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Sample records for activity level pal

  1. META-ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL ( PAL ) DATA FOR U.S. YOUTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes analytical research undertaken by EMRB staff to obtain age- and gender-specific distributions of Physical Activity Level (PAL) values for children measured in studies published between 1990-2004 in the clinical nutrition and exercise physiology literatures. ...

  2. PROVISIONAL ADVISORY LEVELS (PALs) FOR PHOSGENE (CG)

    SciTech Connect

    Glass-Mattie, Dana F; McClanahan, Mark; Koller, Loren; Adeshina, Femi; Ross, Robert Hord

    2009-01-01

    The PAL protocol was applied to estimate inhalation exposure limits for phosgene (CG). Data on humans are limited to occupational exposures or accounts from the use of phosgene as a chemical warfare agent in WWI. Animal studies with phosgene show a steep dose-response curve for pulmonary edema and mortality with little species variability in effects. Although immediately upon exposure lacrimation and upper respiratory irritation can occur, the main effect in the target organ, a progressive pulmonary edema, occurs after a latency period of 1-24 hours. PAL estimates were approved by the Expert Consultation Panel for Provisional Advisory Levels in May 2007. Exposure limits for oral exposure to CG are not developed due to insufficient data. PAL estimates for inhalation exposure to CG are presented: The 24-hour PAL values for severity levels 1, 2, and 3 are 0.0017, 0.0033 and 0.022 ppm, respectively. The 30-day PAL values are 0.0006 and 0.0012 ppm for the PAL 1 and 2 values, respectively. These 30-day inhalation values were also accepted as the 90-day and 2-year PAL 1 and 2 values. Data were not available for deriving 30-day, 90-day and 2-year PAL 3 values.

  3. Health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for Homeland Security

    SciTech Connect

    Adeshina, Femi; Sonich-Mullin, Synthia; Wood, Carol S

    2009-01-01

    In compliance with Homeland Security Presidential Directive No.8, the US EPA National Homeland Security Research Center, in collaboration with the Department of Energy, is developing health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for priority toxic industrial chemicals, pesticides, and chemical warfare agents in air and drinking water. The PALs Program will provide exposure levels to assist emergency response decision-making, and to serve as criteria for determining re-use and re-entry into affected areas resulting from transport/storage accidents, natural disasters, and subversive activities. PALs are applicable at federal, state, and local levels, and are intended for use in homeland security efforts, public health, law enforcement, and emergency response, as well as decisions by water utilities, and national and regional EPA offices. PALS have not been promulgated nor have they been formally issued as regulatory guidance. They are intended to be used at the discretion of risk managers in emergency situations when site specific risk assessments are not available. Three levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations of potential drinking water and inhalation exposures for the general public. Draft PALs are evaluated both by an EPA working group, and an external multidisciplinary panel to ensure scientific credibility and wide acceptance. In this issue, we present background information on the PAL program, the methodology used in deriving PALs, and the technical support documents for the derivation of PALs for acrylonitrile, phosgene, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen sulfide.

  4. PROVISIONAL ADVISORY LEVELS (PALs) FOR HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S)

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Thomas C; Dorman, David; Gardner, Donald; Adeshina, Femi; Ross, Robert Hord

    2009-01-01

    Application of PAL protocols was performed for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as experimental data permitted. The data base includes human experimental studies, worker exposure evaluations, as well as case studies on acute and repeated exposure. The data base of animal studies is substantial covering multiple species and addressing acute, repeated, and subchronic exposure scenarios. PAL estimates were approved by the Expert Consultation Panel for Provisional Advisory Levels in November 2006. No reliable data were found on oral exposure, making it impractical to estimate PALs for drinking water. Since H2S exists as a gas, partitioning to air is likely to occur with an environmental release. H2S inhalation PAL values for 24 hr exposure are: PAL 1 = 1.2 ppm; PAL 2 = 7.0 ppm; and PAL 3 = 27 ppm; the 30-d and 90-d inhalation exposure values are: PAL 1 = 0.85 ppm and PAL 2 = 3.0 ppm. PAL 3 values for 30-d and 90-d are not recommended due to insufficient data. Long-term data were insufficient to estimate 2-year inhalation PALs.

  5. Agreement of the activPAL3 and activPAL for characterising posture and stepping in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Ceri; Dall, Philippa; Grant, Margaret; Stansfield, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Characterisation of physical activity and sedentary behaviour under free-living conditions is becoming increasingly important in light of growing evidence for the health implications of these behaviours. The integrity of long-term follow-up and the ability to compare outcomes between studies is critically dependent on the agreement of outcomes from successive generations of monitors. This study evaluated the agreement of the activPAL and second generation activPAL3 devices. Agreement was assessed in both adults (median 27.6y IQR 22.6) (n=20) and young people (median 12.0y IQR 4.1) (n=8) during standardised and daily living (ADL) test activities. During standardised activities; sedentary duration, upright duration, stepping duration and overall number of steps were all detected within small limits of agreement (≤5%). However, the activPAL characterised more steps during jogging than the activPAL3 (adults +8.36%, young people +6.80%). Also during ADL differences arose due to different posture characterisation in young people and lower step detection in the activPAL than the activPAL3 (adults -20.58%, young people -11.43%). Second-by-second posture analysis demonstrated high levels (>90%) of agreement for all activities between monitors. However, sensitivity (68.7%) and positive predictive value (78.8%) for adult stepping demonstrated disagreement between monitor interpretation of movement patterns during ADL. Agreement between monitor outcomes for standardised activities provides confidence that these outcomes can be considered almost equivalent. However, for characterisation of jogging and smaller movements during ADL, it is likely that significant differences between monitor outcomes will arise.

  6. Agreement of the activPAL3 and activPAL for characterising posture and stepping in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Ceri; Dall, Philippa; Grant, Margaret; Stansfield, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Characterisation of physical activity and sedentary behaviour under free-living conditions is becoming increasingly important in light of growing evidence for the health implications of these behaviours. The integrity of long-term follow-up and the ability to compare outcomes between studies is critically dependent on the agreement of outcomes from successive generations of monitors. This study evaluated the agreement of the activPAL and second generation activPAL3 devices. Agreement was assessed in both adults (median 27.6y IQR 22.6) (n=20) and young people (median 12.0y IQR 4.1) (n=8) during standardised and daily living (ADL) test activities. During standardised activities; sedentary duration, upright duration, stepping duration and overall number of steps were all detected within small limits of agreement (≤5%). However, the activPAL characterised more steps during jogging than the activPAL3 (adults +8.36%, young people +6.80%). Also during ADL differences arose due to different posture characterisation in young people and lower step detection in the activPAL than the activPAL3 (adults -20.58%, young people -11.43%). Second-by-second posture analysis demonstrated high levels (>90%) of agreement for all activities between monitors. However, sensitivity (68.7%) and positive predictive value (78.8%) for adult stepping demonstrated disagreement between monitor interpretation of movement patterns during ADL. Agreement between monitor outcomes for standardised activities provides confidence that these outcomes can be considered almost equivalent. However, for characterisation of jogging and smaller movements during ADL, it is likely that significant differences between monitor outcomes will arise. PMID:27318305

  7. Health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for homeland security.

    PubMed

    Adeshina, Femi; Sonich-Mullin, Cynthia; Ross, Robert H; Wood, Carol S

    2009-12-01

    The Homeland Security Presidential Directive #8 (HSPD-8) for National Emergency Preparedness was issued to " establish policies to strengthen the preparedness of the United States to prevent and respond to threatened or actual domestic terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies by requiring a national domestic all- hazards preparedness goal. "In response to HSPD-8 and HSPD-22 (classified) on Domestic Chemical Defense, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) is developing health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for priority chemicals (including chemical warfare agents, pesticides, and toxic industrial chemicals) in air and drinking water. PALs are temporary values that will neither be promulgated, nor be formally issued as regulatory guidance. They are intended to be used at the discretion of risk managers in emergency situations. The PAL Program provides advisory exposure levels for chemical agents to assist in emergency planning and response decision-making, and to aid in making informed risk management decisions for evacuation, temporary re-entry into affected areas, and resumed-use of infrastructure, such as water resources. These risk management decisions may be made at the federal, state, and local levels. Three exposure levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations for potential exposure to drinking water and ambient air by the general public. Developed PALs are evaluated both by a US EPA working group, and an external multidisciplinary panel to ensure scientific credibility and wide acceptance. In this Special Issue publication, we present background information on the PAL program, the methodology used in deriving PALs, and the technical support documents for the derivation of PALs for acrylonitrile, hydrogen sulfide, and phosgene.

  8. Health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for homeland security.

    PubMed

    Adeshina, Femi; Sonich-Mullin, Cynthia; Ross, Robert H; Wood, Carol S

    2009-12-01

    The Homeland Security Presidential Directive #8 (HSPD-8) for National Emergency Preparedness was issued to " establish policies to strengthen the preparedness of the United States to prevent and respond to threatened or actual domestic terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies by requiring a national domestic all- hazards preparedness goal. "In response to HSPD-8 and HSPD-22 (classified) on Domestic Chemical Defense, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) is developing health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for priority chemicals (including chemical warfare agents, pesticides, and toxic industrial chemicals) in air and drinking water. PALs are temporary values that will neither be promulgated, nor be formally issued as regulatory guidance. They are intended to be used at the discretion of risk managers in emergency situations. The PAL Program provides advisory exposure levels for chemical agents to assist in emergency planning and response decision-making, and to aid in making informed risk management decisions for evacuation, temporary re-entry into affected areas, and resumed-use of infrastructure, such as water resources. These risk management decisions may be made at the federal, state, and local levels. Three exposure levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations for potential exposure to drinking water and ambient air by the general public. Developed PALs are evaluated both by a US EPA working group, and an external multidisciplinary panel to ensure scientific credibility and wide acceptance. In this Special Issue publication, we present background information on the PAL program, the methodology used in deriving PALs, and the technical support documents for the derivation of PALs for acrylonitrile, hydrogen sulfide, and phosgene. PMID:19814653

  9. Accuracy of activPAL Self-Attachment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kringen, Nina L.; Healy, Genevieve N.; Winkler, Elisabeth A. H.; Clark, Bronwyn K.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the accuracy of self-attachment of the activPAL activity monitor. A convenience sample of 50 participants self-attached the monitor after being presented with written material only (WMO) and then written and video (WV) instructions; and completed a questionnaire regarding the acceptability of the instructional methods.…

  10. Overview of the Standing Operating Procedures (SOP) for the Development of Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs)

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Robert; Bast, Cheryl B; Wood, Carol S; Adeshina, Femi; Ross, Robert Hord

    2009-01-01

    Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) are concentrations in air and drinking water for priority toxic chemicals. This article summarizes the Standing Operating Procedures (SOPs) currently in place for the data-driven development of chemical-specific PALs. To provide consistency and transparency, and to avoid faults of arbitrariness, SOPs were developed for guidance in deriving PAL values. The SOPs for PAL development focus on: 1) data acquisition and analysis, 2) identification of a chemical-specific critical effect, 3) selection of a quantitative point-of-departure (POD), 4) uncertainty analysis and adjustments, 5) exposure duration adjustment and extrapolation, 6) identification of special concerns and issues, and 7) verification, documentation and dissemination of PALs. To avoid uncompromising rigidity in deriving PAL values and to allow for incorporation of new or refined methodologies, the overall procedure is fluid and subject to modification. The purpose of this publication is to provide a summary of these SOPs.

  11. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 possesses an active quorum sensing regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Elisa V; Nieto Peñalver, Carlos G; Leguina, Ana C; Irazusta, Verónica P; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2014-09-01

    The endophytic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus colonizes a broad range of host plants. Its plant growth-promoting capability is related to the capacity to perform biological nitrogen fixation, the biosynthesis of siderophores, antimicrobial substances and the solubilization of mineral nutrients. Colonization of and survival in these endophytic niche requires a complex regulatory network. Among these, quorum sensing systems (QS) are signaling mechanisms involved in the control of several genes related to microbial interactions, host colonization and stress survival. G. diazotrophicus PAL5 possesses a QS composed of a luxR and a luxI homolog, and produces eight molecules from the AHL family as QS signals. In this report data are provided showing that glucose concentration modifies the relative levels of these signal molecules. The activity of G. diazotrophicus PAL5 QS is also altered in presence of other carbon sources and under saline stress conditions. Inactivation of the QS system of G. diazotrophicus PAL5 by means of a quorum quenching strategy allowed the identification of extracellular and intracellular proteins under the control of this regulatory mechanism. PMID:24974195

  12. Validity and reliability of the activPAL3 for measuring posture and stepping in adults and young people.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Ceri; Dall, Philippa; Grant, Margaret; Stansfield, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Characterisation of free-living physical activity requires the use of validated and reliable monitors. This study reports an evaluation of the validity and reliability of the activPAL3 monitor for the detection of posture and stepping in both adults and young people. Twenty adults (median 27.6y; IQR22.6y) and 8 young people (12.0y; IQR4.1y) performed standardised activities and activities of daily living (ADL) incorporating sedentary, upright and stepping activity. Agreement, specificity and positive predictive value were calculated between activPAL3 outcomes and the gold-standard of video observation. Inter-device reliability was calculated between 4 monitors. Sedentary and upright times for standardised activities were within ±5% of video observation as was step count (excluding jogging) for both adults and young people. Jogging step detection accuracy reduced with increasing cadence >150stepsmin(-1). For ADLs, sensitivity to stepping was very low for adults (40.4%) but higher for young people (76.1%). Inter-device reliability was either good (ICC(1,1)>0.75) or excellent (ICC(1,1)>0.90) for all outcomes. An excellent level of detection of standardised postures was demonstrated by the activPAL3. Postures such as seat-perching, kneeling and crouching were misclassified when compared to video observation. The activPAL3 appeared to accurately detect 'purposeful' stepping during ADL, but detection of smaller stepping movements was poor. Small variations in outcomes between monitors indicated that differences in monitor placement or hardware may affect outcomes. In general, the detection of posture and purposeful stepping with the activPAL3 was excellent indicating that it is a suitable monitor for characterising free-living posture and purposeful stepping activity in healthy adults and young people.

  13. Structural and thermodynamic characterization of Pal, a phage natural chimeric lysin active against pneumococci.

    PubMed

    Varea, Julio; Monterroso, Begoña; Sáiz, José L; López-Zumel, Consuelo; García, José L; Laynez, José; García, Pedro; Menéndez, Margarita

    2004-10-15

    Pal amidase, encoded by pneumococcal bacteriophage Dp-1, represents one step beyond in the modular evolution of pneumococcal murein hydrolases. It exhibits the choline-binding module attaching pneumococcal lysins to the cell wall, but the catalytic module is different from those present in the amidases coded by the host or other pneumococcal phages. Pal is also an effective antimicrobial agent against Streptococcus pneumoniae that may constitute an alternative to antibiotic prophylaxis. The structural implications of Pal singular structure and their effect on the choline-amidase interactions have been examined by means of several techniques. Pal stability is maximum around pH 8.0 (Tm approximately 50.2 degrees C; DeltaHt = 183 +/- 4 kcal mol(-1)), and its constituting modules fold as two tight interacting cooperative units whose denaturation merges into a single process in the free amidase but may proceed as two well resolved events in the choline-bound state. Choline titration curves reflect low energy ligand-protein interactions and are compatible with two sets of sites. Choline binding strongly stabilizes the cell wall binding module, and the conformational stabilization is transmitted to the catalytic region. Moreover, the high proportion of aggregates formed by the unbound amidase together with choline preferential interaction with Pal dimers suggest the existence of marginally stable regions that would become stabilized through choline-protein interactions without significantly modifying Pal secondary structure. This structural rearrangement may underlie in vitro "conversion" of Pal from the low to the full activity form triggered by choline. The Pal catalytic module secondary structure could denote folding conservation within pneumococcal lytic amidases, but the number of functional choline binding sites is reduced (2-3 sites per monomer) when compared with pneumococcal LytA amidase (4-5 sites per monomer) and displays different intermodular interactions.

  14. Validation of the Actigraph GT3X and ActivPAL Accelerometers for the Assessment of Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Youngdeok; Barry, Vaughn W.; Kang, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    This study examined (a) the validity of two accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X [ActiGraph LLC, Pensacola, FL, USA] and activPAL [PAL Technologies Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland]) for the assessment of sedentary behavior; and (b) the variations in assessment accuracy by setting minimum sedentary bout durations against a proxy for direct observation using an…

  15. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Level I Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    These eight learning modules were prepared for parents participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning), which was designed for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting. First, materials for the BEST-PAL volunteer sponsors…

  16. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Level II Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    These eight learning modules were prepared for parents participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning), which was designed for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting. First, materials for the BEST-PAL volunteer sponsors…

  17. "Aloha", Hoosier! A Pen-Pal Activity in the Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Raymond; Chan, Kam Chi

    2007-01-01

    Ray, a preservice teacher in Indiana, and Maxine, a 35-year teaching veteran in Hawai'i, set up a pen-pal program for the third grade students in their respective classrooms, 4,000 miles apart. This pen-pal program, used in conjunction with children's literature and community and technology resources, brought about memorable learning experiences.…

  18. PALS in mathematics classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Mariathy; Mohammed, Siti Rosiah; Bosli, Fazillah; Abdullah, Nurhidayah Masni; Mahat, Aishah; Dasman, Anisah; Tarmuji, Nor Habibah; Ahmad, Salimah

    2014-07-01

    Peer Asissted Learning Strategies (PALS) is a type of cooperative learning where high and low performing students are gathered into a small group to achieve common goals and improve individual's understanding. The objectives of this study are to investigate students' perception about PALS and to identify optional methods to improve the technique for future implementation. The Mengubah Destini Anak Bangsa (MDAB) students selected for this study were from pre diploma level of studies in the Pre-Commerce Program. Cluster sampling was used to randomly select eight out of ten groups. Ninety nine students in the selected group became the respondents. Three groups were identified as Experimental Group (EG) and another five groups as Control Group (CG). A Diagnostic Test was given to all ten groups of students during the first week of class. Students in EG were given instructions using PALS. At the end of the semester, questionnaires were distributed to students in EG and analyzed. This study revealed that students had positive responses to PALS and a few suggestions from students to improve PALS were obtained.

  19. Immediate Impacts of PALS: A School-Wide Multi-Level Programme Targeting Behaviour Problems in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorlie, Mari-Anne; Ogden, Terje

    2007-01-01

    The article describes the main outcomes of the intervention programme "Positive behaviour, interactions and learning environment in school" (PALS). PALS is an adapted Norwegian version of the School-Wide Positive Behaviour Support model, developed in the United States with school-wide interventions aiming at the prevention of behaviour problems…

  20. Isolation and characterization of active promoters from Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strain PAL5 using a promoter-trapping plasmid.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Stefan; Pessoa, Cristiane Alves; de Lima Bergami, Amanda Aparecida; de Azevedo Figueiredo, Nathália Lima; Dos Santos Teixeira, Kátia Regina; Baldani, José Ivo

    2016-07-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen-fixing, endophytic bacterium that has the potential to promote plant growth and increase yield. Genetically modified strains might get more benefits to host plants, including through expression of useful proteins, such as Cry toxins from B. thuringiensis, or enzymes involved in phytohormone production, proteins with antagonistic activity for phytopathogens, or that improve nutrient utilization by the plant. For that, expression systems for G. diazotrophicus are needed, which requires active promoters fused to foreign (or innate) genes. This article describes the construction of a G. diazotrophicus PAL5 promoter library using a promoter-less lacZ-bearing vector, and the identification of six active promoters through β-galactosidase activity assays, sequencing and localization in the bacterial genome. The characterized promoters, which are located on distinct regions of the bacterial genome and encoding either sense or antisense transcripts, present variable expression strengths and might be used in the future for expressing useful proteins. PMID:26914247

  1. Body size and physical activity levels of adults on Rarotonga, the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2001-09-01

    Few studies of physical activity and energy expenditure have been carried out in the Pacific Region. In this study, the physical activity levels (PALs) of adult Cook Islanders living a largely modernised lifestyle by age group and occupation category were determined by a 3 day activity recall diary method. The period of observation included the previous Sunday, as a representative non-working day. A volunteer sample of 332 Cook Islanders aged 22 to 86 years was obtained from the total adult population of Rarotonga. Older adults are significantly less active than younger adults during the working week, but not during the weekend. Males are more physically active than females during the working week, but not on weekends. The mean weekday PAL of males engaged in traditional subsistence or who are unemployed is 1.88, while the mean weekday PAL of females engaged in traditional subsistence or who are housewives is 1.69. Male manual workers have a weekday PAL of 1.96, while female manual workers have a weekday PAL of 1.67. The weekday PAL values for those employed in clerical and administrative work are 1.82 (males) and 1.64 (females), while values for professionals are 1.76 (males) and 1.65 (females). Weekday physical activity is negatively associated with age, in nonlinear fashion. The PALs of adult Cook Islanders living a largely modernised lifestyle is lower in older age groups but does not vary by occupation category. PMID:11517738

  2. Molecular cloning and promoter analysis of the specific salicylic acid biosynthetic pathway gene phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AaPAL1) from Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Fu, Xueqing; Hao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Lida; Wang, Luyao; Qian, Hongmei; Zhao, Jingya

    2016-07-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of salicylic acid (SA). In this study, a full-length cDNA of PAL gene (named as AaPAL1) was cloned from Artemisia annua. The gene contains an open reading frame of 2,151 bps encoding 716 amino acids. Comparative and bioinformatics analysis revealed that the polypeptide protein of AaPAL1 was highly homologous to PALs from other plant species. Southern blot analysis revealed that it belonged to a gene family with three members. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of various tissues of A. annua showed that AaPAL1 transcript levels were highest in the young leaves. A 1160-bp promoter region was also isolated resulting in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements including W-box, TGACG-motif, and TC-rich repeats. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that AaPAL1 was upregulated by salinity, drought, wounding, and SA stresses, which were corroborated positively with the identified cis-elements within the promoter region. AaPAL1 was successfully expressed in Escherichia. coli and the enzyme activity of the purified AaPAL1 was approximately 287.2 U/mg. These results substantiated the involvement of AaPAL1 in the phenylalanine pathway. PMID:26040426

  3. Aspects of activity behavior as a determinant of the physical activity level.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, A G; Plasqui, G; Goris, A H C; Westerterp, K R

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated which aspects of the individuals' activity behavior determine the physical activity level (PAL). Habitual physical activity of 20 Dutch adults (age: 26-60 years, body mass index: 24.5 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer. Accelerometer output was used to identify the engagement in different types of daily activities with a classification tree algorithm. Activity behavior was described by the daily duration of sleeping, sedentary behavior (lying, sitting, and standing), walking, running, bicycling, and generic standing activities. Simultaneously, the total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water. PAL was calculated as TEE divided by sleeping metabolic rate. PAL was significantly associated (P<0.05) with sedentary time (R=-0.72), and the duration of walking (R=0.49), bicycling (R=0.77), and active standing (R=0.62). A negative association was observed between sedentary time and the duration of active standing (R=-0.87; P<0.001). A multiple-linear regression analysis showed that 75% of the variance in PAL could be predicted by the duration of bicycling (Partial R(2) =59%; P<0.01), walking (Partial R(2) =9%; P<0.05) and being sedentary (Partial R(2) =7%; P<0.05). In conclusion, there is objective evidence that sedentary time and activities related to transportation and commuting, such as walking and bicycling, contribute significantly to the average PAL. PMID:20536909

  4. PAL: Positional Astronomy Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenness, T.; Berry, D. S.

    2016-06-01

    The PAL library is a partial re-implementation of Pat Wallace's popular SLALIB library written in C using a Gnu GPL license and layered on top of the IAU's SOFA library (or the BSD-licensed ERFA) where appropriate. PAL attempts to stick to the SLA C API where possible.

  5. Polycystin-2 activity is controlled by transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif and PALS1-associated tight junction protein.

    PubMed

    Duning, Kerstin; Rosenbusch, Deike; Schlüter, Marc A; Tian, Yuemin; Kunzelmann, Karl; Meyer, Nina; Schulze, Ulf; Markoff, Arseni; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Weide, Thomas

    2010-10-29

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent monogenic cause of kidney failure, characterized by the development of renal cysts. ADPKD is caused by mutations of the polycystin-1 (PC1) or polycystin-2 (PC2) genes. PC2 encodes a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel, and its dysfunction has been implicated in cyst development. The transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif (TAZ) is required for the integrity of renal cilia. Its absence results in the development of renal cysts in a knock-out mouse model. TAZ directly interacts with PC2, and it has been suggested that another yet unidentified PDZ domain protein may be involved in the TAZ/PC2 interaction. Here we describe a novel interaction of TAZ with the multi-PDZ-containing PALS1-associated tight junction protein (PATJ). TAZ interacts with both the N-terminal PDZ domains 1-3 and the C-terminal PDZ domains 8-10 of PATJ, suggesting two distinct TAZ binding domains. We also show that the C terminus of PC2 strongly interacts with PDZ domains 8-10 and to a weaker extent with PDZ domains 1-3 of PATJ. Finally, we demonstrate that both TAZ and PATJ impair PC2 channel activity when co-expressed with PC2 in oocytes of Xenopus laevis. These results implicate TAZ and PATJ as novel regulatory elements of the PC2 channel and might thus be involved in ADPKD pathology.

  6. Airborne active and passive L-band measurements using PALS instrument in SMAPVEX12 soil moisture field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, Andreas; Yueh, Simon; Chazanoff, Seth; Dinardo, Steven; O'Dwyer, Ian; Jackson, Thomas; McNairn, Heather; Bullock, Paul; Wiseman, Grant; Berg, Aaron; Magagi, Ramata; Njoku, Eni

    2012-10-01

    NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in late 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. Merging of active and passive L-band observations of the mission will enable unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrieval. For pre-launch algorithm development and validation the SMAP project and NASA coordinated a field campaign named as SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012) together with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, and other Canadian and US institutions in the vicinity of Winnipeg, Canada in June-July, 2012. The main objective of SMAPVEX12 was acquisition of a data record that features long time-series with varying soil moisture and vegetation conditions over an aerial domain of multiple parallel flight lines. The coincident active and passive L-band data was acquired with the PALS (Passive Active L-band System) instrument. The measurements were conducted over the experiment domain every 2-3 days on average, over a period of 43 days. The preliminary calibration of the brightness temperatures obtained in the campaign has been performed. Daily lake calibrations were used to adjust the radiometer calibration parameters, and the obtained measurements were compared against the raw in situ soil moisture measurements. The evaluation shows that this preliminary calibration of the data produces already a consistent brightness temperature record over the campaign duration, and only secondary adjustments and cleaning of the data is need before the data can be applied to the development and validation of SMAP algorithms.

  7. Validity of GT3X and Actiheart to estimate sedentary time and breaks using ActivPAL as the reference in free-living conditions.

    PubMed

    Júdice, Pedro B; Santos, Diana A; Hamilton, Marc T; Sardinha, Luís B; Silva, Analiza M

    2015-05-01

    Sedentary time, specifically sitting/reclining, is a risk factor for many non-communicable diseases and premature mortality. Inclinometers have been used as a valid measurement of sedentary time and its patterns; however, there is a lack of information regarding the validity of alternative accelerometry and heart rate methods. The validity of GT3X and Actiheart in estimating changes in daily sedentary time and breaks, during free-living settings, using ActivPAL as the reference was examined. A crossover randomized control trial of an intervention that aimed to reduce ∼3 h/day of sitting time included 10 overweight/obese adults (37-65 years). Participants had a total of 74 valid days for the three devices (29 controls; 45 interventions). For ActivPAL, sedentary time was measured directly based upon posture (sitting/reclining); Actiheart, the presumed MET cutpoint for sedentary time (<1.5 METs) based on accelerometry+heart rate; GT3X, the traditional <100countsmin(-1). A break in sedentary time was defined as when the participants were above the aforementioned cutoffs. GT3X overestimated and Actiheart underestimated sedentary time (bias=135min; bias=-156min, respectively) and both methods overestimated breaks in sedentary time (bias=78; bias=235 breaks, respectively). The GT3X method was in better agreement with the ActivPAL sedentary time (r2=0.70; concordance correlation coefficient (CCC)=0.56) than the Actiheart (r2=0.24; CCC=0.31). The present results highlight the magnitude of potential errors in estimating sedentary time and breaks from common alternative methods other than ActivPAL. Because misclassification errors from the commonly used surrogates are potentially large, this raises concern that alternative methods used in many epidemiological observations may have underestimated the true effects caused by too much sitting (ClinicalTrials.govID:NCT02007681).

  8. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 12. Sequence analysis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) cDNA clones and appearance of PAL transcripts in elicitor-treated cell cultures and developing plants.

    PubMed

    Gowri, G; Paiva, N L; Dixon, R A

    1991-09-01

    An expression library containing cDNAs derived from transcripts from fungal elicitor-treated alfalfa cell suspension cultures was screened with an antiserum raised against phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) from alfalfa. A single immunoreactive clone was isolated which encoded a full-length PAL cDNA (APAL1) consisting of a 2175 bp open reading frame, 96 bp 5'-untranslated leader and 128 bp 3'-non-coding region. The deduced amino acid sequence was 86.5% similar to that of the PAL2 gene of bean, and encoded a polypeptide of Mr 78,865. A second PAL cDNA species was isolated, whose 3'-untranslated region was 86% identical to that of APAL1. Southern blot analysis indicated that PAL is encoded by a small multigene family in alfalfa. PAL transcript levels were rapidly and massively induced, and preceded increased PAL extractable activity, on exposure of alfalfa suspension cells to elicitor from baker's yeast. PAL transcripts were most abundant in roots, stems and petioles during growth and development of alfalfa seedlings. These studies provide the basis for an examination of the developmental and environmental control of a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid synthesis in a plant species which is readily amenable to stable genetic transformation.

  9. Accuracy of self-reported physical activity levels in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Sarah A; Baxter, Kimberley A; Davies, Peter S W; Truby, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Self-reported measures of habitual physical activity rely completely on the respondent's ability to provide accurate information on their own physical activity behaviours. Our aim was to investigate if obese adolescents could accurately report their physical activity levels (PAL) using self-reported diaries. Methods. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labelled water (DLW) and resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured via indirect calorimetry. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) and PAL values were derived from measured TEE and REE. Self-reported, four-day activity diaries were used to calculate daily MET values and averaged to give an estimated PAL value (ePAL). Results. Twenty-two obese adolescents, mean age 13.2 ± 1.8 years, mean BMI 31.3 ± 4.6 kg/m(2), completed the study. No significant differences between mean measured and estimated PAL values were observed (1.37 ± 0.13 versus 1.40 ± 0.34, P = 0.74). Bland Altman analysis illustrated a significant relationship (r = -0.76, P < 0.05) between the two methods; thus the bias was not consistent across a range of physical activity levels, with the more inactive overreporting their physical activity. Conclusion. At an individual level, obese adolescents are unlikely to be able to provide an accurate estimation of their own activity.

  10. Accuracy of Self-Reported Physical Activity Levels in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Sarah A.; Baxter, Kimberley A.; Davies, Peter S. W.; Truby, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Self-reported measures of habitual physical activity rely completely on the respondent's ability to provide accurate information on their own physical activity behaviours. Our aim was to investigate if obese adolescents could accurately report their physical activity levels (PAL) using self-reported diaries. Methods. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labelled water (DLW) and resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured via indirect calorimetry. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) and PAL values were derived from measured TEE and REE. Self-reported, four-day activity diaries were used to calculate daily MET values and averaged to give an estimated PAL value (ePAL). Results. Twenty-two obese adolescents, mean age 13.2 ± 1.8 years, mean BMI 31.3 ± 4.6 kg/m2, completed the study. No significant differences between mean measured and estimated PAL values were observed (1.37 ± 0.13 versus 1.40 ± 0.34, P = 0.74). Bland Altman analysis illustrated a significant relationship (r = −0.76, P < 0.05) between the two methods; thus the bias was not consistent across a range of physical activity levels, with the more inactive overreporting their physical activity. Conclusion. At an individual level, obese adolescents are unlikely to be able to provide an accurate estimation of their own activity. PMID:25247095

  11. PALS (Passive Active L-band System) Radiometer-Based Soil Moisture Retrieval for the SMAP Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, A.; Jackson, T. J.; Chan, S.; Bindlish, R.; O'Neill, P. E.; Chazanoff, S. L.; McNairn, H.; Bullock, P.; Powers, J.; Wiseman, G.; Berg, A. A.; Magagi, R.; Njoku, E. G.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is scheduled for launch in early January 2015. For pre-launch soil moisture algorithm development and validation, the SMAP project and NASA coordinated a SMAP Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) together with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in the vicinity of Winnipeg, Canada in June 7-July 19, 2012. Coincident active and passive airborne L-band data were acquired using the Passive Active L-band System (PALS) on 17 days during the experiment. Simultaneously with the PALS measurements, soil moisture ground truth data were collected manually. The vegetation and surface roughness were sampled on non-flight days. The SMAP mission will produce surface (top 5 cm) soil moisture products a) using a combination of its L-band radiometer and SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) measurements, b) using the radiometer measurement only, and c) using the SAR measurements only. The SMAPVEX12 data are being utilized for the development and testing of the algorithms applied for generating these soil moisture products. This talk will focus on presenting results of retrieving surface soil moisture using the PALS radiometer. The issues that this retrieval faces are very similar to those faced by the global algorithm using the SMAP radiometer. However, the different spatial resolution of the two observations has to be accounted for in the analysis. The PALS 3 dB footprint in the experiment was on the order of 1 km, whereas the SMAP radiometer has a footprint of about 40 km. In this talk forward modeled brightness temperature over the manually sampled fields and the retrieved soil moisture over the entire experiment domain are presented and discussed. In order to provide a retrieval product similar to that of the SMAP passive algorithm, various ancillary information had to be obtained for the SMAPVEX12 domain. In many cases there are multiple options on how to choose and reprocess these data

  12. Effect of contrasted levels of habitual physical activity on metabolic flexibility.

    PubMed

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Antoun, Edwina; Momken, Iman; Schoeller, Dale A; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Simon, Chantal; Blanc, Stéphane

    2013-02-01

    The factors regulating the body's ability to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation in response to fuel availability changes, or metabolic flexibility (MF), are currently intensively investigated in the context of metabolic diseases. Although numerous metabolic diseases are associated with sedentary behaviors and metabolic inflexibility, the effect of habitual physical activity level (PAL) on MF regulation is surprisingly poorly known. We investigated how PAL affects MF in cross-sectional and interventional studies. MF was assessed in 44 subjects: normal-weight and overweight sedentary men submitted to 2 mo of exercise at current recommendations, normal-weight active men submitted to 1 mo of reduced PAL and normal-weight women submitted to 1 mo of bed rest, with or without exercise. MF was evaluated, before and after interventions, following two standard meals as the relationship between individual mathematical variances in insulin and nonprotein respiratory quotient (NPRQ) daily kinetics. Daily NPRQ and insulin variances differed according to habitual PAL (P = 0.002 and P = 0.009, respectively); active subjects had higher variances in NPRQ for lower variances in insulin than sedentary subjects, indicating a better MF. Detraining increased insulin variance (P = 0.009) and decreased NPRQ variance (P = 0.003), while training tended to have opposite effects. Insulin and NPRQ variances were negatively related along the PAL continuum (R(2) = 0.70, P < 0.001). Variance in NPRQ was also positively related to PAL (R(2) = 0.52, P < 0.001). By assessing MF with mathematical surrogates in conditions of daily pattern in meal's intake, we showed that habitual PAL is associated with MF status, and that MF is modulated by changes in PAL. PMID:23239872

  13. Effect of contrasted levels of habitual physical activity on metabolic flexibility.

    PubMed

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Antoun, Edwina; Momken, Iman; Schoeller, Dale A; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Simon, Chantal; Blanc, Stéphane

    2013-02-01

    The factors regulating the body's ability to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation in response to fuel availability changes, or metabolic flexibility (MF), are currently intensively investigated in the context of metabolic diseases. Although numerous metabolic diseases are associated with sedentary behaviors and metabolic inflexibility, the effect of habitual physical activity level (PAL) on MF regulation is surprisingly poorly known. We investigated how PAL affects MF in cross-sectional and interventional studies. MF was assessed in 44 subjects: normal-weight and overweight sedentary men submitted to 2 mo of exercise at current recommendations, normal-weight active men submitted to 1 mo of reduced PAL and normal-weight women submitted to 1 mo of bed rest, with or without exercise. MF was evaluated, before and after interventions, following two standard meals as the relationship between individual mathematical variances in insulin and nonprotein respiratory quotient (NPRQ) daily kinetics. Daily NPRQ and insulin variances differed according to habitual PAL (P = 0.002 and P = 0.009, respectively); active subjects had higher variances in NPRQ for lower variances in insulin than sedentary subjects, indicating a better MF. Detraining increased insulin variance (P = 0.009) and decreased NPRQ variance (P = 0.003), while training tended to have opposite effects. Insulin and NPRQ variances were negatively related along the PAL continuum (R(2) = 0.70, P < 0.001). Variance in NPRQ was also positively related to PAL (R(2) = 0.52, P < 0.001). By assessing MF with mathematical surrogates in conditions of daily pattern in meal's intake, we showed that habitual PAL is associated with MF status, and that MF is modulated by changes in PAL.

  14. The Polarity Protein Pals1 Regulates Radial Sorting of Axons.

    PubMed

    Zollinger, Daniel R; Chang, Kae-Jiun; Baalman, Kelli; Kim, Seonhee; Rasband, Matthew N

    2015-07-22

    Myelin is essential for rapid and efficient action potential propagation in vertebrates. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating myelination remain incompletely characterized. For example, even before myelination begins in the PNS, Schwann cells must radially sort axons to form 1:1 associations. Schwann cells then ensheathe and wrap axons, and establish polarized, subcellular domains, including apical and basolateral domains, paranodes, and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures. Intriguingly, polarity proteins, such as Pals1/Mpp5, are highly enriched in some of these domains, suggesting that they may regulate the polarity of Schwann cells and myelination. To test this, we generated mice with Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes that lack Pals1. During early development of the PNS, Pals1-deficient mice had impaired radial sorting of axons, delayed myelination, and reduced nerve conduction velocities. Although myelination and conduction velocities eventually recovered, polyaxonal myelination remained a prominent feature of adult Pals1-deficient nerves. Despite the enrichment of Pals1 at paranodes and incisures of control mice, nodes of Ranvier and paranodes were unaffected in Pals1-deficient mice, although we measured a significant increase in the number of incisures. As in other polarized cells, we found that Pals1 interacts with Par3 and loss of Pals1 reduced levels of Par3 in Schwann cells. In the CNS, loss of Pals1 affected neither myelination nor the establishment of polarized membrane domains. These results demonstrate that Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes use distinct mechanisms to control their polarity, and that radial sorting in the PNS is a key polarization event that requires Pals1. Significance statement: This paper reveals the role of the canonical polarity protein Pals1 in radial sorting of axons by Schwann cells. Radial sorting is essential for efficient and proper myelination and is disrupted in some types of congenital muscular dystrophy.

  15. Association between daily step counts and physical activity level among Korean elementary schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    PARK, Jonghoon; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Lee, Sangjik; Kim, Eunkyung; Lim, Kiwon; Kim, Hyungryul; Lee, In-Sook; Tanaka, Shigeho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to investigate steps per day (steps/d) and physical activity level (PAL) in Korean elementary school children having normal weight (normal-weight). We also clarified whether a gender difference exited between steps/d and PAL. [Methods] Children aged 9 to 12 y were recruited from two elementary schools located in different urban districts in Korea. The present study included 33 Korean children, of which 18 were normal-weight boys and 15 were normal-weight girls. During the same 1 week study period under free-living conditions the total energy expenditure (TEE) and step counts were estimated using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method and an accelerometer, respectively. We calculated PAL as the TEE/ resting metabolic rate. [Results] The range of PAL was 1.25 – 1.93 with a mean value of 1.57. None of the variables of energy expenditure was significantly different by sex. However, steps/d were significantly higher in boys than in girls. When adjusting regression analysis by gender, steps/ d were positively associated with PAL among all subjects (r = 0.56, P < 0.01). Furthermore, steps/d were positively associated with PAL in boys (r = 0.68, P < 0.01), but not in girls (r = 0.27, P = 0.34). [Conclusion] Our results suggest that locomotive activity may be the main contributor to the individual PAL differences for elementary school boys, while non-locomotive activity may be the main contributor for elementary school girls. PMID:27757388

  16. Phase 1 Trial of Subcutaneous rAvPAL-PEG in Subjects with Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Nicola; Harding, Cary O.; Burton, Barbara K.; Grange, Dorothy K.; Vockley, Jerry; Wasserstein, Melissa; Rice, Gregory M.; Musson, Donald G.; Gu, Zhonghua; Sile, Saba

    2014-01-01

    Objective Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease caused by impaired activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and subsequent neurocognitive dysfunction. A phenylalanine-restricted diet initiated early in life can ameliorate the toxic effects of phenylalanine. However, the diet is onerous and compliance is extremely difficult. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is a prokaryotic enzyme that converts phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. This Phase 1, multicenter clinical trial evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of rAvPAL-PEG (recombinant Anabaena variabilis PAL produced in E. coli conjugated with polyethylene glycol [PEG] to reduce immunogenicity) in reducing phenylalanine levels in subjects with phenylketonuria. Methods Single subcutaneous injections of rAvPAL-PEG in escalating doses (0·001, 0·003, 0·01, 0·03, and 0·1 mg/kg) were administered to 25 adults with phenylketonuria recruited from those attending metabolic clinics in North America whose blood phenylalanine concentrations were ≥600 μmol/L. Results The most frequently reported adverse events were injection-site reactions and dizziness. Reactions were self-limited without sequelae. During the trial, two subjects had adverse reactions to intramuscular (IM) medroxyprogesterone acetate, a drug containing polyethylene glycol as an excipient. Three subjects developed a generalized skin rash at the highest rAvPAL-PEG dose (0·1 mg/kg). Drug levels peaked ∼5 days after the injection. Treatment was effective in reducing blood phenylalanine in all five subjects receiving the highest dose (0·1 mg/kg, mean percent change of -58 from baseline), with a nadir ∼6 days after injection and inverse correlation between drug and phenylalanine concentrations in plasma. Phenylalanine concentrations returned to near-baseline levels ∼20 days after the single injection. Conclusions

  17. Individually designed PALs vs. power optimized PALs adaptation comparison.

    PubMed

    Muždalo, Nataša Vujko; Mihelčič, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    The practice shows that in everyday life we encounter ever-growing demand for better visual acuity at all viewing distances. The presbyopic population needs correction to far, near and intermediate distance with different dioptric powers. PAL lenses seem to be a comfortable solution. The object of the present study is the analysis of the factors determining adaptation to progressive addition lenses (PAL) of the first-time users. Only novice test persons were chosen in order to avoid the bias of previously worn particular lens design. For optimal results with this type of lens, several individual parameters must be considered: correct refraction, precise ocular and facial measures, and proper mounting of lenses into the frame. Nevertheless, first time wearers encounter various difficulties in the process of adapting to this type of glasses and adaptation time differs greatly between individual users. The question that arises is how much the individual parameters really affect the ease of adaptation and comfort when wearing progressive glasses. To clarify this, in the present study, the individual PAL lenses--Rodenstock's Impression FreeSign (with inclusion of all parameters related to the user's eye and spectacle frame: prescription, pupillary distance, fitting height, back vertex distance, pantoscopic angle and curvature of the frame) were compared to power optimized PAL--Rodenstock's Multigressiv MyView (respecting only prescription power and pupillary distance). Adaptation process was monitored over a period of four weeks. The collected results represent scores of user's subjective impressions, where the users themselves rated their adaptation to new progressive glasses and the degree of subjective visual impression. The results show that adaptation time to fully individually fit PAL is easier and quickly. The information obtained from users is valuable in everyday optometry practice because along with the manufacturer's specifications, the user's experience can

  18. Individually designed PALs vs. power optimized PALs adaptation comparison.

    PubMed

    Muždalo, Nataša Vujko; Mihelčič, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    The practice shows that in everyday life we encounter ever-growing demand for better visual acuity at all viewing distances. The presbyopic population needs correction to far, near and intermediate distance with different dioptric powers. PAL lenses seem to be a comfortable solution. The object of the present study is the analysis of the factors determining adaptation to progressive addition lenses (PAL) of the first-time users. Only novice test persons were chosen in order to avoid the bias of previously worn particular lens design. For optimal results with this type of lens, several individual parameters must be considered: correct refraction, precise ocular and facial measures, and proper mounting of lenses into the frame. Nevertheless, first time wearers encounter various difficulties in the process of adapting to this type of glasses and adaptation time differs greatly between individual users. The question that arises is how much the individual parameters really affect the ease of adaptation and comfort when wearing progressive glasses. To clarify this, in the present study, the individual PAL lenses--Rodenstock's Impression FreeSign (with inclusion of all parameters related to the user's eye and spectacle frame: prescription, pupillary distance, fitting height, back vertex distance, pantoscopic angle and curvature of the frame) were compared to power optimized PAL--Rodenstock's Multigressiv MyView (respecting only prescription power and pupillary distance). Adaptation process was monitored over a period of four weeks. The collected results represent scores of user's subjective impressions, where the users themselves rated their adaptation to new progressive glasses and the degree of subjective visual impression. The results show that adaptation time to fully individually fit PAL is easier and quickly. The information obtained from users is valuable in everyday optometry practice because along with the manufacturer's specifications, the user's experience can

  19. Pen Pals: Practicing Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampe, Kristen A.; Uselmann, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a semester-long pen-pal project in which preservice teachers composed mathematical problems and the middle school students worked for solutions. The college students assessed the solution and the middle school students provided feedback regarding the problem itself. (Contains 6 figures.)

  20. Year-round high physical activity levels in agropastoralists of Bolivian Andes: results from repeated measurements of DLW method in peak and slack seasons of agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Kashiwazaki, Hiroshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Toshio; Rivera, Jose Orias; Coward, William A; Wright, Antony

    2009-01-01

    By the repeated use of the doubly labeled water method (DLW), this study aimed to investigate (1) the extent of changes in energy expenditure and physical activity level (PAL) in response to increased agricultural work demands, and (2) whether the seasonal work demands induce the changes in the fairly equitable division of work and similarity of energy needs between men and women observed in our previous study (Phase 1 study; Kashiwazaki et al., 1995: Am J Clin Nutr 62: 901-910). In a rural small agropastoral community of the Bolivian Andes, we made the follow-up study (Phase 2, 14 adults; a time of high agricultural activity) of the Phase 1 study (12 adults; a time of low agricultural activity). In the Phase 2 study, both men and women showed very high PAL (mean+/-SD), but there was no significant difference by sex (men; 2.18 +/- 0.23 (age; 64 +/- 11 years, n = 7), women; 2.26 +/- 0.25 (63 +/- 10 years, n = 7)). The increase of PAL by 11% (P = 0.023) in the Phase 2 was equally occurred in both men and women. The factorial approach underestimated PAL significantly by approximately 15% (P < 0.05). High PAL throughout the year ranging on average 2.0 and 2.2 was attributable to everyday tasks for subsistence and domestic works undertaking over 9-11 h (men spent 2.7 h on agricultural work and 4.7 h on animal herding, whereas women spent 7.3 h almost exclusively on animal herding). The seasonal increase in PAL was statistically significant, but it was smaller than those anticipated from published reports. A flexible division of labor played an important role in the equitable energetic increase in both men and women.

  1. Saccharothrix sp. PAL54, a new chloramphenicol-producing strain isolated from a Saharan soil.

    PubMed

    Aouiche, Adel; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Meklat, Atika; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Bijani, Christian; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed

    2012-03-01

    An actinomycete strain designated PAL54, producing an antibacterial substance, was isolated from a Saharan soil in Ghardaïa, Algeria. Morphological and chemical studies indicated that this strain belonged to the genus Saccharothrix. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence showed a similarity level ranging between 96.9 and 99.2% within Saccharothrix species, with S. longispora DSM 43749(T), the most closely related. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that strain PAL54 belonged to Saccharothrix longispora. It showed very strong activity against pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria responsible for nosocomial infections and resistant to multiple antibiotics. Strain PAL54 secreted the antibiotic optimally during mid-stationary and decline phases of growth. One antibacterial compound was isolated from the culture broth and purified by HPLC. The active compound was elucidated by uv-visible and NMR spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry. The results showed that this compound was a D: (-)-threo chloramphenicol. This is the first report of chloramphenicol production by a Saccharothrix species.

  2. A design of PAL with astigmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yefei; Xiang, Huazhong; Zhu, Tianfeng; Chen, Jiabi

    2015-08-01

    Progressive addition lens (PAL) is designed for those who suffer from myopia and presbyopia to have a clear vision from a far distance to a nearby distance. Additionally there are many people that also suffer from astigmatism and need to be corrected. The cylinder power can't be simply added to the diopter of the PAL directly, because the diopter of the PAL needs to be changed smoothly. A methods has been proposed in this article to solve the problem, the freeform surface height of a PAL without astigmatism and the cylindrical lens surface height for the correction of astigmatism are calculated separately. The both two surface heights were added together, then the final surface is produced and shown with the both properties of PALs and cylindrical lenses used to correct the astigmatism.

  3. Estimation of Physical Activity Levels Using Cell Phone Questionnaires: A Comparison With Accelerometry for Evaluation of Between-Subject and Within-Subject Variations

    PubMed Central

    Bexelius, Christin; Sandin, Sven; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Litton, Jan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity promotes health and longevity. Further elaboration of the role of physical activity for human health in epidemiological studies on large samples requires accurate methods that are easy to use, cheap, and possible to repeat. The use of telecommunication technologies such as cell phones is highly interesting in this respect. In an earlier report, we showed that physical activity level (PAL) assessed using a cell phone procedure agreed well with corresponding estimates obtained using the doubly labeled water method. However, our earlier study indicated high within-subject variation in relation to between-subject variations in PAL using cell phones, but we could not assess if this was a true variation of PAL or an artifact of the cell phone technique. Objective Our objective was to compare within- and between-subject variations in PAL by means of cell phones with corresponding estimates using an accelerometer. In addition, we compared the agreement of daily PAL values obtained using the cell phone questionnaire with corresponding data obtained using an accelerometer. Methods PAL was measured both with the cell phone questionnaire and with a triaxial accelerometer daily during a 2-week study period in 21 healthy Swedish women (20 to 45 years of age and BMI from 17.7 kg/m2 to 33.6 kg/m2). The results were evaluated by fitting linear mixed effect models and descriptive statistics and graphs. Results With the accelerometer, 57% (95% confidence interval [CI] 40%-66%) of the variation was within subjects, while with the cell phone, within-subject variation was 76% (95% CI 59%-83%). The day-to-day variations in PAL observed using the cell phone questions agreed well with the corresponding accelerometer results. Conclusions Both the cell phone questionnaire and the accelerometer showed high within-subject variations. Furthermore, day-to-day variations in PAL within subjects assessed using the cell phone agreed well with corresponding accelerometer

  4. Cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of PAL31 overexpression in glial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to a series of reactive changes and causes severe neurological deficits. A pronounced inflammation contributes to secondary pathology after SCI. Astroglia respond to SCI by proliferating, migrating, and altering phenotype. The impact of reactive gliosis on the pathogenesis of SCI is not fully understood. Our previous study has identified an inflammatory modulating protein, proliferation related acidic leucine-rich protein (PAL31) which is upregulated in the microglia/macrophage of injured cords. Because PAL31 participates in cell cycle progression and reactive astroglia often appears in the injured cord, we aim to examine whether PAL31 is involved in glial modulation after injury. Results Enhanced PAL31 expression was shown not only in microglia/macrophages but also in spinal astroglia after SCI. Cell culture study reveal that overexpression of PAL31 in mixed glial cells or in C6 astroglia significantly reduced LPS/IFNγ stimulation. Further, enhanced PAL31 expression in C6 astroglia protected cells from H2O2 toxicity; however, this did not affect its proliferative activity. The inhibiting effect of PAL31 on LPS/IFNγ stimulation was observed in glia or C6 after co-culture with neuronal cells. The results demonstrated that the overexpressed PAL31 in glial cells protected neuronal damages through inhibiting NF-kB signaling and iNOS. Conclusions Our data suggest that PAL31upregulation might be beneficial after spinal cord injury. Reactive gliosis might become a good target for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:25034417

  5. Regulation of a phenylalanine ammonia lyase (BbPAL) by calmodulin in response to environmental changes in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Park, Hyesung; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Seong Hwan; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2015-11-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, E.C. 4.3.1.5) catalyses the deamination of L -phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid and ammonia, facilitating a critical step in the phenylpropanoid pathway that produces a variety of secondary metabolites. In this study, we isolated BbPAL gene in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. According to multiple sequence alignment, homology modelling and in vitro PAL activity, we demonstrated that BbPAL acts as a typical PAL enzyme in B. bassiana. BbPAL interacted with calmodulin (CaM) in vitro and in vivo, indicating that BbPAL is a novel CaM-binding protein. The functional role of CaM in BbPAL action was to negatively regulate the BbPAL activity in B. bassiana. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that L -phenylalanine was reduced and trans-cinnamic acid was increased in response to the CaM inhibitor W-7. Dark conditions suppressed BbPAL activity in B. bassiana, compared with light. In addition, heat and cold stresses inhibited BbPAL activity in B. bassiana. Interestingly, these negative effects of BbPAL activity by dark, heat and cold conditions were recovered by W-7 treatment, suggesting that the inhibitory mechanism is mediated through stimulation of CaM activity. Therefore, this work suggests that BbPAL plays a role in the phenylpropanoid pathway mediated by environmental stimuli via the CaM signalling pathway.

  6. VE-cadherin interacts with cell polarity protein Pals1 to regulate vascular lumen formation.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Benjamin F; Steinbacher, Tim; Hartmann, Christian; Kummer, Daniel; Pajonczyk, Denise; Mirzapourshafiyi, Fatemeh; Nakayama, Masanori; Weide, Thomas; Gerke, Volker; Ebnet, Klaus

    2016-09-15

    Blood vessel tubulogenesis requires the formation of stable cell-to-cell contacts and the establishment of apicobasal polarity of vascular endothelial cells. Cell polarity is regulated by highly conserved cell polarity protein complexes such as the Par3-aPKC-Par6 complex and the CRB3-Pals1-PATJ complex, which are expressed by many different cell types and regulate various aspects of cell polarity. Here we describe a functional interaction of VE-cadherin with the cell polarity protein Pals1. Pals1 directly interacts with VE-cadherin through a membrane-proximal motif in the cytoplasmic domain of VE-cadherin. VE-cadherin clusters Pals1 at cell-cell junctions. Mutating the Pals1-binding motif in VE-cadherin abrogates the ability of VE-cadherin to regulate apicobasal polarity and vascular lumen formation. In a similar way, deletion of the Par3-binding motif at the C-terminus of VE-cadherin impairs apicobasal polarity and vascular lumen formation. Our findings indicate that the biological activity of VE-cadherin in regulating endothelial polarity and vascular lumen formation is mediated through its interaction with the two cell polarity proteins Pals1 and Par3.

  7. Comparison of airborne passive and active L-band System (PALS) brightness temperature measurements to SMOS observations during the SMAP validation experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) campaign was to collect data for the pre-launch development and validation of SMAP soil moisture algorithms. SMAP is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) satellite mission designed for the m...

  8. Preliminary Evidence on the Social Standing of Students with Learning Disabilities in PALS and No-PALS Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Mathes, Patricia G.; Martinez, Elizabeth A.

    2002-01-01

    A study collected sociometric data in 39 second- through sixth-grade classrooms, 22 of which were engaged in Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS), a form of peer tutoring. Students with learning disabilities in PALS classes were more socially accepted than those in no-PALS classes and enjoyed the same social standing as controls. (Contains…

  9. Isolation of an organic solvent-tolerant bacterium Bacillus licheniformis PAL05 that is able to secrete solvent-stable lipase.

