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Sample records for activity level physical

  1. Physical activity level, waist circumference, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Reeder, Bruce A.; Elliott, Susan; Joffres, Michel R.; Pahwa, Punam; Kirkland, Susan A.; Paradis, Gilles; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    This study predicted all-cause mortality based on physical activity level (active or inactive) and waist circumference (WC) in 8208 Canadian adults in Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan, surveyed between 1986–1995 and followed through 2004. Physically inactive adults had higher mortality risk than active adults overall (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval = 1.20, 1.05–1.37) and within the low WC category (1.51, 1.19–1.92). Detrimental effects of physical inactivity and high WC demonstrate the need for physical activity promotion. PMID:22703160

  2. Factors Influencing Cypriot Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present selected findings from a larger study, which set out to examine the physical activity levels of Cypriot primary school children and determinants of their activity. Twenty parents of children who obtained high and low activity scores based on pedometer counts and self-reports scores were interviewed. By…

  3. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  4. Physical activity levels of children during school playtime.

    PubMed

    Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2006-01-01

    School represents a suitable setting for intervention programmes aiming to promote physical activity to benefit health. During the school day, physical education and school playtime offer children regular opportunities to engage in physical activity. However, there is growing concern that, internationally, curricular time allocated to physical education is not meeting statutory guidelines. The effectiveness of the playground environment to promote physical activity has been considered as a complementary setting to physical education. Physical activity guidelines state that children should engage in at least 1 hour of moderate intensity physical activity a day. Currently no empirically tested guidelines exist for physical activity levels during playtime. However, studies cited in this article indicate that playtime can contribute between 5-40% of recommended daily physical activity levels when no interventions have been utilised. The limited school-based investigations that have been reported in the literature suggest that boys engage in more physical activity during playtime than girls. Studies that have implemented intervention strategies in order to promote physical activity levels indicate that playtime can substantially contribute towards daily optimal physical activity guidelines. Energy expenditure and physical activity levels have increased during playtime following the implementation of playtime-based interventions. In order to advance knowledge of children's physical activity during playtime, a number of key issues for consideration in future research are detailed. Research on children's use of playtime to be physically active and the extent of the contribution of playtime to daily physical activity guidelines is warranted.

  5. Physical activity levels in the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Sherry, David D

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is paramount in the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia, although some interventions use indirect methods to increase activity levels rather than address physical dysfunction head-on. New research explores the effects of a psychotherapeutic approach on levels of physical activity in adolescents with fibromyalgia.

  6. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  7. The Role of Various Curriculum Models on Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Dean O.; Tarr, Susan J.; Killion, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that physical education curricula can be highly effective in increasing physical activity levels at school (Sallis & Owen, 1999). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of various curriculum models on physical activity. Total steps were measured on 1,111 subjects and three curriculum models were studied…

  8. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  9. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  10. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  11. Effects of a Classroom-Based Physical Activity Program on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Tan Leng; Hannon, James; Webster, Collin Andrew; Podlog, Leslie William; Brusseau, Timothy; Newton, Maria

    2014-01-01

    High levels of physical inactivity are evident among many American children. To address this problem, providing physical activity (PA) during the school day within the CSPAP framework, is one strategy to increase children's PA. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a classroom-based PA program on children's PA. Two hundred…

  12. Physical Activity Levels of Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Valderi Abreu; Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; Decimo, Juliana Pereira; de Souza, William Cordeiro; Monteiro, Anna Louise Stellfeld; Lahard, Ian; França, Suzana Nesi; Leite, Neiva

    2017-01-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in comparison with healthy scholar participants. Total of 154 teenagers (T1D=45 and CON=109). Height, weight, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), and the level of physical activity by the Bouchard's Physical Activity Record were measured, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in T1D. The VO2 max was lower in the T1D (38.38 ± 7.54) in comparison with the CON (42.44 ± 4.65; p<0.05). The VO2max had correlation with the amount of time of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (r = 0.63; p = 0.0001) and an inverse correlation with sedentary activities (r = -0.46; p = 0.006). In the T1D the levels of HbA1c had an inverse correlation with the amount of time of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (r = -0.34; p = 0.041) and correlation with the BMI z-score (r = 0.43; p = 0.017). Only 37,8% of the participants in the T1D reached the adequate amount of daily moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, in the CON 81,7% reached the WHO's recommendation.

  13. Children's Physical Activity Levels during Indoor Recess Dance Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Koufoudakis, Ryann; Beighle, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children's physical activity (PA) levels remain low, and schools are being asked to assume a leadership role in PA promotion. Research suggests outdoor recess contributes to children's overall PA levels. However, similar research is not available for indoor recess, which occurs frequently due to a variety of factors. The purpose of…

  14. Objectively-Measured Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education among Homeschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Sarah; Pope, Zachary; Zeng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Despite a growing population of homeschool children in the United States, little is known regarding their physical activity (PA) levels. Without access to physical education, homeschool children may engage in inadequate PA levels. The purpose of this study was to objectively examine the activity levels of homeschool students participating in a…

  15. Association between Physical Activity Levels and Physical Symptoms or Illness among University Students in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sang-Hyun; Um, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Cheol Min; Kwon, Hyuktae

    2016-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity can cause various physical symptoms or illness. However, few studies on this association have been conducted in young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity levels and physical symptoms or illness in young adults. Methods Subjects were university students who participated in a web-based self-administered questionnaire in a university in Seoul in 2013. We obtained information on physical activities and physical symptoms or illness in the past year. Independent variables were defined as symptoms or illness which were associated with decreased academic performance. Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of each physical symptom or illness with adjustment for covariables. Results A total of 2,201 participants were included in the study. The main physical symptoms or illness among participants were severe fatigue (64.2%), muscle or joint pain (46.3%), gastrointestinal problems (43.1%), headache or dizziness (38.6%), frequent colds (35.1%), and sleep problems (33.3%). Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with high ORs of physical symptoms or illness. Multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) in the lowest vs. highest tertile of physical activity were 1.45 (1.14–1.83) for severe fatigue, 1.35 (1.07–1.70) for frequent colds, and 1.29 (1.02–1.63) for headaches or dizziness. We also found that lower levels of physical activity were associated with more physical symptoms or bouts of illness. Conclusion Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with various physical symptoms or illness among university students. Also, individuals in the lower levels of physical activity were more likely to experience more physical symptoms or bouts of illness than those in the highest tertile of physical activity. PMID:27688861

  16. Physical Education Lesson Content and Teacher Style and Elementary Students' Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Stellino, Megan Babkes; Beets, Michael W.; Beighle, Aaron; Johnson, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity levels among American children are increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to a lack of regular physical activity (PA). Physical education (PE) is one way to facilitate student PA. The overarching PA goal for physical educators is 50% PA for students. Self-determination theory suggests that PA levels in PE and a variety of other…

  17. Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity Levels of Rural Appalachian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Rana, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to examine whether pedometer-assessed physical activity (PA) in Appalachian Ohio students differed by body mass index (BMI), school level (middle school vs. high school), and gender during school days and nonschool days and whether students met the recommended PA guidelines. Participants (N = 149) were…

  18. Cardiovascular effects of variations in habitual levels of physical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, C. G.; Mitchell, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in human cardiovascular adaption to stress, particularly adaption to different levels of physical activity are determined along with quantitative noninvasive methods for evaluation of cardiovascular function during stess in normal subjects and in individuals with latent or manifest cardiovascular disease. Results are summarized.

  19. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Tolea, Magdalena I; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Metter, E Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway.

  20. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  1. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  2. Levels of physical activity and predictors of mortality in COPD*

    PubMed Central

    Nyssen, Samantha Maria; dos Santos, Júlia Gianjoppe; Barusso, Marina Sallum; de Oliveira, Antônio Delfino; Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires Di; Jamami, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE) index scores and its individual components between COPD patients with and without severe physical inactivity, as well as to correlate the number of steps/day with scores of physical activity questionnaires, age, and the BODE index (including its components). METHODS: We included 30 patients, who were evaluated for body composition, pulmonary function (FEV1), perception of dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council scale), and exercise capacity (six-minute walk distance [6MWD]). The patients also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), short version, and the modified Baecke questionnaire (mBQ). The level of physical activity was assessed by the number of steps/day (as determined by pedometer), using the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day to form two groups: no severe physical inactivity (SPI−) and severe physical inactivity (SPI+). We used the Mann-Whitney test or t-test, as well as Pearson's or Spearman's correlation tests, in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: In comparison with the SPI− group, the SPI+ group showed more advanced age, higher mBQ scores (leisure domain), lower 6MWD (in m and % of predicted), and lower IPAQ scores (metabolic equivalent-walk/week domain and total). The IPAQ scores showed weak correlations with steps/day (r = 0.399), age (r = −0.459), and 6MWD-in m (r = 0.446) and in % of predicted (r = 0.422). CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day was not sensitive enough to identify differences between the groups when compared with the predictors of mortality. The IPAQ, short version score correlated with steps/day. PMID:24473759

  3. Play equipment, physical activity opportunities, and children's activity levels at childcare.

    PubMed

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Van Kann, Dave H H; Jansen, Maria W J

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between physical activity facilities at childcare (e.g., play equipment) and physical activity of 2- and 3-year olds. Observations of physical activity intensity were performed among 175 children at 9 childcare centers in The Netherlands, using the OSRAC-P. The physical activity facilities were assessed for indoors and outdoors separately, using the EPAO instrument. Regular (single-level) multivariate and multilevel linear regression analyses examined the association of the facilities and child characteristics (age and sex) with children's activity levels. Various physical activity facilities were available in all childcare centers (e.g., balls). Riding toys and a small playing area were associated with lower indoor physical activity levels. Outdoor physical activity levels were positively associated with the availability of portable jumping equipment and the presence of a structured track on the playground. Portable slides, fixed swinging equipment, and sandboxes were negatively associated with outdoor activity levels. In addition, the 3-year old children were more active outdoors than the 2-year olds. In conclusion, not all physical activity facilities at childcare were indeed positively associated with children's activity levels. The current findings provide concrete leads for childcare providers regarding which factors they can improve in the physical environment to facilitate children's physical activity.

  4. A Survey of Physical Activity Levels of Certified Athletic Trainers

    PubMed Central

    Cuppett, Marchell; Latin, Richard W.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the self-reported physical activities of certified athletic trainers (ATCs), both at work and at leisure. Design and Setting: We used the Baecke Questionnaire of Habitual Physical Activity and also asked for demographic information, including employment setting, years of experience, education level, and position. Subjects: The questionnaire was sent to 1200 randomly selected ATCs in the Mid-America Athletic Trainers' Association; the return rate was 53%. Measurements: We used means, standard deviations, and ranges to describe the age, total fitness index, work, and leisure and sport indexes of men and women subjects. Independent t tests were used to compare the mean total activity index between men and women within this study and with previous studies. We examined differences in activity indexes by employment setting, position, and age with one-way analysis of variance and Fisher pairwise comparison tests. Two-way χ2 analysis was used to determine the relationship between activity level and employment setting and position. Statistical significance was set at P = .05 for all analyses. Results: Certified athletic trainers who work in a clinical setting had the highest mean total activity score at 9.1 points. Clinic ATCs scored significantly higher than high school ATCs and college ATCs. When compared by position, there were no significant differences among the mean total activity indexes; however, the mean work index of program directors was significantly lower than all other positions and the mean work index of high school and clinic ATCs was significantly higher than all other employment settings. Conclusions: Female ATCs scored significantly higher in total activity levels on the Baecke Questionnaire than their male counterparts. This is in contrast to the general population, investigated by other authors, in which men scored significantly higher than women on the same scale. Additionally, we compared the total activity levels by age

  5. Physical Activity Levels of Non-Overweight, Overweight, and Obese Children during Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathare, Neeti; Piche, Kelly; Nicosia, Andrea; Haskvitz, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) levels of young children classified by body mass index (BMI) (non-overweight, overweight, and obese) during physical education classes. Method: Participants included 82 children (45 boys, 37 girls; 7.5 ± 1.2 years). PA was determined by the number of steps measured with…

  6. Associations between Adolescents' Situational Motivation and Objectively-Determined Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Weihong; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the predictive strength of adolescents' situational motivation to their physical activity levels in physical education. Method: A total of 259 middle school students ranging from 11 to 14 years old participated in the study. Participants completed the Situational Motivation Scale in one class. Their PA levels…

  7. Physical Activity Levels of Overweight and Nonoverweight High School Students during Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined physical activity (PA) levels of overweight and nonoverweight African American and Caucasian students (n = 198) during game play in physical education classes. Methods: Body fat percentages (%BFs) were determined using the skinfold technique and Slaughter et al prediction equations. Girls were classified as…

  8. Physical activity levels of adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities during physical education and recess.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chien-Yu; Liu, Chin-Wen; Chung, I Chiao; Hsu, Po-Jen

    2014-11-16

    To compare physical activity levels in adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities during physical education and recess. Forty adolescents diagnosed with intellectual disabilities (inclusive classrooms, n=20; self-contained classrooms, n=20) and 40 age-matched typically developing peers (general classrooms) participated. All participants wore an Actigraph GT1M accelerometer for 5 consecutive weekdays during school hours. Three groups of adolescents were similarly active during physical education; however, adolescents with intellectual disabilities in self-contained classrooms were less active during recess than did the other two groups. In addition, they spent less percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during recess than did the typically developing adolescents. An inclusive, structured, and supportive environment promotes physical activity engagement in adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

  9. Distant Interactions and Their Effects on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Background: It has been observed that physical activity patterns of health-related behavior are established in childhood and may continue into adulthood. Recent findings showing a relationship between the onset of chronic diseases and sedentary lifestyles support the importance of examining Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA). One…

  10. Effect of Learning Activity on Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels and Effort/Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Lee, Amelia M.; Xiang, Ping; Kosma, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The type of learning activity offered in physical education may influence students' motivational beliefs, physical activity participation and effort/persistence in class. However, most empirical studies have focused on the individual level rather than on the learner-content interactions. Accordingly, the potential effects of learning activities on…

  11. Physical Activity Enjoyment and Self-Efficacy As Predictors of Cancer Patients' Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Nadine; Wiskemann, Joachim; Sieverding, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can support cancer patients during medical treatment by reducing side-effects and increasing quality of life. However, PA levels mostly decline after diagnosis. Which factors can explain if patients are able to remain or even increase their PA level? Self-efficacy is an important cognitive factor that has been linked to cancer patients' PA across many studies. In contrast, affective factors such as PA enjoyment have rarely been examined. We compare the influence of self-efficacy and PA enjoyment on cancer patients' PA levels after completion of an exercise or stress-management intervention. Methods: Outpatient cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34%, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION study, a 4-week intervention (1 h counseling followed by weekly phone calls), with pre-test (T1), post-test (T2), and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise intervention (emphasizing self-regulatory strategies for behavior change) or to a stress management intervention (coping and relaxation techniques). Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA, a measure of maintenance self-efficacy (7 items, Cronbach's α = 0.88) and PA enjoyment (2 items, Cronbach's α = 0.89). Regression analyses were calculated with PA level (at T2 and T3) as dependent variable and relative weight analyses were conducted. The study was registered at clinicalTrials.gov (unique identifier:NCT01576107; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01576107?term=motivaction&rank=1). Results: Baseline self-efficacy and change in PA enjoyment significantly predicted cancer patients' PA level at T2 adjusting for baseline PA and type of intervention. Relative weight (RW) analysis revealed that PA enjoyment (baseline and change together) explained 34.3% of the dependent variable, self-efficacy (baseline and change) explained 38.4%. At follow

  12. A Survey of Physical Activity Levels of Certified Athletic Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuppett, Marchell; Latin, Richard W.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the physical activities of certified athletic trainers (ATCs), both at work and at leisure. Survey data indicated that those who worked in clinical versus school settings had the highest mean total activity score. Females scored significantly higher than males. The mean total index activity of the over-36-years-old group was…

  13. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    PubMed Central

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  14. Effects of Curricular Activity on Students' Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…

  15. Playground Designs to Increase Physical Activity Levels during School Recess: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escalante, Yolanda; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Backx, Karianne; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    School recess provides a major opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. Various studies have described strategies to increase levels of physical activity. The purpose of this systematic review is therefore to examine the interventions proposed as forms of increasing children's physical activity levels during recess. A…

  16. Age, gender, and level of activity as moderators of personal incentives to physical activity in Israel.

    PubMed

    Raviv, Shulamith; Netz, Yael

    2007-05-01

    The authors conducted an exploratory study with Israeli adults examining their personal incentives for physical activity (e.g., appearance, weight management). The participants formed a sample of 379 physically active Israelis, aged 20-89 years, divided into 3 age groups and 3 levels of activity. The authors found a similar profile for men and women for most incentives, with men scoring more highly than did women on only competition and fitness. Participants in the highest level of activity attributed greater importance to all incentives than did those in the other levels, and older adults attributed less importance to all incentives except for health benefits. The findings are relevant for planning activities intended to encourage adults to engage in more physical activity.

  17. Low body mass index, physical work capacity and physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Durnin, J V

    1994-11-01

    In a normal population the distribution of body mass index (BMI) is such that a certain proportion of the population is likely to be at low values without necessarily being malnourished. However, although they may have low BMIs without being malnourished, they could certainly be physiologically and physically disadvantaged. An attempt is made to dissect out the probability of work capacity and physical activity being influenced by changes occurring in the human body with diminishing BMI. The conclusion reached is therefore that before physical activity is affected, the BMI would probably have to be 17 or less, although it is possible that work capacity might be reduced before this level is reached. In any case, work requiring the use of the body mass - such as carrying loads, digging or shovelling earth or coal, pulling or cycling a rickshaw, stone splitting etc.- would impose a greater stress on people of low BMI.

  18. Is a Coded Physical Activity Diary Valid for Assessing Physical Activity Level and Energy Expenditure in Stroke Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Vanroy, Christel; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Cras, Patrick; Feys, Hilde; Truijen, Steven; Michielsen, Marc; Vissers, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine the concurrent validity of a physical activity diary for measuring physical activity level and total energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Method Sixteen stroke patients kept coded activity diaries and wore SenseWear Pro2 multi-sensor activity monitors during daytime hours for one day. A researcher observed the patients and completed a diary. Data from the patients' diaries were compared with observed and measured data to determine total activity (METs*minutes), activity level and total energy expenditure. Results Spearman correlations between the patients' and researchers' diaries revealed a high correlation for total METs*minutes (rs = 0.75, p<0.01) for sedentary (rs = 0.74,p<0.01) and moderate activities (rs = 0.71,p<0.01) and a very high correlation (rs = 0.92, p<0.01) for the total energy expenditure. Comparisons between the patients' diaries and activity monitor data revealed a low correlation (rs 0.29) for total METs*minutes and energy expenditure. Conclusion Coded self-monitoring activity diaries appear feasible as a low-tech alternative to labor-intensive observational diaries for determining sedentary, moderate, and total physical activity and for quantifying energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Given the poor correlation with objective measurements of physical activity, however, further research is needed to validate its use against a gold-standard measure of physical activity intensity and energy expenditure. PMID:24905345

  19. The Influence of Physical Education on Physical Activity Levels of Urban Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauenhauer, Brian D.; Keating, Xiaofen D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of physical education in shaping physical activity patterns. Seventy-one Hispanic and African American elementary students participated in the study. Students attended one 30- and one 60-min physical education class weekly. Pedometer steps were used to estimate physical activity. Data suggest that…

  20. Research Note: Physical Activity Levels in Elementary-School Physical Education: A Comparison of Swimming and Nonswimming Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Greet; Verstraete, Stefanie; De Clercq, Dirk; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of the current study was to compare physical activity levels during swimming and nonswimming elementary physical education classes. We conducted a preliminary study and found that the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) could be used to register physical activity engagement levels in swimming classes. Thirty-nine…

  1. Physical activity level and related factors in adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    van Eck, Mirjam; Dallmeijer, Annet J; Beckerman, Heleen; van den Hoven, Petronella A M; Voorman, Jeanine M; Becher, Jules G

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity level of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and to investigate the associated factors. The physical activity level was measured by means of a questionnaire filled in by the parents of 72 adolescents with CP (12-16 years of age) and expressed in METs. Older age, female gender, and hip dysplasia were significantly associated with a lower level of physical activity. Eighty-nine percent were not physically active enough according to the Dutch norm. Physical activity needs to be promoted, especially among older adolescents with CP (age 14-16 years), girls, and adolescents with hip dysplasia.

  2. Correlation between the Physical Activity Level and Grade Point Averages of Faculty of Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imdat, Yarim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find the correlation that exists between physical activity level and grade point averages of faculty of education students. The subjects consist of 359 (172 females and 187 males) under graduate students To determine the physical activity levels of the students in this research, International Physical Activity…

  3. The Effect of Gender and Level of Vision on the Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…

  4. A Comparison of the Fitness, Obesity, and Physical Activity Levels of High School Physical Education Students across Race and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kathryn L.; Wojcik, Janet R.; DeWaele, Christi S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the physical fitness, obesity, and physical activity (PA) levels of high school students in physical education classes when comparing racial and gender groups. Purpose: To compare the fitness, obesity, and PA levels of female and male students of different racial groups in 6 high schools in the southeastern…

  5. A Case Study Objectively Assessing Female Physical Activity Levels within the National Curriculum for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Matthew; Daly-Smith, Andrew; Morley, David; McKenna, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the National Curriculum for Physical Education (NCPE) lesson themes and contexts on the profile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Fifteen, Year 9 Physical Education (PE) lessons were assessed within the lesson themes of Outwitting Opponents (OO) (delivered through field hockey…

  6. The relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as high (N=101), moderate (N=115), or low (N=111) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program’s standard was used. [Results] Waist circumference and triglyceride levels, factors of metabolic syndrome, were significantly higher in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were negatively correlated with physical activity level, and HDL cholesterol showed a positive correlation with waist circumference. The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome were 2.03 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.01–4.09) in the low physical activity group than in the high physical activity group. [Conclusion] Low physical activity was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. Therefore, increasing physical activity in daily life may prevent metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. PMID:27942116

  7. The relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as high (N=101), moderate (N=115), or low (N=111) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program's standard was used. [Results] Waist circumference and triglyceride levels, factors of metabolic syndrome, were significantly higher in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were negatively correlated with physical activity level, and HDL cholesterol showed a positive correlation with waist circumference. The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome were 2.03 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.09) in the low physical activity group than in the high physical activity group. [Conclusion] Low physical activity was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. Therefore, increasing physical activity in daily life may prevent metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers.

  8. Physical Activity Trajectories and Multi-Level Factors among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Zook, Kathleen R.; Saksvig, Brit I.; Wu, Tong Tong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although the decline of physical activity in adolescent girls is well-documented, there are girls whose physical activity does not follow this pattern. This study examined the relationships between physical activity trajectories and personal, psychosocial and environmental factors among adolescent girls. Methods Participants were from the University of Maryland field site of the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls. Of 730 girls measured in 8th grade, 589 were re-measured in 11th grade. Moderate to vigorous physical activity was assessed by accelererometers; participants were categorized as active maintainers (n=31), inactive maintainers (n=410), adopters (n=64), or relapsers (n=56). Height and weight were measured, personal and psychosocial information was collected from surveys, and distance from home to school and parks was assessed from Geographical Information Systems. Multivariable logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results Variables at individual, social, and environmental levels predicted active maintainers and inactive maintainers, while only individual-level variables predicted adoption. None predicted relapse. Higher (favorable) scores for physical self-concept, perceived body fat, friend and family physical activity support, frequency of physical activity with friends, and shorter distance from home to a park predicted active maintainers. Overweight/obese status, earlier age at menses, and lower scores for physical self-concept, perceived body fat, friend physical activity support, and frequency of physical activity with friends, and further distance from home to school predicted inactive maintainers. High physical self-concept and not being overweight/obese predicted adopters. Conclusion Multi-level factors appear to predict behavior maintenance rather than actual change. Implications and Contribution Although physical activity declines among girls during adolescence, some maintain and others increase their physical activity. Our

  9. Children's Activity Levels and Lesson Context during Third-Grade Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In this study, researchers observed third graders' physical activity levels and associated variables in physical education classes in four Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health centers nationwide. Results found significant differences among centers for physical activity and lesson context variables. During free play, boys were more…

  10. Relationship of lipoprotein(a) levels to physical activity and family history of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Martín, S; Elosua, R; Covas, M I; Pavesi, M; Vila, J; Marrugat, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association of physical activity with serum lipoprotein(a) [La(a)] levels in individuals according to whether they had a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Lp(a) levels in 332 healthy Spanish men aged 20 to 60 years were measured. Physical activity and family history of CHD were assessed. RESULTS: For men with a family history of CHD, the odds ratio for Lp(a) levels above the median value was 0.13 (95% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.50) in very active men (energy expended in physical activity > 300 kcal/day) compared with active men (energy expended in physical activity < 300 kcal/day). CONCLUSIONS: Regular daily physical activity in individuals with a family history of CHD could be useful for controlling Lp(a) levels. PMID:10076490

  11. Relationships among Physical Activity Levels, Psychomotor, Psychosocial, and Cognitive Development of Primary Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isler, Ayse Kin; Asci, F. Hulya; Kosar, S. Nazan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationships of physical activity levels and psychomotor, psychosocial, and cognitive development among Turkish elementary school students. Student evaluations indicated that physical activity level was an important factor in determining student psychomotor development, but it was not important in determining psychosocial and…

  12. Levels of Engagement and Barriers to Physical Activity in a Population of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Andrew; Look, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This study examined levels of, and barriers to, physical activity in a population of 19 adults with learning disabilities living in community supported accommodation, using diary records and semi-structured interviews with staff. The levels of physical activity were higher in the sample population than previous figures for adults with learning…

  13. A Review of Physical Activity Levels during Elementary School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairclough, Stuart J.; Stratton, Gareth

    2006-01-01

    Regular physical activity participation throughout childhood provides benefits to physical (Malina, Bouchard, & Bar-Or, 2004), physiological (Andersen, Wedderkopp, Hansen, Cooper, & Froberg, 2003), and psychological health (Mutrie & Parfitt, 1998). In recognition of these benefits, guidelines have been published in the United States…

  14. Promoting Lifelong Physical Activity and High Level Performance: Realising an Achievable Aim for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNamara, Aine; Collins, Dave; Bailey, Richard; Toms, Martin; Ford, Paul; Pearce, Gemma

    2011-01-01

    Background: Even though all school-aged children in most countries experience some form of curricular physical education many do not maintain a lifelong involvement in sport or physical activity. From a theoretical perspective, the development models that dominate sport are limited by their staged and linear approaches to development (e.g. Cote's…

  15. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  16. Gender Differences in Barriers to Physical Activity among College Students Reporting Varying Levels of Regular Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munford, Shawn N.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have studied the primary determinants of physical activity in an effort to enhance health promotion initiatives nationwide. These physical activity determinants have been observed to differ among various segments of the population, suggesting a further examination of physical activity barriers among differing populations. Little…

  17. Age-associated changes in the level of physical activity in elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Daisuke; Nishida, Yuusuke; Fujita, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify how light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity in older adults changes with age, subdividing physical activity according to intensity levels, by using an accelerometer. [Subjects] Older adults living independently in the community were included (n = 106, age: 65–85 years). [Methods] A triaxial accelerometer was used to measure the amount of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity (1–2.9, 3–5.9, and ≥6 metabolic equivalents, respectively) and inactive time over 7 days. Light- and moderate-intensity physical activity levels were further subdivided into 1–1.9, 2–2.9, 3–3.9, and 4–5.9 metabolic equivalents, respectively. [Results] The amount of moderate-intensity physical activity at both sub-levels showed significant inverse correlations with age (r = −0.34, −0.33, respectively), but this was not seen with other levels. Both levels of moderate-intensity physical activity were independently predicted by age using multiple regression analysis adjusted for gender and body mass index. [Conclusion] These results suggest that understanding the reduction in moderate-intensity physical activity with age in older adults, subdivided according to intensity level, could be a useful index to increase the amount of higher intensity physical activity in stages, considering individual health conditions. PMID:26834332

  18. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581), Psychological Domain (r = –0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  19. Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Differ According to Education Level in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009–2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays. PMID:27403958

  20. Effects of curricular activity on students' situational motivation and physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students'situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve students in grades 7-9 participated in three activities (cardiovascular fitness, ultimate football, and Dance Dance Revolution [DDR]) in physical education. ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers were used to measure students' PA levels for three classes for each activity. Students also completed a Situational Motivation Scale (Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, 2000) at the end of each class. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that students spent significantly higher percentages of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in fitness and football classes than they did in DDR class. Students reported higher lM and IR toward fitness than DDR They also scored higher in IR toward fitness than football. In contrast, students displayed significantly lower AM toward fitness than football and DDR Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that IM was the only positive predictor for time in MVPA (p = .02), whereas AM was the negative predictor (p < .01). The findings are discussed in regard to the implications for educational practice.

