intestine, and P. aeruginosa PA14 infection increased SDZ-24::GFP expression. Intestinal let-7 regulated innate immune response to P. aeruginosa PA14 infection by suppressing both the expression and the function of SDZ-24. Knockout or RNA interference knockdown of sdz-24 dampened the resistance of let-7 mutant to P. aeruginosa PA14 infection. Intestinal overexpression of sdz-24 lacking 3’-UTR inhibited the susceptibility of nematodes overexpressing intestinal let-7 to P. aeruginosa PA14 infection. In contrast, we could observed the effects of intestinal let-7 on innate immunity in P. aeruginosa PA14 infected transgenic strain overexpressing sdz-24 containing 3’-UTR. In the intestine, certain SDZ-24-mediated signaling cascades were formed for nematodes against the P. aeruginosa PA14 infection. Our results highlight the crucial role of intestinal miRNAs in the regulation of the innate immune response to pathogenic infection. PMID:28095464

  5. High-LET charged particle radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.R. |

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Radiation Oncology at UCSF Medical Center and the Radiation Oncology Department at UC Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory have been evaluating the use of high LET charged particle radiotherapy in a Phase 1--2 research trial ongoing since 1979. In this clinical trail, 239 patients have received at least 10 Gy (physical) minimum tumor dose with neon ions, meaning that at least one-half of their total treatment was given with high-LET charged particle therapy. Ninety-one patients received all of their therapy with neon ions. Of the 239 patients irradiated, target sites included lesions in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, head and neck such as paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx and salivary glands (major and minor), skull base and juxtaspinal area, GI tract including esophagus, pancreas and biliary tract, prostate, lung, soft tissue and bone. Analysis of these patients has been carried out with a minimum followup period of 2 years.

  6. Let's empower practice nurses to improve care.

    PubMed

    2016-04-20

    How many times have we read a report or piece of research that suggests nurses could be taking on more of the work currently performed by doctors? It is invariably accompanied by figures suggesting that the NHS would save squillions of pounds every year if only consultants and GPs let nurses take on more responsibilities. Not only that, but access to services would improve and outcomes would be unaffected or might even be enhanced.

  7. Letting the Data Lead the Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Page 1 of 4 UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release. Letting the Data Lead the Code Darryl Bryk...used can radically simplify the code . A simple change to the way data is stored in a file can make a big difference in the code required to read it...This was made apparent recently with some Visual Basic code which would locate a list of numbers based on certain search criteria. The code was about

  8. Let-7a Is an Antihypertrophic Regulator in the Heart via Targeting Calmodulin

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Sun, Fei; Luo, Shenjian; Zhao, Wei; Yang, Ti; Zhang, Guiye; Gao, Ming; Lu, Renzhong; Shu, You; Mu, Wei; Zhuang, Yanan; Ding, Fengzhi; Xu, Chaoqian; Lu, Yanjie

    2017-01-01

    Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been emerged as important regulator in a multiple of cardiovascular disease, including arrhythmia, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether miRNA let-7a has antihypertrophic effects in angiotensin II (AngII)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Methods: Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) were exposed to AngII for 36 h as a cellular model of hypertrophy; subcutaneous injection of AngII for 2 weeks was used to establish a mouse model of cardiac hypertrophy in vivo study. Cell surface area (CSA) was measured by immunofluorescence cytochemistry; expression of hypertrophy-related genes ANP, BNP, β-MHC was detected by Real-time PCR; luciferase activity assay was performed to confirm the miRNA's binding site in the calmodulin (CaM) gene; CaM protein was detected by Western blot; the hypertrophy parameters were measured by echocardiographic assessment. Results: The expression of let-7a was decreased in AngII-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of let-7a attenuated AngII-induced increase of cell surface area and repressed the increased mRNA levels of ANP, BNP and β-MHC. Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that let-7a could bind to the 3'UTR of CaM 1 gene. Let-7a downregulated the expression of CaM protein. In vivo, let-7a produced inhibitory effects on cardiac hypertrophy, including the downregulation of cross-sectional area of cardiomyocytes in mouse heart, the reduction of IVSD and LVPWD, the suppression of hypertrophy marker genes ANP, BNP, β-MHC mRNA level, and the downregulation of CaM protein level. Conclusions: let-7a possesses a prominent anti-hypertrophic property by targeting CaM genes. The findings provide new insight into molecular mechanism of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:28123343

  9. Beyond Beginning Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongsma, Kathy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses materials for middle grade and high school learners. Explains useful resources for teaching struggling writers. Details a publishing tool, a reading comprehension assessment, and a Scholastic Assessment Tests (SAT) preparation text. (PM)

  10. Independence Pending: Teacher Behaviors Preceding Learner Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesler, Rebecca A.

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to identify the teacher behaviors that preceded learners' active participation in solving musical and technical problems and describe learners' roles in the problem-solving process. I applied an original model of problem solving to describe the behaviors of teachers and students in 161 rehearsal frames…

  11. Supporting Learners' Appropriation of a Web-Based Learning Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasseneur-Coffinet, Dorothée; Smyrniou, Georgia; Tchounikine, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an approach and tools that can help learners appropriate a Web-based learning curriculum and become active participants in their learning. The approach is based on a detailed modeling of the curriculum and intends to equip the learners with different computer-based tools facilitating a multiple point of view perception of the…

  12. Practices and Prospects of Learner Autonomy: Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Asmari, AbdulRahman

    2013-01-01

    Language learning process works through the learners' own reflection on how they learn and it makes learners active in the sense that they learn to analyze their learning strategies. So they start making decisions, e.g., whether to improve them or not, and in which way. Generally, this trait is missing in traditional language teaching process and…

  13. Annotation-Based Learner's Personality Modeling in Distance Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omheni, Nizar; Kalboussi, Anis; Mazhoud, Omar; Kacem, Ahmed Hadj

    2016-01-01

    Researchers in distance education are interested in observing and modeling learners' personality profiles, and adapting their learning experiences accordingly. When learners read and interact with their reading materials, they do unselfconscious activities like annotation which may be key feature of their personalities. Annotation activity…

  14. Maximising Asian ESL Learners' Communicative Oral English via Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Chamkaur

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes that activities based on a variety of drama-based techniques could be valuable in giving Asian ESL learners opportunities to use communicative spoken English confidently and without restraint during their time in English-language-speaking countries. These learners often get anxious when in situations where they are required to…

  15. Factors Driving Learner Success in Online Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vu, Phu; Cao, Vien; Vu, Lan; Cepero, Jude

    2014-01-01

    This study examined factors that contributed to the success of online learners in an online professional development course. Research instruments included an online survey and learners' activity logs in an online professional development course for 512 in-service teachers. The findings showed that there were several factors affecting online…

  16. Let-7a enhances the sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma cells to cetuximab by regulating STAT3 expression

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Fei; Liu, Yanhui; Zhang, Hongwei; Wen, Yu; Yan, Lei; Tang, Qiang; Xiao, Erhui; Zhang, Dongyi

    2016-01-01

    Background Let-7 miRNAs are reported to play an inhibitory role in carcinogenesis, tumor progression, recurrence, and pluripotency of cancer. However, few studies have reported the relationship between let-7 and drug sensitivity, especially for let-7a (a subtype of let-7). This study aimed to investigate the function of let-7a in regulating the sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines to cetuximab. Methods The cytotoxicity of cetuximab on HCC cell lines (Huh7, Hep3B, HepG2, SNU449, and SNU387) was evaluated using a cell viability assay (the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay) and a cell proliferation assay (the Click-iT EdU Imaging Kit) in the presence of a control, a let-7a mimic, and a let-7a inhibitor. Small interfering RNA to knockdown the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) were employed. Protein and mRNA expression levels were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Results It was found that let-7a enhances the sensitivity of HCC cells with an epithelial phenotype (Huh7, Hep3B, and HepG2) to cetuximab, but has no effect on cells with the mesenchymal phenotype (SNU449 and SNU387). It was determined that STAT3 was a target mRNA of let-7a using TargetScan. Expression of STAT3 and let-7a mRNA were negatively correlated in HCC cell lines. Moreover, let-7a altered the protein and mRNA expression of STAT3. Furthermore, STAT3 knockdown enhanced the function of cetuximab on HCC cell lines with epithelial phenotypes, but not on HCC cell lines with mesenchymal phenotypes. Finally, a rescue experiment confirmed that let-7a affected the sensitivity of HCC cell lines to cetuximab by interacting with STAT3. Conclusions There is a functional link between let-7a and STAT3 in enhancing the sensitivity of HCC cells with an epithelial phenotype to cetuximab. Our results provide novel insight into new methodologies for combating HCC drug resistance. PMID:27932893

  17. Exploring Shifts in Middle School Learners' Modeling Activity While Generating Drawings, Animations, and Computational Simulations of Molecular Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson-Jerde, Michelle H.; Gravel, Brian E.; Macrander, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Modeling and using technology are two practices of particular interest to K-12 science educators. These practices are inextricably linked among professionals, who engage in modeling activity with and across a variety of representational technologies. In this paper, we explore the practices of five sixth-grade girls as they generated models of…

  18. Design Issues Related to the Evaluation of Learner--Computer Interaction in a Web-Based Environment: Activities v. Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemard, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    If web-based technology is increasingly becoming the central plank of contemporary teaching and learning processes, there is still too little evidence to suggest that it is delivering purposeful learning activities beyond its widely perceived potential as a learning resource providing content and learning objects. This is due in part to the…

  19. Language-Building Activities and Interaction Variations with Mixed-Ability ESL University Learners in a Content-Based Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serna Dimas, Héctor Manuel; Ruíz Castellanos, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of both language-building activities and a variety of teacher/student interaction patterns increase both oral language participation and content learning in a course of manual therapy with mixed-language ability students. In this article, the researchers describe their collaboration in a content-based course in English with English…

  20. Community Resources. Teacher Guidebook and Student Activity Book. Adult Basic Education Project REAL: Relevant Education for Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, S. Keith

    This packet contains both a teacher's guide and a student activity book designed to help adult students locate and use community resources. Both booklets cover the following topics: the public library, Social Security, postal services, use of the telephone and the telephone directory, the newspaper, the Cooperative Extension Service, reference…

  1. You Can Be in a Group and Still Not Cooperate. Collaborative Approaches and Cooperative Learning Activities for Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parma City School District, OH.

    This handbook defines and describes the benefits of both collaborative approaches and cooperative techniques. An introduction uses watercolor marbling as a metaphor for collaborative approaches and cooperative activities. Section I provides research results regarding problems of adult literacy programs, skills employers want, and Bloom's taxonomy.…

  2. Exploring South African Grade 11 Learners' Perceptions of Classroom Inquiry: Validation of a Research Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudu, Washington T.; Vhurumuku, Elaosi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the adoption and validation of a research instrument, on determining learners' levels of perception of classroom inquiry based on data collected from South African Grade 11 learners. The Learners' Perception of Classroom Inquiry (LPCI) instrument consists only of Likert-type items which rank activities according to how often…

  3. The Effect of Reading on Second-Language Learners' Production in Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collentine, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Tasks provide engaging ways to involve learners in meaningful, real-world activities with the foreign language (FL). Yet selecting classroom tasks suitable to learners' linguistic readiness is challenging, and task-based research is exploring the relationship between learners' overall abilities (e.g., reading, grammatical) and the complexity and…

  4. Comparing Learner Community Behavior in Multiple Presentations of a Massive Open Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Silvia Elena; Savage, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) can create large scale communities of learners who collaborate, interact and discuss learning materials and activities. MOOCs are often delivered multiple times with similar content to different cohorts of learners. However, research into the differences of learner communication, behavior and expectation between…

  5. Comparing Learner Community Behavior in Multiple Presentations of a Massive Open Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Silvia Elena; Savage, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) can create large scale communities of learners who collaborate, interact and discuss learning materials and activities. MOOCs are often delivered multiple times with similar content to different cohorts of learners. However, research into the differences of learner communication, behavior and expectation between…

  6. Do ePortfolios Contribute to Learners' Reflective Thinking Activities? : A Preliminary Study of Nursing Staff Users.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Kuo, Kuang-Ming; Talley, Paul C; Chen, Hsiu-Chin; Wang, Jhi-Joung

    2015-09-01

    The purposes of this study are threefold: 1) to find out what characteristics are required for the successful use of ePortfolios; 2) to discover what activities best represent reflective thinking during the use of ePortfolios; and, 3) to investigate the interrelationship between nursing staff users' perceived success levels with ePortfolios and with their reflective thinking activities. Survey methodology was used to gather responses from 78 nurses from a medical center located in southern Taiwan via questionnaires. Factor analysis and canonical correlation analysis were used to analyze the collected data. The results demonstrated that system quality, information quality, and user satisfaction are important variables in successful ePortfolio usage; while habitual action, understanding, reflection, and critical reflection are major variables of reflective thinking. Further, we found a significant relationship exists between the relative success of ePortfolios and reflective thinking activities of ePortfolios users. The subject hospital should pay special attention to important characteristics including system quality, information quality, and user satisfaction when employing ePortfolios to help nursing staff users to achieve their learning goals through this form of reflective thinking.

  7. The NF-kB pathway: LET dependence of the biological response to heavy ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, Christine; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Arenz, Andrea; Reitz, Guenther; Schmitz, Claudia; Spitta, Luis F.; Ruscher, Roland; Lau, Patrick; Meier, Matthias M.; Testard, Isabelle

    Radiation is an acknowledged primary concern for manned spaceflight and is a potentially limiting factor for long term orbital and interplanetary missions. A solar flare can threaten the astronauts' life, and long-term exposure to galactic cosmic rays may shorten the healthy life-span after return to Earth due to cancer induction. Understanding of the cellular and molecular processes underlying these phenomena may allow better risk estimation and development of appropriate countermeasures. A central factor in the cellular stress response is the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). As an antiapoptotic factor, if activated in human cells by ion beam exposure, it could influence the cancer risk of astronauts exposed to cosmic radiation and improve cellular survival after exposure to high radiation doses. In previous studies using a screening assay for the detection of NF-κB-dependent gene induction (HEK-pNF-κB-d2EGFP/Neo cells), the activation of this transcription factor by heavy ions was shown (Radiat. Res. 164: 527-530, 2005). In this work, the dependency of NF-κB activation on LET was examined. Accelerated argon ions (36 Ar, 95 MeV/u, LET 232 keV/` ım) activate the NF-κB pathway already at low particle densities (1-2 particle hits per nucleus), which result in as less as 5-50 induced double strand breaks per cell. Accelerated carbon ions (13 C, 75 MeV/u, LET 30 keV/µm) induce NF-κB-dependent gene expression at higher particle densities (50-500 particle hits per nucleus), but to a lower extent than the argon ions. Intermediate NF-κB activation is initiated by exposure of human cells with carbon ions with an LET of 70 keV/µm. Sparsely ionizing radiation such as X-rays activates the NF-κB pathway at high doses (> 4 Gy), neutrons at doses > 3 Gy. These results suggest a LET dependency of NF-κB activation: high LET radiation activates NF-κB - dependent on initial nuclear DNA damage followed by cytoplasmic signalling events - more efficiently

  8. A Novel Method for Learner Assessment Based on Learner Annotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noorbehbahani, Fakhroddin; Samani, Elaheh Biglar Beigi; Jazi, Hossein Hadian

    2013-01-01

    Assessment is one of the most essential parts of any instructive learning process which aims to evaluate a learner's knowledge about learning concepts. In this work, a new method for learner assessment based on learner annotations is presented. The proposed method exploits the M-BLEU algorithm to find the most similar reference annotations…

  9. "Let There Be Night" Advocates Dark Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueter, Chuck

    2008-05-01

    Let There Be Night is an interactive planetarium program that supports a community-wide experiment to quantify local sky glow. In the planetarium, visitors will experience three aspects of light pollution--glare, sky glow, and light trespass--and decide whether and how to confront dark sky issues. Planetarians can select optional recorded stories and lessons to complement live demonstrations or star talks. As a companion experiment, students in grades 3-8 from one school district will then submit their backyard observations of Orion's limiting magnitude to the 2009 Globe at Night star hunt while small student teams concurrently quantify sky glow from each schoolyard with hand-held meters. After mapping their results and having classroom discussions, students will present their findings to the School Board. Material compiled and created for the program will be available for other dark sky advocates at www.LetThereBeNight.com, while large digital files will be distributed on disk through two planetarium associations. A 2008 Toyota TAPESTRY grant has enticed significant professional support, additional funding, and in-kind contributions.

  10. Supporting a Learner Community with Software Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taurisson, Neil; Tchounikine, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-agent approach that aims at supporting learners involved in a collective activity. We consider pedagogical situations where students have to explicitly define the articulation of their collective work and then achieve the different tasks they have defined. Our objective is to support these students by taking some of…

  11. Motivating Literacy Learners in Today's World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, J., Ed.; Parkhill, F., Ed.; Gillon, G., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Motivating Literacy Learners in Today's World" provides insights into a broad spectrum of children's literacy learning. Motivation is the key theme and the authors show how this can be achieved through reading for pleasure; in writing activities at a number of levels; and through oral language development. Chapters include: (1)…

  12. Goals, the Learner, and the Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers, principals, and supervisors need to determine the kinds of learners being taught in the school/class setting. Are pupils good by nature, bad, or neutral? Concepts held pertaining to each pupil assist in determining objectives, learning activities, and evaluation techniques. The Puritans believed that individuals were born evil or sinful.…

  13. A Review: Some biological effects of high LET radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    There are qualitative and quantitative differences in the biological damage observed after exposure to high LET radiation as compared to that caused by low LET radiations. This review is concerned with these differences, which are ultimately reflected at the biochemical, cellular and even whole animal levels. In general, high LET radiations seem to produce biochemical damage which is more severe and possibly less repairable. Experimental data for those effects are presented in terms of biochemical RBE's with consideration of both early and late manifestations. An LET independent process by which significant biochemical damage may result from protons, neutrons and negative pion mesons is discussed.

  14. Hypermedia Design as Learner Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Amy M.

    2008-01-01

    A number of available resources offer guidance about hypermedia design strategies, many of which rely on principles of user-centered design. Many recent efforts, however, have focused more on developing "learner-centered" hypermedia. Learner-centered hypermedia is designed to help learners achieve their educational goals, rather than offer mere…

  15. Let-7f Regulates the Hypoxic Response in Cerebral Ischemia by Targeting NDRG3.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yaobing; Wang, Weiwei; Jing, Lijun; Wang, Yiwen; Li, Mingzhe; Hou, Xiaocan; Wang, Jing; Peng, Tao; Teng, Junfang; Jia, Yanjie

    2017-02-01

    microRNAs are a class of non-coding RNAs including approximately 22 nucleotides in length and play a pivotal role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Currently, the role of miRNAs in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke has been the subject of recent investigations. In particular, antagomirs to microRNA (miRNA) let-7f have been found to be neuroprotective in vivo, although the detailed function of let-7f during cerebral ischemia has not been fully illustrated. NDRG3 is an N-myc downstream-regulated gene (NDRG) family member that has been observed in the nuclei in most brain cells. Recently, a NDRG3-mediated lactate signaling, in which stabilized NDRG3 protein can promote angiogenesis and cell growth by activating the Raf-ERK pathway in hypoxia was discovered. In this study, we preliminarily explored the change in the expression of the NDRG3 protein which indicated that NDRG3 protein is an oxygen-regulated protein in neurons in rat cerebral ischemia in vivo and in vitro. We further identified let-7f as an upstream regulator of NDRG3 by the lentiviral transfection of rat cortical neurons and the dual luciferase analysis of human genes. In addition, a dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization assay showed that when the expression of let-7f was elevated, the expression of NDRG3 mRNA was accordingly reduced in rat cerebral ischemia. Taken together, our results identify a new regulatory mechanism of let-7f on NDRG3 expression in the hypoxic response of cerebral ischemia and raise the possibility that the let-7f/NDRG3 pathway may serve as a potential target for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

  16. Doing Your Part To Help Your Child Become SMART (Successful, Motivated, Autonomous, Responsible, Thoughtful): Six Workshops on Parenting SMART Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattes, Beth; Walsh, Jackie; Hickman, Mickey

    A SMART Learner is a lifelong learner who can adapt to rapid change and who possesses characteristics associated with success in and out of school. These workshop materials to help parents help their children become SMART learners provide: information from current research and best practice; learning activities that will actively engage parents in…

  17. Caenorhabditis elegans microRNAs of the let-7 family act in innate immune response circuits and confer robust developmental timing against pathogen stress

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhiji; Ambros, Victor R.

    2015-01-01

    Animals maintain their developmental robustness against natural stresses through numerous regulatory mechanisms, including the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs). Caenorhabditis elegans miRNAs of the let-7 family (let-7-Fam) function semiredundantly to confer robust stage specificity of cell fates in the hypodermal seam cell lineages. Here, we show reciprocal regulatory interactions between let-7-Fam miRNAs and the innate immune response pathway in C. elegans. Upon infection of C. elegans larvae with the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the developmental timing defects of certain let-7-Fam miRNA mutants are enhanced. This enhancement is mediated by the p38 MAPK innate immune pathway acting in opposition to let-7-Fam miRNA activity, possibly via the downstream Activating Transcription Factor-7 (ATF-7). Furthermore, let-7-Fam miRNAs appear to exert negative regulation on the worm’s resistance to P. aeruginosa infection. Our results show that the inhibition of pathogen resistance by let-7 involves downstream heterochronic genes and the p38 MAPK pathway. These findings suggest that let-7-Fam miRNAs are integrated into innate immunity gene regulatory networks, such that this family of miRNAs modulates immune responses while also ensuring robust timing of developmental events under pathogen stress. PMID:25897023

  18. NET silencing by let-7i in postural tachycardia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Waheed; Corcoran, Susan J.; K.N, Harikrishnan; Okabe, Jun; Rafehi, Haloom; Maxwell, Scott S.; Esler, Murray D.

    2017-01-01

    While strongly implicated in postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), considerable controversy exists regarding norepinephrine transporter (NET) loss of function. POTS is characterized by the clinical symptoms of orthostatic intolerance, lightheadedness, tachycardia, and syncope or near syncope with upright posture. Abnormal sympathetic nervous system activity is typical, of a type which suggests dysfunction of the NET, with evidence that the gene responsible is under tight epigenetic control. Using RNA of isolated chromatin combined with massive parallel sequencing (RICh-seq) we show that let-7i miRNA suppresses NET by methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Vorinostat restores epigenetic control and NET expression in leukocytes derived from POTS participants. PMID:28352654

  19. Gene conversion in yeast as a function of linear energy transfer (LET) for low-LET radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Unrau, P.; Morrison, D.P.; Johnson, J.R.

    1992-05-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for low-LET radiation is known to depend on such factors as LET and dose rate. Microdosimetric calculations indicate that the biological target size could also be an important parameter, and calculations predict that the RBE for effects produced by hits in target sizes below about 100 nm should be unity for all low LET radiation. We have measured that RBE for gene conversion in yeast (a small target) for five different low LET photon sources, and the results were consistent with an RBE of unity, which agrees with microdosimetric predictions. 4 refs.