    PubMed

    Anbu, Periasamy; Hur, Byung Ki

    2014-01-01

    In this study, seven lipase-producing bacterial strains were isolated from salt-enriched and cattle farm soil samples after incubation in toluene- and benzene-enriched media. One strain (PAL05) showed significantly greater lipase activity on spirit blue agar medium and stability in organic solvents. The positive strain (PAL05) was identified as Bacillus licheniformis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Lipase production was optimized in a medium containing glycerol as the carbon source and Tween 80 as an inducer (0.5% glycerol+0.5% Tween 80) at pH 8.0 and a temperature of 30 °C. In addition, the enzyme was moderately halotolerant as it exhibited increased activity in the presence of 2.5% NaCl. Optimized conditions increased the lipase production threefold. Crude lipase retained its activity for 14 days of incubation in the presence of various organic solvents at a level of 25% and 50%. The enzyme was stable at 25% in most solvents; some of the solvents such as hexane, benzene, and ethanol actually stimulated enzyme activity. The organic solvent stability of the lipase produced by the strain PAL05 enables the enzyme to be used as a potential biocatalyst for ester synthesis and other applications in nonaqueous conditions. PMID:24397298

  10. PalC, One of Two Bro1 Domain Proteins in the Fungal pH Signalling Pathway, Localizes to Cortical Structures and Binds Vps32

    PubMed Central

    Galindo, Antonio; Hervás-Aguilar, América; Rodríguez-Galán, Olga; Vincent, Olivier; Arst, Herbert N; Tilburn, Joan; Peñalva, Miguel A

    2007-01-01

    PalC, distantly related to Saccharomyces cerevisiaeperipheral endosomal sorting complexes required for transport III (ESCRT-III) component Bro1p and one of six Aspergillus nidulanspH signalling proteins, contains a Bro1 domain. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged PalC is recruited to plasma membrane-associated punctate structures upon alkalinization, when pH signalling is active. PalC recruitment to these structures is dependent on the seven transmembrane domain (7-TMD) receptor and likely pH sensor PalH. PalC is a two-hybrid interactor of the ESCRT-III Vps20/Vps32 subcomplex and binds Vps32 directly. This binding is largely impaired by Pro439Phe, Arg442Ala and Arg442His substitutions in a conserved region mediating interaction of Bro1p with Vps32p, but these substitutions do not prevent cortical punctate localization, indicating Vps32 independence. In contrast, Arg442Δ impairs Vps32 binding and prevents PalC-GFP recruitment to cortical structures. pH signalling involves a plasma membrane complex including the 7-TMD receptor PalH and the arrestin-like PalF and an endosomal membrane complex involving the PalB protease, the transcription factor PacC and the Vps32 binding, Bro1-domain-containing protein PalA. PalC, which localizes to cortical structures and can additionally bind a component of ESCRT-III, has the features required to bridge these two entities. A likely S. cerevisiaeorthologue of PalC has been identified, providing the basis for a unifying hypothesis of gene regulation by ambient pH in ascomycetes. PMID:17696968

  11. Gluconic acid produced by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 possesses antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Peñalver, Carlos G; Savino, María J; Bertini, Elisa V; Sánchez, Leandro A; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2014-09-01

    Gluconic acid is produced in large quantities by the endophytic and diazotrophic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5. This organic acid derives from direct oxidation of glucose by a pyrroloquinoline-quinone-linked glucose dehydrogenase in this plant growth-promoting bacterium. In the present article, evidence is presented showing that gluconic acid is also responsible for the antimicrobial activity of G. diazotrophicus Pal5. The broad antagonistic spectrum includes Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Eukaryotic microorganisms are more resistant to growth inhibition by this acid. Inhibition by gluconic acid can be modified through the presence of other organic acids. In contrast to other microorganisms, the Quorum Sensing system of G. diazotrophicus Pal5, a regulatory mechanism that plays a key role in several microbe-microbe interactions, is not related to gluconic acid production and the concomitant antagonistic activity. PMID:25049167

  12. Gluconic acid produced by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 possesses antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Peñalver, Carlos G; Savino, María J; Bertini, Elisa V; Sánchez, Leandro A; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2014-09-01

    Gluconic acid is produced in large quantities by the endophytic and diazotrophic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5. This organic acid derives from direct oxidation of glucose by a pyrroloquinoline-quinone-linked glucose dehydrogenase in this plant growth-promoting bacterium. In the present article, evidence is presented showing that gluconic acid is also responsible for the antimicrobial activity of G. diazotrophicus Pal5. The broad antagonistic spectrum includes Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Eukaryotic microorganisms are more resistant to growth inhibition by this acid. Inhibition by gluconic acid can be modified through the presence of other organic acids. In contrast to other microorganisms, the Quorum Sensing system of G. diazotrophicus Pal5, a regulatory mechanism that plays a key role in several microbe-microbe interactions, is not related to gluconic acid production and the concomitant antagonistic activity.

  13. Logic synthesis strategy based on BDD decomposition and PAL-oriented optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opara, Adam; Kania, Dariusz

    2015-12-01

    A new strategy of logic synthesis for PAL-based CPLDs is presented in the paper. This approach consists of an original method of two-stage BDD-based decomposition and a two-level PAL-oriented optimization. The aim of the proposed approach is oriented towards balanced (speed/area) optimization. The first element of the strategy is original PAL-oriented decomposition. This decomposition consists in the sequential search for an input partition providing the feasibility for implementation of the free block in one PAL-based logic block containing a predefined number of product terms. The presented non-standard decomposition provides a means to minimize the area of the implemented circuit and to reduce of the necessary logic blocks in the programmable structure. The second element of the proposed logic synthesis strategy is oriented towards speed optimization. This optimization is based on utilizing tri-state buffers. Results of experiments prove that the presented synthesis strategy is especially effective for CPLD structures, which consist of PAL-based logic blocks containing a low number of product terms.

  14. Peer assisted learning in the clinical setting: an activity systems analysis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Deirdre; O'Flynn, Siun; Kelly, Martina

    2015-08-01

    Peer assisted learning (PAL) is a common feature of medical education. Understanding of PAL has been based on processes and outcomes in controlled settings, such as clinical skills labs. PAL in the clinical setting, a complex learning environment, requires fresh evaluation. Socio-cultural theory is proposed as a means to understand educational interventions in ways that are practical and meaningful. We describe the evaluation of a PAL intervention, introduced to support students' transition into full time clinical attachments, using activity theory and activity systems analysis (ASA). Our research question was How does PAL transfer to the clinical environment? Junior students on their first clinical attachments undertook a weekly same-level, reciprocal PAL activity. Qualitative data was collected after each session, and focus groups (n = 3) were held on completion. Data was analysed using ASA. ASA revealed two competing activity systems on clinical attachment; Learning from Experts, which students saw as the primary function of the attachment and Learning with Peers, the PAL intervention. The latter took time from the first and was in tension with it. Tensions arose from student beliefs about how learning takes place in clinical settings, and the importance of social relationships, leading to variable engagement with PAL. Differing perspectives within the group were opportunities for expansive learning. PAL in the clinical environment presents challenges specific to that context. Using ASA helped to describe student activity on clinical attachment and to highlight tensions and contradictions relating PAL in that setting. Planning learning opportunities on clinical placements, must take account of how students learn in workplaces, and the complexity of the multiple competing activity systems related to learning and social activities.

  15. A Convenient Ultraviolet Irradiation Technique for Synthesis of Antibacterial Ag-Pal Nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuai; Zhang, He; Kang, Lianwei; Li, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Chong; Dong, Yongjie; Qin, Shenjun

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, palygorskite (Pal) was initially subjected to an ion-exchange reaction with silver ions (Pal-Ag(+)). Subsequently, Ag-Pal nanocomposites were assembled by a convenient ultraviolet irradiation technique, using carbon dots (CDs) derived from wool fiber as the reducing agent. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The XRD patterns and UV-vis absorption spectra confirmed the formation of the Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Meanwhile, the TEM images showed that the Ag NPs, which exhibited sizes in the range of 3-7 nm, were located on the surface of the Pal nanofiber structures. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the nanocomposites was evaluated against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria by applying the disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration test. Owing to their good antibacterial properties, the Ag-Pal nanocomposites are considered to be a promising bactericide with great potential applications. PMID:27677302

  16. A Convenient Ultraviolet Irradiation Technique for Synthesis of Antibacterial Ag-Pal Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Shuai; Zhang, He; Kang, Lianwei; Li, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Chong; Dong, Yongjie; Qin, Shenjun

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, palygorskite (Pal) was initially subjected to an ion-exchange reaction with silver ions (Pal-Ag+). Subsequently, Ag-Pal nanocomposites were assembled by a convenient ultraviolet irradiation technique, using carbon dots (CDs) derived from wool fiber as the reducing agent. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The XRD patterns and UV-vis absorption spectra confirmed the formation of the Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Meanwhile, the TEM images showed that the Ag NPs, which exhibited sizes in the range of 3-7 nm, were located on the surface of the Pal nanofiber structures. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the nanocomposites was evaluated against Gram-positive ( Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli) bacteria by applying the disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration test. Owing to their good antibacterial properties, the Ag-Pal nanocomposites are considered to be a promising bactericide with great potential applications.

  17. Mutational analysis of the Aspergillus ambient pH receptor PalH underscores its potential as a target for antifungal compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lucena‐Agell, Daniel; Hervás‐Aguilar, América; Múnera‐Huertas, Tatiana; Pougovkina, Olga; Rudnicka, Joanna; Galindo, Antonio; Tilburn, Joan; Arst, Herbert N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The pal/RIM ambient pH signalling pathway is crucial for the ability of pathogenic fungi to infect hosts. The Aspergillus nidulans 7‐TMD receptor PalH senses alkaline pH, subsequently facilitating ubiquitination of the arrestin PalF. Ubiquitinated PalF triggers downstream signalling events. The mechanism(s) by which PalH transduces the alkaline pH signal to PalF is poorly understood. We show that PalH is phosphorylated in a signal dependent manner, resembling mammalian GPCRs, although PalH phosphorylation, in contrast to mammalian GPCRs, is arrestin dependent. A genetic screen revealed that an ambient‐exposed region comprising the extracellular loop connecting TM4‐TM5 and ambient‐proximal residues within TM5 is required for signalling. In contrast, substitution by alanines of four aromatic residues within TM6 and TM7 results in a weak ‘constitutive’ activation of the pathway. Our data support the hypothesis that PalH mechanistically resembles mammalian GPCRs that signal via arrestins, such that the relative positions of individual helices within the heptahelical bundle determines the Pro316‐dependent transition between inactive and active PalH conformations, governed by an ambient‐exposed region including critical Tyr259 that potentially represents an agonist binding site. These findings open the possibility of screening for agonist compounds stabilizing the inactive conformation of PalH, which might act as antifungal drugs against ascomycetes. PMID:27279148

  18. Molecular Characterization of a Recombinant Zea mays Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase (ZmPAL2) and Its Application in trans-Cinnamic Acid Production from L-Phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Zang, Ying; Jiang, Ting; Cong, Ying; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Ouyang, Jia

    2015-06-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is one of the most extensively studied enzymes with its crucial role in secondary phenylpropanoid metabolism of plants. Recently, its demand has been increased for aromatic chemical production, but its applications in trans-cinnamic acid production were not much explored. In the present study, a putative PAL gene from Zea mays designated as ZmPAL2 was expressed and characterized in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant ZmPAL2 exhibited a high PAL activity (7.14 U/mg) and a weak tyrosine ammonia-lyase activity. The optimal temperature of ZmPAL2 was 55 °C, and the thermal stability results showed that about 50 % of enzyme activity remained after a treatment at 60 °C for 6 h. The recombinant ZmPAL2 is a good candidate for the production of trans-cinnamic acid. The vitro conversion indicated that the recombinant ZmPAL2 could effectively catalyze the L-phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid, and the trans-cinnamic acid concentration can reach up to 5 g/l.

  19. Expression and enzymatic activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase in mango (Mangifera indica 'Ataulfo') during ripening.

    PubMed

    Palafox-Carlos, H; Contreras-Vergara, C A; Muhlia-Almazán, A; Islas-Osuna, M A; González-Aguilar, G A

    2014-05-16

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) are key enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway. The relative expression of PAL and C3H was evaluated in mango fruit cultivar 'Ataulfo' in four ripening stages (RS1, RS2, RS3, and RS4) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, enzyme activity of PAL and C3H was determined in mango fruits during ripening. The PAL levels were downregulated at the RS2 and RS3 stages, while C3H levels were upregulated in fruits only at RS3. The enzyme activity of PAL followed a pattern that was different from that of the PAL expression, thus suggesting regulation at several levels. For C3H, a regulation at the transcriptional level is suggested because a similar pattern was revealed by its activity and transcript level. In this study, the complexity of secondary metabolite biosynthesis regulation is emphasized because PAL and C3H enzymes are involved in the biosynthesis of several secondary metabolites that are active during all mango ripening stages.

  20. [Social change and Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL)].

    PubMed

    Masuyama, Koichi; Isobe, Soichiro

    2010-01-01

    Former Japanese pharmaceutical laws, originally based on the Pharmaceutical Marketing and Handling Regulations enacted in 1874 were in operation for many years before World War II. However, in order to address several drug issues, such as poor drug quality and insufficiences regarding the role of pharmacists during the War, the laws needed to be unified and revised. In this paper, we analyzed the record of discussions held by the Imperial Diet on the bill for the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL) in 1943. This is also regarded as the origin of the current PAL (LawNo.145 in 1960). Through this analysis, we tried to clarify the relationship between the social change and the role of PAL in society. During the War, the bill was discussed, aiming at the improvement of both human resources who treated drugs, and the quality of drug materials. Diet members discussed three main points, namely, "the duty of pharmacists", "the mission of the Japan Pharmaceutical Association" and "the quality control of pharmaceutical products". Notably, the bill pharmacists are required not only to dispense drugs, a role they had previously, but also to manage drug and food hygiene through the quality control of pharmaceutical products and the inspection of food and drink, in order to improve the public health in Japan. Originally, the law was passed to deal with the extraordinary circumstances during the War, but through our analysis, we found that they proactively improved the role of the law to comply with various drug issues raised during the War, the rapid change of the pharmaceutical hygiene concept and the social transformation. PMID:21032892

  1. Guide for Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) Group Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendale, David R., Ed.; Lilly, Mary, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) program at the University of Minnesota is a primary academic support program for historically difficult, introductory college courses that serve as gatekeepers to academic degree programs. This document is the training manual used for the new PAL facilitators that manage the small study groups. Based upon operating…

  2. Laser-driven shock experiments at PALS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batani, Dimitri; Stabile, H.; Ravasio, A.; Desai, Tara; Lucchini, G.; Strati, F.; Ullschmied, Jiri; Krousky, E.; Skala, Jiri; Kralikova, Bozena; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Kadlec, Christelle; Mocek, Tomas; Prag, A. R.; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Zvorykin, Vladimir D.

    2004-04-01

    Here we discuss the results of the experiments performed using the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) of wavelength 0.44 μm (3ω of Iodine laser) and energy ~ 250 J in 450 ps (FWHM). Two sets of experiments were carried out, firstly, generation of high quality shocks which were steady in time and uniform in space using Phase Zone Plates (PZP), to establish the scaling laws of shock pressure Vs. laser intensity for aluminum foil target of thickness 8 μm. Our results show a good agreement with the delocalized laser absorption model. Secondly, measurements of the Equation of State of carbon compressed by shocks at megabars of pressure have been realized. Equation of State were obtained for carbon using the impedance mismatch technique. Step targets allowed the simultaneous measurements of shock velocity in two different materials. Aluminum was used as a reference material and relative EOS data for carbon have been obtained up to ~ 14 Mbar pressure.

  3. ACTIVITY LEVEL AND LEARNING EFFECTIVENESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SJOGREN, DOUGLAS D.; STAKE, ROBERT E.

    A STUDY OF LEARNING ACTIVITY EXPLORED (1) AN ACTIVITY-ACHIEVEMENT SCALE TO DESCRIBE THE IMPACT OF ACTIVITY ON ACHIEVEMENT AND (2) THE POSSIBLE COMPLEXITY OR DIMENSIONALITY OF THIS IMPACT. TEN GROUPS, OF 10 COLLEGE UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS EACH, WERE SCHEDULED TO STUDY UNDER EACH OF 10 LEARNING SITUATIONS. THE SITUATIONS CONSISTED OF TWO MODES OF…

  4. Stress Responses in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (XIV. Changes in the Levels of Phenylpropanoid Pathway Intermediates in Relation to Regulation of L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase in Elicitor-Treated Cell-Suspension Cultures).

    PubMed Central

    Orr, J. D.; Edwards, R.; Dixon, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    We have used high-resolution gas chromatography to determine the levels of trans-cinnamic acid (CA) and trans-4-coumaric acid (4CA) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cell-suspension cultures to address the role of these phenylpropanoid pathway intermediates as potential negative regulators of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in vivo. Exogenous addition of CA to elicitor-treated cultures resulted in rapid increases in endogenous CA, 4CA, and CA-conjugate levels associated with inhibition of the appearance of PAL transcripts. Treatment of elicited cultures with [alpha]-aminooxy-[beta]-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP), a potent and specific inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in reductions of CA and 4CA, with concomitant increases in PAL transcripts and extractable enzyme activity. In contrast, treatment with tetcyclacis, an inhibitor of CA 4-hydroxylase, resulted in increased CA and CA-conjugate levels, decreased 4CA levels, and decreased PAL transcript levels and enzyme activity. In tetcyclasis-treated cells, the inhibition of PAL transcript appearance preceded the increase in the levels of free CA and its conjugates. In elicited cells in which the phenylpropanoid pathway was not perturbed by metabolic inhibitors, PAL transcripts accumulated rapidly and transiently, beginning to decline by 2 h postelicitation. Changes in levels of total free or conjugated CA or 4CA did not consistently correlate with these changes in transcript levels. We propose that regulation of PAL transcript levels by endogenous phenylpropanoid pathway intermediates could involve compartmentalized pools that may exist because of the microsomal localization of cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase. PMID:12231735

  5. Synchronized stress-PALS test on a series of polyester copolymer glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Yee, Albert F.

    2001-03-01

    Previous work in our group suggests that, in craze nucleation, only when a nanovoid grows to a critical size can it serve as a nucleus for stable craze growth. However, what factors influence this nanovoid growth process remains unclear. A new technique, synchronized stress-PALS test, has been established to study the change in size and intensity of nanovoids when polymer glasses are under stress. A series of glassy copolymers based on poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly (1,4-cyclohexylenedimethylene terephthalate) (PCT) were investigated by synchronized stress-PALS at different stress levels. The results suggest that both stress level and chain mobility of the polymers influence nanovoid growth. Based on these experimental results, a craze nucleation model has been proposed. This model, based on thermodynamic and kinetic analysis, show that the craze nucleation process is determined by the modulus, surface energy and chain mobility of polymer glasses.

  6. Status of the PAL-XFEL undulator program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Eon; Park, Ki-Hyeon; Kang, Heung-Sik; Ko, In-Soo; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Pflueger, Jochaim

    2015-05-01

    Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL) is developing a 0.1 nm SASE based FEL based on 10 GeV S-band linear accelerator named PAL-XFEL. At the first stage, PAL-XFEL needs two undulator lines for photon source. The hard Xray undulator line requires 18 units of 5 m long hybrid-type conventional planar undulator and soft X-ray line requires 6 units of 5 m long hybrid type planar undulator with additional few EPUs for final polarization control. PAL is developing undulator magnetic structure based on EU-XFEL concepts. The key parameters are min pole gap of 8.3 mm, with period length 26 mm (HXU), 35 mm (SXU), and 5.0 m magnetic length. . In this report, the prototyping, and the development of pole tuning procedure, the impact of the background field error, and the effects of the girder bending on the optical phase error will be presented.

  7. Retrieving soil moisture for non-forested areas using PALS radiometer measurements in SMAPVEX12 field campaign

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper we investigate retrieval of soil moisture based on L-band brightness temperature under diverse conditions and land cover types. We apply the PALS (Passive Active L-band System) radiometer data collected in the SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012) field ex...

  8. THE PAL 5 STAR STREAM GAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Carlberg, R. G.; Hetherington, Nathan; Grillmair, C. J. E-mail: hetherington@astro.utoronto.ca

    2012-11-20

    Pal 5 is a low-mass, low-velocity-dispersion, globular cluster with spectacular tidal tails. We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 data to extend the density measurements of the trailing star stream to 23 deg distance from the cluster, at which point the stream runs off the edge of the available sky coverage. The size and the number of gaps in the stream are measured using a filter which approximates the structure of the gaps found in stream simulations. We find 5 gaps that are at least 99% confidence detections with about a dozen gaps at 90% confidence. The statistical significance of a gap is estimated using bootstrap resampling of the control regions on either side of the stream. The density minimum closest to the cluster is likely the result of the epicyclic orbits of the tidal outflow and has been discounted. To create the number of 99% confidence gaps per unit length at the mean age of the stream requires a halo population of nearly a thousand dark matter sub-halos with peak circular velocities above 1 km s{sup -1} within 30 kpc of the galactic center. These numbers are a factor of about three below cold stream simulation at this sub-halo mass or velocity but, given the uncertainties in both measurement and more realistic warm stream modeling, are in substantial agreement with the LCDM prediction.

  9. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  10. Ultra Stable Capacitor charging Power Supply of Klystron-Modulator for PAL XFEL

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Y. G.; Kwon, S. J.; Jang, S. D.; Suh, J. H.; Oh, J. S.

    2007-01-19

    The PAL (Pohang Accelerator Laboratory) 2.5-GeV linac is planed to be converted to a SASE-XFEL facility (PAL XFEL) that supplies coherent X-rays down to 0.3-nm wavelength. The electron beams has to have an emittance of 1.0 mm-mrad, a peak current of 3 kA, and a low energy spread of 1.0 MeV. In order to provide reasonably stable SASE output, the RF stability of 0.02% rms is required for both RF phase and amplitude. This stability is mainly determined by a low level RF drive system and klystron-modulators. The stability level of the modulator has to be improved 10 times better to meet the pulse stability of 0.02%. This is a technologically challenging issue for PAL XFEL. An inverter technology is to be applied to charge the PFN of a new modulator. Therefore, a new inverter system should provide very stable charging performances. This paper presents the development of an ultra stable klystron-modulator with an inverter power.

  11. Impact of soil field water capacity on secondary metabolites, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), maliondialdehyde (MDA) and photosynthetic responses of Malaysian kacip fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Mohamad Fakri, Nur Farhana

    2012-06-13

    A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100%; well watered), (75%, moderate water stress), (50%; high water stress) and (25%; severe water stress). The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100%) ER L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (f(v)/f(m)) and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement) compared to severe water stress (25% ER). From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth.

  12. Overcoming Obstacles Posed by "NCLB": When Preservice Teachers and Special Needs Children Pen Pal with Each Other

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceprano, Maria A.; Sivret, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a pen pal partnership experience wherein undergraduate teacher education candidates enrolled in a Reading Language Arts Methods course and exchanged a series of 6-8 letters with elementary level children designated as having special needs. The project resulted in a number of benefits for both the children and the teacher…

  13. Structure and function of the Escherichia coli Tol-Pal stator protein TolR.

    PubMed

    Wojdyla, Justyna A; Cutts, Erin; Kaminska, Renata; Papadakos, Grigorios; Hopper, Jonathan T S; Stansfeld, Phillip J; Staunton, David; Robinson, Carol V; Kleanthous, Colin

    2015-10-30

    TolR is a 15-kDa inner membrane protein subunit of the Tol-Pal complex in Gram-negative bacteria, and its function is poorly understood. Tol-Pal is recruited to cell division sites where it is involved in maintaining the integrity of the outer membrane. TolR is related to MotB, the peptidoglycan (PG)-binding stator protein from the flagellum, suggesting it might serve a similar role in Tol-Pal. The only structure thus far reported for TolR is of the periplasmic domain from Haemophilus influenzae in which N- and C-terminal residues had been deleted (TolR(62-133), Escherichia coli numbering). H. influenzae TolR(62-133) is a symmetrical dimer with a large deep cleft at the dimer interface. Here, we present the 1.7-Å crystal structure of the intact periplasmic domain of E. coli TolR (TolR(36-142)). E. coli TolR(36-142) is also dimeric, but the architecture of the dimer is radically different from that of TolR(62-133) due to the intertwining of its N and C termini. TolR monomers are rotated ∼180° relative to each other as a result of this strand swapping, obliterating the putative PG-binding groove seen in TolR(62-133). We found that removal of the strand-swapped regions (TolR(60-133)) exposes cryptic PG binding activity that is absent in the full-length domain. We conclude that to function as a stator in the Tol-Pal complex dimeric TolR must undergo large scale structural remodeling reminiscent of that proposed for MotB, where the N- and C-terminal sequences unfold in order for the protein to both reach and bind the PG layer ∼90 Å away from the inner membrane.

  14. AstroPAL: A Mentoring Program for Grad Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The Astronomy Peer Advising Leaders program (AstroPAL) provides guidance for incoming grad students from a team of student volunteers who have passed their 2nd year Qualifier Exam. The purpose is to pair first years with a mentor who can help them through some of the stresses or difficulties that come with being a new grad student. AstroPALs and mentees meet privately about once a month in a casual setting to talk about how they're adjusting to the new surroundings, how they're handling the workload, etc. New students can join AstroPAL at any time during their first two years, and can stop receiving guidance once they feel comfortable in the program. Mentees will be assigned an AstroPAL based on preference and availability, and an AstroPAL Liason will always be in place to facilitate mentor reassignments or other issues if necessary. After passing the 2nd year Qualifier Exam, mentees are eligible to serve as mentors to incoming students.

  15. Factors Influencing Cypriot Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present selected findings from a larger study, which set out to examine the physical activity levels of Cypriot primary school children and determinants of their activity. Twenty parents of children who obtained high and low activity scores based on pedometer counts and self-reports scores were interviewed. By…

  16. A phenylalanine ammonia-lyase ortholog (PkPAL1) from Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex. Benth: molecular cloning, promoter analysis and response to biotic and abiotic elicitors.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Razdan, Sumeer; Rana, Satiander; Dhar, Niha; Wani, Tariq Ahmad; Qazi, Parvaiz; Vishwakarma, Ram; Lattoo, Surrinder K

    2014-09-01

    Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. is a highly reputed medicinal herb utilised in the preparation of a number of herbal drug formulations, principally due to the presence of novel monoterpene iridoid glycosides kenned as picrosides. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase catalyses an important rate-limiting step in phenylpropanoid pathway and supplies precursors like cinnamic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, etc., to a variety of secondary metabolites including picrosides. The imperilled status of P. kurrooa coupled with lack of information regarding biogenesis of picrosides necessitates deciphering the biosynthetic pathway for picrosides. In the present study, a PAL gene, designated PkPAL1 was isolated from P. kurrooa. The cDNA is 2312 bp in length, consisting of an ORF of 2142 bp encoding for a 713 amino acid protein having a predicted molecular weight of 77.66 kDa and an isoelectric point of pH 6.82. qRT-PCR analysis of various tissues of P. kurrooa showed that PkPAL1 transcript levels were highest in the leaves, consistent with picroside accumulation pattern. Using Genome walking, a 718 bp promoter region was also isolated resulting in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements including TGA-element, TGACG-motif, CGTCA-motif, etc. qRT-PCR indicated up-regulation of PkPAL1 by methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, 2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid and UV-B elicitations that corroborated positively with the identified cis-elements within the promoter region. Moreover, altitude was found to have a positive effect on the PkPAL1 transcript levels, driving the expression of PkPAL1 abundantly. Based on docking analysis, we identified eight residues as potentially essential for substrate binding in PkPAL1.

  17. "Playground Pals" and Peer Mediation at Benarty Primary School, Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallacher, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Benarty Primary School is situated in Lochore, Fife, Scotland. The school is proactive in developing self regulation; restorative and nurturing approaches. It aims to build resilience in all of its children, staff and families. Playground Pals have been established at Benarty Primary School since 2009 and as part of that programme, there have been…

  18. Pen-Pal Letters: The Cross-Curricular Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemkuhl, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a first-grade bilingual program in Tucson, Arizona became class pen pals throughout the year with inner-city second graders from Toledo, Ohio. Notes that this would prove beneficial for lessons in reading and writing and would promote their knowledge about their city and state. Discusses how it expanded into cross-curricular lessons…

  19. A Pen Pal Project Connects Preservice Teachers and Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilfong, Lori G.; Oberhauser, Casey

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a pen pal project that took place between preservice teachers and students in an urban middle school. The purpose of this project was twofold: to expose preservice teachers to the rewards of urban teaching and to expose urban middle school students to adult reading role models. As a result of the project, both goals were…

  20. Content Analysis Schedule for Bilingual Education Programs: Proyecto PAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Castor

    This content analysis schedule for "Proyecto PAL" in San Jose, California, presents information on the history, funding, and scope of the project. Included are sociolinguistic process variables such as the native and dominant languages of students and their interaction. Information is provided on staff selection and the linguistic background of…

  1. Project PALS (Parenting and Literacy Skills). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan Independent School District, TX.

    Project PALS (Parenting and Literacy Skills) was designed as a model of holistic comprehensive family literacy for those families connected with a Head Start program. Forty-three of an anticipated 75 families were served. Adult students who were referred by Head Start personnel participated in classes in English as a Second Language, Adult Basic…

  2. Pen Pal Writing: A Holistic and Socio-Cultural Approach to Adult English Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrotta, Clarena; Serrano, Arlene F.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study reports the findings implementing a pen pal letter exchange project between adult English language learners and volunteer native English speakers. The pen pal project was implemented using a holistic and socio-cultural approach to English literacy development. This article presents pen pal writing as an authentic language…

  3. Physical activity level, waist circumference, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Reeder, Bruce A.; Elliott, Susan; Joffres, Michel R.; Pahwa, Punam; Kirkland, Susan A.; Paradis, Gilles; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    This study predicted all-cause mortality based on physical activity level (active or inactive) and waist circumference (WC) in 8208 Canadian adults in Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan, surveyed between 1986–1995 and followed through 2004. Physically inactive adults had higher mortality risk than active adults overall (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval = 1.20, 1.05–1.37) and within the low WC category (1.51, 1.19–1.92). Detrimental effects of physical inactivity and high WC demonstrate the need for physical activity promotion. PMID:22703160

  4. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Action levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, J.S.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1991-10-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide for early leak detection and to monitor performance of the active low-level waste disposal facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and the transuranic waste storage areas in SWSA 5 North. Early leak detection is accomplished by sampling runoff, groundwater, and perched water in burial trenches. Sample results are compared to action levels that represent background contamination by naturally occurring and fallout-derived radionuclides. 15 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Flexible vs Rigid Epitope Conformations for Diagnostic- and Vaccine-Oriented Applications: Novel Insights from the Burkholderia pseudomallei BPSL2765 Pal3 Epitope.

    PubMed

    Gori, Alessandro; Peri, Claudio; Quilici, Giacomo; Nithichanon, Arnone; Gaudesi, Davide; Longhi, Renato; Gourlay, Louise; Bolognesi, Martino; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Musco, Giovanna; Colombo, Giorgio

    2016-03-11

    Peptides seldom retain stable conformations if separated from their native protein structure. In an immunological context, this potentially affects the development of selective peptide-based bioprobes and, from a vaccine perspective, poses inherent limits in the elicitation of cross-reactive antibodies by candidate epitopes. Here, a 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazole-mediated stapling strategy was used to stabilize the native α-helical fold of the Pal3 peptidic epitope from the protein antigen PalBp (BPSL2765) from Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiological agent of melioidosis. Whereas Pal3 shows no propensity to fold outside its native protein context, the engineered peptide (Pal3H) forms a stable α-helix, as assessed by MD, NMR, and CD structural analyses. Importantly, Pal3H shows an enhanced ability to discriminate between melioidosis patient subclasses in immune sera reactivity tests, demonstrating the potential of the stapled peptide for diagnostic purposes. With regard to antibody elicitation and related bactericidal activities, the linear peptide is shown to elicit a higher response. On these bases, we critically discuss the implications of epitope structure engineering for diagnostic- and vaccine-oriented applications. PMID:27623032

  6. Structure and Function of the Escherichia coli Tol-Pal Stator Protein TolR*

    PubMed Central

    Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Cutts, Erin; Kaminska, Renata; Papadakos, Grigorios; Hopper, Jonathan T. S.; Stansfeld, Phillip J.; Staunton, David; Robinson, Carol V.; Kleanthous, Colin

    2015-01-01

    TolR is a 15-kDa inner membrane protein subunit of the Tol-Pal complex in Gram-negative bacteria, and its function is poorly understood. Tol-Pal is recruited to cell division sites where it is involved in maintaining the integrity of the outer membrane. TolR is related to MotB, the peptidoglycan (PG)-binding stator protein from the flagellum, suggesting it might serve a similar role in Tol-Pal. The only structure thus far reported for TolR is of the periplasmic domain from Haemophilus influenzae in which N- and C-terminal residues had been deleted (TolR(62–133), Escherichia coli numbering). H. influenzae TolR(62–133) is a symmetrical dimer with a large deep cleft at the dimer interface. Here, we present the 1.7-Å crystal structure of the intact periplasmic domain of E. coli TolR (TolR(36–142)). E. coli TolR(36–142) is also dimeric, but the architecture of the dimer is radically different from that of TolR(62–133) due to the intertwining of its N and C termini. TolR monomers are rotated ∼180° relative to each other as a result of this strand swapping, obliterating the putative PG-binding groove seen in TolR(62–133). We found that removal of the strand-swapped regions (TolR(60–133)) exposes cryptic PG binding activity that is absent in the full-length domain. We conclude that to function as a stator in the Tol-Pal complex dimeric TolR must undergo large scale structural remodeling reminiscent of that proposed for MotB, where the N- and C-terminal sequences unfold in order for the protein to both reach and bind the PG layer ∼90 Å away from the inner membrane. PMID:26354441

  7. Enzymatic changes in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, cinnamic-4-hydroxylase, capsaicin synthase, and peroxidase activities in capsicum under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Phimchan, Paongpetch; Chanthai, Saksit; Bosland, Paul W; Techawongstien, Suchila

    2014-07-23

    Penylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamic-4-hydroxylase (C4H), capsaicin synthase (CS), and peroxidase (POD) are involved in the capsaicinoid biosynthesis pathway and may be altered in cultivars with different pungency levels. This study clarified the action of these enzymes under drought stress for hot Capsicum cultivars with low, medium,and high pungency levels. At the flowering stage, control plants were watered at field capacity, whereas drought-induced plants were subjected to gradual drought stress. Under drought stress, PAL, C4H, CS, and POD enzyme activities increased as compared to the non-drought-stressed plants. A novel discovery was that PAL was the critical enzyme in capsaicinoid biosynthesis under drought stress because its activities and capsaicinoid increased across the different pungency levels of hot pepper cultivars examined.

  8. Use of the BINP HLS to measure vertical changes in the locations of the building and ground at the PAL-XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyo-Jin; Seo, Kwang-Won; Gil, Kye-Hwan; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Kang, Heung-Sik

    2016-09-01

    The Pohang Accelerator Laboratory's X-ray free-electron laser (PAL-XFEL), a 4 th generation light source, is currently being installed and will be completed by December 2015 so that users can be supported beginning in 2016. The PAL-XFEL equipment must continuously maintain the bunch-tobunch beam parameters (60 Hz, Energy: 10 GeV, Charge: 200 pC, Bunch Length: 60 fs, Emittance X/Y: 0.481/0.256 mm rad) in order to supply stable photons with the energy and flux appropriate for tests by beamline users. To this end, the PAL-XFEL equipment has to be kept precisely aligned (Linear Accelerator: +/- 100 μm, Undulator: +/- 50 μm). As a part of the process for installing the PAL-XFEL, a GPS-using surface geodetic network is being constructed for precise equipment measurement and alignment, and the installation of a tunnel measurement network inside the buildings is in the preparation stage; additionally, the fiducialization of major equipment is underway. After the PAL-XFEL equipment is optimized and aligned, if the ground and the buildings go through vertical changes during operation, misalignment (and tilt) of the equipment, including various magnets and RF structures, will cause errors in the electron beam's trajectory, which will lead to changes to the beam parameters. For continuous and systemic measurement of vertical changes in the buildings and monitoring of ground sinking and uplifting, the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) Ultrasonic-type Hydrostatic Levelling System (HLS) is to be installed and operated in all sections of the PAL-XFEL for the linear accelerator, the insertion device (undulator) and the beamline. This study will introduce the operation principle, design concept, and advantages (self-calibration) of the HLS and will outline its installation plan and operation plan.

  9. 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program Supports At-Risk Youth and Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Connie L.; Miller, Lucinda B.

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program provides a partnership opportunity with Extension and the juvenile court system to positively impact lives of at-risk youth. At-risk youth are taught by 4-H PetPALS adult volunteer leaders and 4-H PetPALS members to value and respect the human-animal bond, as well as to understand and empathize with…

  10. Characterization of the tol-pal region of Escherichia coli K-12: translational control of tolR expression by TolQ and identification of a new open reading frame downstream of pal encoding a periplasmic protein.

    PubMed Central

    Vianney, A; Muller, M M; Clavel, T; Lazzaroni, J C; Portalier, R; Webster, R E

    1996-01-01

    The TolQ, TolR, TolA, TolB, and Pal proteins appear to function in maintaining the integrity of the outer membrane, as well as facilitating the uptake of the group A colicins and the DNA of the infecting filamentous bacteriophages. Sequence data showed that these genes are clustered in a 6-kb segment of DNA with the gene order orf1 tolQ tolR tolA tolB pal orf2 (a newly identified open reading frame encoding a 29-kD9 protein). Like those containing orf1, bacteria containing an insertion mutation in this gene showed no obvious phenotype. Analysis of beta-galactosidase activity from fusion constructs in which the lac operon was fused to various genes in the cluster showed that the genes in this region constitute two separate operons: orf1 tolQRA and tolB pal orf2. In the orf1 tolQRA operon, translation of MR was dependent on translation of the upstream tolQ region. Consistent with this result, no functional ribosome-binding site for TolR synthesis was detected. PMID:8763928

  11. Dual orientation of the outer membrane lipoprotein Pal in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Juliana; MacPherson, Victoria; Barnard, David; Bettinger, John; D'Arcy, Brooke; Surendran, Naveen; Hellman, Judith; Pichichero, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Peptidoglycan associated lipoprotein (Pal) of Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a characteristic bacterial lipoprotein, with an N-terminal lipid moiety anchoring it to the outer membrane. Since its discovery over three decades ago, Pal has been well studied for its participation in the Tol–Pal complex which spans the periplasm and has been proposed to play important roles in bacterial survival, pathogenesis and virulence. Previous studies of Pal place the lipoprotein in the periplasm of E. coli, allowing it to interact with Tol proteins and the peptidoglycan layer. Here, we describe for the first time, a subpopulation of Pal which is present on the cell surface of E. coli. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy detect anti-Pal antibodies on the surface of intact E. coli cells. Interestingly, Pal is surface exposed in an ‘all or nothing’ manner, such that most of the cells contain only internal Pal, with fewer cells ( < 20  %) exhibiting surface Pal. PMID:25808171

  12. Identification of N-acyl homoserine lactones produced by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 cultured in complex and synthetic media.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Peñalver, Carlos G; Bertini, Elisa V; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2012-07-01

    The endophytic diazotrophic Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 was originally isolated from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum). The biological nitrogen fixation, phytohormones secretion, solubilization of mineral nutrients and phytopathogen antagonism allow its classification as a plant growth-promoting bacterium. The recent genomic sequence of PAL5 unveiled the presence of a quorum sensing (QS) system. QS are regulatory mechanisms that, through the production of signal molecules or autoinducers, permit a microbial population the regulation of the physiology in a coordinated manner. The most studied autoinducers in gram-negative bacteria are the N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). The usage of biosensor strains evidenced the presence of AHL-like molecules in cultures of G. diazotrophicus PAL5 grown in complex and synthetic media. Analysis of AHLs performed by LC-APCI-MS permitted the identification of eight different signal molecules, including C6-, C8-, C10-, C12- and C14-HSL. Mass spectra confirmed that this diazotrophic strain also synthesizes autoinducers with carbonyl substitutions in the acyl chain. No differences in the profile of AHLs could be determined under both culture conditions. However, although the level of short-chain AHLs was not affected, a decrease of 30% in the production of long-chain AHLs could be measured in synthetic medium. PMID:22350020

  13. Differential effects of salinity and osmotic stress on the plant growth-promoting bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Marcos Vinicius V; Intorne, Aline C; Vespoli, Luciano de S; Madureira, Hérika C; Leandro, Mariana R; Pereira, Telma N S; Olivares, Fábio L; Berbert-Molina, Marília A; De Souza Filho, Gonçalo A

    2016-04-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) represent a promising alternative to the massive use of industrial fertilizers in agriculture. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a PGPB that colonizes several plant species. Although this bacterium is able to grow at high sucrose concentrations, its response to environmental stresses is poorly understood. The present study evaluated G. diazotrophicus PAL5 response to stresses caused by sucrose, PEG 400, NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4 and K2SO4. Morphological, ultrastructural and cell growth analysis revealed that G. diazotrophicus PAL5 is more sensitive to salt than osmotic stress. Growth inhibition and strong morphological changes were caused by salinity, in consequence of Cl ion-specific toxic effect. Interestingly, low osmotic stress levels were beneficial for bacterial multiplication, which was able to tolerate high sucrose concentrations, Na2SO4 and K2SO4. Our data show that G. diazotrophicus PAL5 has differential response to osmotic and salinity stress, which may influence its use as inoculant in saline environments. PMID:26809283

  14. Differential effects of salinity and osmotic stress on the plant growth-promoting bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Marcos Vinicius V; Intorne, Aline C; Vespoli, Luciano de S; Madureira, Hérika C; Leandro, Mariana R; Pereira, Telma N S; Olivares, Fábio L; Berbert-Molina, Marília A; De Souza Filho, Gonçalo A

    2016-04-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) represent a promising alternative to the massive use of industrial fertilizers in agriculture. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a PGPB that colonizes several plant species. Although this bacterium is able to grow at high sucrose concentrations, its response to environmental stresses is poorly understood. The present study evaluated G. diazotrophicus PAL5 response to stresses caused by sucrose, PEG 400, NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4 and K2SO4. Morphological, ultrastructural and cell growth analysis revealed that G. diazotrophicus PAL5 is more sensitive to salt than osmotic stress. Growth inhibition and strong morphological changes were caused by salinity, in consequence of Cl ion-specific toxic effect. Interestingly, low osmotic stress levels were beneficial for bacterial multiplication, which was able to tolerate high sucrose concentrations, Na2SO4 and K2SO4. Our data show that G. diazotrophicus PAL5 has differential response to osmotic and salinity stress, which may influence its use as inoculant in saline environments.

  15. Magnetostriction and palæomagnetism of igneous rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, John W.; Buddington, A.F.; Balsley, J.R.

    1959-01-01

    IN a recent communication, Stott and Stacey1 report on a “crucial experiment” from which they conclude: “This excellent agreement between the dip and the directions of artificial thermoremanent magnetization of the stressed and unstressed rocks indicates that large systematic errors due to magnetostriction are most improbable in igneous rocks of types normally used for palæomagnetic work”. This experiment was intended to test the proposals2 and measurements3 bearing on the role of magnetostriction in rock magnetism. We present here our reasons for believing that the experiment was not crucial and that the conclusion is not justified.

  16. Construction status of CXI beamline at PAL-XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaehyun; Nam, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Sangsoo; Kim, Bongsoo; Ko, In Soo; Cho, Moohyun

    2015-05-01

    Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free Electron Laser (PAL-XFEL) is a research facility currently under construction. It will provide ultra-bright (assuming 1 X 1012 photons/pulse at 12.4 keV) and ultra-short (10-60 femtosecond) X-ray pulses. The CXI (Coherent X-ray Imaging) end-station, which will be constructed for hard X-ray beamline at the PAL-XFEL, is designed to deliver brilliant hard x-rays (2-20 keV) and to measure diffraction signals with forward scattering geometry, mainly. Not only will it offer imaging studies of biological, chemical and physical samples by the "diffract-before-destroy" technique, but will also be helpful in high field hard x-ray physics and material science. The scientific programs are currently aimed at serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) for macromolecular systems and coherent diffraction imaging for bio specimens and nano structures etc. In this paper, we describe the details of the beamline layout, X-ray focusing optics (Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and Beryllium CRLs) and sample delivery system (liquid jet/LCP sample injector, fixed target system) that will be installed at the CXI beamline.

  17. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  18. Stimulant Drug Effects on Touchscreen Automated Paired-Associates Learning (PAL) in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roschlau, Corinna; Votteler, Angeline; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Here we tested in rats effects of the procognitive drugs modafinil and methylphenidate on post-acquisition performance in an object-location paired-associates learning (PAL) task. Modafinil (32; 64 mg/kg) was without effect, while higher (9 mg/kg) but not lower (4.5 mg/kg) doses of methylphenidate impaired PAL performance. Likewise, higher but not…

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radial velocities in Pal 4 (Frank+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M. J.; Hilker, M.; Baumgardt, H.; Cote, P.; Grebel, E. K.; Haghi, H.; Kupper, A. H. W.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2013-04-01

    B and V images centred on Pal 4 were obtained with LRIS on the night of 1999 January 14. On three different nights in 1999 February and March, spectra for 24 candidate red giants in the direction of Pal 4 were obtained using HIRES mounted on the Keck I telescope. (1 data file).

  20. Writing Pal: Feasibility of an Intelligent Writing Strategy Tutor in the High School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Rod D.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2013-01-01

    The Writing Pal (W-Pal) is a novel intelligent tutoring system (ITS) that offers writing strategy instruction, game-based practice, essay writing practice, and formative feedback to developing writers. Compared to more tractable and constrained learning domains for ITS, writing is an ill-defined domain because the features of effective writing are…

  1. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Volunteer Sponsor's Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    This handbook was developed for volunteer group leaders participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning). Project BEST-PAL was developed especially for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting, with a primary objective being…

  2. Getting to Know You: Cross-Cultural Pen Pals Expand Children's World View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandomo, Hibajene M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author described the Poplar Street-Naledi pen pal project. The goals of this project were to provide elementary school students with a broader view of the world, to increase their social and cultural awareness, to develop content knowledge of where their pen pals live, and to determine the impact of this project on student…

  3. From the Last Interglacial to the Anthropocene: Modelling a Complete Glacial Cycle (PalMod)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brücher, Tim; Latif, Mojib; Claussen, Martin; Schulz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    We will give a short overview of the national climate modelling initiative (PalMod - Paleo Modelling, www.palmod.de) on the understanding of the climate system dynamics and its variability during the last glacial cycle. PalMod is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and its specific topics are: (i) to identify and quantify the relative contributions of the fundamental processes which determined the Earth's climate trajectory and variability during the last glacial cycle, (ii) to simulate with comprehensive Earth System Models (ESMs) the climate from the peak of the last interglacial - the Eemian warm period - up to the present, including the changes in the spectrum of variability, and (iii) to assess possible future climate trajectories beyond this century during the next millennia with sophisticated ESMs tested in such a way. The research is intended to be conducted over a period of 10 years, but with shorter funding cycles. The envisioned approach is innovative in three respects. First, the consortium aims at simulating a full glacial cycle in transient mode and with comprehensive ESMs which allow full interactions between the physical and biogeochemical components of the Earth system, including ice sheets. Second, we shall address climate variability during the last glacial cycle on a large range of time scales, from interannual to multi-millennial, and attempt to quantify the relative contributions of external forcing and processes internal to the Earth system to climate variability at different time scales. Third, in order to achieve a higher level of understanding of natural climate variability at time scales of millennia, its governing processes and implications for the future climate, we bring together three different research communities: the Earth system modeling community, the proxy data community and the computational science community. The consortium consists of 18 partners including all major modelling centers within

  4. Regulation of genes encoding cellulolytic enzymes by Pal-PacC signaling in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Kunitake, Emi; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Kentaro; Kanamaru, Kyoko; Kimura, Makoto; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2016-04-01

    Cellulosic biomass represents a valuable potential substitute for fossil-based fuels. As such, there is a strong need to develop efficient biotechnological processes for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass via the optimization of cellulase production by fungi. Ambient pH is an important factor affecting the industrial production of cellulase. In the present study, we demonstrate that several Aspergillus nidulans genes encoding cellulolytic enzymes are regulated by Pal-PacC-mediated pH signaling, as evidenced by the decreased cellulase productivity of the palC mutant and pacC deletants of A. nidulans. The deletion of pacC was observed to result in delayed induction and decreased expression of the cellulase genes based on time course expression analysis. The genome-wide identification of PacC-regulated genes under cellobiose-induced conditions demonstrated that genes expressed in a PacC-dependent manner included 82 % of ClrB (a transcriptional activator of the cellulase genes)-regulated genes, including orthologs of various transporter and β-glucosidase genes considered to be involved in cellobiose uptake or production of stronger inducer molecules. Together with the significant overlap between ClrB- and PacC-regulated genes, the results suggest that PacC-mediated regulation of the cellulase genes involves not only direct regulation by binding to their promoter regions but also indirect regulation via modulation of the expression of genes involved in ClrB-dependent transcriptional activation. Our findings are expected to contribute to the development of more efficient industrial cellulase production methods.

  5. [Positron annihilation lifetime spectrometry (PALS) and its pharmaceutical applications].

    PubMed

    Sebe, István; Szabó, Barnabás; Zelkó, Romána

    2012-01-01

    PALS is one of the most widely used "nuclear probe" techniques for the tracking of the structural characteristics of materials. The method is based on the matter-energy equivalence principle recognized by Einstein: the electrons and positrons as particle-antiparticle pairs disappear in mutual destruction of particles, they annihilate with high-energy gamma-radiation, thus "particle-energy transition" occurs. The properties of the resulting radiation exactly correspond to the relevant properties of the electron and positron preceding the annihilation. Since electrons occur in all types of materials, the phenomenon of positron annihilation can play in any environment; consequently the method can be used for the analysis of each type of materials (crystalline and amorphous, organic and inorganic, biotic and abiotic). The present paper provides an overview of the theoretical physical background, the practical realization and evaluation of methods, their limitations, and summarizes the pharmaceutical applications published in recent years. PMID:22570984

  6. [Positron annihilation lifetime spectrometry (PALS) and its pharmaceutical applications].

    PubMed

    Sebe, István; Szabó, Barnabás; Zelkó, Romána

    2012-01-01

    PALS is one of the most widely used "nuclear probe" techniques for the tracking of the structural characteristics of materials. The method is based on the matter-energy equivalence principle recognized by Einstein: the electrons and positrons as particle-antiparticle pairs disappear in mutual destruction of particles, they annihilate with high-energy gamma-radiation, thus "particle-energy transition" occurs. The properties of the resulting radiation exactly correspond to the relevant properties of the electron and positron preceding the annihilation. Since electrons occur in all types of materials, the phenomenon of positron annihilation can play in any environment; consequently the method can be used for the analysis of each type of materials (crystalline and amorphous, organic and inorganic, biotic and abiotic). The present paper provides an overview of the theoretical physical background, the practical realization and evaluation of methods, their limitations, and summarizes the pharmaceutical applications published in recent years.

  7. Job level risk assessment using task level ACGIH hand activity level TLV scores: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Drinkaus, Phillip; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Donald S; Mann, Clay; Bernard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Existing upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder analytical tools are primarily intended for single or mono-task jobs. However, many jobs contain more than 1 task and some include job rotation. This case/control study investigates methods of modifying an existing tool, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Hand Activity Level (HAL) Threshold Limit Value (TLV), to assess the upper extremity risk of multi-task jobs. Various methods of combining the task differences and ratios into a job level assessment were explored. Two methods returned significant odds ratios, (p < .05) of 18.0 (95% CI 1.8-172) and 12.0 (95% CI 1.2-120). These results indicate that a modified ACGIH HAL TLV may provide insight into the work-related risk of multi-task jobs. Further research is needed to optimize this process. PMID:16219155

  8. Evaluation and interlaboratory validation of a selective agar for phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C activity using a chromogenic substrate to detect Listeria monocytogenes from foods.

    PubMed

    Jinneman, Karen C; Hunt, Jan M; Eklund, Cheryl A; Wernberg, Jane S; Sado, Patricia N; Johnson, Janelle M; Richter, Richelle S; Torres, Selene T; Ayotte, Eugene; Eliasberg, Stacey J; Istafanos, Phillip; Bass, Deborah; Kexel-Calabresa, Nancy; Lin, Wen; Barton, Curtis N

    2003-03-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) activity is a potential virulence factor and is exhibited only by the Listeria species Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii. A chromogenic substrate for the direct detection of PI-PLC activity is available in a new medium (BCM L. monocytogenes plating agar). The use of a chromogenic substrate offers a mechanism with which to directly screen for L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii other than the esculin used in Oxford (OXF) and Palcam (PAL) agars, which screen for all Listeria species. The specificity levels of BCM plating agar and of BCM confirmation and rhamnose agars were evaluated with 107 Listeria and 10 Bacillus species isolates. In addition, BCM L. monocytogenes plating agar was compared with standard Listeria selective agars (OXF and PAL agars) with regard to the recovery of L. monocytogenes from 2,000 food and environmental samples obtained from eight participating laboratories. A Listeria species was isolated from at least one of the agars in 209 analyses, and L. monocytogenes was isolated in 135 of these analyses. In 27 of the analyses in which L. monocytogenes was isolated, one or more of the selective differential agars used failed to isolate L. monocytogenes, and therefore the results of these analyses were discrepant. Relative to a reference method involving the use of all three agars (OXF, PAL, and BCM agars), the OXF-BCM, PAL-BCM, and OXF-PAL combinations had sensitivities of 99.3, 99.2, and 90.2%, respectively. In statistical analyses of the different combinations of agars, the OXF-BCM and BCM-PAL combinations were found to be superior to the OXF-PAL combination for the detection of L. monocytogenes.

  9. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... under that Part. (b) Other State-level activities. (1) States may reserve a portion of their...

  10. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... under that Part. (b) Other State-level activities. (1) States may reserve a portion of their...

  11. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... under that Part. (b) Other State-level activities. (1) States may reserve a portion of their...

  12. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... under that Part. (b) Other State-level activities. (1) States may reserve a portion of their...

  13. Entry-Level Activities in System Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    System-level consultation or organizational development in schools is an area in great need of theoretical models and definitions. The three articles in this special issue provide a unique learning opportunity not only for consultation across borders but also for consultation within the same nation. In my commentary, I limit my remarks to a few…

  14. Identification of Genes Involved in Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 Strain Using Transposon Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Elisete P.; Soares, Cleiton de Paula; Galvão, Patrícia G.; Imada, Eddie L.; Simões-Araújo, Jean L.; Rouws, Luc F. M.; de Oliveira, André L. M.; Vidal, Márcia S.; Baldani, José I.