  1. Understanding dog owners' increased levels of physical activity: results from RESIDE.

    PubMed

    Cutt, Hayley; Giles-Corti, Billie; Knuiman, Matthew; Timperio, Anna; Bull, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    We examined the influence of dog ownership on physical activity, independent of demographic, intrapersonal, and perceived environmental factors, in a cross-sectional survey of 1813 adults. Although only 23% of the dog owners walked their dogs 5 or more times per week, the adjusted odds of achieving sufficient physical activity and walking were 57% to 77% higher among dog owners compared with those not owning dogs (P< .05). Dog ownership was independently associated with physical activity and walking. Actively encouraging more dog walking may increase community physical activity levels.

  2. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.

  3. An elevated level of physical activity is associated with normal lipoprotein(a) levels in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Aparicio, Daniel; Rojas, Edward; Peñaranda, Lianny; Finol, Freddy; Acosta, Luis; Mengual, Edgardo; Rojas, Joselyn; Arráiz, Nailet; Toledo, Alexandra; Colmenares, Carlos; Urribarí, Jesica; Sanchez, Wireynis; Pineda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Dalia; Faria, Judith; Añez, Roberto; Cano, Raquel; Cano, Clímaco; Sorell, Luis; Velasco, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death worldwide. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in which concentrations are genetically regulated. Contradictory results have been published about physical activity influence on Lp(a) concentration. This research aimed to determine associations between different physical activity levels and Lp(a) concentration. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was made in 1340 randomly selected subjects (males = 598; females = 712) to whom a complete clinical history, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Lp(a) level determination were made. Statistical analysis was carried out to assess qualitative variables relationship by chi2 and differences between means by one-way analysis of variance considering a P value <0.05 as statistically significant. Results are shown as absolute frequencies, percentages, and mean +/- standard deviation according to case. Physical activity levels were ordinal classified as follows: low activity with 24.3% (n = 318), moderate activity with 35.0% (n = 458), and high physical activity with 40.8% (n = 534). Lp(a) concentration in the studied sample was 26.28 +/- 12.64 (IC: 25.59-26.96) mg/dL. Lp(a) concentration according to low, moderate, and high physical activity levels were 29.22 +/- 13.74, 26.27 +/- 12.91, and 24.53 +/- 11.35 mg/dL, respectively, observing statistically significant differences between low and moderate level (P = 0.004) and low and high level (P < 0.001). A strong association (chi2 = 9.771; P = 0.002) was observed among a high physical activity level and a normal concentration of Lp(a) (less than 30 mg/dL). A lifestyle characterized by high physical activity is associated with normal Lp(a) levels.

  4. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed.

  5. Are self-reported physical activity levels associated with perceived desirability of activity-friendly communities?

    PubMed

    Librett, John J; Yore, Michelle M; Schmid, Thomas L; Kohl, Harold W

    2007-09-01

    People living in activity-friendly communities (AFCs) are more active but the self-selection influence is unknown. From 4856 respondents we explored mediating variables with expressed desire to live in AFCs. Association with desire to live in AFCs included ages 18-24 years (odds ratio [OR]=1.9), African American (OR=1.9) or Hispanic (OR=1.5), and believing AFCs would support activity-based transportation (OR=2.4). Regular physical activity (PA) was marginally associated with desire to live in AFCs (OR=1.3). These findings suggest that PA may be a significant factor in communities of this style. Strategies for social marketing along with changes to the built environment to increase PA levels are discussed.

  6. Individual and School-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Physical Activity in Australian School children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lucy; Maher, Carol; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Olds, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: We attempted to determine whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in 9- to 11-year-old Australian children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and whether school facilities or policies supporting physical activity were associated with school-level socioeconomic status (SES) and MVPA. Methods: Children (N = 528) from 26…

  7. The Physical Activity Levels of Preschool-Aged Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This systematic review presents research on the physical activity levels of preschool-aged children (aged 2-6 years). Thirty-nine primary studies (published 1986-2007) representing a total of 10,316 participants (5236 male and 5080 female), from seven countries are described and the physical activity behaviors of this population are considered in…

  8. Level of Physical Activity in Population Aged 16 to 65 Years in Rural Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Aslesh, O P; Mayamol, P; Suma, R K; Usha, K; Sheeba, G; Jayasree, A K

    2016-01-01

    Kerala is a state in India with a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In order to control these diseases, the prevalence of modifiable risk factors such as low physical activity need to be studied. For this a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of physical activity among 240 residents aged between 15 and 65 years in Kulappuram, a village in north Kerala. Low level of physical activity was seen in 65.8% of the study participants. The average duration of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per day in different domains such as work, travel, and recreation were 40.5, 10.1, and 12.7 minutes, respectively. The average duration of sedentary activities was 284.3 minutes per day. The level of physical activity was more among those engaged in unskilled work (adjusted odds ratio = 4.32; confidence interval = 1.38-13.51) and unmarried persons (adjusted odds ratio = 3.65; confidence interval = 1.25-10.65). No statistically significant difference in physical activity level was seen in different age, education, religious, and economic categories. The study concludes that the physical activity level was low in the study population.

  9. Influence of physical fitness on antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde level in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Hammouda, Omar; Matran, Régis; Robin, Sophie; Fabre, Claudine

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how physical fitness level could affect antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level at rest and in response to exhaustive exercise in healthy older adults. Fifty older adults (average age: 66.1 ± 3.8 years) were divided according to their physical fitness level into an unfit group (UG) (n = 15), a low fitness level group (LFG) (n = 18), and a high fitness level group (HFG) (n = 17). Fitness status was classified based on answers to a questionnaire about physical activity in the previous 12 months. Before and after an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion, the following markers were assessed: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and MDA. At rest, SOD, GPX, and α-tocopherol activities were higher in the HFG (p < 0.05), whereas MDA level was lower in the LFG in comparison with the 2 other groups (p < 0.05). During the postexercise period, antioxidant activity increased only in the LFG and the HFG (GPX, SOD, and α-tocopherol). MDA level increased in all groups after the exercise (p < 0.05). In addition, MDA level was higher during the recovery period in the HFG as compared with the others groups. This study concluded that both low and high physical fitness levels help maintain better antioxidant defenses in older adults. However, a higher physical fitness level, rather than a lower physical fitness level, could increase lipid peroxidation.

  10. Middle School Students' Body Mass Index and Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Oh, Hyunju; Sheng, Huiping

    2011-01-01

    One of the most critical public concerns in the United States is the rapid increase in childhood obesity, partly due to the social and environmental changes (e.g., excessive TV and computer use, pressures of standardized testing, etc.) in the past few decades, which has resulted in less physical activity in school children's daily routines.…

  11. Urban Middle School African American Girls' Attitudes toward Physical Education and Out-of-School Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this two-part study were (1) to investigate urban middle school African American girls' physical activity levels and their relationships to attitudes and, (2) to explore urban middle school African American girls' attitude toward physical education. A total of (N = 649) African American girls from 14 New York City middle schools…

  12. The Effects of Choice on Autonomous Motivation, Perceived Autonomy Support, and Physical Activity Levels in High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    How, Yew Meng; Whipp, Peter R.; Dimmock, James A.; Jackson, Ben

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether the provision of choice in physical education (PE) enhanced students' autonomous motivation, perceived autonomy support, and physical activity (PA) levels, relative to a "regular PE" control group. Students from eight intact high school PE classes ("N" = 257, M[subscript "age"] = 12.91)…

  13. Preschooler's Physical Activity Levels and Associations with Lesson Context, Teacher's Behavior, and Environment during Preschool Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Labarque, Valery; Gubbels, Jessica; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet

    2012-01-01

    Preschools offer two main opportunities, recess and physical education (PE), for preschool children to participate in physical activity (PA) and are considered a suitable institution for PA promotion given the large number of children enrolled. Although PE can have a meaningful effect on preschoolers' PA levels, preschool PE characteristics…

  14. Do Choices in Physical Education Enhance Students' Autonomous Motivation, Perceived Autonomy Support, and Physical Activity Levels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batia, Abigail S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether students in an intervention group, who were given choices within physical education (PE), reported greater autonomous motivation, more favorable perceptions of autonomy support, and displayed higher in-class physical activity (PA) levels than those in a control group. It was hypothesized that there would be marked…

  15. Habitual physical activity levels are associated with performance in measures of physical function and mobility in older men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: To determine whether objectively measured physical activity levels are associated with measures of physical function and mobility in older men. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Academic research center. Participants: Eighty-two community-dwelling men >/= 65 years of age with self-report...

  16. Physical activity level in Achilles tendinosis is associated with blood levels of pain-related factors: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bagge, J; Gaida, J E; Danielson, P; Alfredson, H; Forsgren, S

    2011-12-01

    Physical activity affects the pain symptoms for Achilles tendinosis patients. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and their receptors have been detected in human Achilles tendon. This pilot study aimed to compare serum BDNF and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNFRI) levels in Achilles tendinosis patients and healthy controls and to examine the influence of physical activity, and BMI and gender, on these levels. Physical activity was measured with a validated questionnaire, total physical activity being the parameter analyzed. Physical activity was strongly correlated with BDNF among tendinosis women [Spearman's rho (ρ)=0.90, P<0.01] but not among control women (ρ=-0.08, P=0.83), or among tendinosis and control men. Physical activity was significantly correlated with sTNFRI in the entire tendinosis group and among tendinosis men (ρ=0.65, P=0.01), but not in the entire control group or among control men (ρ=0.04, P=0.91). Thus, the physical activity pattern is related to the TNF and BDNF systems for tendinosis patients but not controls, the relationship being gender dependent. This is new information concerning the relationship between physical activity and Achilles tendinosis, which may be related to pain for the patients. This aspect should be further evaluated using larger patient materials.

  17. Measurement error of self-reported physical activity levels in New York City: assessment and correction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungwoo; Wyker, Brett; Bartley, Katherine; Eisenhower, Donna

    2015-05-01

    Because it is difficult to objectively measure population-level physical activity levels, self-reported measures have been used as a surveillance tool. However, little is known about their validity in populations living in dense urban areas. We aimed to assess the validity of self-reported physical activity data against accelerometer-based measurements among adults living in New York City and to apply a practical tool to adjust for measurement error in complex sample data using a regression calibration method. We used 2 components of data: 1) dual-frame random digit dialing telephone survey data from 3,806 adults in 2010-2011 and 2) accelerometer data from a subsample of 679 survey participants. Self-reported physical activity levels were measured using a version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, whereas data on weekly moderate-equivalent minutes of activity were collected using accelerometers. Two self-reported health measures (obesity and diabetes) were included as outcomes. Participants with higher accelerometer values were more likely to underreport the actual levels. (Accelerometer values were considered to be the reference values.) After correcting for measurement errors, we found that associations between outcomes and physical activity levels were substantially deattenuated. Despite difficulties in accurately monitoring physical activity levels in dense urban areas using self-reported data, our findings show the importance of performing a well-designed validation study because it allows for understanding and correcting measurement errors.

  18. Effects of physical activity and training programs on plasma homocysteine levels: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    e Silva, Alexandre de Souza; da Mota, Maria Paula Gonçalves

    2014-08-01

    Homocysteine is an amino acid produced in the liver that, when present in high concentrations, is thought to contribute to plaque formation and, consequently, increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, daily physical activity and training programs may contribute to controlling atherosclerosis. Given that physical exercise induces changes in protein and amino acid metabolism, it is important to understand whether homocysteine levels are also affected by exercise and to determine possible underlying mechanisms. Moreover, regarding the possible characteristics of different training programs (intensity, duration, repetition, volume), it becomes prudent to determine which types of exercise reduce homocysteine levels. To these ends, a systematic review was conducted to examine the effects of daily physical activity and different training programs on homocysteine levels. EndNote(®) was used to locate articles on the PubMed database from 2002 to 2013 with the keyword combinations "physical activity and homocysteine", "training and homocysteine", and/or "exercise and homocysteine". After 34 studies were identified, correlative and comparative studies of homocysteine levels revealed lower levels in patients engaged in greater quantities of daily physical activity. Regarding the acute effects of exercise, all studies reported increased homocysteine levels. Concerning intervention studies with training programs, aerobic training programs used different methods and analyses that complicate making any conclusion, though resistance training programs induced decreased homocysteine levels. In conclusion, this review suggests that greater daily physical activity is associated with lower homocysteine levels and that exercise programs could positively affect homocysteine control.

  19. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Differences in Physical Activity Levels between Urban and Rural School Children in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.; Bennett, Neville

    2004-01-01

    This study attempted to examine differences in physical activity levels between urban and rural primary school children. The sample consisted of 256 Greek-Cypriot children and their parents from two schools representing urban areas and three schools representing rural areas. Children's activity levels were assessed for 4 weekdays in the winter and…

  1. Seasonal Variation in Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Young Norwegian Talented Soccer Players: A Description of Daily Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Sæther, Stig A.; Aspvik, Nils P.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Practise makes perfect’ is a well-known expression in most sports, including top-level soccer. However, a high training and match load increases the risk for injury, overtraining and burnout. With the use of accelerometers and a self-report questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players’ physical activity (PA) level. Data were collected three times during the 2011 Norwegian Football season (March, June and October). The accelerometer output, counts·min–1 (counts per unit time registered), reports the daily PA-level for young talented soccer players. Results showed a stable PA-level across the season (March: 901.2 counts·min–1, June: 854.9 counts·min–1, October: 861.5 counts·min–1). Furthermore, comparison of five different training sessions across the season showed that the PA-level ranged from 2435.8 to 3745.4 counts·min–1. A one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the three measured weeks during the soccer season (p≤0.814). However, the training sessions in January had a significantly higher PA-level than those in June and October (p≤0.001). Based on these results, we discuss how potential implications of PA-level affect factors such as risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. We argue that player development must be seen as part of an overall picture in which club training and match load should be regarded as one of many variables influencing players’ PA-level. Key points It is well established that to achieve a high performance level in sport, one must implement a high training and match load in childhood and youth. With the use of accelerometers and a self-reported questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players’ total physical activity (PA) load. These results indicate that young talented soccer players must overcome large doses of PA on a weekly basis, exposing them to a high risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. PMID:25435792

  2. Sources and magnitude of variability in pedometer-determined physical activity levels of youth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So-Yeun; Park, Hye-Sang

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sources of variability in habitual physical activity of children, and the minimum number of days required for estimating children’s habitual physical activity levels using pedometers. A total of 31 children wore two pedometers during five weekdays and four weekend days. A two random facet completely crossed design was conducted with two-way analysis of variances across weekdays, weekends, and weekdays and weekend days combined. Moderate/high generalizability coefficients were estimated across all days. Primary sources of variability were variance components of the person and person by day interaction. Minimum numbers of days required for estimating habitual physical activity levels using a pedometer were five during weekdays. However, estimating habitual physical activity levels during weekends, and weekdays and weekend days combined was impractical. PMID:26730388

  3. Effects of Varying Team Sizes on Physical Activity Levels of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudreault, Karen Lux; Cluphf, David; Russell, Jared; Lecheminant, James

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine physical activity levels among various team sizes for basketball and soccer in a C/UIPAP setting. Twenty-eight university physical education majors participated in the study. Participants engaged in three-on-three and five-on-five basketball and five-on-five and 11-on-11 soccer games. All games…

  4. Physical activity levels determine exercise-induced changes in brain excitability

    PubMed Central

    Fassett, Hunter J.; Nelson, Aimee J.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that regular physical activity can impact cortical function and facilitate plasticity. In the present study, we examined how physical activity levels influence corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuitry in motor cortex following a single session of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. We aimed to determine whether exercise-induced short-term plasticity differed between high versus low physically active individuals. Participants included twenty-eight young, healthy adults divided into two equal groups based on physical activity level determined by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: low-to-moderate (LOW) and high (HIGH) physical activity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess motor cortex excitability via motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curves for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle at rest (MEPREST) and during tonic contraction (MEPACTIVE), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (SICF), and intracortical facilitation (ICF). All dependent measures were obtained in the resting FDI muscle, with the exception of AMT and MEPACTIVE recruitment curves that were obtained during tonic FDI contraction. Dependent measures were acquired before and following moderate intensity aerobic exercise (20 mins, ~60% of the age-predicted maximal heart rate) performed on a recumbent cycle ergometer. Results indicate that MEPREST recruitment curve amplitudes and area under the recruitment curve (AURC) were increased following exercise in the HIGH group only (p = 0.002 and p = 0.044, respectively). SICI and ICF were reduced following exercise irrespective of physical activity level (p = 0.007 and p = 0.04, respectively). MEPACTIVE recruitment curves and SICF were unaltered by exercise. These findings indicate that the propensity for exercise-induced plasticity is different in high versus low physically active individuals. Additionally, these data highlight that a single session of

  5. Levels and Characteristics of Physical Activity among a College Student Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kim; Staten, Ruth R.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Noland, Melody

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity levels and the relationships between activity and personal characteristics among a cohort of college students and to determine personal characteristics that predict activity. A sample of 1,700 undergraduates was mailed a survey that requested demographic information and assessed health…

  6. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  7. Visual-Somatosensory Integration is Linked to Physical Activity Level in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Jeannette R; Dumas, Kristina; Holtzer, Roee

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining multisensory integration (MSI) in aging consistently demonstrate greater reaction time (RT) facilitation in old compared to young adults, but often fail to determine the utility of MSI. The aim of the current experiment was to further elucidate the utility of MSI in aging by determining its relationship to physical activity level. 147 non-demented older adults (mean age 77 years; 57% female) participated. Participants were instructed to make speeded responses to visual, somatosensory, and visual-somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Depending on the magnitude of the individuals' RT facilitation, participants were classified into a MSI or NO MSI group. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity scale. As predicted, RTs to VS stimuli were significantly shorter than those elicited to constituent unisensory conditions. Multisensory RT facilitation was a significant predictor of total number of physical activity days per month, with individuals in the NO MSI group reporting greater engagement in physical activities compared to those requiring greater RT facilitation.

  8. [Comparison of eating habits among students according to sex and level of physical activity].

    PubMed

    Łagowska, Karolina; Woźniewicz, Małgorzata; Jeszka, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate nutritional habits of high school students, depending on their sex and physical activity. The investigated population included 147 students in age of 17.5 +/- 1.5 y (girls DZ = 98, boys CH = 49) with different level of physical activity (athletes SPO, moderate physical activity UAF, low physical activity NAF). Nutritional data were obtained by FFQ and calculated for selected food-groups and generally as young healthy eating index YHEI. International IPAQ was used to determine the level of physical activity and anthropometric measured were conducted to estimated BMI and body fat status. It was indicated the YHEI in athletes was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to rest of students. Moreover, a significant difference (p < 0.05) in YHEI in DZ compared to CH was also found. The significant differences (p < 0.05) in the frequency of consumption of red meat, vegetable oil and sweetned drinks was revealed between DZ and CH adolescents. The frequency of consumption of vegetable oil, fast - foods, sweets, alcoholic drinks, energy drinks and isotonic drinks varied with the level of physical activity. Frequency of consumption of sweets negatively correlated with skinfold thickness in DZ, whereas positive correlation between consumption frequency of energy drinks, BMI and skinfold thickness was found in CH. The results show, that nutritional habits of the athletes was most approached to nutritional guidelines. CH, nutritional habits may predicted to overweight and obesity in CH group more distinctly than in DZ group.

  9. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  10. Association between physical activity level and consumption of fruit and vegetables among adolescents in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between low levels of physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 2,057 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. We analyzed the level of physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables by standardized and validated questionnaires. The control variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, maternal education, alcohol consumption and smoking. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of physical activity was 81.9%; the inadequate consumption of fruits ocurred in 79.1% and the inadequate consumption of vegetables in 90.6%. Adolescents who consumed few fruits daily had an increase in 40% of chance of being insufficiently active and, for those who consumed few vegetable's the likelihood of being insufficiently active was 50% higher, compared to those who had adequate intake of these foods. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of physical activity were associated with inadequate fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents in a city in northeastern Brazil. These findings suggest that insufficiently active adolescents have other unhealthy behaviors that may increase the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. PMID:25887930

  11. Effectiveness of the Sport Education Fitness Model on Fitness Levels, Knowledge, and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hansen, Andrew; Scarboro, Shot; Melnic, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in fitness levels, content knowledge, physical activity levels, and participants' perceptions following the implementation of the sport education fitness model (SEFM) at a high school. Thirty-two high school students participated in 20 lessons using the SEFM. Aerobic capacity, muscular…

  12. Investigation of the Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Mutlu; Ozkan, Ali; Kul, Murat; Bozkus, Taner

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship of physical activity (PA) level and healthy life-style behaviors in academic staff in Bartin University, Turkey. The short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was administered for the determination of physical activity level of academic staff. Their PA levels were…

  13. Parental Influences and the Relationship to their Children’s Physical Activity Levels

    PubMed Central

    CHIARLITTI, NATHAN A.; KOLEN, ANGELA M.

    2017-01-01

    Engaging in a physically active lifestyle relates positively to current health and reduces chances of chronic diseases in the future. Given escalating health care costs, it is paramount to reduce illnesses associated with a lack of physical activity and thus critical to identify factors that influence physical activity - especially in children, with the opportunity for a lifetime impact. One of these influencing factors may be parents/guardians. The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between children’s physical activity levels and parental factors including parental physical activity, support/encouragement, restrictiveness, and self-reported participation. Data was collected from 15 child-parent pairs with children ranging in age from 7 to 10 years. Daily physical activity levels were determined from pedometer data using a Piezo SC-Step Pedometer. Number of steps and moderate and vigorous physical activity were extracted from the pedometers and levels of support/encouragement, restrictiveness, and participation were quantified from parents’ self-reported responses to a questionnaire created for this study. Pearson Product correlation analyses were carried out between: the children’s and parent steps (r = −0.069; p = 0.597); children’s steps and parent’s self-reported encouragement/support (r = 0.045, p = 0.563); children’s steps and parents’ self-reported restrictiveness (r = −.0254, p = 0.820); and children’s steps and parents’ self-reported participation (r = −0.002, p = 0.503). The lack of significant relationships among these variables implies that more complex interactions occur between children and their parents regarding physical activity with children’s participation influenced by other factors. PMID:28344735

  14. National level promotion of physical activity: results from England's ACTIVE for LIFE campaign

    PubMed Central

    Hillsdon, M; Cavill, N; Nanchahal, K; Diamond, A; White, I

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To assess the impact of a national campaign on awareness of the campaign, change in knowledge of physical activity recommendations and self reported physical activity.
DESIGN—three year prospective longitudinal survey using a multi-stage, cluster random probability design to select participants.
SETTING—England.
PARTICIPANTS—A nationally representative sample of 3189 adults aged 16-74 years.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Awareness of the advertising element of the campaign, changes in knowledge of physical activity recommendations for health and self reported physical activity.
RESULTS—38% of participants were aware of the main advertising images, assessed six to eight months after the main television advertisement. The proportion of participants knowledgeable about moderate physical activity recommendations increased by 3.0% (95% CI: 1.4%, 4.5%) between waves 1 and 2 and 3.7% (95% CI: 2.1%, 5.3%) between waves 1 and 3. The change in proportion of active people between baseline and waves 1 and 2 was
−0.02 (95% CI: −2.0 to +1.7) and between waves 1 and 3 was −9.8 (−7.9 to −11.7).
CONCLUSION—The proportion of participants who were knowledgeable about the new recommendations, increased significantly after the campaign. There was however, no significant difference in knowledge by awareness of the main campaign advertisement. There is no evidence that ACTIVE for LIFE improved physical activity, either overall or in any subgroup.