  20. Fragile Identities: Exploring Learner Identity, Learner Autonomy and Motivation through Young Learners' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Terry Eric

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in the fields of motivation and learner autonomy in language learning has begun to explore their relationships to the construct of identity. This article builds on this through the voices of a group of six learners of French or German in a secondary school in England, over a two-year period. These young learners initially reveal a…

  1. Supporting Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Jo Ann; Hodges, Thomas E.; Brown, Clara Lee

    2010-01-01

    English Language Learners (ELLs) have an increasing presence in the nations' classrooms. From 1991 to 2004 the number of ELLs nearly doubled in grades K-12. Furthermore, new forms of accountability have school personnel concerned with the progress--or lack of progress--of the ELLs. "Principles and Standards" also reflects this concern: The Equity…

  2. California's English Learner Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    English Learner (EL) students in California's schools are numerous and diverse, and they lag behind their native-English-speaking peers. Closing the achievement gap for EL students has been a long-standing goal for California educators, and there are some signs of success. Now that EL funding and curriculum issues are receiving a fresh level of…

  3. School Learners & Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Jenni, Ed.

    This document presents papers from a conference held in November 1995 in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, convened by the Education Policy Unit (EPU) of the University of Natal as part of research concerning the provision of library-based resources for school learners. Following an introduction are two chapters: "Identifying the Inherited Problems in…

  4. Literacy and the Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Education, Inc. Reports, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This journal issue focuses on the learner, looks at why literacy has become a major concern and examines the changes brought about by the mastery of new skills. "Literacy/Illiteracy in an International Perspective" (Carman St. John Hunter) frames the discussion by stressing that literacy and illiteracy are moving targets, not fixed by…

  5. Serving the Online Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettcher, Judith V.

    2007-01-01

    Systems and services for recruiting, advising, and support of online students have seldom been at the top of the list when planning online and distance learning programs. That is now changing: Forces pushing advising and support services into the foreground include recognition of the student learner as "customer" and the increasing…

  6. Gender and Learner Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindal, Huda; Reid, Norman; Whitehead, Rex

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that girls and boys perform differently in traditional examinations in most countries. This study looks at a sample of 754 school students in Kuwait (aged about 13) and explores how boys and girls differ in the performance in a range of tests related to learner characteristics. The fundamental question is how boys and girls…

  7. Helping Young Hispanic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E.; Jensen, Bryant

    2007-01-01

    Hispanics are the largest and youngest ethnic group in the United States. Moreover, young Hispanic children make up approximately 80 percent of the U.S. English language learner population. They are a heterogeneous group, born both inside and outside the United States and having origins in Mexico, Cuba, Central America, South America, and the…

  8. The Transliterate Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Thomas et al. have defined transliteracy as "the ability to read, write and interact across a range of platforms, tools and media from signing and orality through handwriting, print, TV, radio and film, to digital social networks" (Transliteracy Research Group). The learner who is transliterate builds knowledge, communicates, and interacts across…

  9. Learner Autonomy Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illes, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article explores whether the perception of learner autonomy that is promoted in language pedagogy is suitable for preparing students to perform successfully in the changed circumstances of the use of English. Recent developments, which include the growing role of English as a lingua franca and computer-mediated communication (CMC), give rise…

  10. Helping Gifted Learners Soar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Whenever educators talk about raising achievement, grade-level standards are most frequently the end goal for student learning. But what about students who have already met some, if not all, of those standards and who master material quickly and in-depth? Advanced and gifted learners often languish in our schools because teachers don't have the…

  11. The Savvy Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dealtry, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This article defines the cultural nature and scale of change in learning consciousness that has to take place when the organizationally-based adult learner makes the transition from formal prescriptive learning practice to self-owned, self-directed learning. It articulates some of the learning-to-learn process models that introduce, accelerate,…

  12. of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashidi, Nasser; Mortazavi, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of Iranian university EFL students. Participants in the present study were a total of 67 EFL learners, studying at Shiraz Azad University as senior English Translation students. The instruments utilized for data collection were three tests: A…

  13. The let-7 microRNA enhances heme oxygenase-1 by suppressing Bach1 and attenuates oxidant injury in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hou, Weihong; Tian, Qing; Steuerwald, Nury M; Schrum, Laura W; Bonkovsky, Herbert L

    2012-01-01

    The let-7 microRNA (miRNA) plays important roles in human liver development and diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma, liver fibrosis and hepatitis wherein oxidative stress accelerates the progression of these diseases. To date, the role of the let-7 miRNA family in modulation of heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), a key cytoprotective enzyme, remains unknown. Our aims were to determine whether let-7 miRNA directly regulates Bach1, a transcriptional repressor of the HMOX1 gene, and whether indirect up-regulation of HMOX1 by let-7 miRNA attenuates oxidant injury in human hepatocytes. The effects of let-7 miRNA on Bach1 and HMOX1 gene expression in Huh-7 and HepG2 cells were determined by real-time qRT-PCR, Western blot, and luciferase reporter assays. Dual luciferase reporter assays revealed that let-7b, let-7c, or miR-98 significantly decreased Bach1 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR)-dependent luciferase activity but not mutant Bach1 3'-UTR-dependent luciferase activity, whereas mutant let-7 miRNA containing base complementarity with mutant Bach1 3'-UTR restored its effect on mutant reporter activity. let-7b, let-7c, or miR-98 down-regulated Bach1 protein levels by 50-70%, and subsequently up-regulated HMOX1 gene expression by 3-4 fold, compared with non-specific controls. Furthermore, Huh-7 cells transfected with let-7b, let-7c or miR-98 mimic showed increased resistance against oxidant injury induced by tert-butyl-hydroperoxide (tBuOOH), whereas the protection was abrogated by over-expression of Bach1. In conclusion, let-7 miRNA directly acts on the 3'-UTR of Bach1 and negatively regulates expression of this protein, and thereby up-regulates HMOX1 gene expression. Over-expression of the let-7 miRNA family members may represent a novel approach to protecting human hepatocytes from oxidant injury.

  14. IGF-1/IGF-1R/hsa-let-7c axis regulates the committed differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shu; Liu, Genxia; Jin, Lin; Pang, Xiyao; Wang, Yanqiu; Wang, Zilu; Yu, Yan; Yu, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its receptor IGF-1R play a paramount role in tooth/bone formation while hsa-let-7c actively participates in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, the interaction between IGF-1/IGF-1R and hsa-let-7c on the committed differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) remains unclear. In this study, human SCAPs were isolated and treated with IGF-1 and hsa-let-7c over/low-expression viruses. The odonto/osteogenic differentiation of these stem cells and the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway were subsequently investigated. Alizarin red staining showed that hsa-let-7c low-expression can significantly promote the mineralization of IGF-1 treated SCAPs, while hsa-let-7c over-expression can decrease the calcium deposition of IGF-1 treated SCAPs. Western blot assay and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction further demonstrated that the expression of odonto/osteogenic markers (ALP, RUNX2/RUNX2, OSX/OSX, OCN/OCN, COL-I/COL-I, DSPP/DSP, and DMP-1/DMP-1) in IGF-1 treated SCAPs were significantly upregulated in Let-7c-low group. On the contrary, hsa-let-7c over-expression could downregulate the expression of these odonto/osteogenic markers. Moreover, western blot assay showed that the JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways were activated in Let-7c-low SCAPs but inhibited in Let-7c-over SCAPs. Together, the IGF-1/IGF-1R/hsa-let-7c axis can control the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of IGF-1-treated SCAPs via the regulation of JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:27833148

  15. Elevation of Il6 is associated with disturbed let-7 biogenesis in a genetic model of depression

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Y B; Liu, J J; Villaescusa, J C; Åberg, E; Brené, S; Wegener, G; Mathé, A A; Lavebratt, C

    2016-01-01

    Elevation of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 has been implicated in depression; however, the mechanisms remain elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that inhibit gene expression post-transcriptionally. The lethal-7 (let-7) miRNA family was suggested to be involved in the inflammation process and IL-6 was shown to be one of its targets. In the present study, we report elevation of Il6 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of a genetic rat model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) compared to the control Flinders Resistant Line. This elevation was associated with an overexpression of LIN28B and downregulation of let-7 miRNAs, the former an RNA-binding protein that selectively represses let-7 synthesis. Also DROSHA, a key enzyme in miRNA biogenesis was downregulated in FSL. Running was previously shown to have an antidepressant-like effect in the FSL rat. We found that running reduced Il6 levels and selectively increased let-7i and miR-98 expression in the PFC of FSL, although there were no differences in LIN28B and DROSHA expression. Pri-let-7i was upregulated in the running FSL group, which associated with increased histone H4 acetylation. In conclusion, the disturbance of let-7 family biogenesis may underlie increased proinflammatory markers in the depressed FSL rats while physical activity could reduce their expression, possibly through regulating primary miRNA expression via epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:27529677

  16. Governing the Child-Citizen: "Let's Move!" as National Biopedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jette, Shannon; Bhagat, Krishna; Andrews, David L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we offer a critical examination of Let's Move!, the comprehensive anti-obesity program initiated by the First Lady of the United States, Michelle Obama, that aims to solve the problem of childhood obesity within a generation. We argue that Let's Move! is not just a campaign against obesity but is emblematic of the nature of (and…

  17. LET spectra measurements on LDEF: variations with shielding and location.

    PubMed

    Benton, E V; Frank, A L; Csige, I; Frigo, L A; Benton, E R

    1996-11-01

    LET spectra measurements made with passive plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) were found to depend on detector orientation, shielding and experiment location. LET spectra were measured at several locations on LDEF as part of the P0006 LETSME experiment (Benton and Parnell, 1984), the P0004 Seeds in Space experiment (Parks and Alston, 1984), the A00l5 Free Flyer Biostacks and the M0004 Fiber Optics Data Link experiment (Taylor, 1984). Locations included the east, west and Earth sides of the LDEF satellite. The LET spectra measured with PNTDs deviated significantly from calculations, especially for high LET particles (LET infinity H2O > or = 100 keV/micrometer). At high LETs, short-range inelastic secondary particles produced by trapped proton interactions with the nuclei of the detector were found to be the principal contributor to LET spectra. At lower LETs, the spectra appeared to be due to short-range, inelastic and stopping primary protons, with primary GCR particles making a smaller contribution. The dependence of LET spectra on detector orientation and shielding was studied using the four orthogonal stacks in the P0006 experiment. Both measurements of total track density and LET spectra showed a greater number of particles arriving from the direction of space than from Earth. Measurements of LET spectra in CR-39 PNTD on the east (leading) and west (trailing) sides of LDEF showed a higher rate of production at the west side. This was caused by a larger flux of trapped protons on the west side as predicted by the east/west trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). Track density measured in CR-39 PNTDs increased as a function of shielding depth in the detector stack. A similar measurement made in a thick stack of CR-39 interspersed with layers of Al and exposed to 154 MeV protons at a ground-based accelerator showed a similar result, indicating that a significant fraction of the particle events counted were from secondaries and that the

  18. LET spectra measurements on LDEF: variations with shielding and location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Csige, I.; Frigo, L. A.; Benton, E. R.

    1996-01-01

    LET spectra measurements made with passive plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) were found to depend on detector orientation, shielding and experiment location. LET spectra were measured at several locations on LDEF as part of the P0006 LETSME experiment (Benton and Parnell, 1984), the P0004 Seeds in Space experiment (Parks and Alston, 1984), the A00l5 Free Flyer Biostacks and the M0004 Fiber Optics Data Link experiment (Taylor, 1984). Locations included the east, west and Earth sides of the LDEF satellite. The LET spectra measured with PNTDs deviated significantly from calculations, especially for high LET particles (LET infinity H2O > or = 100 keV/micrometer). At high LETs, short-range inelastic secondary particles produced by trapped proton interactions with the nuclei of the detector were found to be the principal contributor to LET spectra. At lower LETs, the spectra appeared to be due to short-range, inelastic and stopping primary protons, with primary GCR particles making a smaller contribution. The dependence of LET spectra on detector orientation and shielding was studied using the four orthogonal stacks in the P0006 experiment. Both measurements of total track density and LET spectra showed a greater number of particles arriving from the direction of space than from Earth. Measurements of LET spectra in CR-39 PNTD on the east (leading) and west (trailing) sides of LDEF showed a higher rate of production at the west side. This was caused by a larger flux of trapped protons on the west side as predicted by the east/west trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). Track density measured in CR-39 PNTDs increased as a function of shielding depth in the detector stack. A similar measurement made in a thick stack of CR-39 interspersed with layers of Al and exposed to 154 MeV protons at a ground-based accelerator showed a similar result, indicating that a significant fraction of the particle events counted were from secondaries and that the

  19. How does Lin28 let-7 control development and disease?

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, James E.; Gregory, Richard I.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most ancient and highly conserved microRNAs (miRNAs), the let-7 family, has gained notoriety owing to its regulation of stem cell differentiation, essential role in normal development, as well as its tumor suppressor function. Mechanisms controlling let-7 expression have recently been uncovered, specifically the role of the RNA-binding protein Lin28 – a key developmental regulator - in blocking let-7 biogenesis. This review focuses on our current understanding of the Lin28-mediated control of let-7 maturation and highlights the central role of Lin28 in stem cell biology, development, control of glucose metabolism, and dysregulation in human disease. Manipulating the Lin28 pathway for the precise control of let-7 expression may therefore provide novel therapeutic opportunities for cancer and other diseases. PMID:22784697

  20. TRIM71 suppresses tumorigenesis via modulation of Lin28B-let-7-HMGA2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jinlong; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Park, Nayun; Shin, Daye; Choi, Hae In; Cho, Sungchan; Park, Jong Bae; Kim, Jong Heon

    2016-01-01

    TRIM71 (tripartite motif-containing 71) belongs to the TRIM-NHL protein family, which plays a conserved role in regulating early development and differentiation. However, the molecular functions of TRIM71 have remained largely unknown. Here, we explored the role of TRIM71 together with modulation of Lin28B-let-7-HMGA2 (high-mobility group AT-hook 2) signaling in tumorigenesis. TRIM71 overexpression opposed Lin28B-induced transformation in primary cells and inhibited tumor formation in a mouse model. Specific knockdown of TRIM71 expression increased cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Conversely, overexpression of wild-type TRIM71 in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells in which Lin28B-let-7-HMGA2 signaling was conserved decreased both cancer cell phenotypes. More importantly, overexpression of an ubiquitin transfer activity-deficient TRIM71 mutant in NSCLC cells had no effect on proliferation or invasion, regardless of the conservation status of Lin28B-let-7-HMGA2 signaling. The tumorigenic inhibitory action of TRIM71 was antagonized by overexpression of the TRIM71 downstream targets, Lin28B and HMGA2. Furthermore, a bioinformatics analysis revealed that TRIM71 expression was downregulated in various types of cancer tissue from patients. Taken together, these data indicate that TRIM71 acts through post-transcriptional repression of Lin28B and subsequent modulation of let-7-HMGA2 signaling during tumorigenesis to potentially function as a tumor suppressor. PMID:27821801

  1. Cosmic ray LET spectra and doses on board Cosmos-2044 biosatellite

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, J.W. Jr.; Parnell, T.A.; Dudkin, V.E.; Kovalev, E.E.; Potapov, Yu.V.; Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.; Benton, E.R.; Beaujean, R.; Heilmann, C. |||

    1995-03-01

    Results of the experiments on board Cosmos-2044 (Biosatellite 9) are presented. Various nuclear track detectors (NTD) (dielectric, AgCl-based, nuclear emulsions) were used to obtain the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra inside and outside the satellite. The spectra from the different NTDs have proved to be in general agreement. The results of LET spectra calculations using two different models are also presented. The resultant LET distributions are used to calculate the absorbed and equivalent doses and the orbit-averaged quality factors (QF) of the cosmic rays (CR). Absorbed dose rates inside (approximately 20 g cm {sup {minus}2} shielding) and outside (1 g cm{sup {minus}2}) the spacecraft, omitting electrons, were found to be 4.8 and 8.6 mrad d{sup {minus}1}, respectively, while the corresponding equivalent doses were 8.8 and 19.7 mrem d{sup {minus}1}. The effects of the flight parameters on the total fluence of, and on the dose from the CR particles are analyzed. Integral dose distributions of the detected particles are also determined. The LET values which separate absorbed and equivalent doses into 50% intervals are estimated. The CR-39 dielectric NTD is shown to detect 20-30% of the absorbed dose and 60-70% of the equivalent dose in the Cosmos-2044 orbit. The influence of solar activity phase on the magnitude of CR flux is discussed.

  2. TRIM71 suppresses tumorigenesis via modulation of Lin28B-let-7-HMGA2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jinlong; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Park, Nayun; Shin, Daye; Choi, Hae In; Cho, Sungchan; Park, Jong Bae; Kim, Jong Heon

    2016-11-29

    TRIM71 (tripartite motif-containing 71) belongs to the TRIM-NHL protein family, which plays a conserved role in regulating early development and differentiation. However, the molecular functions of TRIM71 have remained largely unknown. Here, we explored the role of TRIM71 together with modulation of Lin28B-let-7-HMGA2 (high-mobility group AT-hook 2) signaling in tumorigenesis. TRIM71 overexpression opposed Lin28B-induced transformation in primary cells and inhibited tumor formation in a mouse model. Specific knockdown of TRIM71 expression increased cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Conversely, overexpression of wild-type TRIM71 in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells in which Lin28B-let-7-HMGA2 signaling was conserved decreased both cancer cell phenotypes. More importantly, overexpression of an ubiquitin transfer activity-deficient TRIM71 mutant in NSCLC cells had no effect on proliferation or invasion, regardless of the conservation status of Lin28B-let-7-HMGA2 signaling. The tumorigenic inhibitory action of TRIM71 was antagonized by overexpression of the TRIM71 downstream targets, Lin28B and HMGA2. Furthermore, a bioinformatics analysis revealed that TRIM71 expression was downregulated in various types of cancer tissue from patients. Taken together, these data indicate that TRIM71 acts through post-transcriptional repression of Lin28B and subsequent modulation of let-7-HMGA2 signaling during tumorigenesis to potentially function as a tumor suppressor.

  3. Cosmic ray LET spectra and doses on board Cosmos-2044 biosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, J. W., Jr.; Parnell, T. A.; Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Potapov, Yu. V.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.; Beaujean, R.; Heilmann, C.

    1995-01-01

    Results of the experiments on board Cosmos-2044 (Biosatellite 9) are presented. Various nuclear track detectors (NTD) (dielectric, AgCl-based, nuclear emulsions) were used to obtain the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra inside and outside the satellite. The spectra from the different NTDs have proved to be in general agreement. The results of LET spectra calculations using two different models are also presented. The resultant LET distributions are used to calculate the absorbed and equivalent doses and the orbit-averaged quality factors (QF) of the cosmic rays (CR). Absorbed dose rates inside (approximately 20 g cm (exp -2) shielding) and outside (1 g cm(exp -2) the spacecraft, omitting electrons, were found to be 4.8 and 8.6 mrad d (exp -1), respectively, while the corresponding equivalent doses were 8.8 and 19.7 mrem d(exp -1). The effects of the flight parameters on the total fluence of, and on the dose from the CR particles are analyzed. Integral dose distributions of the detected particles are also determined. The LET values which separate absorbed and equivalent doses into 50% intervals are estimated. The CR-39 dielectric NTD is shown to detect 20-30% of the absorbed dose and 60-70% of the equivalent dose in the Cosmos-2044 orbit. The influence of solar activity phase on the magnitude of CR flux is discussed.

  4. Secondary particle contribution to LET spectra on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Frigo, L. A.; Csige, I.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments utilizing passive detectors (P0006, P0004, A0015, M0004) were flown on LDEF to study the radiation environment. These experiments have been summarized in a companion paper (Benton et al., 1996). One of the experimental goals was to measure LET spectra at different locations and shielding depths with plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD). It was found that the LET spectra extended well above the LET cutoff imposed by the geomagnetic field on GCR particle penetration into LEO. The high LET particles detected were mostly short-range (range < 2000 m), indicating that they were secondaries produced locally within the PNTD. The presence of these high LET particle fluences is important for the determination of dose equivalent because of the high Quality Factors (Q) involved. A relatively small fraction of particle fluence can contribute a large fraction of dose equivalent. Short-range, inelastic secondary particles produced by trapped protons in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) were found to be a major contributor to the LET spectra above 100 keV/micrometer. The LET spectra were found to extend beyond the approximately 137 keV/micrometer relativistic GCR Fe peak to over 1000 keV/micrometer. The high LET tail of the LET spectra was measured in CR-39 and polycarbonate PNTDs using different techniques. GCR made a relatively modest contribution to the LET spectra as compared to the contributions from short-range secondary particles and stopping protons. LET spectra intercomparisons were made between LDEF measurements and exposures to 154 MeV accelerated proton beams. The similarities support the role of nuclear interactions by trapped protons as the major source of secondary particles in the PNTDs. Also techniques were employed to reduce the range cutoff for detection of the short-range secondaries to approximately 1 micrometer, so that essentially all secondary particles were included in the LET spectra. This has allowed a more realistic assessment of

  5. Down-regulation of let-7 microRNA increased K-ras expression in lung damage induced by radon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhihai; Wang, Dapeng; Gu, Chao; Liu, Xing; Pei, Weiwei; Li, Jianxiang; Cao, Yi; Jiao, Yang; Tong, Jian; Nie, Jihua

    2015-09-01

    Radon has long been recognized as a human carcinogen leading to lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Recent studies have shown that the let-7 microRNA and K-ras play an important role in the development of various cancers. However, the exact role between let-7 and K-ras in radon induced lung damage has not been explored so far. In the present study, wistar rats and human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells were long-term exposed to radon, and then alterations in histological pathology of rat lung tissue, ROS, antioxidant enzymes activities and clonogenic formation in HBE cells, as well as changes in let-7 and K-ras expression were determined to observe the adverse effects induced by radon. The results showed that long-term exposure to radon produced severe lung damage in rats, significantly increased ROS production and clonogenic formation ratios and decreased SOD activities in HBE cells. In addition, an obvious down-regulation of let-7 and up-regulation of K-ras were also revealed both in mRNA and in protein level in lung tissue of rats and HBE cells exposed to radon. Furthermore, a significant down-regulation of K-ras was then confirmed in both let-7b-3p and let-7a-2-3p transfected HBE cells. Taken together, the present results propose an involvement of let-7 microRNA and K-ras in radon induced lung damage both in vivo and in vitro, which may thus be of potential value in early diagnosis and therapy of radon-induced lung tumorgenesis.

  6. The Lin28/let-7 axis regulates glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hao; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Segrè, Ayellet V.; Shinoda, Gen; Shah, Samar P.; Einhorn, William S.; Takeuchi, Ayumu; Engreitz, Jesse M.; Hagan, John P.; Kharas, Michael G; Urbach, Achia; Thornton, James E.; Triboulet, Robinson; Gregory, Richard I.; Altshuler, David; Daley, George Q.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The let-7 tumor suppressor microRNAs are known for their regulation of oncogenes, while the RNA-binding proteins Lin28a/b promote malignancy by blocking let-7 biogenesis. In studies of the Lin28/let-7 pathway, we discovered unexpected roles in regulating metabolism. When overexpressed in mice, both Lin28a and LIN28B promoted an insulin-sensitized state that resisted high fat diet-induced diabetes, whereas muscle-specific loss of Lin28a and overexpression of let-7 resulted in insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. These phenomena occurred in part through let-7-mediated repression of multiple components of the insulin-PI3K-mTOR pathway, including IGF1R, INSR, and IRS2. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin abrogated the enhanced glucose uptake and insulin-sensitivity conferred by Lin28a in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we found that let-7 targets were enriched for genes that contain SNPs associated with type 2 diabetes and fasting glucose in human genome-wide association studies. These data establish the Lin28/let-7 pathway as a central regulator of mammalian glucose metabolism. PMID:21962509

  7. G2-chromosome aberrations induced by high-LET radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, T.; Durante, M.; Furusawa, Y.; George, K.; Ito, H.; Wu, H.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    We report measurements of initial G2-chromatid breaks in normal human fibroblasts exposed to various types of high-LET particles. Exponentially growing AG 1522 cells were exposed to γ-rays or heavy ions. Chromosomes were prematurely condensed by calyculin A. Chromatid-type breaks and isochromatid-type breaks were scored separately. The dose response curves for the induction of total chromatid breaks (chromatid-type + isochromatid-type) and chromatid-type breaks were linear for each type of radiation. However, dose response curves for the induction of isochromatid-type breaks were linear for high-LET radiations and linear-quadratic for γ-rays. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE), calculated from total breaks, showed a LET dependent tendency with a peak at 55 keV/μm silicon (2.7) or 80 keV/μm carbon (2.7) and then decreased with LET (1.5 at 440 keV/μm). RBE for chromatid-type break peaked at 55 keV/μm (2.4) then decreased rapidly with LET. The RBE of 440 keV/μm iron particles was 0.7. The RBE calculated from induction of isochromatid-type breaks was much higher for high-LET radiations. It is concluded that the increased production of isochromatid-type breaks, induced by the densely ionizing track structure, is a signature of high-LET radiation exposure.

  8. Hsa-let-7g miRNA regulates the anti-tumor effects of gastric cancer cells under oxidative stress through the expression of DDR genes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haiqing; Zhao, Xuanzhong; Jin, Zhao; Hou, Mingxing

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress is linked to increased risk of gastric cancer (GC). Recent reports have found that hsa-let-7 g microRNA (miRNA) has properties of anti-tumor and resistance to damages induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Dysregulation of hsa-let-7 g was present in GC in vivo and in vitro under exogenous stress. However, we didn't know whether there are regulatory mechanisms of hsa-let-7 g in GC under oxidative stress. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of hsa-let-7 g microRNA (miRNA) on GC under oxidative stress. The results showed that H2O2 induced the increase of DNA damage response (DDR) genes (ATM, H2AX and Chk1) and downregulation of hsa-let-7 g in GC cells. Further study confirmed Hsa-let-7 g caused the apoptosis and loss of proliferation in GC cells exposed to H2O2 associated with repression of DDR system. Yet, we found let-7 g didn't target DDR genes (ATM, H2AX and Chk1) directly. In addition, data revealed hsa-let-7 g miRNA increased the sensitivity of GC to X-rays involving in ATM regulation as well according to application of X-rays (another DDR inducer). In conclusion, Hsa-let-7 g miRNA increased the sensitivity of GC to oxidative stress by repression activation of DDR indirectly. Let-7 g improved the effects of X-rays on GC cells involving in DDR regulation as well.