    2016-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a beneficial nitrogen-fixing endophyte found in association with sugarcane plants and other important crops. Beneficial effects of G. diazotrophicus on sugarcane growth and productivity have been attributed to biological nitrogen fixation process and production of phytohormones especially indole-3-acetic acid (IAA); however, information about the biosynthesis and function of IAA in G. diazotrophicus is still scarce. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify genes and pathways involved in IAA biosynthesis in this bacterium. In our study, the screening of two independent Tn5 mutant libraries of PAL5T strain using the Salkowski colorimetric assay revealed two mutants (Gdiaa34 and Gdiaa01), which exhibited 95% less indolic compounds than the parental strain when grown in LGIP medium supplemented with L-tryptophan. HPLC chromatograms of the wild-type strain revealed the presence of IAA and of the biosynthetic intermediates indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) and indole-3-lactate (ILA). In contrast, the HPLC profiles of both mutants showed no IAA but only a large peak of non-metabolized tryptophan and low levels of IPyA and ILA were detected. Molecular characterization revealed that Gdiaa01 and Gdiaa34 mutants had unique Tn5 insertions at different sites within the GDI2456 open read frame, which is predicted to encode a L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO). GDI2456 (lao gene) forms a cluster with GDI2455 and GDI2454 ORFs, which are predicted to encode a cytochrome C and an RidA protein, respectively. RT-qPCR showed that transcript levels of lao. cccA, and ridA genes were reduced in the Gdiaa01 as compared to PAL5T. In addition, rice plants inoculated with Gdiaa01 showed significantly smaller root development (length, surface area, number of forks and tips) than those plants inoculated with PAL5T. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that G. diazotrophicus PAL5T produces IAA via the IPyA pathway in cultures supplemented with tryptophan and

  15. Characterisation of the willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene family reveals expression differences compared with poplar

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Femke; Hanley, Steven J.; Beale, Michael H.; Karp, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Willow is an important biomass crop for the bioenergy industry, and therefore optimal growth with minimal effects of biotic and abiotic stress is essential. The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of not only lignin but also of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids and phenolic glycosides which all have a role in protecting the plant against biotic and abiotic stress. All products of the phenylpropanoid pathway are important for the healthy growth of short rotation cropping species such as willow. However, the phenylpropanoid pathway in willow remains largely uncharacterised. In the current study we identified and characterised five willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) genes, which encode enzymes that catalyse the deamination of l-phenylalanine to form trans-cinnamic acid, the entry point into the phenylpropanoid pathway. Willow PAL1, PAL2, PAL3 and PAL4 genes were orthologous to the poplar genes. However no orthologue of PAL5 appears to be present in willow. Moreover, two tandemly repeated PAL2 orthologues were identified in a single contig. Willow PALs show similar sub-cellular localisation to the poplar genes. However, the enzyme kinetics and gene expression of the willow PAL genes differed slightly, with willow PAL2 being more widely expressed than its poplar orthologues implying a wider role for PALs in the production of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids, and phenolic glycosides, in willow. PMID:26070140

  16. Characterisation of the willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene family reveals expression differences compared with poplar.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Femke; Hanley, Steven J; Beale, Michael H; Karp, Angela

    2015-09-01

    Willow is an important biomass crop for the bioenergy industry, and therefore optimal growth with minimal effects of biotic and abiotic stress is essential. The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of not only lignin but also of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids and phenolic glycosides which all have a role in protecting the plant against biotic and abiotic stress. All products of the phenylpropanoid pathway are important for the healthy growth of short rotation cropping species such as willow. However, the phenylpropanoid pathway in willow remains largely uncharacterised. In the current study we identified and characterised five willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) genes, which encode enzymes that catalyse the deamination of l-phenylalanine to form trans-cinnamic acid, the entry point into the phenylpropanoid pathway. Willow PAL1, PAL2, PAL3 and PAL4 genes were orthologous to the poplar genes. However no orthologue of PAL5 appears to be present in willow. Moreover, two tandemly repeated PAL2 orthologues were identified in a single contig. Willow PALs show similar sub-cellular localisation to the poplar genes. However, the enzyme kinetics and gene expression of the willow PAL genes differed slightly, with willow PAL2 being more widely expressed than its poplar orthologues implying a wider role for PALs in the production of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids, and phenolic glycosides, in willow.

  17. Dynamic changes in catechin levels and catechin biosynthesis-related gene expression in albino tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ligui; Li, Juan; Li, Yinhua; Yuan, Ling; Liu, Shuoqian; Huang, Jian'an; Liu, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) leaves are a major source of flavonoids that mainly belong to the flavan-3-ols or catechins and are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the catechins in tea leaves were identified long ago, the regulatory mechanisms governing catechin biosynthesis remain unclear. In the present work, the dynamic changes of catechin levels and the expression profiles of catechin-related genes in albino tea plants were intensively examined. The amounts of most catechins decreased to their lowest levels in the albino phase, when epigallocatechingallate was the highest of the catechins compared to all catechins, and catechin the lowest. Enzyme assays indicated that phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity was positively correlated with the concentration of catechins (r = 0.673). Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that the transcript abundance of flavonoid biosynthetic genes followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and was affected by albinism. These genes (PAL, C4H, 4CL, CHS, CHI, F3H, FLS, F3'H, F3'5'H, DFR, LAR, ANS and ANR) encode enzymes in flavonoid biosynthesis. The expression levels of PAL, F3H and FLS were correlated with the concentration of catechins and the correlation coefficients were -0.683, 0.687 and -0.602, respectively. Therefore, these results indicate that PAL might be a core regulator in the control of catechin biosynthesis in albino tea plants.

  18. Dynamic changes in catechin levels and catechin biosynthesis-related gene expression in albino tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ligui; Li, Juan; Li, Yinhua; Yuan, Ling; Liu, Shuoqian; Huang, Jian'an; Liu, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) leaves are a major source of flavonoids that mainly belong to the flavan-3-ols or catechins and are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the catechins in tea leaves were identified long ago, the regulatory mechanisms governing catechin biosynthesis remain unclear. In the present work, the dynamic changes of catechin levels and the expression profiles of catechin-related genes in albino tea plants were intensively examined. The amounts of most catechins decreased to their lowest levels in the albino phase, when epigallocatechingallate was the highest of the catechins compared to all catechins, and catechin the lowest. Enzyme assays indicated that phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity was positively correlated with the concentration of catechins (r = 0.673). Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that the transcript abundance of flavonoid biosynthetic genes followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and was affected by albinism. These genes (PAL, C4H, 4CL, CHS, CHI, F3H, FLS, F3'H, F3'5'H, DFR, LAR, ANS and ANR) encode enzymes in flavonoid biosynthesis. The expression levels of PAL, F3H and FLS were correlated with the concentration of catechins and the correlation coefficients were -0.683, 0.687 and -0.602, respectively. Therefore, these results indicate that PAL might be a core regulator in the control of catechin biosynthesis in albino tea plants. PMID:23911731

  19. Stimulant drug effects on touchscreen automated paired-associates learning (PAL) in rats.

    PubMed

    Roschlau, Corinna; Votteler, Angeline; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Here we tested in rats effects of the procognitive drugs modafinil and methylphenidate on post-acquisition performance in an object-location paired-associates learning (PAL) task. Modafinil (32; 64 mg/kg) was without effect, while higher (9 mg/kg) but not lower (4.5 mg/kg) doses of methylphenidate impaired PAL performance. Likewise, higher but not lower doses of amphetamine (0.4; 0.8 mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.08; 0.12 mg/kg) decreased PAL performance. Impaired PAL performance induced by methylphenidate, amphetamine, and MK801 most likely reflects compromised cognitive function, e.g., retrieval of learned paired associates. Our data suggest that stimulant drugs such as methylphenidate and modafinil might not facilitate performance in hippocampus-related cognitive tasks. PMID:27421894

  20. Enhancing phytochemical levels, enzymatic and antioxidant activity of spinach leaves by chitosan treatment and an insight into the metabolic pathway using DART-MS technique.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shachi

    2016-05-15

    Phytochemicals are health promoting compounds, synthesized by the plants to protect them against biotic or abiotic stress. The metabolic pathways leading to the synthesis of these phytochemicals are highly inducible; therefore methods could be developed to enhance their production by the exogenous application of chemical inducers/elicitors. In the present experiment, chitosan was used as an elicitor molecule to improve the phytochemical content of spinach plant. When applied at a concentration of 0.01 mg/ml as a foliar spray, chitosan was able to cause an increase in the enzymatic (peroxidase, catalase and phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL)) and non enzymatic (total phenolics, flavonoids and proteins) defensive metabolites, as well as, in the total antioxidant activity of the spinach leaves. A 1.7-fold increase in the total phenolics, a 2-fold increase in total flavonoid and a 1.6-fold increase in total protein were achieved with the treatment. A higher level of enzymatic activity was observed with a 4-fold increase in peroxidase and approximately 3-fold increases in catalase and phenylalanine ammonium lyase activity. Antioxidant activity showed a positive correlation between phenolic compounds and the enzymatic activity. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) was applied to generate the metabolite profile of control and treated leaves. DART analysis revealed the activation of phenylpropanoid pathway by chitosan molecule, targeting the synthesis of diverse classes of flavonoids and their glycosides. Important metabolites of stress response were also visible in the DART spectra, including proline and free sugars.

  1. Pal 12 - A metal-rich globular cluster in the outer halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J. G.; Frogel, J. A.; Persson, S. E.; Zinn, R.

    1980-01-01

    New optical and infrared observations of several stars in the distant globular cluster Pal 12 show that they have CO strengths and heavy element abundances only slightly less than in M 71, one of the more metal-rich globular clusters. Pal 12 thus has a metal abundance near the high end of the range over which globular clusters exist and lies in the outer galactic halo. Its red horizontal branch is not anomalous in view of the abundance that has been found.

  2. Laser-driven ablation through fast electrons in PALS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Chodukowski, T.; Demchenko, N.; Kalinowska, Z.; Kasperczuk, A.; Krousky, E.; Pfeifer, M.; Pisarczyk, P.; Pisarczyk, T.; Renner, O.; Skala, J.; Smid, M.; Ullschmied, J.

    2016-03-01

    Energy transfer to shock wave in Al and Cu targets irradiated by a laser pulse with intensity of I≈1-50 PW/cm2 and duration of 250 ps was investigated at Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS). The iodine laser provided energy in the range of 100-600 J at the first and third harmonic frequencies. The focal spot radius of laser beam on the target was varied from 160 to 40 μm. The dominant contribution of fast electron energy transfer into the ablation process was found when using the first harmonic radiation, the focal spot radius of 40-100 μm, and the energy of 300-600 J. The fast electron heating results in the growth of ablation pressure from 60 Mbar at the intensity of 10 PW/cm2 to 180 Mbar at the intensity of 50 PW/cm2 and in the growth of the efficiency of the energy conversion into the shock wave from 2 to 7% under the conditions of 2D ablation.

  3. Physical Activity Levels during Adventure-Physical Education Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehris, Jeffrey; Myers, Elizabeth; Whitaker, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Adventure-physical education has been proposed to promote adolescents' physical development, but little is known about physical activity levels during such lessons. Using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time, we observed students' (ages 11-14 years) physical activity levels in co-educational classes during 43 adventure-physical…

  4. The initial break-up of Pangæa elicited by Late Palæozoic deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Meng-Wan; Shellnutt, J Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The break-up of Pangæa was principally facilitated by tensional plate stress acting on pre-existing suture zones. The rifting of Pangæa began during the Early Permian along the southern Tethys margin and produced the lenticular-shaped continent known as Cimmeria. A mantle-plume model is ascribed to explain the rift-related volcanism but the NW-SE oriented Cimmerian rifts do not correlate well with pre-existing suture zones or 'structural heterogeneities' but appear to have a pertinent spatial and temporal association with Late Palæozoic glacial-interglacial cycles. Mantle potential temperature estimates of Cimmerian rift-related basalts (1410 °C ± 50 °C) are similar to ambient mantle conditions rather than an active mantle-plume rift as previously suggested. Moreover, we find that the distribution of glacial deposits shows significant temporal and spatial concurrence between the glacial retreat margins and rifting sites. We conclude that the location and timing of Cimmerian rifting resulted from the exploitation of structural heterogeneities within the crust that formed due to repeated glacial-interglacial cycles during the Late Palæozoic. Such effects of continental deglaciation helped to create the lenticular shape of Cimmeria and Neotethys Ocean suggesting that, in some instances, climate change may directly influence the location of rifting. PMID:27511791

  5. The initial break-up of Pangæa elicited by Late Palæozoic deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Meng-Wan; Shellnutt, J Gregory

    2016-08-11

    The break-up of Pangæa was principally facilitated by tensional plate stress acting on pre-existing suture zones. The rifting of Pangæa began during the Early Permian along the southern Tethys margin and produced the lenticular-shaped continent known as Cimmeria. A mantle-plume model is ascribed to explain the rift-related volcanism but the NW-SE oriented Cimmerian rifts do not correlate well with pre-existing suture zones or 'structural heterogeneities' but appear to have a pertinent spatial and temporal association with Late Palæozoic glacial-interglacial cycles. Mantle potential temperature estimates of Cimmerian rift-related basalts (1410 °C ± 50 °C) are similar to ambient mantle conditions rather than an active mantle-plume rift as previously suggested. Moreover, we find that the distribution of glacial deposits shows significant temporal and spatial concurrence between the glacial retreat margins and rifting sites. We conclude that the location and timing of Cimmerian rifting resulted from the exploitation of structural heterogeneities within the crust that formed due to repeated glacial-interglacial cycles during the Late Palæozoic. Such effects of continental deglaciation helped to create the lenticular shape of Cimmeria and Neotethys Ocean suggesting that, in some instances, climate change may directly influence the location of rifting.

  6. The initial break-up of Pangæa elicited by Late Palæozoic deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Meng-Wan; Shellnutt, J. Gregory

    2016-08-01

    The break-up of Pangæa was principally facilitated by tensional plate stress acting on pre-existing suture zones. The rifting of Pangæa began during the Early Permian along the southern Tethys margin and produced the lenticular-shaped continent known as Cimmeria. A mantle-plume model is ascribed to explain the rift-related volcanism but the NW-SE oriented Cimmerian rifts do not correlate well with pre-existing suture zones or ‘structural heterogeneities’ but appear to have a pertinent spatial and temporal association with Late Palæozoic glacial-interglacial cycles. Mantle potential temperature estimates of Cimmerian rift-related basalts (1410 °C ± 50 °C) are similar to ambient mantle conditions rather than an active mantle-plume rift as previously suggested. Moreover, we find that the distribution of glacial deposits shows significant temporal and spatial concurrence between the glacial retreat margins and rifting sites. We conclude that the location and timing of Cimmerian rifting resulted from the exploitation of structural heterogeneities within the crust that formed due to repeated glacial-interglacial cycles during the Late Palæozoic. Such effects of continental deglaciation helped to create the lenticular shape of Cimmeria and Neotethys Ocean suggesting that, in some instances, climate change may directly influence the location of rifting.

  7. The initial break-up of Pangæa elicited by Late Palæozoic deglaciation

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Meng-Wan; Shellnutt, J. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The break-up of Pangæa was principally facilitated by tensional plate stress acting on pre-existing suture zones. The rifting of Pangæa began during the Early Permian along the southern Tethys margin and produced the lenticular-shaped continent known as Cimmeria. A mantle-plume model is ascribed to explain the rift-related volcanism but the NW-SE oriented Cimmerian rifts do not correlate well with pre-existing suture zones or ‘structural heterogeneities’ but appear to have a pertinent spatial and temporal association with Late Palæozoic glacial-interglacial cycles. Mantle potential temperature estimates of Cimmerian rift-related basalts (1410 °C ± 50 °C) are similar to ambient mantle conditions rather than an active mantle-plume rift as previously suggested. Moreover, we find that the distribution of glacial deposits shows significant temporal and spatial concurrence between the glacial retreat margins and rifting sites. We conclude that the location and timing of Cimmerian rifting resulted from the exploitation of structural heterogeneities within the crust that formed due to repeated glacial-interglacial cycles during the Late Palæozoic. Such effects of continental deglaciation helped to create the lenticular shape of Cimmeria and Neotethys Ocean suggesting that, in some instances, climate change may directly influence the location of rifting. PMID:27511791

  8. Solar Activity, Different Geomagnetic Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar

    Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.

  9. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    PubMed

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting.

  10. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    PubMed

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. PMID:27029522

  11. [Effect of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under salt stress conditions].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-zhi; Yang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Licorice seedlings were taken as experimental materials, an experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under NaCl stress conditions. The results of this study showed that under salt stress conditions, after adding a certain concentration of exogenous sucrose, the licorice seedlings day of relative growth rate was increasing, and this stress can be a significant weakening effect, indicating that exogenous sucrose salt stress-relieving effect. The total flavonoids and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased, the exogenous sucrose can mitigated the seedling roots under salt stress, the licorice flavonoid content in the enhanced growth was largely due to the activity of PAL an increased, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose wae 10 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity reaching a maximum, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose was 15 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity turned into a downward trend, the results indicating that this mitigation has concentration effect. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sugar, the contents of liquiritin changes with the change of flavonoids content was similar. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sucrose, the content of licorice acid under salt stress was higher than the levels were not reached during salt stress, the impact of exogenous sucrose concentration gradient of licorice acid accumulation was not obvious. PMID:27097411

  12. [Effect of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under salt stress conditions].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-zhi; Yang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Licorice seedlings were taken as experimental materials, an experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under NaCl stress conditions. The results of this study showed that under salt stress conditions, after adding a certain concentration of exogenous sucrose, the licorice seedlings day of relative growth rate was increasing, and this stress can be a significant weakening effect, indicating that exogenous sucrose salt stress-relieving effect. The total flavonoids and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased, the exogenous sucrose can mitigated the seedling roots under salt stress, the licorice flavonoid content in the enhanced growth was largely due to the activity of PAL an increased, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose wae 10 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity reaching a maximum, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose was 15 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity turned into a downward trend, the results indicating that this mitigation has concentration effect. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sugar, the contents of liquiritin changes with the change of flavonoids content was similar. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sucrose, the content of licorice acid under salt stress was higher than the levels were not reached during salt stress, the impact of exogenous sucrose concentration gradient of licorice acid accumulation was not obvious.

  13. Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.

  14. Passive aquatic listener (PAL): An adoptive underwater acoustic recording system for the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostou, Marios N.; Nystuen, Jeffrey A.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Lykousis, Vassilios

    2011-01-01

    The ambient sound field in the ocean is a combination of natural and manmade sounds. Consequently, the interpretation of the ambient sound field can be used to quantify these processes. In the frequency range from 1 to 50 kHz, the general character of ocean ambient sound is a slowly changing background that is closely associated with local wind speed, interspersed with shorter time scale events such as rain storms, ships and animal calls. At lower frequencies the underwater ambient sound budget includes geologically generated sound activities including underwater volcanic eruptions, seismic and seepage faults that generate bubbles, etc. that can also potentially be classified and quantified. Acoustic data are collected on hydrophones. Hydrophones are simple, robust sensors that can be deployed on most ocean instrumentation systems including surface or sub-surface moorings, bottom mounted systems, drifters, ARGO floats or autonomous underwater platforms. A dedicated oceanic underwater recorder called a passive acoustic listener (PAL) has been developed. A principal issue is to accurately distinguish different sound sources so that they can be quantified as part of a sound budget, and then quantified if appropriate. Based on ongoing data collected from the Poseidon II network the retrieval potential of multi-parameters from underwater sound, including meteorological (i.e., precipitation and winds) and in general geophysical, anthropogenetic (i.e., ships, submarines, etc.) and biological (whales, etc.) sources is presented.

  15. Azimuthal Signature of Coincidental Brightness Temperature and Normalized Radar Cross-Section Obtained Using Airborne PALS Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colliander, Andreas; Kim, Seungbum; Yueh, Simon; Cosh, Mike; Jackson, Tom; Njoku, Eni

    2010-01-01

    Coincidental airborne brightness temperature (TB) and normalized radar-cross section (NRCS) measurements were carried out with the PALS (Passive and Active L- and S-band) instrument in the SMAPVEX08 (SMAP Validation Experiment 2008) field campaign. This paper describes results obtained from a set of flights which measured a field in 45(sup o) steps over the azimuth angle. The field contained mature soy beans with distinct row structure. The measurement shows that both TB and NRCS experience modulation effects over the azimuth as expected based on the theory. The result is useful in development and validation of land surface parameter forward models and retrieval algorithms, such as the soil moisture algorithm for NASA's SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive) mission. Although the footprint of the SMAP will not be sensitive to the small resolution scale effects as the one presented in this paper, it is nevertheless important to understand the effects at smaller scale.

  16. Physical activity as a determinant of fecal bile acid levels

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Betsy C.; Martínez, María Elena; Ashbeck, Erin L.; Roe, Denise J.; Jacobs, Elizabeth T.; Alberts, David S.; Thompson, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity is protective against colon cancer, whereas colonic bile acid exposure is a suspected risk factor. While likely related, the association between physical activity and bile acid levels has not been well studied. Furthermore, the effect of triglycerides, which are known to modify bile acid levels, on this relationship has not been investigated. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline fecal bile acid levels for 735 colorectal adenoma formers obtained from participants in a phase III ursodeoxycholic acid chemoprevention trial. Compared to the lowest quartile of recreational physical activity duration, the highest quartile was associated with a 17% lower fecal bile acid concentration, adjusted for age, sex, dietary fiber intake, and body mass index (P = 0.042). Furthermore, consistent with a previously established relationship between serum triglyceride levels and bile acid metabolism, we stratified by triglyceride level and observed a 34% lower fecal bile acid concentration (highest versus lowest quartiles of physical activity) in individuals with low triglycerides (< 136 mg/dL; P = 0.002). In contrast, no association between physical activity and fecal bile acid concentration was observed for subjects with high triglycerides (≥ 136 mg/dL). Our results suggest that the biological mechanism responsible for the protective effect of physical activity on the incidence of colon cancer may be partially mediated by decreasing colonic bile acid exposure. However, this effect may be limited to individuals with lower triglyceride levels. PMID:19383885

  17. PAL-XFEL cavity beam position monitor pick-up design and beam test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sojeong; Park, Young Jung; Kim, Changbum; Kim, Seung Hwan; Shin, Dong Cheol; Han, Jang-Hui; Ko, In Soo

    2016-08-01

    As an X-ray Free Electron Laser, PAL-XFEL is about to start beam commissioning. X-band cavity beam position monitor (BPM) is used in the PAL-XFEL undulator beam line. Prototypes of cavity BPM pick-up were designed and fabricated to test the RF characteristics. Also, the beam test of a cavity BPM pick-up was done in the Injector Test Facility (ITF). In the beam test, the raw signal properties of the cavity BPM pick-up were measured at a 200 pC bunch charge. According to the RF test and beam test results, the prototype cavity BPM pick-up design was confirmed to meet the requirements of the PAL-XFEL cavity BPM system.

  18. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  19. Movement Activity Levels on Traditional and Contemporary Playground Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl P.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth

    This study investigated playground activity levels of children in grades K-4 and compared levels of use of traditional and creative playground apparatus. The traditional playground area consisted of climbing bars, slides, ladders, chin bars, swings, see saws, and a merry-go-round. The creative playground contained tire hurdles, tire walk, tire…

  20. The Role of Various Curriculum Models on Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Dean O.; Tarr, Susan J.; Killion, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that physical education curricula can be highly effective in increasing physical activity levels at school (Sallis & Owen, 1999). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of various curriculum models on physical activity. Total steps were measured on 1,111 subjects and three curriculum models were studied…

  1. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  2. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand. PMID:27375903

  3. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand.

  4. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  5. PAL: An Object Oriented Data Access Layer for Herschel Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Guest, S.; Huang, M.; Balm, P.; Siddiqui, H.; Bakker, J.; Segovia, J. C.; Saiz, J.; Edwards, K.

    2012-09-01

    The Herschel Ground Segment Product Access Layer (PAL), an object oriented software package that provides a consistent means for accessing Herschel Space Observatory data products, isolates the complexity of underlying storage systems and makes it possible for scientific data analysis scripts to be reused in different environments and over a long period of time as software and hardware evolve. The pluggable design of the PAL makes it easier for users to handle new underlying storage systems and to optimize performance according to different system characteristics.

  6. Problems with McAdams and Pals's (2006) Proposal of a Framework for an Integrative Theory of Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Seymour

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the original article "A New Big Five: Fundamental Principles for an Integrative Science of Personality," by Dan P. McAdams and Jennifer L. Pals (see record 2006-03947-002). Here, the current author begins with a critique of McAdams and Pals's (April 2006) five principles for a framework for an integrative theory of personality. The…

  7. Philosophy and Adult Educators: An Inquiry into the Philosophy-Practice Link Using the PALS, EOQ, and PAEI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachal, John R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    To explore philosophical predilections, the Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS), Educational Orientation Questionnaire, and Philosophy of Adult Education Inventory were administered to 111 adult education graduate students. The overall population was progressive on the PALS and scored close to reported means on the other tests. (SLD)

  8. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  9. Serum Renalase Levels Correlate with Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Minfang; Shao, Xinghua; Chang, Xinbei; Fan, Zhuping; Cao, Qin; Mou, Shan; Wang, Qin; Yan, Yucheng; Desir, Gary; Ni, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lupus nephritis (LN) is among the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Renalase is a novel, kidney-secreted cytokine-like protein that promotes cell survival. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase levels with LN and its role in the disease progression of LN. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 67 LN patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventeen active LN patients who received standard therapies were followed up for six months. Disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity–2000 (SLEDAI-2K) scoring system and serum renalase amounts were determined by ELISA. Predictive value of renalase for disease activity was assessed. Furthermore, the expression of renalase in the kidneys of patients and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Serum renalase amounts were significantly higher in LN patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, patients with proliferative LN had more elevated serum renalase levels than Class V LN patients. In proliferative LN patients, serum renalase levels were significantly higher in patients with active LN than those with inactive LN. Serum renalase levels were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K, 24-h urine protein excretion, ds-DNA and ESR but inversely correlated with serum albumin and C3. Renalase amounts decreased significantly after six-months of standard therapy. The performance of renalase as a marker for diagnosis of active LN was 0.906 with a cutoff value of 66.67 μg/ml. We also observed that the amount of renalase was significantly higher in glomerular of proliferative LN along with the co-expression of macrophages. Conclusion Serum renalase levels were correlated with disease activity in LN. Serum renalase might serve as a potential indicator for disease activity in LN. The marked increase of glomerular renalase and its association with macrophages suggest

  10. RaPAL Bulletin, Numbers 5-13, 1988-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RaPAL Bulletin, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This document consists of a 3-year compilation (9 issues) of the RaPAL (Research and Practice in Adult Literacy) Bulletin. Typical articles are: "Student Involvement in Research" (a report of a workshop by Alex Golightly, Nick Nicola, and Marilyn Stone); part of a dialogue between Paolo Freire and Ira Shor, writer/educators of Brazil and the…

  11. The Crumbs3-Pals1 complex participates in the establishment of polarity in mammalian epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Roh, Michael H; Fan, Shuling; Liu, Chia-Jen; Margolis, Ben

    2003-07-15

    In Drosophila, the Crumbs-Stardust-Discs-lost complex is required during the establishment of polarized epithelia. Embryos that lack a component of this complex or overexpress Crumbs exhibit defects in epithelial morphogenesis. We recently cloned a novel mammalian epithelial Crumbs isoform, Crumbs3 (CRB3). CRB3 exists in a complex at tight junctions (TJs) with Pals1 and PATJ, the mammalian homologues of Stardust and Discs lost, respectively. Here, we observe that overexpression of CRB3 leads to delayed TJ formation in MDCK epithelial cell monolayers and disruption of polarity in MDCK cysts cultured in collagen. Both phenomena require the last four residues of CRB3. Next, we expressed, in MDCK cells, a dominant-negative Myc-Lin-2-Pals1 chimeric protein, where the PDZ domain of Lin-2 was replaced with that of Pals1. TJ and apical polarity defects were also observed in these cells. Collectively, this suggests that the CRB-Pals1 interaction is important for formation of TJs and polarized epithelia. These results provide insight into the function of the mammalian Crumbs complex during TJ formation and epithelial polarization.

  12. The Web Pen Pals Project: Students' Perceptions of a Learning Community in an Online Synchronous Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maples, Joellen; Groenke, Susan; Dunlap, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This paper draws on data gathered from a five-month phenomenological study of middle school students' perceptions of the effects of computer-based technologies on a learning community in an online synchronous environment. Twenty-four eighth-grade students participated in the Web Pen Pals project, a university-secondary telecollaborative…

  13. An Ethnographic Study of a Key-Pal Project: Learning a Foreign Language through Bilingual Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edasawa, Yasuyo; Kabata, Kaori

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of a cross-cultural bilingual communication project on students' second language learning. A collaborative key-pal project was conducted between Japanese university students learning English and Canadian university students learning Japanese. Ethnographic data were collected from the students' exchanged messages…

  14. Connecting in Rhizomic Spaces: Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL) and E-Learning in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bone, Jane; Edwards, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A PAL (Peer-Assisted Learning) project supported research that focused on e-learning and Web 2.0 technologies as part of a pedagogical approach in the context of a tertiary institution. This project responded to a call for a rejuvenation of conventional approaches to pedagogy while teaching an early childhood unit in a large Australian university.…

  15. Polar localization of Escherichia coli chemoreceptors requires an intact Tol–Pal complex

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Thiago M. A.; Lin, Ti-Yu; Rajendran, Madhusudan; Anderson, Samantha M.; Weibel, Douglas B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Subcellular biomolecular localization is critical for the metabolic and structural properties of the cell. The functional implications of the spatiotemporal distribution of protein complexes during the bacterial cell cycle have long been acknowledged; however, the molecular mechanisms for generating and maintaining their dynamic localization in bacteria are not completely understood. Here we demonstrate that the trans-envelope Tol–Pal complex, a widely conserved component of the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria, is required to maintain the polar positioning of chemoreceptor clusters in Escherichia coli. Localization of the chemoreceptors was independent of phospholipid composition of the membrane and the curvature of the cell wall. Instead, our data indicate that chemoreceptors interact with components of the Tol–Pal complex and that this interaction is required to polarly localize chemoreceptor clusters. We found that disruption of the Tol–Pal complex perturbs the polar localization of chemoreceptors, alters cell motility, and affects chemotaxis. We propose that the E. coli Tol–Pal complex restricts mobility of the chemoreceptor clusters at the cell poles and may be involved in regulatory mechanisms that co-ordinate cell division and segregation of the chemosensory machinery. PMID:24720726

  16. Yash Pal Committee Report on Higher Education: Certain Reflections by Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumthas, N. S.; Anju Krishnan, K.

    2011-01-01

    In the present scenario, Indian higher education is expanding in quantity but compromising with quality. Hats off to Yash Pal Committee, which took this matter into account, worked on it and submitted a report (renovation and rejuvenation of higher education in India) on June 24, 2009 to the Human Resource Ministry. Major attributes of Yash Pal…

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Pal1-I elemental equivalent widths and abundances (Monaco+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, L.; Saviane, I.; Correnti, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Geisler, D.

    2010-11-01

    Table A1. reports the line list and atomic parameters adopted for the Palomar 1 giant Pal1-I and the Sun. For the Mn and Co lines we adopted the hyperfine structures (HFS) tabulated by Prochaska et al. (2000AJ....120.2513P). The measured equivalent width and the corresponding abundance obtained for each line are also reported. (1 data file).

  18. Pen Pal Letter Exchanges: Taking First Steps toward Developing Cultural Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barksdale, Mary Alice; Watson, Carol; Park, Eun Soo

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative research project that examined pen pal letters exchanged between children in Virginia, USA, and Malawi in Sub-Saharan Africa. The goal was to study the nature of communication between students living in these two very different cultural contexts. The results of this study indicated that there were three primary…

  19. Adaptation of the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS) to Turkish Students: Factorial Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cikrikci-Demirtash, R. Nukhet

    2005-01-01

    The study presented in this article was conducted to determine psychometric features of scales for Turkish students by adapting the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS) developed by Midgley and others (2000) to the Turkish language in order to measure personal and classroom goal orientations. The scales were developed to test…

  20. E-Pals: An Exercise in the Seduction of Student Technophobes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Susan L.

    This paper presents a case study of an "e-pal" experiment which suggests that negative assumptions and orientations toward computer technology for communication purposes can be altered through one-to-one peer relationships. The experiment was conducted through a communication seminar at a small private university in the Northwest. Necessary…

  1. Daily energy expenditure and physical activity in survivors of childhood malignancy.

    PubMed

    Warner, J T; Bell, W; Webb, D K; Gregory, J W

    1998-05-01

    Changes in body composition, in particular the onset of obesity, may result from reductions in total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) as a consequence of relative physical inactivity. Children previously treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) become obese, yet the mechanism remains undefined. TDEE and physical activity levels [PAL = TDEE/basal metabolic rate (BMR)] were measured in 34 long-term survivors of ALL and compared with results from 21 survivors of other malignancies and 32 healthy sibling control subjects using the flex-heart rate technique. Body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The median TDEE was reduced in the ALL group (150 kJ x kg d(-1)) compared with other malignancies and controls (207 and 185 kJ x kg d(-1), respectively, p < 0.01). This reduction was accounted for mainly by a relative decrease in the PAL of the ALL group (1.24) compared with both other malignancies and controls (1.58 and 1.47, respectively, p < 0.01). TDEE and PAL were correlated with percentage body fat (r = -0.39, p < 0.001 and r = -0.24, p < 0.05, respectively). Obesity in survivors of ALL may, in part, be explained by a reduction in TDEE as a consequence of reduced PAL. The cause of such reduction is uncertain.

  2. StarPals International Young Astronomers' Network Collaborative Projects for IYA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingan, Jessi

    2008-09-01

    StarPals is a nascent non-profit organization with the goal of providing opportunities for international collaboration between students of all ages within space science research. We believe that by encouraging an interest in the cosmos, the one thing that is truly Universal, from a young age, students will not only further their knowledge of and interest in science but will learn valuable teamwork and life skills. The goal is to foster respect, understanding and appreciation of cultural diversity among all StarPals participants, whether students, teachers, or mentors. StarPals aims to inspire students by providing opportunities in which, more than simply visualizing themselves as research scientists, they can actually become one. The technologies of robotic telescopes, videoconferencing, and online classrooms are expanding the possibilities like never before. In honor of IYA2009, StarPals would like to encourage 400 schools to participate on a global scale in astronomy/cosmology research on various concurrent projects. We will offer in-person or online workshops and training sessions to teach the teachers. We will be seeking publication in scientific journals for some student research. For our current project, the Double Stars Challenge, students use the robotic telescopes to take a series of four images of one of 30 double stars from a list furnished by the US Naval Observatory and then use MPO Canopus software to take distance and position angle measurements. StarPals provides students with hands-on training, telescope time, and software to complete the imaging and measuring. A paper will be drafted from our research data and submitted to the Journal of Double Star Observations. The kids who participate in this project may potentially be the youngest contributors to an article in a vetted scientific journal. Kids rapidly adapt and improve their computer skills operating these telescopes and discover for themselves that science is COOL!

  3. Education Finance Legislative Activity and Trends at the State Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crampton, Faith E.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews 1997 school finance legislation, comparing legislative activity levels from 1994 to 1997. In 1997, 32 states passed legislation pertaining to capital-outlay funding, tax bases, and taxation for education funding. Half passed legislation for state aid, technology, special-purpose education, budgeting/fiscal management, and school personnel…

  4. Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity Levels of Rural Appalachian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Rana, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to examine whether pedometer-assessed physical activity (PA) in Appalachian Ohio students differed by body mass index (BMI), school level (middle school vs. high school), and gender during school days and nonschool days and whether students met the recommended PA guidelines. Participants (N = 149) were…

  5. Genetic Influences on Mechanically-Assessed Activity Level in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Alexis C.; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Rogers, Hannah; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2007-01-01

    Background: Activity level is an important component of children's temperament, as well as being part of the core symptom domain of hyperactivity-impulsivity within attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Yet it is poorly understood, due partly to limitations on parent and teacher ratings, which are typically used as measurements of these…

  6. Cardiovascular effects of variations in habitual levels of physical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, C. G.; Mitchell, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in human cardiovascular adaption to stress, particularly adaption to different levels of physical activity are determined along with quantitative noninvasive methods for evaluation of cardiovascular function during stess in normal subjects and in individuals with latent or manifest cardiovascular disease. Results are summarized.

  7. Can nursing students' confidence levels increase with repeated simulation activities?

    PubMed

    Cummings, Cynthia L; Connelly, Linda K

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, nursing faculty conducted a study with undergraduate nursing students on their satisfaction, confidence, and educational practice levels, as it related to simulation activities throughout the curriculum. The study was a voluntary survey conducted on junior and senior year nursing students. It consisted of 30 items based on the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning and the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Jeffries, 2012). Mean averages were obtained for each of the 30 items from both groups and were compared using T scores for unpaired means. The results showed that 8 of the items had a 95% confidence level and when combined the items were significant for p <.001. The items identified were those related to self-confidence and active learning. Based on these findings, it can be assumed that repeated simulation experiences can lead to an increase in student confidence and active learning. PMID:26599594

  8. Can nursing students' confidence levels increase with repeated simulation activities?

    PubMed

    Cummings, Cynthia L; Connelly, Linda K

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, nursing faculty conducted a study with undergraduate nursing students on their satisfaction, confidence, and educational practice levels, as it related to simulation activities throughout the curriculum. The study was a voluntary survey conducted on junior and senior year nursing students. It consisted of 30 items based on the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning and the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Jeffries, 2012). Mean averages were obtained for each of the 30 items from both groups and were compared using T scores for unpaired means. The results showed that 8 of the items had a 95% confidence level and when combined the items were significant for p <.001. The items identified were those related to self-confidence and active learning. Based on these findings, it can be assumed that repeated simulation experiences can lead to an increase in student confidence and active learning.

  9. Organizational-Level Strategies With or Without an Activity Tracker to Reduce Office Workers’ Sitting Time: Rationale and Study Design of a Pilot Cluster-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fjeldsoe, Brianna S; Young, Duncan C; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Dunstan, David W; Straker, Leon M; Brakenridge, Christian J; Healy, Genevieve N

    2016-01-01

    Background The office workplace is a key setting in which to address excessive sitting time and inadequate physical activity. One major influence on workplace sitting is the organizational environment. However, the impact of organizational-level strategies on individual level activity change is unknown. Further, the emergence of sophisticated, consumer-targeted wearable activity trackers that facilitate real-time self-monitoring of activity, may be a useful adjunct to support organizational-level strategies, but to date have received little evaluation in this workplace setting. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of organizational-level strategies with or without an activity tracker on sitting, standing, and stepping in office workers in the short (3 months, primary aim) and long-term (12 months, secondary aim). Methods This study is a pilot, cluster-randomized trial (with work teams as the unit of clustering) of two interventions in office workers: organizational-level support strategies (eg, visible management support, emails) or organizational-level strategies plus the use of a waist-worn activity tracker (the LUMOback) that enables self-monitoring of sitting, standing, and stepping time and enables users to set sitting and posture alerts. The key intervention message is to ‘Stand Up, Sit Less, and Move More.’ Intervention elements will be implemented from within the organization by the Head of Workplace Wellbeing. Participants will be recruited via email and enrolled face-to-face. Assessments will occur at baseline, 3, and 12 months. Time spent sitting, sitting in prolonged (≥30 minute) bouts, standing, and stepping during work hours and across the day will be measured with activPAL3 activity monitors (7 days, 24 hours/day protocol), with total sitting time and sitting time during work hours the primary outcomes. Web-based questionnaires, LUMOback recorded data, telephone interviews, and focus

  10. Effects of Curricular Activity on Students' Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…

  11. Physical activity in the EPIC-Italy centers.

    PubMed

    Salvini, Simonetta; Saieva, Calogero; Ciardullo, Anna Vittoria; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Assedi, Melania; Berrino, Franco; Pala, Valeria; Frasca, Graziella; Tumino, Rosario; Veglia, Fabrizio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico

    2003-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition offers the opportunity to explore patterns of physical activity in a large series of healthy adults enrolled in the different local cohorts of the Italian section of the European EPIC project. Physical activity is considered one of the means by which chronic disease could be prevented. Subjects in the EPIC study completed a life-style questionnaire, with a section dedicated to the assessment of physical activity at work and during leisure time. Time spent in the various activities was transformed into an index of physical activity (physical activity level, PAL) and an activity index that includes intense activity (PAL; intense activity included). Quintiles of these indexes were computed in order to observe the distribution of subject characteristics according to levels of physical activity. In general, the population was characterized by low levels of physical activity at work, with more than 50% of the sample reporting sedentary occupations. During leisure time, only a small percentage of subjects compensated for the inactivity at work by engaging in energy-consuming activities. In particular, organized fitness activities were reported by a small percentage of people, whereas walking was the most common sort of physical activity. Specific types of activity seemed to characterize subjects in the different areas of the country, reflecting local traditions or specific living situations. Detailed information about physical activity habits, together with a description of other characteristics, could help in designing physical activity promotion programs in different Italian populations and age groups.

  12. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  13. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  14. Low level laser therapy reduces inflammation in activated Achilles tendinitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.

  15. Expression profiles of key phenylpropanoid genes during Vanilla planifolia pod development reveal a positive correlation between PAL gene expression and vanillin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Fock-Bastide, Isabelle; Palama, Tony Lionel; Bory, Séverine; Lécolier, Aurélie; Noirot, Michel; Joët, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    In Vanilla planifolia pods, development of flavor precursors is dependent on the phenylpropanoid pathway. The distinctive vanilla aroma is produced by numerous phenolic compounds of which vanillin is the most important. Because of the economic importance of vanilla, vanillin biosynthetic pathways have been extensively studied but agreement has not yet been reached on the processes leading to its accumulation. In order to explore the transcriptional control exerted on these pathways, five key phenylpropanoid genes expressed during pod development were identified and their mRNA accumulation profiles were evaluated during pod development and maturation using quantitative real-time PCR. As a prerequisite for expression analysis using qRT-PCR, five potential reference genes were tested, and two genes encoding Actin and EF1 were shown to be the most stable reference genes for accurate normalization during pod development. For the first time, genes encoding a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (VpPAL1) and a cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (VpC4H1) were identified in vanilla pods and studied during maturation. Among phenylpropanoid genes, differential regulation was observed from 3 to 8 months after pollination. VpPAL1 was gradually up-regulated, reaching the maximum expression level at maturity. In contrast, genes encoding 4HBS, C4H, OMT2 and OMT3 did not show significant increase in expression levels after the fourth month post-pollination. Expression profiling of these key phenylpropanoid genes is also discussed in light of accumulation patterns for key phenolic compounds. Interestingly, VpPAL1 gene expression was shown to be positively correlated to maturation and vanillin accumulation.

  16. Effect of Learning Activity on Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels and Effort/Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Lee, Amelia M.; Xiang, Ping; Kosma, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The type of learning activity offered in physical education may influence students' motivational beliefs, physical activity participation and effort/persistence in class. However, most empirical studies have focused on the individual level rather than on the learner-content interactions. Accordingly, the potential effects of learning activities on…

  17. Validation of Five Minimally Obstructive Methods to Estimate Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Young Adults in Semi-Standardized Settings

    PubMed Central

    Schneller, Mikkel B.; Pedersen, Mogens T.; Gupta, Nidhi; Aadahl, Mette; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We compared the accuracy of five objective methods, including two newly developed methods combining accelerometry and activity type recognition (Acti4), against indirect calorimetry, to estimate total energy expenditure (EE) of different activities in semi-standardized settings. Fourteen participants performed a standardized and semi-standardized protocol including seven daily life activity types, while having their EE measured by indirect calorimetry. Simultaneously, physical activity was quantified by an ActivPAL3, two ActiGraph GT3X+’s and an Actiheart. EE was estimated by the standard ActivPAL3 software (ActivPAL), ActiGraph GT3X+ (ActiGraph) and Actiheart (Actiheart), and by a combination of activity type recognition via Acti4 software and activity counts per minute (CPM) of either a hip- or thigh-worn ActiGraph GT3X+ (AGhip + Acti4 and AGthigh + Acti4). At group level, estimated physical activities EE by Actiheart (MSE = 2.05) and AGthigh + Acti4 (MSE = 0.25) were not significantly different from measured EE by indirect calorimetry, while significantly underestimated by ActiGraph, ActivPAL and AGhip + Acti4. AGthigh + Acti4 and Actiheart explained 77% and 45%, of the individual variations in measured physical activity EE by indirect calorimetry, respectively. This study concludes that combining accelerometer data from a thigh-worn ActiGraph GT3X+ with activity type recognition improved the accuracy of activity specific EE estimation against indirect calorimetry in semi-standardized settings compared to previously validated methods using CPM only. PMID:25781506

  18. Microgravity: a Teacher's Guide with Activities, Secondary Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L. (Editor); Wargo, Michael J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Educational Publication is a teacher's guide that focuses on microgravity for the secondary level student. The introduction answers the question 'What is microgravity?', as well as describing gravity and creating microgravity. Following the introduction is a microgravity primer which covers such topics as the fluid state, combustion science, materials science, biotechnology, as well as microgravity and space flight. Seven different activities are described in the activities section and are written by authors prominent in the field. The concluding sections of the book include a glossary, microgravity references, and NASA educational resources.

  19. Lifestyle determinants for social activity levels among the Japanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Aoki, R; Ohno, Y; Tamakoshi, A; Kawakami, N; Nagai, M; Hashimoto, S; Ikari, A; Shimizu, H; Sakata, K; Kawamura, T; Wakai, K; Senda, M

    1996-01-01

    We conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey to a total of 5239 elderly persons in four areas in Japan in 1993, which inquired about past lifestyles and present social activities. Based on the survey data, we first developed social activity measures, and then examined associations of the present total social activity measure with past lifestyles and physical conditions. The lifestyles significantly associated with high social activity after 65 years of age were 'high educational attainment'; having been 'healthy', 'plump', 'physically active' and 'having had hobbies' at about 50 years of age; and having 'frequent intake of many kinds of foods' during 30-50 years of age. Intake during 30-50 years of age of Japanese-style foods (rice, soybean paste soup, bean curd, pickles), noodles, beans, plant roots and potatoes was not significantly linked with the social activity levels at old age in either males or females. The same was true for smoking and drinking habits at about 50 years of age. Our findings essentially suggest the importance of a positive attitude at middle age to maintain and promote health status and improve lifestyles in order to attain high social activity at old age.

  20. Secular trends in storm-level geomagnetic activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis is made of K-index data from groups of ground-based geomagnetic observatories in Germany, Britain, and Australia, 1868.0-2009.0, solar cycles 11-23. Methods include nonparametric measures of trends and statistical significance used by the hydrological and climatological research communities. Among the three observatory groups, German K data systematically record the highest disturbance levels, followed by the British and, then, the Australian data. Signals consistently seen in K data from all three observatory groups can be reasonably interpreted as physically meaninginful: (1) geomagnetic activity has generally increased over the past 141 years. However, the detailed secular evolution of geomagnetic activity is not well characterized by either a linear trend nor, even, a monotonic trend. Therefore, simple, phenomenological extrapolations of past trends in solar and geomagnetic activity levels are unlikely to be useful for making quantitative predictions of future trends lasting longer than a solar cycle or so. (2) The well-known tendency for magnetic storms to occur during the declining phase of a sunspot-solar cycles is clearly seen for cycles 14-23; it is not, however, clearly seen for cycles 11-13. Therefore, in addition to an increase in geomagnetic activity, the nature of solar-terrestrial interaction has also apparently changed over the past 141 years. ?? Author(s) 2011.

  1. Level of independence of motor unit properties from neuromuscular activity.

    PubMed

    Pierotti, D J; Roy, R R; Hodgson, J A; Edgerton, V R

    1994-11-01

    Neuromuscular activity was eliminated in the tibialis anterior muscle of adult cats for 6 months by spinal isolation (SI), i.e., complete spinal cord transections at T-12-13 and at L-7-S-1, plus bilateral dorsal rhizotomy between the two transection sites. One motor unit from each muscle was isolated using ventral root teasing procedures and physiologically tested. The fibers belonging to each motor unit were visualized in PAS-stained sections by the loss of glycogen following prolonged repetitive stimulation. Qualitatively, the normal enzymatic interrelationships among fibers identified by myosin heavy chain composition were unchanged by SI. Generally, each motor unit from SI cats were of a single myosin immunohistochemical type. The same physiological motor unit types that typify control muscles were found in SI cats. In SI compared to control cats, there was approximately a 10% increase in the number of muscle fibers expressing fast myosin. Mean fiber activity levels of ATPase and SDH for a given fiber type (based on MHC antibody reactions) decreased by approximately 10% and 25%, whereas GPD activity increased approximately 35%. It is concluded that differential levels or patterns of activity are not essential to maintain the range of histochemical and physiological motor unit types found in the tibialis anterior of normal adult cats.

  2. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Tolea, Magdalena I; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Metter, E Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway. PMID:23966753

  3. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Tolea, Magdalena I; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Metter, E Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway.

  4. PALS: A unique probe for the molecular organisation of biopolymer matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussenova, M.; Alam, M. A.

    2013-06-01

    This short review aims to illustrate the versatility of Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) when utilized for the characterization of biopolymers (e.g.: starch, fractionated maltooligomers, gelatin and cellulose derivatives) commonly used for the formulation of pharmaceutical encapsulants. By showing examples from a number of recent PALS studies, we illustrate that this technique can be used to probe the changes in thermodynamic state and molecular packing for a wide range of biopolymer matrices as a function of temperature, matrix composition and water content. This provides a basis for establishing composition-structure-property relationships for these materials, which would eventually enable the rational control of their macroscopic properties and the design of optimal encapsulating matrices and intelligent drug delivery systems.

  5. Syntax PAL: a system to improve the written syntax of language-impaired users.

    PubMed

    Morris, C; Newell, A; Booth, L; Ricketts, I; Arnott, J

    1992-01-01

    In our work with children who have difficulty with spelling or with the physical action of writing, we have found a number of children who also have difficulty with written grammar. As an extension of PAL, an existing predictive spelling and typing aid, we have developed a writing aid to help these children with sentence construction. The enhanced system uses the syntax of the initial part of a sentence to enhance the position in the prediction list of syntactically correct words. It was postulated that this would discourage the use of incorrect syntax and encourage the use of correct syntax. In two case studies, the use of Syntax PAL significantly improved the quality and quantity of one child's written output, but had little effect on the other child's work.

  6. NCI QuitPal, an App from the National Cancer Institute | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. NCI QuitPal, an App from the National Cancer Institute Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table ... Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute What if the tools you need to quit smoking were as ...

  7. Supplementation of CHROMagar Candida Medium with Pal's Medium for Rapid Identification of Candida dubliniensis

    PubMed Central

    Sahand, Ismail H.; Moragues, María D.; Eraso, Elena; Villar-Vidal, María; Quindós, Guillermo; Pontón, José

    2005-01-01

    CHROMagar Candida medium is used for the isolation and identification of Candida species, but it does not differentiate Candida albicans from Candida dubliniensis. This differentiation can be achieved by using Pal's agar, which cannot be used in primary isolation. We have combined both media to obtain a new medium that can be used for the isolation and identification of C. dubliniensis in primary cultures. PMID:16272515

  8. Electrocortical activity distinguishes between uphill and level walking in humans.

    PubMed

    Bradford, J Cortney; Lukos, Jamie R; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if electrocortical activity is different between walking on an incline compared with level surface. Subjects walked on a treadmill at 0% and 15% grades for 30 min while we recorded electroencephalography (EEG). We used independent component (IC) analysis to parse EEG signals into maximally independent sources and then computed dipole estimations for each IC. We clustered cortical source ICs and analyzed event-related spectral perturbations synchronized to gait events. Theta power fluctuated across the gait cycle for both conditions, but was greater during incline walking in the anterior cingulate, sensorimotor and posterior parietal clusters. We found greater gamma power during level walking in the left sensorimotor and anterior cingulate clusters. We also found distinct alpha and beta fluctuations, depending on the phase of the gait cycle for the left and right sensorimotor cortices, indicating cortical lateralization for both walking conditions. We validated the results by isolating movement artifact. We found that the frequency activation patterns of the artifact were different than the actual EEG data, providing evidence that the differences between walking conditions were cortically driven rather than a residual artifact of the experiment. These findings suggest that the locomotor pattern adjustments necessary to walk on an incline compared with level surface may require supraspinal input, especially from the left sensorimotor cortex, anterior cingulate, and posterior parietal areas. These results are a promising step toward the use of EEG as a feed-forward control signal for ambulatory brain-computer interface technologies.

  9. Tol-Pal proteins are critical cell envelope components of Erwinia chrysanthemi affecting cell morphology and virulence.

    PubMed

    Dubuisson, Jean-François; Vianney, Anne; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, Nicole; Lazzaroni, Jean Claude

    2005-10-01

    The tol-pal genes are necessary for maintaining the outer-membrane integrity of Gram-negative bacteria. These genes were first described in Escherichia coli, and more recently in several other species. They are involved in the pathogenesis of E. coli, Haemophilus ducreyi, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella enterica. The role of the tol-pal genes in bacterial pathogenesis was investigated in the phytopathogenic enterobacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi, assuming that this organism might be a good model for such a study. The whole Er. chrysanthemi tol-pal region was characterized. Tol-Pal proteins, except TolA, showed high identity scores with their E. coli homologues. Er. chrysanthemi mutants were constructed by introducing a uidA-kan cassette in the ybgC, tolQ, tolA, tolB, pal and ybgF genes. All the mutants were hypersensitive to bile salts. Mutations in tolQ, tolA, tolB and pal were deleterious for the bacteria, which required high concentrations of sugars or osmoprotectants for their viability. Consistent with this observation, they were greatly impaired in their cell morphology and division, which was evidenced by observations of cell filaments, spherical forms, membrane blebbing and mislocalized bacterial septa. Moreover, tol-pal mutants showed a reduced virulence in a potato tuber model and on chicory leaves. This could be explained by a combination of impaired phenotypes in the tol-pal mutants, such as reduced growth and motility and a decreased production of pectate lyases, the major virulence factor of Er. chrysanthemi.

  10. Activity-dependent regulation of astrocyte GAT levels during synaptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Muthukumar, Allie K.; Stork, Tobias; Freeman, Marc R.

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytic uptake of GABA through GABA transporters (GATs) is an important mechanism regulating excitatory/inhibitory balance in the nervous system, however mechanisms by which astrocytes regulate GAT levels are undefined. Here we show at mid-pupal stages the Drosophila CNS neuropil is devoid of astrocyte membranes and synapses. Astrocyte membranes subsequently infiltrate the neuropil coordinate with synaptogenesis and a strocyte ablation reduces synapse numbers by half, indicating that Drosophila astrocytes are pro-synaptogenic. Shortly after synapses form in earnest, the GABA transporter, GAT, is up-regulated in astrocytes. Ablation or silencing of GABAergic neurons or disruption of metabotropic GABA receptor (GABABR1/2) signaling in astrocytes leads to decreased astrocytic GAT levels. Interestingly, developmental depletion of astrocytic GABABR1/2 signaling suppresses mechanosensory-induced seizure activity in mutants with hyperexcitable neurons. These data reveal astrocytes actively modulate GAT expression via metabotropic GABA receptor signaling, and highlight the importance of precise regulation of astrocytic GAT in modulation of seizure activity. PMID:25151265

  11. One NASA: Sharing Knowledge Through an Agency-wide Process Asset Library (PAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truss, Baraka J.

    2006-01-01

    This poster session will cover the key purpose and components behind implementing the NASA PAL website. This session will present the current results, describing the process used to create the website, the current usage measure, and will demonstrate how NASA is truly becoming ONE. The target audience for the poster session includes those currently implementing the CMMI model and looking for PAL adoption techniques. To continue to be the leader in space, science and technology, NASA is using this agency-wide PAL to share knowledge, work products and lessons learned through this website. Many organizations have failed to recognize how the efforts of process improvement fit into overall organizational effort. However, NASA as an agency has adopted the benefits of process improvement by the creation of this website to foster communication between its ten centers. The poster session will cover the following, topics outlined below: 1) Website purpose; 2) Characteristics of the website; 3) User accounts status; 4) Website content size; and 5) Usage percentages.

  12. Palæomagnetic evidence relevant to a change in the earth's radius

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Allan; Doell, Richard R.