Keywords: exercise; mass media; follow up studies; health promotion; physical activity PMID:11553661

  15. Physical Activity Level and Symptom Duration Are Not Associated After Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Howell, David R.; Mannix, Rebekah C.; Quinn, Bridget; Taylor, J. Andrew; Tan, Can Ozan; Meehan, William P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical rest after a concussion has been described as a key component in the management of the injury. Evidence supporting this recommendation, however, is limited. Purpose To examine the association between physical activity and symptom duration in a cohort of patients after a concussion. Study Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods This study included 364 patients who were diagnosed with a concussion, were seen by a physician within 3 weeks of injury, and completed a questionnaire at the initial clinic visit. The questionnaire assessed the postconcussion symptom scale (PCSS) score, previous number of concussions, presence of the loss of consciousness or amnesia at the time of injury, and prior treatment for headaches. During each follow-up clinic visit, physical activity level was self-reported. A Cox proportional hazard model was constructed to determine the association between symptom duration, initial clinic visit responses, and self-reported physical activity level after the injury. Results Study participants ranged in age from 8 to 27 years (mean age, 15.0 years) and had sustained a mean of 0.8 prior concussions; 222 patients (61%) were male. On initial examination, the mean PCSS score was 34.7. The mean symptom duration was 48.9 days after the injury. Among the variables included in the model, initial PCSS score and female sex were independently associated with symptom duration, while physical activity level after the injury was not. For participants aged between 13 and 18 years, however, higher levels of physical activity after the injury were associated with a shorter symptom duration. Conclusion Results from this study indicate that physical activity after the injury may not be universally detrimental to the recovery of concussion symptoms. PMID:26838933

  16. Association of After-School Physical Activity Levels and Organized Physical Activity Participation in Hong Kong Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Peggy PY

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to 1) describe the children's physical activity (PA) patterns during the after-school period and 2) to compare the type and intensity of activity during the after-school period of children with or without participation in organized PA programmes. The participants were 456 children from four primary schools in Hong Kong.…

  17. Physical activity level and quality of life in long term lung cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Nes, Lise Solberg; Liu, Heshan; Patten, Christi A.; Rausch, Sarah M.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Garces, Yolanda I.; Cheville, Andrea L; Yang, Ping; Clark, Matthew M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Lung cancer is associated with a multitude of challenges, and lung cancer survivors report significantly lower quality of life (QOL) than other cancer survivors. Methods This study aimed to examine the relationship between physical activity level and QOL in a large sample of long term lung cancer survivors (N = 1937). Average age at diagnosis was 65 years, 92% were Caucasian, and 51% male. Surveys were completed at lung cancer diagnosis and then average 4.2 years post-diagnosis. Results Most survivors reported having a sedentary lifestyle at both timepoints. However, 256 survivors reported a change in physical activity level from diagnosis to follow-up. Decreased physical activity (n = 140) was associated with decreased overall, mental, physical, emotional, social, and spiritual QOL (all ps < .001) and decreased symptom control as seen in reported pain, dry coughing, coughing with phlegm, shortness of breath, and level of fatigue (all ps < .05). In contrast, increased physical activity (n = 116) was associated with improved QOL (all ps < .05), and improved symptom control as seen in frequency and severity of pain (p < .01). For all participants, those engaging in regular physical activity (30 min or more per day, at least five days per week) reported significantly higher QOL scores (all ps < .001), and better symptom control than more sedentary survivors. Conclusions Results indicate a significant association between change in physical activity and QOL and symptom control for long term lung cancer survivors, and research exploring interventions designed to improve activity level for lung cancer survivors is further warranted. PMID:22681871

  18. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  19. Physical activity parenting: A systematic review of questionnaires and their associations with child activity levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insufficient physical activity (PA) is considered a critical contributor to childhood overweight. Parents are a key in influencing their child's PA through various mechanisms of PA parenting, including support, restriction of PA, and facilitation of enrollment in PA classes or activities. However, s...

  20. Efficacy of interventions to improve physical activity levels in individuals with stroke: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Martins, Júlia Caetano; Nadeau, Sylvie; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; Faria, Christina D C M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a leading health problem worldwide and an important cause of disability. Stroke survivors show low levels of physical activity, and increases in physical activity levels may improve function and health status. Therefore, the aims are to identify which interventions that have been employed to increase physical activity levels with stroke survivors, to verify their efficacy and to identify the gaps in the literature. Methods and analysis A systematic review of randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of interventions aiming at increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in the MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO) databases. Hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies or relevant reviews will also be employed. Two independent reviewers will screen all the retrieved titles, abstracts and full texts. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreements. The quality of the included studies will be assessed by the PEDro Rating Scale. This systematic review will also include a qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses will be performed, if the studies are sufficiently homogeneous. This review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The quality of the evidence regarding physical activity will be assessed, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Discussion This systematic review will provide information on which interventions are effective for increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors. This evidence may be important for clinical decision-making and will allow the identification of gaps in the literature that may be useful for the definition of future research

  1. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  2. Factors influencing physical activity level among secondary school adolescents in Petaling District, Selangor.

    PubMed

    Aniza, I; Fairuz, M R

    2009-09-01

    Physical activity is the first line approach and one of the main factors in preventing chronic diseases. Currently there is the increasing percentage of sedentary life style or lack of exercise among adolescents. The main objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of inactivity and the factors influencing physical activity in adolescents. A cross sectional study was carried out among secondary school students aged 14 and 16 in Petaling District, Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 519 respondents participated in this study. Their physical activity level was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The active group was classified as those having levels of equal or more than 600 met-min per week while less than 600 met-min per week was considered inactive. Response rate in this study was 95.4%. The prevalence of inactive in adolescents was 20.8%. Female adolescents, non-working mother, time constraint, exercise only when having ample time and stretching before exercise are predictor factors for being inactive among adolescents. Steps need to be taken to persistently ensure that the physical activity among adolescents be increased continuously.

  3. Physical Activity Level of Urban Pregnant Women in Tianjin, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Dong, Shengwen; Zuo, Jianhua; Hu, Xiangqin; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the physical activity level and factors influencing physical activity among pregnant urban Chinese women. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 1056 pregnant women (18–44 years of age) in Tianjin, China. Their socio-demographic characteristics were recorded, and the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess their physical activity during pregnancy. The data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Median total energy expenditure of pregnant women in each of the three trimesters ranged from 18.50 to 21.90 metabolic equivalents of task (METs) h/day. They expended 1.76–1.85 MET h/day on moderate and vigorous activities and 0.11 MET h/day on exercise. Only 117 of the women (11.1%) met the international guideline for physical activity in pregnancy (≥150 min moderate intensity exercise per week). The most frequent reason given for not being more physically active was the fear of miscarriage. Higher education level (OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 1.59–10.62), habitual exercise before pregnancy (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.39–3.28), and husbands who exercised regularly (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.33–3.67) significantly increased the odds of meeting the guideline (p<0.001). A low pre gravid body mass index (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20–0.87) significantly decreased the odds (p<0.001). Conclusions Few urban Chinese pregnant women met the recommended physical activity guideline. They also expended little energy exercising. Future interventions should be based on the clinic environment and targeting family members as well as the subjects. All pregnant women should be targeted, not just those in high-risk groups. PMID:25286237

  4. Higher daily physical activity is associated with higher osteocalcin levels in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Saydi E.; Frohnert, Brigitte I.; Thomas, William; Kelly, Aaron S.; Nathan, Brandon M.; Polgreen, Lynda E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise stimulates bone remodeling and improves insulin sensitivity (Si), even without associated weight loss. Osteocalcin (OCN), a bone-derived protein, is associated with improved Si. Purpose We examined how daily physical activity is associated with OCN and Si. Methods Physical activity was measured through questionnaires completed in Minneapolis from 2010 to 2012. A physical activity score (PAQsum) was calculated to quantify physical activity (range 1–5). OCN and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were measured by ELISA. Si was measured by the insulin modified frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test. Results The mean PAQsum value was 2.4 ± 0.8 in 47 participants (12–17.9 years old). PAQsum was positively associated with OCN (p = 0.006). Participants with PAQsum <  2 had significantly lower OCN levels compared to participants with PAQsum >  2 (p < 0.02). Obesity did not modify the association between PAQsum and OCN. There was no statistically significant association between PAQsum and Si or between OCN and Si, even after adjustment for percent body fat. Conclusions OCN is higher in more physically active individuals. More research is needed to clarify the relationship between OCN, physical activity and Si. PMID:26236583

  5. Physical activity levels, duration pattern and adherence to WHO recommendations in German adults

    PubMed Central

    Luzak, Agnes; Heier, Margit; Thorand, Barbara; Laxy, Michael; Nowak, Dennis; Peters, Annette; Schulz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Background Intensity and duration of physical activity are associated with the achievement of health benefits. Our aim was to characterize physical activity behavior in terms of intensity, duration pattern, and adherence to the WHO physical activity recommendations in a population-based sample of adults from southern Germany. Further, we investigated associations between physical activity and sex, age, and body mass index (BMI), considering also common chronic diseases. Methods We analyzed 475 subjects (47% males, mean age 58 years, range 48–68 years) who wore ActiGraph accelerometers for up to seven days. Measured accelerations per minute obtained from the vertical axis (uniaxial) and the vector magnitude of all three axes (triaxial) were classified as sedentary, light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) according to predefined acceleration count cut-offs. The average minutes/day spent in each activity level per subject served as outcome. Associations of sex, age, BMI, and seven chronic diseases or health limitations, with the activity levels were analyzed by negative binomial regression. Results Most of the wear time was spent in sedentarism (median 61%/day), whereas the median time spent in MVPA was only 3%, with men achieving more MVPA than women (35 vs. 28 minutes/day, p<0.05). Almost two thirds of MVPA was achieved in short bouts of less than 5 minutes, and 35% of the subjects did not achieve a single 10-minute bout. Hence, only 14% adhered to the WHO recommendation of 2.5 hours of MVPA/week in at least 10-minute bouts. Females, older subjects and obese subjects spent less time in MVPA (p<0.05), but no clear association with hypertension, asthma, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety/depression, pain or walking difficulties was observed in regression analyses with MVPA as outcome. Conclusions Activity behavior among middle-aged German adults was highly insufficient, indicating a further need for physical activity promotion in

  6. [Preference for behavior conducive to physical activity and physical activity levels of children from a southern Brazil city].

    PubMed

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to describe preferences for behavior conducive to physical activity (PA) and to evaluate the influence of these preferences on physical activity of children from Pelotas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. It involved a cross-sectional study with children aged 4 to 11. Behavior conducive to PA was evaluated using the Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ). Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured by accelerometry. Variance analysis and linear regression were performed to evaluate associations between questions from the NPAQ and independent variables and between each form of behavior and time spent in MVPA, respectively. Children in the higher economic bracket liked to draw more and preferred less vigorous games and playing outside than poorer children. Older children were less extrovert and liked to draw less than younger children. Enjoying sports, disliking drawing and liking to play outside were positively associated with daily time spent in MVPA. Some characteristics studied were associated with behavior conducive to PA, and economic status proved to be the most important influence. Preferences like enjoying sports positively influenced the time spent in MVPA.

  7. Can exergaming contribute to improving physical activity levels and health outcomes in children?

    PubMed

    Daley, Amanda J

    2009-08-01

    Physical inactivity among children is a serious public health problem. It has been suggested that high levels of screen time are contributory factors that encourage sedentary lifestyles in young people. As physical inactivity and obesity levels continue to rise in young people, it has been proposed that new-generation active computer- and video-console games (otherwise known as "exergaming") may offer the opportunity to contribute to young people's energy expenditure during their free time. Although studies have produced some encouraging results regarding the energy costs involved in playing active video-console games, the energy costs of playing the authentic versions of activity-based video games are substantially larger, highlighting that active gaming is no substitute for real sports and activities. A small number of exergaming activities engage children in moderate-intensity activity, but most do not. Only 3 very small trials have considered the effects of exergaming on physical activity levels and/or other health outcomes in children. Evidence from these trials has been mixed; positive trends for improvements in some health outcomes in the intervention groups were noted in 2 trials. No adequately powered randomized, controlled trial has been published to date, and no trial has assessed the long-term impact of exergaming on children's health. We now need high-quality randomized, controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of exergaming, as well as its clinical relevance; until such studies take place, we should remain cautious about its ability to positively affect children's health.

  8. Environmental Influences on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels in Various Early-Learning Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderloo, Leigh M.; Tucker, Patricia; Johnson, Andrew M.; Burke, Shauna M.; Irwin, Jennifer D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to: (a) compare the physical activity (PA) levels (i.e., moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA] and total PA [TPA]) of preschoolers in 3 different early-learning environments (center-based childcare, home-based childcare, and full-day kindergarten [FDK]); and (b) assess which characteristics (e.g., play equipment, policies, etc.)…

  9. Effects of Classroom-Based Energizers on Primary Grade Students' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Catherine Goffreda; DiPerna, James Clyde

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the effects of classroom-based exercise breaks (Energizers; Mahar, Kenny, Shields, Scales, & Collins, 2006) on students' physical activity levels during the school day. A multiple baseline design across first grade (N = 3) and second grade (N = 3) classrooms was used to examine the effects of the…

  10. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Distance Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özkan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between physical activity levels and healthy life-style behaviors in distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University. In total, 526 distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University participated in this study voluntarily. The short form of International Physical…

  11. Physical Activity Levels in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Are Extremely Low

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Reis, Debora; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    This study measures physical activity levels in a representative population-based sample of older adults (aged [greater than or equal to]50 years) with intellectual disabilities. For this, the steps/day of all 1050 participants of the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disabilities study (HA-ID; a study conducted among three Dutch healthcare…

  12. Measuring Students' Physical Activity Levels: Validating SOFIT for Use with High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Mars, Hans; Rowe, Paul J.; Schuldheisz, Joel M.; Fox, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to validate the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) for measuring physical activity levels of high-school students. Thirty-five students (21 girls and 14 boys from grades 9-12) completed a standardized protocol including lying, sitting, standing, walking, running, curl-ups, and push-ups. Heart rates and…

  13. META-ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL ( PAL ) DATA FOR U.S. YOUTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes analytical research undertaken by EMRB staff to obtain age- and gender-specific distributions of Physical Activity Level (PAL) values for children measured in studies published between 1990-2004 in the clinical nutrition and exercise physiology literatures. ...

  14. Sex Equity and Physical Activity Levels in Coeducational Physical Education: Exploring the Potential of Modified Game Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Acker, Ragnar; da Costa, Francisco Carreiro; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Haerens, Leen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Physical education should promote an active and healthy lifestyle with an emphasis on students' preparation for lifelong physical activity. "Healthy People 2010" recommends that physical education is offered on a daily basis and that pupils engage in physical activities of moderate to vigorous intensity (MVPA) during at least…

  15. Physical Activity Level and Medial Temporal Health in Youth at Ultra High-Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Vijay A.; Gupta, Tina; Orr, Joseph M.; Pelletier, Andrea L.; Dean, Derek J.; Lunsford-Avery, Jessica R.; Smith, Ashley K.; Robustelli, Briana L.; Leopold, Daniel R.; Millman, Zachary B.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that moderate to vigorous activity levels can affect quality of life, cognition, and brain structure in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, physical activity has not been systematically studied during the period immediately preceding the onset of psychosis. Given reports of exercise-based neurogenesis in schizophrenia, understanding naturalistic physical activity levels in the prodrome may provide valuable information for early intervention efforts. The present study examined 29 ultra high-risk (UHR) and 27 matched controls to determine relationships between physical activity level, brain structure (hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus), and symptoms. Participants were assessed with actigraphy for a 5-day period, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and structured clinical interviews. UHR participants showed a greater percentage of time in sedentary behavior while healthy controls spent more time engaged in light to vigorous activity. There was a strong trend to suggest the UHR group showed less total physical activity. The UHR group exhibited smaller medial temporal volumes when compared to healthy controls. Total level of physical activity in the UHR group was moderately correlated with smaller parahippocampal gyri bilaterally (right: r=.44, left: r=.55) and with occupational functioning (r=−.36; of negative symptom domain), but not positive symptomatology. Results suggest that inactivity is associated with medial temporal lobe health. Future studies are needed to determine if symptoms are driving inactivity, which in turn may be affecting the health of the parahippocampal structure and progression of illness. Although causality cannot be determined from the present design, these findings hold important implications for etiological conceptions and suggest promise for an experimental trial. PMID:24364613

  16. Feasibility and Effects of Short Activity Breaks for Increasing Preschool-Age Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog; Puleo, Elaine; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We examined the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA) implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on preschoolers PA. Methods: Preschools were randomized to SBS-PA (centers, N = 5; participants, N = 141) or unstructured free playtime (UPA) (centers, N = 5; participants,…

  17. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael J; Schmitt, Emily E; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r (2) = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r (2) = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year.

  18. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r2 = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r2 = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  19. Community level predictors of physical activity among women in the preconception period.

    PubMed

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Sun, Haichun; Flory, Sara B; DeBate, Rita; Daley, Ellen M; Thompson, Erika; Bleck, Jennifer; Merrell, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Although physical activity is a key behavior targeted during the preconception period given its significant impact on pregnancy/birth outcomes and psychological well-being, few women meet national guidelines. While intrapersonal factors influencing physical activity among this population have been studied, community factors remain unexplored. The objective of this study was to examine community level predictors of physical activity among preconception women. Data from Add Health were limited to women (Wave III; age 18-28; n = 7,596) and excluded respondents who were pregnant, physically disabled, and missing data. The outcome variable was ≥5 instances of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in 1 week. Community predictor variables included neighborhood-level structural and social determinants (e.g., socio-demographic composition; landscape diversity; urbanization; access to resources; crime; vehicle availability). Multilevel logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the odds of engaging in ≥5 instances of MVPA. Few women (26 %) reported ≥5 instances of MVPA in 1 week. Adjusted multilevel analysis revealed women in the preconception period were more likely to report high MVPA when living in communities with larger population densities (OR 1.34, 95 % CI 1.02-1.77) and median household income greater than $50,000 (OR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.06-1.66). Additionally, a significant inverse trend was found between high MVPA and proportion of the community without a high school diploma. Findings suggest that neighborhood composition may have an impact on preconception physical activity status. Implications include increased efforts targeting community conditions for facilitating physical activity; ultimately, improving health among women and subsequent offspring.

  20. Main determinants of physical activity levels in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lana, Raquel de Carvalho; de Araujo, Lysandra Nogueira; Cardoso, Francisco; Rodrigues-de-Paula, Fátima

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between patient characteristics, factors associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), and physical activity level of individuals affected by the disease. Forty-six volunteers with mild-to-moderate idiopathic PD were assessed using sections II/III of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and their motor functions were classified according to the modified Hoehn and Yahr (HY) scale. Data such as age, disease duration, the Human Activity Profile (HAP), the Fatigue Severity Scale were collected. Lower limb bradykinesia and clinical subtypes of PD were defined. Two models that explained 76% of the variance of the HAP were used. The first comprised age, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), and the HY scale; the second comprised age, ability to perform ADL, and lower limb bradykinesia. Possible modifiable factors such as the ability to perform ADL and lower limb bradykinesia were identified as predictors of physical activity level of individuals with PD.

  1. Increasing Level of Leisure Physical Activity Could Reduce the Risk of Hip Fracture in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Ke; Liu, Xiao-yu; Wu, Xu-hua; Li, Xiao-liu; Xia, Qing-quan; Chen, Jiong; Yin, Xiao-fan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We carried out the study to investigate and quantitatively assess the potential association between current level of physical activity and the risk of osteoporosis hip fracture in older women. Relevant publications before October 2015 were identified using the PubMed and Ovid searching tools. A dose–response meta-analysis was carried out to combine and analysis results. Fourteen prospective studies were included in the meta-analysis. A general analysis of 9 studies showed a significant inverse relationship between increasing level of physical activity and risk of hip fracture in older women [relative risk (RR) = 0.93, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.91–0.96]. The result of a sensitivity analysis was consistent with the general analysis (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.93–0.96). The association between increasing level of physical activity and risk of wrist fracture was not statistically significant in a general analysis of three studies (RR = 1.004, 95% CI: 0.98–1.03). A potential direct association between increasing level of physical activity and risk of wrist fracture was observed after removing 1 study with the greatest weight (RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00–1.03). No significant publication bias was observed in our analysis. Our results show that increasing level of physical activity within an appropriate range may reduce the risk of hip fracture but not the risk of wrist fracture in older women. PMID:26986111

  2. Effect of recreational physical activity on insulin levels in Mexican/Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Macias-Cervantes, Maciste H; Malacara, Juan M; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia; Díaz-Cisneros, Francisco J

    2009-10-01

    The effect of increased recreational physical activity in children on insulin levels has not yet been studied. We carried out a randomized controlled trial in 76 children 6-9 years old, 32 of them increased their physical activity and 30 maintained the same level. In the intervention group, after a week of baseline, recreational activity three times/week was programmed for 12 weeks. We compared insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, glucose, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, and body mass index in both groups. Thereafter, we compared groups of normal weight, overweight, and with obesity in the experimental group. The group of recreational activity increased their median daily steps (15,329 to 19,910) and decreased insulin (p < 0.001) and HOMA index (4.36 vs. 2.39, p < 0.001). The diminution of insulin levels was more significant in the overweight group (p < 0.007). In conclusion, in our group, children who increased physical activity during 12 weeks decrease insulin levels and insulin resistance without change in other metabolic and anthropometric variables.

  3. Physical activity levels in three Brazilian birth cohorts as assessed with raw triaxial wrist accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Inácio CM; van Hees, Vincent T; Ramires, Virgílio V; Knuth, Alan G; Bielemann, Renata M; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Hallal, Pedro C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Data on objectively measured physical activity are lacking in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to describe objectively measured overall physical activity and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in individuals from the Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohorts, according to weight status, socioeconomic status (SES) and sex. Methods: All children born in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in hospitals in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, constitute the sampling frame; of these 99% agreed to participate. The most recent follow-ups were conducted between 2010 and 2013. In total, 8974 individuals provided valid data derived from raw triaxial wrist accelerometry. The average acceleration is presented in milli-g (1 mg = 0.001g), and time (min/d) spent in MVPA (>100 mg) is presented in 5- and 10-min bouts. Results: Mean acceleration in the 1982 (mean age 30.2 years), 1993 (mean age 18.4 years) and 2004 (mean age 6.7 years) cohorts was 35 mg, 39 mg and 60 mg, respectively. Time spent in MVPA was 26 [95% confidence interval (CI) 25; 27], 43 (95% CI 42; 44) and 45 (95% CI 43; 46) min/d in the three cohorts, respectively, using 10-min bouts. Mean MVPA was on average 42% higher when using 5-min bouts. Males were more active than females and physical activity was inversely associated with age of the cohort and SES. Normal-weight individuals were more active than underweight, overweight and obese participants. Conclusions: Overall physical activity and time spent in MVPA differed by cohort (age), sex, weight status and SES. Higher levels of activity in low SES groups may be explained by incidental physical activity. PMID:25361583

  4. Meta-analysis of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity levels

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Many internet-delivered physical activity behaviour change programs have been developed and evaluated. However, further evidence is required to ascertain the overall effectiveness of such interventions. The objective of the present review was to evaluate the effectiveness of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity, whilst also examining the effect of intervention moderators. A systematic search strategy identified relevant studies published in the English-language from Pubmed, Proquest, Scopus, PsychINFO, CINHAL, and Sport Discuss (January 1990 – June 2011). Eligible studies were required to include an internet-delivered intervention, target an adult population, measure and target physical activity as an outcome variable, and include a comparison group that did not receive internet-delivered materials. Studies were coded independently by two investigators. Overall effect sizes were combined based on the fixed effect model. Homogeneity and subsequent exploratory moderator analysis was undertaken. A total of 34 articles were identified for inclusion. The overall mean effect of internet-delivered interventions on physical activity was d = 0.14 (p = 0.00). Fixed-effect analysis revealed significant heterogeneity across studies (Q = 73.75; p = 0.00). Moderating variables such as larger sample size, screening for baseline physical activity levels and the inclusion of educational components significantly increased intervention effectiveness. Results of the meta-analysis support the delivery of internet-delivered interventions in producing positive changes in physical activity, however effect sizes were small. The ability of internet-delivered interventions to produce meaningful change in long-term physical activity remains unclear. PMID:22546283

  5. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina; Elias, Merrill; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Buckley, Jonathon

    2015-09-18

    Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972), and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX) (n = 1331) were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials.

  6. Visual–Somatosensory Integration is Linked to Physical Activity Level in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Jeannette R.; Dumas, Kristina; Holtzer, Roee

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining multisensory integration (MSI) in aging consistently demonstrate greater reaction time (RT) facilitation in old compared to young adults, but often fail to determine the utility of MSI. The aim of the current experiment was to further elucidate the utility of MSI in aging by determining its relationship to physical activity level. 147 non-demented older adults (mean age 77 years; 57% female) participated. Participants were instructed to make speeded responses to visual, somatosensory, and visual–somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Depending on the magnitude of the individuals’ RT facilitation, participants were classified into a MSI or NO MSI group. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity scale. As predicted, RTs to VS stimuli were significantly shorter than those elicited to constituent unisensory conditions. Multisensory RT facilitation was a significant predictor of total number of physical activity days per month, with individuals in the NO MSI group reporting greater engagement in physical activities compared to those requiring greater RT facilitation. PMID:26152050

  7. Relation between self-reported physical activity level, fitness, and cardiometabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Minder, Camille Michael; Shaya, Gabriel E; Michos, Erin D; Keenan, Tanya E; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram; Carvalho, Jose A M; Conceição, Raquel D; Santos, Raul D; Blaha, Michael J

    2014-02-15

    Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with improved cardiovascular health and reduced all-cause mortality. The relation between self-reported physical activity, objective physical fitness, and the association of each with cardiometabolic risk has not been fully described. We studied 2,800 healthy Brazilian subjects referred for an employer-sponsored health screening. Physical activity level was determined as "low," "moderate," or "high" with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: Short Form (IPAQ-SF). Fitness was measured as METs achieved on a maximal, symptom-limited, treadmill stress test. Using multivariate linear regression analysis, we calculated age, gender, and smoking-adjusted correlation coefficients among IPAQ-SF, fitness, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Mean age of study participants was 43 ± 9 years; 81% were men, and 43% were highly active. Mean METs achieved was 12 ± 2. IPAQ-SF category and fitness were moderately correlated (r = 0.377). Compared with IPAQ-SF category, fitness was better correlated with cardiometabolic risk factors including anthropomorphic measurements, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, dyslipidemia, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hepatic steatosis (all p <0.01). Among these, anthropomorphic measurements, blood pressure, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hepatic steatosis had the largest discrepancies in correlation, whereas lipid factors had the least discrepant correlation. When IPAQ-SF and fitness were discordant, poor fitness drove associations with elevated cardiometabolic risk. In conclusion, self-reported physical activity level and directly measured fitness are moderately correlated, and the latter is more strongly associated with a protective cardiovascular risk profile.