  9. Examining the Let's-Put-on-a-Show Myth Perpetuated by Hollywood Musicals of the 1930s-40s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheetley, Kim Alan

    1996-01-01

    Presents excerpts from a workshop that actively explores four instructional activities to illuminate the let's-put-on-a-show myth. Notes that the workshop illustrates the National Theatre Standards in action by integrating several aspects of the art form: script writing, acting, designing, directing, researching, comparing art forms, analyzing and…

  10. A cardiac myocyte-restricted Lin28/let7 regulatory axis promotes hypoxia-mediated apoptosis by inducing the AKT signaling suppressor PIK3IP1

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shaurya; Wei, Jianqin; Bishopric, Nanette H.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The let-7 family of microRNAs (miRs) regulates critical cell functions, including survival signaling, differentiation, metabolic control and glucose utilization. These functions may be important during myocardial ischemia. MiR-let-7 expression is under tight temporal and spatial control through multiple redundant mechanisms that may be stage-, isoform- and tissue-specific. Objective To determine the mechanisms and functional consequences of miR-let-7 regulation by hypoxia in the heart. Methods and Results MiR-let-7a, -7c and -7g were downregulated in the adult mouse heart early after coronary occlusion, and in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes subjected to hypoxia. Let-7 repression did not require glucose depletion, and occurred at a post-transcriptional level. Hypoxia also induced the RNA binding protein Lin28, a negative regulator of let-7. Hypoxia induced neither Lin28 induction nor miR-let-7 repression in cardiac fibroblasts. Both changes were abrogated by treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. Restoration of let-7g to hypoxic myocytes and to ischemia-reperfused mouse hearts in vivo via lentiviral transduction potentiated the hypoxia-induced phosphorylation and activation of Akt, and prevented hypoxia-dependent caspase activation and death. Mechanistically, phosphotidyl inositol 3’kinase interacting protein 1 (PIK3IP1), a negative regulator of PI3K, was identified as a novel target of miR-let-7 by a crosslinking technique showing that miR-let-7g specifically targets PI3KIP1 to the cardiac myocyte Argonaute complex RISC. Finally, in non-failing and failing human myocardium, we found specific inverse relationships between Lin28 and miR-let-7g, and between miR-let-7g and PIK3IP1. Conclusion A conserved hypoxia-responsive Lin28-miR-let-7-PIK3IP1 regulatory axis is specific to cardiac myocytes and promotes apoptosis during myocardial ischemic injury. PMID:26655604

  11. Let's Be PALS: An Evidence-Based Approach to Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.

    2009-01-01

    An evidence-based approach to professional development is described on the basis of the findings from a series of research syntheses and meta-analyses of adult learning methods and strategies. The approach, called PALS (Participatory Adult Learning Strategy), places major emphasis on both active learner involvement in all aspects of training…

  12. Learner Preferences and Achievement Under Differing Amounts of Learner Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; Sullivan, Howard J.; Leader, Lars F.; Jones, Elizabeth E. K.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the effects of program mode (i.e., a lean program version containing a basic amount of learner practice versus a full mode containing expanded practice) and learner preference (matched or unmatched) for amount of practice on the achievement, time-in-program, and attitudes of university undergraduate students. Students preferred the lean…

  13. Don't Let Measles Be Your Travel Souvenir

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Features Don’t Let Measles Be Your Travel Souvenir Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... if you have received MMR vaccine. Before You Travel After You Travel More Information More Information Measles ...

  14. S2LET: Fast wavelet analysis on the sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leistedt, Boris; McEwen, Jason

    2012-11-01

    S2LET provides high performance routines for fast wavelet analysis of signals on the sphere. It uses the SSHT code built on the MW sampling theorem to perform exact spherical harmonic transforms on the sphere. The resulting wavelet transform implemented in S2LET is theoretically exact, i.e. a band-limited signal can be recovered from its wavelet coefficients exactly and the wavelet coefficients capture all the information. S2LET also supports the HEALPix sampling scheme, in which case the transforms are not theoretically exact but achieve good numerical accuracy. The core routines of S2LET are written in C and have interfaces in Matlab, IDL and Java. Real signals can be written to and read from FITS files and plotted as Mollweide projections.

  15. "Let's Move" campaign: applying the extended parallel process model.

    PubMed

    Batchelder, Alicia; Matusitz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This article examines Michelle Obama's health campaign, "Let's Move," through the lens of the extended parallel process model (EPPM). "Let's Move" aims to reduce the childhood obesity epidemic in the United States. Developed by Kim Witte, EPPM rests on the premise that people's attitudes can be changed when fear is exploited as a factor of persuasion. Fear appeals work best (a) when a person feels a concern about the issue or situation, and (b) when he or she believes to have the capability of dealing with that issue or situation. Overall, the analysis found that "Let's Move" is based on past health campaigns that have been successful. An important element of the campaign is the use of fear appeals (as it is postulated by EPPM). For example, part of the campaign's strategies is to explain the severity of the diseases associated with obesity. By looking at the steps of EPPM, readers can also understand the strengths and weaknesses of "Let's Move."

  16. Cysteamine as a protective agent with high-LET radiations

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, R.P.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments to measure the radiation protection of cysteamine for high-LET radiations were carried out with synchronized Chinese hamster V79 cells. A high concentration (75 mM) of cysteamine was found to provide protection against x rays and 90 and 170 keV/..mu..m helium ions. The extent of protection decreased with increased LET value but was substantial with the highest-LET radiation. Thus the approximate dose-modifying factor for G/sub 1//S cells was decreased from 4.8 to 1.6 and for late-S cells from 3.2 to 1.5. The shape of the high-LET survival curves for both cell cycle times was preserved as expected for a dose-modifying agent.

  17. Depression of p53-independent Akt survival signals in human oral cancer cells bearing mutated p53 gene after exposure to high-LET radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Yosuke; Takahashi, Akihisa; Kajihara, Atsuhisa; Yamakawa, Nobuhiro; Imai, Yuichiro; Ota, Ichiro; Okamoto, Noritomo; Mori, Eiichiro; Noda, Taichi; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Kirita, Tadaaki; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation induces efficiently apoptosis regardless of p53 gene status. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined whether high-LET radiation depresses the Akt-survival signals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation depresses of survival signals even in the mp53 cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation activates Caspase-9 through depression of survival signals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation suppresses cell growth through depression of survival signals. -- Abstract: Although mutations and deletions in the p53 tumor suppressor gene lead to resistance to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, high-LET radiation efficiently induces cell lethality and apoptosis regardless of the p53 gene status in cancer cells. Recently, it has been suggested that the induction of p53-independent apoptosis takes place through the activation of Caspase-9 which results in the cleavage of Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). This study was designed to examine if high-LET radiation depresses serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt) and Akt-related proteins. Human gingival cancer cells (Ca9-22 cells) harboring a mutated p53 (mp53) gene were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays or Fe-ion beams. The cellular contents of Akt-related proteins participating in cell survival signaling were analyzed with Western Blotting 1, 2, 3 and 6 h after irradiation. Cell cycle distributions after irradiation were assayed with flow cytometric analysis. Akt-related protein levels decreased when cells were irradiated with high-LET radiation. High-LET radiation increased G{sub 2}/M phase arrests and suppressed the progression of the cell cycle much more efficiently when compared to low-LET radiation. These results suggest that high-LET radiation enhances apoptosis through the activation of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9, and suppresses cell growth by suppressing Akt-related signaling, even in mp

  18. Demonized Learners in Sociocultural Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Within the frameworks of Sociocultural theory, particularly Vygotskian sociocultural theory and ZPD, Lave and Wenger's CoP, and contemporary sociocultural theory, this paper seeks to examine the unfavourable scholarly portrayal of learners and their identities based on learners' behaviours, attitudes, and beliefs about the social element of…

  19. College Centers for Older Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Judith L.

    Across the nation, colleges are discovering a new group of students: retired learners. Special programs are emerging to meet the unique needs and interests of this mature population. This booklet describes these programs under the generic title, College Centers for Older Learners (CCOLs). CCOLs offer a stimulating college environment for older…

  20. The Generative Adolescent Mathematical Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the personal epistemologies of generative adolescent mathematical learners. A generative disposition defined a learner who operated mathematically in ways that reflect an internalized authority for knowing and a constructive orientation to knowledge. Drawing upon the radical constructivist teaching…

  1. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…

  2. Assistive Software for Disabled Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sharon; Baggaley, Jon

    2004-01-01

    Previous reports in this series (#32 and 36) have discussed online software features of value to disabled learners in distance education. The current report evaluates four specific assistive software products with useful features for visually and hearing impaired learners: "ATutor", "ACollab", "Natural Voice", and "Just Vanilla". The evaluative…

  3. The Adult Learner: Four Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, John A., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Topics concerning the adult learner that are relevant to institutional researchers are addressed in four articles: marketing, predicting success for adult students, enrollment projection, and follow-up studies of adult learners. In "Institutional Research in Support of Marketing the Adult Student," Lydia Jurand notes the importance of…

  4. High Ability and Learner Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindal, Huda; Reid, Norman; Whitehead, Rex

    2013-01-01

    The outstandingly able learner has been conceptualised, in terms of test and examination performance, as the learner showing superior academic performance which is markedly better than that of peers and in ways regarded as of value by wider society. In Kuwait, such superior examination performance leads to a classification regarded as being…

  5. Learner Intonation -- A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Nancy

    This study is concerned with problems in language learners' intonation of English. Ten intonation problems were found in the learner speech of two adult Spanish-speaking males: (1) range of pitch, (2) initial rise, (3) final fall, (4) rise to final stressed syllable, (5) placement of prominence, (6) final rise for questions, (7) total question…

  6. Sensitizing ESL Learners to Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Jasti Appa

    2008-01-01

    This article evaluates the efficacy of explicit genre-based instruction by sensitizing the ESL learners to the concept of genre. The main questions addressed are: How does sensitizing ESL learners to the rhetorical move structure of a genre, the communicative purposes of these moves, and linguistic features that realize these moves help them to…

  7. Iranian EFL Learners' Compliment Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allami, Hamid; Montazeri, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the knowledge of Iranian EFL learners in responding to compliments in English, with a focus on the variables of gender, age and educational background. The data were collected through a 24-item English Discourse Completion Task (DCT) to which 40 male and female EFL learners were asked to provide short…

  8. Learner Autonomy and New Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raya, Manuel Jimenez; Fernandez, Jose Maria Perez

    2002-01-01

    Presents paths for theoretical research and practical procedures that may help teachers make new technology pedagogically relevant. Discusses the need to develop learner autonomy to help students process information in meaningful ways and become independent learners by developing effective learning strategies, transfer skills, and a greater sense…

  9. Profiling Mobile English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Jason; Diem, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an app-embedded survey to profile language learner demographics. A total of 3,759 EFL language learners from primarily eight L1 backgrounds (French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Russian, Spanish and Thai) responded to the survey embedded within a popular English grammar app. This app has over 500,000…

  10. Effective Instruction for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sanchez, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or…

  11. Learner Control in Hypermedia Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Contrary to system-controlled multimedia learning environments, hypermedia systems are characterized by a high level of interactivity. This interactivity is referred to as learner control in the respective literature. For several reasons this learner control is seen as a major advantage of hypermedia for learning and instruction. For instance,…

  12. Learners' Perceptions and Attitudes: Implications for Willingness to Communicate in an L2 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Saint Leger, Diane; Storch, Neomy

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates learners' perceptions of their speaking abilities, of their contributions to oral class activities (whole class and small group discussions) as well as their attitudes towards these activities, and how such perceptions and attitudes influenced the learners' willingness to communicate in the L2. The study employed a range of…

  13. Motivation Classification and Grade Prediction for MOOCs Learners

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    While MOOCs offer educational data on a new scale, many educators find great potential of the big data including detailed activity records of every learner. A learner's behavior such as if a learner will drop out from the course can be predicted. How to provide an effective, economical, and scalable method to detect cheating on tests such as surrogate exam-taker is a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a grade predicting method that uses student activity features to predict whether a learner may get a certification if he/she takes a test. The method consists of two-step classifications: motivation classification (MC) and grade classification (GC). The MC divides all learners into three groups including certification earning, video watching, and course sampling. The GC then predicts a certification earning learner may or may not obtain a certification. Our experiment shows that the proposed method can fit the classification model at a fine scale and it is possible to find a surrogate exam-taker. PMID:26884747

  14. Let's Move Together: A Randomized Trial of the Impact of Family Health History on Encouragement and Co-Engagement in Physical Activity of Mexican-Origin Parents and Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Heer, Hendrik Dirk; de la Haye, Kayla; Skapinsky, Kaley; Goergen, Andrea F.; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Due to shared health behaviors and disease risk, families may be more effective targets for health promotion. This study assessed whether providing family health history (FHH)-based risk information for heart disease and diabetes affected encouragement to engage in physical activity (PA) and healthy weight (HW) maintenance and…

  15. Biomedical effects of protons with different levels of LET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulinina, Taisia; Vorozhtsova, Svetlana; Abrosimova, Alla; Ivanov, Alexander; Molokanov, Alexander

    Protons compose 80% of space radiation, thus, if the average energy of protons is 45 MeV, then there is a proton range much differing on the LET level available. In this regard, the study of protons radiobiological effects with different levels of LET is relevant. On the basis of the JINR Phasotron we designed the special device allowing to irradiate experimental animals - mice at the various regions of proton beam differing more than 3 times on the level of LET. The experiments were carried out on outbred CD-1 females mice and C57Bl6 males. Animals were irradiated at two points of the depth dose distribution - at the entrance of the proton beam and at the modified Bragg peak, extended with a ridge filter. Total irradiation of mice was conducted by a proton beam with energy of 171 MeV at doses of 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 Gy at the JINR Phasotron beam, is used for the treatment of patients. LET of 171 MeV protons was 0.49 keV/mkm, the dose rate was 0.37 Gy/min. Range of energy at the modified Bragg peak is 0-30 MeV. Dose rate was 0.8 Gy/min. Average value of LET at the modified Bragg peak was 1.6 keV/mkm. In the modified Bragg peak the contribution to the absorbed dose of protons with low-LET radiation was about 67%, with LET 25-50 keV/mkm was 23% and with high -LET (50-100 keV/mkm) was 10%. For comparison irradiation of 60Co γ-rays was conducted on the device for remote radiation therapy Rokus-M MTC JINR in the same doses. The average dose of (60) Co gammaγ-rays with LET of 0.3 keV/mkm was 1 Gy/min. The experiments showed that after 24 hours of both proton irradiation with a high level of LET, and with 171 MeV proton beam in the object, a clear dose-dependent loss of bone marrow hematopoiesis is observed, the depth of destruction after irradiation by protons with a high level of increased from 1.14 to 1.36 with increasing doses of irradiation from 1.0 to 5.0 Gy. Restoration of bone marrow cellularity by the 8th day after exposure also was reduced in mice irradiated by

  16. ASK1 modulates the expression of microRNA Let7A in microglia under high glucose in vitro condition

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juhyun; Lee, Jong Eun

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia results in oxidative stress and leads to neuronal apoptosis in the brain. Diabetes studies show that microglia participate in the progression of neuropathogenesis through their involvement in inflammation in vivo and in vitro. In high-glucose-induced inflammation, apoptosis signal regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) triggers the release of apoptosis cytokines and apoptotic gene expression. MicroRNA-Let7A (miR-Let7A) is reported to be a regulator of inflammation. In the present study, we investigated whether miR-Let7A regulates the function of microglia by controlling ASK1 in response to high-glucose-induced oxidative stress. We performed reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction, Taqman assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunocytochemistry to confirm the alteration of microglia function. Our results show that miR-Let7A is associated with the activation of ASK1 and the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin (IL)-10) and Mycs (c-Myc and N-Myc). Thus, the relationship between Let-7A and ASK1 could be a novel target for enhancing the beneficial function of microglia in central nervous system (CNS) disorders. PMID:26041997

  17. Ten Helpful Ideas for Teaching English to Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Joan Kang

    2006-01-01

    This article offers ten suggestions for teaching young learners between the age of 7 and 12 based on language-teaching principles. They include supplementing activities with visuals, realia and movement; involving students in making visuals and realia; moving from activity to activity; teaching in themes; using stories and contexts familiar to…

  18. Examining the effect of the Life Enhancement Treatment for Substance Use (LETS ACT) on residential substance abuse treatment retention.

    PubMed

    Magidson, Jessica F; Gorka, Stephanie M; MacPherson, Laura; Hopko, Derek R; Blanco, Carlos; Lejuez, C W; Daughters, Stacey B

    2011-06-01

    Effective, parsimonious behavioral interventions that target reinforcement are needed for substance users with depression to improve mood as well as treatment retention. The Life Enhancement Treatment for Substance Use (LETS ACT; Daughters et al., 2008) is a behavioral activation-based approach tailored to increase levels of positive reinforcement among depressed substance users while in substance abuse treatment. The current study tested the efficacy of LETS ACT compared to a contact-time matched control condition, supportive counseling (SC), examining effects on depressed mood, substance abuse treatment retention, and behavioral activation outcomes. Fifty-eight adult substance users in residential substance abuse treatment presenting with depressive symptoms (BDI≥12) were randomly assigned to LETS ACT or SC. Assessments were administered at pre- and post-treatment and included assessment of DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses, depression severity, treatment motivation, overall activation, environmental reward, and substance abuse treatment retention. Patients in LETS ACT had significantly higher rates of substance abuse treatment retention and significantly greater increases in activation on the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS) compared to those in SC. Both groups had decreased depression severity at post-treatment, although the group by time interaction was not significant. This study was the first to compare LETS ACT to a contact-time matched control treatment to evaluate effects on substance abuse treatment retention and two distinct measures of behavioral activation: overall activation and environmental reward. Findings suggest preliminary support for the feasibility, tolerability, and efficacy of a brief behavioral activation-based protocol that may be particularly useful to improve substance abuse treatment retention.

  19. Facilitating partner notification through an online messaging service: Let Them Know.

    PubMed

    Huffam, Sarah; Fairley, Christopher K; Chung, Mark; Sze, Jun Kit; Bilardi, Jade; Chen, Marcus Y

    2013-08-01

    Let Them Know (www.letthemknow.org.au) is an Australian internet based service designed to support individuals diagnosed with an STI to notify sexual partners using anonymous or personal text messages. A review of user activity and acceptability of the website was performed. Between 17 March 2010 and 31 March 2011, of 13?024 website visits, 4863 (37%) visits resulted in a text message being sent. From 3 December 2010, of 1383 consecutive users, 963 (70%) indicated they were more likely to contact a partner because of the website. A short period of misuse was identified and controlled, and additional measures to monitor for and prevent misuse were subsequently implemented. Web-based notification systems such as the Let Them Know website can help to facilitate partner notification for individuals who may be reluctant to do this in person.

  20. The Role of miRNA in Papillary Thyroid Cancer in the Context of miRNA Let-7 Family

    PubMed Central

    Perdas, Ewelina; Stawski, Robert; Nowak, Dariusz; Zubrzycka, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy. RET/PTC rearrangement is the most common genetic modification identified in this category of cancer, increasing proliferation and dedifferentiation by the activation of the RET/PTC-RAS-BRAF-MAPK-ERK signaling pathway. Recently, let-7 miRNA was found to reduce RAS levels, acting as a tumor suppressor gene. Circulating miRNA profiles of the let-7 family may be used as novel noninvasive diagnostic, prognostic, treatment and surveillance markers for PTC. PMID:27314338

  1. Increased Artemis levels confer radioresistance to both high and low LET radiation exposures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Artemis has a defined role in V(D)J recombination and has been implicated in the repair of radiation induced double-strand breaks. However the exact function(s) of Artemis in DNA repair and its preferred substrate(s) in vivo remain undefined. Our previous work suggests that Artemis is important for the repair of complex DNA damage like that inflicted by high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation. To establish the contribution of Artemis in repairing DNA damage caused by various radiation qualities, we evaluated the effect of over-expressing Artemis on cell survival, DNA repair, and cell cycle arrest after exposure to high and low LET radiation. Results Our data reveal that Artemis over-expression confers marked radioprotection against both types of radiation, although the radioprotective effect was greater following high LET radiation. Inhibitor studies reveal that the radioprotection imparted by Artemis is primarily dependent on DNA-PK activity, and to a lesser extent on ATM kinase activity. Together, these data suggest a DNA-PK dependent role for Artemis in the repair of complex DNA damage. Conclusions These findings indicate that Artemis levels significantly influence radiation toxicity in human cells and suggest that Artemis inhibition could be a practical target for adjuvant cancer therapies. PMID:22713703

  2. How to let go: pectin and plant cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Daher, Firas Bou; Braybrook, Siobhan A.

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells do not, in general, migrate. They maintain a fixed position relative to their neighbors, intimately linked through growth and differentiation. The mediator of this connection, the pectin-rich middle lamella, is deposited during cell division and maintained throughout the cell’s life to protect tissue integrity. The maintenance of adhesion requires cell wall modification and is dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. There are developmental processes that require cell separation, such as organ abscission, dehiscence, and ripening. In these instances, the pectin-rich middle lamella must be actively altered to allow cell separation, a process which also requires cell wall modification. In this review, we will focus on the role of pectin and its modification in cell adhesion and separation. Recent insights gained in pectin gel mechanics will be discussed in relation to existing knowledge of pectin chemistry as it relates to cell adhesion. As a whole, we hope to begin defining the physical mechanisms behind a cells’ ability to hang on, and how it lets go. PMID:26236321

  3. How to let go: pectin and plant cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Daher, Firas Bou; Braybrook, Siobhan A

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells do not, in general, migrate. They maintain a fixed position relative to their neighbors, intimately linked through growth and differentiation. The mediator of this connection, the pectin-rich middle lamella, is deposited during cell division and maintained throughout the cell's life to protect tissue integrity. The maintenance of adhesion requires cell wall modification and is dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. There are developmental processes that require cell separation, such as organ abscission, dehiscence, and ripening. In these instances, the pectin-rich middle lamella must be actively altered to allow cell separation, a process which also requires cell wall modification. In this review, we will focus on the role of pectin and its modification in cell adhesion and separation. Recent insights gained in pectin gel mechanics will be discussed in relation to existing knowledge of pectin chemistry as it relates to cell adhesion. As a whole, we hope to begin defining the physical mechanisms behind a cells' ability to hang on, and how it lets go.

  4. Acrolein Decreases Endothelial Cell Migration and Insulin Sensitivity Through Induction of let-7a

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, Timothy E.; Abplanalp, Wesley; Li, Xiaohong; Cooper, Nigel; Conklin, Daniel J.; Haberzettl, Petra; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2014-01-01

    Acrolein is a major reactive component of vehicle exhaust, and cigarette and wood smoke. It is also present in several food substances and is generated endogenously during inflammation and lipid peroxidation. Although previous studies have shown that dietary or inhalation exposure to acrolein results in endothelial activation, platelet activation, and accelerated atherogenesis, the basis for these effects is unknown. Moreover, the effects of acrolein on microRNA (miRNA) have not been studied. Using AGILENT miRNA microarray high-throughput technology, we found that treatment of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells with acrolein led to a significant (>1.5-fold) upregulation of 12, and downregulation of 15, miRNAs. Among the miRNAs upregulated were members of the let-7 family and this upregulation was associated with decreased expression of their protein targets, β3 integrin, Cdc34, and K-Ras. Exposure to acrolein attenuated β3 integrin-dependent migration and reduced Akt phosphorylation in response to insulin. These effects of acrolein on endothelial cell migration and insulin signaling were reversed by expression of a let-7a inhibitor. Also, inhalation exposure of mice to acrolein (1 ppm x 6 h/day x 4 days) upregulated let-7a and led to a decrease in insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the aorta. These results suggest that acrolein exposure has broad effects on endothelial miRNA repertoire and that attenuation of endothelial cell migration and insulin signaling by acrolein is mediated in part by the upregulation of let-7a. This mechanism may be a significant feature of vascular injury caused by inflammation, oxidized lipids, and exposure to environmental pollutants. PMID:24812010

  5. Learning Difficulties in English for Rural Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2010-01-01

    The present study illuminates and diagnoses the learning problems of the rural learners in English Grammar at standard VI. Present study may be useful to ameliorate the rural learners for acquiring competencies in English and eliminates the problems of the learners. It paves way to the teachers to diagnose the learning hurdles of the learners and…

  6. Model Learner Outcomes for Service Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Audrey M.

    This guide to model learner outcomes for service occupations contains four chapters: (1) education values, learner values, philosophy, mission, and goals; (2) introduction, goals, and eight program-level learner outcomes; (3) general learner outcomes and outcomes for housing occupations, child care occupations, cosmetology and personal services,…

  7. Preparing Learners for e-Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piskurich, George M., Ed.

    This book presents methods business organizations and educational institutions can use to prepare their learners to become successful e-learners. "Preparing e-Learners for Self- Directed Learning" (Long) discusses self-direction as a prerequisite to e-learning and gives a list of ways to help enhance learners' self-directedness.…

  8. About some stereotypes in Local Earthquake Tomography (LET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulakov, I. Yu.