    1961-01-01

    INTEREST in the hypothesis that the Earth's radius has increased during geological history has been renewed in recent years because of several sets of independent observations and interpretations. From studies of the deformation of mountain ranges and the distribution of faults and oceans, Carey1 proposes an increase in the Earth's area of 45 per cent since the Palæozoic era. Heezen2 similarly interprets submarine topography as indicating that the oceans may be immense rift valleys formed by a pulling apart of the continents as the Earth expanded. Using a different approach, Egyed3,4 infers a rate of increase of the Earth's radius of 0.4–0.8 mm. per year. This calculation is based on a decrease in the total amount of continental area covered by oceans during the past 400 million years, as determined palæographically. Egyed4 has also pointed out the desirability of using palæomagnetic data to test this hypothesis.

  13. Exploring human epileptic activity at the single-neuron level.

    PubMed

    Tankus, Ariel

    2016-05-01

    Today, localization of the seizure focus heavily relies on EEG monitoring (scalp or intracranial). However, current technology enables much finer resolutions. The activity of hundreds of single neurons in the human brain can now be simultaneously explored before, during, and after a seizure or in association with an interictal discharge. This technology opens up new horizons to understanding epilepsy at a completely new level. This review therefore begins with a brief description of the basis of the technology, the microelectrodes, and the setup for their implantation in patients with epilepsy. Using these electrodes, recent studies provide novel insights into both the time domain and firing patterns of epileptic activity of single neurons. In the time domain, seizure-related activity may occur even minutes before seizure onset (in its current, EEG-based definition). Seizure-related neuronal interactions exhibit complex heterogeneous dynamics. In the seizure-onset zone, changes in firing patterns correlate with cell loss; in the penumbra, neurons maintain their spike stereotypy during a seizure. Hence, investigation of the extracellular electrical activity is expected to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the disease; it may, in the future, serve for a more accurate localization of the seizure focus; and it may also be employed to predict the occurrence of seizures prior to their behavioral manifestation in order to administer automatic therapeutic interventions.

  14. A Population-Average, Landmark- and Surface-based (PALS) atlas of human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Van Essen, David C

    2005-11-15

    This report describes a new electronic atlas of human cerebral cortex that provides a substrate for a wide variety of brain-mapping analyses. The Population-Average, Landmark- and Surface-based (PALS) atlas approach involves surface-based and volume-based representations of cortical shape, each available as population averages and as individual subject data. The specific PALS-B12 atlas introduced here is derived from structural MRI volumes of 12 normal young adults. Accurate cortical surface reconstructions were generated for each hemisphere, and the surfaces were inflated, flattened, and mapped to standard spherical configurations using SureFit and Caret software. A target atlas sphere was generated by averaging selected landmark contours from each of the 24 contributing hemispheres. Each individual hemisphere was deformed to this target using landmark-constrained surface registration. The utility of the resultant PALS-B12 atlas was demonstrated using a variety of analyses. (i) Probabilistic maps of sulcal identity were generated using both surface-based registration (SBR) and conventional volume-based registration (VBR). The SBR approach achieved markedly better consistency of sulcal alignment than did VBR. (ii) A method is introduced for 'multi-fiducial mapping' of volume-averaged group data (e.g., fMRI data, probabilistic architectonic maps) onto each individual hemisphere in the atlas, followed by spatial averaging across the individual maps. This yielded a population-average surface representation that circumvents the biases inherent in choosing any single hemisphere as a target. (iii) Surface-based and volume-based morphometry applied to maps of sulcal depth and sulcal identity demonstrated prominent left-right asymmetries in and near the superior temporal sulcus and Sylvian fissure. Moreover, shape variability in the temporal lobe is significantly greater in the left than the right hemisphere. The PALS-B12 atlas has been registered to other surface

  15. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (≥5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ≥75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition. PMID:25264672

  16. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (≥5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ≥75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition.

  17. Activity-dependent regulation of astrocyte GAT levels during synaptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Allie K; Stork, Tobias; Freeman, Marc R

    2014-10-01

    Astrocytic uptake of GABA through GABA transporters (GATs) is an important mechanism regulating excitatory/inhibitory balance in the nervous system; however, mechanisms by which astrocytes regulate GAT levels are undefined. We found that at mid-pupal stages the Drosophila melanogaster CNS neuropil was devoid of astrocyte membranes and synapses. Astrocyte membranes subsequently infiltrated the neuropil coordinately with synaptogenesis, and astrocyte ablation reduced synapse numbers by half, indicating that Drosophila astrocytes are pro-synaptogenic. Shortly after synapses formed in earnest, GAT was upregulated in astrocytes. Ablation or silencing of GABAergic neurons or disruption of metabotropic GABA receptor 1 and 2 (GABA(B)R1/2) signaling in astrocytes led to a decrease in astrocytic GAT. Notably, developmental depletion of astrocytic GABA(B)R1/2 signaling suppressed mechanosensory-induced seizure activity in mutants with hyperexcitable neurons. These data reveal that astrocytes actively modulate GAT expression via metabotropic GABA receptor signaling and highlight the importance of precise regulation of astrocytic GAT in modulation of seizure activity.

  18. Effective learning techniques for military applications using the Personalized Assistant that Learns (PAL) enhanced Web-Based Temporal Analysis System (WebTAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMonica, Peter; Dziegiel, Roger; Liuzzi, Raymond; Hepler, James

    2009-05-01

    The Personalized Assistant that Learns (PAL) Program is a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) research effort that is advancing technologies in the area of cognitive learning by developing cognitive assistants to support military users, such as commanders and decision makers. The Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Information Directorate leveraged several core PAL components and applied them to the Web-Based Temporal Analysis System (WebTAS) so that users of this system can have automated features, such as task learning, intelligent clustering, and entity extraction. WebTAS is a modular software toolset that supports fusion of large amounts of disparate data sets, visualization, project organization and management, pattern analysis and activity prediction, and includes various presentation aids. WebTAS is predominantly used by analysts within the intelligence community and with the addition of these automated features, many transition opportunities exist for this integrated technology. Further, AFRL completed an extensive test and evaluation of this integrated software to determine its effectiveness for military applications in terms of timeliness and situation awareness, and these findings and conclusions, as well as future work, will be presented in this report.

  19. The effects of UV-B radiation intensity on biochemical parameters and active ingredients in flowers of Qi chrysanthemum and Huai chrysanthemum.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiao-Qin; Chu, Jian-Zhou; He, Xue-Li; Si, Chao

    2014-01-01

    The article studied UV-B effects on biochemical parameters and active ingredients in flowers of Qi chrysanthemum and Huai chrysanthemum during the bud stage. The experiment included four UV-B radiation levels (CK, ambient UV-B; T1, T2 and T3 indicated a 5%, 10% and 15% increase in ambient UV-BBE, respectively) to determine the optimal UV-B radiation intensity in regulating active ingredients level in flowers of two chrysanthemum varieties. Flower dry weight of two cultivars was not affected by UV-B radiation under experimental conditions reported here. UV-B treatments significantly increased the rate of superoxide radical production, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (except for T1) and malondialdehyde concentration in flowers of Huai chrysanthemum and H2O2 concentration in flowers of Qi chrysanthemum. T2 and T3 treatments induced a significant increase in phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL) activity, anthocyanins, proline, ascorbic acid, chlorogenic acid and flavone content in flowers of two chrysanthemum varieties, and there were no significant differences in PAL activity, ascorbic acid, flavone and chlorogenic acid content between the two treatments. These results indicated that appropriate UV-B radiation intensity did not result in the decrease in flower yield, and could regulate PAL activity and increase active ingredients content in flowers of two chrysanthemum varieties.

  20. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during and after closure

  1. Levels of physical activity and predictors of mortality in COPD*

    PubMed Central

    Nyssen, Samantha Maria; dos Santos, Júlia Gianjoppe; Barusso, Marina Sallum; de Oliveira, Antônio Delfino; Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires Di; Jamami, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE) index scores and its individual components between COPD patients with and without severe physical inactivity, as well as to correlate the number of steps/day with scores of physical activity questionnaires, age, and the BODE index (including its components). METHODS: We included 30 patients, who were evaluated for body composition, pulmonary function (FEV1), perception of dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council scale), and exercise capacity (six-minute walk distance [6MWD]). The patients also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), short version, and the modified Baecke questionnaire (mBQ). The level of physical activity was assessed by the number of steps/day (as determined by pedometer), using the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day to form two groups: no severe physical inactivity (SPI−) and severe physical inactivity (SPI+). We used the Mann-Whitney test or t-test, as well as Pearson's or Spearman's correlation tests, in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: In comparison with the SPI− group, the SPI+ group showed more advanced age, higher mBQ scores (leisure domain), lower 6MWD (in m and % of predicted), and lower IPAQ scores (metabolic equivalent-walk/week domain and total). The IPAQ scores showed weak correlations with steps/day (r = 0.399), age (r = −0.459), and 6MWD-in m (r = 0.446) and in % of predicted (r = 0.422). CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day was not sensitive enough to identify differences between the groups when compared with the predictors of mortality. The IPAQ, short version score correlated with steps/day. PMID:24473759

  2. Structure of Crumbs tail in complex with the PALS1 PDZ-SH3-GK tandem reveals a highly specific assembly mechanism for the apical Crumbs complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Youjun; Wei, Zhiyi; Yan, Yan; Wan, Qingwen; Du, Quansheng; Zhang, Mingjie

    2014-12-01

    The Crumbs (Crb) complex, formed by Crb, PALS1, and PATJ, is evolutionarily conserved in metazoans and acts as a master cell-growth and -polarity regulator at the apical membranes in polarized epithelia. Crb intracellular functions, including its direct binding to PALS1, are mediated by Crb's highly conserved 37-residue cytoplasmic tail. However, the mechanistic basis governing the highly specific Crb-PALS1 complex formation is unclear, as reported interaction between the Crb tail (Crb-CT) and PALS1 PSD-95/DLG/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain is weak and promiscuous. Here we have discovered that the PDZ-Src homolgy 3 (SH3)-Guanylate kinase (GK) tandem of PALS1 binds to Crb-CT with a dissociation constant of 70 nM, which is ∼ 100-fold stronger than the PALS1 PDZ-Crb-CT interaction. The crystal structure of the PALS1 PDZ-SH3-GK-Crb-CT complex reveals that PDZ-SH3-GK forms a structural supramodule with all three domains contributing to the tight binding to Crb. Mutations disrupting the tertiary interactions of the PDZ-SH3-GK supramodule weaken the PALS1-Crb interaction and compromise PALS1-mediated polarity establishment in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cysts. We further show that specific target binding of other members of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) (e.g., CASK binding to neurexin) also requires the presence of their PDZ-SH3-GK tandems.

  3. Maastrichtian-Early Eocene litho-biostratigraphy and palægeography of the northern Gulf of Suez region, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibner, C.; Marzouk, A. M.; Kuss, J.

    2001-02-01

    The Maastrichtian-Lower Eocene sediments on both sides of the northern Gulf of Suez can be subdivided into eight formal formations (including one group) and one informal formation that are described in detail. These lithostratigraphic units reflect three different environmental regimes of deposition or non-deposition. The first regime is characterised by uplift and erosion or non-deposition resulting mostly from the uplift of the Northern Galala/Wadi Araba structure, a branch of the Syrian Arc Foldbelt. The shallow water carbonate platform and slope deposits of the Late Campanian-Maastrichtian St Anthony Formation and the Paleocene-Lower Eocene Southern Galala and Garra Formations represent the second regime and are found north and south of the Northern Galala/Wadi Araba High. The third regime is represented by basinal chalks, marls and shales of the Maastrichtian Sudr Formation and of the Paleocene-Eocene Dakhla, Tarawan and Esna Formations, the Dakhla/Tarawan/Esna informal formation and the Thebes Group. The distribution and lateral interfingering of the above mentioned environmental regimes reflect different vertical movements, changing basin morphology, sea level changes and progradation of shallow water sediments and is illustrated on 11 palæogeographic maps.

  4. Individual information beam broadcasting system using a PAL-SLM based CGH beam former for the location based information services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Shunichi; Itoh, Hideo; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Takuichi; Lin, Xin; Tokuda, Masamitsu

    2006-01-01

    As an implementation of ubiquitous information service environments, we have been researching location-based information service systems at indoor and short distance area. The system should provide adequate information services, which fit the user's attributes, such as language, knowledge level and the volume of information, what is so-called "Right now, Here, and for Me" information services. Keeping privacy and security of the user is an important issue. Spatial optical communication technique is used for the system because the technique is easy to implement a location- and direction-based communication system. Information broadcasting in an area can be realized by an omnidirectional modulated light emission. However, the omnidirectional beam causes spill out of secure information to others, and has lower energy conservation than a focused beam communication. In this paper, a new spatial optical information broadcasting system, which can focus modulated beams only to intended users. CGH (Computer Generated Hologram) technique on a SLM (Spatial Light Modulator) is proposed and demonstrated. The system is composed of a PAL-SLM (Parallel Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator), an eye-safe semiconductor laser or a semiconductor laser pumped YAG laser for the beam emitter, and an infrared video camera with an infrared LED illuminator for user locator. Experimental results of beam deflecting characteristics are described on beam uniformity, deflecting angle and the enhancement, communication characteristics, and real time tracking of user with a corner-reflecting sheet.

  5. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  6. Neuroprotective role of (Val8)GLP-1-Glu-PAL in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Liu, Ke; Zhao, Juan; Holscher, Christian; Li, Guang-lai; Liu, Yue-ze

    2016-01-01

    The growth factor glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is neuroprotective in several animal models of neurodegeneration. Here, we analyzed the neuroprotective effects of a novel protease-resistant GLP-1 analogue, (Val8)GLP-1-Glu-PAL, which has advantages over older analogues, such as improvement of hippocampal neurogenesis, glucose homeostasis, and insulin secretion. We established an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease using the mitochondrial stressor rotenone in primary cultured mouse neurons pretreated with (Val8)GLP-1-Glu-PAL. (Val8)GLP-1-Glu-PAL alone did not affect neuronal viability, but prevented the rotenone-induced reduction in cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, (Val8)GLP-1-Glu-PAL pretreatment prevented rotenone-induced proapoptotic changes manifesting as downregulation of procaspase-3 and Bcl-2 and upregulation of cleaved caspase-3. These results demonstrate that the novel agent (Val8)GLP-1-Glu-PAL shows promise as a drug treatment for Parkinson's disease. PMID:27073388

  7. (0,m) Pal-type interpolation on the Mobius transform of roots of unity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruin, Marcel G.

    2005-06-01

    Define for integer m[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 and [alpha] a complex number with [alpha]2,[alpha]m[not equal to]1, the polynomial of degree mwm([alpha];z)=(z+[alpha])m-(1+[alpha]z)m,whose (simple) zeros can be seen as the Mobius transforms of the mth roots of unity.In this paper it will be shown that (0,m) Pal-type interpolation on the zeros of {wn+m([alpha];z),wn([alpha];z)} is regular for all integers and complex numbers [alpha] with [alpha]2,[alpha]m,[alpha]n,[alpha]n+m[not equal to]1.

  8. Determining cleanup levels in bioremediation: Quantitative structure activity relationship techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Arulgnanendran, V.R.J.; Nirmalakhandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    An important feature in the process of planning and initiating bioremediation is the quantification of the toxicity of either an individual chemical or a group of chemicals when multiple chemicals are involved. A laboratory protocol was developed to test the toxicity of single chemicals and mixtures of organic chemicals in a soil medium. Portions of these chemicals are used as a training set to develop Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models. These predictive models are tested using the chemicals in the testing set, i.e., the remaining chemicals. Moreover mixtures with 10 contaminants in each mixture are tested experimentally to determine joint toxicity for mixtures of chemicals. Using the concepts of Toxic Units, Additivity Index, and Mixture Toxicity Index, the laboratory results are tested for additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effects of the contaminants. These concepts are further validated on mixtures containing eight chemicals that are tested in the laboratory. In addition to the use of the predictive models in evaluating cleanup levels for hazardous waste locations, they are useful to predict microbial toxicity in soils of new chemicals from a congeneric group acting by the same mode of toxicity. These models are applicable when the contaminants act singly or jointly in a mixture.

  9. Structural studies of an exopolysaccharide produced by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5.

    PubMed

    Serrato, Rodrigo V; Meneses, Carlos H S G; Vidal, Marcia S; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes P; Iacomini, Marcello; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Baldani, José I

    2013-10-15

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium that has been found colonizing several plants. This acid-tolerant bacterium produces phytohormones that promote plant growth and is also able to grow in high-sugar concentrations. It has been demonstrated that exopolysaccharides (EPS), which are produced by strain Pal5 of G. diazotrophicus, play an important role in plant infection. We have investigated the structure of the EPS, which was produced by a strain of Pal5 grown in liquid medium containing mannitol as the sole carbon source. The results reveal an EPS with Glc, Gal, Man in a molar ratio of 6:3:1, respectively. NMR spectroscopy and chemical derivatization have revealed that the EPS structure has 4-O-substituted units of β-glucose, 3-O-substituted units of β-galactose and 2-O-substituted units of α-mannose. Glucose and galactose units linked at C6 were also found. The structure proposed herein is different from EPS produced by other species of Gluconacetobacter published to date.

  10. Phosphate enhances levan production in the endophytic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5

    PubMed Central

    Idogawa, Nao; Amamoto, Ryuta; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a gram-negative and endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that has several beneficial effects in host plants; thus, utilization of this bacterium as a biofertilizer in agriculture may be possible. G. diazotrophicus synthesizes levan, a D-fructofuranosyl polymer with β-(2→6) linkages, as an exopolysaccharide and the synthesized levan improves the stress tolerance of the bacterium. In this study, we found that phosphate enhances levan production by G. diazotrophicus Pal5, a wild type strain that showed a stronger mucous phenotype on solid medium containing 28 mM phosphate than on solid medium containing 7 mM phosphate. A G. diazotrophicus Pal5 levansucrase disruptant showed only a weak mucous phenotype regardless of the phosphate concentration, indicating that the mucous phenotype observed on 28 mM phosphate medium was caused by levan. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the effect of a high concentration of phosphate on exopolysaccharide production. PMID:24717418

  11. Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5

    PubMed Central

    Bertalan, Marcelo; Albano, Rodolpho; de Pádua, Vânia; Rouws, Luc; Rojas, Cristian; Hemerly, Adriana; Teixeira, Kátia; Schwab, Stefan; Araujo, Jean; Oliveira, André; França, Leonardo; Magalhães, Viviane; Alquéres, Sylvia; Cardoso, Alexander; Almeida, Wellington; Loureiro, Marcio Martins; Nogueira, Eduardo; Cidade, Daniela; Oliveira, Denise; Simão, Tatiana; Macedo, Jacyara; Valadão, Ana; Dreschsel, Marcela; Freitas, Flávia; Vidal, Marcia; Guedes, Helma; Rodrigues, Elisete; Meneses, Carlos; Brioso, Paulo; Pozzer, Luciana; Figueiredo, Daniel; Montano, Helena; Junior, Jadier; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo; Martin Quintana Flores, Victor; Ferreira, Beatriz; Branco, Alan; Gonzalez, Paula; Guillobel, Heloisa; Lemos, Melissa; Seibel, Luiz; Macedo, José; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Sachetto-Martins, Gilberto; Coelho, Ana; Santos, Eidy; Amaral, Gilda; Neves, Anna; Pacheco, Ana Beatriz; Carvalho, Daniela; Lery, Letícia; Bisch, Paulo; Rössle, Shaila C; Ürményi, Turán; Rael Pereira, Alessandra; Silva, Rosane; Rondinelli, Edson; von Krüger, Wanda; Martins, Orlando; Baldani, José Ivo; Ferreira, Paulo CG

    2009-01-01

    Background Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Results Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is composed of a 3.9 Mb chromosome and 2 plasmids of 16.6 and 38.8 kb, respectively. We annotated 3,938 coding sequences which reveal several characteristics related to the endophytic lifestyle such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism, transport systems, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Genomic analysis identified a core component of 894 genes shared with phylogenetically related bacteria. Gene clusters for gum-like polysaccharide biosynthesis, tad pilus, quorum sensing, for modulation of plant growth by indole acetic acid and mechanisms involved in tolerance to acidic conditions were identified and may be related to the sugarcane endophytic and plant-growth promoting traits of G. diazotrophicus. An accessory component of at least 851 genes distributed in genome islands was identified, and was most likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer. This portion of the genome has likely contributed to adaptation to the plant habitat. Conclusion The genome data offer an important resource of information that can be used to manipulate plant/bacterium interactions with the aim of improving sugarcane crop production and other biotechnological applications. PMID:19775431

  12. The effect of gender and level of vision on the physical activity level of children and adolescents with visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakcı; Kitiş, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between 8 and 16 years participated in the study. The physical activity level of cases was evaluated with a physical activity diary (PAD) and one-mile run/walk test (OMR-WT). No difference was found between the PAD and the OMR-WT results of low vision and blind children and adolescents. The visually impaired children and adolescents were detected not to participate in vigorous physical activity. A difference was found in favor of low vision boys in terms of mild, moderate activities and OMR-WT durations. However, no difference was found between physical activity levels of blind girls and boys. The results of our study suggested that the physical activity level of visually impaired children and adolescents was low, and gender affected physical activity in low vision children and adolescents.

  13. Effects of methcathinone and 3-Cl-methcathinone (PAL-434) in cocaine discrimination or self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kohut, Stephen J; Fivel, Peter A; Blough, Bruce E; Rothman, Richard B; Mello, Nancy K

    2013-10-01

    Monoamine releasers with varying selectivity for dopamine (DA)/norepinephrine and serotonin (5-HT) release are potential treatment medications for cocaine abuse. Although DA-selective monoamine releasers effectively reduce cocaine abuse, their clinical usefulness is limited by abuse liability. It is hypothesized that increasing 5-HT neurotransmission may reduce the abuse-related effects of DA releasers, but the optimal DA:5-HT release ratio remains to be determined. This study in rhesus monkeys compared the effects of two compounds with differing potency for 5-HT release. Methcathinone and 3-Cl-methcathinone (PAL-434) have equal potency for DA release, but PAL-434 has 10-fold higher potency for 5-HT release. In drug discrimination studies, monkeys were trained to discriminate cocaine (0.4 mg/kg i.m.) from saline in a two-key, food-reinforced procedure. In drug self-administration studies, a separate group of monkeys was trained to respond for cocaine [0.01 mg/kg/injection (inj)] and food (1 g pellets) under a second order schedule of reinforcement [FR2(VR16:S)]. When responding was stable, methcathinone (0.1–0.56 mg/kg.h i.v.) or PAL-434 (0.32–1.8 mg/kg.h i.v.) was administered chronically (one injection every 20 min for 23 h/d) for 7–10 d. In discrimination studies, both compounds dose-dependently increased cocaine-like responding but with different potencies (cocaine=methcathinone >PAL-434). Chronic treatment with methcathinone or PAL-434 dose-dependently and selectively reduced cocaine self-administration. PAL-434 was about 4-fold and methcathinone about 1.6-fold more potent at decreasing cocaine- over food-maintained responding. These data suggest that compounds with moderate selectivity for DA vs. 5-HT release (8–15-fold) may be effective for the treatment of cocaine dependence. PMID:23768644

  14. Measuring Activity Level with Actometers: Reliability, Validity, and Arm Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.

    1983-01-01

    The gross-motor activity of 27 three- and four- year-olds was assessed through teacher ratings, parent responses to the activity scale of the Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory, and data from uncalibrated actometers worn by children during free play. Activity scores composited across multiple actometers had high reliability and correlated…

  15. Vibration Analysis of the Space Shuttle External Tank Cable Tray Flight Data With and Without PAL Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Bruce E.; Panda, Jayanta; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    External Tank Cable Tray vibration data for three successive Space Shuttle flights were analyzed to assess response to buffet and the effect of removal of the Protuberance Air Loads (PAL) ramp. Waveform integration, spectral analysis, cross-correlation analysis and wavelet analysis were employed to estimate vibration modes and temporal development of vibration motion from a sparse array of accelerometers and an on-board system that acquired 16 channels of data for approximately the first 2 min of each flight. The flight data indicated that PAL ramp removal had minimal effect on the fluctuating loads on the cable tray. The measured vibration frequencies and modes agreed well with predicted structural response.

  16. Vibration Analysis of the Space Shuttle External Tank Cable Tray Flight Data with and without PAL Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, B. E.; Panda, B. E.; Sutliff, D. L.

    2008-01-01

    External Tank Cable Tray vibration data for three successive Space Shuttle flights were analyzed to assess response to buffet and the effect of removal of the Protuberance Air Loads (PAL) ramp. Waveform integration, spectral analysis, cross-correlation analysis and wavelet analysis were employed to estimate vibration modes and temporal development of vibration motion from a sparse array of accelerometers and an on-board system that acquired 16 channels of data for approximately the first two minutes of each flight. The flight data indicated that PAL ramp removal had minimal effect on the fluctuating loads on the cable tray. The measured vibration frequencies and modes agreed well with predicted structural response.

  17. Differences in physical activity according to mMRC grade in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Hayata, Atsushi; Minakata, Yoshiaki; Matsunaga, Kazuto; Nakanishi, Masanori; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is impaired from the early stages of COPD, is associated with a worsening of disease prognosis, and causes COPD patients to restrict their daily activities in order to avoid breathlessness. The development of a simple tool to estimate physical activity level (PAL) could be useful for the management of COPD. Objectives We investigated the differences in PA according to the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) grade in patients with COPD. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on stable outpatients with COPD. PA was measured for 2 weeks using a triaxial accelerometer, and dyspnea grade was evaluated in all patients using the mMRC scale. Results Ninety-eight patients were recruited. Significant differences in PA duration were observed at all intensities according to the mMRC grade. Despite treatment with controller medications, 59.2% of COPD patients had low PAL, which was <1.5 metabolic equivalents multiplied by hour per day. COPD patients with an mMRC grade ≥2, which was the most balanced cutoff point in the receiver operating characteristic curve, showed a higher reduction rate of PAL (80.0% at mMRC grade 2, 71.4% at mMRC grade 3, and 100% at mMRC grade 4). Conclusion PA differed according to the mMRC grade, and mMRC grade ≥2 could predict a low PAL. Therefore, assessment of breathlessness by the mMRC questionnaire would be useful to stratify the risks of reduced PA in COPD.

  18. Differences in physical activity according to mMRC grade in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Hayata, Atsushi; Minakata, Yoshiaki; Matsunaga, Kazuto; Nakanishi, Masanori; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is impaired from the early stages of COPD, is associated with a worsening of disease prognosis, and causes COPD patients to restrict their daily activities in order to avoid breathlessness. The development of a simple tool to estimate physical activity level (PAL) could be useful for the management of COPD. Objectives We investigated the differences in PA according to the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) grade in patients with COPD. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on stable outpatients with COPD. PA was measured for 2 weeks using a triaxial accelerometer, and dyspnea grade was evaluated in all patients using the mMRC scale. Results Ninety-eight patients were recruited. Significant differences in PA duration were observed at all intensities according to the mMRC grade. Despite treatment with controller medications, 59.2% of COPD patients had low PAL, which was <1.5 metabolic equivalents multiplied by hour per day. COPD patients with an mMRC grade ≥2, which was the most balanced cutoff point in the receiver operating characteristic curve, showed a higher reduction rate of PAL (80.0% at mMRC grade 2, 71.4% at mMRC grade 3, and 100% at mMRC grade 4). Conclusion PA differed according to the mMRC grade, and mMRC grade ≥2 could predict a low PAL. Therefore, assessment of breathlessness by the mMRC questionnaire would be useful to stratify the risks of reduced PA in COPD. PMID:27695306

  19. Structures of the human Pals1 PDZ domain with and without ligand suggest gated access of Crb to the PDZ peptide-binding groove

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, Marina E.; Fletcher, Georgina C.; O’Reilly, Nicola; Purkiss, Andrew G.; Thompson, Barry J.; McDonald, Neil Q.

    2015-03-01

    This study characterizes the interaction between the carboxy-terminal (ERLI) motif of the essential polarity protein Crb and the Pals1/Stardust PDZ-domain protein. Structures of human Pals1 PDZ with and without a Crb peptide are described, explaining the highly conserved nature of the ERLI motif and revealing a sterically blocked peptide-binding groove in the absence of ligand. Many components of epithelial polarity protein complexes possess PDZ domains that are required for protein interaction and recruitment to the apical plasma membrane. Apical localization of the Crumbs (Crb) transmembrane protein requires a PDZ-mediated interaction with Pals1 (protein-associated with Lin7, Stardust, MPP5), a member of the p55 family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs). This study describes the molecular interaction between the Crb carboxy-terminal motif (ERLI), which is required for Drosophila cell polarity, and the Pals1 PDZ domain using crystallography and fluorescence polarization. Only the last four Crb residues contribute to Pals1 PDZ-domain binding affinity, with specificity contributed by conserved charged interactions. Comparison of the Crb-bound Pals1 PDZ structure with an apo Pals1 structure reveals a key Phe side chain that gates access to the PDZ peptide-binding groove. Removal of this side chain enhances the binding affinity by more than fivefold, suggesting that access of Crb to Pals1 may be regulated by intradomain contacts or by protein–protein interaction.

  20. An elevated level of physical activity is associated with normal lipoprotein(a) levels in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Aparicio, Daniel; Rojas, Edward; Peñaranda, Lianny; Finol, Freddy; Acosta, Luis; Mengual, Edgardo; Rojas, Joselyn; Arráiz, Nailet; Toledo, Alexandra; Colmenares, Carlos; Urribarí, Jesica; Sanchez, Wireynis; Pineda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Dalia; Faria, Judith; Añez, Roberto; Cano, Raquel; Cano, Clímaco; Sorell, Luis; Velasco, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death worldwide. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in which concentrations are genetically regulated. Contradictory results have been published about physical activity influence on Lp(a) concentration. This research aimed to determine associations between different physical activity levels and Lp(a) concentration. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was made in 1340 randomly selected subjects (males = 598; females = 712) to whom a complete clinical history, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Lp(a) level determination were made. Statistical analysis was carried out to assess qualitative variables relationship by chi2 and differences between means by one-way analysis of variance considering a P value <0.05 as statistically significant. Results are shown as absolute frequencies, percentages, and mean +/- standard deviation according to case. Physical activity levels were ordinal classified as follows: low activity with 24.3% (n = 318), moderate activity with 35.0% (n = 458), and high physical activity with 40.8% (n = 534). Lp(a) concentration in the studied sample was 26.28 +/- 12.64 (IC: 25.59-26.96) mg/dL. Lp(a) concentration according to low, moderate, and high physical activity levels were 29.22 +/- 13.74, 26.27 +/- 12.91, and 24.53 +/- 11.35 mg/dL, respectively, observing statistically significant differences between low and moderate level (P = 0.004) and low and high level (P < 0.001). A strong association (chi2 = 9.771; P = 0.002) was observed among a high physical activity level and a normal concentration of Lp(a) (less than 30 mg/dL). A lifestyle characterized by high physical activity is associated with normal Lp(a) levels.

  1. State-Level Activities: A Plan for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamborn, Robert L.

    A variety of specific activities that have been successfully undertaken by the Council for American Private Education (CAPE) are suggested for state members. The activities are related to developing private school communications within states and developing working relationships with local, metropolitan, and state governments and their agencies.…

  2. Distant Interactions and Their Effects on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Background: It has been observed that physical activity patterns of health-related behavior are established in childhood and may continue into adulthood. Recent findings showing a relationship between the onset of chronic diseases and sedentary lifestyles support the importance of examining Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA). One…

  3. Playground Designs to Increase Physical Activity Levels during School Recess: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escalante, Yolanda; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Backx, Karianne; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    School recess provides a major opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. Various studies have described strategies to increase levels of physical activity. The purpose of this systematic review is therefore to examine the interventions proposed as forms of increasing children's physical activity levels during recess. A…

  4. Activity Level from Birth through First Grade: Stability or Inversion of Intensity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined two hypotheses regarding activity level: (1) early appearing stability; and (2) inversion of intensity. Measured behavioral intensity or activity level six times between the neonatal period and first grade. Results indicated that parent ratings supported activity level stability. Observations revealed that intense neonatal activity…

  5. Tight junction protein Par6 interacts with an evolutionarily conserved region in the amino terminus of PALS1/stardust.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Hurd, Toby W; Margolis, Ben

    2004-07-16

    Tight junctions are the structures in mammalian epithelial cells that separate the apical and basolateral membranes and may also be important in the establishment of cell polarity. Two evolutionarily conserved multiprotein complexes, Crumbs-PALS1 (Stardust)-PATJ and Cdc42-Par6-Par3-atypical protein kinase C, have been implicated in the assembly of tight junctions and in polarization of Drosophila melanogaster epithelia. These two complexes have been linked physically and functionally by an interaction between PALS1 and Par6. Here we identify an evolutionarily conserved region in the amino terminus of PALS1 as the Par6 binding site and identify valine and aspartic acid residues in this region as essential for interacting with the PDZ domain of Par6. We have also characterized, in more detail, the amino terminus of Drosophila Stardust and demonstrate that the interaction mechanism between Stardust and Drosophila Par6 is evolutionarily conserved. Par6 interferes with PATJ in binding PALS1, and these two interactions do not appear to function synergistically. Taken together, these results define the molecular mechanisms linking two conserved polarity complexes.

  6. Impact of a Parenting Program in a High-Risk, Multi-Ethnic Community: The PALS Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Stephen; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Futh, Annabel; Matias, Carla; Price, Jenny; Doolan, Moira

    2010-01-01

    Background: Parenting programs have been shown to work when delivered to motivated ethnic majority parents in demonstration projects, but comparatively little is known about their impact when delivered to high-risk, multi-ethnic populations by routine local services. Methods: The Primary Age Learning Skills (PALS) trial was a randomized controlled…

  7. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Process Manual for Program Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    This manual describes and evaluates the implementation of Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parent Affective Learning), Brevard Community College's special demonstration training project intended to return adults who have dropped out of the educational system back into the learning environment by bringing them to parenting classes…

  8. Multivariate statistical analysis of stream-sediment geochemistry in the Grazer Paläozoikum, Austria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, L.; Davis, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Austrian reconnaissance study of stream-sediment composition — more than 30000 clay-fraction samples collected over an area of 40000 km2 — is summarized in an atlas of regional maps that show the distributions of 35 elements. These maps, rich in information, reveal complicated patterns of element abundance that are difficult to compare on more than a small number of maps at one time. In such a study, multivariate procedures such as simultaneous R-Q mode components analysis may be helpful. They can compress a large number of variables into a much smaller number of independent linear combinations. These composite variables may be mapped and relationships sought between them and geological properties. As an example, R-Q mode components analysis is applied here to the Grazer Paläozoikum, a tectonic unit northeast of the city of Graz, which is composed of diverse lithologies and contains many mineral deposits.

  9. Spin probe dynamics in relation to free volume in crystalline organics from ESR and PALS: Cyclohexane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švajdlenková, H.; Zgardzinska, B.; Lukešová, M.; Bartoš, J.

    2016-01-01

    A joint external probe ESR and PALS study on cyclohexane (CHX) using stable free radical 2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) or ortho-positronium (o-Ps), respectively, is reported. The slow to fast transition of TEMPO occurs at the characteristic ESR temperature T50G coinciding with the solid to solid transition temperature, TSS. Moreover, o-Ps lifetime τ3(T50G) = 2.0 ns is close to an empirical rule τ3(T50G) = 2.17 ± 0.15 ns found for a series of amorphous glass-formers indicating that main transition of the TEMPO connected with the 'rigid' to plastic crystalline state transition in CHX occurs under the similar local free volume condition as in amorphous media.

  10. Electrophysiological characteristics according to activity level of myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seong Hun; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the differences in electrophysiological characteristics of normal muscles versus muscles with latent or active myofascial trigger points, and identified the neuromuscular physiological characteristics of muscles with active myofascial trigger points, thereby providing a quantitative evaluation of myofascial pain syndrome and clinical foundational data for its diagnosis. [Subjects] Ninety adults in their 20s participated in this study. Subjects were equally divided into three groups: the active myofascial trigger point group, the latent myofascial trigger point group, and the control group. [Methods] Maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), endurance, median frequency (MDF), and muscle fatigue index were measured in all subjects. [Results] No significant differences in MVIC or endurance were revealed among the three groups. However, the active trigger point group had significantly different MDF and muscle fatigue index compared with the control group. [Conclusion] Given that muscles with active myofascial trigger points had an increased MDF and suffered muscle fatigue more easily, increased recruitment of motor unit action potential of type II fibers was evident. Therefore, electrophysiological analysis of these myofascial trigger points can be applied to evaluate the effect of physical therapy and provide a quantitative diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome.

  11. Human hair neutron activation analysis: Analysis on population level, mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, L. I.; Kist, A. A.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is an outstanding analytical method having very wide applications in various fields. Analysis of human hair within last decades mostly based on neutron activation analysis is a very attractive illustration of the application of nuclear analytical techniques. Very interesting question is how the elemental composition differs in different areas or cities. In this connection the present paper gives average data and maps of various localities in the vicinity of drying-out Aral Sea and of various industrial cities in Central Asia.

  12. Online Activity Levels Are Related to Caffeine Dependency.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James G; Landhuis, C Erik; Shepherd, Daniel; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-05-01

    Online activity could serve in the future as behavioral markers of emotional states for computer systems (i.e., affective computing). Hence, this study considered relationships between self-reported stimulant use and online study patterns. Sixty-two undergraduate psychology students estimated their daily caffeine use, and this was related to study patterns as tracked by their use of a Learning Management System (Blackboard). Caffeine dependency was associated with less time spent online, lower rates of file access, and fewer online activities completed. Reduced breadth or depth of processing during work/study could be used as a behavioral marker of stimulant use. PMID:27096737

  13. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Preschool Grants for Children with Disabilities § 300.814 Other State-level... process required by section 615(e) of the Act), which may benefit children with disabilities younger than three or older than five as long as those services also benefit children with disabilities aged...

  14. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Preschool Grants for Children with Disabilities § 300.814 Other State-level... process required by section 615(e) of the Act), which may benefit children with disabilities younger than three or older than five as long as those services also benefit children with disabilities aged...

  15. NEU3 activity enhances EGFR activation without affecting EGFR expression and acts on its sialylation levels.

    PubMed

    Mozzi, Alessandra; Forcella, Matilde; Riva, Alice; Difrancesco, Carlotta; Molinari, Francesca; Martin, Vittoria; Papini, Nadia; Bernasconi, Barbara; Nonnis, Simona; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Mazzucchelli, Luca; Monti, Eugenio; Fusi, Paola; Frattini, Milo

    2015-08-01

    Several studies performed over the last decade have focused on the role of sialylation in the progression of cancer and, in particular, on the association between deregulation of sialidases and tumorigenic transformation. The plasma membrane-associated sialidase NEU3 is often deregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC), and it was shown that this enzyme co-immunoprecipitates in HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the molecular target of most recent monoclonal antibody-based therapies against CRC. To investigate the role of NEU3 sialidase on EGFR deregulation in CRC, we first collected data on NEU3 gene expression levels from a library of commercial colon cell lines, demonstrating that NEU3 transcription is upregulated in these cell lines. We also found EGFR to be hyperphosphorylated in all cell lines, with the exception of SW620 cells and the CCD841 normal intestinal cell line. By comparing the effects induced by overexpression of either the wild-type or the inactive mutant form of NEU3 on EGFR, we demonstrated that the active form of NEU3 enhanced receptor activation without affecting EGFR mRNA or protein expression. Moreover, through western blots and mass spectrometry analysis, we found that EGFR immunoprecipitated from cells overexpressing active NEU3, unlike the receptor from mock cells and cells overexpressing inactive NEU3, is desialylated. On the whole, our data demonstrate that, besides the already reported indirect EGFR activation through GM3, sialidase NEU3 could also play a role on EGFR activation through its desialylation. PMID:25922362

  16. Motoneuron and sensory neuron plasticity to varying neuromuscular activity levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihara, Akihiko; Roy, Roland R.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2002-01-01

    The size and phenotypic properties of the neural and muscular elements of the neuromuscular unit are matched under normal conditions. When subjected to chronic decreases or increases in neuromuscular activity, however, the adaptations in these properties are much more limited in the neural compared with the muscular elements.

  17. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  18. Physical Activity Enjoyment and Self-Efficacy As Predictors of Cancer Patients' Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Nadine; Wiskemann, Joachim; Sieverding, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can support cancer patients during medical treatment by reducing side-effects and increasing quality of life. However, PA levels mostly decline after diagnosis. Which factors can explain if patients are able to remain or even increase their PA level? Self-efficacy is an important cognitive factor that has been linked to cancer patients' PA across many studies. In contrast, affective factors such as PA enjoyment have rarely been examined. We compare the influence of self-efficacy and PA enjoyment on cancer patients' PA levels after completion of an exercise or stress-management intervention. Methods: Outpatient cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34%, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION study, a 4-week intervention (1 h counseling followed by weekly phone calls), with pre-test (T1), post-test (T2), and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise intervention (emphasizing self-regulatory strategies for behavior change) or to a stress management intervention (coping and relaxation techniques). Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA, a measure of maintenance self-efficacy (7 items, Cronbach's α = 0.88) and PA enjoyment (2 items, Cronbach's α = 0.89). Regression analyses were calculated with PA level (at T2 and T3) as dependent variable and relative weight analyses were conducted. The study was registered at clinicalTrials.gov (unique identifier:NCT01576107; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01576107?term=motivaction&rank=1). Results: Baseline self-efficacy and change in PA enjoyment significantly predicted cancer patients' PA level at T2 adjusting for baseline PA and type of intervention. Relative weight (RW) analysis revealed that PA enjoyment (baseline and change together) explained 34.3% of the dependent variable, self-efficacy (baseline and change) explained 38.4%. At follow

  19. FL Activities & Festivals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Hastings-on-Hudson, NY.

    A collection of student, class, and school foreign language activities suggests a variety of projects and describes three specific school efforts. The suggested activities include: (1) individual student efforts such as writing to pen-pals; (2) group activities such as a foreign language auction or sing-along; (3) group projects for the school…

  20. Ecological concerns following Superstorm Sandy: stressor level and recreational activity levels affect perceptions of ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy, including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, central Jersey), stressor level (power outages, high winds, flooding) and recreational rates. “Wildlife” and “fish” were the ecological concerns mentioned most often, while beaches and dunes were most often mentioned for environmental concerns. Television, radio, and web/internet were sources trusted for ecological information. The data indicate 1) stressor level was a better predictor of ratings of ecological services than geographical location, but days engaged in recreation contributed the most to variations in ratings, 2) ecological services were rated the highest by respondents with the highest stressor levels, and by those from the coast, compared to others, 3) Caucasians rated ecological services higher than all others, and 4) recreational rates were highest for coastal respondents, and ratings for ecological services increased with recreational rates. Only 20 % of respondents listed specific ecological services as one of their three most important environmental concerns. These data will be useful for increasing preparedness, enhancing educational strategies for shore protection, and providing managers and public policy makers with data essential to developing resiliency strategies. PMID:27011729

  1. "Peer-Assisted Learning"(PAL) in the Skills-Lab – an inventory at the medical faculties of the Federal Republic of Germany

    PubMed Central

    Blohm, M.; Lauter, J.; Branchereau, S.; Krautter, M.; Köhl-Hackert, N.; Jünger, J.; Herzog, W.; Nikendei, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over multiple years, the didactic concept of „peer-assisted learning“ (PAL) has proved to be valuable for medical education. Particularly in the field of the nowadays widely established Skills-Labs, the assignment of student tutors is both popular and effective. The aim of the underlying study is to assess the current status of PAL programs within German medical faculties’ Skills-Labs regarding their distribution, extent, structure and content based on a nation-wide survey. Methods: All 36 medical faculties in Germany were contacted and asked for their participation (via telephone or in written form) in the survey encompassing 16 central questions as to the structure of established PAL programs. Data obtained were subject to quantitative and qualitative analysis. Results: 35 of 36 (97.2%) medical faculties participated in the survey. A PAL program was shown to be established at 33 (91.7%) faculties. However, the results show distinct differences between different faculties with respect to extent and content of the PAL programs. Conclusions: Among German medical Skills-Labs, PAL has been established almost ubiquitously. Further studies on the conception and standardization of training concepts appear to be pivotal for the advancement of PAL in the context of Skills-Labs. PMID:25699102

  2. Characterization of the TolB-Pal trans-envelope complex from Xylella fastidiosa reveals a dynamic and coordinated protein expression profile during the biofilm development process.

    PubMed

    Santos, Clelton A; Janissen, Richard; Toledo, Marcelo A S; Beloti, Lilian L; Azzoni, Adriano R; Cotta, Monica A; Souza, Anete P

    2015-10-01

    The intriguing roles of the bacterial Tol-Pal trans-envelope protein complex range from maintenance of cell envelope integrity to potential participation in the process of cell division. In this study, we report the characterization of the XfTolB and XfPal proteins of the Tol-Pal complex of Xylella fastidiosa. X. fastidiosa is a major plant pathogen that forms biofilms inside xylem vessels, triggering the development of diseases in important cultivable plants around the word. Based on functional complementation experiments in Escherichia coli tolB and pal mutant strains, we confirmed the role of xftolB and xfpal in outer membrane integrity. In addition, we observed a dynamic and coordinated protein expression profile during the X. fastidiosa biofilm development process. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the low-resolution structure of the isolated XfTolB-XfPal complex in solution was solved for the first time. Finally, the localization of the XfTolB and XfPal polar ends was visualized via immunofluorescence labeling in vivo during bacterial cell growth. Our results highlight the major role of the components of the cell envelope, particularly the TolB-Pal complex, during the different phases of bacterial biofilm development. PMID:26049080

  3. Walking as a Contributor to Physical Activity in Healthy Older Adults: 2 Week Longitudinal Study Using Accelerometry and the Doubly Labeled Water Method

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Alberto G; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity is recommended to promote healthy aging. Defining the importance of activities such as walking in achieving higher levels of physical activity might provide indications for interventions. Objective To describe the importance of walking in achieving higher levels of physical activity in older adults. Methods The study included 42 healthy subjects aged between 51 and 84 years (mean body mass index 25.6 kg/m2 [SD 2.6]). Physical activity, walking, and nonwalking activity were monitored with an accelerometer for 2 weeks. Physical activity was quantified by accelerometer-derived activity counts. An algorithm based on template matching and signal power was developed to classify activity counts into nonwalking counts, short walk counts, and long walk counts. Additionally, in a subgroup of 31 subjects energy expenditure was measured using doubly labeled water to derive physical activity level (PAL). Results Subjects had a mean PAL of 1.84 (SD 0.19, range 1.43-2.36). About 20% of the activity time (21% [SD 8]) was spent walking, which accounted for about 40% of the total counts (43% [SD 11]). Short bouts composed 83% (SD 9) of walking time, providing 81% (SD 11) of walking counts. A stepwise regression model to predict PAL included nonwalking counts and short walk counts, explaining 58% of the variance of PAL (standard error of the estimate=0.12). Walking activities produced more counts per minute than nonwalking activities (P<.001). Long walks produced more counts per minute than short walks (P=.001). Nonwalking counts were independent of walking counts (r=−.05, P=.38). Conclusions Walking activities are a major contributor to physical activity in older adults. Walking activities occur at higher intensities than nonwalking activities, which might prevent individuals from engaging in more walking activity. Finally, subjects who engage in more walking activities do not tend to compensate by limiting nonwalking activities. Trial Registration

  4. Activity pattern and energy expenditure due to physical activity before and during pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Lof, Marie; Forsum, Elisabet

    2006-02-01

    Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late pregnancy. However, it is not known if this decrease is really caused by reductions in physical activity or if it is the result of decreases in energy expenditure/BMR (the so-called metabolic equivalent, MET) for many activities in late pregnancy. In the present study activity pattern, TEE and BMR were assessed in twenty-three healthy Swedish women before pregnancy as well as in gestational weeks 14 and 32. Activity pattern was assessed using a questionnaire and heart rate recording. TEE was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and BMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. When compared to the pre-pregnant value, there was little change in the PAL in gestational week 14 but it was significantly reduced in gestational week 32. Results obtained by means of the questionnaire and by heart rate recording showed that the activity pattern was largely unaffected by pregnancy. The findings support the following conclusion: in a population of well-nourished women where the activity pattern is maintained during pregnancy, the increase in BMR represents approximately the main part of the pregnancy-induced increase in TEE, at least until gestational week 32.

  5. Objectively-Measured Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education among Homeschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Sarah; Pope, Zachary; Zeng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Despite a growing population of homeschool children in the United States, little is known regarding their physical activity (PA) levels. Without access to physical education, homeschool children may engage in inadequate PA levels. The purpose of this study was to objectively examine the activity levels of homeschool students participating in a…

  6. The impact of sport and active recreation injuries on physical activity levels at 12 months post-injury.

    PubMed

    Andrew, N; Wolfe, R; Cameron, P; Richardson, M; Page, R; Bucknill, A; Gabbe, B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of serious sport and active recreation injury on 12-month physical activity levels. Adults admitted to hospital with sport and active recreation-related injuries, and captured by the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry were recruited to the study. Changes between preinjury and 12 month post-injury physical activity was assessed using the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Independent demographic, injury, and hospital variables were assessed for associations with changes in physical activity levels, using multivariate linear regression. A total of 324 patients were recruited, of which 98% were followed up at 12 months. Mean short IPAQ scores decreased from 7650 METS (95% CI: 7180, 8120) preinjury to 3880 METS; (95% CI: 3530, 4250) post-injury, independent of functional recovery. Education level and occupation group were the only variables independently associated with changes in physical activity levels post-injury. These results highlighted that sport and active recreation injuries lead to significant reductions in physical activity levels. Hence, the prevention of sport and active recreation injuries is important when considering promotion of activity at a population level.

  7. Liquid-Phase Adsorption of Phenol onto Activated Carbons Prepared with Different Activation Levels.

    PubMed

    Hsieh; Teng

    2000-10-01

    The influence of the pore size distribution of activated carbon on the adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions was explored. Activated carbons with different porous structures were prepared by gasifying a bituminous coal char to different extents of burn-off. The results of adsorption experiments show that the phenol capacity of these carbons does not proportionally increase with their BET surface area. This reflects the heterogeneity of the carbon surface for adsorption. The pore size distributions of these carbons, determined according to the Dubinin-Stoeckli equation, were found to vary with the burn-off level. By incorporating the distribution with the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation using an inverse proportionality between the micropore size and the adsorption energy, the isotherms for the adsorption of phenol onto these carbons can be well predicted. The present study has demonstrated that the heterogeneity of carbon surface for the phenol adsorption can be attributed to the different energies required for adsorption in different-size micropores. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10998301

  8. Making PALS through Partnerships: A Collaboration to Promote Physically Active Lafayette Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Michael A.; Richards, K. Andrew; Blankenship, Bonnie T.; Beck, Stephanie; Keith, Diane

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the physical education program at Sunnyside Middle School in Lafayette, Indiana, was in constant flux. Teacher turnover occurred annually, facilities were subpar, the curriculum was outdated, opportunities for professional development were rare, and most importantly, students lacked maximum movement opportunities in physical education. In…

  9. Activity of extracellular enzymes on the marine beach differing in the level of antropopressure.

    PubMed

    Perliński, P; Mudryk, Z J

    2016-03-01

    The level of activity of extracellular enzymes was determined on two transects characterised by different anthropic pressure on a sandy beach in Ustka, the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Generally, the level of activity of the studied enzymes was higher on the transect characterised by high anthropic pressure. The ranking order of the mean enzyme activity rates in the sand was as follows: lipase > phosphatase > aminopeptidase > β-glucosidase > α-glucosidase > chitinase. Each enzyme had its characteristic horizontal profile of activity. The levels of activity of the studied enzymes were slightly higher in the surface than subsurface sand layer. Extracellular enzymatic activities were strongly influenced by the season. PMID:26911592

  10. A sensitive and facile assay for the measurement of activated protein C activity levels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Orthner, C L; Kolen, B; Drohan, W N

    1993-05-01

    Activated protein C (APC) is a serine protease which plays an important role as a naturally occurring antithrombotic enzyme. APC, which is formed by thrombin-catalyzed limited proteolysis of the zymogen protein C, functions as an anticoagulant by proteolytic inactivation of the coagulation cofactors VIIIa and Va: APC is inhibited by several members of the serpin family as well a by alpha 2-macroglobulin. APC is being developed as a therapeutic for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis. We have developed an assay to quantify circulating levels of enzymatically active APC during its administration to patients, in healthy individuals, and in various disease states. This assay utilizes an EDTA-dependent anti-protein C monoclonal antibody (Mab) 7D7B10 to capture both APC and protein C from plasma, prepared from blood collected in an anticoagulant supplemented with the reversible inhibitor p-aminobenzamidine. Mab 7D7B10-derivatized agarose beads are added to the wells of a 96-well filtration plate, equilibrated with Tris-buffered saline, and incubated for 10 min with 200 microliters of plasma. After washing, APC and protein C are eluted from the immunosorbent beads with a calcium-containing buffer into the wells of a 96-well microtiter plate containing antithrombin III (ATIII) and heparin. The amidolytic activity of APC is then measured on a kinetic plate reader following the addition of L-pyroglutamyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (S-2366) substrate. The rate of substrate hydrolysis was proportional to APC concentration over a 200-fold concentration range (5.0 to 1,000 ng/ml) when measured continuously over a 15 to 30 min time period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Transketolase activity modulates glycerol-3-phosphate levels in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Vimala, A; Harinarayanan, R

    2016-04-01

    Transketolase activity provides an important link between the metabolic pathways of glycolysis and pentose phosphate shunt and catalyzes inter-conversions between pentose phosphates and glycolytic intermediates. It is widely conserved in life forms. A genetic screen for suppression of the growth defect of Escherichia coli tktA tktB mutant in LB medium revealed two mutations, one that rendered the glpK expression constitutive and another that inactivated deoB. Characterizing these mutations aided in uncovering the role of ribose-5-P (a transketolase substrate) as an inhibitor of glycerol assimilation and de novo glycerol-3-P synthesis. Using lacZ fusions, we show that ribose-5-P enhances GlpR-mediated repression of the glpFKX operon and inhibits glycerol assimilation. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) showed ribose-5-P made the DNA-GlpR complex less sensitive to the inducer glycerol-3-P. In addition to inhibition of glycerol assimilation, obstruction of ribose-5-P metabolism retards growth from glycerol-3-P limitation. Glucose helps to overcome this limitation through a mechanism involving catabolite repression. To our knowledge, this report is the first to show ribose-5-P can modulate glycerol-3-P concentration in the cell by regulation of glycerol assimilation as well as its de novo synthesis. This regulation could be prevalent in other organisms. PMID:26691989

  12. Influence of rare earth elements on metabolism and related enzyme activity and isozyme expression in Tetrastigma hemsleyanum cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Xin, Peng; Shuang-Lin, Zhou; Jun-Yao, He; Li, Ding

    2013-04-01

    The effects of rare earth elements (REEs) not only on cell growth and flavonoid accumulation of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum suspension cells but also on the isoenzyme patterns and activities of related enzymes were studied in this paper. There were no significant differences in enhancement of flavonoid accumulation in T. hemsleyanum suspension cells among La(3+), Ce(3+), and Nd(3+). Whereas their inductive effects on cell proliferation varied greatly. The most significant effects were achieved with 100 μM Ce(3+)and Nd(3+). Under treatment over a 25-day culture period, the maximal biomass levels reached 1.92- and 1.74-fold and the total flavonoid contents are 1.45- and 1.49-fold, than that of control, respectively. Catalase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) activity was activated significantly when the REE concentration range from 0 to 300 μM, whereas no significant changes were found in superoxide dismutase activity. Differences of esterase isozymes under REE treatment only laid in expression level, and there were no specific bands. The expression level of some POD isozymes strengthened with increasing concentration of REEs within the range of 50-200 μM. When REE concentration was higher than 300 μM, the expression of some POD isozymes was inhibited; meanwhile, some other new POD isozymes were induced. Our results also showed REEs did not directly influence PAL activity. So, we speculated that 50-200 μM REEs could activate some of antioxidant enzymes, adjust some isozymes expression, trigger the defense responses of T. hemsleyanum suspension cells, and stimulate flavonoid accumulation by inducing PAL activity.