  8. Mediators Affecting Girls’ Levels of Physical Activity Outside of School: Findings from the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Murray, David M.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Moody, Jamie; Pratt, Charlotte A.; Metcalfe, Lauve; Parra-Medina, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Background Providing after school activities is a community level approach for reducing the decline in physical activity of girls as they reach early adolescence. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial, environmental, and behavioral factors as potential mediators of after school physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods We assessed objectively measured levels of physical activity occurring outside of school and potential predictors and mediators of activity in girls participating in the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls (TAAG). Results We found that the TAAG intervention had a statistically significant and positive effect on out of school activity in the 2006 cohort. Self-efficacy, friends’ social support, total social support, and difficulty getting to and from community activities mediated the level of moderate to vigorous physical activity in girls. Conclusions Parents, communities, and schools should provide and enhance opportunities outside of the school day for adolescents to be active. Reducing transportation barriers and enlisting social support appear to be key. PMID:20012810

  9. Physical activity levels during phase IV cardiac rehabilitation in a group of male myocardial infarction patients

    PubMed Central

    Woolf-May, K; Bird, S; MacIntyre, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine physical activity levels during phase IV cardiac rehabilitation in 31 male myocardial infarction patients (median age 62, range 53–77 years). Methods: Patients recorded daily physical activity over 16 weeks in a diary. Diaries were analysed for total general physical activity (TGPA), leisure time physical activity (LTPA), and "active for life" exercise classes (AFL). Pre- and post-observation period (OP) subjects underwent a 10 m shuttle walking test (SWT) to determine changes in aerobic fitness. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) determined exercise intensity. Estimated gross energy expenditure (EEE) was determined by a regression equation between RPE and Vo2 (l min–1) during SWT. A total of 97% of subjects were on lipid lowering medication. Results: There were no correlations between Vo2 (l min–1) and body mass, therefore kcal min–1 indicated activity intensity. There were no significant changes in physical activity patterns or in aerobic fitness. Estimated total LTPA (median 1376, range 128–3380 kcal week–1) was less than that recommended to improve aerobic fitness and/or slow progression of coronary artery disease. Sixteen subjects attended a median of 29 (range 1–46) AFL during LTPA; one way ANOVA showed these subjects worked at greater EEE (AFL, n = 16, 6.6 (standard deviation 1.4) v no-AFL, n = 15, 5.1 (1.8) EEE kcal min–1, p = 0.017). Conclusion: Physical activity was stable, but patients' EEE appeared insufficient to improve aerobic fitness or slow progression of coronary artery disease. It was suggested that the promotion of LTPA and the availability of AFL classes should be reconsidered. PMID:15728680

  10. Physical Activity Levels and Domains Assessed by Accelerometry in German Adolescents from GINIplus and LISAplus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maia P.; Berdel, Dietrich; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is a well-known and underused protective factor for numerous health outcomes, and interventions are hampered by lack of objective data. We combined accelerometers with diaries to estimate the contributions to total activity from different domains throughout the day and week in adolescents. Methods Accelerometric and diary data from 1403 adolescents (45% male, mean age 15.6 ± 0.5 years) were combined to evaluate daily levels and domains of sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) during a typical week. Freedson’s cutoff points were applied to determine levels of activity. Total activity was broken down into school physical education (PE), school outside PE, transportation to school, sport, and other time. Results About 2/3 of adolescents’ time was spent sedentary, 1/3 in light activity, and about 5% in MVPA. Boys and girls averaged 46 (SD 22) and 38 (23) minutes MVPA per day. Adolescents were most active during leisure sport, spending about 30% of it in MVPA, followed by PE (about 20%) transport to school (14%) and either school class time or other time (3%). PE provided 5% of total MVPA, while leisure sport provided 16% and transportation to school 8%. School was the most sedentary part of the day with over 75% of time outside PE spent sedentary. Conclusions These German adolescents were typical of Europeans in showing low levels of physical activity, with significant contributions from leisure sport, transportation and school PE. Leisure sport was the most active part of the day, and participation did not vary significantly by sex, study center (region of Germany) or BMI. Transportation to school was frequent and thus accounted for a significant fraction of total MVPA. This indicates that even in a population with good access to dedicated sporting activities, frequent active transportation can add significantly to total MVPA. PMID:27010227

  11. Symptom Assessment in Knee Osteoarthritis Needs to Account for Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Grace H.; McAlindon, Timothy E.; Hawker, Gillian A.; Driban, Jeffrey B.; Price, Lori Lyn; Song, Jing; Eaton, Charles B.; Hochberg, Marc C.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Kwoh, C. Kent; Nevitt, Michael C.; Dunlop, Dorothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pain is not always correlated with radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) severity possibly because people modify activities to manage symptoms. Measures of symptoms that consider pain in the context of activity level may therefore provide greater discrimination than pain alone. Our objective was to compare discrimination of a measure of pain alone with combined measures of pain relative to physical activity across radiographic OA levels. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of the Osteoarthritis Initiative accelerometer substudy, including those with and without knee OA. Two composite pain and activity knee symptom (PAKS) scores were calculated as Western Ontario and McMaster (WOMAC) Universities Osteoarthritis Pain Scale plus one divided by physical activity measures (step and activity counts). Symptom score discrimination across Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) grades were evaluated using histograms and quantile regression. Results 1806 participants, mean age 65.1 (9.1) years, mean BMI 28.4 (4.8) kg/m2, and 55.6% female, were included. WOMAC, but not PAKS scores, exhibited a floor effect. Adjusted median WOMAC by KL grades 0 – 4 were 0, 0, 1, 1, and 3 respectively. Median PAKS1 and PAKS2 were 24.9, 26.0, 32.4, 46.1, 97.9, and 7.2, 7.2, 9.2, 12.9, 23.8, respectively. PAKS scores had more statistically significant comparisons between KL grades compared with WOMAC. Conclusions Symptom assessments incorporating pain and physical activity did not exhibit a floor effect and were better able to discriminate radiographic severity than pain alone, particularly in milder disease. Pain in the context of physical activity level should be used to assess knee OA symptoms. PMID:26407008

  12. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, John A; Jongbloed, Age W; Verstegen, Martin W A

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may prevent interprandial feelings of hunger and, consequently, increased activity. Catheterized sows (n = 10) were fed twice daily (0700 and 1900 h) 900 g of a diet with either a low (L-sows) or a high level of fermentable dietary fiber (H-sows; sugarbeet pulp). Blood samples, taken between feeding times, were analyzed for glucose and insulin levels (basal and area under the curve) and stability of levels (variance and sum of absolute differences between levels in consecutive samples). The main focus was on samples taken after the postprandial peak. Behavior was videotaped for analysis of postures and posture changes. Basal glucose and insulin levels did not differ between treatments. H-sows had more stable levels than L-sows. Interprandial levels of H-sows were higher than or equal to basal levels. L-sows showed a decline in glucose below basal levels at 1400 h (P < 0.05). Before 1400 h, no difference in the frequency of posture changes was observed between treatments. After 1400 h, the frequency of posture changes increased more in L-sows than in H-sows. We concluded that sugarbeet pulp as a source of fermentable dietary fiber stabilizes glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in limited-fed sows several hours after feeding. This may indicate a prolonged feeling of satiety.

  13. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  14. Level of Physical Activity and In-Hospital Course of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Juliana de Goes; Santos, Marcos Antonio Almeida; Barreto Filho, José Augusto Soares; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes; de Melo, Enaldo Vieira; de Oliveira, Norma Alves; Faro, Gustavo Baptista de Almeida; Sousa, Antônio Carlos Sobral

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the modern world. A sedentary lifestyle, present in 85% of the Brazilian population, is considered a risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease. However, the correlation of a sedentary lifestyle with cardiovascular events (CVE) during hospitalization for ACS is not well established. Objective To evaluate the association between physical activity level, assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), with in-hospital prognosis in patients with ACS. Methods Observational, cross-sectional, and analytical study with 215 subjects with a diagnosis of ACS consecutively admitted to a referral hospital for cardiac patients between July 2009 and February 2011. All volunteers answered the short version of the IPAQ and were observed for the occurrence of CVE during hospitalization with a standardized assessment conducted by the researcher and corroborated by data from medical records. Results The patients were admitted with diagnoses of unstable angina (34.4%), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) without ST elevation (41.4%), and AMI with ST elevation (24.2%). According to the level of physical activity, the patients were classified as non-active (56.3%) and active (43.7%). A CVE occurred in 35.3% of the cohort. The occurrence of in-hospital complications was associated with the length of hospital stay (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15) and physical inactivity (OR = 2.54), and was independent of age, systolic blood pressure, and prior congestive heart failure. Conclusion A physically active lifestyle reduces the risk of CVE during hospitalization in patients with ACS. PMID:26690692

  15. Dietary habits and physical activity levels in Jordanian adolescents attending private versus public schools.

    PubMed

    Tayyem, R F; Al-Hazzaa, H M; Abu-Mweis, S S; Bawadi, H A; Hammad, S S; Musaiger, A O

    2014-07-08

    The present study examined differences in dietary habits and physical activity levels between students attending private and public high schools in Jordan. A total of 386 secondary-school males and 349 females aged 14-18 years were randomly recruited using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling technique. Dietary habits and physical activity level were self-reported in a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among adolescents in private (26.0%) than in public schools (16.7%). The frequency of breakfast intake was significantly higher among adolescents in private schools, whereas French fries and sweets intake was significantly higher in public schools. Television viewing showed a significant interaction with school type by sex. A higher rate of inactivity was found among students attending private schools. Despite a slightly better overall dietary profile for students in private schools, they had a higher rate of overweight and obesity compared with those in public schools.

  16. Urban versus rural lifestyle in adolescents: associations between environment, physical activity levels and sedentary behavior

    PubMed Central

    Regis, Manuela Ferreira; de Oliveira, Luciano Machado Ferreira Tenório; dos Santos, Ana Raquel Mendes; Leonidio, Ameliane da Conceição Reubens; Diniz, Paula Rejane Beserra; de Freitas, Clara Maria Silvestre Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in adolescents living in urban and rural areas. Methods An epidemiological, cross-section study with quantitative design, carried out at the regional level. The sample comprised 6,234 students aged 14 to 19 years, selected using random cluster sampling. The χ2 test and binary logistic regression were used in the analysis. Results A total of 74.5% of adolescents lived in urban areas. After adjustment, rural residents spent less time watching television (odds ratio – OR: 0.45; 95% confidence interval – 95%CI: 0.39-0.52), using a computer and/or playing video games (OR: 0.30; 95%CI: 0.22-0.42), or sitting down (OR: 0.66; 95%CI: 0.54-0.80); chose passive leisure less often (OR: 0.83; 95%IC: 0.72-0.95) and were less likely to be classified as insufficiently active (OR: 0.88; 95%IC: 0.78-0.99) when compared to urban residents, regardless of sex or age. The fact that adolescents living in rural areas who did not work were more likely to be classified as insufficiently active (OR: 2.59; 95%CI: 2.07-3.24) emphasized the significant role of occupation in physical activity levels in this group. Conclusion Adolescents living in rural areas were less exposed to the sedentary behaviors, chose more active leisure, and had higher levels of physical activity. Place of residence and occupation may play a major role in youth lifestyle. PMID:28076591

  17. Effects of a Physical Education Intervention to Improve Student Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairclough, Stuart J.; Stratton, Gareth

    2006-01-01

    Background: School physical education is available to most young people and provides a structured context for physical activity participation. Regular physical activity during childhood can confer acute and long-term health benefits. From this health perspective one of the goals of physical education is for students to take part in appropriate…

  18. [The psychophysiological condition of first year students with different levels of physical activity].

    PubMed

    Akhmedova, O O; Ovezgel'dyeva, G O; Grigor'ian, A G

    2011-01-01

    The psychophysiological condition of (male) first year students who participate in sport or don't participate in sport during studies was studied. R. M. Bayevsky's method was used to establish the level of stress on regulatory mechanisms. The functional level of the nervous system, stability of neural responses, and the level of functional abilities of the developed functional system were evaluated using the variation chronoreflexometric method. It was established that an improvement of mental capacity indicators (increase of memory capacity, reduction of the amount of mistakes made, growth of the level of functional abilities and reduction of the latency period of the visual-motor response) was accompanied by a growth of stress on the body's regulatory systems which was more pronounced with regard to those test participants whose level of physical activity was low. This fact is proof that physical activity reduces the body's "adaptation price" to the changing conditions of the environment. The optimal realisation of a person's adaptive systemic reactions is provided for by the dynamic interaction of the functional systems, which form a complex correlation in the body's somatovegetative, motor and psychoemotional spheres of activity.

  19. [Tobacco consumption and its relationship to the level of regular physical activity and physical fitness in adolescents from the region of Murcia (Spain)].

    PubMed

    García-Cantó, Eliseo; Rodríguez García, Pedro Luis; Pérez-Soto, Juan José; López Villalba, Francisco José; Rosa-Guillamón, Andrés

    2015-12-01

    This study looks at the relationship between tobacco consumption and the physical activity and fitness levels of adolescents. In a sample of 533 adolescents, both a questionnaire to obtain information regarding tobacco consumption and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for information on physical activity were implemented; a battery of tests to assess physical fitness were also applied. Tobacco consumption was significantly higher in females (32.5%) than in males (25.7%). Levels of physical activity in both males and females were significantly associated with tobacco consumption (p<0.0005). Moreover, subjects who consumed tobacco showed lower overall averages in physical fitness tests than those who did not (4.26 vs. 5.77 in males and 4.54 vs. 6.71 in females). Tobacco consumption is therefore shown to be related to lower levels of physical activity and physical fitness in adolescents.

  20. Exercise Level and Energy Expenditure in the Take 10![R] In-Class Physical Activity Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James A.; Dennison, David A.; Kohl, Harold W., III; Doyle, J. Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an innovative, classroom-based physical activity prevention program designed to integrate academic curriculum elements along with a physical activity program in providing moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. A convenience sample of three public school classrooms (one first, third, and fifth…

  1. Anterior cruciate ligament injury after more than 20 years: I. Physical activity level and knee function.

    PubMed

    Tengman, E; Brax Olofsson, L; Nilsson, K G; Tegner, Y; Lundgren, L; Häger, C K

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about physical activity level and knee function including jump capacity and fear of movement/reinjury more than 20 years after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Seventy persons with unilateral ACL injury participated (23 ± 2 years post-injury): 33 treated with physiotherapy in combination with surgical reconstruction (ACLR ), and 37 treated with physiotherapy alone (ACLPT ). These were compared with 33 age- and gender-matched controls. Assessment included knee-specific and general physical activity level [Tegner activity scale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)], knee function [Lysholm score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)], jump capacity (one-leg hop, vertical jump, side hops), and fear of movement/reinjury [Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK)]. Outcomes were related to degree of osteoarthritis (OA). ACL-injured had lower Lysholm, KOOS, and Tegner scores than controls (P < 0.001), while IPAQ score was similar. ACL-injured demonstrated inferior jump capacity in injured compared with noninjured leg (6-25%, P < 0.001-P = 0.010 in the different jumps), while noninjured leg had equal jump capacity as controls. ACL groups scored 33 ± 7 and 32 ± 7 of 68 on TSK. Lower scores on Lysholm and KOOS symptom were seen for persons with moderate-to-high OA than for no-or-low OA, while there were no differences for physical activity and jump capacity. Regardless of treatment, there are still negative knee-related effects of ACL injury more than 20 years later.

  2. Low Levels of Physical Activity Increase Metabolic Responsiveness to Cold in a Rat (Rattus fuscipes)

    PubMed Central

    Seebacher, Frank; Glanville, Elsa J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Physical activity modulates expression of metabolic genes and may therefore be a prerequisite for metabolic responses to environmental stimuli. However, the extent to which exercise interacts with environmental conditions to modulate metabolism is unresolved. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that even low levels of physical activity are beneficial by improving metabolic responsiveness to temperatures below the thermal neutral zone, thereby increasing the capacity for substrate oxidation and energy expenditure. Methodology/Principal Findings We used wild rats (Rattus fuscipes) to avoid potential effects of breeding on physiological phenotypes. Exercise acclimation (for 30 min/day on 5 days/week for 30 days at 60% of maximal performance) at 22°C increased mRNA concentrations of PGC1α, PPARδ, and NRF-1 in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue compared to sedentary animals. Lowering ambient temperature to 12°C caused further increases in relative expression of NRF-1 in skeletal muscle, and of PPARδ of brown adipose tissue. Surprisingly, relative expression of UCP1 increased only when both exercise and cold stimuli were present. Importantly, in sedentary animals cold acclimation (12°C) alone did not change any of the above variables. Similarly, cold alone did not increase maximum capacity for substrate oxidation in mitochondria (cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase activities) of either muscle or brown adipose tissue. Animals that exercised regularly had higher exercise induced metabolic rates in colder environments than sedentary rats, and temperature induced metabolic scope was greater in exercised rats. Conclusions/Significance Physical activity is a necessary prerequisite for the expression of transcriptional regulators that influence a broad range of physiological functions from energy metabolism to cardiovascular function and nutrient uptake. A sedentary lifestyle leads to decreased daily energy expenditure because of a lack of direct use

  3. Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Adolescents: Race, Season, Adiposity, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanbin; Pollock, Norman; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger Susanne; Gutin, Bernard; Lan, Ling; Chen, Tai C; Keeton, Daniel; Petty, Karen; Holick, Michael F; Zhu, Haidong

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to characterize the vitamin D status of black and white adolescents residing in the southeastern United States (latitude: 33°N) and to investigate relationships with adiposity. Methods Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy for 559 adolescents 14 to 18 years of age (45% black and 49% female). Fat tissues, physical activity, and cardiovascular fitness also were measured. Results The overall prevalences of vitamin D insufficiency (<75nmol/L) and deficiency (≤50 nmol/L) were 56.4% and 28.8%, respectively. Black versus white subjects had significantly lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in every season (winter, 35.9±2.5 vs 77.4±2.7 nmol/L; spring, 46.4±3.5 vs 101.3±3.5 nmol/L; summer, 50.7±4.0 vs 104.3±4.0 nmol/L; autumn, 54.4± 4.0 vs 96.8±2.7 nmol/L). With adjustment for age, gender, race, season, height, and sexual maturation, there were significant inverse correlations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and all adiposity measurements, including BMI percentile (P=.02), waist circumference (P<.01), total fat mass (P<.01), percentage of body fat (P <.01), visceral adipose tissue (P <.015), and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (P<.039). There were significant positive associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and vigorous physical activity (P <.01) and cardiovascular fitness (P =.025). Conclusions Low vitamin D status is prevalent among adolescents living in a year-round sunny climate, particularly among black youths. The relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, adiposity, physical activity, and fitness seem to be present in adolescence. PMID:20439594

  4. Can Population Levels of Physical Activity be Increased? Global Evidence and Experience

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Michael; Perez, Lilian G.; Goenka, Shifalika; Brownson, Ross C.; Bauman, Adrian; Sarmiento, Olga Lucia; Hallal, Pedro C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important contributors to the global burden of disease and has become a global public health priority. We review the evidence on physical activity (PA) interventions, actions, and strategies that have the greatest potential to increase PA at the population level. Using the socio-ecological framework to conceptualize PA interventions, we show that PA can be targeted at multiple levels of influence and by multiple sectors outside the health system. Examples of promoting PA on a national scale are presented from Finland, Canada, Brazil, and Colombia. A strong policy framework, consistent investment in public health programs, multi-sectoral support and actions, and good surveillance characterize each of these success stories. Increasing PA globally will depend on successfully applying and adapting these lessons around the world taking into account country, culture, and context. PMID:25304047

  5. Outdoor temperature, precipitation, and wind speed affect physical activity levels in children: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Nicholas M.; Myer, Gregory D.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Woo, Jessica G.; Khoury, Philip R.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Daniels, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate effects of local weather conditions on physical activity in early childhood. Methods Longitudinal prospective cohort study of 372 children, 3 years old at enrollment, drawn from a major US metropolitan community. Accelerometer-measured (RT3) physical activity was collected every 4 months over 5 years and matched with daily weather measures: day length, heating/cooling degrees (degrees mean temperature < 65°F or ≥ 65°F, respectively), wind, and precipitation. Mixed regression analyses, adjusted for repeated measures, were used to test the relationship between weather and physical activity. Results Precipitation and wind speed were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity (P<0.0001). Heating and cooling degrees were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity and positively associated with inactivity (all P<0.0001), independent of age, sex, race, BMI, day length, wind, and precipitation. For every 10 additional heating degrees there was a five-minute daily reduction in moderate-vigorous physical activity. For every additional 10 cooling degrees there was a 17-minute reduction in moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Inclement weather (higher/lower temperature, greater wind speed, more rain/snow) is associated with less physical activity in young children. These deleterious effects should be considered when planning physical activity research, interventions, and policies. PMID:25423667

  6. Factors increasing physical activity levels in diabetes mellitus: a survey of patients after an inpatient diabetes education program.

    PubMed

    Murano, Isamu; Asakawa, Yasutsugu; Mizukami, Masafumi; Takihara, Jun; Shimizu, Kaoru; Imai, Taihei

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to understand the factors involved in increasing physical activity levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients for improved glycemic control. [Subjects] The subjects were 101 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who had completed an inpatient diabetes education program. [Methods] The survey evaluated physical activity levels on the basis of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a questionnaire listing physical and psychosocial factors. [Results] Four variables-participation or non-participation in farm work, presence or absence of a job, stage of change in attitude toward exercise behavior, and social support-accounted for 34% of physical activity levels in these diabetes mellitus patients. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between physical activity level and HbA1c was -0.31. [Conclusion] Intervention in terms of practical use of living environments, promotion of exercise behavior, and social support may be effective in helping to improve glycemic control.

  7. A Comparison of Physical Activity Levels in Childcare Contexts among Finnish and Dutch Three-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soini, Anne; Gubbels, Jessica; Sääkslahti, Arja; Villberg, Jari; Kremers, Stef; Van Kann, Dave; Mehtälä, Anette; De Vries, Nanne; Poskiparta, Marita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine Finnish and Dutch three-year-old preschool children's physical activity (PA) levels and how levels vary across gender, location, time of day and social contexts in both countries. A modified version of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P) was used to…

  8. Associations between students' situational interest, mastery experiences, and physical activity levels in an interactive dance game.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chaoqun; Gao, Zan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of previous experiences on students' situational interest and physical activity (PA) levels, as well as the relationships between situational interest and PA levels in Dance Dance Revolution (DDR). A total of 135 seventh through ninth graders participated in DDR unit for two weeks, and reported their previous DDR experiences. Students' PA levels were measured by ActiGraph accelerometers for three classes with percentages of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as the outcome variable. They also responded to the Situational Interest Scale (including novelty, challenge, attention demand, exploration intention, and instant enjoyment) at the end of each class. The multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) yielded a significant main effect for experience. Follow-up tests revealed that students with DDR experiences scored significantly higher than those without experiences at following dimensions: challenge; exploration intention; instant enjoyment; and attention demand. Regression analysis yielded that novelty emerged as the only significant predictor for MVPA. The findings suggested that four dimensions of situational interest differed between students with and without previous experiences. Novelty emerged as the only predictor for MVPA, suggesting that students would have higher PA when they feel the activity provides new information.

  9. Habitual physical activity levels are associated with performance in measures of physical function and mobility in older men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity according to triaxial accelerometers; physical function and mobility according to the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), gait speed, stair climb time, and a lift-and-lower task; aerobic capacity according to maximum oxygen consumption (VO(2) max); and leg press and chest pr...

  10. [Physical activity level and home blood pressure measurement: Pilot study "Acti-HTA"].

    PubMed

    Sosner, P; Ott, J; Steichen, O; Bally, S; Krummel, T; Brucker, M; Lequeux, B; Dourmap, C; Llaty, P; Le Coz, S; Baguet, S; Miranne, A; Labrunée, M; Gremeaux, V; Lopez-Sublet, M

    2015-06-01

    While physical activity (PA) is recommended for high blood pressure management, the level of PA practice of hypertensive patients remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association between the level of both PA and blood pressure of individuals consulting in 9 hypertension specialist centres. Eighty-five hypertensive patients were included (59 ± 14 years, 61% men, 12% smokers, 29% with diabetes). Following their consultation, they performed home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) over 7 days (2 in the morning+2 in the evening), they wrote in a dedicated form their daily activities to estimate the additional caloric expenditure using Acti-MET device (built from International physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]). Thus, patients completed a self-administered questionnaire "score of Dijon" (distinguishing active subjects with a score>20/30, from sedentary<10/30). Subjects with normal HBPM value (<135/85 mm Hg) (55% of them) compared to those with high HBPM were older, had a non-significant trend towards higher weekly caloric expenditure (4959 ± 5045 kcal/week vs. 4048 ± 4199 kcal/week, P=0.3755) and score of Dijon (19.44 ± 5.81 vs. 18.00 ± 4.32, P=0.2094) with a higher proportion of "active" subjects (48.9% vs. 34.2%, P=0.1773). In conclusion, our results demonstrate a "tendency" to a higher level of reported PA for subjects whose hypertension was controlled. This encourages us to continue with a study that would include more subjects, which would assess PA level using an objective method such as wearing an accelerometer sensor.

  11. Effects of a Community-Based, Professionally Supervised Intervention on Physical Activity Levels Among Residents of Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hallal, Pedro; Pratt, Michael; Ramos, Luiz; Munk, Marcia; Damascena, Wilson; Parra Perez, Diana; Hoehner, Christine M.; Gilbertz, David; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Brownson, Ross C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effects of a community-based intervention, the Academia da Cidade program (ACP), on increasing leisure-time physical activity among residents of Recife, Brazil. Methods. We used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess leisure-time physical activity and transport physical activity (i.e., activities involved in traveling from place to place) levels in a random sample of 2047 Recife residents surveyed in 2007. We also examined factors related to exposure to ACP (participation in the intervention, residing near an intervention site, hearing about or seeing intervention activities). We estimated prevalence odds ratios (ORs) of moderate to high leisure-time and transport physical activity levels via intervention exposures adjusted for sociodemographic, health, and environmental variables. Results. Prevalence ORs for moderate to high levels of leisure-time physical activity were higher among former (prevalence OR = 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 3.9) and current (prevalence OR = 11.3; 95% CI = 3.5, 35.9) intervention participants and those who had heard about or seen an intervention activity (prevalence OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.5). Transport physical activity levels were inversely associated with residing near an ACP site. Conclusions. The ACP program appears to be an effective public health strategy to increase population-level physical activity in urban developing settings. PMID:19008499

  12. Community Health Workers promoting physical activity: Targeting multiple levels of the Social Ecological Model

    PubMed Central

    Haughton, Jessica; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Burke, Kari Herzog; Elder, John P.; Montañez, Jacqueline; Arredondo, Elva M.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of Community Health Workers (CHWs) as health educators and health promoters among Latino populations is widely recognized. The Affordable Care Act created important opportunities to increase the role of CHWs in preventive health. This article describes the implementation of CHW-led, culturally specific, faith-based program to increase physical activity (PA) among churchgoing Latinas. The current study augments previous research by describing the recruitment, selection, training, and evaluation of CHWs for a PA intervention targeting multiple levels of the Social Ecological Model. PMID:26280587

  13. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Physical Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Carlos; Annamalai, Kalyan

    2008-06-01

    The first and second laws of thermodynamics were applied to biochemical reactions typical of human metabolism. An open-system model was used for a human body. Energy conservation, availability and entropy balances were performed to obtain the entropy generated for the main food components. Quantitative results for entropy generation were obtained as a function of age using the databases from the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which provide energy requirements and food intake composition as a function of age, weight and stature. Numerical integration was performed through human lifespan for different levels of physical activity. Results were presented and analyzed. Entropy generated over the lifespan of average individuals (natural death) was found to be 11,404 kJ/ºK per kg of body mass with a rate of generation three times higher on infants than on the elderly. The entropy generated predicts a life span of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average U.S. male and female individuals respectively, which are values that closely match the average lifespan from statistics (74.63 and 80.36 years). From the analysis of the effect of different activity levels, it is shown that entropy generated increases with physical activity, suggesting that exercise should be kept to a “healthy minimum” if entropy generation is to be minimized.