    2009-04-01

    Local earthquake tomography (LET) scheme, when both stations and events are located inside the study area, aims at simultaneous determination of P and S velocity structure and source parameters. This is one of the most complicated situations among most of other tomographic schemes as it presumes solution of coupled non-linear problem for velocity structure and source locations. There are several LET codes which are used in practice, and some of them are considered today as well established tools. However, in the up-to-day papers such codes are often presented without prompt description and testing, with only referring to previous "classical" works. Here we consider several stereotypes and myths which pass from one LET study to another, such as: (1) GAP criterion for data selection; (2) using coarse parameterization grids; (3) using the trade-off curves to evaluate the damping parameters; (4) some typical errors in synthetic modeling; (5) preferential using Vp and Vp/Vs inversion scheme; (6) resolution estimates based on some formal parameters; (7) ways for estimating noise effect. We suppose that some of these issues are critical and may appear injurious for the results of tomographic inversion. The purpose of this overview is to attract attention of developers and users of the LET codes to these problems, to discuss them and to take them into account in the new LET studies.

  9. Evidence of DNA double strand breaks formation in Escherichia coli bacteria exposed to alpha particles of different LET assessed by the SOS response.

    PubMed

    Serment-Guerrero, Jorge; Breña-Valle, Matilde; Aguilar-Moreno, Magdalena; Balcázar, Miguel

    2012-12-01

    Ionizing radiation produces a plethora of lesion upon DNA which sometimes is generated among a relatively small region due to clustered energy deposition events, the so called locally multiply damaged sites that could change to DSB. Such clustered damages are more likely to occur in high LET radiation exposures. The effect of alpha particles of different LET was evaluated on the bacterium Escherichia coli either by survival properties or the SOS response activity. Alpha radiation and LET distribution was controlled by means of Nuclear Track Detectors. The results suggest that alpha particles produce two types of lesion: lethal lesions and SOS inducing-mutagenic, a proportion that varies depending on the LET values. The SOS response as a sensitive parameter to assess RBE is mentioned.

  10. Let's Do It: Take a Chance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, Virginia M.; Horak, Willis J.

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen probability activities are presented, categorized as activities with impossible and certain events, mystery bags, decks of cards, dice, spinners, and flipping. They help children develop an intuitive understanding of probability. (MNS)

  11. LIN28 alters cell fate succession and acts independently of the let-7 microRNA during neurogliogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Balzer, Erica; Heine, Christian; Jiang, Qiang; Lee, Vivian M; Moss, Eric G

    2010-03-01

    LIN28 is an RNA-binding protein that is expressed in many developing tissues. It can block let-7 (Mirlet7) microRNA processing and help promote pluripotency. We have observed LIN28 expression in the developing mouse neural tube, colocalizing with SOX2, suggesting a role in neural development. To better understand its normal developmental function, we investigated LIN28 activity during neurogliogenesis in vitro, where the succession of neuronal to glial cell fates occurs as it does in vivo. LIN28 expression was high in undifferentiated cells, and was downregulated rapidly upon differentiation. Constitutive LIN28 expression caused a complete block of gliogenesis and an increase in neurogenesis. LIN28 expression was compatible with neuronal differentiation and did not increase proliferation. LIN28 caused significant changes in gene expression prior to any effect on let-7, notably on Igf2. Furthermore, a mutant LIN28 that permitted let-7 accumulation was still able to completely block gliogenesis. Thus, at least two biological activities of LIN28 are genetically separable and might involve distinct mechanisms. LIN28 can differentially promote and inhibit specific fates and does not function exclusively by blocking let-7 family microRNAs. Importantly, the role of LIN28 in cell fate succession in vertebrate cells is analogous to its activity as a developmental timing regulator in C. elegans.

  12. A let-7-to-miR-125 MicroRNA Switch Regulates Neuronal Integrity and Lifespan in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Geetanjali; Deosthale, Padmini; Childress, Sue; Wu, Yen-chi; Sokol, Nicholas S.

    2016-01-01

    Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) often contain binding sites for multiple, different microRNAs (miRNAs). However, the biological significance of this feature is unclear, since such co-targeting miRNAs could function coordinately, independently, or redundantly with one another. Here, we show that two co-transcribed Drosophila miRNAs, let-7 and miR-125, non-redundantly regulate a common target, the transcription factor Chronologically Inappropriate Morphogenesis (Chinmo). We first characterize novel adult phenotypes associated with loss of both let-7 and miR-125, which are derived from a common, polycistronic transcript that also encodes a third miRNA, miR-100. Consistent with the coordinate upregulation of all three miRNAs in aging flies, these phenotypes include brain degeneration and shortened lifespan. However, transgenic rescue analysis reveal separable roles for these miRNAs: adult miR-125 but not let-7 mutant phenotypes are associated with ectopic Chinmo expression in adult brains and are suppressed by chinmo reduction. In contrast, let-7 is predominantly responsible for regulating chinmo during nervous system formation. These results indicate that let-7 and miR-125 function during two distinct stages, development and adulthood, rather than acting at the same time. These different activities are facilitated by an increased rate of processing of let-7 during development and a lower rate of decay of the accumulated miR-125 in the adult nervous system. Thus, this work not only establishes a key role for the highly conserved miR-125 in aging. It also demonstrates that two co-transcribed miRNAs function independently during distinct stages to regulate a common target, raising the possibility that such biphasic control may be a general feature of clustered miRNAs. PMID:27508495

  13. Simulation of DSB yield for high LET radiation.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, T; Durante, M; Scholz, M

    2015-09-01

    A simulation approach for the calculation of the LET-dependent yield of double-strand breaks (DSB) is presented. The model considers DSB formed as two close-lying single-strand breaks (SSB), whose formation is mediated by both intra-track processes (single electrons) or at local doses larger than about 1000 Gy in particle tracks also by electron inter-track processes (two independent electron tracks). A Monte Carlo algorithm and an analytical formula for the DSB yield are presented. The approach predicts that the DSB yield is enhanced after charged particle irradiation of high LET compared with X-ray or gamma radiation. It is used as an inherent part of the local effect model, which is applied to estimate the relative biological effectiveness of high LET radiation.

  14. LET analyses of biological damage during solar particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Shinn, Judy L.; Katz, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The effects of nuclear reactions on integral low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) protons spectra are studied, behind typical levels of spacecraft and body shielding, for the historically largest flares using the high-energy transport code BRYNTRN in conjunction with several biological damage models. The cellular track model of Katz provides an accurate description of cellular damage from heavy ion exposure. The track model is applied with BRYNTRN to provide a LET decomposition of survival and transformation rates for solar proton events. In addition, a fluence-based risk coefficient formalism is used to estimate Harderian gland-tumor induction in rodents and cataractogenesis in rabbits from solar flares, and a LET analysis is used to assess the relative contribution from target fragments on these biological endpoints.

  15. Healthy Birth Practice #1: Let Labor Begin on Its Own

    PubMed Central

    Amis, Debby

    2014-01-01

    As cesarean rates have climbed to almost one-third of all births in the United States, current research and professional organizations have identified letting labor begin on its own as one of the most important strategies for reducing the primary cesarean rate. At least equally important, letting labor begin on its own supports normal physiology, prevents iatrogenic prematurity, and prevents the cascade of interventions caused by labor induction. This article is an updated evidence-based review of the “Lamaze International Care Practices That Promote Normal Birth, Care Practice #1: Let Labor Begin on Its Own,” published in The Journal of Perinatal Education, 16(3), 2007. PMID:25411537

  16. Modelling proton bunches focussed to submicrometre scales: low-LET radiation damage in high-LET-like spatial structure.

    PubMed

    Friedland, W; Kundrát, P; Schmitt, E

    2015-09-01

    Microbeam experiments approximating high-LET tracks by bunches of lower-LET particles focussed to submicrometre scales (Schmid et al. 2012, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 5889) provide an unprecedented benchmark for models of biological effects of radiation. PARTRAC track structure-based Monte Carlo simulations have verified that focussed 20 MeV proton bunches resemble the radial dose distributions of single 55 MeV carbon ions as used in the experiments. However, the predicted yields of double-strand break and short (<1 kbp) DNA fragments by focussed protons correspond to homogeneous proton irradiation and are much smaller than for carbon tracks. The calculated yields of dicentrics overestimate the effect of focussing but reproduce the fourfold difference between carbon ions and homogeneously distributed protons. The extent to which focussed low-LET particles approximate high-LET radiation is limited by the achievable focussing: submicrometre focussing of proton bunches cannot reproduce local nanometre clustering, i.e. DNA damage complexity characteristic of high-LET radiation.

  17. Learner Agency and the Use of Affordances in Language-Exchange Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Tae youn

    2016-01-01

    Language exchange refers to a learning partnership between two learners with different native languages who collaborate to help each other improve their proficiency in the other's language. The purpose of this study is to examine the ways in which language-exchange participants activate learner agency to construct opportunities for learning in…

  18. A Critical Analysis of Learner Participation in Virtual Worlds: How Can Virtual Worlds Inform Our Pedagogy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panichi, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory case study of learner participation within the context of online language learning in virtual world platforms. Data for this investigation was collected through a case study of a Business English course within a qualitative Case-Study Research framework. This study examines learner activity in virtual worlds in…

  19. "Can We Do That Again?" Engaging Learners and Developing beyond the "Wow" Factor in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astall, Chris; Bruce, Warren

    2010-01-01

    Adding Mentos to an open bottle of Diet Coke can produce a fountain of liquid and froth extending several metres high. This activity can engage a wide audience of learners in a relevant and meaningful way, provide a model for creative science teaching, and help to develop learners' attitudes towards school science as a subject. In this paper, the…

  20. A Multi-Perspective Investigation into Learners' Interaction in Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çardak, Çigdem Suzan

    2016-01-01

    This article focusses on graduate level students' interactions during asynchronous CMC activities of an online course about the teaching profession in Turkey. The instructor of the course designed and facilitated a semester-long asynchronous CMC on forum discussions, and investigated the interaction of learners in multiple perspectives: learners'…

  1. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Self-Regulatory Vocabulary Strategy Use and Their Vocabulary Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amirian, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Mallahi, Omid; Zaghi, Damoon

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulation is referred to as learners' self-generated ideas and actions which are systematically directed towards achieving educational goals and require learners' active participation in the learning process (Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994). The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL students' self-regulation capacity…

  2. Toward a Unified Modeling of Learner's Growth Process and Flow Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Challco, Geiser C.; Andrade, Fernando R. H.; Borges, Simone S.; Bittencourt, Ig I.; Isotani, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Flow is the affective state in which a learner is so engaged and involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter. In this sense, to help students in the skill development and knowledge acquisition (referred to as learners' growth process) under optimal conditions, the instructional designers should create learning scenarios that favor…

  3. Effectiveness of a Learner-Directed Model for e-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Stella; Barker, Trevor; Kumar, Vivekanandan Suresh

    2016-01-01

    It is a hard task to strike a balance between extents of control a learner exercises and the amount of guidance, active or passive, afforded by the learning environment to guide, support, and motivate the learner. Adaptive systems strive to find the right balance in a spectrum that spans between self-control and system-guidance. They also concern…

  4. Language-Related Computer Use: Focus on Young L2 English Learners in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundqvist, Pia; Sylvén, Liss Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study investigating young English language learners (YELLs) in Sweden in 4th grade (N = 76, aged 10-11). Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire and a one-week language diary. The main purpose was to examine the learners' L2 English language-related activities outside of school in general, and their…

  5. The Interplay between Language, Gestures, Dragging and Diagrams in Bilingual Learners' Mathematical Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Oi-Lam

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of considering bilingual learners' non-linguistic forms of communication for understanding their mathematical thinking. In particular, I provide a detailed analysis of communication involving a pair of high school bilingual learners during an exploratory activity where a touchscreen-based dynamic geometry…

  6. Guiding Learners into Reengagement through the SCALE Environment: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verginis, Ilias; Gouli, Evangelia; Gogoulou, Agoritsa; Grigoriadou, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the facilities offered by the open learner model maintained in the web-based, adaptive, activity-oriented learning environment SCALE (Supporting Collaboration and Adaptation in a Learning Environment), in order to guide online students who become disengaged and support their reengagement. The open learner model (OLM_SCALE)…

  7. Capitalising on Learner Agency and Group Work in Learning Writing in English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the roles of learner agency and group work in learning writing in English as a foreign language (EFL). Through exploratory and participatory action research, this study examines how learner agency and group work function amidst the activity system of task-based EFL writing, especially how they influence and are influenced…

  8. Learner-Centered Psychological Principles: A Framework for School Redesign and Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.

    Educators, concerned with disturbing trends in school failure, are arguing for more learner-centered models of schooling. Such a reform effort requires set principles that emphasize the active and reflective nature of learning and learners; 14 such principles are reported here. The immediate goal of this report is to provide a framework that can…

  9. The Relationship between Reading Proficiency and Reading Strategy Use: A Study of Adult ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…

  10. Choosing to Interact: Exploring the Relationship between Learner Personality, Attitudes, and Tutorial Dialogue Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezen-Can, Aysu; Boyer, Kristy Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The tremendous effectiveness of intelligent tutoring systems is due in large part to their interactivity. However, when learners are free to choose the extent to which they interact with a tutoring system, not all learners do so actively. This paper examines a study with a natural language tutorial dialogue system for computer science, in which…

  11. Evoking the Power of Learners

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Our mandate, as Lamaze International childbirth educators, is to assist women in making healthy pregnancy, birth, and parenting choices. Being mindful of health promotion theory and using learning tasks and dialogue education to provide information creates a collaborative Lamaze class where the teacher is the facilitator and the learners are accountable for their learning. This column offers Lamaze educators a deeper understanding of adult learners and our roles in their birth education. PMID:22942625

  12. Cry Havoc and Let Slip the Dogs of War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    service at the outbreak of the war. Furthermore, the Brits killed over 400,000 dogs and cats in London for fear of the expected German bombing. Sadly...CRY HAVOC AND LET SLIP THE DOGS OF WAR” SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES AND THE MILITARY WORKING DOG BY Major Joseph F. Whelan U.S. Army Special Forces...TO) xx-xx-2000 to xx-xx-2001 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ?CRY HAVOC AND LET SLIP THE DOGS OF WAR? Unclassified 5c

  13. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China.

  14. Learners' Satisfaction Level with Online Student Portal as a Support System in an Open and Distance eLearning Environment (ODeL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secreto, Percia V.; Pamulaklakin, Rhodora L.

    2015-01-01

    Learner support in an open, distance and online learning is defined as "all activities and elements in education that respond to a known learner or group of learners, and which are designed to assist in the cognitive, affective, and systemic realms of the learning process" (Brindley, et. al, 2004). Teaching and tutoring, advising and…

  15. A Learner-led, Discussion-based Elective on Emerging Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To implement a learner-led, discussion-based course aimed at exposing second-year pharmacy learners to the study of emerging infectious diseases from a global health perspective and to assess the role and importance of pharmacists in the management of disease outbreaks. Design. Learners examined literature pertinent to an emerging infectious disease in a 3-credit, discussion-based course and participated in peer discussion led by a designated learner. Instructional materials included journal articles, audio-visual presentations, documentaries, book chapters, movies, newspaper/magazine articles, and other materials. Learning outcomes were measured based on the ability of learners to perform critical thinking and analysis, communicate with their peers, and participate in class discussions. Assessment. The course was offered to 2 consecutive cohorts consisting of 14 and 16 learners, respectively. Overall, every learner in the first cohort achieved a final grade of A for the course. In the second cohort, the overall grade distribution consisted of grades of A, B, and C for the course. Learner evaluations indicated that the active-learning, discussion-based environment significantly enhanced interest in the topic and overall performance in the course. Conclusion. The elective course on emerging infectious diseases provided in-depth exposure to disease topics normally not encountered in the pharmacy curriculum. Learners found the material and format valuable, and the course enhanced their appreciation of infectious diseases, research methodology, critical thinking and analysis, and their roles as pharmacists. PMID:26430268

  16. A Learner-led, Discussion-based Elective on Emerging Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Clinton

    2015-08-25

    Objective. To implement a learner-led, discussion-based course aimed at exposing second-year pharmacy learners to the study of emerging infectious diseases from a global health perspective and to assess the role and importance of pharmacists in the management of disease outbreaks. Design. Learners examined literature pertinent to an emerging infectious disease in a 3-credit, discussion-based course and participated in peer discussion led by a designated learner. Instructional materials included journal articles, audio-visual presentations, documentaries, book chapters, movies, newspaper/magazine articles, and other materials. Learning outcomes were measured based on the ability of learners to perform critical thinking and analysis, communicate with their peers, and participate in class discussions. Assessment. The course was offered to 2 consecutive cohorts consisting of 14 and 16 learners, respectively. Overall, every learner in the first cohort achieved a final grade of A for the course. In the second cohort, the overall grade distribution consisted of grades of A, B, and C for the course. Learner evaluations indicated that the active-learning, discussion-based environment significantly enhanced interest in the topic and overall performance in the course. Conclusion. The elective course on emerging infectious diseases provided in-depth exposure to disease topics normally not encountered in the pharmacy curriculum. Learners found the material and format valuable, and the course enhanced their appreciation of infectious diseases, research methodology, critical thinking and analysis, and their roles as pharmacists.

  17. Let Your Students Talk and Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroonenberg, Nancy

    A variety of ideas for classroom second language learning activities are presented. Most are for the intermediate level, but some beginning and advanced level activities are included. Two elements are common to all of them: regard for the cultural element in the language and maintenance of a low-risk, non-intimidating classroom atmosphere. The…

  18. Let's Debate: Active Learning Encourages Student Participation and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oros, Andrew L.

    2007-01-01

    Structured classroom debates (SCDs), whereby teams of students debate a question prepared outside of class, help advance two goals many political science instructors struggle to achieve with their students: classroom participation beyond the "usual suspects" present in every classroom and critical thinking and analysis of political issues. This…

  19. Let-7c governs the acquisition of chemo- or radioresistance and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotypes in docetaxel-resistant lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shi-Yun; Huang, Jia-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Tian; Song, Hai-Zhu; Feng, Bing; Huang, Gui-Chun; Wang, Rui; Chen, Long-Bang; De, Wei

    2013-07-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) expression and functions have been reported to contribute to phenotypic features of tumor cells. Although targets and functional roles for many miRNAs have been described in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD), their pathophysiologic roles in phenotypes of chemoresistant LAD cells are still largely unclear. Previously, docetaxel (DTX)-resistant LAD cell lines (SPC-A1/DTX and H1299/DTX) were established by our laboratory and displayed chemo- or radioresistance and mesenchymal features with enhanced invasiveness and motility. Unbiased miRNA profiling indicated that let-7c (MIRLET7C) was significantly downregulated in SPC-A1/DTX cells. Ectopic let-7c expression increased the in vitro and in vivo chemo- or radiosensitivity of DTX-resistant LAD cells through enhanced apoptosis, reversal of epithelial-to-mesenchymal phenotypes, and inhibition of in vivo metastatic potential via inactivation of Akt phosphorylation, whereas a let-7c inhibitor decreased the chemo- or radiosensitivity of parental cells. Further investigation suggested that let-7c significantly reduced the luciferase activity of a Bcl-xL 3'-UTR-based reporter, concordant with reduced Bcl-xL protein levels. Additionally, siRNA-mediated Bcl-xL knockdown mimicked the same effects of let-7c precursor, and enforced Bcl-xL expression partially rescued the effects of let-7c precursor in DTX-resistant LAD cells. Furthermore, we found that Bcl-xL was significantly upregulated in DTX-nonresponding LAD tissues, and its expression was inversely correlated with let-7c expression. This study suggests an important role for let-7c in the molecular etiology of chemoresistant lung adenocarcinoma.

  20. For Better Soil, Let Earthworms Toil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, Rebecca, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This activity involves elementary students in investigating how earthworms affect soil fertility. An introduction discusses topsoil loss and the connections between soil and earthworm ecology. Materials needed and step-by-step procedure are provided. (LZ)

  1. The Impact of "Let's Count" on Children's Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervasoni, Ann; Perry, Bob; Parish, Linda

    2015-01-01

    "Let's Count" is an early mathematics program that has been designed by The Smith Family and the authors to assist educators in early childhood contexts in socially disadvantaged areas of Australia to work in partnership with parents and other family members to promote positive mathematical experiences for young children (3-5 years). A…

  2. Louisiana Eyes Plan to Let State Control New Orleans Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2005-01-01

    Seeking to grasp what she called a "golden opportunity for rebirth" out of the wreckage of Hurricane Katrina, Governor Kathleen Babineaux Blanco asked the Louisiana legislature last week to embrace a plan that would give the state control of most New Orleans public schools. This article talks about the governor's plan to let the state…

  3. Let Freedom Ring! A Manual. Bulletin, 1937, No. 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jager, Harry A.

    1937-01-01

    "Let Freedom Ring!" is a radio program built around the Bill of Rights and the questions that these rights raise. It is the contribution of the United States Department of the Interior, Office of Education, to the Sesquicentennial Celebration ordained by Congress. The series began on Washington's Birthday, Sunday, February 22, 1937, and continued…

  4. Chromosome aberrations induced by high-LET radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawata, Tetsuya; Ito, Hisao; George, Kerry; Wu, Honglu; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes are currently the most sensitive and reliable indicator of radiation exposure that can be used for biological dosimetry. This technique has been implemented recently to study radiation exposures incurred by astronauts during space flight, where a significant proportion of the dose is delivered by high-LET particle exposure. Traditional methods for the assessing of cytogenetic damage in mitotic cells collected at one time point after exposure may not be suitable for measuring high-LET radiation effects due to the drastic cell cycle perturbations and interphase cell death induced by this type of exposure. In this manuscript we review the recent advances in methodology used to study high-LET induced cytogenetic effects and evaluate the use of chemically-induced Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) as an alternative to metaphase analysis. Published data on the cytogenetic effects of in vitro exposures of high-LET radiation is reviewed, along with biodosimetry results from astronauts after short or long space missions.

  5. Let's Hold Hands: A Project Connecting Children around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    The story of the Let's Hold Hands dolls began in Korphe, a village in northern Pakistan. In 1933, after a failed attempt to climb K2, a weak, exhausted American mountaineer named Greg Mortenson staggered into Korphe. The villagers cared for him and helped him regain his strength. To repay their kindness, he vowed to return to help build the…

  6. Let Students Discover an Important Physical Property of a Slinky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gash, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a simple experiment that lets first-year physics and engineering students discover an important physical property of a Slinky. The restoring force for the fundamental oscillation frequency is provided only by those coils between the support and the Slinky center of mass.

  7. "Let me tell you about being a nurse".

    PubMed

    Thieman, LeAnn

    2009-08-01

    With the nursing shortage at crisis proportions, human resource directors and headhunters are working overtime to find creative ways to draw more women and men into our profession. But let's not forget the most powerful tool of all: ourselves. By role-modeling competent, compassionate nursing care, we're our own best recruiters. This nurse's story is just one example.