  13. Compendium of Interdisciplinary Activities for an Introductory Course in Communication Systems at the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasko, David J.

    This compendium of interdisciplinary learning activities is designed to assist technology education instructors who are conducting an introductory secondary-level course in communication technology. The 12 activities, which are sequenced from introductory, low-cost activities to more advanced and more involved activities, deal with the following…

  14. Trace element and magnesium levels and superoxide dismutase activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, S; Kamanli, A; Akçil, E; Kavas, G O; Seçkin, B; Atay, M B

    1999-05-01

    It has been suggested that reactive oxygen metabolites and trace elements play some role in the etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is believed to exert an important protective role against oxygen toxicity. The aim of the study was to investigate the probable changes in the levels of trace elements and SOD activity in RA. Plasma and erythrocyte copper, zinc, and magnesium levels and erythrocyte SOD activity were measured in groups of controls and RA cases. Significantly increased erythrocyte SOD activity was found in RA patients in comparison with controls (p < 0.0001). A rise in erythrocyte Zn level (p < 0.0001) and plasma Cu level (p < 0.0001) and a decrease in erythrocyte Cu level (p < 0.05) and plasma Zn level (p < 0.05) were obtained in RA patients when compared to controls. Plasma and erythrocyte Mg levels of the RA patients showed slight and statistically insignificant reductions when compared to controls (p > 0.05). In RA patients, there were positive correlations between erythrocyte SOD activity and Mg level (r = 0.4345, p < 0.01) and between erythrocyte Zn level and plasma Cu level (r = 0.4132, p < 0.01). There were negative correlations between erythrocyte SOD activity and plasma Zn level (r = -0.3605, p < 0.05) and between plasma Zn level and erythrocyte Cu level (r = -0.4578, p < 0.01) in RA patients.

  15. Water-Vapor Sorption Processes in Nanoporous MgO-Al2O3 Ceramics: the PAL Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Klym, Halyna; Ingram, Adam; Shpotyuk, Oleh; Hadzaman, Ivan; Solntsev, Viacheslav

    2016-12-01

    The water-vapor sorption processes in nanoporous MgO-Al2O3 ceramics are studied with positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy employing positron trapping and positronium (Ps)-decaying modes. It is demonstrated that the longest-lived components in the four-term reconstructed PAL spectra with characteristic lifetimes near 2 and 60-70 ns can be, respectively, attributed to ortho-positronium (o-Ps) traps in nanopores with 0.3- and 1.5-1.8-nm radii. The first o-Ps decaying process includes "pick-off" annihilation in the "bubbles" of liquid water, while the second is based on o-Ps interaction with physisorbed water molecules at the walls of the pores. In addition, the water vapor modifies structural defects located at the grain boundaries in a vicinity of pores, this process being accompanied by void fragmentation during water adsorption and agglomeration during water desorption after drying.

  16. Differential effects of prenatal cocaine and retinoic acid on activity level throughout day and night.

    PubMed

    Church, M W; Tilak, J P

    1996-12-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure is associated with disrupted state control and lowered activity levels. Prenatal retinoic acid excess also influences activity levels in laboratory rats. Activity level is usually monitored during a brief period in young offspring. The effects of these drugs on pup activity levels throughout the day is unknown. There is also little information on the long-lasting effects of these teratogens in adult animals. We compared the daily activity of rats which were prenatally exposed to cocaine or retinoic acid (RA). Appropriate control groups were also used. The offspring were evaluated for activity levels in a neophobic situation and for a 22-h period in same-sex groups of 3 littermates. As both pups and adults, the cocaine groups were hypoactive while the RA group was hyperactive when first placed into the testing cage (neophobic situation). Similarly, during the remainder of the 22-h testing period, the pup and adult cocaine animals exhibited reduced activity levels while the RA animals exhibited elevated activity levels. Thus, prenatal cocaine and retinoic acid exposures affected offspring activity levels differently, both drugs have long-lasting neurobehavioral effects that persist into adulthood, and effects are influenced by time-of-day. Strain-dependent differences and mechanisms of action are discussed.

  17. Dietary thiamin level influences levels of its diphosphate form and thiamin-dependent enzymic activities of rat liver.

    PubMed

    Blair, P V; Kobayashi, R; Edwards, H M; Shay, N F; Baker, D H; Harris, R A

    1999-03-01

    This study was prompted by our incomplete understanding of the mechanism responsible for the clinical benefits of pharmacological doses of thiamin in some patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and the question of whether thiamin diphosphate (TDP), a potent inhibitor of the activity of the protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates the isolated branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex, affects the activity state of the complex. Rats were fed a chemically-defined diet containing graded levels of thiamin (0, 0.275, 0.55, 5.5, and 55 mg thiamin/kg diet). Maximal weight gain was attained over a 3-wk period only in rats fed diets with 5.5 and 55 mg thiamin/kg. Feeding rats the thiamin-free diet for just 2 d caused loss of nearly half of the TDP from liver mitochondria. Three more days caused over 70% loss, an additional 3 wk, over 90%. Starvation for 2 d had no effect, suggesting a mechanism for conservation of TDP in this nutritional state. Mitochondrial TDP was higher in rats fed pharmacological amounts of thiamin (55 mg thiamin/kg diet) than in rats fed adequate thiamin for maximal growth. Varying dietary thiamin had marked but opposite effects on the activities of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (alpha-KGDH) and BCKDH. Thiamin deficiency decreased alpha-KGDH activity, increased BCKDH activity, and increased the proportion of BCKDH in the active, dephosphorylated, state. Excess dietary thiamin had the opposite effects. TDP appears to be more tightly associated with alpha-KGDH than BCKDH in thiamin-deficient rats, perhaps denoting retention of alpha-KGDH activity at the expense of BCKDH activity. Thus, thiamin deficiency and excess cause large changes in mitochondrial TDP levels that have a major influence on the activities of the keto acid dehydrogenase complexes.

  18. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Reliability and validity of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Palliative care (FACIT-Pal) scale.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Bakitas, Marie; Hegel, Mark T; Hanscom, Brett; Hull, Jay; Ahles, Tim A

    2009-01-01

    The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) system provides a general, multidimensional measure of health-related quality of life (FACT-G) that can be augmented with disease or symptom-specific subscales. The 19-item palliative care subscale of the FACIT system has undergone little psychometric evaluation to date. The aim of this paper is to report the internal consistency, factor structure, and construct validity of the instrument using the palliative care subscale (FACIT-Pal). Two hundred fifty-six persons with advanced cancer in a randomized trial testing a palliative care psychoeducational intervention completed the 46-item FACIT-Pal at baseline. Internal consistency was greater than 0.74 for all subscales and the total score. Seventeen of the 19 palliative care subscale items loaded onto the four-factor solution of the established core measure (FACT-G). As hypothesized, total scores were correlated with measures of symptom intensity (r=-0.73, P<0.001) and depression (r=-0.75, P<0.001). The FACIT-Pal was able to discriminate between participants who died within three months of completing the baseline and participants who lived for at least one year after completing the baseline assessment (t=-4.05, P<0.001). The functional well-being subscale discriminated between participants who had a Karnofsky performance score of 70 and below and participants with a Karnofsky performance score of 80 and above (t=3.40, P<0.001). The findings support the internal consistency reliability and validity of the FACIT-Pal as a measure of health-related quality of life for persons with advanced cancer.

  20. Relationship of lipoprotein(a) levels to physical activity and family history of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Martín, S; Elosua, R; Covas, M I; Pavesi, M; Vila, J; Marrugat, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association of physical activity with serum lipoprotein(a) [La(a)] levels in individuals according to whether they had a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Lp(a) levels in 332 healthy Spanish men aged 20 to 60 years were measured. Physical activity and family history of CHD were assessed. RESULTS: For men with a family history of CHD, the odds ratio for Lp(a) levels above the median value was 0.13 (95% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.50) in very active men (energy expended in physical activity > 300 kcal/day) compared with active men (energy expended in physical activity < 300 kcal/day). CONCLUSIONS: Regular daily physical activity in individuals with a family history of CHD could be useful for controlling Lp(a) levels. PMID:10076490

  1. Effects of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium

    PubMed Central

    Cass, Cynthia L.; Peraldi, Antoine; Dowd, Patrick F.; Mottiar, Yaseen; Santoro, Nicholas; Karlen, Steven D.; Bukhman, Yury V.; Foster, Cliff E.; Thrower, Nick; Bruno, Laura C.; Moskvin, Oleg V.; Johnson, Eric T.; Willhoit, Megan E.; Phutane, Megha; Ralph, John; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Nicholson, Paul; Sedbrook, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway in plants synthesizes a variety of structural and defence compounds, and is an important target in efforts to reduce cell wall lignin for improved biomass conversion to biofuels. Little is known concerning the trade-offs in grasses when perturbing the function of the first gene family in the pathway, PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL). Therefore, PAL isoforms in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon were targeted, by RNA interference (RNAi), and large reductions (up to 85%) in stem tissue transcript abundance for two of the eight putative BdPAL genes were identified. The cell walls of stems of BdPAL-knockdown plants had reductions of 43% in lignin and 57% in cell wall-bound ferulate, and a nearly 2-fold increase in the amounts of polysaccharide-derived carbohydrates released by thermochemical and hydrolytic enzymic partial digestion. PAL-knockdown plants exhibited delayed development and reduced root growth, along with increased susceptibilities to the fungal pathogens Fusarium culmorum and Magnaporthe oryzae. Surprisingly, these plants generally had wild-type (WT) resistances to caterpillar herbivory, drought, and ultraviolet light. RNA sequencing analyses revealed that the expression of genes associated with stress responses including ethylene biosynthesis and signalling were significantly altered in PAL knocked-down plants under non-challenging conditions. These data reveal that, although an attenuation of the phenylpropanoid pathway increases carbohydrate availability for biofuel, it can adversely affect plant growth and disease resistance to fungal pathogens. The data identify notable differences between the stress responses of these monocot pal mutants versus Arabidopsis (a dicot) pal mutants and provide insights into the challenges that may arise when deploying phenylpropanoid pathway-altered bioenergy crops. PMID:26093023

  2. A touch-screen based paired-associates learning (PAL) task for the rat may provide a translatable pharmacological model of human cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Talpos, John C; Aerts, Nancy; Fellini, Laetitia; Steckler, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The use of touch-screen equipped operant boxes is an increasingly popular approach for modeling human cognition in the rodent. However little data is currently available describing the effects of pharmacological manipulations on touch-screen based tasks. Owing to the relationship between performance on visual-spatial paired associates learning (PAL) with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease one task of specific interest is the touch-screen PAL task developed for rodents (J. Talpos et al., 2009). The goal of this study was to profile a range of the commonly used pharmacological models of schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to investigate the sensitivity of PAL to these models of disease. Male Lister hooded rats were trained on PAL until stable performance was obtained. The effects of PCP, ketamine, amphetamine, LSD, scopolamine, and biperiden (recently proposed as an alternative to scopolamine) were then tested on animals performing the PAL task. While all compounds influenced responding during PAL, only PCP and amphetamine impaired performance with minimal changes in secondary measures (response latencies, trials completed). Surprisingly ketamine did not cause a change in percent correct despite being an NMDA antagonist, indicating that not all NMDA antagonists are equal in the touch-screen platform. This finding is in agreement with existing literature showing differential effects of NMDA antagonists on a wide variety of behavioral assays include tasks of attention, memory, and cognitive flexibility (Gilmour et al., 2009; Dix et al., 2010; Smith et al., 2011). Moreover biperiden showed no benefit when compared to scopolamine, highlighting the current lack of an effective pharmacological model of cholinergic dysfunction in the touch-screen platform. These data demonstrate that performance on PAL can be disrupted by common pharmacological disease models, suggesting that PAL may have the sensitivity to serve as a translational test for the study of cognition in

  3. Effects of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium.

    PubMed

    Cass, Cynthia L; Peraldi, Antoine; Dowd, Patrick F; Mottiar, Yaseen; Santoro, Nicholas; Karlen, Steven D; Bukhman, Yury V; Foster, Cliff E; Thrower, Nick; Bruno, Laura C; Moskvin, Oleg V; Johnson, Eric T; Willhoit, Megan E; Phutane, Megha; Ralph, John; Mansfield, Shawn D; Nicholson, Paul; Sedbrook, John C

    2015-07-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway in plants synthesizes a variety of structural and defence compounds, and is an important target in efforts to reduce cell wall lignin for improved biomass conversion to biofuels. Little is known concerning the trade-offs in grasses when perturbing the function of the first gene family in the pathway, PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL). Therefore, PAL isoforms in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon were targeted, by RNA interference (RNAi), and large reductions (up to 85%) in stem tissue transcript abundance for two of the eight putative BdPAL genes were identified. The cell walls of stems of BdPAL-knockdown plants had reductions of 43% in lignin and 57% in cell wall-bound ferulate, and a nearly 2-fold increase in the amounts of polysaccharide-derived carbohydrates released by thermochemical and hydrolytic enzymic partial digestion. PAL-knockdown plants exhibited delayed development and reduced root growth, along with increased susceptibilities to the fungal pathogens Fusarium culmorum and Magnaporthe oryzae. Surprisingly, these plants generally had wild-type (WT) resistances to caterpillar herbivory, drought, and ultraviolet light. RNA sequencing analyses revealed that the expression of genes associated with stress responses including ethylene biosynthesis and signalling were significantly altered in PAL knocked-down plants under non-challenging conditions. These data reveal that, although an attenuation of the phenylpropanoid pathway increases carbohydrate availability for biofuel, it can adversely affect plant growth and disease resistance to fungal pathogens. The data identify notable differences between the stress responses of these monocot pal mutants versus Arabidopsis (a dicot) pal mutants and provide insights into the challenges that may arise when deploying phenylpropanoid pathway-altered bioenergy crops. PMID:26093023

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CCD photometry of Pal 1 (Borissova+ 1995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borissova, J.; Spassova, N.

    1997-06-01

    A CCD photometry of the halo cluster Palomar 1 is presented in the Thuan-Gunn photometric system. The principal sequences of the color-magnitude diagrams are delineated in different spectral bands. The color- magnitude diagrams of the cluster show a well defined red horizontal branch, a subgiant branch and a main-sequence down to about two magnitudes below the main sequence turnoff. The giant branch is absent and the brightest stars are the horizontal branch stars. The age of the cluster determined by comparison with the isochrones of Bell & VandenBerg (1987ApJS...63..335B) is consistent with an age in the interval 12-14Gyr. A distance modulus of (m-M)g0=15.38+/-0.15 magnitude and E(g-r)=0.16 has been derived. An estimate of the cluster structural parameters such as core radius and concentration parameter gives rc=1.5pc and c=1.46. A mass estimate of 1.1x103M⊙ and a mass-to-light ratio of 1.79 have been obtained using King's (1966AJ.....71...64K) method. The morphology of color-magnitude diagrams allows Pal 1 to be interpreted as probably a globular cluster rather than an old open one. For a description of the uvgr photometric system, see e.g. (1 data file).

  5. Current status of the CXI beamline at the PAL-XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaehyun; Kim, Sangsoo; Nam, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Bongsoo; Ko, In Soo

    2016-09-01

    The Pohang Accelerator Laboratory's X-ray free electron laser (PAL-XFEL) is a research facility currently under construction. It will provide ultra-bright (1 × 1012 photons/pulse at 12.4 keV) and ultra-short (10 - 60 femtosecond) X-ray pulses. The CXI (coherent X-ray imaging) hard X-ray experimental station is designed to deliver brilliant hard X-rays (2 - 20.4 keV) and to measure diffraction signals with a forward scattering geometry. It will not only offer imaging studies of biological, chemical and physical samples with the "diffraction-before-destruction" scheme, but also be helpful in high-field hard X-ray physics and material science. The scientific programs are currently aimed at serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) and coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) for bio specimens, nano materials, etc. In this paper, we describe the beamline layout, beam diagnostics, X-ray focusing optics, sample environments and detector system at the CXI experimental hutch.

  6. [An operational remote sensing algorithm of land surface evapotranspiration based on NOAA PAL dataset].

    PubMed

    Hou, Ying-Yu; He, Yan-Bo; Wang, Jian-Lin; Tian, Guo-Liang

    2009-10-01

    Based on the time series 10-day composite NOAA Pathfinder AVHRR Land (PAL) dataset (8 km x 8 km), and by using land surface energy balance equation and "VI-Ts" (vegetation index-land surface temperature) method, a new algorithm of land surface evapotranspiration (ET) was constructed. This new algorithm did not need the support from meteorological observation data, and all of its parameters and variables were directly inversed or derived from remote sensing data. A widely accepted ET model of remote sensing, i. e., SEBS model, was chosen to validate the new algorithm. The validation test showed that both the ET and its seasonal variation trend estimated by SEBS model and our new algorithm accorded well, suggesting that the ET estimated from the new algorithm was reliable, being able to reflect the actual land surface ET. The new ET algorithm of remote sensing was practical and operational, which offered a new approach to study the spatiotemporal variation of ET in continental scale and global scale based on the long-term time series satellite remote sensing images.

  7. [An operational remote sensing algorithm of land surface evapotranspiration based on NOAA PAL dataset].

    PubMed

    Hou, Ying-Yu; He, Yan-Bo; Wang, Jian-Lin; Tian, Guo-Liang

    2009-10-01

    Based on the time series 10-day composite NOAA Pathfinder AVHRR Land (PAL) dataset (8 km x 8 km), and by using land surface energy balance equation and "VI-Ts" (vegetation index-land surface temperature) method, a new algorithm of land surface evapotranspiration (ET) was constructed. This new algorithm did not need the support from meteorological observation data, and all of its parameters and variables were directly inversed or derived from remote sensing data. A widely accepted ET model of remote sensing, i. e., SEBS model, was chosen to validate the new algorithm. The validation test showed that both the ET and its seasonal variation trend estimated by SEBS model and our new algorithm accorded well, suggesting that the ET estimated from the new algorithm was reliable, being able to reflect the actual land surface ET. The new ET algorithm of remote sensing was practical and operational, which offered a new approach to study the spatiotemporal variation of ET in continental scale and global scale based on the long-term time series satellite remote sensing images. PMID:20077694

  8. Structures of the human Pals1 PDZ domain with and without ligand suggest gated access of Crb to the PDZ peptide-binding groove.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Marina E; Fletcher, Georgina C; O'Reilly, Nicola; Purkiss, Andrew G; Thompson, Barry J; McDonald, Neil Q

    2015-03-01

    Many components of epithelial polarity protein complexes possess PDZ domains that are required for protein interaction and recruitment to the apical plasma membrane. Apical localization of the Crumbs (Crb) transmembrane protein requires a PDZ-mediated interaction with Pals1 (protein-associated with Lin7, Stardust, MPP5), a member of the p55 family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs). This study describes the molecular interaction between the Crb carboxy-terminal motif (ERLI), which is required for Drosophila cell polarity, and the Pals1 PDZ domain using crystallography and fluorescence polarization. Only the last four Crb residues contribute to Pals1 PDZ-domain binding affinity, with specificity contributed by conserved charged interactions. Comparison of the Crb-bound Pals1 PDZ structure with an apo Pals1 structure reveals a key Phe side chain that gates access to the PDZ peptide-binding groove. Removal of this side chain enhances the binding affinity by more than fivefold, suggesting that access of Crb to Pals1 may be regulated by intradomain contacts or by protein-protein interaction.

  9. Structures of the human Pals1 PDZ domain with and without ligand suggest gated access of Crb to the PDZ peptide-binding groove

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Marina E.; Fletcher, Georgina C.; O’Reilly, Nicola; Purkiss, Andrew G.; Thompson, Barry J.; McDonald, Neil Q.

    2015-01-01

    Many components of epithelial polarity protein complexes possess PDZ domains that are required for protein interaction and recruitment to the apical plasma membrane. Apical localization of the Crumbs (Crb) transmembrane protein requires a PDZ-mediated interaction with Pals1 (protein-associated with Lin7, Stardust, MPP5), a member of the p55 family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs). This study describes the molecular interaction between the Crb carboxy-terminal motif (ERLI), which is required for Drosophila cell polarity, and the Pals1 PDZ domain using crystallography and fluorescence polarization. Only the last four Crb residues contribute to Pals1 PDZ-domain binding affinity, with specificity contributed by conserved charged interactions. Comparison of the Crb-bound Pals1 PDZ structure with an apo Pals1 structure reveals a key Phe side chain that gates access to the PDZ peptide-binding groove. Removal of this side chain enhances the binding affinity by more than fivefold, suggesting that access of Crb to Pals1 may be regulated by intradomain contacts or by protein–protein interaction. PMID:25760605

  10. Correlation between the Physical Activity Level and Grade Point Averages of Faculty of Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imdat, Yarim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find the correlation that exists between physical activity level and grade point averages of faculty of education students. The subjects consist of 359 (172 females and 187 males) under graduate students To determine the physical activity levels of the students in this research, International Physical Activity…

  11. Differences in Physical Activity Levels between Urban and Rural School Children in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.; Bennett, Neville

    2004-01-01

    This study attempted to examine differences in physical activity levels between urban and rural primary school children. The sample consisted of 256 Greek-Cypriot children and their parents from two schools representing urban areas and three schools representing rural areas. Children's activity levels were assessed for 4 weekdays in the winter and…

  12. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  13. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age.

    PubMed

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Linek, Pawel; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = -0.581), Psychological Domain (r = -0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = -0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = -0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  14. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581), Psychological Domain (r = –0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  15. Pen and Pal are nucleotide-sugar dehydratases that convert UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-6-deoxy-D-GlcNAc-5,6-ene and then to UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-L-AltNAc for CMP-pseudaminic acid synthesis in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zi; Hwang, Soyoun; Ericson, Jaime; Bowler, Kyle; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2015-01-01

    CMP-pseudaminic acid is a precursor required for the O-glycosylation of flagellin in some pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, a process known to be critical in bacterial motility and infection. However, little is known about flagellin glycosylation in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we identified and functionally characterized an operon, named Bti_pse, in Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ATCC 35646, which encodes seven different enzymes that together convert UDP-GlcNAc to CMP-pseudaminic acid. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria complete this reaction with six enzymes. The first enzyme, which we named Pen, converts UDP-d-GlcNAc to an uncommon UDP-sugar, UDP-6-deoxy-D-GlcNAc-5,6-ene. Pen contains strongly bound NADP(+) and has distinct UDP-GlcNAc 4-oxidase, 5,6-dehydratase, and 4-reductase activities. The second enzyme, which we named Pal, converts UDP-6-deoxy-D-GlcNAc-5,6-ene to UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-L-AltNAc. Pal is NAD(+)-dependent and has distinct UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene 4-oxidase, 5,6-reductase, and 5-epimerase activities. We also show here using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry that in B. thuringiensis, the enzymatic product of Pen and Pal, UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-L-AltNAc, is converted to CMP-pseudaminic acid by the sequential activities of a C4″-transaminase (Pam), a 4-N-acetyltransferase (Pdi), a UDP-hydrolase (Phy), an enzyme (Ppa) that adds phosphoenolpyruvate to form pseudaminic acid, and finally a cytidylyltransferase that condenses CTP to generate CMP-pseudaminic acid. Knowledge of the distinct dehydratase-like enzymes Pen and Pal and their role in CMP-pseudaminic acid biosynthesis in Gram-positive bacteria provides a foundation to investigate the role of pseudaminic acid and flagellin glycosylation in Bacillus and their involvement in bacterial motility and pathogenicity.

  16. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  17. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  18. Levels and Characteristics of Physical Activity among a College Student Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kim; Staten, Ruth R.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Noland, Melody

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity levels and the relationships between activity and personal characteristics among a cohort of college students and to determine personal characteristics that predict activity. A sample of 1,700 undergraduates was mailed a survey that requested demographic information and assessed health…

  19. The influence of active seating on car passengers' perceived comfort and activity levels.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being.

  20. The influence of active seating on car passengers' perceived comfort and activity levels.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being. PMID:25479990

  1. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z.E.

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m2/s) for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 μmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin) was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM) under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH) than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe) under this condition. PMID:22754297

  2. Distribution and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Gebhard, Christiane; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Miller, Ingrid; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and metastasis dissemination. We investigated whether the contrasting metastatic behavior of feline and canine osteosarcoma is related to levels and activities of MMP2 and MMP9. Zymography and immunohistochemistry were used to determine expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma. Using immunohistochemistry, increased MMP9 levels were identified in most canine osteosarcomas, whereas cat samples more often displayed moderate levels. High levels of pro-MMP9, pro-MMP2, and active MMP2 were detected by gelatin zymography in both species, with significantly higher values for active MMP2 in canine osteosarcoma. These findings indicate that MMP2 is probably involved in canine and feline osteosarcoma and their expression and activity could be associated with the different metastatic behavior of canine and feline osteosarcoma. PMID:26733734

  3. Physical activity parenting: A systematic review of questionnaires and their associations with child activity levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insufficient physical activity (PA) is considered a critical contributor to childhood overweight. Parents are a key in influencing their child's PA through various mechanisms of PA parenting, including support, restriction of PA, and facilitation of enrollment in PA classes or activities. However, s...

  4. Comparison of physical activity energy expenditure in Japanese adolescents assessed by EW4800P triaxial accelerometry and the doubly labelled water method.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Kaneko, Kayoko; Koizumi, Kayo; Ito, Chinatsu

    2013-10-01

    The present study compared the accuracy of triaxial accelerometry and the doubly labelled water (DLW) method for measuring physical activity (PA) in Japanese adolescents. A total of sixty adolescents aged 12-15 years were analysed. The total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured over 7 d by the DLW method and with an EW4800P triaxial accelerometer (Panasonic Corporation). The measured (RMR)(m) and predicted RMR (RMR(p)) were 5·7 (SD 0·9) and 6·0 (SD 1·0) MJ/d, respectively. TEE measured by the DLW method and accelerometry using RMR(m) or RMR(p) were 11·0 (SD 2·6), 10·3 (SD 1·9), and 10·7 (SD 2·1) MJ/d, respectively. The PA levels (PAL) measured by the DLW method using RMR(m) or RMR(p) were 1·97 (SD 0·31) and 1·94 (SD 0·31) in subjects who exercised, and 1·85 (SD 0·27) and 1·74 (SD 0·29) in subjects who did not exercise. The percentage of body fat correlated significantly with the percentage difference between RMR(m) v. RMR(p), TEE, PA energy expenditure (PAEE) and PAL using RMR(p), and PAL using RMR(m) assessed by the DLW method and accelerometry. The present data showed that while accelerometry estimated TEE accurately, it did not provide the precise measurement of PAEE and PAL. The error in accelerometry was attributed to the prediction error of RMR and assessment in exercise. PMID:23544366

  5. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  6. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-06-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=-0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=-0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index.

  7. National level promotion of physical activity: results from England's ACTIVE for LIFE campaign

    PubMed Central

    Hillsdon, M; Cavill, N; Nanchahal, K; Diamond, A; White, I

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To assess the impact of a national campaign on awareness of the campaign, change in knowledge of physical activity recommendations and self reported physical activity.
DESIGN—three year prospective longitudinal survey using a multi-stage, cluster random probability design to select participants.
SETTING—England.
PARTICIPANTS—A nationally representative sample of 3189 adults aged 16-74 years.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Awareness of the advertising element of the campaign, changes in knowledge of physical activity recommendations for health and self reported physical activity.
RESULTS—38% of participants were aware of the main advertising images, assessed six to eight months after the main television advertisement. The proportion of participants knowledgeable about moderate physical activity recommendations increased by 3.0% (95% CI: 1.4%, 4.5%) between waves 1 and 2 and 3.7% (95% CI: 2.1%, 5.3%) between waves 1 and 3. The change in proportion of active people between baseline and waves 1 and 2 was
−0.02 (95% CI: −2.0 to +1.7) and between waves 1 and 3 was −9.8 (−7.9 to −11.7).
CONCLUSION—The proportion of participants who were knowledgeable about the new recommendations, increased significantly after the campaign. There was however, no significant difference in knowledge by awareness of the main campaign advertisement. There is no evidence that ACTIVE for LIFE improved physical activity, either overall or in any subgroup.


Keywords: exercise; mass media; follow up studies; health promotion; physical activity PMID:11553661

  8. Endogenous testosterone levels are associated with neural activity in men with schizophrenia during facial emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ellen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Catts, Stanley V; Vercammen, Ans; White, Christopher; Gur, Raquel E; Weickert, Thomas W

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that testosterone may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia given that testosterone has been linked to cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Here, we determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels are related to neural activity in affective processing circuitry in men with schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes as 32 healthy controls and 26 people with schizophrenia performed a facial emotion identification task. Whole brain analyses were performed to determine regions of differential activity between groups during processing of angry versus non-threatening faces. A follow-up ROI analysis using a regression model in a subset of 16 healthy men and 16 men with schizophrenia was used to determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels were related to neural activity. Healthy controls displayed significantly greater activation than people with schizophrenia in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). There was no significant difference in circulating testosterone levels between healthy men and men with schizophrenia. Regression analyses between activation in the IFG and circulating testosterone levels revealed a significant positive correlation in men with schizophrenia (r=.63, p=.01) and no significant relationship in healthy men. This study provides the first evidence that circulating serum testosterone levels are related to IFG activation during emotion face processing in men with schizophrenia but not in healthy men, which suggests that testosterone levels modulate neural processes relevant to facial emotion processing that may interfere with social functioning in men with schizophrenia.

  9. Measurements of activation induced by environmental neutrons using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martínez Canet, M J; Hult, M; Köhler, M; Johnston, P N

    2000-03-01

    The flux of environmental neutrons is being studied by activation of metal discs of selected elements. Near the earth's surface the total neutron flux is in the order of 10(-2) cm(-2)s(-1), which gives induced activities of a few mBq in the discs. Initial results from this technique, involving activation at ground level for several materials (W, Au, Ta, In, Re, Sm, Dy and Mn) and ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory located at 500 m.w.e., are presented. Diffusion of environmental neutrons in water is also measured by activation of gold at different depths.

  10. Measurement error of self-reported physical activity levels in New York City: assessment and correction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungwoo; Wyker, Brett; Bartley, Katherine; Eisenhower, Donna

    2015-05-01

    Because it is difficult to objectively measure population-level physical activity levels, self-reported measures have been used as a surveillance tool. However, little is known about their validity in populations living in dense urban areas. We aimed to assess the validity of self-reported physical activity data against accelerometer-based measurements among adults living in New York City and to apply a practical tool to adjust for measurement error in complex sample data using a regression calibration method. We used 2 components of data: 1) dual-frame random digit dialing telephone survey data from 3,806 adults in 2010-2011 and 2) accelerometer data from a subsample of 679 survey participants. Self-reported physical activity levels were measured using a version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, whereas data on weekly moderate-equivalent minutes of activity were collected using accelerometers. Two self-reported health measures (obesity and diabetes) were included as outcomes. Participants with higher accelerometer values were more likely to underreport the actual levels. (Accelerometer values were considered to be the reference values.) After correcting for measurement errors, we found that associations between outcomes and physical activity levels were substantially deattenuated. Despite difficulties in accurately monitoring physical activity levels in dense urban areas using self-reported data, our findings show the importance of performing a well-designed validation study because it allows for understanding and correcting measurement errors.

  11. Measurement Error of Self-Reported Physical Activity Levels in New York City: Assessment and Correction

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sungwoo; Wyker, Brett; Bartley, Katherine; Eisenhower, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Because it is difficult to objectively measure population-level physical activity levels, self-reported measures have been used as a surveillance tool. However, little is known about their validity in populations living in dense urban areas. We aimed to assess the validity of self-reported physical activity data against accelerometer-based measurements among adults living in New York City and to apply a practical tool to adjust for measurement error in complex sample data using a regression calibration method. We used 2 components of data: 1) dual-frame random digit dialing telephone survey data from 3,806 adults in 2010–2011 and 2) accelerometer data from a subsample of 679 survey participants. Self-reported physical activity levels were measured using a version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, whereas data on weekly moderate-equivalent minutes of activity were collected using accelerometers. Two self-reported health measures (obesity and diabetes) were included as outcomes. Participants with higher accelerometer values were more likely to underreport the actual levels. (Accelerometer values were considered to be the reference values.) After correcting for measurement errors, we found that associations between outcomes and physical activity levels were substantially deattenuated. Despite difficulties in accurately monitoring physical activity levels in dense urban areas using self-reported data, our findings show the importance of performing a well-designed validation study because it allows for understanding and correcting measurement errors. PMID:25855646

  12. Level of Physical Activity in Population Aged 16 to 65 Years in Rural Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Aslesh, O P; Mayamol, P; Suma, R K; Usha, K; Sheeba, G; Jayasree, A K

    2016-01-01

    Kerala is a state in India with a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In order to control these diseases, the prevalence of modifiable risk factors such as low physical activity need to be studied. For this a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of physical activity among 240 residents aged between 15 and 65 years in Kulappuram, a village in north Kerala. Low level of physical activity was seen in 65.8% of the study participants. The average duration of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per day in different domains such as work, travel, and recreation were 40.5, 10.1, and 12.7 minutes, respectively. The average duration of sedentary activities was 284.3 minutes per day. The level of physical activity was more among those engaged in unskilled work (adjusted odds ratio = 4.32; confidence interval = 1.38-13.51) and unmarried persons (adjusted odds ratio = 3.65; confidence interval = 1.25-10.65). No statistically significant difference in physical activity level was seen in different age, education, religious, and economic categories. The study concludes that the physical activity level was low in the study population.

  13. Clinical disease activity and acute phase reactant levels are discordant among patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: acute phase reactant levels contribute separately to predicting outcome at one year

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Clinical trials of new treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) typically require subjects to have an elevated acute phase reactant (APR), in addition to tender and swollen joints. However, despite the elevation of individual components of the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) (tender and swollen joint counts and patient and physician global assessment), some patients with active RA may have normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and/or C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and thus fail to meet entry criteria for clinical trials. We assessed the relationship between CDAI and APRs in the Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America (CORRONA) registry by comparing baseline characteristics and one-year clinical outcomes of patients with active RA, grouped by baseline APR levels. Methods This was an observational study of 9,135 RA patients who had both ESR and CRP drawn and a visit at which CDAI was >2.8 (not in remission). Results Of 9,135 patients with active RA, 58% had neither elevated ESR nor CRP; only 16% had both elevated ESR and CRP and 26% had either ESR or CRP elevated. Among the 4,228 patients who had a one-year follow-up visit, both baseline and one-year follow-up modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (mHAQ) and CDAI scores were lowest for patients with active RA but with neither APR elevated; both mHAQ and CDAI scores increased sequentially with the increase in number of elevated APR levels at baseline. Each individual component of the CDAI followed the same trend, both at baseline and at one-year follow-up. The magnitude of improvement in both CDAI and mHAQ scores at one year was associated positively with the number of APRs elevated at baseline. Conclusions In a large United States registry of RA patients, APR levels often do not correlate with disease activity as measured by joint counts and global assessments. These data strongly suggest that it is appropriate to obtain both ESR and CRP from RA patients at the initial

  14. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  15. Association between physical activity level and consumption of fruit and vegetables among adolescents in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between low levels of physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 2,057 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. We analyzed the level of physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables by standardized and validated questionnaires. The control variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, maternal education, alcohol consumption and smoking. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of physical activity was 81.9%; the inadequate consumption of fruits ocurred in 79.1% and the inadequate consumption of vegetables in 90.6%. Adolescents who consumed few fruits daily had an increase in 40% of chance of being insufficiently active and, for those who consumed few vegetable's the likelihood of being insufficiently active was 50% higher, compared to those who had adequate intake of these foods. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of physical activity were associated with inadequate fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents in a city in northeastern Brazil. These findings suggest that insufficiently active adolescents have other unhealthy behaviors that may increase the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. PMID:25887930

  16. Low level of self-reported physical activity in ambulatory patients new to dialysis.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Kirsten L; Chertow, Glenn M; Kutner, Nancy G; Dalrymple, Lorien S; Grimes, Barbara A; Kaysen, George A

    2010-12-01

    Physical inactivity contributes to the frailty and the decline in function that develops over time among patients with end-stage renal disease. We assessed physical activity among 1547 ambulatory patients new to dialysis in the United States Renal Data System Comprehensive Dialysis Study. We used a self-reporting Human Activity Profile that included Maximal and Adjusted Activity Scores and compared results to established norms by age and gender. Physical activity was found to be extremely low with scores for all age and gender categories below the 5th percentile of healthy individuals and 95% of patients had scores consonant with low fitness. Older age, female gender, diabetes, atherosclerotic disease, and a low level of education were associated with lower activity scores assessed by univariate and multivariable linear regression analysis. Higher serum albumin, creatinine, and lower body mass index, but not hemoglobin levels, were associated with greater physical activity. By multivariable analysis, patients on hemodialysis using a catheter reported lower levels of physical activity compared to those on peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis using an arteriovenous fistula, or with a graft. Lower Maximal and Adjusted Activity Scores were associated with poor physical function and mental health. Hence, physical activity is distressingly low among patients new to dialysis. Thus, strategies to enhance activity in these patients should be explored.

  17. Effectiveness of the Sport Education Fitness Model on Fitness Levels, Knowledge, and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hansen, Andrew; Scarboro, Shot; Melnic, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in fitness levels, content knowledge, physical activity levels, and participants' perceptions following the implementation of the sport education fitness model (SEFM) at a high school. Thirty-two high school students participated in 20 lessons using the SEFM. Aerobic capacity, muscular…

  18. Presenting Theoretical Ideas Prior to Inquiry Activities Fosters Theory-Level Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wecker, Christof; Rachel, Alexander; Heran-Dörr, Eva; Waltner, Christine; Wiesner, Hartmut; Fischer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In the course of inquiry activities similar to those of real scientists, learners are supposed to develop knowledge both on the level of observable phenomena and on the level of explanatory theories. However, some theories involve theoretical entities (e.g., "Weiss domains") that cannot be observed directly and therefore may be hard to…

  19. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... at the national level. 621.40 Section 621.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN... activities at the national level. (a) Policy development in water and related land resources is...

  20. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... at the national level. 621.40 Section 621.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN... activities at the national level. (a) Policy development in water and related land resources is...

  1. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... at the national level. 621.40 Section 621.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN... activities at the national level. (a) Policy development in water and related land resources is...

  2. Children's Physical Activity Levels during Indoor Recess Dance Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Koufoudakis, Ryann; Beighle, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children's physical activity (PA) levels remain low, and schools are being asked to assume a leadership role in PA promotion. Research suggests outdoor recess contributes to children's overall PA levels. However, similar research is not available for indoor recess, which occurs frequently due to a variety of factors. The…

  3. Abscisic acid induced changes in production of primary and secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity, antioxidant capability, antioxidant enzymes and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2-, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX)] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA) application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM) for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2-, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC) were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05) and O2- (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05). This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals. PMID:23884129

  4. Feasibility and Effects of Short Activity Breaks for Increasing Preschool-Age Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog; Puleo, Elaine; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We examined the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA) implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on preschoolers PA. Methods: Preschools were randomized to SBS-PA (centers, N = 5; participants, N = 141) or unstructured free playtime (UPA) (centers, N = 5; participants,…

  5. The Effect of Gambling Activities on Happiness Levels of Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Waterman, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results…

  6. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  7. The Physical Activity Levels of Preschool-Aged Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This systematic review presents research on the physical activity levels of preschool-aged children (aged 2-6 years). Thirty-nine primary studies (published 1986-2007) representing a total of 10,316 participants (5236 male and 5080 female), from seven countries are described and the physical activity behaviors of this population are considered in…

  8. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in relation to four levels of daily geomagnetic and extreme yearly solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoupel, E.; Goldenfeld, M.; Shimshoni, M.; Siegel, R.

    1993-03-01

    The link between geomagnetic field activity (GMA), solar activity and intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy individuals was investigated. The IOP of 485 patients (970 eyes) was recorded over three nonconsecutive years (1979, 1986, 1989) which were characterized by maximal solar activity (1979, 1989) or minimal solar activity (1986). The measurements were also correlated with four categories of GMA activity: quiet (level I0), unsettled (II0), active (III0), and stormy (IV0). Participants were also differentiated by age and sex. We found that IOP was lowest on days of level IV0 (stormy) GMA. The drop in IOP concomitant with a decrease in GMA level was more significant during periods of low solar activity and in persons over 65 years of age. There was a trend towards higher IOP values on days of levels II0 and IV0 GMA in years of high solar activity. Differences between the sexes and among individuals younger than 65 years were not significant. Our results show an interesting aspect of environmental influence on the healthy population.

  9. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in relation to four levels of daily geomagnetic and extreme yearly solar activity.

    PubMed

    Stoupel, E; Goldenfeld, M; Shimshoni, M; Siegel, R

    1993-02-01

    The link between geomagnetic field activity (GMA), solar activity and intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy individuals was investigated. The IOP of 485 patients (970 eyes) was recorded over three nonconsecutive years (1979, 1986, 1989) which were characterized by maximal solar activity (1979, 1989) or minimal solar activity (1986). The measurements were also correlated with four categories of GMA activity: quiet (level I0), unsettled (II0), active (III0), and stormy (IV0). Participants were also differentiated by age and sex. We found that IOP was lowest on days of level IV0 (stromy) GMA. The drop in IOP concomitant with a decrease in GMA level was more significant during periods of low solar activity and in persons over 65 years of age. There was a trend towards higher IOP values on days of levels II0 and IV0 GMA in years of high solar activity. Differences between the sexes and among individuals younger than 65 years were not significant. Our results show an interesting aspect of environmental influence on the healthy population. PMID:8468099

  10. Taking a New Look at the Physical Activity Program on the College and University Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPoint, James D., Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Physical activity programs at the college level should aim toward: (1) maintenance of physical fitness; (2) refinement of skills; (3) introduction to new skills; and (4) development of healthy lifestyles. Innovative activity courses such as aerobic dance, weight lifting, and adventure programs are also being offered to reach these goals. (JN)

  11. Individual and School-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Physical Activity in Australian School children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lucy; Maher, Carol; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Olds, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: We attempted to determine whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in 9- to 11-year-old Australian children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and whether school facilities or policies supporting physical activity were associated with school-level socioeconomic status (SES) and MVPA. Methods: Children (N = 528) from 26…

  12. Self-Rated Activity Levels and Longevity: Evidence from a 20 Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullee, Mark A.; Coleman, Peter G.; Briggs, Roger S. J.; Stevenson, James E.; Turnbull, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The study reports on factors predicting the longevity of 328 people over the age of 65 drawn from an English city and followed over 20 years. Both the reported activities score and the individual's comparative evaluation of their own level of activity independently reduced the risk of death, even when health and cognitive status were taken into…

  13. [On mechanism of functional changes in the organism of teenagers at different levels of locomotor activity].

    PubMed

    Mindubaeva, F A; Shukurov, F A; Salikhova, Y Y; Niyazova, Y I; Ramazanov, A K

    2015-02-01

    Comprehensive study of the cardiovascular system functional condition of 15-16 teenagers while in normal daily locomotor activity and in the mode of regular moderate physical activity was performed. The features of cerebral circulation and myocardium functional condition of teenagers are studied depending on initial tonus of the autonomic nervous system and locomotor activity level in the process of continuous step physical activity on tredmil. The condition of regulatory mechanisms, providing adaptation of teenagers in the conditions of modern school was studied. Research results showed, that elasticity of cerebrum arterial vessels, veins tone, venous outflow for teenagers not having regular physical activity, considerably mionectic. More adequate reaction of coronary blood flow in the process of physical activity is educed for the trained teenagers with the balanced autonomic regulation of cardiac rhythm. This group showed a higher level and regulation quality of organism reserve possibilities.

  14. Dispersion and interaction of graphene oxide in amorphous and semi-crystalline nano-composites: a PALS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Frans H. J.; Arza, Carlos R.

    2015-06-01

    The influence of dispersion and interaction of Graphene Oxide (GO) in semicrystalline Polyhydroxy butyrate (PHB) and glassy amorphous Poly(tBP-oda) is explored by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). The ortho-Positronium lifetimes which represent the main free volume hole size of both polymers are mainly affected by the large differences in internal stresses built up by the shrinkage of the polymers during their preparation, restricted by the platelet structure of GO. The ortho-Positronium intensities, which represent the ortho-Positronium formation probabilities, suggest a strong dependency of on the dispersion of the nano-particles and their aspect ratio.

  15. Association between Physical Activity Levels and Physical Symptoms or Illness among University Students in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sang-Hyun; Um, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Cheol Min; Kwon, Hyuktae

    2016-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity can cause various physical symptoms or illness. However, few studies on this association have been conducted in young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity levels and physical symptoms or illness in young adults. Methods Subjects were university students who participated in a web-based self-administered questionnaire in a university in Seoul in 2013. We obtained information on physical activities and physical symptoms or illness in the past year. Independent variables were defined as symptoms or illness which were associated with decreased academic performance. Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of each physical symptom or illness with adjustment for covariables. Results A total of 2,201 participants were included in the study. The main physical symptoms or illness among participants were severe fatigue (64.2%), muscle or joint pain (46.3%), gastrointestinal problems (43.1%), headache or dizziness (38.6%), frequent colds (35.1%), and sleep problems (33.3%). Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with high ORs of physical symptoms or illness. Multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) in the lowest vs. highest tertile of physical activity were 1.45 (1.14–1.83) for severe fatigue, 1.35 (1.07–1.70) for frequent colds, and 1.29 (1.02–1.63) for headaches or dizziness. We also found that lower levels of physical activity were associated with more physical symptoms or bouts of illness. Conclusion Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with various physical symptoms or illness among university students. Also, individuals in the lower levels of physical activity were more likely to experience more physical symptoms or bouts of illness than those in the highest tertile of physical activity.

  16. Association between Physical Activity Levels and Physical Symptoms or Illness among University Students in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sang-Hyun; Um, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Cheol Min; Kwon, Hyuktae

    2016-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity can cause various physical symptoms or illness. However, few studies on this association have been conducted in young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity levels and physical symptoms or illness in young adults. Methods Subjects were university students who participated in a web-based self-administered questionnaire in a university in Seoul in 2013. We obtained information on physical activities and physical symptoms or illness in the past year. Independent variables were defined as symptoms or illness which were associated with decreased academic performance. Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of each physical symptom or illness with adjustment for covariables. Results A total of 2,201 participants were included in the study. The main physical symptoms or illness among participants were severe fatigue (64.2%), muscle or joint pain (46.3%), gastrointestinal problems (43.1%), headache or dizziness (38.6%), frequent colds (35.1%), and sleep problems (33.3%). Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with high ORs of physical symptoms or illness. Multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) in the lowest vs. highest tertile of physical activity were 1.45 (1.14–1.83) for severe fatigue, 1.35 (1.07–1.70) for frequent colds, and 1.29 (1.02–1.63) for headaches or dizziness. We also found that lower levels of physical activity were associated with more physical symptoms or bouts of illness. Conclusion Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with various physical symptoms or illness among university students. Also, individuals in the lower levels of physical activity were more likely to experience more physical symptoms or bouts of illness than those in the highest tertile of physical activity. PMID:27688861

  17. Restricting opportunities to be active during school time: do children compensate by increasing physical activity levels after school?

    PubMed

    Dale, D; Corbin, C B; Dale, K S

    2000-09-01

    Opportunities for children to be physically active during school time are sparse and becoming increasingly so. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if children would compensate for school days (9 a.m.-3 p.m.) of restricted physical activity opportunities by increasing activity levels after school (3 p.m.-7:30 p.m.). Third and fourth grade children (N = 76) each wore a CSA accelerometer for 4 nonconsecutive days. Two days were categorized as active--during school, all children participated in outdoor recess and physical education class. Two days were categorized as restricted--all children spent their recess time indoors at a computer terminal, and no physical education class was scheduled. Dependent t tests revealed that children did not compensate for a sedentary school day by increasing their levels of physical activity after school. In fact, average movement counts per minute were higher in the 3 p.m.-7:30 p.m. period following the active day (525 counts.min-1) versus the restricted day (186 counts.min-1). These findings suggest cause for concern if children's opportunities to be active within school time are limited. Several reasons are given as to why children did not compensate or "make up" for the physical activity opportunities missed during the restricted school day.

  18. Level and length of cyclic solar activity during the Maunder minimum as deduced from the active-day statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, J. M.; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Usoskin, I. G.; Carrasco, V. M. S.; Gallego, M. C.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: The Maunder minimum (MM) of greatly reduced solar activity took place in 1645-1715, but the exact level of sunspot activity is uncertain because it is based, to a large extent, on historical generic statements of the absence of spots on the Sun. Using a conservative approach, we aim to assess the level and length of solar cycle during the MM on the basis of direct historical records by astronomers of that time. Methods: A database of the active and inactive days (days with and without recorded sunspots on the solar disc) is constructed for three models of different levels of conservatism (loose, optimum, and strict models) regarding generic no-spot records. We used the active day fraction to estimate the group sunspot number during the MM. Results: A clear cyclic variability is found throughout the MM with peaks at around 1655-1657, 1675, 1684, 1705, and possibly 1666, with the active-day fraction not exceeding 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 during the core MM, for the three models. Estimated sunspot numbers are found to be very low in accordance with a grand minimum of solar activity. Conclusions: For the core MM (1650-1700), we have found that (1) A large portion of no-spot records, which correspond to the solar meridian observations, may be unreliable in the conventional database. (2) The active-day fraction remained low (below 0.3-0.4) throughout the MM, indicating the low level of sunspot activity. (3) The solar cycle appears clearly during the core MM. (4) The length of the solar cycle during the core MM appears for 9 ± 1 years, but this is uncertain. (5) The magnitude of the sunspot cycle during MM is assessed to be below 5-10 in sunspot numbers. A hypothesis of the high solar cycles during the MM is not confirmed.

  19. Daily activity level buffers stress-glycemia associations in older sedentary NIDDM patients.

    PubMed

    Aikens, K S; Aikens, J E; Wallander, J L; Hunt, S

    1997-08-01

    Examined glycemic associations with medical variables, activity, daily stress, and mood state in 72 older patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). On three occasions over a 2-week observation period, subjects provided measures of everyday life stress, negative mood state, and daily activities. At the end of this period, fructosamine was assayed to measure glycemic control throughout the assessment period. After controlling for medical variables (age, illness duration, body mass index, caloric intake, and activity) and the main effects of psychological factors (stress; anxious, angry, and depressed mood states), stress interacted with activity such that glycemic elevation was positively associated with stress for subjects below the activity median but not for those above the median. This was unattributable to any overall activity-related differences in fructosamine, stress, or mood. None of the mood states interacted with activity. The findings suggest that extremely low levels of activity may strengthen life stress-glycemia associations in NIDDM. PMID:9298436

  20. THE EFFECT OF GAMBLING ACTIVITIES ON HAPPINESS LEVELS OF NURSING HOME RESIDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Mark R; Nastally, Becky L; Waterman, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results indicated that all residents exhibited a higher percentage of happiness levels while engaged in simulated gambling activities compared with baseline. Follow-up assessment took place 10 min and 30 min following the intervention; no lasting effects were observed. PMID:21358915

  1. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  2. Alimini Lakes Project (PAL). Human-environment interaction during the Holocene in Mediterranean coastal wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbo, Andrea; Primavera, Milena; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Simone, Oronzo; Caldara, Massimo; Quarta, Gianluca; Calcagnile, Lucio

    2010-05-01

    A diachronical understanding of the co-evolution of people and Mediterranean wetlands requires the combined study of archaeological and palaeoenvironmental records. By focusing on an extended chronology, and relying on the update of known and new archaeological and palaeonvironmental sequences, PAL investigates how the Alimini Lakes disctrict (Apulia, S Italy) has changed over the past 10ka (the Holocene), a period witnessing great climatic environmental and social change. Holocene climate change is amplified in coastal wetlands, greatly affecting hydrology vegetation and people. Likewise, socio-economical changes (e.g. the introduction of agriculture) play a fundamental role in the shaping of wet landscapes. Under the combined action of environmental and human factors, coastal wetlands are prone to rapid and drastic ecological shifts and constitute ideal locations for developing a geoarchaeological approach. The results of the first year of research are presented here and include (1) the visit, description and GPS positioning of previously and newly discovered archaeological areas (cave and open air sites), (2) sampling of two Holocene sedimentary sequences from the Alimini Lakes disctict, (3) the results of the preliminary analyses (including AMS radiocarbon dating) carried out on the samples. The relocation of new and previously found archaeological sites was necessary to overcome some confusions caused by the contrasting published information. Relocated archaeological sites were normalized in a GIS environment. Two main Pleistocene/Holocene palaeoenvironmental sequences were sampled within the Alimini Lakes district: (1) the Frassanito dune reference sequence, obtained from a portion of the coastal dune (up to 10 m high) bordering the trait of the Adriatic coast situated in front of the Alimini lakes, (2) the ALI G 1 core (9m long) sampled on the W shore of Alimini Grande Lake. The multiproxy study of these sedimentary sequences provides a record of Holocene

  3. Activity of Proteolytic Enzymes and Level of Cystatin C in the Peripartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Cyganek, Anna; Wyczalkowska-Tomasik, Aleksandra; Jarmuzek, Patrycja; Grzechocinska, Barbara; Jabiry-Zieniewicz, Zoulikha; Paczek, Leszek; Wielgos, Miroslaw

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of cathepsin B, collagenases, trypsin, and plasmin and concentration of cystatin C in serum of healthy pregnant women in peripartum period. Study Design. The study group included 45 women in uncomplicated pregnancies. Blood samples were collected in four time points. Enzyme activity was measured by spectrofluorometric method. The level of cystatin C was measured using immunonephelometric method. Results. Mean activity of cathepsin B and the level of serum cystatin C were significantly higher in the study group. Collagenase activity was significantly lower in the study group than the control group. No differences in collagenase, plasmin, and trypsin activity on each day of the peripartum period were found. Conclusion. High activity of cathepsin B and increased level of cystatin C are typical for women in late pregnancy. Those levels significantly decrease after delivery which can be associated with potential role of those markers in placental separation. The insignificant changes of cystatin C level in the peripartum period seem to exclude the possibility of using cystatin C as a marker for renal insufficiency in the peripartum period but additional research is necessary to investigate the matter further. PMID:26904684

  4. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    PubMed Central

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  5. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women.

    PubMed

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  6. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women.

    PubMed

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-08-15

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies.

  7. Health-related physical activity levels in Spanish youth and young adults.

    PubMed

    Cocca, Armando; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Viciana-Ramírez, Jesús

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the current physical activity (PA) levels in youth and young adults from Granada, Spain, and to assess if they accomplish the recommendations for healthy PA. A sample of 1,832 boys and 1,840 girls was administered the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results showed that most of the children (72.2%) and adolescents (56.4%) reached the recommended PA levels, whereas only 40% of young adults achieved recommended levels of PA. The most active were students from Primary schools, whereas university students were the least active. Youth of college and university ages were found to be at higher risk for engagement in PA. PMID:24724525

  8. Allocation of Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in Response to CO2 and Light Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200 μmol/mol) and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900 μmol/m2/s) over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary metabolites, sugar, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and malondialdehyde content was influenced by the interactions between CO2 and irradiance. The highest accumulation of secondary metabolites, sugar, maliondialdehyde, and DPPH activity was observed under CO2 at 1200 μmol/mol + light intensity at 225 μmol/m2/s. Meanwhile, at 400 μmol/mol CO2 + 900 μmol/m2/s light intensity the production of chlorophyll and maliondialdehyde content was the highest. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1200 μmol/mol the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, fv/fm (maximum efficiency of photosystem II), and PAL activity were enhanced. The production of secondary metabolites displayed a significant negative relationship with maliondialdehyde indicating lowered oxidative stress under high CO2 and low irradiance improved the production of plant secondary metabolites that simultaneously enhanced the antioxidant activity (DPPH), thus improving the medicinal value of Labisia pumila under this condition. PMID:24683336

  9. Allocation of secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity, and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in response to CO2 and light intensity.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200 μ mol/mol) and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900 μ mol/m(2)/s) over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary metabolites, sugar, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and malondialdehyde content was influenced by the interactions between CO2 and irradiance. The highest accumulation of secondary metabolites, sugar, maliondialdehyde, and DPPH activity was observed under CO2 at 1200 μ mol/mol + light intensity at 225 μ mol/m(2)/s. Meanwhile, at 400 μ mol/mol CO2 + 900 μ mol/m(2)/s light intensity the production of chlorophyll and maliondialdehyde content was the highest. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1200 μ mol/mol the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, f v /f m (maximum efficiency of photosystem II), and PAL activity were enhanced. The production of secondary metabolites displayed a significant negative relationship with maliondialdehyde indicating lowered oxidative stress under high CO2 and low irradiance improved the production of plant secondary metabolites that simultaneously enhanced the antioxidant activity (DPPH), thus improving the medicinal value of Labisia pumila under this condition.