  14. Quality of life perception of basketball master athletes: association with physical activity level and sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Natália Boneti; Mazzardo, Oldemar; Vagetti, Gislaine Cristina; De Oliveira, Valdomiro; De Campos, Wagner

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the prevalence and characteristics of sports injuries (SI) and determine the association between the physical activity level (PA) and SI with perception of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Brazilian basketball master athletes. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 410 male master athletes, between 35 and 85 years of age (mean 52.26, SD ±11.83). The HRQoL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study - Short Form-36. The PA was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Information regarding SI was collected using the Reported Morbidity Survey. Poisson regression, as estimated by the prevalence ratio (PR), was used as a measure of the association of PA and SI with HRQoL. The majority of athletes showed a high SI prevalence (58.3%) and reported one injury (67.8%) that occurred during training (61.1%) and primarily affected a lower limb (74.6%). The adjusted regression models showed a positive association of PA with the Functional Capacity (PR = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-1.90) and Physical Component (PR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.03-1.70) of HRQoL. Furthermore, the SI were negatively associated with HRQoL in Functional Capacity (PR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.51-2.27), Physical Aspects (PR = 3.99, 95% CI = 3.08-5.18), Pain (PR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.26-2.16), Social Functioning (PR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.41-2.27), Emotional Aspects (PR = 4.40, 95% CI = 3.35-5.78), Mental Health domains (PR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.06-1.68), Physical Component (PR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.90-2.90) and Mental Component (PR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.14-3.29). These results highlighted that master athletes showed a high SI prevalence, primarily in the lower limbs. PA positively correlates with the physical HRQoL domain, whereas SI may decrease the HRQoL levels of both physical and mental domains.

  15. Factors Associated with High Levels of Physical Activity among Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Viviene A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to identify factors associated with physical activity participation among active (i.e. more than or equal to 10 000 steps per day) individuals with intellectual disability. Staff at day program and supported employment organizations were asked to identify individuals they believed were physically active. To verify participants were…

  16. Physical Activity Levels, Frequency, and Type Among Adolescents with and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Stanish, Heidi I; Curtin, Carol; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda G

    2017-03-01

    We compared time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), type, and frequency of participation in physical activities between adolescents with ASD (n = 35) and typically developing (TD) adolescents (n = 60). Accelerometers measured MVPA and participants were interviewed about engagement in physical activities. Adolescents with ASD spent less time in MVPA compared to TD adolescents (29 min/day vs. 50 min/day, p < 0.001) and fewer met the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (14 vs. 29%, p > 0.05). Among adolescents <16 years old, those with ASD participated in fewer activities than TD adolescents (5.3 vs. 7.1 activities, p < 0.03). Walking/hiking and active video gaming were among the top activities for both groups. Findings support the need for interventions that meet the needs of youth with ASD.

  17. The Role of Motor Competence and Body Mass Index in Children's Activity Levels in Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spessato, Barbara Coiro; Gabbard, Carl; Valentini, Nadia C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the role of body mass index (BMI) and motor competence (MC) in children's physical activity (PA) levels during physical education (PE) classes. We assessed PA levels of 5-to-10-year old children ("n" = 264) with pedometers in four PE classes. MC was assessed using the TGMD-2 and BMI values were classified…

  18. Effect of level of autonomy on the amount of physical activity in young children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Emerging research has indicated that providing choice of exercise options increases the amount of physical activity children perform. However, these studies have not yet assessed this effect using physical activities children typically have access to in a naturalistic setting. PURPOSE...

  19. Validity of a Questionnaire to Assess the Physical Activity Level in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiraud, Thibaut; Granger, Richard; Bousquet, Marc; Gremeaux, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare, in coronary artery disease patients, physical activity (PA) assessed with the Dijon Physical Activity Questionnaire (DPAQ) and the true PA objectively measured using an accelerometer. Seventy patients wore an accelerometer (MyWellness Key actimeter) throughout 1 week after a cardiac rehabilitation program that…

  20. Can Email Prompting Minimize the Decrease in Wintertime Physical Activity Levels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liguori, Gary; Mozumdar, Arupendra

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of using email prompts to attenuate the decrease of physical activity in adults during a winter season. In addition, the secondary purposes were (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of email prompts at increasing motivation towards physical activity and (2) to evaluate the awareness…

  1. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  2. The Use of Pedometry To Evaluate the Physical Activity Levels among Preschool Children in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louie, Lobo; Chan, Lily

    2003-01-01

    This study used pedometry and the Children Activity Rating Scale (CARS) to investigate physical activity among 3- to 5-year-olds in Hong Kong preschools. Findings indicated that older children were more active than younger ones; boys were more active than girls. Older children in the rural school with larger outdoor play space were more active…

  3. Playing outdoor and practising sport: A study of physical activity levels in Portuguese children.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paula; Santos, Maria Paula

    2017-03-01

    In outdoor activities, it seems reasonable that the longer children spend in spontaneous physical activity (PA), the higher the probability of being active. Indeed, the time spent outdoor has been identified as a variable consistently associated with the children's PA. Outdoor playing, such as the organized sports practice, appears associated with healthier lifestyle standards. All the recommendations mention the importance of increasing daily PA practice in children and teenagers, but few studies highlight the relationship between outdoor play and the recommended PA levels. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between the frequency of outdoor play, the frequency of the organized sports practice, and the compliance of the recommendations for PA practice in children in the inner city area of Porto. The sample of this study is composed of 422 individuals (mean age of 11.6 years). Two hundred and twenty-five of them were girls and 197 were boys from the sixth grade (elementary schools located in the inner city area of Porto). PA was objectively evaluated using accelerometers. Participants reported frequency of participation in different PA contexts, such as sports practice and outdoor play. The results show a predictor effect of participating in sports three or more times per week on compliance of PA guidelines. In conclusion, organized sports practice seems more effective than outdoor play to reach the recommended levels of PA in children.

  4. Delayed onset of electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis relative to the vastus lateralis may be related to physical activity levels in females with patellofemoral pain.

    PubMed

    Briani, Ronaldo Valdir; de Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Pazzinatto, Marcella Ferraz; Ferreira, Amanda Schenatto; Ferrari, Deisi; de Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to examine group differences in muscle activation onset of the vastus medialis (VM) in relation to the vastus lateralis (VL) and pain level during stair ascent in females with patellofemoral pain (PFP) who maintain high and moderate levels of physical activity; to determine the association between physical activity level and muscle activation onset. Forty-three females with PFP and thirty-eight pain-free females were recruited and divided into four groups based on their level of physical activity: females with PFP (n=26) and pain-free females (n=26) who practiced a moderate level of physical activity and females with PFP (n=17) and pain-free females (n=12) who practiced an intense amount of physical activity. Participants were asked to ascend a seven-step staircase and the VM and VL activation onset was determined. Females with PFP who practiced high level of physical activity demonstrated delayed onset of VM (4.06ms) compared to healthy females (-14.4ms). Conversely, females with PFP who practiced moderate level of physical activity did not present VM delay (-2.48ms) in comparison to healthy females (-9.89ms). Furthermore, physical activity significantly correlated to the muscle activation onset difference (p=0.005; R=0.60). These findings may explain why controversial results regarding VM and VL muscle activation onset have been found.

  5. Cuff Pressure Pain Detection Is Associated with Both Sex and Physical Activity Level in Nonathletic Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Lemming, Dag; Börsbo, Björn; Sjörs, Anna; Lind, Eva-Britt; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Gerdle, Björn

    2017-01-04

    PURPOSE : The aim of this study was to evaluate pressure pain sensitivity on leg and arm in 98 healthy persons (50 women) using cuff algometry. Furthermore, associations with sex and physical activity level were investigated.

  6. Access to environmental resources and physical activity levels of adults in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Geller, KS; Nigg, CR; Ollberding, NJ; Motl, RW; Horwath, C; Dishman, RK

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Examine associations between physical activity (PA) and spatial accessibility to environmental PA resources in Hawaii. Methods Metabolic equivalents (METs) of mild, moderate, and strenuous PA were compared for accessibility to environmental PA resources within a population-based sample of Hawaiian adults (n=381). Multiple linear regression estimated differences in PA levels for residing further from a PA resource or residing in an area with a greater number of resources. Results No associations were found in the total sample. Analyses within subsamples stratified by ethnicity revealed that greater spatial accessibility to a PA resource was positively associated with strenuous PA among Caucasians (p=0.04), but negatively associated with moderate PA among Native Hawaiians (p=0.00). Conclusion The lack of association in the total sample may be a consequence of Hawaii’s unique environment. Results of stratified sample analyses are unique, providing groundwork for future examinations within parallel environments and among similar ethnic groups. PMID:22500037

  7. Determining daily physical activity levels of youth with developmental disabilities: days of monitoring required?

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Yeun; Yun, Joonkoo

    2009-07-01

    This study examined sources of variability in physical activity (PA) of youth with developmental disabilities (DD), and determined the optimal number of days required for monitoring PA. Sixteen youth with DD wore two pedometers and two accelerometers for 9 days, including 5 weekdays (W) and 2 weekends (WK). A two-facet in fully crossed two-way ANOVAs were employed to estimate sources of variability across W, WK, and W and WK combined (WWK) for each device. Primary sources of variability were the person and the person by day interaction for both devices. Using a pedometer, four, six, and eight days of measurements were required to determine typical PA levels of the participants during W, WK, and WWK, respectively, Using one accelerometer, four days of measurements were estimated across all days.

  8. Physical Activity Is Associated With Greater Visuospatial Cognitive Functioning Regardless of the Level of Cognitive Load in Elderly Adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun Hao; Tsai, Chia Liang

    2016-02-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of regular physical activity on visuospatial cognition in elderly adults, and to further understand the potential neural mechanisms underpinning such effects. We assessed 24 physically active elderly adults and 24 sedentary counterparts using behavioral and neuroelectric measures during a visuospatial cognitive task with different levels of cognitive load. The results showed that the active group had higher behavioral accuracy along with greater P3 amplitudes, regardless of the level of cognitive load. Moreover, the correlation results revealed that physical activity levels were positively associated with accuracy performance in both conditions, while being correlated with frontal P3 amplitudes in the high cognitively demanding condition. However, no significant effects were observed in terms of P3 latency and contingent negative variation. These findings suggest that regular physical activity might be part of an effective lifestyle to attenuate the trajectory of age-related cognitive declines, thus increasing the likelihood of individuals becoming high-functioning older adults.

  9. Educational level and decreases in leisure time physical activity: predictors from the longitudinal GLOBE study

    PubMed Central

    Droomers, M; Schrijvers, C; Mackenbach, J

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—This study describes educational differences in decreases in leisure time physical activity among an adult, physically active population and additionally attempts to identify predictors of these differences from information on health status and individual and environmental factors.
DESIGN—Prospective population based study. Baseline measurement were carried out in 1991 and follow up in 1997.
SETTING—South eastern part of the Netherlands.
PARTICIPANTS—The study included 3793 subjects who were physically active in 1991 and who participated in the follow up.
METHODS—Potential predictors of decreasing physical activity were measured in 1991. Logistic regression analyses were carried out for two age groups (<45 years; ⩾45 years) separately.
MAIN RESULTS—Lower educated respondents experienced statistically significant higher odds to decrease physical activity during follow up, compared with respondents with higher vocational schooling or a university degree. Perceived control was the main predictor of educational differences in decreasing physical activity in both age groups. In the older group, material problems and a poor perceived health experienced by lower educated people additionally predicted educational differences in decreases in physical activity during leisure time.
CONCLUSIONS—These findings have important implications for health promotion practice and policy to prevent socioeconomic differences in physical inactivity and health. There is a need for evidence-based interventions that improve perceived control and reduce material problems in lower educated groups.


Keywords: educational status; physical activity; socioeconomic status PMID:11449013

  10. Bone speed of sound and physical activity levels of overweight and normal-weight girls and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yao, Mathew; Ludwa, Izabella; Corbett, Lauren; Klentrou, Panagiota; Bonsu, Peter; Gammage, Kimberley; Falk, Bareket

    2011-02-01

    Bone properties, reflected by speed of sound (SOS), and physical activity levels were examined in overweight (OW) girls (n = 19) and adolescents (n = 22), in comparison with normal-weight (NW) girls (n = 21) and adolescents (n = 13). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was higher in NW than in OW in both age groups. Tibial SOS was lower in OW compared with NW in both age groups. MVPA correlated with tibial SOS, once age was partialed out. The results suggest that overweight girls and adolescents are characterized by low tibial SOS, which may be partially attributed to lower physical activity levels.

  11. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve my ... recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), call ...

  12. Correlation between vitamin D levels and muscle fatigue risk factors based on physical activity in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas S; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum vitamin D levels with physical activity, obesity, muscle fatigue biomarkers, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in healthy older adults. Methods A total of 85 healthy older subjects aged 64–96 years were recruited in this study. Based on estimated energy expenditure scores, the participants were classified into three groups: inactive (n=25), moderate (n=20), and physically active (n=35). Serum 25(OH)D (25-hydroxy vitamin D) levels, metabolic syndrome parameters, TAC activity, muscle fatigue biomarkers (Ca, creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline), physical activity, body fatness, and fatigue score (visual analog scale) were estimated using immunoassay techniques and prevalidated questionnaires, respectively. Results Physical activity was estimated in 64.6% of the participants. Males showed higher physical activity (42.5%) compared to females (26.25%). Compared to participants with lower activity, significant reduction in body mass index, waist circumference, hips, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were observed in moderate and physically active participants. Also, significant increase in the levels of serum 25(OH)D concentrations, calcium, and TAC activity along with reduction in the levels of muscle fatigue biomarkers: creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline, and fatigue scores (visual analog scale) were reported in physically active participants compared to those of lower physical activity. In all participants, serum 25(OH)D concentrations correlated positively with Ca, TAC, physical activity scores, and negatively with body mass index, lipid profile, fatigue scores (visual analog scale), and muscle fatigue biomarkers. Stepwise regression analysis showed that serum 25(OH)D concentrations, physical activity, Ca, TAC, and demographic parameters explained

  13. Restrictive pattern on spirometry: association with cardiovascular risk and level of physical activity in asymptomatic adults

    PubMed Central

    Sperandio, Evandro Fornias; Arantes, Rodolfo Leite; Matheus, Agatha Caveda; da Silva, Rodrigo Pereira; Lauria, Vinícius Tonon; Romiti, Marcello; Gagliardi, Antônio Ricardo de Toledo; Dourado, Victor Zuniga

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To determine whether a restrictive pattern on spirometry is associated with the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL), as well as with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, in asymptomatic adults. Methods : A total of 374 participants (mean age, 41 ± 14 years) underwent spirometry, which included the determination of FVC and FEV1. A restrictive pattern on spirometry was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio > 0.7 and an FVC < 80% of the predicted value. After conducting demographic, anthropometric, and CVD risk assessments, we evaluated body composition, muscle function, and postural balance, as well as performing cardiopulmonary exercise testing and administering the six-minute walk test. The PADL was quantified with a triaxial accelerometer. Results : A restrictive pattern on spirometry was found in 10% of the subjects. After multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for confounders (PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness), the following variables retained significance (OR; 95% CI) as predictors of a restrictive pattern: systemic arterial hypertension (17.5; 1.65-184.8), smoking (11.6; 1.56-87.5), physical inactivity (8.1; 1.43-46.4), larger center-of-pressure area while standing on a force platform (1.34; 1.05-1.71); and dyslipidemia (1.89; 1.12-1.98). Conclusions : A restrictive pattern on spirometry appears to be common in asymptomatic adults. We found that CVD risk factors, especially systemic arterial hypertension, smoking, and physical inactivity, were directly associated with a restrictive pattern, even when the analysis was adjusted for PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness. Longitudinal studies are needed in order to improve understanding of the etiology of a restrictive pattern as well as to aid in the design of preventive strategies. PMID:26982037

  14. An examination of eating attitudes and physical activity levels of Turkish university students with regard to self-presentational concern.

    PubMed

    Aşçi, F Hülya; Tüzün, Macide; Koca, Canan

    2006-11-01

    This study aimed to examine eating attitudes and physical activity level of young women and men university students with regard to social physique anxiety level. 482 university students participated in this study voluntarily. "Eating Attitude Test (EAT-40)", "Social Physique Anxiety Scale" and "Physical Activity Assessment Questionnaire" were used to assess the eating attitude, social physique anxiety and physical activity level of participants, respectively. Women and men participants in this study were assigned to high (HSPA) and low (LSPA) social physique anxiety groups with respect to their median scores. Men had favorable eating attitudes and higher physical activity level than women. In addition, participants in the HSPA group had unfavorable eating attitudes and higher physical activity MET values than participants in the LSPA group. On the other hand, groupxgender interaction was only significant for the eating attitudes scores but, not for physical activity level. Women in the HSPA group scored higher on the EAT-40 than men in HSPA and women and men in the LSPA groups.

  15. Does activity space size influence physical activity levels of adolescents?—A GPS study of an urban environment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nolan C.; Voss, Christine; Frazer, Amanda D.; Hirsch, Jana A.; McKay, Heather A.; Winters, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is closely linked with child and youth health, and active travel may be a solution to enhancing PA levels. Activity spaces depict the geographic coverage of one's travel. Little is known about activity spaces and PA in adolescents. Objective To explore the relation between adolescent travel (using a spatial measure of activity space size) and daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), with a focus on school days. Methods We used Global Positioning Systems to manually identify trips and generate activity spaces for each person-day; quantified by area for 39 students (13.8 ± 0.6 years, 38% female) attending high school in urban Downtown Vancouver, Canada. We assessed the association between activity space area and MVPA using multi-level regression. We calculated total, school-day and trip-based MVPA for each valid person-day (accelerometry; ≥ 600 min wear time). Results On school days, students accrued 68.2 min/day (95% CI 60.4–76.0) of MVPA. Daily activity spaces averaged 2.2 km2 (95% CI 1.3–3.0). There was no association between activity space size and school-day MVPA. Students accrued 21.8 min/day (95% CI 19.2–24.4) of MVPA during school hours, 19.4 min/day (95% CI 15.1–23.7) during travel, and 28.3 min/day (95% CI 22.3–34.3) elsewhere. Conclusion School and school travel are important sources of PA in Vancouver adolescents, irrespective of activity space area covered. PMID:26807349

  16. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Cancer.gov

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  17. Physical Activity Levels in Early Knee Osteoarthritis Patients Measured by Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Joshua N.; Going, Scott B.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Rankin, Lucinda; Kasle, Shelley; Cornett, Michelle; Cussler, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Physical activity (PA) is recommended for osteoarthritis (OA) management to reduce pain and improve function. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess the level and pattern of PA in male and female knee OA patients to determine adherence to CDC/ACSM and EPAC recommendations for PA. Methods: Early OA patients (n = 255, 76% women, 54.6 ± 7.1 years, body mass index (BMI) 27.8 ± 4.3 kg/m2) having radiographic status of Kellgren and Lawrence-defined grade II OA (and no higher) in at least one knee wore an accelerometer (Actigraph MTI) for 6-7 contiguous days. Light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) PA intensities were defined as accelerometer recordings of 100 to 2,224, 2,225 to 5,950, and > 5,950 counts per minute, respectively. Results: Subjects wore accelerometers for 6.8 ± 0.3 days and 13.8 ± 2.2 hours per day (hr/day) and spent much more (P < 0.001) time in MPA (23.6 ± 17.2 min/day) compared to VPA (0.95 ± 3.5 min/day). Males spent significantly (P < 0.05) more time in all PA intensities than females. Only 30% of subjects achieved recommended PA levels. The proportion of males (47%) achieving the recommendation was significantly (P = 0.04) higher than females (24%). Conclusion: Knee OA patients accumulate little vigorous PA and most (70%) do not achieve recommended levels for moderate or greater intensity PA. New strategies to increase levels of PA in this population are needed. PMID:18759320

  18. Physical activity levels of older community-dwelling adults are influenced by summer weather variables.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Caitlin A; Gill, Dawn P; Speechley, Mark; Gilliland, Jason; Jones, Gareth R

    2009-04-01

    Adequate daily physical activity (PA) is important for maintaining functional capacity and independence in older adults. However, most older adults in Canada do not engage in enough PA to sustain fitness and functional independence. Environmental influences, such as warmer daytime temperatures, may influence PA participation; however, few studies have examined the effect of summertime temperatures on PA levels in older adults. This investigation measured the influence of summertime weather variables on PA in 48 community-dwelling older adults who were randomly recruited from a local seniors' community centre. Each participant wore an accelerometer for a single 7-consecutive-day period (between 30 May and 9 August 2006) during waking hours, and completed a PA logbook to remark on major daily PA events. Local weather variables were collected from a national weather service and compared with PA counts per minute. Regression analysis revealed a curvilinear relationship between log-transformed PA and mean daily temperature (r2 = 0.025; p < 0.05). Linear mixed effects models that accounted for repeated measures nested within individuals were performed for monthly periods, meteorological variables, sex, age, and estimated maximal oxygen consumption, with PA as the dependent variable. Age and Air Quality Index remained significant variables within the model. Higher fitness levels had no effect on allowing individuals to perform more vigorous PA in warmer temperatures.

  19. Effects of locomotor skill program on minority preschoolers' physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Ghazarian, Manneh; Roberts, Jasmin; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog

    2012-08-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of a teacher-taught, locomotor skill (LMS)-based physical activity (PA) program on the LMS and PA levels of minority preschooler-aged children. Eight low-socioeconomic status preschool classrooms were randomized into LMS-PA (LMS-oriented lesson plans) or control group (supervised free playtime). Interventions were delivered for 30 min/day, five days/week for six months. Changes in PA (accelerometer) and LMS variables were assessed with MANCOVA. LMS-PA group exhibited a significant reduction in during-preschool (F (1,16) = 6.34, p = .02, d = 0.02) and total daily (F (1,16) = 9.78, p = .01, d = 0.30) percent time spent in sedentary activity. LMS-PA group also exhibited significant improvement in leaping skills, F (1, 51) = 7.18, p = .01, d = 0.80). No other, significant changes were observed. The implementation of a teacher-taught, LMS-based PA program could potentially improve LMS and reduce sedentary time of minority preschoolers.

  20. The Effects of an Enhanced Quality Physical Education Programme on the Physical Activity Levels of Grade 7 Learners in Potchefstroom, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Haili; du Toit, Dorita; Toriola, Abel L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The absence of Physical Education (PE) from the South African school curriculum before its reintroduction in recent years contributed to health concerns regarding the low physical activity (PA) levels of children and adolescents in South Africa. Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of a once-a-week enhanced quality PE programme on…

  1. Physical activity levels and patterns in older adults: the influence of a DVD-based exercise program.

    PubMed

    Gothe, Neha P; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Olson, Erin A; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Chung, H David; Zuniga, Krystle E; Mackenzie, Michael J; Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2015-02-01

    The use of multimedia to influence health behaviors offers unique advantages over more traditional center-based programs, however, little is known about the effectiveness of such approaches in improving physical activity levels over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a progressive and age-appropriate, DVD-delivered exercise program in promoting physical activity levels among older adult cohorts. Community dwelling older adults (N = 307, Mean age = 71 years) were randomized to one of two groups: a 6-month home-based DVD-delivered exercise (i.e., FlexToBa™) intervention group or a healthy aging DVD control group. Physical activity was assessed objectively using a standard 7-day accelerometer wear period and subjectively using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, at baseline and follow-up. Analysis of covariances indicated a statistically significant treatment effect for subjectively [F(1,250) = 8.42, P = .004, η(2) = .03] and objectively [F(1,240) = 3.77, P = .05, η(2) = .02] measured physical activity. The older cohort (>70) in the FlexToBa condition further had significantly larger improvements in physical activity levels compared to their younger counterparts. From a public health perspective, media-delivered interventions such as the FlexToBa program might prove to be cost-effective, have a broader reach and at the same time be effective in improving physical activity levels in older adults.

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a stronger indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors and risk prediction than self-reported physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Gray, Benjamin J; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Williams, Sally P; Davies, Christine A; Turner, Daniel; Bracken, Richard M

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the relationships of self-reported physical activity levels and cardiorespiratory fitness in 81 males to assess which measurement is the greatest indicator of cardiometabolic risk. Physical activity levels were determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed using the Chester Step Test. Cardiovascular disease risk was estimated using the QRISK2, Framingham Lipids, Framingham body mass index and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 equations, and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk calculated using QDiabetes, Leicester Risk Assessment, Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and Cambridge Risk Score models. Categorising employees by cardiorespiratory fitness categories ('Excellent/Good' vs 'Average/Below Average') identified more differences in cardiometabolic risk factor (body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, HbA(1c)) scores than physical activity (waist circumference only). Cardiorespiratory fitness levels also demonstrated differences in all four type 2 diabetes mellitus risk prediction models and both the QRISK2 and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 cardiovascular disease equations. Furthermore, significant negative correlations (p < 0.001) were observed between individual cardiorespiratory fitness values and estimated risk in all prediction models. In conclusion, from this preliminary observational study, cardiorespiratory fitness levels reveal a greater number of associations with markers of cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to physical activity determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool.