  8. Let's Play: Exploring Literacy Practices in an Emerging Videogame Paratext

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burwell, Catherine; Miller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the literacy practices associated with Let's Play videos (or LPs) on YouTube. A hybrid of digital gaming and video, LPs feature gameplay footage accompanied by simultaneous commentary recorded by the player. Players may set out to promote, review, critique or satirize a game. In recent years, LPs have become hugely popular…

  9. Cell cycle delay in murine pre-osteoblasts is more pronounced after exposure to high-LET compared to low-LET radiation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yueyuan; Hellweg, Christine E; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Reitz, Günther; Lau, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Space radiation contains a complex mixture of particles comprised primarily of protons and high-energy heavy ions. Radiation risk is considered one of the major health risks for astronauts who embark on both orbital and interplanetary space missions. Ionizing radiation dose-dependently kills cells, damages genetic material, and disturbs cell differentiation and function. The immediate response to ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage is stimulation of DNA repair machinery and activation of cell cycle regulatory checkpoints. To date, little is known about cell cycle regulation after exposure to space-relevant radiation, especially regarding bone-forming osteoblasts. Here, we assessed cell cycle regulation in the osteoblastic cell line OCT-1 after exposure to various types of space-relevant radiation. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of ionizing radiation was investigated regarding the biological endpoint of cellular survival ability. Cell cycle progression was examined following radiation exposure resulting in different RBE values calculated for a cellular survival level of 1 %. Our findings indicate that radiation with a linear energy transfer (LET) of 150 keV/μm was most effective in inducing reproductive cell killing by causing cell cycle arrest. Expression analyses indicated that cells exposed to ionizing radiation exhibited significantly up-regulated p21(CDKN1A) gene expression. In conclusion, our findings suggest that cell cycle regulation is more sensitive to high-LET radiation than cell survival, which is not solely regulated through elevated CDKN1A expression.

  10. Letting Your Students "Fly" in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Students investigate the concept of motion by making simple paper airplanes and flying them in the classroom. Students are introduced to conversion factors to calculate various speeds. Additional activities include rounding decimal numbers, estimating, finding averages, making bar graphs, and solving problems. Offers ideas for extension such as…

  11. How Many Cards? Let's Ask the LCM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerger, Monte J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students deal a deck of cards to 5, then 4, then 3, then 2 players; note the number of cards left over each time; and from this information determine the number of cards in the deck. (MKR)

  12. Nutritionopoly: Let Healthy Choices "Monopolize" Your Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Person, Ashley L.; Colby, Sarah E.; Eubanks, Janie W.

    2011-01-01

    Nutritionopoly, an interactive educational program based on the popular board game, Monopoly, was held at a college university dining hall. Students actively participated in the game while learning important nutrition and health-related information. Feedback showed that it was effective in increasing awareness and knowledge while being fun and…

  13. Let Me Tell You a Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Deirdre

    2007-01-01

    HMP Cornton Vale is Scotland's only female prison. Based in Stirlingshire, it accommodates adults and young women, both sentenced and untried. Most sentenced prisoners are short-term prisoners with sentences of between two and four years. Cornton Vale offers a range of formal and non-formal activities for the women, some educational, others…

  14. Let's Get Physical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Sami; Wild, Tiffany; Woolsey, Lynn; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    How do students with visual impairments measure liquids? Can a student with cerebral palsy participate in hands-on science activities? What challenges might a hearing-impaired student have in my science class? These are just some of the important questions increasingly being asked by science teachers, thanks in part to the Individuals with…

  15. Let Animals Teach Your Students to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1986-01-01

    Offers a plan for organizing and implementing a schoolwide reading week entitled, "Drop Everything Else, Read" (DEER). Presents explanations and directions for eight reading activities which focus on animals. Includes materials that can be duplicated and used by students as bookmarks and certificates. (ML)

  16. Effective instruction for English learners.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sánchez, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or instructing them. Margarita Calderón, Robert Slavin, and Marta Sánchez identify the elements of effective instruction and review a variety of successful program models. During 2007-08, more than 5.3 million English learners made up 10.6 percent of the nation's K-12 public school enrollment. Wide and persistent achievement disparities between these English learners and English-proficient students show clearly, say the authors, that schools must address the language, literacy, and academic needs of English learners more effectively. Researchers have fiercely debated the merits of bilingual and English-only reading instruction. In elementary schools, English learners commonly receive thirty minutes of English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction but attend general education classes for the rest of the day, usually with teachers who are unprepared to teach them. Though English learners have strikingly diverse levels of skills, in high school they are typically lumped together, with one teacher to address their widely varying needs. These in-school factors contribute to the achievement disparities. Based on the studies presented here, Calderón, Slavin, and Sánchez assert that the quality of instruction is what matters most in educating English learners. They highlight comprehensive reform models, as well as individual components of these models: school structures and leadership; language and literacy instruction; integration of language, literacy, and content instruction in secondary schools; cooperative learning; professional development; parent and family support teams; tutoring; and monitoring implementation and outcomes

  17. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  18. Comparative Analysis of the In Vitro Sensitivity of Human Lymphocytes Exposed to Radiation of Different LET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaytseva, Ekaterina M.; Deperas-Kaminska, Marta; Govorun, Raisa D.; Deperas-Standylo, Joanna; Wojcik, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if the sensitivity of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) to high LET radiation is individually variable and whether it correlates with the sensitivity to low LET radiation.

  19. Study Partners Recommendation for xMOOCs Learners

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) provide an opportunity for people to access free courses offered by top universities in the world and therefore attracted great attention and engagement from college teachers and students. However, with contrast to large scale enrollment, the completion rate of these courses is really low. One of the reasons for students to quit learning process is problems which they face that could not be solved by discussing them with classmates. In order to keep them staying in the course, thereby further improving the completion rate, we address the task of study partner recommendation for students based on both content information and social network information. By analyzing the content of messages posted by learners in course discussion forum, we investigated the learners' behavior features to classify the learners into three groups. Then we proposed a topic model to measure learners' course knowledge awareness. Finally, a social network was constructed based on their activities in the course forum, and the relationship in the network was then employed to recommend study partners for target learner combined with their behavior features and course knowledge awareness. The experiment results show that our method achieves better performance than recommending method only based on content information. PMID:25663836

  20. Focus on Form, Learner Uptake and Subsequent Lexical Gains in Learners' Oral Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcon-Soler, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study reports findings on the relationship between focus on form, learner uptake and subsequent lexical gains in learners' oral production. The data for the study consisted in 17 45-minute audio-recorded teacher-led conversations, 204 learners' diaries (17 sessions x 12 learners) reporting what they had learned after each…

  1. Teacher Perceptions of Learner-Learner Engagement at a Cyber High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borup, Jered

    2016-01-01

    Distance education has historically contained little or no learner-learner interactions. Currently the Internet allows for unprecedented levels of learner-learner interaction and has the potential to transform how students learn online. However, many courses offered online focus more on flexibility and independence than on interaction and…

  2. Affective Dimensions of the Japanese Foreign Language Learner: Implications for Psychological Learner Development in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuchi, Naoko Tani; Sakamoto, Robin

    2005-01-01

    As learner-centred approaches are gaining popularity in many language classrooms, the affective dimensions of learners and the interaction effects of learners and teachers have become an important theme for research and assessment. This paper explores how Japanese learners of English as a foreign language evolve in two geographically distinct…

  3. Flatulence on airplanes: just let it go.

    PubMed

    Pommergaard, Hans C; Burcharth, Jakob; Fischer, Anders; Thomas, William E G; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-02-15

    Flatus is natural and an invariable consequence of digestion, however at times it creates problems of social character due to sound and odour. This problem may be more significant on commercial airplanes where many people are seated in limited space and where changes in volume of intestinal gases, due to altered cabin pressure, increase the amount of potential flatus. Holding back flatus on an airplane may cause significant discomfort and physical symptoms, whereas releasing flatus potentially presents social complications. To avoid this problem we humbly propose that active charcoal should be embedded in the seat cushion, since this material is able to neutralise the odour. Moreover active charcoal may be used in trousers and blankets to emphasise this effect. Other less practical or politically correct solutions to overcome this problem may be to restrict access of flatus-prone persons from airplanes, by using a methane breath test or to alter the fibre content of airline meals in order to reduce its flatulent potential. We conclude that the use of active charcoal on airlines may improve flight comfort for all passengers.

  4. Explicit and Implicit Feedback, Modified Output, and SLA: Does Explicit and Implicit Feedback Promote Learning and Learner-Learner Interactions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Rebecca; Nuevo, Ana Maria; Egi, Takako

    2011-01-01

    Research on interactional feedback has typically focused on feedback learners receive from native speakers (i.e., NS-learner contexts). However, for many second language (L2) learners, the majority of their opportunities to engage in interaction occur with other learners (i.e., learner-learner contexts). The literature has suggested that feedback…

  5. Collaborative Revision in L2 Writing: Learners' Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memari Hanjani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    L2 learning literature has reflected on the problems surrounding the application of teacher written feedback and peer feedback in EFL contexts. To address the disadvantages of these feedback forms, this exploratory case study examined EFL learners' reactions to a collaborative revision activity. Interview data were collected from eight native…

  6. Administrative Roles in Helping Faculty Adapt to Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Keith A.

    Since the number of adult students engaging in higher education activities is growing rapidly and is expected to continue to climb, this paper is intended to help administrators develop a perspective from which to view adult learners on college campuses and craft programs to help faculty work more effectively with adult students. The first section…

  7. Motivation and Interlanguage Pragmatics in Iranian English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khorshidi, Hassan Rasouli; Nimchahi, Abdolreza Bagherzadeh

    2013-01-01

    It is generally believed that interlanguage pragmatics and motivation play important roles in learning. Motivation is important because it determines the extent of the learner's active involvement and attitude toward learning. The major purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of integrative and instrumental motivation on the…

  8. The Campus Leadership as a Community of Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Randy

    Students are increasingly expected to be able to think critically, solve complex problems, and communicate clearly. Educators are expected to facilitate that learning in a variety of situations for an increasingly individualized student population. Therefore, educators who attempt to change their practices must become active learners. A school…

  9. Boosting Language Skills of English Learners through Dramatization and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfader, Christa Mulker; Brouillette, Liane

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an arts integration program that uses drama and dance to promote foundational literacy skills, with an emphasis on the oral development of English Language Learners (ELLs). Previous research indicates that arts activities afford a beneficial opportunity for young students to practice language skills, but many teachers have…

  10. A Study of Pharmacists' Behavior as Lifelong Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Alan L.; DeMuth, James E.

    1992-01-01

    A national survey of 355 licensed pharmacists investigated their perceptions of themselves as lifelong learners, participation in various professional and leisure activities, attitudes predicting lifelong learning behavior, and respondent characteristics. The two analytical models used arrived at different demographic and other variables…

  11. Are Online Learners Frustrated with Collaborative Learning Experiences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capdeferro, Neus; Romero, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Online education increasingly puts emphasis on collaborative learning methods. Despite the pedagogical advantages of collaborative learning, online learners can perceive collaborative learning activities as frustrating experiences. The purpose of this study was to characterize the feelings of frustration as a negative emotion among online learners…

  12. Learner Experiences in Web-Based Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Jeong-Bae

    2007-01-01

    The World Wide Web offers a global database of authentic materials that can enhance language learning and teaching. This study examines the use of the web for language learning through a study of English as a second language (ESL) learners' experiences in web-based language learning (WBLL) activities in an English language intensive course for…

  13. Language Development for English Language Learners. Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Mabel O.; Moughamian, Ani; Francis, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This Facilitator's Guide has been prepared for presenters of the "Language Development for English Language Learners" professional development module. It accompanies the 67-slide PowerPoint presentation with speaker's notes and contains materials to help prepare for a professional development session, including activity instructions, handouts,…

  14. Adults as Learners. Increasing Participation and Facilitating Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, K. Patricia

    The literature on adult learners is reviewed, and two models of adult learning are developed. Demographic, social, and technological trends that stimulate the increasing demand for learning opportunities are examined, and the views of those who see dangers in new pressures on adults to participate in organized learning activities are considered.…

  15. Adapting a Social Studies Lesson to Include English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Lake, Vickie E.; Rice, Diana C.

    2005-01-01

    If one were to search for classroom strategies for English Language Learners (ELLs), it would not take much time to find many different types of activities that are all useful with ELLs. Additionally, if one were to search for social studies strategies to use with native English speakers, he or she would have little difficulty in finding a variety…

  16. Using Young Adult Literature with Adolescent Learners of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Elizabeth L.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses (1) a rationale for using young adult literature with adolescent English-as-a-Second-Language learners; (2) an approach to teaching the novel "Make Lemonade" by Virginia Euwer Wolff; (3) activities in which students engaged and samples of their work; and (4) implications for teachers who explore young adult literature with…

  17. Yellowstone bison genetics: let us move forward

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halbert, Natalie D.; Gogan, Peter J.P.; Hedrick, Philip W.; Wahl, Jacquelyn M.; Derr, James N.

    2012-01-01

    White and Wallen (2012) disagree with the conclusions and suggestions made in our recent assessment of population structure among Yellowstone National Park (YNP) bison based on 46 autosomal microsatellite loci in 661 animals (Halbert et al. 2012). First, they suggest that "the existing genetic substructure (that we observed) was artificially created." Specifically, they suggest that the substructure observed between the northern and central populations is the result of human activities, both historical and recent. In fact, the genetic composition of all known existing bison herds was created by, or has been influenced by, anthropogenic activities, although this obviously does not reduce the value of these herds for genetic conservation (Dratch and Gogan 2010). As perspective, many, if not most, species of conservation concern have been influenced by human actions and as a result currently exist as isolated populations. However, it is quite difficult to distinguish between genetic differences caused by human actions and important ancestral variation contained in separate populations without data from early time periods. Therefore, to not lose genetic variation that may be significant or indicative of important genetic variation, the generally acceptable management approach is to attempt to retain this variation based on the observed population genetic subdivision (Hedrick et al. 1986).

  18. Learner Control in Computer Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    An investigation of how secondary students coped when taught binary arithmetic through a computer assisted instruction program used four treatment groups: learner control, learner control with advice; random program control, and adaptive program control. The random group performed less well, but no differences were found between learner and…

  19. Technology Applications for the Exceptional Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Janet

    This paper is a series of lesson plans designed to assist teachers with the instruction of the exceptional learner. The focus is on identifying what the exceptional learner needs, and provides specific lesson plans that met those needs. Exceptional learners experience difficulty with spelling, organization, and metacognition. Detailed directions…

  20. Becoming a Strategic Language Learner in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines what it means to be a strategic language learner in the context of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). It looks at the possible roles for language learner strategies at their crucial intersection with language learning technology. We will first consider what language learner strategies have been represented in…

  1. Factors Influencing Chinese Language Learners' Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Ko-Yin

    2011-01-01

    This survey study, which involved 134 language learners enrolled in first-year Chinese as a foreign language classrooms in the US universities, intended to address the research question, "Do learners' strategy use differ based on the following learner differences: (1) gender; (2) home language/culture; and (3) number of other foreign languages…

  2. An Open Learner Model for Trainee Pilots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gakhal, Inderdip; Bull, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential for simple open learner models for highly motivated, independent learners, using the example of trainee pilots. In particular we consider whether such users access their learner model to help them identify their current knowledge level, areas of difficulty and specific misconceptions, to help them plan their…

  3. The Adult Learner: Some Things We Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin J.; Pete, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses the "warrior" who rises to the challenge of teaching the adult learner. The discussion is designed as a catalyst for dialogue about the adult learner and to uncover the complexities of teaching this rare and riveting species. This book is organized around three interlocking themes: some things we know about the adult learner;…

  4. Educating Young Children: Active Learning Practices for Preschool and Child Care Programs [and] A Study Guide to Educating Young Children: Exercises for Adult Learners. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann, Mary; Weikart, David P.

    High/Scope preschool curriculum is a model for developing high-quality early childhood programs that encourage and support children's initiatives and active learning experiences. This revised manual for early childhood practitioners and students presents essential strategies adults can use to make active learning a reality in their programs. The…

  5. let-7 Overexpression Leads to an Increased Fraction of Cells in G2/M, Direct Down-regulation of Cdc34, and Stabilization of Wee1 Kinase in Primary Fibroblasts*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Legesse-Miller, Aster; Elemento, Olivier; Pfau, Sarah J.; Forman, Joshua J.; Tavazoie, Saeed; Coller, Hilary A.

    2009-01-01

    microRNAs play a critically important role in a wide array of biological processes including those implicated in cancer, neuro-degenerative and metabolic disorders, and viral infection. Although we have begun to understand microRNA biogenesis and function, experimental demonstration of their functional effects and the molecular mechanisms by which they function remains a challenge. Members of the let-7/miR-98 family play a critical role in cell cycle control with respect to differentiation and tumorigenesis. In this study, we show that exogenous addition of pre-let-7 in primary human fibroblasts results in a decrease in cell number and an increased fraction of cells in the G2/M cell cycle phase. Combining microarray techniques with DNA sequence analysis to identify potential let-7 targets, we discovered 838 genes with a let-7 binding site in their 3′-untranslated region that were down-regulated upon overexpression of let-7b. Among these genes is cdc34, the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme of the Skp1/cullin/F-box (SCF) complex. Cdc34 protein levels are strongly down-regulated by let-7 overexpression. Reporter assays demonstrated direct regulation of the cdc34 3′-untranslated region by let-7. We hypothesized that low Cdc34 levels would result in decreased SCF activity, stabilization of the SCF target Wee1, and G2/M accumulation. Consistent with this hypothesis, small interfering RNA-mediated down-regulation of Wee1 reversed the G2/M phenotype induced by let-7 overexpression. We conclude that Cdc34 is a functional target of let-7 and that let-7 induces down-regulation of Cdc34, stabilization of the Wee1 kinase, and an increased fraction of cells in G2/M in primary fibroblasts. PMID:19126550

  6. Differential effects of p53 on bystander phenotypes induced by gamma ray and high LET heavy ion radiation.

    PubMed

    He, Mingyuan; Dong, Chen; Konishi, Teruaki; Tu, Wenzhi; Liu, Weili; Shiomi, Naoko; Kobayashi, Alisa; Uchihori, Yukio; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Hei, Tom K; Dang, Bingrong; Shao, Chunlin

    2014-04-01

    High LET particle irradiation has several potential advantages over γ-rays such as p53-independent response. The purpose of this work is to disclose the effect of p53 on the bystander effect induced by different LET irradiations and underlying mechanism. Lymphocyte cells of TK6 (wild type p53) and HMy2.CIR (mutated p53) were exposed to either low or high LET irradiation, then their mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS generation were detected. The micronuclei (MN) induction in HL-7702 hepatocytes co-cultured with irradiated lymphocytes was also measured. It was found that the mitochondrial dysfunction, p66(Shc) activation, and intracellular ROS were enhanced in TK6 but not in HMy2.CIR cells after γ-ray irradiation, but all of them were increased in both cell lines after carbon and iron irradiation. Consistently, the bystander effect of MN formation in HL-7702 cells was only triggered by γ-irradiated TK6 cells but not by γ-irradiated HMy2.CIR cells. But this bystander effect was induced by both lymphocyte cell lines after heavy ion irradiation. PFT-μ, an inhibitor of p53, only partly inhibited ROS generation and bystander effect induced by 30 keV/μm carbon-irradiated TK6 cells but failed to suppress the bystander effect induced by the TK6 cells irradiated with either 70 keV/μm carbon or 180 keV/μm iron. The mitochondrial inhibitors of rotenone and oligomycin eliminated heavy ion induced ROS generation in TK6 and HMy2.CIR cells and hence diminished the bystander effect on HL-7702 cells. These results clearly demonstrate that the bystander effect is p53-dependent for low LET irradiation, but it is p53-independent for high LET irradiation which may be because of p53-independent ROS generation due to mitochondrial dysfunction.

  7. Differential effects of p53 on bystander phenotypes induced by gamma ray and high LET heavy ion radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Mingyuan; Dong, Chen; Konishi, Teruaki; Tu, Wenzhi; Liu, Weili; Shiomi, Naoko; Kobayashi, Alisa; Uchihori, Yukio; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Hei, Tom K.; Dang, Bingrong; Shao, Chunlin

    2014-04-01

    High LET particle irradiation has several potential advantages over γ-rays such as p53-independent response. The purpose of this work is to disclose the effect of p53 on the bystander effect induced by different LET irradiations and underlying mechanism. Lymphocyte cells of TK6 (wild type p53) and HMy2.CIR (mutated p53) were exposed to either low or high LET irradiation, then their mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS generation were detected. The micronuclei (MN) induction in HL-7702 hepatocytes co-cultured with irradiated lymphocytes was also measured. It was found that the mitochondrial dysfunction, p66Shc activation, and intracellular ROS were enhanced in TK6 but not in HMy2.CIR cells after γ-ray irradiation, but all of them were increased in both cell lines after carbon and iron irradiation. Consistently, the bystander effect of MN formation in HL-7702 cells was only triggered by γ-irradiated TK6 cells but not by γ-irradiated HMy2.CIR cells. But this bystander effect was induced by both lymphocyte cell lines after heavy ion irradiation. PFT-μ, an inhibitor of p53, only partly inhibited ROS generation and bystander effect induced by 30 keV/μm carbon-irradiated TK6 cells but failed to suppress the bystander effect induced by the TK6 cells irradiated with either 70 keV/μm carbon or 180 keV/μm iron. The mitochondrial inhibitors of rotenone and oligomycin eliminated heavy ion induced ROS generation in TK6 and HMy2.CIR cells and hence diminished the bystander effect on HL-7702 cells. These results clearly demonstrate that the bystander effect is p53-dependent for low LET irradiation, but it is p53-independent for high LET irradiation which may be because of p53-independent ROS generation due to mitochondrial dysfunction.

  8. Analysis of the track- and dose-averaged LET and LET spectra in proton therapy using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo code

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Fada; Peeler, Christopher; Taleei, Reza; Randeniya, Sharmalee; Ge, Shuaiping; Mirkovic, Dragan; Mohan, Radhe; Titt, Uwe; Bronk, Lawrence; Geng, Changran; Grosshans, David

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The motivation of this study was to find and eliminate the cause of errors in dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LET) calculations from therapeutic protons in small targets, such as biological cell layers, calculated using the GEANT 4 Monte Carlo code. Furthermore, the purpose was also to provide a recommendation to select an appropriate LET quantity from GEANT 4 simulations to correlate with biological effectiveness of therapeutic protons. Methods: The authors developed a particle tracking step based strategy to calculate the average LET quantities (track-averaged LET, LET{sub t} and dose-averaged LET, LET{sub d}) using GEANT 4 for different tracking step size limits. A step size limit refers to the maximally allowable tracking step length. The authors investigated how the tracking step size limit influenced the calculated LET{sub t} and LET{sub d} of protons with six different step limits ranging from 1 to 500 μm in a water phantom irradiated by a 79.7-MeV clinical proton beam. In addition, the authors analyzed the detailed stochastic energy deposition information including fluence spectra and dose spectra of the energy-deposition-per-step of protons. As a reference, the authors also calculated the averaged LET and analyzed the LET spectra combining the Monte Carlo method and the deterministic method. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) calculations were performed to illustrate the impact of different LET calculation methods on the RBE-weighted dose. Results: Simulation results showed that the step limit effect was small for LET{sub t} but significant for LET{sub d}. This resulted from differences in the energy-deposition-per-step between the fluence spectra and dose spectra at different depths in the phantom. Using the Monte Carlo particle tracking method in GEANT 4 can result in incorrect LET{sub d} calculation results in the dose plateau region for small step limits. The erroneous LET{sub d} results can be attributed to the algorithm to

  9. Let's Twitter about Litter: An Environmental Message for Girls and Boys [and] Environmental Education Basic Reader [Teacher Guide, Notes to the Teacher].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Helen D.

    Instructions are provided for constructing a learning center on littering. Activity sheets (pictures and poems) which may be duplicated for use with the center and lists of environmental, economic, and energy concepts to be fostered through class activities and discussions are also provided. An integral part of the center is the book "Let's…

  10. Let's fight for the gender perspective.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, K

    1994-01-01

    The author, a representative of the Swedish National Preparatory Committee for the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), urges that each question and proposed action be considered within the framework of a gender and human rights perspective. The starting point for all discussions of population policies should be the individual rather than global population targets. Social and economic empowerment of women is essential to the success of development programs. If population growth is to match available resources, life-styles, production, and consumption strategies must be modified. In terms of sexual and reproductive health, the socioeconomic and cultural factors that impact on the decision to accept contraception must be considered. Safe methods of contraception and legal abortion must be available, and the sexual health issue should be broadened to include consideration of the sexual violence faced by many women and children. In addition, the fact the adolescents are sexually active must be accepted if unwanted pregnancies, deaths through unsafe abortion, and the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases are to be reduced. Support for contraceptive use is a necessary, but insufficient, precondition for women's health; essential is a more holistic approach.