  10. Maintaining a High Physical Activity Level Over 20 Years and Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Hankinson, Arlene L.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Bouchard, Claude; Carnethon, Mercedes; Lewis, Cora E.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Context Data supporting physical activity guidelines to prevent long-term weight gain are sparse, particularly during the period when the highest risk of weight gain occurs. Objective To evaluate the relationship between habitual activity levels and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference over 20 years. Design, Setting, and Participants The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study is a prospective longitudinal study with 20 years of follow-up, 1985-86 to 2005-06. Habitual activity was defined as maintaining high, moderate, and low activity levels based on sex-specific tertiles of activity scores at baseline. Participants comprised a population-based multi-center cohort (Chicago, Illinois; Birmingham, Alabama; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Oakland, California) of 3554 men and women aged 18 to 30 years at baseline. Main Outcome Measures Average annual changes in BMI and waist circumference Results Over 20 years, maintaining high levels of activity was associated with smaller gains in BMI and waist circumference compared with low activity levels after adjustment for race, baseline BMI, age, education, cigarette smoking status, alcohol use, and energy intake. Men maintaining high activity gained 2.6 fewer kilograms (+ 0.15 BMI units per year; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.18 vs +0.20 in the lower activity group; 95% CI, 0.17-0.23) and women maintaining higher activity gained 6.1 fewer kilograms (+0.17 BMI units per year; 95 % CI, 0.12-0.21 vs. +0.30 in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.25-0.34). Men maintaining high activity gained 3.1 fewer centimeters in waist circumference (+0.52 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.43-0.61 cm vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75) and women maintaining higher activity gained 3.8 fewer centimeters (+0.49 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.39-0.58 vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75). Conclusion Maintaining high activity levels through young adulthood may lessen

  11. Activity and circadian rhythm influence synaptic Shank3 protein levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Sarowar, Tasnuva; Chhabra, Resham; Vilella, Antonietta; Boeckers, Tobias M; Zoli, Michele; Grabrucker, Andreas M

    2016-09-01

    Various recent studies revealed that the proteins of the Shank family act as major scaffold organizing elements in the post-synaptic density of excitatory synapses and that their expression level is able to influence synapse formation, maturation and ultimately brain plasticity. An imbalance in Shank3 protein levels has been associated with a variety of neuropsychological and neurodegenerative disorders including autism spectrum disorders and Phelan-McDermid syndrome. Given that sleep disorders and low melatonin levels are frequently observed in autism spectrum disorders, and that circadian rhythms may be able to modulate Shank3 signaling and thereby synaptic function, here, we performed in vivo studies on CBA mice using protein biochemistry to investigate the synaptic expression levels of Shank3α during the day in different brain regions. Our results show that synaptic Shank3 protein concentrations exhibit minor oscillations during the day in hippocampal and striatal brain regions that correlate with changes in serum melatonin levels. Furthermore, as circadian rhythms are tightly connected to activity levels in mice, we increased physical activity using running wheels. The expression of Shank3α increases rapidly by induced activity in thalamus and cortex, but decreases in striatum, superimposing the circadian rhythms of different brain regions. We conclude that synaptic Shank3 proteins build highly dynamic platforms that are modulated by the light:dark cycles but even more so driven by activity. Using wild-type CBA mice, we show that Shank3 is a highly dynamic and activity-regulated protein at synapses. In the hippocampus, changes in synaptic Shank3 levels are influenced by circadian rhythm/melatonin concentration, while running activity increases and decreases levels of Shank3 in the cortex and striatum respectively. PMID:27329942

  12. Use of a consumer market activity monitoring and feedback device improves exercise capacity and activity levels in COPD.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Brian; Kaljo, Indira; Donnelly, Seamas

    2014-01-01

    COPD is associated with a gradual decline in physical activity, which itself contributes to a worsening of the underlying condition. Strategies that improve physical activity levels are critical to halt this cycle. Wearable sensor based activity monitoring and persuasive feedback might offer a potential solution. However it is not clear just how much intervention might be needed in this regard - i.e. whether programmes need to be tailored specifically for the target clinical population or whether more simple activity monitoring and feedback solutions, such as that offered in consumer market devices, might be sufficient. This research was carried out to investigate the impact of 4 weeks of using an off the shelf consumer market activity monitoring and feedback application on measures of physical activity, exercise capacity, and health related quality of life in a population of 10 Stage I and II COPD patients. Results demonstrate a significant and positive effect on exercise capacity (measured using a 6-minute walk test) and activity levels (measured in terms of average number of steps per hour) yet no impact on health related quality of life (St Georges Respiratory Disease Questionnaire).

  13. Effects of a Classroom-Based Physical Activity Program on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Tan Leng; Hannon, James; Webster, Collin Andrew; Podlog, Leslie William; Brusseau, Timothy; Newton, Maria

    2014-01-01

    High levels of physical inactivity are evident among many American children. To address this problem, providing physical activity (PA) during the school day within the CSPAP framework, is one strategy to increase children's PA. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a classroom-based PA program on children's PA.…

  14. Carbonic anhydrase activity in the red blood cells of sea level and high altitude natives.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, J; Caceda, R; Gamboa, A; Monge-C, C

    2000-01-01

    Red blood cell carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity has not been studied in high altitude natives. Because CA is an intraerythocytic enzyme and high altitude natives are polycythemic, it is important to know if the activity of CA per red cell volume is different from that of their sea level counterparts. Blood was collected from healthy subjects living in Lima (150m) and from twelve subjects from Cerro de Pasco (4330m), and hematocrit and carbonic anhydrase activity were measured. As expected, the high altitude natives had significantly higher hematocrits than the sea level controls (p = 0.0002). No difference in the CA activity per milliliter of red cells was found between the two populations. There was no correlation between the hematocrit and CA activity.

  15. Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Differ According to Education Level in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009-2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays. PMID:27403958

  16. Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Differ According to Education Level in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009–2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays. PMID:27403958

  17. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed. PMID:26496170

  18. Does activity space size influence physical activity levels of adolescents?—A GPS study of an urban environment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nolan C.; Voss, Christine; Frazer, Amanda D.; Hirsch, Jana A.; McKay, Heather A.; Winters, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is closely linked with child and youth health, and active travel may be a solution to enhancing PA levels. Activity spaces depict the geographic coverage of one's travel. Little is known about activity spaces and PA in adolescents. Objective To explore the relation between adolescent travel (using a spatial measure of activity space size) and daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), with a focus on school days. Methods We used Global Positioning Systems to manually identify trips and generate activity spaces for each person-day; quantified by area for 39 students (13.8 ± 0.6 years, 38% female) attending high school in urban Downtown Vancouver, Canada. We assessed the association between activity space area and MVPA using multi-level regression. We calculated total, school-day and trip-based MVPA for each valid person-day (accelerometry; ≥ 600 min wear time). Results On school days, students accrued 68.2 min/day (95% CI 60.4–76.0) of MVPA. Daily activity spaces averaged 2.2 km2 (95% CI 1.3–3.0). There was no association between activity space size and school-day MVPA. Students accrued 21.8 min/day (95% CI 19.2–24.4) of MVPA during school hours, 19.4 min/day (95% CI 15.1–23.7) during travel, and 28.3 min/day (95% CI 22.3–34.3) elsewhere. Conclusion School and school travel are important sources of PA in Vancouver adolescents, irrespective of activity space area covered. PMID:26807349

  19. Alteration of PON1 activity in adult and childhood obesity and its relation to adipokine levels.

    PubMed

    Seres, Ildikó; Bajnok, László; Harangi, Mariann; Sztanek, Ferenc; Koncsos, Peter; Paragh, György

    2010-01-01

    Obesity as a pathogenic disorder is a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases and shows an increasing incidence in the industrialized countries. Adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin have a great impact on the development of atherosclerosis in obesity. Elevated levels of leptin have been found to be atherogenic whereas decreased levels of adiponectin have been proved to be anti-atherogenic in recent studies. The exact role of resistin in the process of atherosclerosis has so far remained uncertain and controversial. In our recent work, we studied the alteration in human paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and adipokine levels; furthermore, we also aimed at identifying the potential correlation between these parameters in this metabolic disorder. We investigated the above-mentioned parameters both in adults and in children, with regard to the emerging role of childhood obesity and to get a clearer view of these factors during a whole lifetime. Investigating the adult population with a broad range of body mass index (BMI) we found significantly increased leptin and significantly decreased adiponectin and resistin levels and PON1 activity in the obese group compared to the lean controls. Adiponectin and resistin levels showed significantly positive correlation, while leptin and BMI showed significantly negative correlation with PON1 activity. Our findings were similar in childhood obesity: leptin showed significantly negative correlation, while adiponectin showed significantly positive correlation with PON1 activity. We found gender differences in the univariate correlations of leptin and adiponectin levels with PON1 activity in the adult population. In multiple regression analysis, adiponectin proved to be an independent factor of PON1 activity both in childhood and adult obesity, furthermore thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) also proved to be an independent predictor of the enzyme in adults, reflecting the important role of oxidative

  20. Increased CD28 serum levels are not associated with specific clinical activity in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Brambila-Tapia, Aniel J L; Gámez-Nava, Jorge I; Salazar-Páramo, Mario; Munoz-Valle, José F; González-López, Laura; Llamas-Covarrubias, Mara A; Gutiérrez-Urena, Sergio R; Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Ingrid P

    2011-10-01

    CD28 is one of the main activator receptors involved in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis, and its expression and serum levels are significantly higher in patients with SLE and other autoimmune diseases than in healthy controls (HC). However, it is unknown whether this increase is associated with specific organ damage. Therefore, our objective was to measure the CD28 levels in serum from SLE and HC groups to confirm the CD28 serum levels increase, as reported previously, and to determine whether this increase was associated with specific organ activity and the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Forty SLE patients and 40 matched HC were included, and the age, disease duration, SLEDAI and Mexican SLEDAI were recorded for the SLE group. CD28 serum levels were measured by ELISA. There was a statistically significant increase in the CD28 serum levels of SLE patients compared to controls (p = 0.039); however, we did not find any significant correlation with disease activity indices or organ involvement, although we found a significant but low correlation with C3. Our results and a review of the literature suggest that the increase in CD28 serum levels may be the result of CD28 gene overexpression, which could be related to the decrease in CD28+ T cells, T-cell hyporesponsiveness and immune impairment that occurs in SLE.

  1. Elevated serum interleukin-23 levels in ankylosing spondylitis patients and the relationship with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Ugur, Mahir; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Melikoglu, Meltem Alkan; Baygutalp, Fatih; Altas, Elif Umay; Seferoglu, Buminhan

    2015-11-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Twenty male patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the 1984 modified New York criteria for AS and twenty male healthy controls were included in this study.The demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Serum IL-23 levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in both the AS and control groups. The Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity ındex (BASDAI), the Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), and the Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) were evaluated as disease activity parameters. The AS patients were divided into two subgroups as active and inactive in respect of CRP, ESR levels and BASDAI scores. The mean serum IL-23 levels of the AS and control groups were 334.45±176.54 pg/ml and 166.49±177.50 pg/ml respectively, and there was a significant difference between the groups. Correlation analysis of serum IL-23 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters showed that there were positive correlations between serum IL-23 levels and the BASDAI, BASFI scores in total, active and inactive patients and the BASMI scores in total and inactive patients and negative correlations between serum IL-23 levels and ESR in inactive patients. It was shown that altered serum IL-23 levels were related to AS disease activity. Further studies in large patient series are necessary to investigate the role of IL-23 protein in etiopathogenesis of AS.

  2. Predator and prey activity levels jointly influence the outcome of long-term foraging bouts.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Kayla; Cusack, Brian; Armagost, Fawn; O'Brien, Timothy; Keiser, Carl N; Pruitt, Jonathan N

    2013-09-01

    Consistent interindividual differences in behavior (i.e., "behavioral types") may be a key factor in determining the outcome of species interactions. Studies that simultaneously account for the behavioral types of individuals in multiple interacting species, such as predator-prey systems, may be particularly strong predictors of ecological outcomes. Here, we test the predator-prey locomotor crossover hypothesis, which predicts that active predators are more likely to encounter and consume prey with the opposing locomotor tendency. We test this hypothesis using intraspecific behavioral variation in both a predator and prey species as predictors of foraging outcomes. We use the old field jumping spider, Phidippus clarus (Araneae, Salticidae), and the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera, Gryllidae), as a model predator-prey system in laboratory mesocosm trials. Stable individual differences in locomotor tendencies were identified in both P. clarus and A. domesticus, and the outcome of foraging bouts depended neither on the average activity level of the predator nor on the average activity level of prey. Instead, an interaction between the activity level of spiders and crickets predicted spider foraging success and prey survivorship. Consistent with the locomotor crossover hypothesis, predators exhibiting higher activity levels consumed more prey when in an environment containing low-activity prey items and vice versa. This study highlights 1) the importance of intraspecific variation in determining the outcome of predator-prey interactions and 2) that acknowledging behavioral variation in only a single species may be insufficient to characterize the performance consequences of intraspecific trait variants. PMID:23935257

  3. Effect of Cognitive Activity Level on Duration of Post-Concussion Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Naomi J.; Mannix, Rebekah C.; O’Brien, Michael J.; Gostine, David; Collins, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of cognitive activity level on duration of post-concussion symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients who presented to a Sports Concussion Clinic within 3 weeks of injury between October 2009 and July 2011. At each visit, patients completed a scale that recorded their average level of cognitive activity since the previous visit. The product of cognitive activity level and days between visits (cognitive activity-days) was calculated and divided into quartiles. Kaplan-Meier Product Limit method was used to generate curves of symptom duration based on cognitive activity level. To adjust for other possible predictors of concussion recovery, we constructed a Cox proportional hazard model with cognitive activity-days as the main predictor. RESULTS: Of the 335 patients included in the study, 62% were male, 19% reported a loss of consciousness, and 37% reported experiencing amnesia at the time of injury. The mean age of participants was 15 years (range, 8–23) and the mean number of previous concussions was 0.76; 39% of athletes had sustained a previous concussion. The mean Post-Concussion Symptom Scale score at the initial visit was 30 (SD, 26). The overall mean duration of symptoms was 43 days (SD, 53). Of all variables assessed, only total symptom burden at initial visit and cognitive activity level were independently associated with duration of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Increased cognitive activity is associated with longer recovery from concussion. This study supports the use of cognitive rest and adds to the current consensus opinion. PMID:24394679

  4. Localization and Function of Pals1-associated Tight Junction Protein in Drosophila Is Regulated by Two Distinct Apical Complexes.

    PubMed

    Sen, Arnab; Sun, Rui; Krahn, Michael P

    2015-05-22

    The transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb) and its intracellular adaptor protein Pals1 (Stardust, Sdt in Drosophila) play a crucial role in the establishment and maintenance of apical-basal polarity in epithelial cells in various organisms. In contrast, the multiple PDZ domain-containing protein Pals1-associated tight junction protein (PATJ), which has been described to form a complex with Crb/Sdt, is not essential for apical basal polarity or for the stability of the Crb/Sdt complex in the Drosophila epidermis. Here we show that, in the embryonic epidermis, Sdt is essential for the correct subcellular localization of PATJ in differentiated epithelial cells but not during cellularization. Consistently, the L27 domain of PATJ is crucial for the correct localization and function of the protein. Our data further indicate that the four PDZ domains of PATJ function, to a large extent, in redundancy, regulating the function of the protein. Interestingly, the PATJ-Sdt heterodimer is not only recruited to the apical cell-cell contacts by binding to Crb but depends on functional Bazooka (Baz). However, biochemical experiments show that PATJ associates with both complexes, the Baz-Sdt and the Crb-Sdt complex, in the mature epithelium of the embryonic epidermis, suggesting a role of these two complexes for the function of PATJ during the development of Drosophila.

  5. Localization and Function of Pals1-associated Tight Junction Protein in Drosophila Is Regulated by Two Distinct Apical Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Arnab; Sun, Rui; Krahn, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb) and its intracellular adaptor protein Pals1 (Stardust, Sdt in Drosophila) play a crucial role in the establishment and maintenance of apical-basal polarity in epithelial cells in various organisms. In contrast, the multiple PDZ domain-containing protein Pals1-associated tight junction protein (PATJ), which has been described to form a complex with Crb/Sdt, is not essential for apical basal polarity or for the stability of the Crb/Sdt complex in the Drosophila epidermis. Here we show that, in the embryonic epidermis, Sdt is essential for the correct subcellular localization of PATJ in differentiated epithelial cells but not during cellularization. Consistently, the L27 domain of PATJ is crucial for the correct localization and function of the protein. Our data further indicate that the four PDZ domains of PATJ function, to a large extent, in redundancy, regulating the function of the protein. Interestingly, the PATJ-Sdt heterodimer is not only recruited to the apical cell-cell contacts by binding to Crb but depends on functional Bazooka (Baz). However, biochemical experiments show that PATJ associates with both complexes, the Baz-Sdt and the Crb-Sdt complex, in the mature epithelium of the embryonic epidermis, suggesting a role of these two complexes for the function of PATJ during the development of Drosophila. PMID:25847234

  6. CSF levels of receptor-active endorphins in schizophrenic patients: correlations with symptomatology and monoamine metabolites.

    PubMed

    Lindström, L H; Besev, G; Gunne, L M; Terenius, L

    1986-10-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of an opioid receptor-active, chromatographically separated endorphin fraction (Fraction I) were measured in 45 schizophrenic patients and 18 healthy volunteers. Significantly increased levels of Fraction I differentiated the patient group from controls, with no difference being found between newly admitted untreated and chronic previously neuroleptic-treated subjects. Fraction I levels did not correlate with age, weight, height, duration of illness, total time hospitalized, or age when symptoms first appeared. No differences were found between patients with or without a family history of schizophrenia. Fraction I levels were negatively correlated with "hallucinations" and "indecision" on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale. Increased levels of Fraction I were associated with low levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid in drug-free schizophrenics. This relationship was not present after neuroleptic treatment or in healthy controls. No relationship was found between Fraction I and the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Neuroleptic treatment did not significantly change Fraction I levels; when only patients above the control range were considered, however, a significant decrease was observed. The data support our previous hypothesis of an increased opioid activity in schizophrenia and further indicate a concomitant dysfunction of brain endorphin and dopamine activity in schizophrenic patients.

  7. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r2 = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r2 = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  8. Physical Activity Levels and Domains Assessed by Accelerometry in German Adolescents from GINIplus and LISAplus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maia P.; Berdel, Dietrich; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is a well-known and underused protective factor for numerous health outcomes, and interventions are hampered by lack of objective data. We combined accelerometers with diaries to estimate the contributions to total activity from different domains throughout the day and week in adolescents. Methods Accelerometric and diary data from 1403 adolescents (45% male, mean age 15.6 ± 0.5 years) were combined to evaluate daily levels and domains of sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) during a typical week. Freedson’s cutoff points were applied to determine levels of activity. Total activity was broken down into school physical education (PE), school outside PE, transportation to school, sport, and other time. Results About 2/3 of adolescents’ time was spent sedentary, 1/3 in light activity, and about 5% in MVPA. Boys and girls averaged 46 (SD 22) and 38 (23) minutes MVPA per day. Adolescents were most active during leisure sport, spending about 30% of it in MVPA, followed by PE (about 20%) transport to school (14%) and either school class time or other time (3%). PE provided 5% of total MVPA, while leisure sport provided 16% and transportation to school 8%. School was the most sedentary part of the day with over 75% of time outside PE spent sedentary. Conclusions These German adolescents were typical of Europeans in showing low levels of physical activity, with significant contributions from leisure sport, transportation and school PE. Leisure sport was the most active part of the day, and participation did not vary significantly by sex, study center (region of Germany) or BMI. Transportation to school was frequent and thus accounted for a significant fraction of total MVPA. This indicates that even in a population with good access to dedicated sporting activities, frequent active transportation can add significantly to total MVPA. PMID:27010227

  9. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael J; Schmitt, Emily E; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r (2) = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r (2) = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  10. Lipoprotein lipase activity and mRNA levels in bovine tissues.

    PubMed

    Hocquette, J F; Graulet, B; Olivecrona, T

    1998-10-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in cattle has been extensively studied in adipose tissue, milk and mammary gland, but only to a limited extent in muscles. Therefore, we have adapted our in vitro LPL assay method for the measurement of LPL activity and describe, for the first time, sensitive procedures to quantify LPL activity and mRNA levels in bovine muscles. In vitro activation of bovine LPL activity is approximately 5-fold greater with rat than with bovine sera for heart and muscles, but not for adipose tissues. Values of LPL activity are in the upper range of those previously reported for rat or bovine tissues. With rat serum as activator, LPL activity in the heart of seven calves (662-832 mU g-1) is at least 3-fold lower than in the rat heart (2150-2950 mU g-1, P < 0.05). LPL activity is higher in bovine heart and oxidative muscles (412-972 mU g-1), except the diaphragm, than in mixed or glycolytic muscles (33-154 mU g-1, P < 0.05). The levels of LPL transcripts are positively related to LPL activity in bovine tissues, including muscles and adipose tissues.

  11. LRE2, an active human L1 element, has low level transcriptional activity and extremely low reverse transcriptase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, S.E.; Dombroski, B.A.; Sassaman, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    Previously, we found a 2 kb insertion containing a rearranged L1 element plus a unique sequence component (USC) within exon 48 of the dystrophin gene of a patient with muscular dystrophy. We used the USC to clone the precursor of this insertion, the second known {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} human L1 element. The locus LRE2 (L1 Retrotransposable Element 2) has an allele derived from the patient which matches the insertion sequence exactly. LRE2 has a perfect 13-15 bp target site duplication, 2 open reading frames (ORFs), and an unusual 21 bp truncation of the 5{prime} end in a region known to be important for L1 transcription. The truncated LRE2 promoter has about 20% of the transcriptional activity of a previously studied L1 promoter after transfection into NTera2D1 cells of a construct in which the L1 promoter drives the expression of a lacZ gene. In addition, the reverse transcriptase (RT) encoded by LRE2 is active in an in vivo pseudogene assay in yeast and an in vitro assay. However, in both assays the RT of LRE2 is 1-5% as active as that of LRE1. These data demonstrate that multiple {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} L1 elements exist in the human genome, and that active elements can have highly variable rates of transcription and reverse transcriptase activity. That the RT of LRE2 has extremely low activity suggests the possibility that retrotransposition of an L1 element may in some cases involve an RT encoded by another L1 element.

  12. A system for measuring thermal activation energy levels in silicon by thermally stimulated capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrum, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    One method being used to determine energy level(s) and electrical activity of impurities in silicon is described. The method is called capacitance transient spectroscopy (CTS). It can be classified into three basic categories: the thermally stimulated capacitance method, the voltage-stimulated capacitance method, and the light-stimulated capacitance method; the first two categories are discussed. From the total change in capacitance and the time constant of the capacitance response, emission rates, energy levels, and trap concentrations can be determined. A major advantage of using CTS is its ability to detect the presence of electrically active impurities that are invisible to other techniques, such as Zeeman effect atomic absorption, and the ability to detect more than one electrically active impurity in a sample. Examples of detection of majority and minority carrier traps from gold donor and acceptor centers in silicon using the capacitance transient spectrometer are given to illustrate the method and its sensitivity.

  13. Effects of physical activity on pupil cycle time (PCT) in healthy Indian male.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Suparna; Avadhany, Sandhya T

    2014-01-01

    Globally, physical inactivity is an important risk factor for the development of non-communicable disease consisting of coronary artery disease, as well as, other diseases including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancers. Parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity in the eye is determined by the pupil cycle time (PCT) can be comparable with cardiac parasympathetic response and thereby determine the morbidity and mortality among individuals. The PCT is measured by throwing white light on the edge of the pupil. Pupil cycling is a feature of pupillary reflex arc. The aim of this study is to establish the effect of physical activity on the PCT. The counting of PCT was done for 90 cycles and average one count is considered a single PCT. The physical activity level (PAL) was determined by administering a physical activity level questionnaire developed in the Division of Nutrition, St. John's Medical College, Bangalore. The PAL is classified as < 1.4 as sedentary, 1.55 to 1.75 moderately active, and > 1.75 heavily active. Thirty healthy male volunteers in the age group of 18-50 years and with BMI of 18.5 kg/m2-30 kg/m2 were studied. We obtained PCT of 962.00 ± 105.72 msec in sedentary, 896.77 ± 85.88 msec in moderately active and 889.45 ± 68.71 msec in heavily active individuals. Linear regression analysis shows there is statistically significant difference between the three different groups of physical activity level with a b value of 0 and R2 being 0.19. Increase in physical activity led to decrease in the PCT i.e. increase in the parasympathetic tone in the eye. Pupil cycle time (PCT) is a simple noninvasive tool to assess and differentiate the PNS function in different activity level of individual. PMID:25906609

  14. An improved active imaging method for upgrading low-light-level image detection sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hongying

    2013-09-01

    Active imaging is an essential tool for low-light-level imaging. However, it has some drawbacks, such as limited imaging range and lack of security. We optimize the imaging approach by casting a saw-tooth wave auxiliary light signal over the sensor. Here, the auxiliary signal is superposed with a low-light-level signal, which is too weak to be measured by the sensor. After acquiring a superimposed image set in one saw-tooth wave circle, low-light-level image estimation is achieved by implementing least-square algorithm during data processing. This improved method not only makes active imaging overcome the drawbacks mentioned above, but also provides a feasible way to improve the low-light-level image detection sensitivity.

  15. Adolescent perceptions of alcohol risk: variation by sex, race, student activity levels and parental communication.

    PubMed

    Denham, Bryan E

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on data gathered from adolescents (N = 18,991) in the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), this study examined the effects of sex and race, as well as measures of student activity levels and frequency of recognition from parents, on perceptions of the risks associated with binge drinking. Overall, female, Black, Asian, and Hispanic adolescents, as well as individuals who indicated belonging to more than one race, perceived higher levels of risk. Male, White, and Native American/Alaskan/Pacific Islander respondents perceived lower risk levels. In addition, those who participated the most in school and community activities, as well as those who received more frequent recognition from parents, estimated higher levels of risk associated with binge drinking.

  16. [Restoration of secretory activity of digestive glands in conditions of acute hyperkinesis at persons with different levels of motor activity].

    PubMed

    Griaznykh, A V

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics' features of restoration reactions of the secretory function of gastric glands have been studied at patients with differences in the level and specificity of daily physical activity. The dependence between the level and characteristics of daily physical activity and reactivity of the secretory apparatus of the gastric glands in the recovery period after the muscle load has been established. The high reactivity of the secretory activity of digestive glands is typical for individuals with high level of daily physical activity. The differences of the functional stability of the secretion's mechanisms of various components of gastric juice under the influence of physical exercise and in recovery have been revealed. The greatest stability of the secretory mechanisms of digestive glands has been discovered at athletes practicing with the development of endurance--at skiers. Heterochronous reducing reactions of gastric and pancreatic secretion after physical stress have been defined. The reduction of secretion's mechanisms of gastric juice ingredients and the electrolyte and acid composition of digestive juices isn't simultaneous: the first order is for ferment's secretion. The inverse relationship between the content of digestive enzymes pepsinogen-1 and -2 in blood's serum and the concentration of proteolytic enzymes in the gastric content has been found at persons with various degrees of adaptation to the muscular tension.

  17. Sub-chronic exposure to methylmercury at low levels decreases butyrylcholinesterase activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Juliana; Vicentini, Juliana; Grotto, Denise; Tonello, Raquel; Garcia, Solange C; Barbosa, Fernando

    2010-02-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of low levels and sub-chronic exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) on butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity in rats. Moreover, we examined the relationship between BuChE activity and oxidative stress biomarkers [delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALA-D) and malondialdehyde levels (MDA)] in the same animals. Rats were separated into three groups (eight animals per group): (Group I) received water by gavage; (Group II) received MeHg (30 microg/kg/day) by gavage; (Group III) received MeHg (100 microg/kg/day). The time of exposure was 90 days. BuChE and ALA-D activities were measured in serum and blood, respectively; whereas MDA levels were measured in plasma. We found BuChE and ALA-D activities decreased in groups II and III compared to the control group. Moreover, we found an interesting negative correlation between plasmatic BuChE activity and MDA (r = -0.85; p < 0.01) and a positive correlation between plasmatic BuChE activity and ALA-D activities (r = 0.78; p < 0.01), thus suggesting a possible relationship between oxidative damage promoted by MeHg exposure and the decrease of BuChE activity. In conclusion, long-term exposure to low doses of MeHg decreases plasmatic BuChE activity. Moreover, the decrease in the enzyme is strongly correlated with the oxidative stress promoted by the metal exposure. This preliminary finding highlights a possible mechanism for MeHg to reduce BuChE activity in plasma. Additionally, this enzyme could be an auxiliary biomarker on the evaluation of MeHg exposure.

  18. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid levels of malondialdehyde and glutathione reductase activity in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, V; Raffaele, R; Cosentino, E; Rizza, V

    1994-01-01

    The chemical composition of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is considered to reflect brain metabolism. In this study we measured malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the activity of enzymes involved in antioxidative processes, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase, in human cerebrospinal fluid of multiple-sclerosis (MS) patients and normal healthy volunteers. Our results indicated that the cerebrospinal fluid in MS showed significantly higher endogenous levels of MDA than the control, as well as a much greater resistance to in-vitro stimulation test. In addition, we found the activity of GSH reductase significantly increased, about twice the control values, whereas the activity of glutathione peroxidase was markedly decreased as compared to control values. Our findings suggest that in MS the activity of antioxidant enzymes is modified, and indicates the conceivable possibility of a pathogenic role of oxidative stress in the determinism of the disease. PMID:7607784

  19. Comparison of activation level between true and false items in the DRM paradigm.

    PubMed

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Sergi, Ida; Iachini, Tina

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the activation levels of true and false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. For this purpose, we used a lexical decision task (LDT) that can be considered a relative pure measure of activation. Participants had to study a list of words that were semantically associated to a critical non-presented word (CI), and afterwards had to classify the actually studied words, the CI and new words in the LDT. Results indicated that the classification latency of the CI was the same as actually studied words and shorter than new words. The results might be interpreted as evidence that the false and true memory items have the same activation level and that the false memory effect can be based on the indirect activation of the CI at the encoding.

  20. The gut microbiome and degradation enzyme activity of wild freshwater fishes influenced by their trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Guo, Xianwu; Gooneratne, Ravi; Lai, Ruifang; Zeng, Cong; Zhan, Fanbin; Wang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate gut microbiome often underpins the metabolic capability and provides many beneficial effects on their hosts. However, little was known about how host trophic level influences fish gut microbiota and metabolic activity. In this study, more than 985,000 quality-filtered sequences from 24 16S rRNA libraries were obtained and the results revealed distinct compositions and diversities of gut microbiota in four trophic categories. PCoA test showed that gut bacterial communities of carnivorous and herbivorous fishes formed distinctly different clusters in PCoA space. Although fish in different trophic levels shared a large size of OTUs comprising a core microbiota community, at the genus level a strong distinction existed. Cellulose-degrading bacteria Clostridium, Citrobacter and Leptotrichia were dominant in the herbivorous, while Cetobacterium and protease-producing bacteria Halomonas were dominant in the carnivorous. PICRUSt predictions of metagenome function revealed that fishes in different trophic levels affected the metabolic capacity of their gut microbiota. Moreover, cellulase and amylase activities in herbivorous fishes were significantly higher than in the carnivorous, while trypsin activity in the carnivorous was much higher than in the herbivorous. These results indicated that host trophic level influenced the structure and composition of gut microbiota, metabolic capacity and gut content enzyme activity. PMID:27072196

  1. The gut microbiome and degradation enzyme activity of wild freshwater fishes influenced by their trophic levels

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Han; Guo, Xianwu; Gooneratne, Ravi; Lai, Ruifang; Zeng, Cong; Zhan, Fanbin; Wang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate gut microbiome often underpins the metabolic capability and provides many beneficial effects on their hosts. However, little was known about how host trophic level influences fish gut microbiota and metabolic activity. In this study, more than 985,000 quality-filtered sequences from 24 16S rRNA libraries were obtained and the results revealed distinct compositions and diversities of gut microbiota in four trophic categories. PCoA test showed that gut bacterial communities of carnivorous and herbivorous fishes formed distinctly different clusters in PCoA space. Although fish in different trophic levels shared a large size of OTUs comprising a core microbiota community, at the genus level a strong distinction existed. Cellulose-degrading bacteria Clostridium, Citrobacter and Leptotrichia were dominant in the herbivorous, while Cetobacterium and protease-producing bacteria Halomonas were dominant in the carnivorous. PICRUSt predictions of metagenome function revealed that fishes in different trophic levels affected the metabolic capacity of their gut microbiota. Moreover, cellulase and amylase activities in herbivorous fishes were significantly higher than in the carnivorous, while trypsin activity in the carnivorous was much higher than in the herbivorous. These results indicated that host trophic level influenced the structure and composition of gut microbiota, metabolic capacity and gut content enzyme activity. PMID:27072196

  2. Comparison of doubly labeled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels

    SciTech Connect

    Westerterp, K.R.; Brouns, F.; Saris, W.H.; ten Hoor, F.

    1988-07-01

    In previous studies the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living humans has been validated against respirometry under sedentary conditions. In the present investigation, energy expenditure is measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water and respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. Over 6 days, five subjects were measured doing mainly sedentary activities like desk work; their average daily metabolic rate was 1.40 +/- 0.09 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. Four subjects were measured twice over 3.5 days, including 2 days with heavy bicycle ergometer work, resulting in an average daily metabolic rate of 2.61 +/- 0.25 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. At the low-activity level, energy expenditures from the doubly labeled water method were on the average 1.4 +/- 3.9% (SD) larger than those from respirometry. At the high-activity level, the doubly labeled water method yielded values that were 1.0 +/- 7.0% (SD) lower than those from respirometry. Results demonstrate the utility of the doubly labeled water method for the determination of energy expenditure in the range of activity levels in daily life.

  3. Digestive enzyme activity and mRNA level of trypsin in embryonic redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarnatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wen; Zhao, Yunlong; Zhou, Zhongliang; An, Chuanguang; Ma, Qiang

    2008-02-01

    The digestive enzyme activity and mRNA level of trypsin during the embryonic development of Cherax quadricarinatus were analyzed using biochemical and Fluorogenic Quantitative PCR (FQ—PCR) methods. The results show that the activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin had two different change patterns. Trypsin specific activity increased rapidly in the early stages of development and still remained high in preparation for the hatch stage. However, chymotrypsin activity peaked in stage 4 of embryonic development and decreased significantly in the last stage. The mRNA level of trypsin was elevated in all stages and two peak values were observed in stages 2 and 5 respectively. The results indicate that trypsin is very important for the utilization of the yolk during embryonic development and for the assimilation of dietary protein for larvae. The gene of trypsin is probably regulated at transcriptional level. The mRNA levels of trypsin can reflect not only trypsin activity, but also the regulatory mechanism for expression of trypsin gene to a certain degree.

  4. Level of activation, body temperature, and interpersonal conflict in family relationships.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, C N

    1979-01-01

    The 24-hour variation in physiological and psychological functioning within the individual and interpersonal differences were investigated in relation to the nature of social interaction between individuals. Level of activation, body temperature, and interpersonal conflict were studied in a sample of 16 married couples for a period of six weekdays of routine activity. Homogeneity was a major factor in sample selection. Body temperature was measured every hour during the waking time by electronic thermometer, and level of activation was measured four times a day on alternate forms of a self-report adjective checklist. Interpersonal conflict, defined as perceived fulfillment of emotional and interaction needs, was measured in the morning and late day. The interpersonal Conflict Scale with established validity was constructed for the study and had two alternate forms of equal reliability. An index of desynchrony between partners for both temperature and activation was calculated for each day of data collection by the following method: The deviation score from the overall six-day mean was determined for each measurement time for each spouse and for each variable. Absolute values of the differences between deviation scores were added to obtain an index of desynchrony in that variable for the day. A daily mean of interpersonal conflict scores for both partners was also calculated. The hypotheses that a desynchrony between partners in body temperature rhythm and in level of activation rhythm would be positively related to conflict were tested by the Pearson product moment correlation. Obtained coefficient; were not significant at the .05 level. PMID:254897

  5. Effect of recreational physical activity on insulin levels in Mexican/Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Macias-Cervantes, Maciste H; Malacara, Juan M; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia; Díaz-Cisneros, Francisco J

    2009-10-01

    The effect of increased recreational physical activity in children on insulin levels has not yet been studied. We carried out a randomized controlled trial in 76 children 6-9 years old, 32 of them increased their physical activity and 30 maintained the same level. In the intervention group, after a week of baseline, recreational activity three times/week was programmed for 12 weeks. We compared insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, glucose, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, and body mass index in both groups. Thereafter, we compared groups of normal weight, overweight, and with obesity in the experimental group. The group of recreational activity increased their median daily steps (15,329 to 19,910) and decreased insulin (p < 0.001) and HOMA index (4.36 vs. 2.39, p < 0.001). The diminution of insulin levels was more significant in the overweight group (p < 0.007). In conclusion, in our group, children who increased physical activity during 12 weeks decrease insulin levels and insulin resistance without change in other metabolic and anthropometric variables.

  6. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormone levels and of motor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahabrach, Hanan; Piedrafita, Blanca; Ayad, Abdelmalik; El Mlili, Nisrin; Errami, Mohammed; Felipo, Vicente; Llansola, Marta

    2010-05-15

    Patients with liver cirrhosis may present hepatic encephalopathy with a wide range of neurological disturbances and alterations in sleep quality and in the sleep-wake circadian rhythm. Hyperammonemia is a main contributor to the neurological alterations in hepatic encephalopathy. We have assessed, in an animal model of chronic hyperammonemia without liver failure, the effects of hyperammonemia per se on the circadian rhythms of motor activity, temperature, and plasma levels of adrenal corticosteroid hormones. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and of cortisol and corticosterone levels in blood. Different types of motor activity are affected differentially. Hyperammonemia significantly alters the rhythm of spontaneous ambulatory activity, reducing strongly ambulatory counts and slightly average velocity during the night (the active phase) but not during the day, resulting in altered circadian rhythms. In contrast, hyperammonemia did not affect wheel running at all, indicating that it affects spontaneous but not voluntary activity. Vertical activity was affected only very slightly, indicating that hyperammonemia does not induce anxiety. Hyperammonemia abolished completely the circadian rhythm of corticosteroid hormones in plasma, completely eliminating the peaks of cortisol and corticosterone present in control rats at the start of the dark period. The data reported show that chronic hyperammonemia, similar to that present in patients with liver cirrhosis, alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormones and of motor activity. This suggests that hyperammonemia would be a relevant contributor to the alterations in corticosteroid hormones and in circadian rhythms in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  7. The vital activity of organisms in infralow frequency magnetic fields. 5. Isolated blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Khizhenkov, P.K.; Zinkovich, I.I.; Bilobrov, V.M.

    1995-07-01

    Results are presented of experimental investigations of the effect of alternating magnetic fields H of various amplitudes, shapes, and frequencies on the osmotic resistance of erythrocytes (ORE), the phagocytic activity of leukocytes (PAL), the malonic dialdehyde accumulation (MDA), and the albumen escape to the incubative medium. The specificity and intraspecific variability of the ORE and PAL characteristics are also shown. Under the effect of H the albumen escape was noted to decrease while the MDA concentration became larger.

  8. Interleukin 35 Synovial Fluid Levels Are Associated with Disease Activity of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Šenolt, Ladislav; Šumová, Barbora; Jandová, Romana; Hulejová, Hana; Mann, Heřman; Pavelka, Karel; Vencovský, Jiří; Filková, Mária

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study the association of systemic and local interleukin-35 (IL-35) levels in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods 37 patients with treatment naïve early RA, 49 with established RA and 29 control patients with osteoarthritis (OA) were studied. Serum and paired synovial fluid samples were analysed for IL-35. Disease activity of RA patients was assessed according to the 28-Joint Count Disease Activity Score (DAS28). Results The levels of serum IL-35 were significantly higher in patients with treatment naïve early RA compared to those with established disease and control OA subjects. In addition, serum levels of IL-35 significantly decreased 12 weeks after initiation of glucocorticoids and conventional synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs in patients with treatment naïve early RA. Synovial fluid IL-35 levels were significantly higher in RA compared to OA patients, were significantly elevated compared to serum counterparts and correlated with synovial fluid leukocyte count (r=0.412; p<0.01), serum CRP levels (r=0.362; p<0.05) and DAS28 (r=0.430, p<0.01). Conclusion This is the first study showing elevated circulating levels of IL-35 in treatment naïve early RA, its significant decrease after treatment initiation and positive association between increased synovial fluid IL-35 and disease activity in patients with long-lasting RA. PMID:26204444

  9. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and insulin levels in various insulin resistance states.

    PubMed

    Scelles, V; Raccah, D; Alessi, M C; Vialle, J M; Juhan-Vague, I; Vague, P

    1992-01-01

    Among obese insulin resistant subjects plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI 1) levels are closely associated with fasting insulin levels in cross sectional as well as intervention studies. Insulin concentration by itself does not seem to modulate PAI 1 levels at least in acute conditions. PAI 1 levels could be more directly related to the insulin resistant state than to hyperinsulinaemia. To elucidate further this phenomenon we compared insulin, triglyceride and PAI 1 levels in twenty control subjects and in three groups of patients presenting insulin resistance 14 obese subjects, 6 patients with Cushing disease and 7 with acromegaly. None of the tested subjects was diabetic. Fasting insulin levels were elevated in obese (21.4 +/- 8.0) hypercortisolic (20.3 +/- 11.0) and acromegalic patients (16.1 +/- 5.0) compared to controls (9.2 +/- 3.0 microU/ml, m +/- SD). PAI activity and PAI 1 antigen levels were elevated in the obese group only (34.3 +/- 13.0 for PAI 1 activity) and not in the others: 10.2 +/- 10.0, 7.0 +/- 4.6 I U/l for hypercortisolic and acromegalic patients respectively (normal controls 9.7 +/- 5.4). Triglyceride levels were also elevated among obese subjects 2.2 +/- 1.3 vs 1.1 +/- 0.4 mM/l in the controls; they were slightly higher than normal but not significantly in the hypercortisolic (1.5 +/- 0.6) and acromegalic (1.43 +/- 0.6 mM/l) patients. The mechanism of insulin resistance is different in the three conditions studied here. This may explain why elevated PAI 1 concentration are restricted to the common form of insulin resistance as seen in obese subjects. Therefore insulin resistant state per se is not associated with elevated PAI 1 levels.

  10. Cascading activation from lexical processing to letter-level processing in written word production.

    PubMed

    Buchwald, Adam; Falconer, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of language production have identified processes involved in producing language and the presence and type of interaction among those processes. In the case of spoken language production, consensus has emerged that there is interaction among lexical selection processes and phoneme-level processing. This issue has received less attention in written language production. In this paper, we present a novel analysis of the writing-to-dictation performance of an individual with acquired dysgraphia revealing cascading activation from lexical processing to letter-level processing. The individual produced frequent lexical-semantic errors (e.g., chipmunk → SQUIRREL) as well as letter errors (e.g., inhibit → INBHITI) and had a profile consistent with impairment affecting both lexical processing and letter-level processing. The presence of cascading activation is suggested by lower letter accuracy on words that are more weakly activated during lexical selection than on those that are more strongly activated. We operationalize weakly activated lexemes as those lexemes that are produced as lexical-semantic errors (e.g., lethal in deadly → LETAHL) compared to strongly activated lexemes where the intended target word (e.g., lethal) is the lexeme selected for production. PMID:25163539

  11. [Comparison of eating habits among students according to sex and level of physical activity].

    PubMed

    Łagowska, Karolina; Woźniewicz, Małgorzata; Jeszka, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate nutritional habits of high school students, depending on their sex and physical activity. The investigated population included 147 students in age of 17.5 +/- 1.5 y (girls DZ = 98, boys CH = 49) with different level of physical activity (athletes SPO, moderate physical activity UAF, low physical activity NAF). Nutritional data were obtained by FFQ and calculated for selected food-groups and generally as young healthy eating index YHEI. International IPAQ was used to determine the level of physical activity and anthropometric measured were conducted to estimated BMI and body fat status. It was indicated the YHEI in athletes was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to rest of students. Moreover, a significant difference (p < 0.05) in YHEI in DZ compared to CH was also found. The significant differences (p < 0.05) in the frequency of consumption of red meat, vegetable oil and sweetned drinks was revealed between DZ and CH adolescents. The frequency of consumption of vegetable oil, fast - foods, sweets, alcoholic drinks, energy drinks and isotonic drinks varied with the level of physical activity. Frequency of consumption of sweets negatively correlated with skinfold thickness in DZ, whereas positive correlation between consumption frequency of energy drinks, BMI and skinfold thickness was found in CH. The results show, that nutritional habits of the athletes was most approached to nutritional guidelines. CH, nutritional habits may predicted to overweight and obesity in CH group more distinctly than in DZ group.

  12. Quality of Life in Patients With Brain Metastases Using the EORTC QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL

    SciTech Connect

    Caissie, Amanda; Nguyen, Janet; Chen, Emily; Zhang Liying; Sahgal, Arjun; Clemons, Mark; Kerba, Marc; Arnalot, Palmira Foro; Danjoux, Cyril; Tsao, May; Barnes, Elizabeth; Holden, Lori; Danielson, Brita; Chow, Edward

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The 20-item European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Brain Neoplasm (QLQ-BN20) is a validated quality-of-life (QOL) questionnaire for patients with primary brain tumors. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 15 Palliative (QLQ-C15-PAL) core palliative questionnaire is a 15-item version of the core 30-item QLQ-C30 and was developed to decrease the burden on patients with advanced cancer. The combination of the QLQ-BN20 and QLQ-C30 to assess QOL may be too burdensome for patients. The primary aim of this study was to assess QOL in patients before and after treatment for brain metastases using the QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL, a version of the QLQ-BN20 questionnaire with 2 additional questions assessing cognitive functioning that were not addressed in the QLQ-C15-PAL. Methods and Materials: Patients with brain metastases completed the QLQ-C15-PAL and QLQ-BN20+2 questionnaires to assess QOL before and 1 month after radiation. Linear regression analysis was used to assess changes in QOL scores over time, as well as to explore associations between the QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL scales, patient demographics, and clinical variables. Spearman correlation assessed associations between the QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL scales. Results: Among 108 patients, the majority (55%) received whole-brain radiotherapy only, with 65% of patients completing follow-up at 1 month after treatment. The most prominent symptoms at baseline were future uncertainty (QLQ-BN20+2) and fatigue (QLQ-C15-PAL). After treatment, significant improvement was seen for the QLQ-C15-PAL insomnia scale, as well as the QLQ-BN20+2 scales of future uncertainty, visual disorder, and concentration difficulty. Baseline Karnofsky Performance Status was negatively correlated to QLQ-BN20+2 motor dysfunction but positively related to QLQ-C15-PAL physical functioning and QLQ-BN20+2 cognitive functioning at

  13. Investigation of the Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Mutlu; Ozkan, Ali; Kul, Murat; Bozkus, Taner

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship of physical activity (PA) level and healthy life-style behaviors in academic staff in Bartin University, Turkey. The short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was administered for the determination of physical activity level of academic staff. Their PA levels were…

  14. Neighborhood level health risk assessment of lead paint removal activities from elevated steel bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, R.F.; Cohen, J.T.; Bowers, T.

    1999-07-01

    The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) has adopted strict containment and monitoring procedures during paint removal activities on its bridges because of the increasing awareness about lead poisoning in children in urban environments and the potential risk of lead-based paint releases during those activities. NYCDOT owns nearly 800 bridges scattered throughout New York City. Before undertaking paint removal activities as part of its ongoing preventive maintenance and rehabilitation program, NYCDOT recently conducted an analysis to determine the public health risk posed to children living near them. The analysis the first of its kind to assess the actual public health risk potential during both routine operations and upset conditions, or accidental releases evaluated the total and incremental blood lead levels from paint removal activities on more than 5,000 children from 6 months to 6 years old. Increases in baseline blood lead levels were estimated using several models, including EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model. This model estimates steady-state blood lead levels in children, reflecting exposure to lead in multiple media over an extended period of time. Increases in lead exposure from paint removal activities in the area surrounding the bridges was estimated using EPA's Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model to calculate ambient air and deposition levels. Potential releases from the containment and ancillary equipment used in the paint removal process were modeled based on different release scenarios ranging from routine operations to complete failure of containment. To estimate the paint removal activities' contribution to long-term exterior dust lead levels (and its related interior component), a stochastic simulation model was developed for each block in the study area.

  15. High-resolution genetic mapping of mammalian motor activity levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Kas, M J H; de Mooij-van Malsen, J G; de Krom, M; van Gassen, K L I; van Lith, H A; Olivier, B; Oppelaar, H; Hendriks, J; de Wit, M; Groot Koerkamp, M J A; Holstege, F C P; van Oost, B A; de Graan, P N E

    2009-02-01

    The generation of motor activity levels is under tight neural control to execute essential behaviors, such as movement toward food or for social interaction. To identify novel neurobiological mechanisms underlying motor activity levels, we studied a panel of chromosome substitution (CS) strains derived from mice with high (C57BL/6J strain) or low motor activity levels (A/J strain) using automated home cage behavioral registration. In this study, we genetically mapped the expression of baseline motor activity levels (horizontal distance moved) to mouse chromosome 1. Further genetic mapping of this trait revealed an 8.3-Mb quantitative trait locus (QTL) interval. This locus is distinct from the QTL interval for open-field anxiety-related motor behavior on this chromosome. By data mining, an existing phenotypic and genotypic data set of 2445 genetically heterogeneous mice (http://gscan.well.ox.ac.uk/), we confirmed linkage to the peak marker at 79 970 253 bp and refined the QTL to a 312-kb interval containing a single gene (A830043J08Rik). Sequence analysis showed a nucleotide deletion in the 3' untranslated region of the Riken gene. Genome-wide microarray gene expression profiling in brains of discordant F(2) individuals from CS strain 1 showed a significant upregulation of Epha4 in low-active F(2) individuals. Inclusion of a genetic marker for Epha4 confirmed that this gene is located outside of the QTL interval. Both Epha4 and A830043J08Rik are expressed in brain motor circuits, and similar to Epha4 mutants, we found linkage between reduced motor neurons number and A/J chromosome 1. Our findings provide a novel QTL and a potential downstream target underlying motor circuitry development and the expression of physical activity levels.

  16. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina; Elias, Merrill; Alkerwi, Ala’a; Buckley, Jonathon

    2015-01-01

    Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972), and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX) (n = 1331) were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials. PMID:26393650

  17. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina; Elias, Merrill; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Buckley, Jonathon

    2015-09-18

    Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972), and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX) (n = 1331) were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials.

  18. Force-endurance capabilities of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressure levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    The human hand is a very useful multipurpose tool in all environments. However, performance capabilities are compromised considerably when gloves are donned. This is especially true to extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves. The primary intent was to answer the question of how long a person can perform tasks requiring certain levels of exertion. The objective was to develop grip force-endurance relations. Six subjects participated in a factorial experiment involving three hand conditions, three pressure differentials, and four levels of force exertion. The results indicate that, while the force that could be exerted depended on the glove, pressure differential, and the level of exertion, the endurance time at any exertion level depended just on the level of exertion expressed as a percentage of maximum exertion possible at that condition. The impact of these findings for practitioners as well as theoreticians is discussed.

  19. Low level activity determination by means of gamma spectrometry with respect to the natural background fluctuation.

    PubMed

    Dragounová, Lenka; Rulík, Petr

    2013-11-01

    The determination of low level activities of natural radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series by gamma-spectrometry faces the problem of proper natural background subtraction. Background fluctuation can cause differences in activity determination. Also the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of natural and artificial radionuclides can be influenced by background fluctuation. In this paper, results of the background fluctuation of shielded HPGe detectors with relative efficiency of 50-150% are presented together with the assessment of its influence on the determination of natural and artificial radionuclides.

  20. [Potential of pharmacological modulation of level and activity incretins on diabetes mellitus type 2].

    PubMed

    Spasov, A A; Chepljaeva, N I

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes data on the main approaches used for the search of biologically active compounds modulating the level and physiological activity of incretins. Currently two groups of drugs are used in clinical practice: they either replenish the deficit of incretins (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists) or inhibit the degradation processes (dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors). In addition, new groups of substances are actively searched. These include non-peptide agonists of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors, agonists/antagonists of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, the hybrid polypeptides based on glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon.

  1. Activities contributing to energy expenditure among Guatemalan adults

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Cria O; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D

    2007-01-01

    Background Guatemala has experienced a substantial increase in overweight and obesity in recent years, yet physical activity patterns and consequent energy expenditure are largely unexplored in this population. Methods To describe overall physical activity levels (PAL) and activities contributing to daily energy expenditure, we analyzed time spent in daily activities as reported by 985 women and 819 men, living in rural and urban areas of Guatemala in 2002–04. Results Physical activity levels recommended to prevent obesity (PAL ≥ 1.70) differed by residence/occupation among men (agricultural-rural: 77%; nonagricultural-rural: 36%; urban: 24%; P < 0.01), but not women (rural: 2%; urban: 3%; P = 0.5). Median energy expenditure was higher among agricultural-rural men (44 MET*h/d; MET = metabolic equivalent) compared to nonagricultural-rural (37 MET*h/d) and urban men (35 MET*h/d; P < 0.01); energy expenditure was slightly lower among rural compared to urban women (34 MET*h/d vs. 35 MET*h/d; P < 0.01). Occupation was the largest contributor to energy expenditure (19–24 MET*h/d); among women and nonagricultural-rural and urban men this was primarily of a light intensity. Energy expenditure in sedentary activities ranged from 2 MET*h/d among rural women to 6 MET*h/d among agricultural-rural men. Any sports/exercise time was reported by 35% and 5% of men and women, respectively. Nevertheless, the majority of participants believed they were significantly active to stay healthy. Conclusion Overall, energy expenditure was low in the population not dedicated to agricultural occupations; an increased focus on active leisure-time behaviors may be needed to counterbalance reductions in energy expenditure consequent to sedentarization of primary occupations. PMID:17910754

  2. Effect of different levels of alcohol consumption on natural killer and lymphokine activated killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Klassen, L.W.; DeVasure, J.M.; Lemley-Gillespie, S.D.; Thiele, G.M. Omaha VA Hospital, NE )

    1991-03-11

    The effect of alcohol consumption on natural killer (NK) cell activity is controversial as both increased and decreased levels have been reported. It was the purpose of this study to determine the effects of feeding BDF1 mice different levels of alcohol on NK and lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell activity. After four-six weeks of chronic alcohol feeding, mice were sacrificed, spleen cells obtained and assayed for NK and IL-2 boosted NK activity against YAC-1 cells in a traditional {sup 51}chromium release assay. Cells were also cultured in the presence of IL-2 for five days and tested for cytolytic activity using P815 cells as targets. Cells from each group were passed over a nylon wool column and the adherent (AD) and nonadherent (NAD) populations collected and tested as above. Increased NK, 24 hour IL-2 boosted NK and 5 day LAK activity were observed only in the spleen cells obtained from mice on 20% alcohol. Also, NAD populations had a 2-4 fold higher lytic unit values (LU{sub 20}) at all levels of alcohol consumption and in all assays, as compared with the unseparated spleen cells. Analysis of cell surface markers on these three populations of cells show that there were differences in MAC-2, Asialo GM-1, Thy 1.2, B220 and NK 1.1 that may correlate with the differences observed in the cytolytic assays. These data suggest that different levels of alcohol affect the cytolytic activity of NK and LAK cells and may result from alterations in the cell subset populations.