  3. The Effect of Programed Physical Activity Measured with Levels of Body Balance Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Mańko, Grzegorz; Kruczkowski, Dariusz; Niźnikowski, Tomasz; Perliński, Jacek; Chantsoulis, Marzena; Pokorska, Joanna; Łukaszewska, Beata; Ziółkowski, Artur; Graczyk, Marek; Starczyńska, Małgorzata; Jaszczur-Nowicki, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the research was an evaluation of 2 training programs covering the same standard physical activity in the initial stage (warm-up) and the main (motor exercises) as well as a separate end part in Program A of stretching and in Programme B of vibration training designed to improve the level of body balance. Material/Methods We tested 40 randomly chosen students of the Academy of Physical Education and Sport in Gdansk, subsequently divided into two 20-person groups: C (average age 21.3±1.2), and E (average age 21.8±1.1). The training of body balance was conducted for 8 weeks: we used in Group C Program A and in group E Program B. The evaluation of body balance was done 3 times: at the beginning, at midway point, and at the end of the experiment. The stabilographic tests with posture-graphical method and the task of 1-leg balance standing with eyes closed was used. Results It was found that in the first examination both groups did not significantly differ in terms of the tested parameters of balance. During the training process we obtained increased time of maintaining balance on 1 leg. This difference was significant between tests 1 and 2 both for Group C (p=0.0002) and for E (p=0.0034), while between the tests 2 and 3 in Group E (p=0.0213) only. Conclusions The training Program B is more effective to maintain balance on 1 leg when compared to Program A. PMID:25284349

  4. Effect of contrasted levels of habitual physical activity on metabolic flexibility.

    PubMed

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Antoun, Edwina; Momken, Iman; Schoeller, Dale A; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Simon, Chantal; Blanc, Stéphane

    2013-02-01

    The factors regulating the body's ability to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation in response to fuel availability changes, or metabolic flexibility (MF), are currently intensively investigated in the context of metabolic diseases. Although numerous metabolic diseases are associated with sedentary behaviors and metabolic inflexibility, the effect of habitual physical activity level (PAL) on MF regulation is surprisingly poorly known. We investigated how PAL affects MF in cross-sectional and interventional studies. MF was assessed in 44 subjects: normal-weight and overweight sedentary men submitted to 2 mo of exercise at current recommendations, normal-weight active men submitted to 1 mo of reduced PAL and normal-weight women submitted to 1 mo of bed rest, with or without exercise. MF was evaluated, before and after interventions, following two standard meals as the relationship between individual mathematical variances in insulin and nonprotein respiratory quotient (NPRQ) daily kinetics. Daily NPRQ and insulin variances differed according to habitual PAL (P = 0.002 and P = 0.009, respectively); active subjects had higher variances in NPRQ for lower variances in insulin than sedentary subjects, indicating a better MF. Detraining increased insulin variance (P = 0.009) and decreased NPRQ variance (P = 0.003), while training tended to have opposite effects. Insulin and NPRQ variances were negatively related along the PAL continuum (R(2) = 0.70, P < 0.001). Variance in NPRQ was also positively related to PAL (R(2) = 0.52, P < 0.001). By assessing MF with mathematical surrogates in conditions of daily pattern in meal's intake, we showed that habitual PAL is associated with MF status, and that MF is modulated by changes in PAL.

  5. Achieving recommended daily physical activity levels through commuting by public transportation: unpacking individual and contextual influences.

    PubMed

    Wasfi, Rania A; Ross, Nancy A; El-Geneidy, Ahmed M

    2013-09-01

    This paper estimates the amount of daily walking associated with using public transportation in a large metropolitan area and examines individual and contextual characteristics associated with walking distances. Total walking distance to and from transit was calculated from a travel diary survey for 6913 individuals. Multilevel regression modelling was used to examine the underlying factors associated with walking to public transportation. The physical activity benefits of public transportation varied along gender and socio-economic lines. Recommended minutes of daily physical activity can be achieved for public transportation users, especially train users living in affluent suburbs.

  6. Antidepressant Use is Associated with Increased Energy Intake and Similar Levels of Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Otsu, Elsbeth; Austin, Gregory L

    2015-11-20

    Antidepressants have been associated with weight gain, but the causes are unclear. The aims of this study were to assess the association of antidepressant use with energy intake, macronutrient diet composition, and physical activity. We used data on medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity for 3073 eligible adults from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Potential confounding variables, including depression symptoms, were included in the models assessing energy intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Antidepressant users reported consuming an additional (mean ± S.E.) 215 ± 73 kcal/day compared to non-users (p = 0.01). There were no differences in percent calories from sugar, fat, or alcohol between the two groups. Antidepressant users had similar frequencies of walking or biking, engaging in muscle-strengthening activities, and engaging in moderate or vigorous physical activity. Antidepressant users were more likely to use a computer for ≥2 h/day (OR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.09-2.90), but TV watching was similar between the two groups. These results suggest increased energy intake and sedentary behavior may contribute to weight gain associated with antidepressant use. Focusing on limiting food intake and sedentary behaviors may be important in mitigating the weight gain associated with antidepressant use.

  7. Plasma kisspeptin and ghrelin levels are independently correlated with physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Tobias; Elbelt, Ulf; Haas, Verena; Ahnis, Anne; Klapp, Burghard F; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    While physical hyperactivity represents a frequent symptom of anorexia nervosa and may have a deleterious impact on the course of the disease, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Since several food intake-regulatory hormones affect physical activity, the aim of the study was to investigate the association of physical activity with novel candidate hormones (kisspeptin, ghrelin, oxyntomodulin, orexin-A, FGF-21, R-spondin-1) possibly involved in patients with anorexia nervosa. Associations with psychometric parameters and body composition were also assessed. We included 38 female anorexia nervosa inpatients (body mass index, BMI, mean ± SD: 14.8 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)). Physical activity was evaluated using portable armband devices, body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Blood withdrawal (hormones measured by ELISA) and psychometric assessment of depressiveness (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), perceived stress (PSQ-20) and disordered eating (EDI-2) were performed at the same time. Patients displayed a broad spectrum of physical activity (2479-26,047 steps/day) which showed a negative correlation with kisspeptin (r = -0.41, p = 0.01) and a positive association with ghrelin (r = 0.42, p = 0.01). The negative correlation with oxyntomodulin (r = -0.37, p = 0.03) was lost after consideration of potential confounders by regression analysis. No correlations were observed between physical activity and orexin-A, FGF-21 and R-spondin-1 (p > 0.05). Kisspeptin was positively correlated with BMI and body fat mass and negatively associated with the interpersonal distrust subscale of the EDI-2 (p < 0.01). Depressiveness, anxiety, and perceived stress did not correlate with kisspeptin or any other of the investigated hormones (p > 0.05). In conclusion, kisspeptin is inversely and ghrelin positively associated with physical activity as measured by daily step counts in anorexia nervosa patients suggesting an implication of these peptide hormones in

  8. Specific Types of Family Support and Adolescent Non-school Physical Activity Levels

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Joanna L.; Wenthe, Phyllis J.; Letuchy, Elena M.; Levy, Steven M.; Janz, Kathleen F.

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 291 adolescents (mean age 13 yr), seven psychosocial factors, including family support, were examined in relation to accelerometry-derived physical activity (PA) measured after school and during the weekend. Gender-specific stepwise linear regression analyses determined which combinations of factors explained the variance in non-school moderate to vigorous PA and non-school total PA after adjusting for % BF, age, and maturity (p ≤ 0.05). Being praised by a family member and % BF explained 13% of the variance in female non-school MVPA, while being praised and maturity explained 13% of the variance in non-school total PA. Having a family member watch him participate, % BF, and age explained 11.5% of the variance in male non-school MVPA, while having a family member participate with him explained 6.4% of the variance in non-school total PA. Despite adolescents’ growing independence, family support continues to influence PA levels. PMID:22971551

  9. Mediators of Physical Activity on Neurocognitive Function: A Review at Multiple Levels of Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, Chelsea M.; Cohen, Jamie; Lehman, Morgan E.; Erickson, Kirk I.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is known to maintain and improve neurocognitive health. However, there is still a poor understanding of the mechanisms by which PA exerts its effects on the brain and cognition in humans. Many of the most widely discussed mechanisms of PA are molecular and cellular and arise from animal models. While information about basic cellular and molecular mechanisms is an important foundation from which to build our understanding of how PA promotes cognitive health in humans, there are other pathways that could play a role in this relationship. For example, PA-induced changes to cellular and molecular pathways likely initiate changes to macroscopic properties of the brain and/or to behavior that in turn influence cognition. The present review uses a more macroscopic lens to identify potential brain and behavioral/socioemotional mediators of the association between PA and cognitive function. We first summarize what is known regarding cellular and molecular mechanisms, and then devote the remainder of the review to discussing evidence for brain systems and behavioral/socioemotional pathways by which PA influences cognition. It is our hope that discussing mechanisms at multiple levels of analysis will stimulate the field to examine both brain and behavioral mediators. Doing so is important, as it could lead to a more complete characterization of the processes by which PA influences neurocognitive function, as well as a greater variety of targets for modifying neurocognitive function in clinical contexts. PMID:28018195

  10. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effect of Additional Structured Outdoor Playtime on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Lyden, Kate; Goldsby, TaShauna; Mendoza, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The impact of additional structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; physical activity (PA) level is unclear. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the effects of increasing structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; PA levels. Eight full-day classrooms (n = 134 children) from two preschool programmes were randomised into a treatment…

  11. Environmental and social determinants of youth physical activity intensity levels at neighborhood parks in Las Vegas, NV.

    PubMed

    Coughenour, Courtney; Coker, Lisa; Bungum, Tim J

    2014-12-01

    Parks can play an important role in youth activity. This study used observational data to evaluate the relationship of environmental and social determinants to youth physical activity intensity levels in Las Vegas neighborhood parks. System for observing play and leisure activity in youth was used to code activity levels as sedentary, walking, or vigorous in five low-income and five high-income parks. Environmental determinants included amenities, incivilities, size, high-speed streets, sidewalk condition, and temperature. Social determinants included percent minority and Hispanic, gender, and income. A multinomial logistic regression model was performed. We observed 1,421 youth, 59% male, 41% female; 21% were sedentary, 38% walking, and 41% vigorous. Males were more likely to be observed walking (OR 1.42) and vigorous (OR 2.21) when compared to sedentary. High-speed streets (OR 0.76), sidewalks condition (OR 0.34), and low-income neighborhoods (OR 0.07) was associated with decreased odds of vigorous activity; incivilities (OR 1.34) and amenities (OR 1.27) were associated with greater odds of being vigorous. Environmental and social determinants are associated with physical activity intensity levels at parks. Stakeholders should ensure quality parks, as they relate to physical activity levels in youth. Understanding environmental and social determinants that influence physical activity at parks is critical to utilizing their full potential in an effort to combat childhood obesity.

  12. Multi-Level Discourse Analysis in a Physics Teaching Methods Course from the Psychological Perspective of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Rodrigo Drumond; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present and apply a multi-level method for discourse analysis in science classrooms. This method is based on the structure of human activity (activity, actions, and operations) and it was applied to study a pre-service physics teacher methods course. We argue that such an approach, based on a cultural psychological perspective,…

  13. Children's Physical Activity Levels during Primary School Break Times: A Quantitative and Qualitative Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Emma; Woodfield, Lorayne A.; Nevill, Alan A. M.

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to assess the diversity of primary school children's physical activity (PA) during outdoor recess. The study was grounded in a mixed method approach, assisting in the identification of multifaceted predictors of children's PA, including insights to social behaviours during break time. Data were obtained from…

  14. Determining Daily Physical Activity Levels of Youth with Developmental Disabilities: Days of Monitoring Required?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So-Yeun; Yun, Joonkoo

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sources of variability in physical activity (PA) of youth with developmental disabilities (DD), and determined the optimal number of days required for monitoring PA. Sixteen youth with DD wore two pedometers and two accelerometers for 9 days, including 5 weekdays (W) and 2 weekends (WK). A two-facet in fully crossed two-way…

  15. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Matshipi, Moloko; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel; Kemper, Han

    2017-01-01

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA) and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs) may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the level of physical activity; (ii) the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii) the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females) who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05) relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777). The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels. PMID:28212346

  16. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Matshipi, Moloko; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel; Kemper, Han

    2017-02-16

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA) and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs) may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the level of physical activity; (ii) the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii) the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females) who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05) relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777). The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.

  17. Measurements of Heart Rate and Accelerometry to Determine the Physical Activity Level in Boys Playing Paintball

    PubMed Central

    JARVI, MICHELLE; BROWN, GREGORY A; SHAW, BRANDON S.; SHAW, INA

    2013-01-01

    Paintball is a popular recreational sport played by 3.655 million Americans and may be sufficient physical activity to promote health. Paintball has been played as an organized sport since the 1980’s and is essentially a game of tag, except instead of touching an opponent by hand opponents are tagged by shooting them with a paintball that leaves a mark indicating who has been eliminated. A previous evaluation of paintball as physical activity had 13 subjects undergo a VO2max test to develop a heart rate (HR) /oxygen consumption relationship, and it was observed that heart rates during paintball were 68–73% of the measured maximal HR. The present study used accelerometry and HR monitors to evaluate the quantity and intensity of physical activity in boys playing paintball. Eleven boys (12.7 ± 1.0 y, 51.5 ± 11.3 kg, 161.8 ± 10.1 cm) engaged in a VO2max test to develop a HR/oxygen consumption correlation. On a separate day the boys played 7 games of outdoor paintball while wearing a HR monitor and accelerometer. The boys played paintball for 11.5 ± 6.2 minutes/game for a total of 80.6 ± 10.0 minutes of game play. Average HR during paintball play was 129.6 ± 6.6 beats/min, representing 39.9 ± 12.9% VO2max. Based on accelerometry, the boys accumulated 63.2 ± 15.6 minutes of moderate intensity activity and 2.6 ± 2.8 minutes of vigorous activity during paintball. These data suggest that playing paintball may be considered as physical activity that is > 3 METs, and thus health promoting. PMID:27182396

  18. Factors influencing executive function by physical activity level among young adults: a near-infrared spectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Kensuke; Ikeda, Shou; Mitsutake, Tsubasa; Nakahara, Masami; Nagai, Yoshiharu; Ikeda, Takuro; Horikawa, Etsuo

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Prevention of dementia requires early intervention against it. To ensure that early interventions are effective it is crucial to study the cognitive functions related to dementia in young adulthood. Moreover, it is needed not only to verify the cognitive function test but also to elucidate the actual brain activity and the influence of related factors on the brain activity. To investigate the factors influencing cognitive function among young adults and examine the differences in executive function by physical activity level. [Subjects and Methods] Forty healthy university students (mean age, 20.4 years) were classified into two groups by cognitive function score (HIGH and LOW), determined according to Trail Making Test performance and Stroop task processing time. We then assessed what factors were related to cognitive function by logistic regression analysis. Executive function was determined by brain blood flow using near-infrared spectroscopy during the Stroop task, and was then compared by physical activity levels (determined according to number of steps per hour). [Results] Full-scale Intelligence Quotient according to the 3rd Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale and number of steps per hour influenced cognitive function score, with odds ratios of 1.104 and 1.012, respectively. Oxy-hemoglobin concentrations in areas related to executive function during the Stroop task were significantly higher among those in the high physical activity group than among those in the low physical activity group. [Conclusion] The study revealed that Full-scale Intelligence Quotient and a number of steps per hour are factors associated with the cognitive functions in young adulthood. In addition, activity in execution function related area was found to be significantly higher in the high physical activity group than in the low physical activity group, suggesting the importance of physical activity for enhancing young adulthood cognitive functions. PMID:28356633

  19. Factors influencing executive function by physical activity level among young adults: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Kensuke; Ikeda, Shou; Mitsutake, Tsubasa; Nakahara, Masami; Nagai, Yoshiharu; Ikeda, Takuro; Horikawa, Etsuo

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] Prevention of dementia requires early intervention against it. To ensure that early interventions are effective it is crucial to study the cognitive functions related to dementia in young adulthood. Moreover, it is needed not only to verify the cognitive function test but also to elucidate the actual brain activity and the influence of related factors on the brain activity. To investigate the factors influencing cognitive function among young adults and examine the differences in executive function by physical activity level. [Subjects and Methods] Forty healthy university students (mean age, 20.4 years) were classified into two groups by cognitive function score (HIGH and LOW), determined according to Trail Making Test performance and Stroop task processing time. We then assessed what factors were related to cognitive function by logistic regression analysis. Executive function was determined by brain blood flow using near-infrared spectroscopy during the Stroop task, and was then compared by physical activity levels (determined according to number of steps per hour). [Results] Full-scale Intelligence Quotient according to the 3rd Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale and number of steps per hour influenced cognitive function score, with odds ratios of 1.104 and 1.012, respectively. Oxy-hemoglobin concentrations in areas related to executive function during the Stroop task were significantly higher among those in the high physical activity group than among those in the low physical activity group. [Conclusion] The study revealed that Full-scale Intelligence Quotient and a number of steps per hour are factors associated with the cognitive functions in young adulthood. In addition, activity in execution function related area was found to be significantly higher in the high physical activity group than in the low physical activity group, suggesting the importance of physical activity for enhancing young adulthood cognitive functions.

  20. Effect of a Ban on Extracurricular Sports Activities by Secondary School Teachers on Physical Activity Levels of Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabayo, Roman; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Gauvin, Lise; Paradis, Gilles; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    To study the effect of a teachers' ban on supervising sports-related extracurricular physical activities (ECAs), levels of physical activity among 979 grade 7 students (mean age = 12.7 [0.5] years at baseline) were compared during and after the ban in seven schools that fully implemented the ban, and three schools that did not implement the ban…

  1. Physical activity, fatness, educational level and snuff consumption as determinants of semen quality: findings of the ActiART study.

    PubMed

    Pärn, Triin; Grau Ruiz, Raúl; Kunovac Kallak, Theodora; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Davey, Eva; Hreinsson, Julius; Wånggren, Kjell; Salumets, Andres; Sjöström, Michael; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli; Ortega, Francisco B; Altmäe, Signe

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the association between physical activity and other potential determinants, objectively measured by accelerometry, was examined. Sixty-two men attending an infertility clinic participated in the study. Obese men (body mass index ≥ 30) and those with a waist circumference 102 cm or more had lower semen volume than the other men (P < 0.05). Higher values in sperm parameters were observed in participants who completed university studies and those who did not consume snuff, compared with the other participants (P < 0.05). Finally, men who spent an average number of 10 min-bouts of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity had significantly better semen quality than those who engaged in low or high numbers of bouts of activity (P < 0.05). No associations were found for sedentary or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity time when it was not sustained over 10 min, i.e. not in bouts. Men who have average levels of physical activity over sustained periods of 10 min are likely to have better semen quality than men who engage in low or high levels of such activity. Similarly, high levels of total and central adiposity, low educational level and snuff consumption are negatively related to semen quality.

  2. Physical activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- plus eating well, is the best way to stay healthy. ... goal. Your goal might be to: Manage a health condition Reduce stress ... other benefits, such as: Better control of your weight and ...

  3. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study.

    PubMed

    Abdulnour, Joseph; Razmjou, Sahar; Doucet, Éric; Boulay, Pierre; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Prud'homme, Denis

    2016-12-01

    To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter "fitness") and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa) on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB) and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥ 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) compared to women with a fitness < 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) (P < 0.05). However, only fasting triglycerides was lower in women with physical activity levels ≥ 770.0 Kcal/day (P < 0.05). Between fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition.

  4. Association between the physical activity level and the quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; Acar, Gönül; Dereli, E Elçin; Özgül, Bahar; Demirbüken, İlkşan; Alkaç, Çiğdem; Polat, M Gülden

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity and regular exercise play an important role in glycemic control, which is considered an important part of the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study evaluated physical activity level and its relationship with quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] We evaluated 129 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus through a face-to-face interview using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Diabetes-39. Demographic data, diabetes symptoms, time of initial diagnosis, and treatment procedure/approaches were recorded. [Results] Of the study subjects, 51 (39.5%) had low, 67 had moderate (51.9%), and 11 (8.5%) had high activity levels. The mean weekly sitting duration was 302 minutes. The mean weekly walking time was 231.7 minutes. Except for the "diabetes control" domain, scores for all the subgroups and the total score in the quality-of-life assessment had a statistically significant negative correlation with physical activity level. [Discussion] Physical inactivity negatively affects the quality of life of diabetic patients. A planned exercise education program and incorporation of exercise into the lifestyle can improve the quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  5. Physical Education Resources, Class Management, and Student Physical Activity Levels: A Structure-Process-Outcome Approach to Evaluating Physical Education Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevans, Katherine B.; Fitzpatrick, Leslie-Anne; Sanchez, Betty M.; Riley, Anne W.; Forrest, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to empirically evaluate specific human, curricular, and material resources that maximize student opportunities for physical activity during physical education (PE) class time. A structure-process-outcome model was proposed to identify the resources that influence the frequency of PE and intensity of physical…

  6. Effect of muscle fatigue and physical activity level in motor control of the gait of young adults.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; dos Santos, Paulo Cezar Rocha; Vitório, Rodrigo; van Dieën, Jaap H; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of muscle fatigue in active and inactive young adults on the kinematic and kinetic parameters of normal gait and obstacle crossing. Twenty male subjects were divided into active (10) and inactive (10), based on self-reported physical activity. Participants performed three trials of two tasks (normal gait and obstacle crossing) before and after a fatigue protocol, consisting of repeated sit-to-stand transfers until the instructed pace could no longer be maintained. MANOVAs were used to compare dependent variables with the following factors: physical activity level, fatigue and task. The endurance time in the fatigue protocol was lower for the inactive group. Changes of gait parameters with fatigue, among which increased step width and increased stride speed were the most consistent, were independent of task and physical activity level. These findings indicate that the kinematic and kinetic parameters of gait are affected by muscle fatigue irrespective of the physical activity level of the subjects and type of gait. Inactive individuals used a slightly different strategy than active individuals when crossing an obstacle, independently of muscle fatigue.

  7. [Approaching Physically Inactive Elderly for Physical Activity].

    PubMed

    Allmer, H; Allmer, M; Euskirchen, J; Froböse, I; Wallmann, B; Walter, T; Walschek, R

    2015-09-01

    The majority of elderly persons are still not sufficiently physically active. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate different approaches (physical activity courses, poster, online-survey) for activating elderly to participate in physical activity. The most effective approach was target group physical activity courses with which higher course participation rates in men as well as in people with lower levels of education were achieved. Referring to the transtheoretical model (TTM) it is necessary for future analyses of target group approaches to consider more intensely the initial motivational position of physically inactive elderly.

  8. Physical Activity Levels in Normal Weight and Overweight Portuguese Children: An Intervention Study during an Elementary School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Luis; Lopes, Vitor; Pereira, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of an intervention strategy during the school recess on physical activity (PA) levels, by gender, age and body mass index (BMI). The sample comprises 158 Portuguese children aged 6 to 12 years. Weight and height were objectively measured. PA was assessed by accelerometry during the recess in pre-intervention…

  9. Low levels of physical activity are associated with dysregulation of energy intake and fat mass gain over 1 year12

    PubMed Central

    Shook, Robin P; Hand, Gregory A; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hebert, James R; Paluch, Amanda E; Blundell, John E; Hill, James O; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that appetite may be dysregulated at low levels of activity, creating an energy imbalance that results in weight gain. Objective: The aim was to examine the relation between energy intake, physical activity, appetite, and weight gain during a 1-y follow-up period in a large sample of adults. Design: Participants included 421 individuals (mean ± SD age: 27.6 ± 3.8 y). Measurements included the following: energy intake with the use of interviewer-administered dietary recalls and calculated by using changes in body composition and energy expenditure, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with the use of an arm-based monitor, body composition with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and questionnaire-derived perceptions of dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and control of eating. Participants were grouped at baseline into quintiles of MVPA (min/d) by sex. Measurements were repeated every 3 mo for 1 y. Results: At baseline, an inverse relation existed between body weight and activity groups, with the least-active group (15.7 ± 9.9 min MVPA/d, 6062 ± 1778 steps/d) having the highest body weight (86.3 ± 13.2 kg) and the most-active group (174.5 ± 60.5 min MVPA/d, 10260 ± 3087 steps/d) having the lowest body weight (67.5 ± 11.0 kg). A positive relation was observed between calculated energy intake and activity group, except in the lowest quintile of activity. The lowest physical activity group reported higher levels of disinhibition (P = 0.07) and cravings for savory foods (P = 0.03) compared with the group with the highest level of physical activity. Over 1 y of follow-up, the lowest activity group gained the largest amount of fat mass (1.7 ± 0.3 kg) after adjustment for change in MVPA and baseline fat mass. The odds of gaining >3% of fat mass were between 1.8 and 3.8 times as high for individuals in the least-active group as for those in the middle activity group. Conclusions: These results suggest

  10. Recommended Levels of Physical Activity Are Associated with Reduced Risk of the Metabolic Syndrome in Mexican-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shenghui; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.; Reininger, Belinda; McCormick, Joseph B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To measure the association between physical activity and the metabolic syndrome risk in Mexican-Americans. Methods Participants were drawn from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (n = 3,414), a randomly selected Mexican-American cohort in Texas on the US-Mexico border. Moderate and vigorous physical activity was assessed using reliable and validated instruments. The metabolic syndrome was defined as having 3 or more metabolic abnormalities. Results One thousand five hundred and twenty-four participants of the cohort (45.02%) were found to have the metabolic syndrome. Compared to participants who did not meet US physical activity guidelines, participants who met physical activity guidelines of 150 moderate and vigorous minutes per week (≥ 600 MET adjusted minutes) had 36% lower risk for the metabolic syndrome (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.42–0.98), and participants with total minutes per week of moderate and vigorous/strenuous activity greater than 743 MET adjusted minutes had 37% lower risk for the metabolic syndrome (OR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.42–0.94) compared with their counterparts, after adjusting for age, gender, annual household income, body mass index, smoking and alcohol drinking status, total portions of fruit and vegetable intake, census tracts and blocks, and survey version for physical activity. Conclusions Meeting or exceeding physical activity guidelines significantly was inversely associated with the risk for the metabolic syndrome in Mexican-Americans. Improving levels of physical activity appears to be an effective target for the metabolic syndrome prevention and control among Mexican-Americans independent of other factors. PMID:27054324

  11. Physical Activity Levels and Motivational Responses of Boys and Girls: A Comparison of Direct Instruction and Tactical Games Models of Games Teaching in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lindsey; Harvey, Stephen; Savory, Louise; Fairclough, Stuart; Kozub, Stephen; Kerr, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to independently determine the levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and self-determined motivation of both boys and girls as they participated in prolonged units of invasion games (i.e. 6-12 lessons) through two pedagogical models: direct instruction and the tactical games model (TGM). It was…

  12. The physical activity levels among people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome receiving high active antiretroviral therapy in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Frantz, J M; Murenzi, A

    2013-01-01

    The accessibility of high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for local human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients is improving in Rwanda. It is well known that this therapy is associated with serious adverse effects, such as metabolic and morphologic changes. One of the recommended preventive modalities for these complications is participation in physical activity. The current study aims to determine the anthropometric profile and physical activity levels among people living with HIV and receiving HAART in Kigali, Rwanda. The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive quantitative survey. The participant's levels of physical activity participation and their association with anthropometric profiles were measured, using a structured self-administered questionnaire for 407 clients passing through the clinics. Of the participants, approximately 70% were inactive and in addition, 40% were obese and 43% overweight. Obesity was found to be strongly associated with inactivity. Lack of motivation, and time as well as fear of worsening the disease were found to be barriers to participation in physical activity.

  13. A measurement error model for physical activity level as measured by a questionnaire with application to the 1999-2006 NHANES questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Tooze, Janet A; Troiano, Richard P; Carroll, Raymond J; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Freedman, Laurence S

    2013-06-01

    Systematic investigations into the structure of measurement error of physical activity questionnaires are lacking. We propose a measurement error model for a physical activity questionnaire that uses physical activity level (the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal energy expenditure) to relate questionnaire-based reports of physical activity level to true physical activity levels. The 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey physical activity questionnaire was administered to 433 participants aged 40-69 years in the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study (Maryland, 1999-2000). Valid estimates of participants' total energy expenditure were also available from doubly labeled water, and basal energy expenditure was estimated from an equation; the ratio of those measures estimated true physical activity level ("truth"). We present a measurement error model that accommodates the mixture of errors that arise from assuming a classical measurement error model for doubly labeled water and a Berkson error model for the equation used to estimate basal energy expenditure. The method was then applied to the OPEN Study. Correlations between the questionnaire-based physical activity level and truth were modest (r = 0.32-0.41); attenuation factors (0.43-0.73) indicate that the use of questionnaire-based physical activity level would lead to attenuated estimates of effect size. Results suggest that sample sizes for estimating relationships between physical activity level and disease should be inflated, and that regression calibration can be used to provide measurement error-adjusted estimates of relationships between physical activity and disease.