  11. Letting girls speak out about science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Dale; Leary, Rosemary

    The purpose of this study was to try to determine what influences girls to choose science. Forty girls were interviewed in Grades 2, 5, 8, 11 using a semistructured protocol. The interview focused on feelings about science, science careers, peer and parental support, and how science is taught. To determine whether their responses were based on gender, each girl was asked to respond to questions as if she were a boy. The girls were highly self-confident and positive about science. All of the girls took a strong equity position and asserted that women can and should do science. The girls liked learning science in an interactive social context rather than participating in activities that isolated them such as independent reading, writing, or note taking. Those who chose science careers were drawn to them because of strong affective experiences with a loved one and a desire to help. The interviews were analyzed through the framework of women's affective and psychological needs.Received: 15 July 1993; Revised: 23 May 1994;

  12. Neoplastic cell transformation by high-LET radiation - Molecular mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Tracy Chui-Hsu; Craise, Laurie M.; Tobias, Cornelius A.; Mei, Man-Tong

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative data were collected on dose-response curves of cultured mouse-embryo cells (C3H10T1/2) irradiated with heavy ions of various charges and energies. Results suggests that two breaks formed on DNA within 80 A may cause cell transformation and that two DNA breaks formed within 20 A may be lethal. From results of experiments with restriction enzymes which produce DNA damages at specific sites, it was found that DNA double strand breaks are important primary lesions for radiogenic cell transformation and that blunt-ended double-strand breaks can form lethal as well as transformational damages due to misrepair or incomplete repair in the cell. The RBE-LET relationship for high-LET radiation is similar to that for HGPRT locus mutation, chromosomal deletion, and cell transformation, indicating that common lesions may be involved in these radiation effects.

  13. Genomic Instability Induced by High and Low Let Ionizing Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limoli, C. L.; Ponnaiya, B.; Corcoran, J. J.; Giedzinski, E.; Kaplan, M. I.; Hartmann, A.; Morgan, W. F.

    Genomic instability is the increased rate of acquisition of alterations in the mammalian genome, and includes such diverse biological endpoints as chromosomal destabilization, aneuploidy, micronucleus formation, sister chromatid exchange, gene mutation and amplification, variations in colony size, reduced plating efficiency, and cellular transformation. Because these multiple endpoints persist long after initial radiation exposure, genomic instability has been proposed to operate as a driving force contributing to genetic plasticity and carcinogenic potential. Many of these radiation-induced endpoints depend qualitatively and quantitatively on genetic background, dose and LET. Differences in the frequency and temporal expression of chromosomal instability depend on all three of the foregoing factors. On the other hand, many of these endpoints appear independent of dose and show bystander effects, implicating non-nuclear targets and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. The present work will survey results concerning the LET dependence of genomic instability and the role of epigenetic mechanisms, with a particular emphasis on the endpoint of chromosomal in tability

  14. More than a "Basic Skill": Breaking down the Complexities of Summarizing for ABE/ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette-Schramm, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the complex cognitive and linguistic challenges of summarizing expository text at vocabulary, syntactic, and rhetorical levels. It then outlines activities to help ABE/ESL learners develop corresponding skills.

  15. Let's Make 2013 the Year of the Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porterfield, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The past year has seen the meteoric rise of the MOOC, or massive open online course, which lets 100,000 strangers--or more--log on to free classes branded "Stanford" or "Harvard." "The New York Times" went so far as to call 2012 the "Year of the MOOC." Amid the cacophony of voices calling for colleges to cut costs and reduce student debt, many of…

  16. Let your communication skills equal your clinical skills.

    PubMed

    Demarais, Ann; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Relating effectively with patients is among the most valued skills of clinical care. Honing your communication skills is an art that every physician needs to learn and understand. In this era of increased volume of patients there is a tendency to lose sight of the importance of having good communication skills. This article will review 11 suggestions for letting your communication skills equal your clinical skills.

  17. LET Spectrum Measurements In CR-39 PNTD With AFM

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C. E.; DeWitt, J. M.; Benton, E. R.; Yasuda, N.; Benton, E. V.

    2011-06-01

    Energetic protons, neutrons, and heavy ions undergoing collisions with target nuclei of varying Z can produce residual heavy recoil fragments via intra-nuclear cascade/evaporation reactions. The particles produced in these non-elastic collisions generally have such extremely short range ({approx}<10 {mu}m) that they cannot be directly observed by conventional detection methods including CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) that has been chemically etched for analysis by standard visible light microscopy. However, high-LET recoil fragments having range on the order of several cell diameters can be produced in tissue during radiotherapy using proton and carbon beams. We have developed a method to analyze short-range, high-LET tracks in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) using short duration chemical etching ({approx}<1 {mu}m) following by automated atomic force microscope (AFM) scanning. The post-scan data processing used in this work was based on semi-automated matrix analysis opposed to traditional grey-scale image analysis. This method takes advantage of the 3-D data obtained via AFM to achieve robust discrimination of nuclear tracks from other features inherently present in the post-etch detector surface. Through automation of AFM scanning, sufficient AFM scan frames were obtained to attain an LET spectrum spanning the LET range from 200-1500 keV/{mu}m. In addition to our experiments, simulations were carried out with the Monte Carlo transport code, FLUKA. To demonstrate this method, CR-39 PNTD was exposed to the proton therapy beam at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) at 60 and 230 MeV. Additionally, detectors were exposed to 1 GeV protons at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). For these exposures CR-39 PNTD, Al and Cu target foils were used between detector layers.

  18. LET Spectrum Measurements In CR-39 PNTD With AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. E.; DeWitt, J. M.; Benton, E. R.; Yasuda, N.; Benton, E. V.

    2011-06-01

    Energetic protons, neutrons, and heavy ions undergoing collisions with target nuclei of varying Z can produce residual heavy recoil fragments via intra-nuclear cascade/evaporation reactions. The particles produced in these non-elastic collisions generally have such extremely short range (˜<10 μm) that they cannot be directly observed by conventional detection methods including CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) that has been chemically etched for analysis by standard visible light microscopy. However, high-LET recoil fragments having range on the order of several cell diameters can be produced in tissue during radiotherapy using proton and carbon beams. We have developed a method to analyze short-range, high-LET tracks in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) using short duration chemical etching (˜<1 μm) following by automated atomic force microscope (AFM) scanning. The post-scan data processing used in this work was based on semi-automated matrix analysis opposed to traditional grey-scale image analysis. This method takes advantage of the 3-D data obtained via AFM to achieve robust discrimination of nuclear tracks from other features inherently present in the post-etch detector surface. Through automation of AFM scanning, sufficient AFM scan frames were obtained to attain an LET spectrum spanning the LET range from 200-1500 keV/μm. In addition to our experiments, simulations were carried out with the Monte Carlo transport code, FLUKA. To demonstrate this method, CR-39 PNTD was exposed to the proton therapy beam at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) at 60 and 230 MeV. Additionally, detectors were exposed to 1 GeV protons at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). For these exposures CR-39 PNTD, Al and Cu target foils were used between detector layers.

  19. LET spectrum measurements in Cr-39 PNTD with AFM

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Carl Edward; De Witt, Joel M; Benton, Eric R; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Benton, Eugene V

    2010-01-01

    Energetic protons, neutrons, and heavy ions undergoing collisions with target nuclei of varying Z can produce residual heavy recoil fragments via intra-nuclear cascade/evaporation reactions. The particles produced in these non-elastic collisions generally have such extremely short range ({approx}< 10 {mu}m) that they cannot be directly observed by conventional detection methods including CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) that has been chemically etched for analysis by standard visible light microscopy. However, high-LET recoil fragments having range on the order of several cell diameters can be produced in tissue during radiotherapy using proton and carbon beams. We have developed a method to analyze short-range, high-LET tracks in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) using short duration chemical etching ({approx}< 1 {mu}m) followed by automated atomic force microscope (AFM) scanning. The post-scan data processing used in this work was based on semi-automated matrix analysis opposed to traditional grey-scale image analysis. This method takes advantage of the 3-D data obtained via AFM to achieve robust discrimination of nuclear tracks from other features. Through automation of AFM scanning, sufficient AFM scan frames were obtained to attain an LET spectrum spanning the LET range from 200-1500 keV/{mu}m. In addition to our experiments, simulations were carried out with the Monte Carlo transport code, FLUKA. To demonstrate this method, CR-39 PNTD was exposed to the proton therapy beam at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) at 60 and 230 MeV. Additionally, detectors were exposed to I GeV protons at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). For these exposures CR-39 PNTD, Al and Cu target foils were used between detector layers.

  20. Let's talk about the alternatives--Canada vs. Australia.

    PubMed

    Leung, Lawrence

    2009-10-01

    Let's face it. It's always there. It is never included in the medical school curriculum but patients often consult you about its use. You are not sure of its efficacy, so you cannot say it is useful. Some patients listen to you, some don't, and others use it without telling you. This scenario is happening every day in your consulting room. We are talking about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).

  1. Estimation of spatially restricted LET using track structure models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, J.

    1994-01-01

    The spatial distribution of energy deposition is an important determinant in the formation of biologically significant lesions. It has been widely realized that Linear Energy Transfer (LET) being an average quantity is not sufficient to describe the situation at a submicroscopic scale. To remedy this to some extent 'energy-cut-off' values are sometimes used but since they are related to secondary electron energy and only indirectly to their range they are also not adequate although they may be easily calculated. 'Range-restricted LET' appears to be better but its determination is usually quite involved. Xapsos (1992) suggested a semi-empirical approximation based on a modified Bethe-formula which contains a number of assumption which are difficult to verify. A simpler and easier way is to use existing beam-models which describe energy deposition around an ion's path. They all agree that the energy density (i. e., energy deposited per unit mass) decreases with the inverse square of the distance from the track center. This simple dependence can be used to determine the fraction of total LET which is deposited in a cylinder of a given radius. As an example our own beam model. Energy density depends on distance x (measured in m) from the track center according to the presented formula.

  2. Individual Learner Differences in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabski, Janusz; Wojtaszek, Adam

    2011-01-01

    "Individual Learner Differences in SLA" addresses the apparently insoluble conflict between the unquestionably individual character of the process of second language acquisition/foreign language learning and the institutionalised, often inflexible character of formal instruction in which it takes place. How, then, is success in SLA so prevalent?

  3. Facilitating Creativity in Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Kuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Creativity in education research has received increasing attention, although the major focus of this research has been on children. Despite pleas by several adult educators for promoting creativity, very few studies have focused on adult learners, leaving to it to be explored what approaches are useful for adult educators to facilitate creativity…

  4. Motivational Profiles of Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothes, Ana; Lemos, Marina S.; Gonçalves, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated profiles of autonomous and controlled motivation and their effects in a sample of 188 adult learners from two Portuguese urban areas. Using a person-centered approach, results of cluster analysis and multivariate analysis of covariance revealed four motivational groups with different effects in self-efficacy, engagement,…

  5. Teacher Investment in Learner Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Jenelle

    2009-01-01

    From a sociocultural perspective, teacher identity is constructed in relation to others, including other teachers and students. Drawing on positioning theory and the concept of investment, this study analyzed the case of a secondary English teacher who negotiated his teacher identity in relation to English language learners (ELLs). Findings…

  6. Grading Exceptional and Struggling Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    How can you ensure that you are grading your exceptional students fairly? Teachers receive very little guidance for grading students with disabilities, English learners, and those receiving services through a response-to-intervention (RTI) process. This practitioner-friendly book provides teachers and administrators with an effective framework for…

  7. Developing Collections to Empower Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Sue C.

    2014-01-01

    "Developing Collections to Empower Learners" examines collection development in the context of today's shifts toward digital resources while emphasizing the foundational beliefs of the school library profession. Writer Sue Kimmel includes practical advice about needs assessment, planning, selection, acquisitions, evaluation, and…

  8. Are Deaf Students Visual Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschark, Marc; Morrison, Carolyn; Lukomski, Jennifer; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol

    2013-01-01

    It is frequently assumed that by virtue of their hearing losses, deaf students are visual learners. Deaf individuals have some visual-spatial advantages relative to hearing individuals, but most have been linked to use of sign language rather than auditory deprivation. How such cognitive differences might affect academic performance has been…

  9. Shifting Power to the Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Decades of reform have resulted in a system of further education that treats adults like children, with limited control over the qualifications they choose to pursue. This needs to change. Money must follow learners, not government contracts, and so create a genuinely demand-led system. The author proposes new financial and regulatory structures…

  10. English Language Learner Engineering Collaborative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendergraft, Katy; Daugherty, Michael K.; Rossetti, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to develop an engineering design project that would deliver the necessary content and reach out to the English Language Learner (ELL) community, faculty in the Engineering Academy at Springdale High School in Springdale, Arkansas instituted the ELL Engineering Collaborative. The ELL Engineering Collaborative has four primary goals…

  11. Teaching Reading to Struggling Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minskoff, Esther

    2005-01-01

    Identifying the best way to help students who struggle with reading--whether they have learning disabilities, are English language learners, or just need extra support--is a challenge for any teacher. Schools can make that task easier with this indispensable resource, a complete guide to addressing each student's specific instructional needs and…

  12. Reading and the Special Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Carolyn N., Ed.; Hicks, John S., Ed.

    Compiled from papers presented at the annual Reading/Special Education Institute at Fordham University, this collection of essays addresses reading problems of special education students. The book is divided into three sections. The first section covers reading assessment and reading intervention; section 2 addresses the specific learner and the…

  13. Learner-Centered Online Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This chapter offers a theoretical rationale and an explanation of evidence for using research-validated, learner-centered principles and practices in online course development, highlighting the evidence-based practices that have been used successfully to develop online courses that engage and retain students.

  14. English Language Learners: Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hector-Mason, Anestine; Bardack, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This annotated bibliography represents a first step toward compiling a comprehensive overview of current research on issues related to English language learners (ELLs). It is intended to be a resource for researchers, policymakers, administrators, and educators who are engaged in efforts to bridge the divide between research, policy, and practice…

  15. English Learners Program Guide. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This guide is designed as a reference for District and School personnel working with English learners (ELs). The content of the guide represents a compilation of information, examples, and resources. This guide is a living document and subject to frequent updates. It is recommended to review the document online rather than printing a hard copy.

  16. Distance Learners: Welcome to Campus!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwitzer, Alan M.; Duggan, Mary H.

    2005-01-01

    Old Dominion University's distance learning program, called TELETECHNET, brings the main-campus college experience to geographically distant learners at sites across Virginia and as far away as the state of Washington, as well as to military personnel on Navy bases, carriers, and submarines. In an interesting turnabout, the Summer Institute for…

  17. Rich Environments for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentham, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Unaware of the messages a bare adult learning environment sends and its effect on adult learners, a trainer attends an intensive Reggio Emilia course and learns that the physical environment is the "third teacher"--for adults as well as for children. Using principles of Reggio, she offers suggestions for enhancing adult learning spaces and…

  18. Learner Differences in Hint Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Ilya M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Aleven, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Although ITSs are supposed to adapt to differences among learners, so far, little attention has been paid to how they might adapt to differences in how students learn from help. When students study with an Intelligent Tutoring System, they may receive multiple types of help, but may not comprehend and make use of this help in the same way. To…

  19. Faculty Development: Assessing Learner Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Barbara A.; Overfield, Karen

    This study addressed the challenges of developing a faculty professional development workshop on assessment, measurement, and evaluation of achievement in adult learners. The setting for the workshop was a system of postsecondary career colleges throughout the United States. The curriculum development model of D. Kirkpatrick (1994) was used as a…

  20. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF LEARNER'S ERRORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CORDER, S.P.

    ERRORS (NOT MISTAKES) MADE IN BOTH SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING AND CHILD LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PROVIDE EVIDENCE THAT A LEARNER USES A DEFINITE SYSTEM OF LANGUAGE AT EVERY POINT IN HIS DEVELOPMENT. THIS SYSTEM, OR "BUILT-IN SYLLABUS," MAY YIELD A MORE EFFICIENT SEQUENCE THAN THE INSTRUCTOR-GENERATED SEQUENCE BECAUSE IT IS MORE MEANINGFUL TO THE…

  1. Learners in Action, Summer 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This Summer 2005 issue of "Learners in Action" contains the following articles: (1) Bridging Barriers to Learning (Glenn Kissman); (2) Education Really Is a Family Affair; (3) Sabrina's Story; (4) SARAW Helps Students Find Their Voice; (5) Literacy Changes Lives; and (6) Seeing STARs in Alberta.

  2. Language Learners' Perceptions of Accent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Julie; Wennerstrom, Ann; Richard, Dara; Wu, Su Hui

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzed the accent perceptions of a group of 37 English language learners and 10 American undergraduate students. Each subject listened to a one-minute passage read by four speakers with different accents of English: General American, British English, Chinese English, and Mexican English. Participants then attempted to identify the…

  3. for Teachers of English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molle, Daniella

    2013-01-01

    For more than a decade, the professional development literature has shown that most teachers are not adequately prepared to teach English learners (ELs)--that holds true for both specialist and mainstream teachers (see, for example, August & Hakuta, 1997; Beykont, 2002). Research that focuses on professional development for teachers of ELs,…

  4. Learners' Use of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ally, Mohamed; Cleveland-Innes, Martha; Boskic, Natasha; Larwill, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study exploring the generativity (Gibbons, Nelson, & Richards, 2000; Parrish, 2004) and discoverability (Friesen, 2001) of learning objects in the hands of the learner. Through the convergence of two separate pilot projects--the Canadian EduSource initiative through Athabasca University, and the…

  5. Adult Learners in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bash, Lee

    1999-01-01

    Adult learners comprise almost 50 percent of all students enrolled in higher Education. Some argue they are pioneering change in today's higher educational landscape. This book is designed to assist faculty members and administrators who want to understand how the impact of adult learning programs has and is helping to transform the academy and…

  6. Can You Keep Learners Online?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielinski, Dave

    2000-01-01

    Reasons people do not complete online training courses include (1) no incentives, (2) lack of connectedness, (3) learner preference for instructor-led courses, (4) poor course design, (5) "some is enough," and (6) lack of perks. Course delivery must consider three elements: the technology, course design, and the learning environment. (JOW)

  7. Let's Exploit Available Knowledge on Vegetation Fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnani, Federico; Raddi, Sabrina; Mohammed, Gina; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The potential to measure vegetation fluorescence from space (1) and to derive from it direct information on the gross primary productivity (GPP) of terrestrial ecosystems is probably the most thrilling development in remote sensing and global ecology of recent years, as it moves Earth observation techniques from the detection of canopy biophysics (e.g., fraction of absorbed radiation) and biochemistry (chlorophyll and nitrogen content) to the realm of ecosystem function. The existence of a functional relationship between fluorescence and photosynthesis has been elucidated over the last decade by several laboratories, notably as part of the preliminary studies of the European Space Agency Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) Earth Explorer Mission. The empirical observation presented by Guanter et al. (2) of a linear relationship between fluorescence radiance and GPP, however, provides the first experimental confirmation of the feasibility of the approach— already thoroughly tested at leaf level—at the desired scale, despite the confounding effects associated with the satellite detection of such a faint signal. A word of clarification is needed here. The use of fluorescence as a probe of leaf photochemistry has been a staple of plant ecophysiology for decades, rooted in a sound understanding of photosynthetic energy dissipation. However, most past studies had to rely for the interpretation of results on active (pulse-saturated) techniques, making them unsuitable for remote-sensing applications. Over recent years, however, novel process based models have been developed for the interpretation of steady-state, solar-induced fluorescence at the leaf to canopy scale (3). We are therefore in a position to move beyond the mere empirical observation of an association between GPP and fluorescence radiance. In particular, Guanter et al. (2) base their analysis on the assumption of a constant ratio between photosynthetic and fluorescence light use efficiencies (equation 3 in ref

  8. Phosphorylation of Ago2 and Subsequent Inactivation of let-7a RNP-Specific MicroRNAs Control Differentiation of Mammalian Sympathetic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Patranabis, Somi

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally by base pairing to the target mRNAs in animal cells. KRas, an oncogene known to be repressed by let-7a miRNAs, is expressed and needed for the differentiation of mammalian sympathetic neurons and PC12 cells. We documented a loss of let-7a activity during this differentiation process without any significant change in the cellular level of let-7a miRNA. However, the level of Ago2, an essential component that is associated with miRNAs to form RNP-specific miRNA (miRNP) complexes, shows an increase with neuronal differentiation. In this study, differentiation-induced phosphorylation and the subsequent loss of miRNA from Ago2 were noted, and these accounted for the loss of miRNA activity in differentiating neurons. Neuronal differentiation induces the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 and the downstream kinase mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1). This in turn upregulates the phosphorylation of Ago2 and ensures the dissociation of miRNA from Ago2 in neuronal cells. MSK1-mediated miRNP inactivation is a prerequisite for the differentiation of neuronal cells, where let-7a miRNA gets unloaded from Ago2 to ensure the upregulation of KRas, a target of let-7a. We noted that the inactivation of let-7a is both necessary and sufficient for the differentiation of sympathetic neurons. PMID:26858302

  9. The Effects of an Enhanced Quality Physical Education Programme on the Physical Activity Levels of Grade 7 Learners in Potchefstroom, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Haili; du Toit, Dorita; Toriola, Abel L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The absence of Physical Education (PE) from the South African school curriculum before its reintroduction in recent years contributed to health concerns regarding the low physical activity (PA) levels of children and adolescents in South Africa. Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of a once-a-week enhanced quality PE programme on…

  10. Chromosome damage evolution after low and high LET irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, Sergey; Eidelman, Yuri

    Ionizing radiation induces DNA and chromatin lesions which are converted to chromosome lesions detected in the first post-irradiation mitosis by classic cytogenetic techniques as chromosomal aberrations (CAs). These techniques allow to monitor also delayed aberrations observed after many cell generations post-irradiation - the manifestation of chromosomal instability phenotype (CIN). The problem discussed is how to predict time evolution from initial to delayed DNA/chromosome damage. To address this question, in the present work a mechanistic model of CIN is elaborated which integrates pathways of (*) DNA damage induction and its conversion to chromosome lesions (aberrations), (**) lesion transmission and generation through cell cycles. Delayed aberrations in subsequent cycles are formed in the model owing to two pathways, DNA damage generation de novo as well as CA transmission from previous cycles. DNA damage generation rate is assumed to consist of bystander and non-bystander components. Bystander signals impact all cells roughly equally, whereas non-bystander DSB generation rate differs for the descendants of unirradiated and irradiated cells. Monte Carlo simulation of processes underlying CIN allows to predict the time evolution of initial radiation-induced damage - kinetics curve for delayed unstable aberrations (dicentrics) together with dose response and RBE as a function of time after high vs low LET irradiation. The experimental data for radiation-induced CIN in TK6 lymphoblastoid cells and human lymphocytes irradiated with low (gamma) and high (Fe, C) LET radiation are analyzed on the basis of the proposed model. One of the conclusions is that without bystander signaling, just taking into account the initial DNA damage and non-bystander DSB generation, it is impossible to describe the available experimental data for high-LET-induced CIN. The exact contribution of bystander effects for high vs low LET remains unknown, but the relative contribution may be

  11. Harderian Gland Tumorigenesis: Low-Dose and LET Response.

    PubMed

    Chang, Polly Y; Cucinotta, Francis A; Bjornstad, Kathleen A; Bakke, James; Rosen, Chris J; Du, Nicholas; Fairchild, David G; Cacao, Eliedonna; Blakely, Eleanor A

    2016-05-01

    Increased cancer risk remains a primary concern for travel into deep space and may preclude manned missions to Mars due to large uncertainties that currently exist in estimating cancer risk from the spectrum of radiations found in space with the very limited available human epidemiological radiation-induced cancer data. Existing data on human risk of cancer from X-ray and gamma-ray exposure must be scaled to the many types and fluences of radiations found in space using radiation quality factors and dose-rate modification factors, and assuming linearity of response since the shapes of the dose responses at low doses below 100 mSv are unknown. The goal of this work was to reduce uncertainties in the relative biological effect (RBE) and linear energy transfer (LET) relationship for space-relevant doses of charged-particle radiation-induced carcinogenesis. The historical data from the studies of Fry et al. and Alpen et al. for Harderian gland (HG) tumors in the female CB6F1 strain of mouse represent the most complete set of experimental observations, including dose dependence, available on a specific radiation-induced tumor in an experimental animal using heavy ion beams that are found in the cosmic radiation spectrum. However, these data lack complete information on low-dose responses below 0.1 Gy, and for chronic low-dose-rate exposures, and there are gaps in the LET region between 25 and 190 keV/μm. In this study, we used the historical HG tumorigenesis data as reference, and obtained HG tumor data for 260 MeV/u silicon (LET ∼70 keV/μm) and 1,000 MeV/u titanium (LET ∼100 keV/μm) to fill existing gaps of data in this LET range to improve our understanding of the dose-response curve at low doses, to test for deviations from linearity and to provide RBE estimates. Animals were also exposed to five daily fractions of 0.026 or 0.052 Gy of 1,000 MeV/u titanium ions to simulate chronic exposure, and HG tumorigenesis from this fractionated study were compared to the

  12. Beyond Classroom Discourse: Learning as Participation in Native Speaker-Learner and Learner-Learner Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshi, Saori

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with the notion of learning as changing participation (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Rogoff, 1998; Sfard, 1998; Young & Miller, 2004), the present qualitative study investigated how social interaction between learners of Japanese as a foreign language and native speaker classroom guests contributed to the students' use of second language…

  13. Plurilingual Learners' Beliefs and Practices toward Native and Nonnative Language Mediation during Learner-Learner Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payant, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing number of plurilingual learners in the world today (Hammarberg, 2010), the present multiple case study examines four plurilingual participants' beliefs toward first language (L1) and second language (L2) mediation in the acquisition of French as a third language (L3). During a 16-week classroom-based study in a French university…

  14. NFkappaB p50-CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta)-mediated transcriptional repression of microRNA let-7i following microbial infection.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Steven P; Splinter, Patrick L; Gajdos, Gabriella B; Trussoni, Christy E; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E; Chen, Xian-Ming; LaRusso, Nicholas F

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs, central players of numerous cellular processes, regulate mRNA stability or translational efficiency. Although these molecular events are established, the mechanisms regulating microRNA function and expression remain largely unknown. The microRNA let-7i regulates Toll-like receptor 4 expression. Here, we identify a novel transcriptional mechanism induced by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum and Gram(-) bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediating let-7i promoter silencing in human biliary epithelial cells (cholangiocytes). Using cultured cholangiocytes, we show that microbial stimulus decreased let-7i expression, and promoter activity. Analysis of the mechanism revealed that microbial infection promotes the formation of a NFkappaB p50-C/EBPbeta silencer complex in the regulatory sequence. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP) demonstrated that the repressor complex binds to the let-7i promoter following microbial stimulus and promotes histone-H3 deacetylation. Our results provide a novel mechanism of transcriptional regulation of cholangiocyte let-7i expression following microbial insult, a process with potential implications for epithelial innate immune responses in general.