  3. Hydrogen sulfide diminishes the levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin in activated mast cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Na-Ra; Moon, Phil-Dong; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2016-03-01

    Bamboo salt (BS) is a Korean traditional type of salt and has been reported to have therapeutic effects on allergic inflammation. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) aggravates inflammation in the pathogenesis of allergic reactions, such as allergic rhinitis (AR). To confirm an active compound of BS, we investigated the effect of sulfur, a compound of BS, on the levels of TSLP in a human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells and a mouse model of AR using hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH). We treated NaSH or BS in HMC-1 cells and activated the HMC-1 cells with phorbol myristate acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI). ELISA for the production measurement of TSLP, PCR for the mRNA expression measurement of TSLP, and western blot analysis for the expression measurement of upstream mediators were performed. Mice were treated with NaSH and sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). The levels of TSLP were measured in serum and nasal mucosa tissue in an OVA-induced AR mouse model. NaSH or BS diminished the production and mRNA expression of TSLP as well as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. NaSH or BS diminished the level of intracellular calcium in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. NaSH or BS reduced the expression and activity of caspase-1 in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. And NaSH or BS inhibited the expression of receptor interacting protein-2 and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. The translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus as well as the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα in the cytoplasm were diminished by NaSH or BS in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. Furthermore, NaSH inhibited the production of TSLP, IL-6, and IL-8 in TNF-α-activated HMC-1 cells. Finally, the administration of NaSH showed a decrease in number of rubs on mice with OVA-induced AR. And the levels of immunoglobulin E and TSLP in the serum and the level of TSLP in the

  4. Determinants of Activity Levels in African Americans With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J; Leiby, Benjamin E

    2016-01-01

    Engaging in cognitive, social, and physical activities may prevent cognitive decline. In a sample of older African Americans with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N=221), we investigated the cross-sectional relationships between activity levels and participants' demographic, clinical, and neuropsychological characteristics. The average age of participants was 75.4 years (SD, 7.0); 177 (80.1%) were women. Participation in cognitive/social activities was positively associated with education, depression, literacy, mobility, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), verbal learning, and subcomponents of executive function. A linear regression identified IADLs, education, depression, and verbal learning as independent predictors. Participation in physical activities was positively associated with sex, depression, IADLs, and subcomponents of executive function. An ordinal regression identified executive function and depression as independent correlates. These data suggest that unique characteristics are associated with cognitive/social and physical activities in older African Americans with MCI. These characteristics, coupled with low activity levels, may increase the risk of progression from MCI to dementia. Culturally relevant behavioral interventions to reduce cognitive decline in this high-risk population are needed.

  5. Tadpole swimming performance and activity affected by acute exposure to sublethal levels of carbaryl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    General activity and swimming performance (i.e., sprint speed and distance) of plains leopard frog tadpoles (Rana blairi) were examined after acute exposure to three sublethal concentrations of carbaryl (3.5, 5.0, and 7.2 mg/L). Both swimming performance and spontaneous swimming activity are important for carrying out life history functions (e.g., growth and development) and for escaping from predators. Measured tadpole activity diminished by nearly 90% at 3.5 mg/L carbaryl and completely ceased at 7.2 mg/L. Sprint speed and sprint distance also decreased significantly following exposure. Carbaryl affected both swimming performance and activity after just 24 h, suggesting that 24 h may be an adequate length of exposure to determine behavioral effects on tadpoles. Slight recovery of activity levels was noted at 24 and 48 h post-exposure; no recovery of swimming performance was observed. Reduction in activity and swimming performance may result in increased predation rates and, because activity is closely associated with feeding, may result in slowed growth leading to a failure to emerge before pond drying or an indirect reduction in adult fitness. Acute exposure to sublethal toxicants such as carbaryl may not only affect immediate survival of tadpoles but also impact critical life history functions and generate changes at the local population level.

  6. The effects of dopamine on antioxidant enzymes activities and reactive oxygen species levels in soybean roots

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Bruno Ribeiro; Siqueira-Soares, Rita de Cássia; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Marchiosi, Rogério; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    In the current work, we investigated the effects of dopamine, an neurotransmitter found in several plant species on antioxidant enzyme activities and ROS in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) roots. The effects of dopamine on SOD, CAT and POD activities, as well as H2O2, O2•−, melanin contents and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (pH 6.0), without or with 0.1 to 1.0 mM dopamine, in a growth chamber (25°C, 12 h photoperiod, irradiance of 280 μmol m−2 s−1) for 24 h. Significant increases in melanin content were observed. The levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation decreased at all concentrations of dopamine tested. The SOD activity increased significantly under the action of dopamine, while CT activity was inhibited and POD activity was unaffected. The results suggest a close relationship between a possible antioxidant activity of dopamine and melanin and activation of SOD, reducing the levels of ROS and damage on membranes of soybean roots. PMID:25482756

  7. Visual-Somatosensory Integration is Linked to Physical Activity Level in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Jeannette R; Dumas, Kristina; Holtzer, Roee

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining multisensory integration (MSI) in aging consistently demonstrate greater reaction time (RT) facilitation in old compared to young adults, but often fail to determine the utility of MSI. The aim of the current experiment was to further elucidate the utility of MSI in aging by determining its relationship to physical activity level. 147 non-demented older adults (mean age 77 years; 57% female) participated. Participants were instructed to make speeded responses to visual, somatosensory, and visual-somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Depending on the magnitude of the individuals' RT facilitation, participants were classified into a MSI or NO MSI group. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity scale. As predicted, RTs to VS stimuli were significantly shorter than those elicited to constituent unisensory conditions. Multisensory RT facilitation was a significant predictor of total number of physical activity days per month, with individuals in the NO MSI group reporting greater engagement in physical activities compared to those requiring greater RT facilitation.

  8. Effects of Varying Team Sizes on Physical Activity Levels of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudreault, Karen Lux; Cluphf, David; Russell, Jared; Lecheminant, James

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine physical activity levels among various team sizes for basketball and soccer in a C/UIPAP setting. Twenty-eight university physical education majors participated in the study. Participants engaged in three-on-three and five-on-five basketball and five-on-five and 11-on-11 soccer games. All games…

  9. Effects of Classroom-Based Energizers on Primary Grade Students' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Catherine Goffreda; DiPerna, James Clyde

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the effects of classroom-based exercise breaks (Energizers; Mahar, Kenny, Shields, Scales, & Collins, 2006) on students' physical activity levels during the school day. A multiple baseline design across first grade (N = 3) and second grade (N = 3) classrooms was used to examine the effects of the…

  10. Associations between Adolescents' Situational Motivation and Objectively-Determined Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Weihong; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the predictive strength of adolescents' situational motivation to their physical activity levels in physical education. Method: A total of 259 middle school students ranging from 11 to 14 years old participated in the study. Participants completed the Situational Motivation Scale in one class. Their PA levels…

  11. NEDD4 REGULATES PAX7 LEVELS PROMOTING ACTIVATION OF THE DIFFERENTIATION PROGRAM IN SKELETAL MUSCLE PRECURSORS

    PubMed Central

    Bustos, Francisco; de la Vega, Eduardo; Cabezas, Felipe; Thompson, James; Cornelison, DDW; Olwin, Bradley B.; Yates, John R.; Olguín, Hugo C.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Pax7 regulates skeletal muscle stem cell (satellite cells) specification and maintenance through various mechanisms, including repressing the activity of the muscle regulatory factor MyoD. Hence, Pax7-to-MyoD protein ratios can determine maintenance of the committed-undifferentiated state or activation of the differentiation program. Pax7 expression decreases sharply in differentiating myoblasts but is maintained in cells (re)acquiring quiescence, yet the mechanisms regulating Pax7 levels based on differentiation status are not well understood. Here we show that Pax7 levels are directly regulated by the ubiquitin-ligase Nedd4. Our results indicate that Nedd4 is expressed in quiescent and activated satellite cells, that Nedd4 and Pax7 physically interact during early muscle differentiation – correlating with Pax7 ubiquitination and decline – and that Nedd4 loss of function prevented this effect. Furthermore, even transient nuclear accumulation of Nedd4 induced a drop in Pax7 levels and precocious muscle differentiation. Consequently, we propose that Nedd4 functions as a novel Pax7 regulator, which activity is temporally and spatially controlled to modulate the Pax7 protein levels and therefore satellite cell fate. PMID:26304770

  12. No Easy Answers: Helping Children with Attention and Activity Level Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jerry; Eddowes, E. Anne; Kuby, Patricia

    Recent developments have increased the need for both theoretical and practical dialogues concerning children's attention and activity levels. This book explores the complex issues and concerns in helping children with attention deficit disorder. The book is organized in three major sections. The first section describes current issues about…

  13. Genetic Influences on Activity Level in Early Childhood: Do Situations Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saudino, Kimberly J.; Zapfe, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Although genetic influences on individual differences in activity level (AL) are well documented, few studies have considered the etiology of AL from a contextual perspective. In the present study, cross-situational and context-specific genetic effects on individual differences in AL at age 2 were examined. The AL of 312 twin pairs (144…

  14. Metabolic factors, adipose tissue, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in Type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) production by adipose tissue is increased in obesity, and its circulating levels are high in type 2 diabetes. PAI-1 increases cardiovascular risk by favoring clot stability, interfering with vascular remodeling, or both. We investigated in obese diabetic per...

  15. Physical Activity Levels of Non-Overweight, Overweight, and Obese Children during Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathare, Neeti; Piche, Kelly; Nicosia, Andrea; Haskvitz, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) levels of young children classified by body mass index (BMI) (non-overweight, overweight, and obese) during physical education classes. Method: Participants included 82 children (45 boys, 37 girls; 7.5 ± 1.2 years). PA was determined by the number of steps measured with…

  16. Physical Activity Levels in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Are Extremely Low

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Reis, Debora; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    This study measures physical activity levels in a representative population-based sample of older adults (aged [greater than or equal to]50 years) with intellectual disabilities. For this, the steps/day of all 1050 participants of the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disabilities study (HA-ID; a study conducted among three Dutch healthcare…

  17. Biorhythms and Activity Level of Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Persons Diagnosed Hyperactive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Michael G.

    1973-01-01

    Five hyperactive, profoundly retarded children (two male and three female), 7 to 10 years of age who played in single sex groups in a playroom designed to elicit play behavior, were monitored by a heart rate telemetry system to measure biorhythms in the children's activity level. (Author/MC)

  18. Physical Activity Levels in Coeducational and Single-Gender High School Physical Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James; Ratliffe, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of coeducational (coed) and single-gender game-play settings on the activity levels of Caucasian and African American high school physical education students. Students participated in flag football, ultimate Frisbee, and soccer units. Classes were as follows: there were two coed classes, two…

  19. EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF VITELLOGENIN EXPRESSION IN DIFFERENT AQUATIC MESOCOSM TROPIC LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic mesocosms were dosed with an environmentally relevant concentration of 17-a-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) to study the significance of trophic status (N, P levels) on the attenuation and bioavailability of synthetic estrogens in aquatic ecosystems. Estrogenic activity was asse...

  20. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and juvenile idiopathic arthritis: is there an association with disease activity?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the association between serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), to determine the prevalence of vitamin D (VD) deficiency [25(OH)D=19 ng/ml] and insufficiency [25(OH)D 20-29 ng/ml], and to determine factors associated with ...

  1. Muscular activity level during pedalling is not affected by crank inertial load.

    PubMed

    Duc, S; Villerius, V; Bertucci, W; Pernin, J N; Grappe, F

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of gear ratio (GR) and thus crank inertial load (CIL), on the activity levels of lower limb muscles. Twelve competitive cyclists performed three randomised trials with their own bicycle equipped with a SRM crankset and mounted on an Axiom ergometer. The power output ( approximately 80% of maximal aerobic power) and the pedalling cadence were kept constant for each subject across all trials but three different GR (low, medium and high) were indirectly obtained for each trial by altering the electromagnetic brake of the ergometer. The low, medium and high GR (mean +/- SD) resulted in CIL of 44 +/- 3.7, 84 +/- 6.5 and 152 +/- 17.9 kg.m(2), respectively. Muscular activity levels of the gluteus maximus (GM), the vastus medialis (VM), the vastus lateralis (VL), the rectus femoris (RF), the medial hamstrings (MHAM), the gastrocnemius (GAS) and the soleus (SOL) muscles were quantified and analysed by mean root mean square (RMS(mean)). The muscular activity levels of the measured lower limb muscles were not significantly affected when the CIL was increased approximately four fold. This suggests that muscular activity levels measured on different cycling ergometers (with different GR and flywheel inertia) can be compared among each other, as they are not influenced by CIL. PMID:16032416

  2. Influence of a Parent Resource Manual on Physical Activity Levels of Children with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Barbara L.; Lieberman, Lauren J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of a parent resource manual on physical and sedentary activity levels of children with visual impairments. Children and youth with visual impairments, aged 9-23 years (7 girls, 11 boys), attended a 1-week summer sports camp in New York state. The authors found that 1 month after they provided the families of the…

  3. Determining Intensity Levels of Selected Wii Fit Activities in College Aged Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Joshua D.; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda; Simonson, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of Nintendo Wii Fit games using indirect calorimetry. Twenty-five college students completed Wii Fit activity sessions at two difficulty levels within aerobics, strength, and yoga categories. Resting metabolic rate and exercise oxygen uptake were measured, and metabolic equivalents were…

  4. Measuring Students' Physical Activity Levels: Validating SOFIT for Use with High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Mars, Hans; Rowe, Paul J.; Schuldheisz, Joel M.; Fox, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to validate the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) for measuring physical activity levels of high-school students. Thirty-five students (21 girls and 14 boys from grades 9-12) completed a standardized protocol including lying, sitting, standing, walking, running, curl-ups, and push-ups. Heart rates and…

  5. The Influence of Activation Level on Belief Bias in Relational Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Adrian P.

    2013-01-01

    A novel explanation of belief bias in relational reasoning is presented based on the role of working memory and retrieval in deductive reasoning, and the influence of prior knowledge on this process. It is proposed that belief bias is caused by the believability of a conclusion in working memory which influences its activation level, determining…

  6. Activity Level as a Dimension of Temperament in Toddlers: Its Relevance for the Organismic Specificity Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandour, Mary Jane

    1989-01-01

    Findings indicated a significant interaction between activity level and intensity of stimulation in predicting exploratory competence and total exploration among 52 toddlers of 15 months of age who were observed in their homes 6 times over a 4-week period. (RH)

  7. Sources of Continuity and Change in Activity Level in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2012-01-01

    Actigraphs and parent and observer ratings were used to explore genetic influences on continuity and change in activity level (AL) in early childhood. Over 300 pairs of twins wore actigraphs for a 48-hr period in the home and laboratory at ages 2 and 3. AL was genetically influenced at both ages with little evidence of differential heritability…

  8. Effects of an Aerobic Activity Program on the Cholesterol Levels of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Rimmer, James H.

    1997-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the effects of a 15-week aerobic activity program on high school students' cholesterol levels. Analysis of control and participating students indicated that there were significant reductions in total cholesterol in the training group. There were no significant differences between groups in high density lipoprotein…

  9. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Distance Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özkan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between physical activity levels and healthy life-style behaviors in distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University. In total, 526 distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University participated in this study voluntarily. The short form of International Physical…

  10. Environmental Influences on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels in Various Early-Learning Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderloo, Leigh M.; Tucker, Patricia; Johnson, Andrew M.; Burke, Shauna M.; Irwin, Jennifer D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to: (a) compare the physical activity (PA) levels (i.e., moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA] and total PA [TPA]) of preschoolers in 3 different early-learning environments (center-based childcare, home-based childcare, and full-day kindergarten [FDK]); and (b) assess which characteristics (e.g., play equipment, policies, etc.)…

  11. Physical Activity Levels of Overweight and Nonoverweight High School Students during Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined physical activity (PA) levels of overweight and nonoverweight African American and Caucasian students (n = 198) during game play in physical education classes. Methods: Body fat percentages (%BFs) were determined using the skinfold technique and Slaughter et al prediction equations. Girls were classified as…

  12. Ethnic and Socioeconomic Comparisons of Fitness, Activity Levels, and Barriers to Exercise in High School Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; Hall, Heather L.; Lock, Robyn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if high school females differed in individual measures of health-related physical fitness, barriers to exercise, or activity level based on ethnicity or socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional sample consisting of African American (28%), Hispanic (23%), and white (49%) female high school students, 46%…

  13. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level. 621.40 Section 621.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER...

  14. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level. 621.40 Section 621.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER...

  15. Camden active spaces: Does the construction of active school playgrounds influence children's physical activity levels? A longitudinal quasi-experiment protocol

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lee; Kipps, Courtney; Aggio, Daniel; Fox, Paul; Robinson, Nigel; Trend, Verena; Munnery, Suzie; Kelly, Barry; Hamer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is essential for every facet of children's health. However, physical activity levels in British children are low. The school environment is a promising setting to increase children's physical activity but limited empirical evidence exists on how a change in the outdoor physical school environment influences physical activity behaviour. The London Borough of Camden is redesigning seven existing school playgrounds to engage children to become more physically active. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the impact of the redesigned playgrounds on children's physical activity, well-being and physical function/fitness. Method and analysis This project will use a longitudinal quasi-experimental design. Seven experimental schools and one control school will take part. One baseline data collection session and two follow-ups will be carried out. Between baseline and follow-up, the experimental school playgrounds will be redesigned. At baseline, a series of fitness tests, anthropometric and questionnaire measurements, and 7-day objective physical activity monitoring (Actigraph accelerometer) will be carried out on children (aged 5–16 years). This will be repeated at follow-up. Changes in overall physical activity levels and levels during different times of the day (eg, school breaks) will be examined. Multilevel regression modelling will be used to analyse the data. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-review publications and scientific presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University College London Research Ethics Committee (Reference number: 4400/002). PMID:25232566

  16. Environmental noise levels affect the activity budget of the Florida manatee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Donaghay, Percy L.; Miller, James H.; Tyack, Peter L.

    2005-09-01

    Manatees inhabit coastal bays, lagoons, and estuaries because they are dependent on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters. Food requirements force manatees to occupy the same areas in which human activities are the greatest. Noise produced from human activities has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. This study quantifies the behavioral responses of manatees to both changing levels of ambient noise and transient noise sources. Results indicate that elevated environmental noise levels do affect the overall activity budget of this species. The proportion of time manatees spend feeding, milling, and traveling in critical habitats changed as a function of noise level. More time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behaviors of feeding and traveling, while less time was spent milling when noise levels were highest. The animals also responded to the transient noise of approaching vessels with changes in behavioral state and movements out of the geographical area. This suggests that manatees detect and respond to changes in environmental noise levels. Whether these changes legally constitute harassment and produce biologically significant effects need to be addressed with hypothesis-driven experiments and long-term monitoring. [For Animal Bioacoustics Best Student Paper Award.

  17. Calpain expression in lymphoid cells. Increased mRNA and protein levels after cell activation.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Chakrabarti, A K; Barbosa, E; Hogan, E L; Banik, N L

    1995-02-10

    Although calpain is ubiquitously present in human tissues and is thought to play a role in demyelination, its activity is very low in resting normal lymphocytes. To determine the nature of calpain expression at the mRNA and protein levels in human lymphoid cells, we studied human T lymphocytic, B lymphocytic, and monocytic lines as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Stimulation of cells with the phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate and the calcium ionophore A23187 resulted in increased calpain mRNA and protein expression. Calpain mRNA expression is also increased in human T cells stimulated with anti-CD3. A dissociation between the increases of RNA and protein suggested that calpain could be released from the cells; the subsequent experiments showed its presence in the extracellular environment. 5,6-Dichloro-1b-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, a reversible inhibitor of mRNA synthesis, reduced calpain mRNA levels by 50-67% and protein levels by 72-91%. Its removal resulted in resumption of both calpain mRNA and protein synthesis. Cycloheximide, a translational inhibitor, reduced calpain protein levels by 77-81% and calpain mRNA levels by 96% in activated THP-1 cells. Interferon-gamma induced calpain mRNA and protein in U-937 and THP-1 cells. Dexamethasone increased mRNA expression in THP-1 cells. Our results indicate that activation of lymphoid cells results in de novo synthesis and secretion of calpain. PMID:7852311

  18. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term. PMID:25520676

  19. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.

  20. Effect of low-level laser therapy on the modulation of the mitochondrial activity of macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Nadhia H. C.; Ferrari, Raquel A. M.; Silva, Daniela F. T.; Nunes, Fabio D.; Bussadori, Sandra K.; Fernandes, Kristianne P. S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Macrophages play a major role among the inflammatory cells that invade muscle tissue following an injury. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has long been used in clinical practice to accelerate the muscle repair process. However, little is known regarding its effect on macrophages. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of LLLT on the mitochondrial activity (MA) of macrophages. METHOD: J774 macrophages were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon - gamma (IFN-γ) (activation) for 24 h to simulate an inflammatory process, then irradiated with LLLT using two sets of parameters (780 nm; 70 mW; 3 J/cm2 and 660 nm; 15 mW; 7.5 J/cm2). Non-activated/non-irradiated cells composed the control group. MA was evaluated by the cell mitochondrial activity (MTT) assay (after 1, 3 and 5 days) in three independent experiments. The data were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: After 1 day of culture, activated and 780 nm irradiated macrophages showed lower MA than activated macrophages, but activated and 660 nm irradiated macrophages showed MA similar to activated cells. After 3 days, activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm) macrophages showed greater MA than activated macrophages, and after 5 days, the activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm) macrophages showed similar MA to the activated macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that 660 nm and 780 nm LLLT can modulate the cellular activation status of macrophages in inflammation, highlighting the importance of this resource and of the correct determination of its parameters in the repair process of skeletal muscle. PMID:25076002

  1. Dietary selenium increases the antioxidant levels and ATPase activity in the arteries and veins of poultry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Changyu; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jinxin; Luan, Yilin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. It has been shown that oxidative levels and ATPase activity were involved in Se deficiency diseases in humans and mammals; however, the mechanism by how Se influences the oxidative levels and ATPase activity in the poultry vasculature is unclear. We assessed the effects of dietary Se deficiency on the oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyl radical) and ATPase (Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Ca(++)-ATPase, Mg(++)-ATPase, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase) activity in broiler poultry. A total of 40 broilers (1-day old) were randomly divided into a Se-deficient group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.08 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.20 mg/kg Se). Then, arteries and veins were collected following euthanasia when typical symptoms of Se deficiency appeared. Antioxidant indexes and ATPase activity were evaluated using standard assays in arteries and veins. The results indicated that superoxide dismutase activity in the artery according to dietary Se deficiency was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The catalase activity in the veins and hydroxyl radical inhibition in the arteries and veins by dietary Se deficiency were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The Se-deficient group showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) tendency in Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, Ca(++)-ATPase activity, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase activity. There were strong correlations between antioxidant indexes and Ca(++)-ATPase activity. Thus, these results indicate that antioxidant indexes and ATPases may have special roles in broiler artery and vein injuries under Se deficiency. PMID:26637493

  2. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; p<0.001) whereas in red cabbage it was significantly reduced (34.6%; p<0.001). In the kale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity.

  3. Tissue plasminogen activator inhibits NMDA-receptor-mediated increases in calcium levels in cultured hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Samuel D.; Lee, Tet Woo; Christie, David L.; Birch, Nigel P.

    2015-01-01

    NMDA receptors (NMDARs) play a critical role in neurotransmission, acting as essential mediators of many forms of synaptic plasticity, and also modulating aspects of development, synaptic transmission and cell death. NMDAR-induced responses are dependent on a range of factors including subunit composition and receptor location. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease that has been reported to interact with NMDARs and modulate NMDAR activity. In this study we report that tPA inhibits NMDAR-mediated changes in intracellular calcium levels in cultures of primary hippocampal neurons stimulated by low (5 μM) but not high (50 μM) concentrations of NMDA. tPA also inhibited changes in calcium levels stimulated by presynaptic release of glutamate following treatment with bicucculine/4-aminopyridine (4-AP). Inhibition was dependent on the proteolytic activity of tPA but was unaffected by α2-antiplasmin, an inhibitor of the tPA substrate plasmin, and receptor-associated protein (RAP), a pan-ligand blocker of the low-density lipoprotein receptor, two proteins previously reported to modulate NMDAR activity. These findings suggest that tPA can modulate changes in intracellular calcium levels in a subset of NMDARs expressed in cultured embryonic hippocampal neurons through a mechanism that involves the proteolytic activity of tPA and synaptic NMDARs. PMID:26500501

  4. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    PubMed

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-01-01

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge. PMID:26528563

  5. Age-related differences in actual and perceived levels of physical activity in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Labbrozzi, Dina; Bortoli, Laura; Bertollo, Maurizio; Bucci, Ines; Doria, Christian; Robazza, Claudio

    2012-06-01

    Age-related differences in actual and perceived physical activity were investigated in a sample of adolescent girls, also considering the relationship between physical activity and motor abilities. Self-reported physical activity was measured in 11-year-old (n=66) and 13-year-old (n=52) girls by means of the physical activity questionnaire-children form, and actual levels of activity were assessed by means of the Lifecorder uniaxial accelerometer. The Sit-and-Reach Test was employed to estimate flexibility, while lower limb strength was measured by squat jump and counter-movement jump tests. Weight and height were measured, and sex-specific age-related body mass index cutoff points were used to identify overweight and obesity. Findings showed a drop in objective vigorous physical activity in older girls, which was also reflected in the physical activity questionnaire. Contrary to expectations, no association was found between motor abilities and measured physical activity. Results highlight the need to understand the reasons why girls progressively reduce their involvement in physical activity as they get older, so as to plan interventions aimed at preventing this decline.

  6. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    PubMed

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  7. Cyclodextrin complexed [60]fullerene derivatives with high levels of photodynamic activity by long wavelength excitation.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Atsushi; Iizuka, Tatsuya; Maekubo, Naotake; Aono, Ryota; Kikuchi, Jun-Ichi; Akiyama, Motofusa; Konishi, Toshifumi; Ogawa, Takuya; Ishida-Kitagawa, Norihiro; Tatebe, Hisashi; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-01

    We have evaluated the photodynamic activities of C60 derivative·γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CDx) complexes and demonstrated that they were significantly higher than those of the pristine C60 and C70·γ-CDx complexes under photoirradiation at long wavelengths (610-720 nm), which represent the optimal wavelengths for photodynamic therapy (PDT). In particular, the cationic C60 derivative·γ-CDx complex had the highest photodynamic ability because the complex possessed the ability to generate high levels of (1)O2 and provided a higher level of intracellular uptake. The photodynamic activity of this complex was greater than that of photofrin, which is the most widely used of the known clinical photosensitizers. These findings therefore provide a significant level of information toward the optimization of molecular design strategies for the synthesis of fullerene derivatives for PDT. PMID:24900742

  8. Genetic variants in ABCA1 promoter affect transcription activity and plasma HDL level in pigs.

    PubMed

    Dang, Xiao-yong; Chu, Wei-wei; Shi, Heng-chuan; Yu, Shi-gang; Han, Hai-yin; Gu, Shu-Hua; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-25

    Excess accumulation of cholesterol in plasma may result in coronary artery disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to apolipoproteins, a process necessary for plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation. Higher plasma levels of HDL are associated with lower risk for cardiovascular disease. Studies of human disease and animal models had shown that an increased hepatic ABCA1 activity relates to an enhanced plasma HDL level. In this study, we hypothesized that functional mutations in the ABCA1 promoter in pigs may affect gene transcription activity, and consequently the HDL level in plasma. The promoter region of ABCA1 was comparatively scanned by direct sequencing with pool DNA of high- and low-HDL groups (n=30 for each group). Two polymorphisms, c. - 608A>G and c. - 418T>A, were revealed with reverse allele distribution in the two groups. The two polymorphisms were completely linked and formed only G-A or A-T haplotypes when genotyped in a larger population (n=526). Furthermore, we found that the G-A/G-A genotype was associated with higher HDL and ABCA1 mRNA level than A-T/A-T genotype. Luciferase assay also revealed that G-A haplotype promoter had higher activity than A-T haplotype. Single-nucleotide mutant assay showed that c.-418T>A was the causal mutation for ABCA1 transcription activity alteration. Conclusively, we identified two completely linked SNPs in porcine ABCA1 promoter region which have influence on the plasma HDL level by altering ABCA1 gene transcriptional activity.

  9. Increasing Level of Leisure Physical Activity Could Reduce the Risk of Hip Fracture in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Ke; Liu, Xiao-yu; Wu, Xu-hua; Li, Xiao-liu; Xia, Qing-quan; Chen, Jiong; Yin, Xiao-fan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We carried out the study to investigate and quantitatively assess the potential association between current level of physical activity and the risk of osteoporosis hip fracture in older women. Relevant publications before October 2015 were identified using the PubMed and Ovid searching tools. A dose–response meta-analysis was carried out to combine and analysis results. Fourteen prospective studies were included in the meta-analysis. A general analysis of 9 studies showed a significant inverse relationship between increasing level of physical activity and risk of hip fracture in older women [relative risk (RR) = 0.93, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.91–0.96]. The result of a sensitivity analysis was consistent with the general analysis (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.93–0.96). The association between increasing level of physical activity and risk of wrist fracture was not statistically significant in a general analysis of three studies (RR = 1.004, 95% CI: 0.98–1.03). A potential direct association between increasing level of physical activity and risk of wrist fracture was observed after removing 1 study with the greatest weight (RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00–1.03). No significant publication bias was observed in our analysis. Our results show that increasing level of physical activity within an appropriate range may reduce the risk of hip fracture but not the risk of wrist fracture in older women. PMID:26986111

  10. The relationship between active ghrelin levels and human obesity involves alterations in resting energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Marzullo, Paolo; Verti, Barbara; Savia, Giulio; Walker, Gillian E; Guzzaloni, Gabriele; Tagliaferri, Mariantonella; Di Blasio, Annamaria; Liuzzi, Antonio

    2004-02-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric hormone that exerts a stimulatory effect on appetite and fat accumulation. Ser(3) octanoylation is regarded as a prerequisite for ghrelin biological activity, although des-octanoylated forms may retain biological functions in vitro. Circulating ghrelin levels are usually low in obesity and in states of positive energy balance. Hence, the aim of our study was to analyze plasma active and serum total ghrelin levels in 20 obese (ages, 22-42 yr; body mass index, 41.3 +/- 1.1 kg/m(2)) and 20 lean subjects (ages, 22-43 yr; body mass index, 22.4 +/- 0.6 kg/m(2)) as well as their relationship to measures of glucose homeostasis, body fat, and resting energy expenditure (REE). The measured/predicted REE percentage ratio was calculated to subdivide groups into those with positive (> or = 100% ) and negative (<100%) ratio values. In obese patients, plasma active (180 +/- 18 vs. 411 +/- 57 pg/ml; P < 0.001) and serum total ghrelin levels (3650 +/- 408 vs. 5263 +/- 643 pg/ml; P < 0.05) were significantly lower when compared with lean subjects. Hence, ghrelin activity, defined as the proportion of active over total ghrelin levels, was similarly reduced in the obese state (6.1 +/- 0.9% vs. 8.4 +/- 1%; P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between active and total ghrelin (r = 0.62; P < 0.001), and between total ghrelin and insulin (r = -0.53; P < 0.001) or insulin resistance using the homeostatis model of assessment-insulin resistance (r = -0.49; P < 0.001) approach. Significantly higher active ghrelin levels (214 +/- 22 vs. 159 +/- 30 pg/ml; P < 0.05) and ghrelin activity (8 +/- 1.7% vs. 4.9 +/- 0.9%; P < 0.05) were observed in patients with positive compared with negative measured/predicted REE ratio values. Our study shows that obesity is associated with an impairment of the entire ghrelin system. The observation that ghrelin is further decreased in cases of abnormal energy profit adds new evidence to the relationship between ghrelin activity and

  11. Locally constrained active contour: a region-based level set for ovarian cancer metastasis segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianfei; Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Shijun; Linguraru, Marius George; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of ovarian cancer metastases is clinically useful to evaluate tumor growth and determine follow-up treatment. We present a region-based level set algorithm with localization constraints to segment ovarian cancer metastases. Our approach is established on a representative region-based level set, Chan-Vese model, in which an active contour is driven by region competition. To reduce over-segmentation, we constrain the level set propagation within a narrow image band by embedding a dynamic localization function. The metastasis intensity prior is also estimated from image regions within the level set initialization. The localization function and intensity prior force the level set to stop at the desired metastasis boundaries. Our approach was validated on 19 ovarian cancer metastases with radiologist-labeled ground-truth on contrast-enhanced CT scans from 15 patients. The comparison between our algorithm and geodesic active contour indicated that the volume overlap was 75+/-10% vs. 56+/-6%, the Dice coefficient was 83+/-8% vs. 63+/-8%, and the average surface distance was 2.2+/-0.6mm vs. 4.4+/-0.9mm. Experimental results demonstrated that our algorithm outperformed traditional level set algorithms.

  12. Predator and prey activity levels jointly influence the outcome of long-term foraging bouts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Consistent interindividual differences in behavior (i.e., “behavioral types”) may be a key factor in determining the outcome of species interactions. Studies that simultaneously account for the behavioral types of individuals in multiple interacting species, such as predator–prey systems, may be particularly strong predictors of ecological outcomes. Here, we test the predator–prey locomotor crossover hypothesis, which predicts that active predators are more likely to encounter and consume prey with the opposing locomotor tendency. We test this hypothesis using intraspecific behavioral variation in both a predator and prey species as predictors of foraging outcomes. We use the old field jumping spider, Phidippus clarus (Araneae, Salticidae), and the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera, Gryllidae), as a model predator–prey system in laboratory mesocosm trials. Stable individual differences in locomotor tendencies were identified in both P. clarus and A. domesticus, and the outcome of foraging bouts depended neither on the average activity level of the predator nor on the average activity level of prey. Instead, an interaction between the activity level of spiders and crickets predicted spider foraging success and prey survivorship. Consistent with the locomotor crossover hypothesis, predators exhibiting higher activity levels consumed more prey when in an environment containing low-activity prey items and vice versa. This study highlights 1) the importance of intraspecific variation in determining the outcome of predator–prey interactions and 2) that acknowledging behavioral variation in only a single species may be insufficient to characterize the performance consequences of intraspecific trait variants. PMID:23935257

  13. Upper Limb Muscle and Brain Activity in Light Assembly Task on Different Load Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadry, Hilma Raimona; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md.; Taha, Zahari

    2010-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of load on upper limb muscles and brain activities in light assembly task. The task was conducted at two levels of load (Low and high). Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure upper limb muscle activities of twenty subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) was simultaneously recorded with EMG to record brain activities from Fz, Pz, O1 and O2 channels. The EMG Mean Power Frequency (MPF) of the right brachioradialis and the left upper trapezius activities were higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task. The EMG MPF values also decrease as time increases, that reflects muscle fatigue. Mean power of the EEG alpha bands for the Fz-Pz channels were found to be higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task, while for the O1-O2 channels, they were higher on the low-load task than on the high-load task. These results indicated that the load levels effect the upper limb muscle and brain activities. The high-load task will increase muscle activities on the right brachioradialis and the left upper tapezius muscles, and will increase the awareness and motivation of the subjects. Whilst the low-load task can generate drowsiness earlier. It signified that the longer the time and the more heavy of the task, the subjects will be more fatigue physically and mentally.

  14. Stress analysis at the interface between Ni-P coating and SiC p/Al substrate of space mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shaowen; Li, Libo; Zhang, Guangyu; Wang, Wuyi; Zhao, Xuezeng

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the mechanical properties at the interface of the coating-substrate system, which comprises the electroless nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coating and the aluminum matrix composite substrate reinforced by the silicon carbide particles (SiC p/Al), and is used for the space mirror. To estimate the adhesion of Ni-P coating on SiC p/Al substrate, the scratch adhesion testing has been performed by drawing a spherically tipped diamond indenter with a radius of 200 μm over the coated surface. The influence of the coating thickness on the interfacial stress induced by the inertial accelerations, temperature gradients and thermal soaks has been evaluated by simulation analysis based on the finite element method. The results of the scratch testing indicate that the adhesion strength of Ni-P coating to SiC p/Al composite is more than 3.0 GPa. Compared the maximum value of the interfacial stress obtained by simulation analysis with results of the scratch testing, it is can be seen that the mirror has enough safety margin. Furthermore, the most significant conclusion that can be drawn from this work is that the coating thickness should not exceed 45 μm in order to ensure the performance and reliability of Ni-P coating and SiC p/Al substrate system for space applications.

  15. "Do You Have a Brother? I Have Two!": The Nature of Questions Asked and Answered in Text-Focused Pen Pal Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Evering, Lea; Malloy, Jacquelynn A.; Gambrell, Linda B.

    2014-01-01

    Authentic learning experiences are those in which students engage with texts as well as the behaviors of reading and writing within contexts of real-world use beyond traditional academic use. This study provides quantitative analysis of how students (n = 200) engaged with an adult pen pal in a shared literacy experience. Findings indicate that…

  16. Measuring Early Spanish Literacy: Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the "Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Kindergarteners" in Spanish ("PALS español K")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Francis L.; Ford, Karen L.; Invernizzi, Marcia; Fan, Xitao

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the latent factor structure of the "Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Kindergarteners" in Spanish ("PALS español K"). Participants included 590 Spanish-speaking, public-school kindergarteners from five states. Three theoretically-guided factor structures were measured and tested with one half of our…

  17. Remedial Help in Inclusive Classrooms: Gender Differences in the Enhancement of Mathematics Achievement of Students through PAL (Peer-Assisted Learning)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obidoa, Mabel A.; Eskay, Michael; Onwubolu, Catherine O.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the effect of PAL (peer-assisted learning) on students' mathematics performance in Enugu State of Nigeria. It used pre-test and post-test non-randomized control group design. Four research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. The population was SS II (senior secondary school class II)…

  18. Effects of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL) catalyzes the first step in the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants, controlling biosynthesis of a variety of structural and defense compounds including monolignols that polymerize into lignin. Gaps remain in our understanding of how genetic alterations to this pathwa...

  19. Computer simulations of the experiments at RAL, LULI, and PALS carried out under HiPER including those performed at ILE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Yong-Joo

    2011-06-01

    Comparison of computer simulations applied to the experiments at RAL(UK), LULI(France), PALS(Czech Republic), and ILE(Japan) is given. Temporal evolution of densities, electron temperatures, compression/implosion velocities, are discussed using one dimensional hydrodynamic code (HYADES).

  20. "Did You Like Living in a Trailer? Why or Why Not?": Discourse and the Third Space in a Rural Pen Pal Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eppley, Karen; Shannon, Patrick; Gilbert, Lauren K.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes efforts in a U.S. teacher education program to raise the teacher candidates' awareness of how place impacts schooling. The preservice teachers and second graders exchanged pen pal letters based on books set in contemporary rural America. The teacher candidates enacted four major discourses in the correspondence: personal,…

  1. Benchmark dose approach for low-level lead induced haematogenesis inhibition and associations of childhood intelligences with ALAD activity and ALA levels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Ye, L X; Zhao, H H; Chen, J W; Zhou, Y K

    2011-04-15

    Lead (Pb) levels, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activities, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in blood, and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and coproporphyrin (CP) concentrations were measured for 318 environmental Pb exposed children recruited from an area of southeast China. The mean of blood lead (PbB) levels was 75.0μg/L among all subjects. Benchmark dose (BMD) method was conducted to present a lower PbB BMD (lower bound of BMD) of 32.4μg/L (22.7) based on ALAD activity than those based on the other three haematological indices, corresponding to a benchmark response of 1%. Childhood intelligence degrees were not associated significantly with ALAD activities or ALA levels. It was concluded that blood ALAD activity is a sensitive indicator of early haematological damage due to low-level Pb exposures for children.

  2. Temporal aspects of increases in eye-neck activation levels during visually deficient near work.

    PubMed

    Richter, Hans O; Camilla, Lodin; Forsman, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    In an experimental study two levels of oculomotor load were induced via optical trial lenses. Trapezius muscle activity was measured with bipolar surface electromyography and normalized to a submaximal contraction. Sixty-six subjects with a median age of 36 (range 19-47, std 8) viewed a black and white Gabor grating (5 c/deg) for two 7-min periods monocularly through a 0 D lens or binocularly through -3.5 D lenses. The effect of time was separately regressed to EMG in two different subgroups of responders: a High-Oculomotor-Load (HOL) and a Low-Oculomotor-Load (LOL) group. A linear regression model was fitted on group level with exposure time on the x-axis and normalized trapezius muscle EMG (%RVE) on the y-axis. The slope coefficient was significantly positive in the -D blur condition for only the HOL subgroup of responders: 0.926 + Time(min 1-7) × 0.088 (p = 0.002, r(2)=0.865). There was no obvious sign of this activity to level off or to stabilize. These results suggest that professional information technology users that are exposed to a high level of oculomotor load, during extended times, are at an increased risk of exhibiting an increased trap.m. activity. PMID:22317234

  3. Superoxide dismutase activity and gene expression levels in Saudi women with recurrent miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    GHNEIM, HAZEM K.; AL-SHEIKH, YAZEED A.; ALSHEBLY, MASHAEL M.; ABOUL-SOUD, MOURAD A. M.

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and SOD2, as well as the levels of the oxidant superoxide anion (SOA) and the micronutrients zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn), were assayed in plasma, whole blood and placental tissue of non-pregnant (NP), healthy pregnant (HP) women and recurrent miscarriage (RM) patients. The results showed that SOD1 and SOD2 activities and the levels of Zn, Cu and Mn in plasma and whole blood of HP women were slightly, but significantly lower, and even more significantly decreased in RM patients compared to those observed in NP women (P<0.05 and P<0.0001, respectively). Additionally, whereas plasma SOD1 and SOD2 activities and Zn, Cu and Mn levels were significantly lower in RM patients, those of whole blood and placental tissue were significantly lower when compared to HP women (P<0.001 and P<0.0001, respectively). Concurrently, there were consistent increases of equal magnitude and statistical significance in SOA levels in all the assayed samples as identified by a comparison between the subjects. The findings thus supported oxidative metabolism and excessive reactive oxygen species generation. The resultant oxidative stress, identified in whole blood and placental tissues of RM patients, may have been a primary cause of RM. Dietary supplementation of Zn, Cu and Mn may be beneficial to these patients pre- and post-conception. PMID:26821085

  4. Dual level inhibition of E2F-1 activity by adeno-associated virus Rep78.

    PubMed

    Batchu, R B; Shammas, M A; Wang, J Y; Munshi, N C

    2001-06-29

    E2F-1, a major cellular transcription factor, plays a pivotal role in regulating the cell cycle. The activity of E2F-1 is negatively regulated by its interaction with retinoblastoma protein (pRB), and disruption of the pRB-E2F-1 complex, a hallmark of cellular transformation by DNA tumor viruses, leads to cell proliferation. Adeno-associated virus-2 (AAV) is known to have onco-suppressive properties against DNA tumor viruses. Here we provide, for the first time, the molecular basis for antioncogenic activity of AAV. Rep78, a major regulatory protein of AAV, interacts at the protein level with E2F-1 and stabilizes the pRB-E2F-1 complex. At the DNA level, Rep78 binds to a putative site on the E2F-1 promoter and down-regulates the adenovirus-induced E2F-1 transcription. This dual level of Rep78 activity leads to decreased cellular levels of free E2F-1, leading to its onco-suppressive properties.

  5. Self-reported exertion levels on time/activity diaries: application to exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, M.; Terblanche, A.P.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1991-07-01

    Recent developments in air pollution analysis have focused on methods for collecting data on contaminant levels in the locations actually frequented by people, especially personal monitoring. While there is still much to understand about human exposures, the next advancements will be in the area of dose assessment. This paper discusses the results of a study designed to provide data for linking exposure to dose. Specifically, we used time/activity diaries to collect information on the exertion levels associated with the reported activities. As part of a community health study, 91 children between the ages of 9 and 11 kept diaries over a two-week summer-time period (July 1989) and during a two-week school-time period (September 1989). The diary was also administered for two days to 42 teenagers between the ages of 15 and 17. This paper describes our concerns about interpreting self-reported exertion levels, particularly with respect to the disparity between participant and researcher perception and coding. We then present the distribution of exertion levels associated with children's activities, highlighting seasonal, day-of-week, and age-group differences.

  6. PALS and DSC measurements in 8 MeV electron irradiated natural rubber filled with different fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Arunava; Pan, Sandip; Roychowdhury, Anirban; Sengupta, Asmita

    2015-10-01

    The effect of high energy electron irradiation on the microstructure and thermal properties of natural rubber (NR) filled with different fillers at different concentrations are studied. The samples are irradiated with 8 MeV electron beam to a total dose of 100 KGy. The change in free volume size and specific heat due to addition of fillers and irradiation are studied using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) respectively. The Positron lifetime spectra are de-convoluted into two components. The longer lived component (τo-Ps) signifies the pick-off annihilation of ortho-positronium (o-Ps) at free volume site which may be related to the radius of the free volume holes. It is observed that the specific heat (Cp) and free volume size are all affected by both irradiation and addition of fillers.

  7. [The influence of proficiency level of foreign language on the activation patterns of language areas].

    PubMed

    Bryll, Amira; Binder, Marek; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The of aim of the present study was the estimation of the influence of proficiency level of the second language on activation patterns of language areas. 30 volunteers participated in the experiment (15 females and 15 males) from 18 to 40 years of age. Mean age was 28 years. All participants were divided by linguist into two groups according to their proficiency level of the foreign language: high proficiency group (HP) and low proficiency group (LP). Block design method was used in the performed experiment. The experimental task was speech production in the form of sentences, the control tusk was silence. The experiment was performed using 1,5 T MR system. Functional data analysis was performed using SPM2 software (Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Great Britain). In low proficiency group (LP) stronger activation was found in right inferior frontal gyrus (pars tiangulris) incuding insula and in the left hemisphere on the border of supramarginal and superior temporal gyrus. In high proficiency group (HP) more activated in second language (L2) was the left inferior frontal gyrus (pars tiangulris), and a small part of left middle frontal gyrus. Proficiency level of the second language influences the pattern of activation of language areas.

  8. Levels of Oxidized LDL, Estrogens, and Progesterone in Placenta Tissues and Serum Paraoxonase Activity in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Açıkgöz, Şerefden; Özmen Bayar, Ülkü; Can, Murat; Güven, Berrak; Mungan, Görkem; Doğan, Suat; Sümbüloğlu, Vildan

    2013-01-01

    In vitro literature studies have suggested that atherosclerotic oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) inhibits trophoblast invasion. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of OxLDL and to examine the relationship between antioxidative estradiol, estriol, and prooxidative progestin in normal and preeclamptic placental tissues and measure the serum activity of antioxidative paraoxonase (PON1). The study included 30 preeclamptic and 32 normal pregnant women. OxLDL was determined with ELISA, estradiol, unconjugated estriol, and progesterone that were determined with chemiluminescence method in placental tissues. Serum PON1 activity was determined with spectrophotometric method. Levels of OxLDL (P = 0.027), estriol (P < 0.001), estradiol (P = 0.008), and progesterone (P = 0.009) were lower in the placental tissues of preeclamptic group compared to the normal pregnant women. Serum PON1 activity was higher in preeclamptic group (P = 0.040) and preeclamptic group without intrauterine growth restriction (P = 0.008) compared to normal pregnant women. Tissue estriol of preeclamptic group without/with IUGR (P < 0.001, P = 0.002) was lower than the normal group. Results of our study suggest that the events leading to fetoplacental insufficiency lead to a reduction in the levels of estriol limit deposition of OxLDL in placental tissues. The serum PON1 activity is probably important in the inhibition of OxLDL in preeclampsia. PMID:23606795

  9. SARS-CoV proteins decrease levels and activity of human ENaC via activation of distinct PKC isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hong-Long; Song, Weifeng; Gao, Zhiqian; Su, Xue-Feng; Nie, Hong-Guang; Jiang, Yi; Peng, Ji-Bin; He, Yu-Xian; Liao, Ying; Zhou, Yong-Jian; Tousson, Albert; Matalon, Sadis

    2009-01-01

    Among the multiple organ disorders caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), acute lung failure following atypical pneumonia is the most serious and often fatal event. We hypothesized that two of the hydrophilic structural coronoviral proteins (S and E) would regulate alveolar fluid clearance by decreasing the cell surface expression and activity of amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium (Na+) channels (ENaC), the rate-limiting protein in transepithelial Na+ vectorial transport across distal lung epithelial cells. Coexpression of either S or E protein with human α-, β-, and γ-ENaC in Xenopus oocytes led to significant decreases of both amiloride-sensitive Na+ currents and γ-ENaC protein levels at their plasma membranes. S and E proteins decreased the rate of ENaC exocytosis and either had no effect (S) or decreased (E) rates of endocytosis. No direct interactions among SARS-CoV E protein with either α- or γ-ENaC were indentified. Instead, the downregulation of ENaC activity by SARS proteins was partially or completely restored by administration of inhibitors of PKCα/β1 and PKCζ. Consistent with the whole cell data, expression of S and E proteins decreased ENaC single-channel activity in oocytes, and these effects were partially abrogated by PKCα/β1 inhibitors. Finally, transfection of human airway epithelial (H441) cells with SARS E protein decreased whole cell amiloride-sensitive currents. These findings indicate that lung edema in SARS infection may be due at least in part to activation of PKC by SARS proteins, leading to decreasing levels and activity of ENaC at the apical surfaces of lung epithelial cells. PMID:19112100

  10. A low-level activation technique for monitoring thermonuclear fusion plasma conditions.

    PubMed

    Gasparro, Joël; Hult, Mikael; Bonheure, Georges; Johnston, Peter N

    2006-01-01

    Optimisation of the confinement and sustainability of a thermonuclear plasma requires methods to monitor processes in the plasma. In this work three materials were used as activation targets (Ti, MgF2 and a TiVAl compound). They were placed inside the joint European Torus (JET) vacuum chamber. Certain gamma-ray emitting radionuclides (7Be, 54Mn, 56Co, 57Co, 58Co and 46Sc) were measured using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory 1-2 months after activation. They were found to arise from neutron activation of bulk sample material and surface contaminants sputtered from other Tokamak parts. Decision thresholds for some activation products were determined in order to aid in giving upper bounds for the flux of charged particles.

  11. Estradiol levels modulate brain activity and negative responses to psychosocial stress across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Albert, Kimberly; Pruessner, Jens; Newhouse, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Although ovarian hormones are thought to have a potential role in the well-known sex difference in mood and anxiety disorders, the mechanisms through which ovarian hormone changes contribute to stress regulation are not well understood. One mechanism by which ovarian hormones might impact mood regulation is by mediating the effect of psychosocial stress, which often precedes depressive episodes and may have mood consequences that are particularly relevant in women. In the current study, brain activity and mood response to psychosocial stress was examined in healthy, normally cycling women at either the high or low estradiol phase of the menstrual cycle. Twenty eight women were exposed to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), with brain activity determined through functional magnetic resonance imaging, and behavioral response assessed with subjective mood and stress measures. Brain activity responses to psychosocial stress differed between women in the low versus high estrogen phase of the menstrual cycle: women with high estradiol levels showed significantly less deactivation in limbic regions during psychosocial stress compared to women with low estradiol levels. Additionally, women with higher estradiol levels also had less subjective distress in response to the MIST than women with lower estradiol levels. The results of this study suggest that, in normally cycling premenopausal women, high estradiol levels attenuate the brain activation changes and negative mood response to psychosocial stress. Normal ovarian hormone fluctuations may alter the impact of psychosocially stressful events by presenting periods of increased vulnerability to psychosocial stress during low estradiol phases of the menstrual cycle. This menstrual cycle-related fluctuation in stress vulnerability may be relevant to the greater risk for affective disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder in women.

  12. [Physical activity level and home blood pressure measurement: Pilot study "Acti-HTA"].

    PubMed

    Sosner, P; Ott, J; Steichen, O; Bally, S; Krummel, T; Brucker, M; Lequeux, B; Dourmap, C; Llaty, P; Le Coz, S; Baguet, S; Miranne, A; Labrunée, M; Gremeaux, V; Lopez-Sublet, M

    2015-06-01

    While physical activity (PA) is recommended for high blood pressure management, the level of PA practice of hypertensive patients remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association between the level of both PA and blood pressure of individuals consulting in 9 hypertension specialist centres. Eighty-five hypertensive patients were included (59 ± 14 years, 61% men, 12% smokers, 29% with diabetes). Following their consultation, they performed home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) over 7 days (2 in the morning+2 in the evening), they wrote in a dedicated form their daily activities to estimate the additional caloric expenditure using Acti-MET device (built from International physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]). Thus, patients completed a self-administered questionnaire "score of Dijon" (distinguishing active subjects with a score>20/30, from sedentary<10/30). Subjects with normal HBPM value (<135/85 mm Hg) (55% of them) compared to those with high HBPM were older, had a non-significant trend towards higher weekly caloric expenditure (4959 ± 5045 kcal/week vs. 4048 ± 4199 kcal/week, P=0.3755) and score of Dijon (19.44 ± 5.81 vs. 18.00 ± 4.32, P=0.2094) with a higher proportion of "active" subjects (48.9% vs. 34.2%, P=0.1773). In conclusion, our results demonstrate a "tendency" to a higher level of reported PA for subjects whose hypertension was controlled. This encourages us to continue with a study that would include more subjects, which would assess PA level using an objective method such as wearing an accelerometer sensor.

  13. Human evoked cortical activity to signal-to-noise ratio and absolute signal level.

    PubMed

    Billings, Curtis J; Tremblay, Kelly L; Stecker, G Christopher; Tolin, Wendy M

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of signal level and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the latency and amplitude of evoked cortical activity to further our understanding of how the human central auditory system encodes signals in noise. Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) were recorded from 15 young normal-hearing adults in response to a 1000 Hz tone presented at two tone levels in quiet and while continuous background noise levels were varied in five equivalent SNR steps. These 12 conditions were used to determine the effects of signal level and SNR level on CAEP components P1, N1, P2, and N2. Based on prior signal-in-noise experiments conducted in animals, we hypothesized that SNR, would be a key contributor to human CAEP characteristics. As hypothesized, amplitude increased and latency decreased with increasing SNR; in addition, there was no main effect of tone level across the two signal levels tested (60 and 75 dB SPL). Morphology of the P1-N1-P2 complex was driven primarily by SNR, highlighting the importance of noise when recording CAEPs. Results are discussed in terms of the current interest in recording CAEPs in hearing aid users.