  14. Does the built environment moderate the relationship between having a disability and lower levels of physical activity? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Yochai; Vanderbom, Kerri A; Vasudevan, Vijay

    2017-02-01

    The relationship between the built environment and physical activity has been well documented. However, little is known about how the built environment affects physical activity among people with disabilities, who have disproportionately higher rates of physical inactivity and obesity. This study is the first systematic review to examine the role of the built environment as a moderator of the relationship between having a disability (physical, sensory or cognitive) and lower levels of physical activity. After conducting an extensive search of the literature published between 1990 and 2015, 2039 articles were screened, 126 were evaluated by abstract and 66 by full text for eligibility in the review. Data were abstracted using a predefined coding guide and synthesized from both qualitative and quantitative studies to examine evidence of moderation. Nine quantitative and six qualitative articles met the inclusion criteria. Results showed that most research to date has been on older adults with physical disabilities. People with disabilities described how aspects of the built environment affect neighborhood walking, suggesting a positive moderating role of features related to safety and aesthetic qualities, such as benches, lighting and stop light timing. There were mixed results among studies that examined the relationship quantitatively. Most of the studies were not designed to appropriately examine moderation. Future research should utilize valid and reliable built environment measures that are more specific to disability and should include people with and without disabilities to allow for testing of moderation of the built environment.

  15. Guide to Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  16. Physical Activity Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  17. The Devon Active Villages Evaluation (DAVE) trial of a community-level physical activity intervention in rural south-west England: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of adults are not meeting the guidelines for physical activity despite activity being linked with numerous improvements to long-term health. In light of this, researchers have called for more community-level interventions. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate whether a community-level physical activity intervention increased the activity levels of rural communities. Methods 128 rural villages (clusters) were randomised to receive the intervention in one of four time periods between April 2011 and December 2012. The Devon Active Villages intervention provided villages with 12 weeks of physical activity opportunities for all age groups, including at least three different types of activities per village. Each village received an individually tailored intervention, incorporating a local needs-led approach. Support was provided for a further 12 months following the intervention. The evaluation study used a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial design. All 128 villages were measured at each of five data collection periods using a postal survey. The primary outcome of interest was the proportion of adults reporting sufficient physical activity to meet internationally recognised guidelines. Minutes spent in moderate-and-vigorous activity per week was analysed as a secondary outcome. To compare between intervention and control modes, random effects linear regression and marginal logistic regression models were implemented for continuous and binary outcomes respectively. Results 10,412 adults (4693 intervention, 5719 control) completed the postal survey (response rate 32.2%). The intervention did not increase the odds of adults meeting the physical activity guideline (adjusted OR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.88 to 1.17; P = 0.80), although there was weak evidence of an increase in minutes of moderate-and-vigorous-intensity activity per week (adjusted mean difference = 171, 95% CI: -16 to 358; P = 0.07). The

  18. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with higher levels of objectively measured sedentary behaviour and lower levels of physical activity than matched healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Hallsworth, Kate; Thoma, Christian; Moore, Sarah; Ploetz, Thomas; Anstee, Quentin M; Taylor, Roy; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael I

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Physical activity is a key determinant of metabolic control and is recommended for people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), usually alongside weight loss and dietary change. To date, no studies have reported the relationship between objectively measured sedentary behaviour and physical activity, liver fat and metabolic control in people with NAFLD, limiting the potential to target sedentary behaviour in clinical practice. This study determined the level of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in people with NAFLD, and investigated links between physical activity, liver fat and glucose control. Methods Sedentary behaviour, physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed in 37 adults with NAFLD using a validated multisensor array over 7 days. Liver fat and glucose control were assessed, respectively, by 1H-MRS and fasting blood samples. Patterns of sedentary behaviour were assessed by power law analyses of the lengths of sedentary bouts fitted from raw sedentary data. An age and sex-matched healthy control group wore the activity monitor for the same time period. Results People with NAFLD spent approximately half an hour extra a day being sedentary (1318±68 vs1289±60 mins/day; p<0.05) and walked 18% fewer steps (8483±2926 vs 10377±3529 steps/day; p<0.01). As a consequence, active energy expenditure was reduced by 40% (432±258 vs 732±345 kcal/day; p<0.01) and total energy expenditure was lower in NAFLD (2690±440 vs 2901±511 kcal/day; p<0.01). Power law analyses of the lengths of sedentary bouts demonstrated that patients with NAFLD also have a lower number of transitions from being sedentary to active compared with controls (13±0.03 vs15±0.03%; p<0.05). Conclusions People with NAFLD spend more time sedentary and undertake less physical activity on a daily basis than healthy controls. High levels of sedentary behaviour and low levels of physical activity represent a therapeutic target that may prevent

  19. Physical Activity Level and Sport Participation in Relation to Musculoskeletal Pain in a Population-Based Study of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Guddal, Maren Hjelle; Stensland, Synne Øien; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Johnsen, Marianne Bakke; Zwart, John-Anker; Storheim, Kjersti

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among adolescents is high, and pain in adolescence increases the risk of chronic pain in adulthood. Studies have shown conflicting evidence regarding associations between physical activity and musculoskeletal pain, and few have evaluated the potential impact of sport participation on musculoskeletal pain in adolescent population samples. Purpose: To examine the associations between physical activity level, sport participation, and musculoskeletal pain in the neck and shoulders, low back, and lower extremities in a population-based sample of adolescents. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence 4. Methods: Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (Young-HUNT3) were used. All 10,464 adolescents in the Nord-Trøndelag county of Norway were invited, of whom 74% participated. Participants were asked how often they had experienced pain, unrelated to any known disease or acute injury, in the neck and shoulders, low back, and lower extremities in the past 3 months. The associations between (1) physical activity level (low [reference], medium or high) or (2) sport participation (weekly compared with no/infrequent participation) and pain were evaluated using logistic regression analyses, stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, socioeconomic status, and psychological distress. Results: The analyses included 7596 adolescents (mean age, 15.8 years; SD, 1.7). Neck and shoulder pain was most prevalent (17%). A moderate level of physical activity was associated with reduced odds of neck and shoulder pain (OR = 0.79 [95% CI, 0.66-0.94]) and low back pain (OR = 0.75 [95% CI, 0.62-0.91]), whereas a high level of activity increased the odds of lower extremity pain (OR = 1.60 [95% CI, 1.29-1.99]). Participation in endurance sports was associated with lower odds of neck and shoulder pain (OR = 0.79 [95% CI, 0.68-0.92]) and low back pain (OR = 0.77 [95% CI, 0.65-0.92]), especially among girls. Participation in technical

  20. [What factors determine the levels of physical activity after cardiac rehabilitation program?].

    PubMed

    Soares, Diogo; Viamonte, Sofia; Magalhães, Sandra; Ribeiro, Maria Miguel; Barreira, Ana; Fernandes, Preza; Torres, Severo

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: Os Programas de Reabilitação Cardíaca ganharam enorme relevância na prevenção de doenças cardiovasculares constituindo um desafio assegurar a prática de exercício físico regular durante e após o fim do programa supervisionado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os fatores que influenciam os hábitos de atividade física 12 meses após um Programa de Reabilitação Cardíaca.Material e Métodos: Estudo prospetivo abrangendo 580 doentes com cardiopatia isquémica consecutivamente orientados para Programas de Reabilitação Cardíaca na Unidade de Reabilitação Cardiovascular do Centro Hospitalar do Porto, entre Janeiro de 2008 e Junho de 2011. Avaliaram-se os níveis de atividade física através do International Physical Activity Questionnaire realizado no início do programa, aos 3 e 12 meses depois. Foram testados como potenciais determinantes dos hábitos de atividade física a longo prazo: idade; sexo; fatores de risco modificáveis; capacidade funcional (alcançada em prova de esforço); análises laboratoriais (HbA1c, perfil lipídico, Proteína C Reativa e Peptideo Natriurético Cerebral). Realizou-se análise de regressão linear para identificar os preditores significativos e encontrar o melhor ajuste do modelo.Resultados: A idade avançada, género feminino, a capacidade funcional, níveis de atividade física baixos previamente ao Programa de Reabilitação Cardíaca e uma fraca evolução do International Physical Activity Questionnaire durante o programa foram os melhores preditores univariáveis de uma evolução menos favorável do International Physical Activity Questionnaire nos 12 meses de follow-up. A análise de regressão linear multivariável concluiu que o melhor modelo explicativo incluía: idade, género, evolução do IPAQ no programa (R2 ajust = 0,318; f = 60,62; p < 0,001).Conclusão: A identificação de subgrupos de doentes com menor tendência à prática de atividade física permite desenvolver estrat

  1. Associations between sports participation, levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in childrenand adolescents.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gustavo; Andersen, Lars Bo; Aires, Luisa; Mota, Jorge; Oliveira, Jose; Ribeiro, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the associations between sports participation, levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The study comprised 310 participants (183 girls and 127 boys) aged 11-18 years. Sports participation was assessed by questionnaire and habitual physical activity (PA) was measured objectively with accelerometers. The 20-m shuttle-run test was used to estimate CRF. Logistic regression analyses were carried out with CRF as the outcome. The odds ratio (OR) for being fit was greater for those who comply with 60 min · day(-1) in MVPA (OR = 2.612; 95%confidence interval [CI] = 1.614-4.225) in comparison with those who do not. Participation in competitive sports at club levels increased the chances of being fit (OR = 13.483; 95%CI = 4.560-39.864), independently of MVPA levels. There were positive and significant trends in CRF and objectively measured PA across the levels of engagement in competitive sports (P < 0.05). Concluding, participation in competitive sports at club level is more effective than other organised or non-organised sports to reach healthier levels of CRF and recommend levels of MVPA.

  2. Prospective associations among cereal intake in childhood and adiposity, lipid levels, and physical activity during late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Ann M; Thompson, Douglas; Franko, Debra L; Holschuh, Norton M; Bauserman, Robert; Barton, Bruce A

    2009-10-01

    Cereal consumption is a common dietary behavior that has been associated with positive health outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine prospective associations between cereal intake in childhood and percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, lipid levels, and physical activity during late adolescence. In this longitudinal investigation (data collected 1987-1997), data were analyzed for the 2,379 girls who participated in the 10-year National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. The cumulative percent of days that each girl consumed cereal during childhood (based on 3-day food diaries collected during six study visits between ages 11.5 and 18.6 years) was examined in relation to percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, lipid levels, and physical activity measured at age 18.6 years. Results indicated that nearly all girls (90.1%) reported eating cereal and 18.7% reported eating cereal on half or more of the days reported in the food diaries. Girls who ate cereal on a greater percentage of days during childhood had lower percent body fat and total cholesterol, and were more likely to exhibit high levels of physical activity and less television viewing during Study Year 10 (P values<0.05). Further research should explore lifestyle issues related to cereal consumption.

  3. Influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Varella, Larissa Ramalho Dantas; Torres, Vanessa Braga; Angelo, Priscylla Helouyse Melo; Eugênia de Oliveira, Maria Clara; Matias de Barros, Alef Cavalcanti; Viana, Elizabel de Souza Ramalho; Micussi, Maria Thereza de Albuquerque Barbosa Cabral

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women. [Subjects and Methods] This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study with a sample of 100 postmenopausal women, aged between 45 and 65 years, divided into three groups according to menopausal stage: hysterectomized and early and late postmenopause. Patients were assessed for sociodemographic and gyneco-obstetric factors and subjected to a muscle strength test and perineometry. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and multiple regression were applied. [Results] The results showed homogeneity in sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics. There was no difference in pelvic floor muscle function among the three groups. Type of delivery, parity and physical activity level showed no influence on muscle function. [Conclusion] The findings demonstrate that parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level had no influence on pelvic floor muscle pressure in postmenopausal women. One hypothesis to explain these results is the fact that the decline in muscle function in postmenopausal women is related to the female aging process. PMID:27134366

  4. Physical Activity, Energy Expenditure, Nutritional Habits, Quality of Sleep and Stress Levels in Shift-Working Health Care Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Lena Johanna; Gärtner, Simone; Hannich, Hans Joachim; Steveling, Antje; Lerch, Markus M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Among health care personnel working regular hours or rotating shifts can affect parameters of general health and nutrition. We have investigated physical activity, sleep quality, metabolic activity and stress levels in health care workers from both groups. Methods We prospectively recruited 46 volunteer participants from the workforce of a University Medical Department of which 23 worked in rotating shifts (all nursing) and 21 non-shift regular hours (10 nursing, 13 clerical staff). All were investigated over 7 days by multisensory accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia® armband) and kept a detailed food diary. Physical activity and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured in metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Quality of sleep was assessed as Pittsburgh Sleeping Quality Index and stress load using the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress questionnaire (TICS). Results No significant differences were found for overall physical activity, steps per minute, time of exceeding the 3 METs level or sleep quality. A significant difference for physical activity during working hours was found between shift-workers vs. non-shift-workers (p<0.01) and for shift-working nurses (median = 2.1 METs SE = 0.1) vs. non-shift-working clerical personnel (median = 1.5 METs SE = 0.07, p<0.05). Non-shift-working nurses had a significantly lower REE than the other groups (p<0.05). The proportion of fat in the diet was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the office worker group (median = 42% SE = 1.2) whereas shift-working nurses consumed significantly more carbohydrates (median = 46% SE = 1.4) than clerical staff (median = 41% SE = 1.7). Stress assessment by TICS confirmed a significantly higher level of social overload in the shift working group (p<0.05). Conclusion In this prospective cohort study shift-working had no influence on overall physical activity. Lower physical activity during working hours appears to be compensated for during off-hours. Differences in nutritional

  5. Developing the intervention material to increase physical activity levels of European preschool children: the ToyBox-study.

    PubMed

    Duvinage, K; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; Androutsos, O; Lateva, M; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Zych, K; Mouratidou, T; Mesana Graffe, M I; Manios, Y; Koletzko, B

    2014-08-01

    Early childhood is an important period for adopting positive health-related behaviours. More than 95% of European preschool children attend kindergartens, making these settings ideal for the implementation of health promotion interventions. The ToyBox-intervention addressed preschool children, their parents/caregivers and teachers. The aim of the intervention was to improve four energy balance-related behaviours (i.e. healthy snacking, water consumption, physical activity and sedentary behaviour) by implementing a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain). The intervention material was developed following the intervention mapping protocol, taking into account local and cultural differences among the intervention countries. The present paper focuses on the development of the physical activity component of the intervention. Parental involvement was addressed by providing parents/caregivers with two newsletters, two tip cards and a poster. Teachers received a handbook with guidance on environmental changes in the classroom, 26 physical education sessions and suggestions for fun, interactive classroom activities aiming at total class participation to increase preschoolers' physical activity levels. The ToyBox-intervention material was distributed according to a standard time frame. Teachers received their material prior to the start of the intervention and parents/caregivers received their material during the intervention when each energy balance-related behaviour was implemented.

  6. Students' objectively measured physical activity levels and engagement as a function of between-class and between-student differences in motivation toward physical education.

    PubMed

    Aelterman, Nathalie; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van Keer, Hilde; Van den Berghe, Lynn; De Meyer, Jotie; Haerens, Leen

    2012-08-01

    Despite evidence for the utility of self-determination theory in physical education, few studies used objective indicators of physical activity and mapped out between-class, relative to between-student, differences in physical activity. This study investigated whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and rated collective engagement in physical education were associated with autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation at the between-class and between-student levels. Participants were 739 pupils (46.3% boys, Mage = 14.36 ±1.94) from 46 secondary school classes in Flanders (Belgium). Multilevel analyses indicated that 37% and 63% of the variance in MVPA was explained by between-student and between-class differences, respectively. Students' personal autonomous motivation related positively to MVPA. Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement. Average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement. The findings are discussed in light of self-determination theory's emphasis on quality of motivation.

  7. Gender and School-Level Differences in Students' Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity Levels When Taught Basketball through the Tactical Games Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Stephen; Smith, Megan L.; Song, Yang; Robertson, David; Brown, Renee; Smith, Lindsey R.

    2016-01-01

    The Tactical Games Model (TGM) prefaces the cognitive components of physical education (PE), which has implications for physical activity (PA) accumulation. PA recommendations suggest students reach 50% moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). However, this criterion does not indicate the contribution from vigorous physical activity (VPA).…

  8. Using Interviews and Peer Pairs to Better Understand How School Environments Affect Young Children's Playground Physical Activity Levels: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Anne-Maree; Yeatman, Heather; Iverson, Don; Russell, Ken

    2012-01-01

    School break times provide a daily opportunity for children to be active; however, research indicates this time is underutilized. Reasons for low children's playground activity levels have primarily focused on physical barriers. This research aimed to contribute to physical environmental findings affecting children's playground physical activity…

  9. Multi-level Discourse Analysis in a Physics Teaching Methods Course from the Psychological Perspective of Activity Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumond Vieira, Rodrigo; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we present and apply a multi-level method for discourse analysis in science classrooms. This method is based on the structure of human activity (activity, actions, and operations) and it was applied to study a pre-service physics teacher methods course. We argue that such an approach, based on a cultural psychological perspective, affords opportunities for analysts to perform a theoretically based detailed analysis of discourse events. Along with the presentation of analysis, we show and discuss how the articulation of different levels offers interpretative criteria for analyzing instructional conversations. We synthesize the results into a model for a teacher's practice and discuss the implications and possibilities of this approach for the field of discourse analysis in science classrooms. Finally, we reflect on how the development of teachers' understanding of their activity structures can contribute to forms of progressive discourse of science education.

  10. Mediating Effects of Self-Efficacy, Benefits and Barriers on the Association between Peer and Parental Factors and Physical Activity among Adolescent Girls with a Lower Educational Level

    PubMed Central

    Cardon, Greet; De Craemer, Marieke; D’Haese, Sara; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of physical activity among lower educated adolescent girls is low, suggesting it is important to have insights into the complex processes that may underlie their physical activity levels. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the mediating effects of self-efficacy, perceived benefits and barriers on the associations between peer and parental variables and physical activity among lower educated adolescent girls. Methods In total, 226 girls (mean age 16.0±1.0 years; 53% technical education; 47% vocational education) from a convenience sample of 6 secondary schools in Flanders, Belgium, completed a questionnaire on their total physical activity level and related peer and parental variables (i.e. modeling of physical activity, co-participation in physical activities and encouragement to be active) and personal variables (i.e. self-efficacy to be active, and specific perceived benefits of physical activity and specific barriers to be active). Mediating effects were tested using MacKinnon’s product-of-coefficients test based on multilevel linear regression analyses. Results Higher peer and parental modeling, co-participation and encouragement were significantly related to a higher physical activity level among adolescent girls (p<0.05). Self-efficacy, the perceived benefits of having fun, being around friends or meeting new people, and not being bored and the perceived barrier of not liking physical activity mediated several associations between peer and parental variables and girls’ physical activity, with some of the mediated proportions exceeding 60%. Conclusions This study contributed to a better understanding of the complexity of how parental and peer factors work together with personal factors to influence the physical activity levels of adolescent girls with a lower educational level. Interventions should involve both peers and parents, as they may influence girls’ physical activity both directly and indirectly through the

  11. Physical Activity Levels in Chinese One-Year-Old Children and Their Parents, an Early STOPP China Study

    PubMed Central

    Hagströmer, Maria; Xiong, Yuelin; Zhang, Lanlan; Zhang, Jianduan; Marcus, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is associated with health benefits, already in childhood. However, little is known about actual levels, patterns and gender differences in PA level in very young children. This study examines Chinese one-year-old children and their parents’ PA levels and patterns, and assesses the correlations between children’s PA level and gender, body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS), parental BMI and parental PA level. Methods Data from 123 families participating in the Early STOPP China study were used. Families were recruited based on parental BMI and were classified as either high-risk or low-risk of obesity. Parents and children wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ to assess the average PA levels. PA levels and hourly patterns during weekdays and weekends were examined as were correlations with gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI and parental PA levels. Results There were no significant differences in children’s averaged PA between risk groups, genders, or between weekdays and weekends. Children’s peak average activity level was at 7 pm and they were least active at 3 pm (p<0.001). Both mothers and fathers demonstrated a similar PA pattern as their children, although paternal PA level was consistently lower than that of mothers and children. No significant association was found between children’s PA and their gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA levels. Maternal PA was found positively associated with child PA (p<0.05). Conclusion PA in one-year-old Chinese children vary over the day but weekdays and weekends are similar. At this age, children’s PA is not related to gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA. Larger scale studies with more contextual information are needed to improve the understanding of our findings. PMID:27078684

  12. Comparison and Comparability: Fitness Tracking between Youths with Different Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Wenhao; Nichols, Randall A.; Zillifro, Traci D.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared a three-year tracking of health-related physical fitness between two comparable samples of six graders that enrolled either in a PE4life middle school ("n"?=?154) or another school with a traditional PE program ("n?"=?93) in the United States. For the cohort, the FITNESSGRAM[TM] (Cooper Institute for…

  13. Meeting U.S. Healthy People 2010 Levels of Physical Activity: Agreement of 2 Measures across 2 years

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, Rod K.; Rooks, Cherie R.; Thom, Nathaniel J.; Motl, Robert W.; Nigg, Claudio R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Measuring the way people vary across time in meeting recommended levels of physical activity should be a fundamental component of public health surveillance. However, we were unaware of prospective cohort studies that had examined this in a population base using convergent measures. Purpose We examined agreement between two validated measures used to estimate periodic change in the rate of meeting U.S. Healthy People 2010 guidelines for participation in moderate or vigorous physical activity. Methods A cohort (N=497) from a random, multi-ethnic sample of adults living in Hawaii was assessed every 6-months for 2 years starting spring 2004. Latent transition analysis classified people as meeting or not meeting the guidelines. Intra-class kappa statistics and multinomial logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate agreement. Results Agreement for classifying stable classes of people who met or did not meet the guideline each time was substantial for vigorous activity (kappa ∼ .65 - .70) but fair-to-moderate for moderate activity (kappa ∼ .38 - .48). Agreement was poorer for classifying people who transitioned between meeting and not meeting the vigorous guideline (kappa ∼ .45) or the moderate guideline (kappa ∼ .21 - .29). Conclusion Rates of meeting the guidelines varied across time and were estimated differently by the two measures, especially for moderate activity. This illustrates an understudied problem for public health promotion. Accurate classification of change within people is necessary for determining exposure in outcome studies, personal determinants of sufficient activity, and for evaluating whether interventions are successful in sustaining increases in rates of meeting physical activity guidelines. PMID:20538194

  14. Differences in Perceived Competence and Physical Activity Levels during Single-Gender Modified Basketball Game Play in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slingerland, Menno; Haerens, Leen; Cardon, Greet; Borghouts, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Creating environments in physical education (PE) that foster perceived competence and physical activity during gender-mixed game play lessons is a challenge, especially with adolescent girls. This study is a small experiment in one PE lesson that aimed to increase the perceived competence and in-class physical activity in girls, by applying a…

  15. Physical activity is related to lower levels of pain, fatigue, and depression in individuals with spinal cord injury: A correlational study

    PubMed Central

    Tawashy, A; Eng, JJ; Lin, KH; Tang, PF; Hung, C

    2011-01-01

    Study Design This was a prospective cross-sectional study for people with chronic SCI. Objectives To (1) evaluate the intensity level and nature of physical activity in community-dwelling individuals living with SCI, and (2) explore the relation between descriptive individual variables (e.g. lesion level), secondary complications, and participation in physical activity. Setting Urban community setting Methods Forty-nine subjects with SCI who used a manual wheelchair for primary mode of mobility (mean years since injury, 11.8; mean age, 43.7 years; 67% paraplegia) completed the physical activity recall assessment for people with spinal cord injury (PARA-SCI). Results Approximately 50% of reported physical activity among individuals with SCI is due to activities of daily living. The amount of physical activity was not related to lesion level, age, BMI, or waistline size. Greater heavy intensity activity was related to lower levels of pain and fatigue and higher levels of self efficacy while higher amounts of mild intensity activity and total activity were related to less depressive symptoms. Conclusions Activities of daily living are a large component for physical activity among individuals with SCI. It appears that greater physical activity is associated with less secondary complications (pain, fatigue and depression) in individuals with SCI. PMID:18936771

  16. Association of physical activity and IL-10 levels 20 years after sulfur mustard exposure: Sardasht-Iran cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ghazanfari, Zeinab; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Kermani-Jalilvand, Arezou; Yaraee, Roya; Vaez-Mahdavi, Mohammad R; Foroutan, Abbas; Araghizadeh, Hassan; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Moaiedmohseni, Sakine; Soroush, Mohammad R; Naghizadeh, Mohammad M; Hassan, Zuhair M

    2009-12-01

    IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that is important in the regulation of inflammatory processes in different conditions. Sulfur mustard (SM) intoxicated patients are suffering from different inflammatory diseases in their lung, skin and eyes. Physical activity (PA) is reported to control inflammation by reducing pro-inflammatory and inducing anti-inflammatory cytokines. Our previous study revealed lower PA and more sedentary lifestyle among SM exposed population. This study aimed to determine the relationship of PA with IL-10 production in SM exposed subjects. Baseline, mitogen-induced and the serum levels of IL-10 were evaluated. In a historical cohort study, Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS), 372 SM exposed participants were studied 20 years after exposure and were compared with 128 unexposed control participants. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ; developed by WHO) was used to obtain a self-reported measure of physical activity. Whole blood culture supernatants and serum samples were used for IL-10 measurement by ELISA technique. In both the control and exposed groups mitogen-induced IL-10 production was significantly elevated with severity of PA intensity (p<0.05). In the control subjects with moderate PA intensity, the mitogen-induced IL-10 production was higher than the corresponding in the exposed group (p<0.05). In the exposed group, mitogen-induced IL-10 production had significant positive correlation with total PA, total transport PA, total recreational PA and total moderate intensity work (p<0.05). The positive relationship between high PA and the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 indicates a need to encourage a more active lifestyle among the SM exposed subjects who have various inflammatory complications.