  15. Temporal changes of microRNA gga-let-7b and gga-let-7i expression in chickens challenged with subgroup J avian leukosis virus.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jun; Shang, Huiqin; Zhang, Huanmin; Li, Hongxin; Ma, Jingyun; Bi, Yingzuo; Xie, Qingmei

    2017-02-11

    Two important microRNAs, gga-let-7b and gga-let-7i were examined for the relative expression in liver and bone marrow tissues from specific pathogen free chickens that were challenged either with GD1109 or NX0101 strain of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J). The GD1109 strain of ALV-J reportedly causes hemangioma (HE) and NX0101 reportedly causes myeloma (ML) in susceptible chickens. Temporal changes of both gga-let-7b and gga-let-7i expression in ALV-J infected chickens were observed in contrast to its counterpart of a non-infected negative control group of chickens (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) during the first 120 days post infection. Use of the web-based computational DIANA-mirPath software (available at http://microrna.gr/mirpath ), it was predicted that both gga-let-7b and gga-let-7i were involved in multiple pathways including signaling pathways, such as MAPK, TGF-beta, Notch, Wnt, mTOR, Cell cycle, P53 and Jak-STAT. Combining our experimental data with reports on the microRNAs, we suggest that both gga-let-7i and gga-let-7b may also act as tumor suppressors in chicken, especially play a critical role in tumorigenesis induced by ALV-J.

  16. Helping Second Language Literature Learners Overcome E-Learning Difficulties: LET-NET Team Teaching with Online Peer Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pin-Hsiang Natalie; Marek, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents and discusses results from an EFL second language literature program in which the instructional design included a team teaching scheme, blended learning practice, and computer-mediated peer-interaction. The team teaching plan used a Mandarin speaking English teacher and a Native English-speaking teacher collaborating and…

  17. The Role of Private Speech in Cognitive Regulation of Learners: The Case of English as a Foreign Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarab, Mohamad Reza Anani; Gordani, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Investigations into the use of private speech by adult English foreign language (EFL) learners in regulating their mental activities have been an interesting area of research with a sociocultural framework. Following this line of research, 30 advanced adult EFL learners were selected via the administration of Oxford quick placement test and took a…

  18. Digging Deeper into Learners' Experiences in MOOCs: Participation in Social Networks outside of MOOCs, Notetaking and Contexts Surrounding Content Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Collier, Amy; Schneider, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Researchers describe with increasing confidence "what" they observe participants doing in massive open online courses (MOOCs). However, our understanding of learner activities in open courses is limited by researchers' extensive dependence on log file analyses and clickstream data to make inferences about learner behaviors. Further, the…

  19. More Evidence Concerning the Aspect Hypothesis: The Acquisition of English Progressive Aspect by Catalan-Spanish Instructed Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Carmen; Gilabert, Roger

    2011-01-01

    A robust finding from studies investigating the Aspect Hypothesis is that learners at the early stages of acquisition show a strong preference for using the progressive aspect as associated with activity verbs. As they advance in their acquisition of the second or foreign language, learners move from this prototypical association to associations…

  20. Learning at a Distance through Mobile Devices: A Global Choice of Learners in the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethy, Satya

    2011-01-01

    In the techno-driven world, mobile learning is an indispensable element of teaching-learning activities. It helps distance learners in many ways by providing their required facilities. The paper discusses about these facilities in an eclectic and summary manner. Thus, by implication, it is popularized among distance learners across the globe.…

  1. Learner-Formulated Questions in Technology-Supported Learning Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Eva; Johnson, Russell; Luo, Daoshui; Maurer, Hermann; Sapper, Marianne

    This paper looks at learner-formulated questions in technology-supported learning applications. Traditionally, technology-supported learning applications request input from the learner. The learner's response is used to assess the knowledge of the learner, to define a navigation path through the material or to construct a learner model. The…

  2. Similarities and differences in brain activation and functional connectivity in first and second language reading: evidence from Chinese learners of English.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fan; Young Kim, Say; Liu, Yanni; Liu, Li

    2014-10-01

    It has been evidenced that both similarities and differences exist in the brain network involved in second language reading in comparison to the first language reading. However, very few studies have been done to compare functional connectivity in L1 and L2 reading. Brain activation and functional connectivity during English pseudoword rhyming judgment in a group of late Chinese-English bilinguals (the CE group) were compared to a Chinese word rhyming judgment task in another group of late Chinese-English bilinguals (the CC group). Brain activation analyses revealed that the two groups engaged a similar network and that the only significant group difference was greater involvement of the right middle occipital gyrus in the CC group than in the CE group, due to greater holistic visuospatial processing of Chinese characters. English pseudowords can be read using the same network as Chinese characters, whereas psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses revealed different connectivity within the reading network between the two groups. Greater functional connectivity was found between three visuo-orthographic seed regions and the right precentral gyrus in the CC group, suggesting that the sensorimotor patterns of Chinese syllables are activated during Chinese word rhyming judgment. In contrast, we found greater connectivity between the three seed regions and the left postcentral gyrus in the CE group. In addition, the connectivity between one of the three seed regions (i.e. the right middle occipital gyrus) and the left postcentral gyrus was positively correlated with English proficiency in the CE group. This suggests that somatosensory feedback plays a key role in processing the foreign phonemes of English pseudowords and those highly proficient bilinguals tend to rely on this information to a greater degree. We also found that within the CE group, the connectivity between the right middle occipital gyrus and the left inferior parietal lobule was positively

  3. Alpha Cyclotron Production Studies of the Alpha Emitter 211AT/211gPO for High-Let Metabolic Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzenti, S.; Bonardi, M. L.; Groppi, F.; Zona, C.; Canella, L.; Menapace, E.; Alfassi, Z. B.; Abbas, K.; Holzwarth, U.

    2006-04-01

    A series of high specific activity accelerator-produced radionuclides in no-carrier-added (NCA) form, for uses in metabolic radiotherapy and for PET, has been investigated and produced at JRC-Ispra Cyclotron Laboratory. In this study we present, in particular, the NCA 211At/211gPo (LET = 130 eV.nm-1, t1/2= 7.214 h), produced by 209Bi(α,2n) reaction, with internal spike of gamma emitter 210At (e.g. negligible amount of 210Po as radiotoxic long-lived impurity), for high-LET targeted radiotherapy and immunoradiotherapy. A selective radiochemical separation, based on liquid/liquid extraction, of At radionuclides from Bi target and Po impurities has been developed. High resolution gamma, X and alpha spectrometric techniques have been adopted for quality controls of different radiochemical fractions.

  4. Biogenesis and regulation of the let-7 miRNAs and their functional implications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hosuk; Han, Sungwook; Kwon, Chang Seob; Lee, Daeyoup

    2016-02-01

    The let-7 miRNA was one of the first miRNAs discovered in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and its biological functions show a high level of evolutionary conservation from the nematode to the human. Unlike in C. elegans, higher animals have multiple isoforms of let-7 miRNAs; these isoforms share a consensus sequence called the 'seed sequence' and these isoforms are categorized into let-7 miRNA family. The expression of let-7 family is required for developmental timing and tumor suppressor function, but must be suppressed for the self-renewal of stem cells. Therefore, let-7 miRNA biogenesis must be carefully controlled. To generate a let-7 miRNA, a primary transcript is produced by RNA polymerase II and then subsequently processed by Drosha/DGCR8, TUTase, and Dicer. Because dysregulation of let-7 processing is deleterious, biogenesis of let-7 is tightly regulated by cellular factors, such as the RNA binding proteins, LIN28A/B and DIS3L2. In this review, we discuss the biological functions and biogenesis of let-7 miRNAs, focusing on the molecular mechanisms of regulation of let-7 biogenesis in vertebrates, such as the mouse and the human.

  5. Fulvestrant increases gefitinib sensitivity in non-small cell lung cancer cells by upregulating let-7c expression.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hua; Liu, Jinyuan; Wang, Rong; Qian, Xu; Xu, Ruitong; Xu, Tongpeng; Li, Qi; Wang, Lin; Shi, Zhumei; Zheng, Jitai; Chen, Qiudan; Shu, Yongqian

    2014-04-01

    Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations benefit from treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), namely, gefitinib and erlotinib. However, these patients eventually develop resistance to EGFR-TKIs. About 50% of this acquired resistance may be the result of a secondary mutation in the EGFR gene, such as the one corresponding to T790M. In our previous study, we found that combined treatment with fulvestrant and gefitinib decreases the proliferation of H1975 NSCLC cells, compared to treatment with either fulvestrant or gefitinib alone; however, the molecular mechanism for the improved effects of the combination treatment are still unknown. In this study, we confirmed that fulvestrant increases the gefitinib sensitivity of H1975 cells and found that let-7c was most upregulated in the fulvestrant-treated cells. Our data revealed that let-7c increases gefitinib sensitivity by repressing RAS and inactivating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and mitogen-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Taken together, our findings suggest that let-7c plays an important role in fulvestrant-induced upregulation of gefitinib sensitivity in H1975 cells.

  6. Modeling the effects of multicontextual physics instruction on learner expectations and understanding of force and motion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deese Becht, Sara-Maria Francis

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold involving both practical and theoretical modeling components. The practical component, an experiential-learning phase, investigated a study population for effects that increasing levels of multicontextual physics activities have on student understanding of Newtonian systems of motion. This contextual-learning model measured learner convictions and non-response gaps and analyzed learner response trends on context, technology, challenge, growth, and success. The theoretical component, a model-building phase, designed a dynamic-knowing model for learning along a range of experiential tasks, from low to high context, monitored for indicators of learning in science and mathematics: learner academic performance and ability, learner control and academic attitude, and a learner non- response gap. This knowing model characterized a learner's process-of-knowing on a less to more expert- like learner-response continuum using performance and perspective indices associated with level of contextual- imagery referent system. Data for the contextual-learning model were collected on 180 secondary subjects: 72 middle and 108 high, with 36 physics subjects as local experts. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups differing only on context level of force and motion activities. Three levels of information were presented through context-based tasks: momentum constancy as inertia, momentum change as impulse, and momentum rate of change as force. The statistical analysis used a multi-level factorial design with repeated measures and discriminate analysis of response-conviction items. Subject grouping criteria included school level, ability level in science and mathematics, gender and race. Assessment criteria used pre/post performance scores, confidence level in physics concepts held, and attitude towards science, mathematics, and technology. Learner indices were computed from logit- transforms applied to learner outcomes

  7. Are Deaf Students Visual Learners?

    PubMed Central

    Marschark, Marc; Morrison, Carolyn; Lukomski, Jennifer; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol

    2013-01-01

    It is frequently assumed that by virtue of their hearing losses, deaf students are visual learners. Deaf individuals have some visual-spatial advantages relative to hearing individuals, but most have been are linked to use of sign language rather than auditory deprivation. How such cognitive differences might affect academic performance has been investigated only rarely. This study examined relations among deaf college students’ language and visual-spatial abilities, mathematics problem solving, and hearing thresholds. Results extended some previous findings and clarified others. Contrary to what might be expected, hearing students exhibited visual-spatial skills equal to or better than deaf students. Scores on a Spatial Relations task were associated with better mathematics problem solving. Relations among the several variables, however, suggested that deaf students are no more likely to be visual learners than hearing students and that their visual-spatial skill may be related more to their hearing than to sign language skills. PMID:23750095

  8. Early learner perceptions of the attributes of effective preceptors.

    PubMed

    Huggett, Kathryn N; Warrier, Rugmini; Maio, Anna

    2008-12-01

    Medical education in the US has adapted to the shift of patient care from hospital to ambulatory settings by developing educational opportunities in outpatient settings. Faculty development efforts must acknowledge learners' perspectives to be effective in improving teaching and learning. Clinics provide important and unique learning opportunities, but also present different challenges for preceptors (i.e., physician teachers) and learners. Multiple studies have identified characteristics of effective preceptors of ambulatory care medicine. However, most of these studies were conducted among residents or students with clinical experience. To investigate preclinical, second-year medical students' perceptions of preceptor quality, we conducted an exploratory qualitative study using analysis of student learning journals. The purposive sample included 120 medical students in a private, Midwestern medical school in the United States. Learning journals of 110 students for two semesters were reviewed. Five attributes of an effective preceptor emerged: (1) Demonstrates professional expertise (2) Actively engages students in learning (3) Creates a positive environment for teaching and learning (4) Demonstrates collegiality and professionalism (5) Discusses career-related topics and concerns. Our findings suggest preclinical learners often begin initial clinical experiences with sophisticated definitions of professional expertise, and hold specific expectations for professionalism. These are based on previous coursework and personal experience. These expectations influence their perceptions of effective preceptors and learning experiences. Early clinical experiences can also influence perceptions about career and specialty choice. Improving our understanding of preclinical learners' perceptions of preceptor quality will improve the efficacy of faculty development efforts and learning experiences.

  9. Visualization for learners: a framework for adapting scientists' tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelson, Daniel C.; Gordin, Douglas

    1998-08-01

    The use of scientific investigation tools for education is receiving considerable attention as a result of an increased emphasis in the educational community on open-ended inquiry. The scientific community possesses a treasure trove of tools that could be adapted for use by learners. Scientific visualization technologies, in particular, offer great promise for education because of the way they use visual representations to facilitate exploration of complex data. However, the tools that are used by scientists are inappropriate for learners because of their reliance on the tacit knowledge of expert users. Through a careful consideration of the differences between scientists and science students and the design of a series of scientific visualization environments for learners in grades 8-16, we have developed a design framework for the creation of scientific investigation tools based on those of scientists. The framework highlights five critical issues for the construction of tools to support inquiry-based learning: motivating context, learner-appropriate activities, data selection, scaffolding interfaces and support for learning. We have applied this framework to the design of ClimateWatcher, a scientific visualization environment for the investigation of issues related to global climate and climate change that is now in use in middle school, high school and university settings.

  10. A novel function of microRNA let-7d in regulation of galectin-3 expression in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder rat brain.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lihui; Zhao, Qianlei; Zhu, Xuchao; Peng, Min; Jia, Chenyou; Wu, Wei; Zheng, Jing; Wu, Xing Zhong

    2010-11-01

    In this study we investigated the locomotor activity and non-selective attention in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, which were employed as an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) model. In open-field test and làt maze, SHR rats were found to be much more spontaneously active than WKY rats. As compared with WKY rats, a lower level of galectin-3 was observed in SHR brain prefrontal cortex (PFC), which was the major affected brain area of ADHD. Through miRNA microarray screening, rno-let-7d was noted to be solely upregulated in SHR PFC. Interestingly, rno-let-7d had a binding site at galectin-3 mRNA and was shown to regulate galectin-3 3' untranslated region (UTR) directly. Mutation of galectin-3 3'UTR by one nucleotide of the seed sequence prevented rno-let-7d regulation of the 3' UTR completely. Although rno-let-7d did not directly regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) 3'UTR, the level of galectin-3 was important for cAMP response element binding protein, the major transcript factor for TH gene. Either overexpression or downexpression of galectin-3 could result in modulation of TH expression in both PC12H and PC12L cells. In conclusion, our data suggested a novel function of rno-let-7d in regulation of galectin-3 and in ADHD development. Rno-let-7d, which is increased in the PFC of SHR brain, negatively regulated galectin-3, which is coupled with TH expression regulation.

  11. Model for Cumulative Solar Heavy Ion Energy and LET Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Mike; Barth, Janet; Stauffer, Craig; Jordan, Tom; Mewaldt, Richard

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic model of cumulative solar heavy ion energy and lineary energy transfer (LET) spectra is developed for spacecraft design applications. Spectra are given as a function of confidence level, mission time period during solar maximum and shielding thickness. It is shown that long-term solar heavy ion fluxes exceed galactic cosmic ray fluxes during solar maximum for shielding levels of interest. Cumulative solar heavy ion fluences should therefore be accounted for in single event effects rate calculations and in the planning of space missions.

  12. Electromagnetic Dissociation Cross Sections for High LET Fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear interaction cross sections are used in space radiation transport codes to calculate the probability of fragment emission in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Strong interactions usually dominate in these collisions, but electromagnetic (EM) interactions can also sometimes be important. Strong interactions typically occur when the projectile nucleus hits a target nucleus, with a small impact parameter. For impact parameters larger than the sum of the nuclear radii, EM reactions dominate and the process is called electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) if one of the nuclei undergo fragmentation. Previous models of EMD have been used to calculate single proton (p) production, single neutron (n) production or light ion production, where a light ion is defined as an isotope of hydrogen (H) or helium (He), such as a deuteron (2H), a triton (3H), a helion (3He) or an alpha particle (4He). A new model is described which can also account for multiple nucleon production, such as 2p, 2n, 1p1n, 2p1n, 2p2n, etc. in addition to light ion production. Such processes are important to include for the following reasons. Consider, for example, the EMD reaction 56Fe + Al --> 52Cr + X + Al, for a 56Fe projectile impacting Al, which produces the high linear energy transfer (LET) fragment 52Cr. In this reaction, the most probable particles representing X are either 2p2n or 4He. Therefore, production of the high LET fragment 52Cr, must include the multiple nucleon production of 2p2n in addition to the light ion production of 4He. Previous models, such as the NUCFRG3 model, could only account for the 4He production process in this reaction and could not account for 2p2n. The new EMD model presented in this work accounts for both the light ion and multiple nucleon processes, and is therefore able to correctly account for the production of high LET products such as 52Cr. The model will be described and calculations will be presented that show the importance of light ion and multiple

  13. Let's Poem: The Essential Guide to Teaching Poetry in a High-Stakes, Multimodal World (Middle through High School). Language & Literacy Practitioners Bookshelf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This cutting-edge guide presents multiple approaches to teaching poetry at the middle and high school levels. The author provides field-tested activities with detailed how-to instructions, as well as advice for how educators can "justify" their teaching within a high-stakes curriculum environment. "Let's Poem" will show pre- and inservice teachers…

  14. The Young Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonini, Victor

    1987-01-01

    Stresses the need for young children to understand that wild animals should not be kept for pets. Provides lesson plans for physical education, music, and science. Includes suggestions for bulletin boards and learning centers, and a clip art set with figures that are suitable for use with the activities. (TW)

  15. 76 FR 71080 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests: Let's Move Museums, Let's Move Gardens

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... promote healthy food choices and physical activity The list will be used by project partners for follow on... experiences (exhibitions); afterschool, summer and other targeted programs, and food service operations...

  16. Multiple mechanisms disrupt the let-7 microRNA family in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Powers, John T; Tsanov, Kaloyan M; Pearson, Daniel S; Roels, Frederik; Spina, Catherine S; Ebright, Richard; Seligson, Marc; de Soysa, Yvanka; Cahan, Patrick; Theißen, Jessica; Tu, Ho-Chou; Han, Areum; Kurek, Kyle C; LaPier, Grace S; Osborne, Jihan K; Ross, Samantha J; Cesana, Marcella; Collins, James J; Berthold, Frank; Daley, George Q

    2016-07-14

    Poor prognosis in neuroblastoma is associated with genetic amplification of MYCN. MYCN is itself a target of let-7, a tumour suppressor family of microRNAs implicated in numerous cancers. LIN28B, an inhibitor of let-7 biogenesis, is overexpressed in neuroblastoma and has been reported to regulate MYCN. Here we show, however, that LIN28B is dispensable in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell lines, despite de-repression of let-7. We further demonstrate that MYCN messenger RNA levels in amplified disease are exceptionally high and sufficient to sponge let-7, which reconciles the dispensability of LIN28B. We found that genetic loss of let-7 is common in neuroblastoma, inversely associated with MYCN amplification, and independently associated with poor outcomes, providing a rationale for chromosomal loss patterns in neuroblastoma. We propose that let-7 disruption by LIN28B, MYCN sponging, or genetic loss is a unifying mechanism of neuroblastoma development with broad implications for cancer pathogenesis.

  17. Recasts, Metalinguistic Feedback, and Learners' Perceptions: A Case of Persian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassaei, Ehsan; Moinzadeh, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we present the results of an experiment with 30 Persian EFL learners in which we explored the learners' perceptions of recasts and metalinguistic corrective feedback. The participant learners received either recasts or metalinguistic feedback for their errors during task-based interactions with their interlocutors and then…

  18. The Attitudes of Field Dependence Learners for Learner Interface Design (LID) in e-Learning Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sözcü, Ömer Faruk; Ipek, Ismail; Kinay, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore relationships between learners' cognitive styles of field dependence and learner variables in the preference of learner Interface design, attitudes in e-Learning instruction and experience with e-Learning in distance education. Cognitive style has historically referred to a psychological dimension…

  19. Language Learner Strategy Use and Test Performance of Chinese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Xiaomei; Cheng, Liying

    2006-01-01

    This article examines language learner strategy use reported by 121 Chinese learners of English through a questionnaire and the relationships between their strategy use and language performance on a national English proficiency test: College English Test-Band 4. Results showed that this group of learners reported using more metacognitive…

  20. Perceptions of a Learner's Self-Expressive Speech by an Instructor and the Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Reiko

    2007-01-01

    Learners' spontaneous speech beyond interaction patterns such as teacher's initiation-learner's response-teacher's evaluation (I-R-E/F) (Heap, 1988; Mehan, 1979; Ohta, 1999) helps lead them to negotiated interaction (Boulima, 1999), which is effective for foreign language learning. This study examines both an instructor's and a learner's…

  1. Learner Agency in Language Learning: The Story of a Distance Learner of EFL in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Junhong

    2014-01-01

    Learner agency plays a key role in self-regulated learning. Yet, there is a paucity of research into its role in the distance learning context. Using reflective narratives written by a distance learner of English in China, this longitudinal case study aims to investigate the ways in which learner agency mediates the language learning in the…

  2. Re-Awakening the Learner: Creating Learner-Centric, Standards-Driven Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Copper; Giddings, Gene

    2012-01-01

    Transformation of public education requires the reawakening of the sleeping giant in the room: the learners. Students, teachers, and principals must develop a learner-centric, standards-driven school. "Reawakening the Learner" is a guide to creating just such an environment. Continua describe the journey of teachers, teacher leaders, and…

  3. Strategy-Based Instruction: A Learner-Focused Approach to Developing Learner Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Le Thi Cam; Gu, Yongqi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of strategy-based instruction (SBI) on the promotion of learner autonomy (LA). LA was conceptualized and operationally defined as learner self-initiation and learner self-regulation. An intervention study was conducted with the participation of 37 students in an experimental group, and 54 students in two control…

  4. Learner Councils in South African Schools: Adult Involvement and Learners' Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Frances

    2014-01-01

    Each secondary school in South Africa is legally obliged to establish a representative council of learners, a democratically elected, learner-only council. This article looks at how the representative councils of learners are realised in practice in four secondary schools. Three research questions focus on the practice of representative councils…

  5. Candles, Corks and Contracts: Essential Relationships between Learners and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burge, Elizabeth J.; Snow, Judith E.