  14. Late Neolithic vegetation history at the pile-dwelling site of Palù di Livenza (northeastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, Roberta

    2004-12-01

    The Late Neolithic pile-dwelling of Palù di Livenza yielded archaeological remains typical of the Square Mouth Pottery and Lagozza Cultures. A palynological investigation reveals important changes in the vegetation due to anthropogenic pressure. Between ca. 6590 and 5960 cal. yr BP, dense oak wood forests with deciduous Quercus, Fagus and Corylus extended around the mire, with no signs of human impact. The establishment of the pile-dwelling, dated to ca. 5960 cal. yr BP, led to a strong reduction of forests, reclamation of wetlands, and expansion of herbaceous communities, with cultivated species, infestant weeds, nitrophilous and ruderal herbs, pastures and meadows. According to AMS dates and previous archaeological chronologies, the pile-dwelling persisted for about 700 years (from ca. 5960 to 5260 cal. yr BP). The history of the pile-dwelling after ca. 5260 cal. yr BP cannot be reconstructed because of recent contamination of the top part of the section. Rarefaction analysis was applied to estimate changes of palynological richness through time: the highest E(Tn) (between 56 and 69 taxa) are contemporaneous with the local development of the pile-dwelling. The comparison of pollen data with archaeobotanical evidence indicates that Fragaria vesca, Malus sylvestris, Papaver somniferum and Physalis alkekengi were gathered at some distance from the site and that Linum usitatissimum is strongly under-represented in pollen samples. Crop cultivation can be estimated for a radius of several hundred metres around the mire. Palù di Livenza is significant in the context of Neolithic archaeobotany of northern Italy and neighbouring countries. Copyright

  15. Muscle shear elastic modulus measured using supersonic shear imaging is highly related to muscle activity level.

    PubMed

    Nordez, Antoine; Hug, François

    2010-05-01

    This pilot study was designed to determine whether the shear elastic modulus measured using supersonic shear imaging can be used to accurately estimate muscle activity level. Using direct visual feedback of torque, six healthy subjects were asked to perform two incremental isometric elbow flexions, consisting of linear torque ramps of 30 s from 0 to 40% of maximal voluntary contraction. Both electromyographic (EMG) activity and shear elastic modulus were continuously measured in the biceps brachii during the two ramps. There was significant linear regression (P<0.001) between shear elastic modulus and EMG activity level for both ramps of all six subjects (R2=0.94+/-0.05, ranging from 0.82 to 0.98). Good repeatability was found for shear elastic modulus estimated at both 3% (trial 1: 21.7+/-6.7 kPa; trial 2: 23.2+/-7.2 kPa, intraclass correlation coefficient=0.89, standard error in measurement=2.3 kPa, coefficient of variation=12.7%) and 7% (trial 1: 42.6+/-14.1 kPa; trial 2: 44.8+/-15.8 kPa, intraclass correlation coefficient=0.94, standard error in measurement=3.7 kPa, coefficient of variation=7.1%) of maximal EMG activity. The shear elastic modulus estimated at both 3 and 7% of maximal EMG activity was not significantly different (P>0.05) between the two trials. These results confirm our hypothesis that the use of supersonic shear imaging greatly improves the correlation between muscle shear elastic modulus and EMG activity level. Due to the nonlinearity of muscle mechanical properties, the muscle elasticity should be linked to the muscle stress. Therefore, the present study represents a first step in attempting to show that supersonic shear imaging can be used to indirectly estimate muscle stress.

  16. Relationship between self-reported activity levels and actual heart rates in teenagers

    SciTech Connect

    Terblanche, A.P.S.; Ozkaynak, H.; Spengler, J.D.; Butler, D.A. )

    1991-08-01

    A study was designed to explore the relationship between self-reported activity levels and actual heart rate (HR) as measured by a portable heart rate monitor. Twenty-two teenagers (8 boys, 14 girls, median age of 16) from Watertown High School, Massachusetts participated in this pilot study which involved continuous monitoring of HR during normal daily activities and simultaneous completion of a time-activity diary. There were 31 successful monitoring sessions ranging from 1.9 to 17 hours with a median monitoring time of 12.6 hours. Four unsuccessful monitoring sessions were experienced due to equipment failure. Apart from participant cooperation, the single most important factor affecting the feasibility of continuous heart rate monitoring was found to be equipment design. Th overall average heart rate observed was 88.4 bpm (SD = 24.3). An individual's correlation coefficient for perceived activity level (documented in half-hour intervals) and heart rate (averaged over the half-hour intervals) varied from 0.24 to 0.89. More than half of the correlation coefficients were below 0.40. There was a significant difference between average heart rate for time spent indoors (90 bpm) versus outdoors (103 bpm) even after correcting for sleeping time. It is concluded that continuous HR monitoring with simultaneous completion of a time/activity dairy is feasible and is a promising source of information for studies on exposure to air pollutants.

  17. Association between Municipal Health Promotion Volunteers’ Health Literacy and Their Level of Outreach Activities in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Atsuko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the association between health literacy and levels of three types of core activities among health promotion volunteers (developing a healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community members). Study Design A cross-sectional, anonymous, self-administered postal survey of registered health promotion volunteers in the Konan area in Shiga Prefecture in Japan, conducted in January 2010. The study sample was 575 registered health promotion volunteers. Methods The survey collected data on health literacy, gender, age, education, self-rated health, perceptions about the volunteer organization, and perceptions of recognition in the community. The level of engagement in health promotion activities was measured by the extent to which the participants engaged in seven healthy behaviors and promoted them to family members and the community. The authors compared the health literacy level and other characteristics of the participants by core health promotion activities, using a chi-squared test, to examine the associations between demographic and other variables and the three core activities (healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community).Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between the degree to which the volunteers engaged in core activities (“healthy lifestyle,” “outreach to family,” “outreach to community”) and the levels of health literacy (low, medium, high) among health promotion volunteers, controlling for the effects of age, gender, health condition, education which may also have an impact on volunteers’ outreach activities. Results Four hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were returned, a 79.0% response rate. Excluding 16 cases with missing values on health literacy or the degree of health promotion activities, 438 research subjects were included in the analysis (valid response rate: 76.2%). Health literacy and a few demographic and other characteristics of the

  18. Is the activity level of HD 80606 influenced by its eccentric planet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, P.; Santerne, A.; Suárez Mascareño, A.; Gomes da Silva, J.; Abe, L.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Bendjoya, P.; Correia, A. C. M.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Faria, J. P.; Hebrard, G.; Lovis, C.; Oshagh, M.; Rivet, J.-P.; Santos, N. C.; Suarez, O.; Vidotto, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    Aims: Several studies suggest that the activity level of a planet-host star can be influenced by the presence of a close-by orbiting planet. Moreover, the interaction mechanisms that have been proposed, magnetic interaction and tidal interaction, exhibit a very different dependence on the orbital separation between the star and the planet. A detection of activity enhancement and characterization of its dependence on planetary orbital distance can, in principle, allow us to characterize the physical mechanism behind the activity enhancement. Methods: We used the HARPS-N spectrograph to measure the stellar activity level of HD 80606 during the planetary periastron passage and compared the activity measured to that close to apastron. Being characterized by an eccentricity of 0.93 and an orbital period of 111 days, the system's extreme variation in orbital separation makes it a perfect target to test our hypothesis. Results: We find no evidence for a variation in the activity level of the star as a function of planetary orbital distance, as measured by all activity indicators employed: log(R'HK), Hα, NaI, and HeI. None of the models employed, whether magnetic interaction or tidal interaction, provides a good description of the data. The photometry revealed no variation either, but it was strongly affected by poor weather conditions. Conclusions: We find no evidence for star-planet interaction in HD 80606 at the moment of the periastron passage of its very eccentric planet. The straightforward explanation for the non-detection is the absence of interaction as a result of a low magnetic field strength on either the planet or the star and of the low level of tidal interaction between the two. However, we cannot exclude two scenarios: i) the interaction can be instantaneous and of magnetic origin, being concentrated on the substellar point and its surrounding area; and ii) the interaction can lead to a delayed activity enhancement. In either scenario, a star

  19. Increased levels of peroxisomal active oxygen-related enzymes in copper-tolerant pea plants

    SciTech Connect

    Palma, J.M.; Gomez, M.; Yanez, J.; Del Rio, L.A.

    1987-10-01

    The effect in vivo of high nutrient levels of copper (240 micromolar) on the activity of different metalloenzymes containing Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn, distributed in chloroplasts, peroxisomes, and mitochondria, was studied in leaves of two varieties of Pisum sativum L. plants with different sensitivity to copper. The metalloenzymes studied were: cytochrome c oxidase, Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase I (Cu,Zn-SOD I), for mitochondria; catalase and Mn-SOD, for peroxisomes; and isozyme Cu,Zn-SOD II for chloroplasts. The activity of mitochondrial SOD isozymes (Mn-SOD and Cu,Zn-SOD I) was very similar in Cu-tolerant and Cu-sensitive plants, whereas cytochrome c oxidase was lower in Cu-sensitive plants. Chloroplastid Cu,Zn-SOD activity was the same in the two plant varieties. In contrast, the peroxisomal Mn-SOD activity was considerably higher in Cu-tolerant than in Cu-sensitive plants, and the activity of catalase was also increased in peroxisomes of Cu-tolerant plants. The higher activities of these peroxisomal active oxygen-related enzymes in Cu-tolerant plants suggest the involvement of reactive oxygen intermediates (O/sub 2//sup -/, OH) in the mechanism of Cu lethality, and also imply a function for peroxisomal Mn-SOD in the molecular mechanisms of plant tolerance to Cu in Pisum sativum L.

  20. [Vitamin D levels in ankylosing spondylitis: does deficiency correspond to disease activity?].

    PubMed

    Pokhai, Gabriel G; Bandagi, Sabiha; Abrudescu, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory disorder that presents with arthritis of the axial skeleton, including sacroiliac joints. Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone with a long-established role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, and in the regulation of bone formation and resorption. It is now known that vitamin D plays an immunosuppressive role in the body, and there is interest of late in the role of vitamin D in autoimmune diseases. Inflammation may be responsible for some of the loss of bone mineral density seen in AS. We reviewed the literature for studies assessing vitamin D level as a marker of AS disease activity and those examining vitamin D levels in AS in comparison to healthy controls. Four of 7 studies found a significant negative correlation between vitamin D levels and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Index (BASDAI), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). In a review of 8 case-control studies, the mean level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was 22.8 ± 14.1 ng/mL in 555 AS patients versus 26.6 ± 12.5 ng/mL in 557 healthy controls. When compared with a 2-sample t test, vitamin D levels were significantly higher in healthy controls (p < 0.01). We conclude that patients with AS appear to have lower vitamin D levels versus healthy controls; however, the cause is unclear. Existing studies do not demonstrate a consistent link between vitamin D levels and disease activity in AS. Further studies are in need to determine if a causative link exists between vitamin D deficiency and AS. PMID:25627231

  1. Assessing adrenocortical activity by determining levels of urinary free cortisol and urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, J; Yakata, M

    1989-03-01

    A comparative study of urinary free cortisol and urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol levels as a diagnostic test for hypercortisolemic states was carried out by measuring the excretion in 24-h specimens from 289 apparently healthy subjects and 10 Cushing patients. The diurnal variations of both variables were examined in normal subjects and subjects with altered adrenal activities. Two of the 289 apparently normal subjects had high values of urinary free cortisol; one had a high, the other a normal 6 beta-hydroxycortisol level; they were later diagnosed as having Cushing's syndrome and infertility, respectively. Three other subjects had high values of the urinary variables, but during 5 years of follow-up did not show any clinical evidence of hypercortisolism. The two urinary variables gave no false-negative results in the Cushing patients. The diurnal variation revealed that levels of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol change in parallel with those of free cortisol in normal subjects and in subjects with altered adrenal activities. However, the ratio of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol to free cortisol during the diurnal variation varied from low values when free cortisol levels were high to high values when free cortisol levels were low. In normal subjects, 1 mg of dexamethasone taken orally at 23.00 h completely suppressed the levels of both variables on the following day. It is concluded that urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol is correlated to urinary free cortisol so that measurement of urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol levels can be used as a diagnostic test for hypercortisolism in a way comparable to the method using urinary free cortisol.

  2. Dietary habits and physical activity levels in Jordanian adolescents attending private versus public schools.

    PubMed

    Tayyem, R F; Al-Hazzaa, H M; Abu-Mweis, S S; Bawadi, H A; Hammad, S S; Musaiger, A O

    2014-07-08

    The present study examined differences in dietary habits and physical activity levels between students attending private and public high schools in Jordan. A total of 386 secondary-school males and 349 females aged 14-18 years were randomly recruited using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling technique. Dietary habits and physical activity level were self-reported in a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among adolescents in private (26.0%) than in public schools (16.7%). The frequency of breakfast intake was significantly higher among adolescents in private schools, whereas French fries and sweets intake was significantly higher in public schools. Television viewing showed a significant interaction with school type by sex. A higher rate of inactivity was found among students attending private schools. Despite a slightly better overall dietary profile for students in private schools, they had a higher rate of overweight and obesity compared with those in public schools.

  3. Comparisons of three practical field devices used to measure personal light exposures and activity levels

    PubMed Central

    Figueiro, M G; Hamner, R; Bierman, A; Rea, M S

    2012-01-01

    This paper documents the spectral and spatial performance characteristics of two new versions of the Daysimeter, devices developed and calibrated by the Lighting Research Center to measure and record personal circadian light exposure and activity levels, and compares them to those of the Actiwatch Spectrum (Philips Healthcare). Photometric errors from the Daysimeters and the Actiwatch Spectrum were also determined for various types of light sources. The Daysimeters had better photometric performance than the Actiwatch Spectrum. To assess differences associated with measuring light and activity levels at different locations on the body, older adults wore four Daysimeters and an Actiwatch Spectrum for five consecutive days. Wearing the Daysimeter or Actiwatch Spectrum on the wrist compromises accurate light measurements relative to locating a calibrated photosensor at the plane of the cornea. PMID:24443644

  4. Sleep Quality and Recommended Levels of Physical Activity in Older People.

    PubMed

    Hartescu, Iuliana; Morgan, Kevin; Stevinson, Clare D

    2016-04-01

    A minimum level of activity likely to improve sleep outcomes among older people has not previously been explored. In a representative UK sample aged 65+ (n = 926), cross-sectional regressions controlling for appropriate confounders showed that walking at or above the internationally recommended threshold of ≥ 150 min per week was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of reporting insomnia symptoms (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.45-0.91, p < .05). At a 4-year follow-up (n = 577), higher walking levels at baseline significantly predicted a lower likelihood of reporting sleep onset (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.42-0.97, p < .05) or sleep maintenance (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.41-0.95, p < .05) problems. These results are consistent with the conclusion that current physical activity guidelines can support sleep quality in older adults. PMID:26291553

  5. Adult total wellness: group differences based on sitting time and physical activity level

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing body of evidence associates a high level of sitting time with poor health outcomes. The benefits of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activities to various aspects of health are now well documented; however, individuals may engage in moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 30 minutes on five or more days of the week and still exhibit a high level of sitting time. This purpose of this study was to examine differences in total wellness among adults relative to high/low levels of sitting time combined with insufficient/sufficient physical activity (PA). The construct of total wellness incorporates a holistic approach to the body, mind and spirit components of life, an approach which may be more encompassing than some definitions of health. Methods Data were obtained from 226 adult respondents (27 ± 6 years), including 116 (51%) males and 110 (49%) females. Total PA and total sitting time were assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) (short-version). The Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle Inventory was used to assess total wellness. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was utilised to assess the effects of the sitting time/physical activity group on total wellness. A covariate was included to partial out the effects of age, sex and work status (student or employed). Cross-tabulations were used to show associations between the IPAQ derived high/low levels of sitting time with insufficient/sufficient PA and the three total wellness groups (i.e. high level of wellness, moderate wellness and wellness development needed). Results The majority of the participants were located in the high total sitting time and sufficient PA group. There were statistical differences among the IPAQ groups for total wellness [F (2,220) = 32.5 (p <0.001)]. A Chi-square test revealed a significant difference in the distribution of the IPAQ categories within the classification of wellness [χ2 (N = 226) = 54.5, p < .001

  6. Intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) leaves by lambs using different levels of activated charcoal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 24-day feeding trial was conducted to assess the effect of feeding four levels of activated charcoal (0.0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1.00 g/kg of body weight) on intake of honey mesquite leaves (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) by 20 wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) that were randomly assigned to treatments. Lambs wer...

  7. Studies on activation and levels of haemolytic complement of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). 1. Classical complement pathway.

    PubMed

    Jain, A; Goel, M C

    1989-12-01

    Optimum conditions for haemolytic complement (HC) assay in buffalo serum were standardized. In all, 11 indicator systems of red blood cells (RBC) and haemolysins were investigated. Maximum HC CH50 titre was obtained with rabbit RBC sensitized with goat haemolysin. The effect of pH, Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentration, ionic strength, time and temperature were studied. Of all the variables, ionic strength influenced the HC activity most significantly. The standard system for titrating the HC consisted of rabbit RBC sensitized with goat haemolysin, sucrose-veronal buffer with pH 7.5, ionic strength 0.023 M and Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations 6 x 10(-4) and 2 x 10(-3) M, respectively. Incubation at 37 degrees C for 2 h gave highest haemolytic activity. With this protocol 5-7-fold higher HC activity was recorded than with prestandardized conditions. Levels of HC were determined in the sera of 98 buffaloes aged from 1 month to 12 years. The lowest mean CH50 units of 401 +/- 0.35 per ml were recorded in buffalo calves below 3 months of age. The mean HC levels increased with age, reaching peak values of 2349 +/- 62.25 CH50 units/ml in 2-3-year-old buffalo. Animals in the age group 5-12 years had significantly decreased (P less than 0.05) mean HC levels of 1545 +/- 68.94.

  8. Reduced enzyme activity and starch level in an induced mutant of chloroplast phosphoglucose isomerase

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.W.; Gottlieb, L.D.; Pichersky, E.

    1986-06-01

    Ethyl methane sulfonate treatment was used to induce a mutation in the nuclear gene encoding the chloroplast isozyme of phosphoglucose isomerase in Clarkia xantiana. The mutation, which proved allelic to wild type activity, was backcrossed to wild type for five generations so that the two could be compared in a near isogenic background. An immunological analysis showed that the mutant, when homozygous, reduced the activity of the isozyme by about 50%. In contrast to wild type, the mutant showed little change in leaf starch level over a diurnal period or following a 72-hour continuous light treatment. By the end of the diurnal light period, the mutant accumulated only about 60% as much starch as wild type. However, mutant leaves had an increased sucrose level presumably because photosynthate was directly exported from the chloroplasts. The mutant also exhibited reduced leaf weight. These changes in metabolism and growth suggest that the wild type level of plastid phosphoglucose isomerase activity is necessary to achieve wild type carbohydrate status.

  9. Effects of copper supplementation on erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity levels in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, J.T.; DiSilvestro, R.A. )

    1989-02-09

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients are reported to possess lower than normal levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The contribution of copper status to these low values has not been examined. To address this issue, blood samples were obtained from 10 RA patients before and after 28 days of daily oral copper supplementation (2 mg/day). All patients were receiving gold therapy. Each RA subject, before supplementation, displayed lower erythrocyte SOD values than any of 25 age matched controls. The mean value for the RA subjects was about 40% lower than the control mean, whether expressed as units per ml packed cells or per mg hemoglobin. Erythrocyte SOD activity levels were increased in all subjects by the 4 week copper supplementation, with 7 of the patients showing at least a 22% increase. Presupplement SOD activities showed no correlation with serum C-reactive protein contents, an indicator of acute phase response. Serum levels of the copper containing acute phase protein ceruloplasmin, showed variable responses to copper supplementation. The studies described here are currently being extended to include RA subjects not being treated with gold and to include supplemented controls.

  10. Driving on the motorway: the effect of alternating speed on driver's activation level and mental effort.

    PubMed

    Tejero, Pilar; Chóliz, Mariano

    2002-07-15

    When most of the driving tasks are performed automatically, a driver's level of alertness may decline, as has been pointed out in the study of the phenomenon called 'highway hypnosis'. One possible countermeasure is to periodically vary the speed (Wertheim 1978), but the authors have not found any studies that directly assess the effectiveness of this countermeasure. The objective of our study has been to provide empirical evidence regarding the effects of this strategy on the level of driver activation on a motorway route in real traffic. In the present study activation level as indexed by a relative measure based on slow EEG activity tended to be significantly higher when speed was modified periodically than when it remained constant. In addition, this index tended to be progressively higher when the speed was constant during the first part of the route, while the same thing did not occur when the speed was modified periodically. Finally, no significant differences between the constant and varying speed conditions were obtained with respect to any of the cardiovascular indices related to the effort put into driving and the stress experienced in the situation.

  11. A Relationship Between Microbial Activity in Soils and Phosphate Levels in Tributaries to Lake Champlain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larose, R.; Lee, S.; Lane, T.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Champlain is a large natural freshwater lake. It forms the western boundary of Vermont and drains over half of the state. It is bordered by the state of New York on its western side and drains to the north into Quebec, Canada. Lake Champlain is the source of fresh drinking water for over quarter of a million people and provides for the livelihoods and recreational opportunities of many well beyond its borders. The health of this lake is important. During the summer month's algae blooms plague the lake. These unsightly growths, which affect other aquatic organisms, are the result of excess phosphate flowing into the lake from many sources. Examining whether there is a relationship between microbial activity in the soils bordering tributaries to Lake Champlain and phosphate levels in those tributaries sheds insight into the origins and paths by which phosphate moves into Lake Champlain. Understanding the how phosphate moves into the water system may assist in mitigation efforts.Total Phosphate levels and Total Suspended Solids were measured in second and third order streams in the Lake Champlain Basin over a three-year period. In addition microbial activity was measured within the toe, bank and upland riparian zone areas of these streams during the summer months. In general in areas showing greater microbial activity in the soil(s) there were increased levels of phosphate in the streams.

  12. Associations between students' situational interest, mastery experiences, and physical activity levels in an interactive dance game.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chaoqun; Gao, Zan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of previous experiences on students' situational interest and physical activity (PA) levels, as well as the relationships between situational interest and PA levels in Dance Dance Revolution (DDR). A total of 135 seventh through ninth graders participated in DDR unit for two weeks, and reported their previous DDR experiences. Students' PA levels were measured by ActiGraph accelerometers for three classes with percentages of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as the outcome variable. They also responded to the Situational Interest Scale (including novelty, challenge, attention demand, exploration intention, and instant enjoyment) at the end of each class. The multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) yielded a significant main effect for experience. Follow-up tests revealed that students with DDR experiences scored significantly higher than those without experiences at following dimensions: challenge; exploration intention; instant enjoyment; and attention demand. Regression analysis yielded that novelty emerged as the only significant predictor for MVPA. The findings suggested that four dimensions of situational interest differed between students with and without previous experiences. Novelty emerged as the only predictor for MVPA, suggesting that students would have higher PA when they feel the activity provides new information.

  13. Physical activity levels in three Brazilian birth cohorts as assessed with raw triaxial wrist accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Inácio CM; van Hees, Vincent T; Ramires, Virgílio V; Knuth, Alan G; Bielemann, Renata M; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Hallal, Pedro C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Data on objectively measured physical activity are lacking in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to describe objectively measured overall physical activity and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in individuals from the Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohorts, according to weight status, socioeconomic status (SES) and sex. Methods: All children born in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in hospitals in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, constitute the sampling frame; of these 99% agreed to participate. The most recent follow-ups were conducted between 2010 and 2013. In total, 8974 individuals provided valid data derived from raw triaxial wrist accelerometry. The average acceleration is presented in milli-g (1 mg = 0.001g), and time (min/d) spent in MVPA (>100 mg) is presented in 5- and 10-min bouts. Results: Mean acceleration in the 1982 (mean age 30.2 years), 1993 (mean age 18.4 years) and 2004 (mean age 6.7 years) cohorts was 35 mg, 39 mg and 60 mg, respectively. Time spent in MVPA was 26 [95% confidence interval (CI) 25; 27], 43 (95% CI 42; 44) and 45 (95% CI 43; 46) min/d in the three cohorts, respectively, using 10-min bouts. Mean MVPA was on average 42% higher when using 5-min bouts. Males were more active than females and physical activity was inversely associated with age of the cohort and SES. Normal-weight individuals were more active than underweight, overweight and obese participants. Conclusions: Overall physical activity and time spent in MVPA differed by cohort (age), sex, weight status and SES. Higher levels of activity in low SES groups may be explained by incidental physical activity. PMID:25361583

  14. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors strongly regulate postsynaptic activity levels during optic nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kolls, Brad J; Meyer, Ronald L

    2013-10-01

    During development, neuronal activity is used as a cue to guide synaptic rearrangements to refine connections. Many studies, especially in the visual system, have shown that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) plays a key role in mediating activity-dependent refinement through long-term potentiation (LTP)-like processes. Adult goldfish can regenerate their optic nerve and utilize neuronal activity to generate precise topography in their projection onto tectum. Although the NMDAr has been implicated in this process, its precise role in regeneration has not been extensively studied. In examining NMDAr function during regeneration, we found salient differences compared with development. By using field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) recordings, the contribution of the NMDAr at the primary optic synapse was measured. In contrast to development, no increase in NMDAr function was detectable during synaptic refinement. Unlike development, LTP could not be reliably elicited during regeneration. Unexpectedly, we found that NMDAr exerted a major effect on regulating ongoing tectal (postsynaptic) activity levels during regeneration. Blocking NMDAr strongly suppressed spontaneous activity during regeneration but had no significant effect in the normal projection. This difference could be attributed to an occlusion effect of strong optic drive in the normal projection, which dominated ongoing tectal activity. During regeneration, this optic drive is largely absent. Optic nerve stimulation further indicated that the NMDAr had little effect on the ability of optic fibers to evoke early postsynaptic impulse activity but was important for late network activity. These results indicate that, during regeneration, the NMDAr may play a critical role in the homeostatic regulation of ongoing activity and network excitability. PMID:23873725

  15. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS TO ANALYZE THE RELATION OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY WITH LEPTIN LEVELS IN CHILDREN: COMMENT ON CICCHELLA, ET AL. (2013).

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Pavón, David

    2015-08-01

    A positive correlation was found between self-reported physical activity, leptin level, and Tanner stage 2 in children aged 10 to 12 years. However, several methodological considerations on the accuracy for assessing physical activity, misclassification of physical activity levels and weight status, the inclusion of possible confounds, and interpretation of the current findings should be examined to clarify the final interpretation.

  16. Laterality of brain activity during motor imagery is modulated by the provision of source level neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Boe, Shaun; Gionfriddo, Alicia; Kraeutner, Sarah; Tremblay, Antoine; Little, Graham; Bardouille, Timothy

    2014-11-01

    Motor imagery (MI) may be effective as an adjunct to physical practice for motor skill acquisition. For example, MI is emerging as an effective treatment in stroke neurorehabilitation. As in physical practice, the repetitive activation of neural pathways during MI can drive short- and long-term brain changes that underlie functional recovery. However, the lack of feedback about MI performance may be a factor limiting its effectiveness. The provision of feedback about MI-related brain activity may overcome this limitation by providing the opportunity for individuals to monitor their own performance of this endogenous process. We completed a controlled study to isolate neurofeedback as the factor driving changes in MI-related brain activity across repeated sessions. Eighteen healthy participants took part in 3 sessions comprised of both actual and imagined performance of a button press task. During MI, participants in the neurofeedback group received source level feedback based on activity from the left and right sensorimotor cortex obtained using magnetoencephalography. Participants in the control group received no neurofeedback. MI-related brain activity increased in the sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the imagined movement across sessions in the neurofeedback group, but not in controls. Task performance improved across sessions but did not differ between groups. Our results indicate that the provision of neurofeedback during MI allows healthy individuals to modulate regional brain activity. This finding has the potential to improve the effectiveness of MI as a tool in neurorehabilitation.

  17. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Klaren, Rachel E; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W

    2016-05-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  18. Flexibility in metabolic rate and activity level determines individual variation in overwinter performance.

    PubMed

    Auer, Sonya K; Salin, Karine; Anderson, Graeme J; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2016-11-01

    Energy stores are essential for the overwinter survival of many temperate and polar animals, but individuals within a species often differ in how quickly they deplete their reserves. These disparities in overwinter performance may be explained by differences in their physiological and behavioral flexibility in response to food scarcity. However, little is known about whether individuals exhibit correlated or independent changes in these traits, and how these phenotypic changes collectively affect their winter energy use. We examined individual flexibility in both standard metabolic rate and activity level in response to food scarcity and their combined consequences for depletion of lipid stores among overwintering brown trout (Salmo trutta). Metabolism and activity tended to decrease, yet individuals exhibited striking differences in their physiological and behavioral flexibility. The rate of lipid depletion was negatively related to decreases in both metabolic and activity rates, with the smallest lipid loss over the simulated winter period occurring in individuals that had the greatest reductions in metabolism and/or activity. However, changes in metabolism and activity were negatively correlated; those individuals that decreased their SMR to a greater extent tended to increase their activity rates, and vice versa, suggesting among-individual variation in strategies for coping with food scarcity.

  19. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  20. Higher daily physical activity is associated with higher osteocalcin levels in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Saydi E.; Frohnert, Brigitte I.; Thomas, William; Kelly, Aaron S.; Nathan, Brandon M.; Polgreen, Lynda E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise stimulates bone remodeling and improves insulin sensitivity (Si), even without associated weight loss. Osteocalcin (OCN), a bone-derived protein, is associated with improved Si. Purpose We examined how daily physical activity is associated with OCN and Si. Methods Physical activity was measured through questionnaires completed in Minneapolis from 2010 to 2012. A physical activity score (PAQsum) was calculated to quantify physical activity (range 1–5). OCN and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were measured by ELISA. Si was measured by the insulin modified frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test. Results The mean PAQsum value was 2.4 ± 0.8 in 47 participants (12–17.9 years old). PAQsum was positively associated with OCN (p = 0.006). Participants with PAQsum <  2 had significantly lower OCN levels compared to participants with PAQsum >  2 (p < 0.02). Obesity did not modify the association between PAQsum and OCN. There was no statistically significant association between PAQsum and Si or between OCN and Si, even after adjustment for percent body fat. Conclusions OCN is higher in more physically active individuals. More research is needed to clarify the relationship between OCN, physical activity and Si. PMID:26236583

  1. Dueling Volcanoes: How Activity Levels At Kilauea Influence Eruptions At Mauna Loa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusdell, F.

    2011-12-01

    Loa inflates its flank is not buttressed on the southeast. Consequently, asymmetrical spreading occurs resulting in dilation of the shallow magma storage centers, which ultimately culminates in decreased magma pressure and therefore lessened ability to erupt. Whether or not this hypothesis is accurate, there is growing geologic evidence for inverse activity levels at both volcanoes. This hypothesis is readily testable and can have profound implications on how we monitor shield volcanoes, which impacts our ability to forecast eruptions, conduct hazard assessments, and risk analysis.

  2. Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Levels in Patients With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Røge, Rasmus; Pristed, Sofie Gry; Viuff, Anne Grethe; Ullum, Henrik; Thørner, Lise Wegner; Werge, Thomas; Vang, Torkel

    2015-01-01

    Background: The etiology of schizophrenia remains largely unknown but alterations in the immune system may be involved. In addition to the psychiatric symptoms, schizophrenia is also associated with up to 20 years reduction in life span. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a protein that can be measured in blood samples and reflects the levels of inflammatory activity. It has been associated with mortality and the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Methods: suPAR levels in patients with schizophrenia were compared to healthy controls from the Danish Blood Donor Study. SuPAR levels were dichotomized at >4.0 ng/ml, which is considered the threshold for low grade inflammation. A multiple logistic regression model was used and adjusted for age, sex, and current smoking. Results: In total we included 1009 subjects, 105 cases with schizophrenia (10.4%) and 904 controls (89.6%). The mean suPAR values were 4.01 ng/ml (SD = 1.43) for the cases vs 1.91 ng/ml (SD = 1.35) for the controls (P < .001). Multiple logistic regression with odds ratio (OR) for suPAR levels >4.0 ng/ml yielded: schizophrenia, OR: 46.15 95% CI 22.69–93.87, P < .001; age, OR: 1.02 95% CI 0.99–1.02, P = .15; male sex, OR: 0.70 95% CI 0.35–1.36, P = .29; and current smoking, OR: 3.51 95% CI 1.78–6.94, P < .001. Conclusions: Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher suPAR levels than healthy controls. Further studies are warranted to clarify if elevated suPAR levels are involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and/or the increased mortality found in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25154621

  3. Vocalisations of the bigeye Pempheris adspersa: characteristics, source level and active space.

    PubMed

    Radford, Craig A; Ghazali, Shahriman; Jeffs, Andrew G; Montgomery, John C

    2015-03-01

    Fish sounds are an important biological component of the underwater soundscape. Understanding species-specific sounds and their associated behaviour is critical for determining how animals use the biological component of the soundscape. Using both field and laboratory experiments, we describe the sound production of a nocturnal planktivore, Pempheris adspersa (New Zealand bigeye), and provide calculations for the potential effective distance of the sound for intraspecific communication. Bigeye vocalisations recorded in the field were confirmed as such by tank recordings. They can be described as popping sounds, with individual pops of short duration (7.9±0.3 ms) and a peak frequency of 405±12 Hz. Sound production varied during a 24 h period, with peak vocalisation activity occurring during the night, when the fish are most active. The source level of the bigeye vocalisation was 115.8±0.2 dB re. 1 µPa at 1 m, which is relatively quiet compared with other soniferous fish. Effective calling range, or active space, depended on both season and lunar phase, with a maximum calling distance of 31.6 m and a minimum of 0.6 m. The bigeyes' nocturnal behaviour, characteristics of their vocalisation, source level and the spatial scale of its active space reported in the current study demonstrate the potential for fish vocalisations to function effectively as contact calls for maintaining school cohesion in darkness.

  4. Impact of Network Activity Levels on the Performance of Passive Network Service Dependency Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Chikkagoudar, Satish; Arthur-Durett, Kristine M.

    2015-11-02

    Network services often do not operate alone, but instead, depend on other services distributed throughout a network to correctly function. If a service fails, is disrupted, or degraded, it is likely to impair other services. The web of dependencies can be surprisingly complex---especially within a large enterprise network---and evolve with time. Acquiring, maintaining, and understanding dependency knowledge is critical for many network management and cyber defense activities. While automation can improve situation awareness for network operators and cyber practitioners, poor detection accuracy reduces their confidence and can complicate their roles. In this paper we rigorously study the effects of network activity levels on the detection accuracy of passive network-based service dependency discovery methods. The accuracy of all except for one method was inversely proportional to network activity levels. Our proposed cross correlation method was particularly robust to the influence of network activity. The proposed experimental treatment will further advance a more scientific evaluation of methods and provide the ability to determine their operational boundaries.

  5. Comparison of the level of residual coagulant activity in different cheese varieties.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Nidhi; Fox, Patrick F; McSweeney, Paul L H

    2009-08-01

    The coagulant retained in cheese curd is a major contributor to proteolysis during ripening. The objective of this study was to quantify residual coagulant in 9 cheese varieties by measuring its activity on a synthetic heptapeptide (Pro-Thr-Glu-Phe-[NO2-Phe]-Arg-Leu) assayed using reversed-phase HPLC. The level of residual coagulant activity was highest in Camembert cheese, probably due to its low pH at whey drainage and the high moisture content of the cheese, followed in order by Feta=Port du Salut=Cheddar>Gouda>Emmental=Parmigiano Reggiano=low-moisture part-skim Mozzarella=Mozzarella di Bufala Campana. The high cooking temperature (50-54 degrees C) used during the manufacture of Emmental and Parmigiano Reggiano cheeses and the cooking and stretching step in hot water during the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese may be the reasons for the lowest residual coagulant activity in these cheeses. The level of residual coagulant activity was higher in Feta cheese made from milk concentrated by ultrafiltration than in conventional Feta.

  6. Responses of Electromyogram Activity in Adductor Longus Muscle of Rats to the Altered Gravity Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Takashi; Wang, Xiao Dong; Terada, Masahiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Higo, Yoko; Nakai, Naoya; Ochiai, Toshimasa; Gyotoku, Jyunichirou; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Ogura, Akihiko; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2008-06-01

    Responses of electromyogram (EMG) activities in the rostral and caudal regions of adductor longus (AL) muscle to altered gravity levels during parabolic flight of a jet airplane, as well as hindlimb suspension, were investigated in adult rats. Tonic EMGs in both regions were noted when the rats were exposed to hyper-G, as well as 1-G. The hip joints were adducted and the sedental quadrupedal position was maintained at these G levels. However, the EMG activities in these regions decreased and became phasic, when the hip joints were abducted and extended backward in μ-G environment. Such changes of joint angles caused passive shortening of sarcomeres only in the caudal region of AL. Atrophy and shift toward fast-twitch type were noted in fibers of the caudal region after 16-day unloading. Although fiber transformation was also induced in the rostral region, no atrophy was seen in fast-twitch fibers. The data may suggest that the atrophy and shift of phenotype caused by gravitational unloading in fibers of the caudal region may be related to the decrease in the neural and mechanical activities. Fiber type transformation toward fast-twitch type may be also related to the change of muscle activity from tonic to phasic patterns, which are the typical characteristics of fast-twitch muscle. However, the responses to unloading in fibers of rostral region were not related to the reduction of mechanical load.

  7. Smelling lavender and rosemary increases free radical scavenging activity and decreases cortisol level in saliva.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Toshiko; Tonosaki, Keiichi

    2007-02-28

    Free radicals/reactive oxygen species are related to many biological phenomena such as inflammation, aging, and carcinogenesis. The body possesses various antioxidative systems (free radical scavenging activity, FRSA) for preventing oxidative stress, and saliva contains such activity. In the present study, we measured the total salivary FRSA induced after the smelling of lavender and rosemary essential oils that are widely used in aromatherapy. Various physiologically active substances in saliva such as cortisol, secretory IgA, and alpha-amylase activity were found to be correlated with aroma-induced FRSA. The subjects (22 healthy volunteers) sniffed aroma for 5 min, and each subject's saliva was collected immediately. FRSA was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. The FRSA values were increased by stimulation with low concentrations (1000 times dilution) of lavender or by high-concentrations (10 times dilution) of rosemary. In contrast, both lavender and rosemary stimulations decreased cortisol levels. A significant inverse correlation was observed between the FRSA values and the cortisol levels with each concentration of rosemary stimulation. No significant changes were noted in sIgA or alpha-amylase. These findings clarify that lavender and rosemary enhance FRSA and decrease the stress hormone, cortisol, which protects the body from oxidative stress. PMID:17291597

  8. Effect of innate glutathione levels on activity of redox-responsive gene delivery vectors

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, Devika S.; Li, Jing; Putt, David A.; Zhou, Qing-Hui; Wu, Chao; Lash, Lawrence H.; Oupický, David

    2009-01-01

    Redox-responsive polyplexes represent a promising class of non-viral gene delivery vectors. The reducible disulfide bonds in the polyplexes undergo intracellular reduction owing to the presence of high concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH). Available evidence suggests improved transfection activity of redox-sensitive polyplexes upon artificial modulation of intracellular GSH. This study investigates the effect of innate differences in GSH concentration in a panel of human pancreatic cancer cell lines on activity of reducible polyplexes of the four major classes of nucleic acid therapeutics: plasmid DNA (pDNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AON) and siRNA. In general, reducible polyplexes of linear poly(amido amines) (PAA) show improved activity compared to non-reducible polyplexes of PAA. Results demonstrate that increased GSH levels are associated with improved transfection of mRNA polyplexes but no clear trend is observed for pDNA, AON and siRNA polyplexes. PMID:19720098

  9. How the Venus flytrap actively snaps: hydrodynamic measurements at the cellular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombani, Mathieu; Forterre, Yoel; GEP Team

    2012-11-01

    Although they lack muscle, plants have evolved a remarkable range of mechanisms to create rapid motion, from the rapid folding of sensitive plants to seed dispersal. Of these spectacular examples that have long fascinated scientists, the carnivorous plant Venus flytrap, whose leaves snap together in a fraction of second to capture insects, has long been a paradigm for study. Recently, we have shown that this motion involves a snap-buckling instability due to the shell-like geometry of the leaves of the trap. However, the origin of the movement that allows the plant to cross the instability threshold and actively bend remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigate this active motion using a micro-fluidic pressure probe that gives direct hydraulic and mechanical measurements at the cellular level (osmotic pressure, cell membrane permeability, cell wall elasticity). Our results challenge the role of osmotically-driven water flows usually put forward to explain Venus flytrap's active closure.

  10. Structure of Crumbs tail in complex with the PALS1 PDZ–SH3–GK tandem reveals a highly specific assembly mechanism for the apical Crumbs complex

    PubMed Central

    Li, Youjun; Wei, Zhiyi; Yan, Yan; Wan, Qingwen; Du, Quansheng; Zhang, Mingjie

    2014-01-01

    The Crumbs (Crb) complex, formed by Crb, PALS1, and PATJ, is evolutionarily conserved in metazoans and acts as a master cell-growth and -polarity regulator at the apical membranes in polarized epithelia. Crb intracellular functions, including its direct binding to PALS1, are mediated by Crb’s highly conserved 37-residue cytoplasmic tail. However, the mechanistic basis governing the highly specific Crb–PALS1 complex formation is unclear, as reported interaction between the Crb tail (Crb-CT) and PALS1 PSD-95/DLG/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain is weak and promiscuous. Here we have discovered that the PDZ–Src homolgy 3 (SH3)–Guanylate kinase (GK) tandem of PALS1 binds to Crb-CT with a dissociation constant of 70 nM, which is ∼100-fold stronger than the PALS1 PDZ–Crb-CT interaction. The crystal structure of the PALS1 PDZ–SH3–GK–Crb-CT complex reveals that PDZ–SH3–GK forms a structural supramodule with all three domains contributing to the tight binding to Crb. Mutations disrupting the tertiary interactions of the PDZ–SH3–GK supramodule weaken the PALS1–Crb interaction and compromise PALS1-mediated polarity establishment in Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cysts. We further show that specific target binding of other members of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) (e.g., CASK binding to neurexin) also requires the presence of their PDZ–SH3–GK tandems. PMID:25385611

  11. Community level predictors of physical activity among women in the preconception period.

    PubMed

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Sun, Haichun; Flory, Sara B; DeBate, Rita; Daley, Ellen M; Thompson, Erika; Bleck, Jennifer; Merrell, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Although physical activity is a key behavior targeted during the preconception period given its significant impact on pregnancy/birth outcomes and psychological well-being, few women meet national guidelines. While intrapersonal factors influencing physical activity among this population have been studied, community factors remain unexplored. The objective of this study was to examine community level predictors of physical activity among preconception women. Data from Add Health were limited to women (Wave III; age 18-28; n = 7,596) and excluded respondents who were pregnant, physically disabled, and missing data. The outcome variable was ≥5 instances of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in 1 week. Community predictor variables included neighborhood-level structural and social determinants (e.g., socio-demographic composition; landscape diversity; urbanization; access to resources; crime; vehicle availability). Multilevel logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the odds of engaging in ≥5 instances of MVPA. Few women (26 %) reported ≥5 instances of MVPA in 1 week. Adjusted multilevel analysis revealed women in the preconception period were more likely to report high MVPA when living in communities with larger population densities (OR 1.34, 95 % CI 1.02-1.77) and median household income greater than $50,000 (OR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.06-1.66). Additionally, a significant inverse trend was found between high MVPA and proportion of the community without a high school diploma. Findings suggest that neighborhood composition may have an impact on preconception physical activity status. Implications include increased efforts targeting community conditions for facilitating physical activity; ultimately, improving health among women and subsequent offspring. PMID:25636646

  12. Serum Level of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type-1 in Addicted Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Forood, Afsaneh; Malekpour-Afshar, Reza; Mahdavi, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Background Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a glycoprotein with inhibitory effects on the formation of plasmin from plasminogen by plasminogen activator. Thus, it prevents clot lysis in vessel walls. Several evidences prove the relationship between coronary artery disease and response to fibrinolytic therapy in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) with PAI-1 level. Opium addiction is one of the most important factors in causing MI and cardiovascular events. This is due to it causing imbalance between coagulation and anticoagulation factors in the blood. This study was designed and implemented to determine the levels of PAI-I in opium-addicted patients with coronary artery disease in comparison with non addicts. Methods In this case-control study, 160 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), which was confirmed by angiography results, were enrolled. All of the patients had a medical history, their creatinine levels and lipid profile were evaluated, morphine urine test was performed, and after that a blood sample was taken to determine the levels of PAI-1. Thus, the 80 patients who had a positive morphine urine test result formed the case group, and the control group was constituted of the 80 patients with negative morphine test results. The two groups were matched. Findings Average level of PAI-1 in the control group was 2.4 ± 2.6 and in the case group was 8.8 ± 9.1 and it was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The frequency of two vessel disease was higher in opium addicted patients than non-addicted patients and this was statistically significant (P = 0.030). However, the frequency of single vessel and three vessel disease was the same in the two groups. The two groups had no differences in age, lipid profile, and creatinine level. Moreover, females are at a higher risk of high PAI-1 levels. Conclusion PAI-1 levels in opium addicted patients with CHD are higher than other patients. In these patients, the risk of atherosclerosis and MI is

  13. Significant Enhancement of Water Splitting Activity of N-Carbon Electrocatalyst by Trace Level Co Doping.

    PubMed

    Bayatsarmadi, Bita; Zheng, Yao; Tang, Youhong; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Replacement of precious metal electrocatalysts with highly active and cost efficient alternatives for complete water splitting at low voltage has attracted a growing attention in recent years. Here, this study reports a carbon-based composite co-doped with nitrogen and trace amount of metallic cobalt (1 at%) as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for water splitting at low overpotential and high current density. An excellent electrochemical activity of the newly developed electrocatalyst originates from its graphitic nanostructure and highly active Co-Nx sites. In the case of carefully optimized sample of this electrocatalyst, 10 mA cm(-2) current density can be achieved for two half reactions in alkaline solutions-hydrogen evolution reaction and oxygen evolution reaction-at low overpotentials of 220 and 350 mV, respectively, which are smaller than those previously reported for nonprecious metal and metal-free counterparts. Based on the spectroscopic and electrochemical investigations, the newly identified Co-Nx sites in the carbon framework are responsible for high electrocatalytic activity of the Co,N-doped carbon. This study indicates that a trace level of the introduced Co into N-doped carbon can significantly enhance its electrocatalytic activity toward water splitting. PMID:27246288

  14. Activity levels of some radionuclides in Mariout and Brullus lakes, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Dar, Mahmoud A; El Saharty, Abeer A

    2013-11-01

    Mariout and Brullus are two of the highly fish-productive lakes in the northern coast of Egypt along the Mediterranean Sea. They are widely used to drain industrial wastes, sewage and agriculture drainage. The activities of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs were measured in the uppermost part of the surface sediments of the two lakes, using gamma-ray spectrophotometry. Brullus Lake recorded significantly higher (238)U and (232)Th and lower (40)K (17.22±2.49, 10.03±0.56 and 299.70±17.78 Bq kg(-1)) than Mariout Lake (12.65±1.53, 7.24±0.76 and 518.75±46.24 Bq kg(-1), respectively). Cesium-137 shows nearly equal activities in both lakes (3.33±0.46 and 3.68±0.70 Bq kg(-1), respectively). Activity distributions of (238)U and (232)Th in the sediments of Mariout Lake show a significant increase to the west, southwest and northeast, (40)K activity increased westwards, while the (137)Cs level was increased to the east and northeast, indicating agriculture drainage, industrial wastes and lands reclamation around the lake. At Brullus Lake, the activity trends of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and(137)Cs were increasing to the west and south towards the agriculture and industrial waste-water-feeding drains. PMID:23630385

  15. Significant Enhancement of Water Splitting Activity of N-Carbon Electrocatalyst by Trace Level Co Doping.

    PubMed

    Bayatsarmadi, Bita; Zheng, Yao; Tang, Youhong; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Replacement of precious metal electrocatalysts with highly active and cost efficient alternatives for complete water splitting at low voltage has attracted a growing attention in recent years. Here, this study reports a carbon-based composite co-doped with nitrogen and trace amount of metallic cobalt (1 at%) as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for water splitting at low overpotential and high current density. An excellent electrochemical activity of the newly developed electrocatalyst originates from its graphitic nanostructure and highly active Co-Nx sites. In the case of carefully optimized sample of this electrocatalyst, 10 mA cm(-2) current density can be achieved for two half reactions in alkaline solutions-hydrogen evolution reaction and oxygen evolution reaction-at low overpotentials of 220 and 350 mV, respectively, which are smaller than those previously reported for nonprecious metal and metal-free counterparts. Based on the spectroscopic and electrochemical investigations, the newly identified Co-Nx sites in the carbon framework are responsible for high electrocatalytic activity of the Co,N-doped carbon. This study indicates that a trace level of the introduced Co into N-doped carbon can significantly enhance its electrocatalytic activity toward water splitting.

  16. Anterior cruciate ligament injury after more than 20 years: I. Physical activity level and knee function.

    PubMed

    Tengman, E; Brax Olofsson, L; Nilsson, K G; Tegner, Y; Lundgren, L; Häger, C K

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about physical activity level and knee function including jump capacity and fear of movement/reinjury more than 20 years after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Seventy persons with unilateral ACL injury participated (23 ± 2 years post-injury): 33 treated with physiotherapy in combination with surgical reconstruction (ACLR ), and 37 treated with physiotherapy alone (ACLPT ). These were compared with 33 age- and gender-matched controls. Assessment included knee-specific and general physical activity level [Tegner activity scale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)], knee function [Lysholm score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)], jump capacity (one-leg hop, vertical jump, side hops), and fear of movement/reinjury [Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK)]. Outcomes were related to degree of osteoarthritis (OA). ACL-injured had lower Lysholm, KOOS, and Tegner scores than controls (P < 0.001), while IPAQ score was similar. ACL-injured demonstrated inferior jump capacity in injured compared with noninjured leg (6-25%, P < 0.001-P = 0.010 in the different jumps), while noninjured leg had equal jump capacity as controls. ACL groups scored 33 ± 7 and 32 ± 7 of 68 on TSK. Lower scores on Lysholm and KOOS symptom were seen for persons with moderate-to-high OA than for no-or-low OA, while there were no differences for physical activity and jump capacity. Regardless of treatment, there are still negative knee-related effects of ACL injury more than 20 years later.

  17. Diversity in sound pressure levels and estimated active space of resident killer whale vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patrick J O

    2006-05-01

    Signal source intensity and detection range, which integrates source intensity with propagation loss, background noise and receiver hearing abilities, are important characteristics of communication signals. Apparent source levels were calculated for 819 pulsed calls and 24 whistles produced by free-ranging resident killer whales by triangulating the angles-of-arrival of sounds on two beamforming arrays towed in series. Levels in the 1-20 kHz band ranged from 131 to 168 dB re 1 microPa at 1 m, with differences in the means of different sound classes (whistles: 140.2+/-4.1 dB; variable calls: 146.6+/-6.6 dB; stereotyped calls: 152.6+/-5.9 dB), and among stereotyped call types. Repertoire diversity carried through to estimates of active space, with "long-range" stereotyped calls all containing overlapping, independently-modulated high-frequency components (mean estimated active space of 10-16 km in sea state zero) and "short-range" sounds (5-9 km) included all stereotyped calls without a high-frequency component, whistles, and variable calls. Short-range sounds are reported to be more common during social and resting behaviors, while long-range stereotyped calls predominate in dispersed travel and foraging behaviors. These results suggest that variability in sound pressure levels may reflect diverse social and ecological functions of the acoustic repertoire of killer whales.

  18. Plasma levels of corticosterone and testosterone after sexual activity in male rats treated neonatally with clomipramine.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Jaime, H; Retana-Márquez, S; Vazquez-Palacios, G; Velázquez-Moctezuma, J

    2003-07-01

    Neonatal treatment with clomipramine (CMI) in rats, induces alterations of pleasure-seeking behaviors during adulthood. Alterations of hormonal responses to stressful situations have also been reported. In this study, the levels of corticosterone and testosterone in response to sexual activity were assessed in rats treated neonatally with CMI. Male pups received subcutaneous injections of CMI (15 mg/kg, 0.1 ml), twice a day (09.00 hours and 18.00 hours) from 8 to 21 days of age. A control group received saline in the same number of injections. Four months after CMI treatment, subjects (Ss) were submitted to the forced swim test to verify the effect of CMI. Thereafter, they were tested to assess their spontaneous sexual activity. Plasma levels of corticosterone and testosterone were assessed under different conditions. Results of sexual behavior and the forced swim test corroborate the depressive-like effect of CMI. The sole presence of an estrogenized stimulus female caused an increase in plasma levels of testosterone in both control and CMI-treated Ss. The same was true for corticosterone; however, this increase was significantly lower in the CMI-treated group. There is a discrepancy between the normal hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) response and the decreased sexual behavior. The data suggest that CMI induces permanent changes in the reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  19. Pen and Pal Are Nucleotide-Sugar Dehydratases That Convert UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-6-Deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene and Then to UDP-4-Keto-6-deoxy-l-AltNAc for CMP-Pseudaminic Acid Synthesis in Bacillus thuringiensis*♦

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zi; Hwang, Soyoun; Ericson, Jaime; Bowler, Kyle; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2015-01-01

    CMP-pseudaminic acid is a precursor required for the O-glycosylation of flagellin in some pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, a process known to be critical in bacterial motility and infection. However, little is known about flagellin glycosylation in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we identified and functionally characterized an operon, named Bti_pse, in Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ATCC 35646, which encodes seven different enzymes that together convert UDP-GlcNAc to CMP-pseudaminic acid. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria complete this reaction with six enzymes. The first enzyme, which we named Pen, converts UDP-d-GlcNAc to an uncommon UDP-sugar, UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene. Pen contains strongly bound NADP+ and has distinct UDP-GlcNAc 4-oxidase, 5,6-dehydratase, and 4-reductase activities. The second enzyme, which we named Pal, converts UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene to UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-l-AltNAc. Pal is NAD+-dependent and has distinct UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene 4-oxidase, 5,6-reductase, and 5-epimerase activities. We also show here using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry that in B. thuringiensis, the enzymatic product of Pen and Pal, UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-l-AltNAc, is converted to CMP-pseudaminic acid by the sequential activities of a C4″-transaminase (Pam), a 4-N-acetyltransferase (Pdi), a UDP-hydrolase (Phy), an enzyme (Ppa) that adds phosphoenolpyruvate to form pseudaminic acid, and finally a cytidylyltransferase that condenses CTP to generate CMP-pseudaminic acid. Knowledge of the distinct dehydratase-like enzymes Pen and Pal and their role in CMP-pseudaminic acid biosynthesis in Gram-positive bacteria provides a foundation to investigate the role of pseudaminic acid and flagellin glycosylation in Bacillus and their involvement in bacterial motility and pathogenicity. PMID:25414257

  20. Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP), Characterization and Microbial Activity of Soil Amended with Dairy Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Frąc, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of organic amendment applications compared to mineral fertilization on soil microbial activity and functional diversity. The field experiment was set up on a soil classified as an Eutric Cambisol developed from loess (South-East Poland). Two doses of both dairy sewage sludge (20 Mg·ha−1 and 26 Mg·ha−1) and of mineral fertilizers containing the same amount of nutrients were applied. The same soil without any amendment was used as a control. The soil under undisturbed native vegetation was also included in the study as a representative background sample. The functional diversity (catabolic potential) was assessed using such indices as Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon–Weaver index (H). These indices were calculated, following the community level physiological profiling (CLPP) using Biolog Eco Plates. Soil dehydrogenase and respiratory activity were also evaluated. The indices were sensitive enough to reveal changes in community level physiological profiles due to treatment effects. It was shown that dairy sewage amended soil was characterized by greater AWCD, R, H and dehydrogenase and respiratory activity as compared to control or mineral fertilized soil. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to depict the differences of the soil bacterial functional diversity between the treatments. PMID:22737006