    2000-01-01

    Current relationships between libraries and adult learners are shaped by technology adoption, learner demographics, constructivist learning, and institutional pressures. Future relationships must emphasize learner-centered action over technological efficiency, stronger learning leadership, and greater integration of libraries in educational…

  6. Short loop-targeting oligoribonucleotides antagonize Lin28 and enable pre-let-7 processing and suppression of cell growth in let-7-deficient cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Martina; Rebhan, Mario A. E.; Lucic, Matije; Pavlicek, David; Pradere, Ugo; Towbin, Harry; Civenni, Gianluca; Catapano, Carlo V.; Hall, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) originate from stem-loop-containing precursors (pre-miRNAs, pri-miRNAs) and mature by means of the Drosha and Dicer endonucleases and their associated factors. The let-7 miRNAs have prominent roles in developmental differentiation and in regulating cell proliferation. In cancer, the tumor suppressor function of let-7 is abrogated by overexpression of Lin28, one of several RNA-binding proteins that regulate let-7 biogenesis by interacting with conserved motifs in let-7 precursors close to the Dicer cleavage site. Using in vitro assays, we have identified a binding site for short modified oligoribonucleotides (‘looptomirs’) overlapping that of Lin28 in pre-let-7a-2. These looptomirs selectively antagonize the docking of Lin28, but still permit processing of pre-let-7a-2 by Dicer. Looptomirs restored synthesis of mature let-7 and inhibited growth and clonogenic potential in Lin28 overexpressing hepatocarcinoma cells, thereby demonstrating a promising new means to rescue defective miRNA biogenesis in Lin28-dependent cancers. PMID:25378324

  7. MicroRNA let-7b regulates genomic balance by targeting Aurora B kinase.

    PubMed

    Mäki-Jouppila, Jenni Heidi Eveliina; Pruikkonen, Sofia; Tambe, Mahesh Balasaheb; Aure, Miriam Ragle; Halonen, Tuuli; Salmela, Anna-Leena; Laine, Leena; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Kallio, Marko Johannes

    2015-06-01

    The let-7 microRNA (miRNA) family has been implicated in the regulation of diverse cellular processes and disease pathogenesis. In cancer, loss-of-function of let-7 miRNAs has been linked to tumorigenesis via increased expression of target oncogenes. Excessive proliferation rate of tumor cells is often associated with deregulation of mitotic proteins. Here, we show that let-7b contributes to the maintenance of genomic balance via targeting Aurora B kinase, a key regulator of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Our results indicate that let-7b binds to Aurora B kinase 3'UTR reducing mRNA and protein expression of the kinase. In cells, excess let-7b induced mitotic defects characteristic to Aurora B perturbation including increased rate of polyploidy and multipolarity, and premature SAC inactivation that leads to forced exit from chemically induced mitotic arrest. Moreover, the frequency of aneuploid HCT-116 cells was significantly increased upon let-7b overexpression compared to controls. Interestingly, together with a chemical Aurora B inhibitor, let-7b had an additive effect on polyploidy induction in HeLa cells. In breast cancer patients, reduced let-7b expression was found to be associated with increased Aurora B expression in grade 3 tumors. Furthermore, let-7b was found downregulated in the most aggressive forms of breast cancer determined by clinicopathological parameters. Together, our findings suggest that let-7b contributes to the fidelity of cell division via regulation of Aurora B. Moreover, the loss of let-7b in aggressive tumors may drive tumorigenesis by up-regulation of Aurora B and other targets of the miRNA, which further supports the role of let-7b in tumor suppression.

  8. Exploring Lifelong Learners Engaged in an Astronomy-Related Massively Open Online Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, Chris David; Wenger, Matthew; Formanek, Martin; Romine, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Massively open online courses (MOOCs) are becoming increasingly popular ways to reach diverse lifelong learners all over the world. Although MOOCs resemble more formal classes (e.g. videos of content, quizzes, activities), they are often used by informal audiences from home. Recently, MOOCs have become more utilized by universities to conduct outreach as they explore how to use MOOCs to reach new potential learners. Despite the rapid adaption of MOOCs, little is known about individuals who choose to take a MOOC, how they interact with the course materials, and what motivates them to finish the course.We present results of a study of lifelong learners engaged in an astronomy "101" MOOC. Through analysis of registered learners' behaviors as well as self-reported responses to a survey about science, we were able to characterize a subset of the learners engaged in the MOOC during its first offering. Overall, 25363 learners from over 100 countries registered for the MOOC. Of those, 14900 accessed at least one part of the course. Learners were recruited to complete a survey of their knowledge and attitudes towards science. Of the learner group who opened the course, 2889 individuals completed the survey, 2465 of those were able to be linked to their usage of the MOOC through a unique identifier.Learners represented a wide-range of ages, professions, and previous science experience. The best predictors for MOOC completion were engagement in the first activity and first writing assignment and engagement in the online forum. Learners were very interested in science prior to their registration, had higher basic science knowledge that most undergraduate students enrolled in a parallel astronomy course, and used online searches and science sites to get their information about science. As we reach out to a worldwide audience to learners in these massively open online courses, understanding their motivations and behaviors will be essential. This work is helping us understand and

  9. Distal airway epithelial progenitor cells are radiosensitive to High-LET radiation

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Alicia M.; Konda, Bindu; Kirsch, David G.; Stripp, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation occurs in a variety of situations, including charged particle radiotherapy, radiological accidents, and space travel. However, the extent of normal tissue injury in the lungs following high-LET radiation exposure is unknown. Here we show that exposure to high-LET radiation led to a prolonged loss of in vitro colony forming ability by airway epithelial progenitor cells. Furthermore, exposure to high-LET radiation induced clonal expansion of a subset of progenitor cells in the distal airway epithelium. Clonal expansion following high-LET radiation exposure was correlated with elevated progenitor cell apoptosis, persistent γ-H2AX foci, and defects in mitotic progression of distal airway progenitors. We discovered that the effects of high-LET radiation exposure on progenitor cells occur in a p53-dependent manner. These data show that high-LET radiation depletes the distal airway progenitor pool by inducing cell death and loss of progenitor function, leading to clonal expansion. Importantly, high-LET radiation induces greater long-term damage to normal lung tissue than the relative equivalent dose of low-LET γ-rays, which has implications in therapeutic development and risk assessment. PMID:27659946

  10. Learner Satisfaction in Online Learning: An Analysis of the Perceived Impact of Learner-Social Media and Learner-Instructor Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Jeffery C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between general course satisfaction, learner-instructor interaction, and the learner-social media interaction scores of participants. This study used an online survey with 60 questions to gather the participants' demographic data, learner-instructor interaction data, learner-social…

  11. Adult learner centered processes in an online ADRN to BSN nursing program: independent evaluator and peer self-assessments.

    PubMed

    Shuster, George; Birkholz, Gloria; Petri, Linda

    2007-01-01

    A five year fully online RN to BSN program was assessed by faculty and a consultant using the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Partnerships for Training (PFT) learner-centered evaluation tool. Faculty were more critical of their expertise in learner-centered online course criteria than the consultant. The consultant identified minimal use of peer support, collaborative activities, faculty preference for visual learner activities, and a tendency toward faculty ownership of learning goals and creation of activity rules and guidelines. The need to bring online discussions to a higher level of thinking was also noted. The dual evaluation perspectives helped identify strengths and weaknesses in the curriculum.

  12. Learner-Generated Noticing Behavior by Novice Learners: Tracing the Effects of Learners' L1 on Their Emerging L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eun Sung

    2013-01-01

    This study examines novice learners' self-generated input noticing approaches and strategies. It is motivated by previous research on input enhancement which yielded insights that learners are naturally prone to notice certain aspects of L2 input on their own without any external means to channel their attention. Two L1 groups (Japanese and…

  13. Pairing Learners in Pair Work Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Neomy; Aldosari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Although pair work is advocated by major theories of second language (L2) learning and research findings suggest that pair work facilitates L2 learning, what is unclear is how to best pair students in L2 classes of mixed L2 proficiency. This study investigated the nature of pair work in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) class in a college in…

  14. 'Letting them loose!' A different approach to a biochemistry post-exam training session.

    PubMed

    Flint, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    This feature looks at changing the format of a well-established information skills session for first-year biochemistry students at UCL, to improve its design, delivery and the overall learning experience for the students. After reviewing current literature, active learning methods were explored and an idea of a research-based quiz based on famous scientists was devised. After a brief introduction to the library resources available, the students were 'let loose' to research their particular scientist and answer a series of questions. Feedback was gained and evaluated and concluded that the session was well received by students. The feature also raises the discussion of generic verses subject-based information skills training. H.S.

  15. MicroRNA let-7, T Cells, and Patient Survival in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dou, Ruoxu; Nishihara, Reiko; Cao, Yin; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Mima, Kosuke; Masuda, Atsuhiro; Masugi, Yohei; Shi, Yan; Gu, Mancang; Li, Wanwan; da Silva, Annacarolina; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Xuehong; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Giovannucci, Edward L; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Qian, Zhi Rong; Ogino, Shuji

    2016-11-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that the let-7 family of noncoding RNAs suppresses adaptive immune responses, contributing to immune evasion by the tumor. We hypothesized that the amount of let-7a and let-7b expression in colorectal carcinoma might be associated with limited T-lymphocyte infiltrates in the tumor microenvironment and worse clinical outcome. Utilizing the molecular pathological epidemiology resources of 795 rectal and colon cancers in two U.S.-nationwide prospective cohort studies, we measured tumor-associated let-7a and let-7b expression levels by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, and CD3(+), CD8(+), CD45RO (PTPRC)(+), and FOXP3(+) cell densities by tumor tissue microarray immunohistochemistry and computer-assisted image analysis. Logistic regression analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to assess associations of let-7a (and let-7b) expression (quartile predictor variables) with T-cell densities (binary outcome variables) and mortality, respectively, controlling for tumor molecular features, including microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, LINE-1 methylation, and KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations. Compared with cases in the lowest quartile of let-7a expression, those in the highest quartile were associated with lower densities of CD3(+) [multivariate odds ratio (OR), 0.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.23-0.67; Ptrend = 0.003] and CD45RO(+) cells (multivariate OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.17-0.58; Ptrend = 0.0004), and higher colorectal cancer-specific mortality (multivariate hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.42-3.13; Ptrend = 0.001). In contrast, let-7b expression was not significantly associated with T-cell density or colorectal cancer prognosis. Our data support the role of let-7a in suppressing antitumor immunity in colorectal cancer and suggest let-7a as a potential target of immunotherapy. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(11); 927-35. ©2016 AACR.

  16. Let-7g targets collagen type I α2 and inhibits cell migration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Junfang; Zhao, Lei; Budhu, Anuradha; Forgues, Marshonna; Jia, Hu-Liang; Qin, Lun-Xiu; Ye, Qing-Hai; Yu, Jinming; Shi, Xuetao; Tang, Zhao-You; Wang, Xin Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive cancer with a poor prognosis mainly due to metastasis. MicroRNAs are endogenous small noncoding RNAs that regulate cellular gene expression and are functionally linked to tumourigenesis. Using microarray analysis, we recently identified 20 miRNAs associated with HCC metastasis. Here, we carried out further analyses on one of these microRNAs, let-7g, to determine whether it is functionally linked to HCC metastasis. Methods Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the level of mature let-7g transcript in HCC clinical specimens and its correlation with patient survival. Ectopic expression of let-7g was carried out in HCC cell lines to assess its influence on cell growth, migration and invasion. Results We confirmed that the level of let-7g was significantly lower in metastatic HCCs compared to metastasis-free HCCs. Moreover, low let-7g expression in a tumour was predictive of poor survival in HCC patients. Functional studies indicated that ectopic expression of let-7g significantly inhibits HCC cell migration and cell growth. In-silico analysis revealed members of soluble collagens as potential targets of let-7g. Consistently, the levels of type I collagen α2 (COL1A2) and let-7g were inversely correlated in HCC clinical specimens. COL1A2 was experimentally validated as a direct target of let-7g. Moreover, addition of COL1A2 counteracted the inhibitory effect of let-7g on cell migration. Conclusions These results suggest that let-7g may suppress HCC metastasis partially through targeting COL1A2. PMID:20338660

  17. Deregulation of let-7e in epithelial ovarian cancer promotes the development of resistance to cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Cai, J; Yang, C; Yang, Q; Ding, H; Jia, J; Guo, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z

    2013-01-01

    Drug resistance remains a major clinical obstacle to successful treatment in ovarian cancer patients, and the evidence of microRNAs involvement in drug resistance has been emerging recently. In this report, we investigated the role of let-7e in the development of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer. On the cellular level, let-7e expression was significantly reduced in cisplatin-resistant human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell line A2780/CP compared with parental A2780 cell and decreased in a concentration-dependent manner in A2780, SKOV3 and ES2 cells treated with cisplatin. Overexpression of let-7e by transfection of agomir could resensitize A2780/CP and reduce the expression of cisplatin-resistant-related proteins enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2) and cyclin D1 (CCND1), whereas let-7e inhibitors increased resistance to cisplatin in parental A2780 cells. Quantitative methylation-specific PCR analysis showed hypermethylation of the CpG island adjacent to let-7e in A2780/CP cells, and demethylation treatment with 5-aza-CdR or transfection of pYr-let-7e-shRNA plasmid containing unmethylated let-7e DNA sequence could restore let-7e expression and partly reduce the chemoresistance. In addition, cisplatin combined with let-7e agomirs inhibited the growth of A2780/CP xenograft more effectively than cisplatin alone. Diminished expression of EZH2 and CCND1 and higher cisplatin concentrations in tumor tissue of mice subjected to administration of let-7e agomirs in addition to cisplatin were revealed by immunohistochemistry and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Taken together, our findings suggest that let-7e may act as a promising therapeutic target for improvement of the sensibility to cisplatin in EOC. PMID:24100610

  18. Deregulation of MYCN, LIN28B and LET7 in a Molecular Subtype of Aggressive High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Cowin, Prue A.; Johnstone, Cameron N.; House, Colin M.; Sheppard, Karen E.; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; Melnyk, Nataliya; Rustgi, Anil K.; Phillips, Wayne A.; Johnsen, Hilde; Holm, Ruth; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Birrer, Michael J.; Pearson, Richard B.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Huntsman, David G.; deFazio, Anna; Creighton, Chad J.; Smyth, Gordon K.; Bowtell, David D. L.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular subtypes of serous ovarian cancer have been recently described. Using data from independent datasets including over 900 primary tumour samples, we show that deregulation of the Let-7 pathway is specifically associated with the C5 molecular subtype of serous ovarian cancer. DNA copy number and gene expression of HMGA2, alleles of Let-7, LIN28, LIN28B, MYC, MYCN, DICER1, and RNASEN were measured using microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 127 samples using tissue microarrays and anti-HMGA2 antibodies. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation of bacterial artificial chromosomes hybridized to 239 ovarian tumours was used to measure translocation at the LIN28B locus. Short interfering RNA knockdown in ovarian cell lines was used to test the functionality of associations observed. Four molecular subtypes (C1, C2, C4, C5) of high-grade serous ovarian cancers were robustly represented in each dataset and showed similar pattern of patient survival. We found highly specific activation of a pathway involving MYCN, LIN28B, Let-7 and HMGA2 in the C5 molecular subtype defined by MYCN amplification and over-expression, over-expression of MYCN targets including the Let-7 repressor LIN28B, loss of Let-7 expression and HMGA2 amplification and over-expression. DICER1, a known Let-7 target, and RNASEN were over-expressed in C5 tumours. We saw no evidence of translocation at the LIN28B locus in C5 tumours. The reported interaction between LIN28B and Let-7 was recapitulated by siRNA knockdown in ovarian cancer cell lines. Our results associate deregulation of MYCN and downstream targets, including Let-7 and oncofetal genes, with serous ovarian cancer. We define for the first time how elements of an oncogenic pathway, involving multiple genes that contribute to stem cell renewal, is specifically altered in a molecular subtype of serous ovarian cancer. By defining the drivers of a molecular subtype of serous ovarian cancers we

  19. Neoplastic cell transformation by high-LET radiation: molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yang, T C; Craise, L M; Mei, M T; Tobias, C A

    1989-01-01

    Experimental data on molecular mechanisms are essential for understanding the bioeffects of radiation and for developing biophysical models, which can help in determining the shape of dose-response curves at very low doses, e.g., doses less than 1 cGy. Although it has been shown that ionizing radiation can cause neoplastic cell transformation directly, that high-LET heavy ions in general can be more effective than photons in transforming cells, and that the radiogenic cell transformation is a multi-step process [correction of processes], we know very little about the molecular nature of lesions important for cell transformation, the relationship between lethal and transformational damages, and the evolution of initial damages into final chromosomal aberrations which alter the growth control of cells. Using cultured mouse embryo cells (C3H10T1/2) as a model system, we have collected quantitative data on dose-response curves for heavy ions with various charges and energies. An analysis of these quantitative data suggested that two DNA breaks formed within 80 angstroms may cause cell transformation and that two DNA breaks formed within 20 angstroms may be lethal. Through studies with restriction enzymes which produce DNA damages at specific sites, we have found that DNA double strand breaks, including both blunt- and cohesive-ended breaks, can cause cell transformation in vitro. These results indicate that DNA double strand breaks can be important primary lesions for radiogenic cell transformation and that blunt-ended double strand breaks can form lethal as well as transformational damages due to misrepair or incomplete repair in the cell. The RBE-LET relationship is similar for HGPRT gene mutation, chromosomal deletion, and cell transformation, suggesting common lesions may be involved in these radiation effects. The high RBE of high-LET radiation for cell killing and neoplastic cell transformation is most likely related to its effectiveness in producing DNA double

  20. Coping with Demotivation: EFL Learners' Remotivation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falout, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    When foreign language education is compulsory, competitive, or coercive, how learners cope with stress can determine outcomes, including value of the subject, persistence on task, and level of proficiency. The development of adaptive or maladaptive coping processes toward situated learning goals is influenced by learners' beliefs about themselves…

  1. Successfully Applying Team Teaching with Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Kevin; Nelson, Peggy; Donaldson, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Team teaching is a great strategy to convey systems thinking to students, families, and communities and to help learners gain multiple perspectives. Learners benefit from the professional interaction among skilled instructors. This article uses a program of land stewardship to demonstrate the advantages of team teaching. Both the advantages and…

  2. English Learners (ELs) and NAEP. Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) and NAEP include: (1) 2013 Reading Scores for Grades 4, 8, and 12: ELs vs. Non-ELs; (2) 2013 Mathematics Scores for Grades 4,…

  3. Iranian University English Learners' Discursive Demotivation Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashidi, Nasser; Rahimi, Mohammad; Alimorad, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Investigating how foreign language learners' discourse mediates their demotivation construction is a relatively new area of inquiry. This paper examined the discursive construction of four (two males and two females) Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' demotivation at Shiraz University, Iran. Employing Fairclough's (2003)…

  4. Profiles of English Learners (ELs). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on profiles of English Learners (ELs) include: (1) Percentage of Total School Population, Grades Pre-K through 12, Represented by ELs, by State,…

  5. Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann F. V., Ed.; Strong, Gregory, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation" presents instructional practices that are particularly successful with adults. Adult language learners are goal oriented and direct their learning to fulfill particular needs or demands: to advance their studies, to progress up the career ladder, to follow business opportunities, to pass…

  6. Training Learners for Self-Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Toro, Maria

    This book presents practical solutions for teaching foreign language learners self instruction, ranging from needs analysis to resourcing, strategy training and monitoring tools. Special emphasis is placed on different ways in which learners can be supported by learning how to analyze their own needs and set their own goals, how to choose the most…

  7. Model Learner Outcomes for Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Cheryl, Ed.; And Others

    Chapter 1 of this document contains sets of statements adopted by either the Minnesota State Board of Education or the Minnesota State Legislature. They represent the hierarchy used by Department of Education staff as they develop model learner outcomes for each subject area. Contents include learner values, education system values, philosophy for…

  8. Prospective Teachers' Metaphorical Conceptualizations of Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saban, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the metaphorical images that prospective teachers in Turkey formulated to describe learners. Participants (N = 2847) completed the prompt "A student is like ... because ..." to indicate their conceptualizations of learner. Data were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Altogether 98 well-articulated…

  9. Build Optional Digital Textbooks for Distance Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruo, Du; Xiaotang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    E-books seem to be a trend and an excellent solution for mobile learning lately, but what kinds of e-books are good fit for distance learners' needs? For the purpose of offering open, more appropriate, better in quality, more convenient and flexible learning materials for distance learners. From 2011, through an experimental study on the basis of…

  10. Learner Views about a Distance Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durak, Gurhan; Ataizi, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the views of learners experienced in the Distance Learning Platform (DLP), which was prepared according to an online course design model. The participants of the study were 19 learners who took the programming languages course (via the DLP for 14 weeks). Before the application, the preparation of the DLP…

  11. Self-Esteem among Adult Literacy Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipnevich, Anastasiya; Beder, Hal

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate adult literacy education learners' self-esteem and to examine the relationship between self-esteem and measures of achievement in reading and math. The rationale for the present study stemmed from the lack of research into adult literacy students' self-esteem levels. More than 200 learners enrolled in…

  12. Advanced EFL Learners' Beliefs about Pronunciation Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghazo, Sharif M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores EFL learners' beliefs about English pronunciation teaching and aims to provide insights into current teaching practices of English pronunciation at both college and university levels. To this end, the study sought to elicit the beliefs of a group of 71 third- and fourth-year EFL learners majoring in English at a university…

  13. Learner Language Analytic Methods and Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Bronwen

    2010-01-01

    Methods for analysing interlanguage have long aimed to capture learner language in its own right. By surveying the cognitive methods of Error Analysis, Obligatory Occasion Analysis and Frequency Analysis, this paper traces reformulations to attain this goal. The paper then focuses on Emergence Analysis, which fine-tunes learner language analysis…

  14. Identifying Successful Learners from Interaction Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCuaig, Judi; Baldwin, Julia

    2012-01-01

    The interaction behaviours of successful, high-achieving learners when using a Learning Management System (LMS) are different than the behaviours of learners who are having more difficulty mastering the course material. This paper explores the idea that conventional Learning Management Systems can exploit data mining techniques to predict the…

  15. Ontario's Old Growth: A Learner's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stabb, Mark

    This handbook was written in response to an identified need for more public information on Ontario's old growth forests. It is meant to be taken into old growth stands, where the learner can see, touch, and study the natural ingredients of old growth forests. Much of the handbook is a guide to forest history, helping the learner to discover…

  16. A Critical Realist Orientation to Learner Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, David F.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this essay is to propose critical realism as a philosophical middle way between two sets of ontological, epistemological, and methodological assumptions regarding learner needs. Key concepts of critical realism, a tradition in the philosophy of science, are introduced and applied toward an analysis of learner needs, resulting in…

  17. Dealing with Disruptive Behavior of Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobmeier, Robert; Moran, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The adult education literature on disruptive behavior of adult learners was reviewed and a survey on disruptive behavior of adult learners was conducted with adult educators. The findings are synthesized in a conceptual framework for understanding the types and causes of disruptive behavior, which fall into the categories of inattention,…

  18. Pairing the Adult Learner and Boutique Wineries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyoke, Laura; Heath-Simpson, Delta

    2013-01-01

    This study explored connections between adult learners and their experiences in the context of small boutique wineries operating in the start-up phase of the organizational life cycle. The research objective was to gain insight regarding the pairing of adult learners with the entering of a specialty industry. Fourteen individuals from four…

  19. Vocabulary Breadth in French L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Annabelle

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary is one of the building blocks of language and is a necessary component of learners' development. This paper aims to describe the development of the L2 lexicon from the first year of learning French as a foreign language at school to the last year of undergraduate studies at university by setting out what learners know and how this…

  20. TRANSLATE: New Strategic Approaches for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Jiménez, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This teaching tip shares a research-based instructional model that uses translation to improve the English reading comprehension of English Learners. Within this instruction, English learners work collaboratively in small groups and use translation to facilitate understandings of their required English language arts curriculum. Students are taught…