  17. Frequent hard physical activity lowered serum beta-carotene level in a population study of a rural city of Japan.

    PubMed

    Takatsuka, N; Kawakami, N; Ohwaki, A; Ito, Y; Matsushita, Y; Ido, M; Shimizu, H

    1995-07-01

    To determine the effect of physical activity on serum beta-carotene, we analyzed data about life styles including 3-day food records and blood samples collected from 57 men and 74 women in a rural city of Japan. Physical activity was asked as mean frequency of hard physical activities per week last year. A declining trend in serum beta-carotene was observed with increasing frequency of hard physical activities in men. In multiple regression analyses, the frequency of hard physical activities showed a negative partial correlation coefficient (r = -0.38, p = 0.007) with serum beta-carotene in men when controlled by age, BMI (body mass index), dietary factors (carotene intake, alcohol consumption and vitamin supplements use), smoking status, serum total cholesterol and serum triglycerides. These results suggest that frequent hard physical activity decreases serum beta-carotene especially in men.

  18. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  19. Parental education and living environmental influence on physical development, nutritional habits as well as level of physical activity in Polish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Suliga, Edyta

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the physical development and nutritional status, the nutrition habits as well as level of physical activity of boys and girls in relation to the socio-economic status of their families. The study was conducted on a group of 529 boys and 535 girls aged 7-16 years from Swietokrzyskie Province in Poland. Boys and girls from high SES families had the greatest body height, BMI, upper arm muscle area, as well as upper arm fat tissue area, while the lowest values of these features occurred among those studied coming from families of a low SES. The higher the family SES, the higher habitual frequency of consuming vegetables and fruit as well as fish. The diet of children coming from higher SES families was also linked with a higher total protein content as well as animal protein, all analysed minerals and some vitamins, but there were no significant differences of energetic value in daily food rations as well as fat content. The longer time spent on some sedentary activities was connected with a higher family SES. The girls coming from a high status families also declared a higher level of physical activity, whereas such relationship was not observed among boys. A more rational set of nutritional habits observed among children from a higher SES families can be the basic reason for their higher advancement in development. A shorter time devoted to sedentary activities is assumed to be the main cause of a smaller relative body mass and less obesity among girls and boys from low SES families.

  20. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  1. The physical activity levels among people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome receiving high active antiretroviral therapy in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Frantz, J.M.; Murenzi, A.

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility of high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for local human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients is improving in Rwanda. It is well known that this therapy is associated with serious adverse effects, such as metabolic and morphologic changes. One of the recommended preventive modalities for these complications is participation in physical activity. The current study aims to determine the anthropometric profile and physical activity levels among people living with HIV and receiving HAART in Kigali, Rwanda. The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive quantitative survey. The participant's levels of physical activity participation and their association with anthropometric profiles were measured, using a structured self-administered questionnaire for 407 clients passing through the clinics. Of the participants, approximately 70% were inactive and in addition, 40% were obese and 43% overweight. Obesity was found to be strongly associated with inactivity. Lack of motivation, and time as well as fear of worsening the disease were found to be barriers to participation in physical activity. PMID:24521093

  2. [Health status and physical activity levels among the elderly who are participants and non-participants in social welfare groups in Florianópolis].

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo; Mazo, Giovana Zarpellon; Borges, Lucélia Justino

    2012-08-01

    This study sought to verify the association between health status and physical activity levels among the elderly who are participants and non-participants in social welfare groups in Florianópolis in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The sample included 1,062 elderly people (625 women), mean age 71.9 (± 7.6). The variables analyzed were gender, age, schooling, marital status, physical activity levels (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) and physical health status information (Brazil Elderly Schedule Questionnaire). Data were analyzed by Chi-square test. The results revealed that 60.6% were classified as physically active (total physical activity level) and 74% of the elderly reported illness. Illness status was more prevalent among social welfare group participants than non-participants. However, a better positive perception of physical health status was observed among social groups participants. For women, participation in social welfare groups was associated with a positive perception of physical health status (p<0.001) and with illness (p=0.005). The conclusion was that participation in social welfare groups contributes to a better perception of physical health status, as well as for the maintenance of adequate physical activity levels.

  3. Travel to School and Physical Activity Levels in 9–10 Year-Old UK Children of Different Ethnic Origin; Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE)

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Christopher G.; Nightingale, Claire M.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Ekelund, Ulf; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Travel to school may offer a convenient way to increase physical activity levels in childhood. We examined the association between method of travel to school and physical activity levels in urban multi-ethnic children. Methods and Findings 2035 children (aged 9–10 years in 2006–7) provided data on their usual method of travel to school and wore an Actigraph-GT1M activity monitor during waking hours. Associations between method of travel and mean level of physical activity (counts per minute [CPM], steps, time spent in light, moderate or vigorous activity per day) were examined in models adjusted for confounding variables. 1393 children (69%) walked or cycled to school; 161 (8%) used public transport and 481 (24%) travelled by car. White European children were more likely to walk/cycle, black African Caribbeans to travel by public transport and South Asian children to travel by car. Children travelling by car spent less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity (−7 mins, 95%CI-9,-5), and had lower CPM (−32 CPM, 95%CI-44,-19) and steps per day (−813 steps, 95%CI,-1043,-582) than walkers/cyclists. Pupils travelling by public transport had similar activity levels to walkers/cyclists. Lower physical activity levels amongst car travellers' were especially marked at travelling times (school days between 8–9 am, 3–5 pm), but were also evident on weekdays at other times and at weekends; they did not differ by gender or ethnic group. Conclusion Active travel to school is associated with higher levels of objectively measured physical activity, particularly during periods of travel but also at other times. If children travelling by car were to achieve physical activity levels (steps) similar to children using active travel, they would increase their physical activity levels by 9%. However, the population increase would be a modest 2%, because of the low proportion of car travellers in this urban population. PMID:22319596

  4. A 12-Week Exercise Program for Pregnant Women with Obesity to Improve Physical Activity Levels: An Open Randomised Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Alméras, Natalie; Dufresne, Sébastien S.; Robitaille, Julie; Rhéaume, Caroline; Bujold, Emmanuel; Frenette, Jérôme; Tremblay, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a 12-week supervised exercise program promotes an active lifestyle throughout pregnancy in pregnant women with obesity. Methods In this preliminary randomised trial, pregnant women (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) were allocated to either standard care or supervised training, from 15 to 27 weeks of gestation. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry at 14, 28 and 36 weeks, while fitness (oxygen consumption (VO2) at the anaerobic threshold), nutrition (caloric intake and macronutrients percentage) and anthropometry were assessed at 14 and 28 weeks of gestation. Analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results A total of fifty (50) women were randomised, 25 in each group. There was no time-group interaction for time spent at moderate and vigorous activity (pinteraction = 0.064), but the exercise group’s levels were higher than controls’ at all times (pgroup effect = 0.014). A significant time-group interaction was found for daily physical activity (p = 0.023); similar at baseline ((22.0 ± 6.7 vs 21.8 ± 7.3) x 104 counts/day) the exercise group had higher levels than the control group following the intervention ((22.8 ± 8.3 vs 19.2 ± 4.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.020) and at 36 weeks of gestation ((19.2 ± 1.5 vs 14.9 ± 1.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.034). Exercisers also gained less weight than controls during the intervention period despite similar nutritional intakes (difference in weight change = -0.1 kg/week, 95% CI -0.2; -0.02, p = 0.016) and improved cardiorespiratory fitness (difference in fitness change = 8.1%, 95% CI 0.7; 9.5, p = 0.041). Conclusions Compared with standard care, a supervised exercise program allows pregnant women with obesity to maintain fitness, limit weight gain and attenuate the decrease in physical activity levels observed in late pregnancy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01610323 PMID:26375471

  5. Physical activity levels, sport activities, and risk of acute myocardial infarction: results of the INTERHEART study in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaoru; Li, Wei; Guo, Jin; Wang, Yang; Gu, Hongqiu; Teo, Koon; Liu, Lisheng; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-02-01

    Physical activity (PA) during leisure time has been inversely associated with cardiovascular disease risk in the Western populations. We evaluated PA at work and leisure time in relation to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Chinese population. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study. The cases had first AMI (n = 2909). The controls (n = 2947) were matched to the cases in age and sex. The odds ratios (ORs) of leisure-time PA for strenuous exercise compared to mainly sedentary was 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.61-0.90) and for moderate exercise it was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.85-1.08). Multivariate adjustment did not substantially alter the association. The ORs of work-related PA for heavy PA compared to mainly sedentary was 1.44 (95% CI: 1.06-1.94), for climbing and lifting was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.77-.30), and for walking was 0.90 (95%CI: 0.75-1.07). Leisure-time PA was protective for AMI risk compared to sedentary lifestyles in a population in China.

  6. Shift workers have similar leisure-time physical activity levels as day workers but are more sedentary at work.

    PubMed

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Gupta, Nidhi; Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-03-01

    Objective Physical inactivity has been hypothesized as an underlying factor for the association between shift work and adverse health outcomes. We compared leisure-time and occupational physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Methods We identified 612 day workers, 139 night shift workers and 61 non-night shift workers aged 18-65 years (54% men) in two Danish studies: the New method for Objective Measurements of physical Activity in Daily living (NOMAD) and the Danish Physical ACTivity cohort with Objective measurements (DPhacto) between 2011-2013. Sedentary behavior, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured using an accelerometer. Physical activity was expressed as percentage of leisure and work time spent in each activity. Linear regression analyses were used to test differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Results No differences in leisure-time sedentary behavior and physical activity were observed between day and shift workers (P>0.05). Non-night shift workers spent 7.2% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.3-12.1) more time in occupational sedentary behavior than day workers and 5.9% (95% CI -10.1- -1.7) and 1.9% (95% CI -3.7- -0.2) less time in occupational light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, respectively. Compared to day workers, night shift workers spent 4.3% (95% CI 2.4-6.1) more time at work in uninterrupted sedentary periods of ≥30 minutes. Conclusions Shift workers had similar leisure-time physical activity patterns as day workers, but were more sedentary at work. Future research should elucidate whether occupational physical inactivity and sedentary behavior contributes to shift work-related adverse health effects.

  7. Construct Validity Evidence for Single-Response Items to Estimate Physical Activity Levels in Large Sample Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Bowles, Heather R.; FitzGerald, Shannon J.; Blair, Steven N.

    2007-01-01

    Valid measurement of physical activity is important for studying the risks for morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine evidence of construct validity of two similar single-response items assessing physical activity via self-report. Both items are based on the stages of change model. The sample was 687 participants (men =…

  8. Fasting ghrelin levels in physically active women: relationship with menstrual disturbances and metabolic hormones.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Mary Jane; Leidy, Heather J; O'Donnell, Emma; Lasley, Bill; Williams, Nancy I

    2004-07-01

    Recent findings support a role for ghrelin in the regulation of energy homeostasis and possibly reproductive function. The primary purpose of this study was to test whether differences in fasting ghrelin levels exist in exercising women with differing menstrual and metabolic status. Menstrual cycle status was defined as sedentary ovulatory (SedOvul; n = 10, cycles = 26), exercising ovulatory (ExOvul; n = 11, cycles = 22), exercising luteal phase defect/anovulatory (ExLPD/Anov; n = 11, cycle = 27), and exercising amenorrheic (ExAmen; n = 8, cycle = 16). Subjects were 27.7 +/- 1.2 yr of age, weighed 60.2 +/- 3.3 kg, and had menstrual cycle lengths of 28.4 +/- 0.9 d. Blood was collected during the follicular phase (d 2-9) of each menstrual cycle and analyzed for total ghrelin, insulin, total T(3), and leptin. Ghrelin was significantly elevated by approximately 85% in the ExAmen category (725.5 +/- 40.8 pmol/liter) when compared with all other categories (P < 0.001; SedOvul = 393.6 +/- 32.0 pmol/liter, ExOvul = 418.9 +/- 34.8 pmol/liter, and ExLPD/Anov = 381.1 +/- 314 pmol/liter). Leptin levels were lower in all groups vs. SedOvul (P < 0.001). Insulin was lower in both the ExLPD/Anov and ExAmen categories vs. SedOvul and ExOvul (P < 0.018), and total T(3) was lower in ExAmen compared with all other groups (P < 0.001), with concentrations in ExLPD/Anov and ExOvul exceeding those in SedOvul (P < 0.05). These data clearly indicate a metabolic hormonal profile consistent with chronic energy deficiency in exercising women across a range in menstrual status and introduces ghrelin as a potential supplementary indicator that uniquely discriminates amenorrheic athletes from athletes with other menstrual disturbances.

  9. Between-school variation in physical activity, aerobic fitness, and organized sports participation: a multi-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Peter L; Olesen, Line G; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Grøntved, Anders; Wedderkopp, Niels; Froberg, Karsten; Andersen, Lars B

    2013-01-01

    A large proportion of a child's day is spent at school interacting with certain physical surroundings, teachers, and school friends. Thus, schools could have a marked impact on establishing physical activity habits. The aim of the present study was to assess between-school variation in physical activity, aerobic fitness, and organized sports participation. Altogether, we tested 1766 nine- and fifteen-year-old children attending 242 school classes at 35 different schools in Denmark in 1997-2003. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for objectively assessed physical activity ranged between 0.06 and 0.18 depending on the dimension of physical activity and the time considered (i.e. school time vs. leisure time). For aerobic fitness, an ICC of 0.10 was observed, whereas that for organized sports participation ranged between 0.01 and 0.10 depending on the age group. Studying between-school variation in physical activity provides information about the extent to which children adjust their physical activity habits according to the social and environmental circumstances that they share, and helps to plan future school-based physical activity studies, especially in terms of sample size and power calculation.

  10. Physical Activity Assessments for Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fittipaldi-Wert, Jeanine; Brock, Sheri J.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity is important in maintaining and improving overall health for all. Students with disabilities tend to have lower fitness levels due to the lack of participation in physical activities, therefore, progressions and modifications to physical activities are needed. Assessing the physical activity levels of students with disabilities…

  11. Aggression, physical activity levels and sex role identity in teenagers exposed in utero to MPA.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, B; Shye, D; Harlap, S; Baras, M; Lieblich, A

    1989-09-01

    Sex-dimorphic traits and behavior were measured in a 17-year old prospective study of 74 teenager boys and 98 girls who had been exposed to medroxyprogesterone acetate in utero compared with 459 boys and 546 girls not exposed. Bem Sex Role Identity scores were identical in exposed and non-exposed teenagers of each sex. There were no significant differences between MPA-exposed and non-exposed males or females on the Buss-Durkee overall aggression scale and on its assaultiveness subscale. Mothers of exposed males more often reported that teachers had complained that their offspring were naughty in school. No such difference was reported for females, nor for other school behaviors of dominance/aggression, activity, shyness and quietness. Exposed and non-exposed children were similar in the number of accidents experienced in childhood, as reported by their mothers, and in participation in competitive sports. These findings fail to support hypotheses posed by earlier researchers that exposure in utero to medroxyprogesterone acetate might alter sex-dimorphic behavior or traits in later life.

  12. Does chronic physical activity level modify the airway inflammatory response to an acute bout of exercise in the postprandial period?

    PubMed

    Kurti, Stephanie P; Rosenkranz, Sara K; Chapes, Stephen K; Teeman, Colby S; Cull, Brooke J; Emerson, Sam R; Levitt, Morton H; Smith, Joshua R; Harms, Craig A

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that a single high-fat meal (HFM) leads to increased airway inflammation. However, exercise is a natural anti-inflammatory and may modify postprandial airway inflammation. The postprandial airway inflammatory response is likely to be modified by chronic physical activity (PA) level. This study investigated whether chronic PA modifies the airway inflammatory response to an acute bout of exercise in the postprandial period in both insufficiently active and active subjects. Thirty-nine nonasthmatic subjects (20 active, 13 males/7 females) who exceeded PA guidelines (≥150 min moderate-vigorous PA/week) and 19 insufficiently active (6 males/13 females) underwent an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion to determine peak oxygen uptake. Subjects were then randomized to a condition (COND), either remaining sedentary (CON) or exercising (EX) post-HFM. Exercise was performed at the heart rate corresponding to 60% peak oxygen uptake on a treadmill for 1 h post-HFM (63% fat, 10 kcal/kg body weight). Blood lipids and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO: marker of airway inflammation) were measured at baseline and 2 h and 4 h post-HFM. Sputum differential cell counts were performed at baseline and 4 h post-HFM. The mean eNO response for all groups increased at 2 h post-HFM (∼6%) and returned to baseline by 4 h (p = 0.03). There was a time × COND interaction (p = 0.04), where EX had a greater eNO response at 4 h compared with CON. Sputum neutrophils increased at 4 h post-HFM (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that airway inflammation occurs after an HFM when exercise is performed in the postprandial period, regardless of habitual activity level.

  13. Association between physical activity levels and physiological factors underlying mobility in young, middle-aged and older individuals living in a city district.

    PubMed

    Laudani, Luca; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Sawacha, Zimi; della Croce, Ugo; Cereatti, Andrea; Macaluso, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining adequate levels of physical activity is known to preserve health status and functional independence as individuals grow older. However, the relationship between determinants of physical activity (volume and intensity) and physiological factors underlying mobility (cardio-respiratory fitness, neuromuscular function and functional abilities) is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between objectively quantified physical activity and a spectrum of physiological factors underlying mobility in young, middle-aged and older individuals living in a city district. Experiments were carried out on 24 young (28 ± 2 years), 24 middle-aged (48 ± 2 years) and 24 older (70 ± 3 years) gender-matched volunteers. Physical activity was monitored by a wearable activity monitor to quantify volume and intensity of overall physical activity and selected habitual activities over 24 hours. Ventilatory threshold was assessed during an incremental cycling test. Torque, muscle fiber conduction velocity and agonist-antagonist coactivation were measured during maximal voluntary contraction of knee extensors and flexors. Ground reaction forces were measured during sit-to-stand and counter-movement jump. K-means cluster analysis was used to classify the participants' physical activity levels based on parameters of volume and intensity. Two clusters of physical activity volume (i.e., high and low volume) and three clusters of physical activity intensity (i.e. high, medium and low intensity) were identified in all participants. Cardio-respiratory fitness was associated with volume of overall physical activity as well as lying, sitting, standing, walking and stair climbing. On the other hand, neuromuscular function and functional abilities showed a significant association with intensity of overall physical activity as well as postural transition, walking and stair climbing. As a practical application, the relative role played by volume and intensity

  14. Effect of physical activity level on biomarkers of inflammation and insulin resistance over 5 years in outpatients with coronary heart disease (from the Heart and Soul Study).

    PubMed

    Jarvie, Jennifer L; Whooley, Mary A; Regan, Mathilda C; Sin, Nancy L; Cohen, Beth E

    2014-10-15

    Higher levels of physical activity are associated with lower rates of coronary heart disease (CHD). Previous studies have suggested that this is due partly to lower levels of inflammation and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine whether physical activity level was associated with inflammation or insulin resistance during a 5-year period in outpatients with known CHD. A total of 656 participants from the Heart and Soul Study, a prospective cohort study of outpatients with documented CHD, were evaluated. Self-reported physical activity frequency was assessed at baseline and after 5 years of follow-up. Participants were classified as low versus high activity at each visit, yielding 4 physical activity groups: stable low activity, decreasing activity (high at baseline to low at year 5), increasing activity (low at baseline to high at year 5), and stable high activity. Year 5 markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin-6, and fibrinogen) and insulin resistance (insulin, glucose, and glycated hemoglobin) were compared across the 4 activity groups. After 5 years of follow-up, higher activity was associated with lower mean levels of all biomarkers. In the fully adjusted regression models, CRP, interleukin-6, and glucose remained independently associated with physical activity frequency (log CRP, p for trend across activity groups = 0.03; log interleukin-6, p for trend = 0.01; log glucose, p for trend = 0.003). Subjects with stable high activity typically had the lowest levels of biomarkers. In conclusion, in this novel population of outpatients with known CHD followed for 5 years, higher physical activity frequency was independently associated with lower levels of CRP, interleukin-6, and glucose.

  15. Intervention effects on physical activity and insulin levels in men of Pakistani origin living in Oslo: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Eivind; Høstmark, Arne T; Holme, Ingar; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2013-02-01

    High prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is seen in some immigrant groups in Western countries, particularly in those from the Indian subcontinent. Our aims were to increase the physical activity (PA) level in a group of Pakistani immigrant men, and to see whether any increase was associated with reduced serum glucose and insulin concentrations. The intervention was developed in collaboration with the Pakistani community. It used a social cognitive theory framework and consisted of structured supervised group exercises, group lectures, individual counselling and telephone follow-up. One- hundred and fifty physically inactive Pakistani immigrant men living in Oslo, Norway, were randomised to either a control group or an intervention group. The 5-month intervention focused on increasing levels of PA, which were assessed by use of accelerometer (Actigraph MTI 7164) recordings. Risk of diabetes was assessed by serum glucose and insulin concentrations determined in a fasted state, and after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). ANCOVA was used to assess differences between groups. There was a mean difference in PA between the two groups of 49 counts per minute per day, representing a 15 % (95 % CI = 8.7-21.2; P = 0.01) higher increase in total PA level in the intervention group than in the control group. Insulin values taken 2 h after an OGTT were reduced in the intervention group by 27 % (95 % CI = 18.9-35.0; P = 0.02) more than those in the control group. There were no differences in fasting or postprandial glucose values between the groups at the follow-up test. This type of intervention can increase PA and reduce serum insulin in Pakistani immigrant men, thereby presumably reducing their risk of T2D.

  16. Meeting Recommended Levels of Physical Activity in Relation to Preventive Health Behavior and Health Status Among Adults

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of meeting the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) with health status and preventive health behavior in adults. Methods A total of 5630 adults 18 years of age or older were included in this study. PA was assessed using a series of questions that categorized activities based on their metabolic equivalent values and then categorized individuals based on the reported frequency and duration of such activities. Participants reporting 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity PA per week were considered to have met the PA guidelines. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the relationships between meeting PA guidelines and health status and preventive health behavior, while controlling for confounding variables. Results Overall, 53.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.9 to 55.9%) of adults reported meeting the recommended levels of PA. Among adults with good general health, 56.9% (95% CI, 54.7 to 59.1%) reported meeting the recommended levels of PA versus 43.1% (95% CI, 40.9 to 45.3%) who did not. Adults who met the PA guidelines were significantly more likely not to report high cholesterol, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, asthma, depression, or overweight. Furthermore, adults meeting the PA guidelines were significantly more likely to report having health insurance, consuming fruits daily, consuming vegetables daily, and not being a current cigarette smoker. Conclusions In this study, we found meeting the current guidelines for PA to have a protective relationship with both health status and health behavior in adults. Health promotion programs should focus on strategies that help individuals meet the current guidelines of at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity PA. PMID:28173688

  17. Regulation to Create Environments Conducive to Physical Activity: Understanding the Barriers and Facilitators at the Australian State Government Level

    PubMed Central

    Shill, Jane; Mavoa, Helen; Crammond, Brad; Loff, Bebe; Peeters, Anna; Lawrence, Mark; Allender, Steven; Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Policy and regulatory interventions aimed at creating environments more conducive to physical activity (PA) are an important component of strategies to improve population levels of PA. However, many potentially effective policies are not being broadly implemented. This study sought to identify potential policy/regulatory interventions targeting PA environments, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state/territory government level. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n = 40) to examine participants': 1) suggestions for regulatory interventions to create environments more conducive to PA; 2) support for preselected regulatory interventions derived from a literature review. Thematic and constant comparative analyses were conducted. Results Policy interventions most commonly suggested by participants fell into two areas: 1) urban planning and provision of infrastructure to promote active travel; 2) discouraging the use of private motorised vehicles. Of the eleven preselected interventions presented to participants, interventions relating to walkability/cycling and PA facilities received greatest support. Interventions involving subsidisation (of public transport, PA-equipment) and the provision of more public transport infrastructure received least support. These were perceived as not economically viable or unlikely to increase PA levels. Dominant barriers were: the powerful ‘road lobby’, weaknesses in the planning system and the cost of potential interventions. Facilitators were: the provision of evidence, collaboration across sectors, and synergies with climate change/environment agendas. Conclusion This study points to how difficult it will be to achieve policy change when there is a powerful ‘road lobby’ and government investment prioritises road infrastructure over PA

  18. Impact of feedback on physical activity levels of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during pulmonary rehabilitation: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Joana; Brooks, Dina; Marques, Alda

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed at investigating whether providing feedback on physical activity (PA) levels to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is feasible and enhances daily PA during pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). Patients with COPD participated in a 12-week PR program. Daily PA was measured using activity monitors on weeks 1, 7, and 12, and feedback was given in the following weeks on the number of steps, time spent in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity activities, and time spent standing, sitting, and lying. Compliance with PA monitoring was collected. Two focus groups were conducted to obtain patients' perspectives on the use of activity monitors and on the feedback given. Differences in PA data were also assessed. Sixteen patients (65.63 ± 10.57 years; forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 70.31 ± 22.74% predicted) completed the study. From those, only eleven participants used the activity monitors during all monitoring days. Participants identified several problems regarding the use of activity monitors and monitoring duration. Daily steps (p = 0.026) and standing time (p = 0.030) were improved from week 1 to week 7; however, the former declined from week 7 to week 12. Findings suggest that using feedback to improve PA during PR is feasible and results in improved daily steps and standing time on week 7. The subsequent decline suggests that additional strategies may be needed to stimulate/maintain PA improvements. Further research with more robust designs is needed to investigate the impact of feedback on patients' daily PA.

  19. The level of leisure time physical activity is associated with work ability-a cross sectional and prospective study of health care workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With increasing age, physical capacity decreases, while the need and time for recovery increases. At the same time, the demands of work usually do not change with age. In the near future, an aging and physically changing workforce risks reduced work ability. Therefore, the impact of different factors, such as physical activity, on work ability is of interest. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between physical activity and work ability using both cross sectional and prospective analyses. Methods This study was based on an extensive questionnaire survey. The number of participants included in the analysis at baseline in 2004 was 2.783, of whom 2.597 were also included in the follow-up in 2006. The primary outcome measure was the Work Ability Index (WAI), and the level of physical activity was measured using a single-item question. In the cross-sectional analysis we calculated the level of physical activity and the prevalence of poor or moderate work ability as reported by the participants. In the prospective analysis we calculated different levels of physical activity and the prevalence of positive changes in WAI-category from baseline to follow-up. In both the cross sectional and the prospective analyses the prevalence ratio was calculated using Generalized Linear Models. Results The cross-sectional analysis showed that with an increased level of physical activity, the reporting of poor or moderate work ability decreased. In the prospective analysis, participants reporting a higher level of physical activity were more likely to have made an improvement in WAI from 2004 to 2006. Conclusions The level of physical activity seems to be related to work ability. Assessment of physical activity may also be useful as a predictive tool, potentially making it possible to prevent poor work ability and improve future work ability. For employers, the main implications of this study are the importance of promoting and facilitating the

  20. Level of physical activity and screen time among Iranian children and adolescents at the national and provincial level: The CASPIAN-IV study

    PubMed Central

    Hovsepian, Silva; Kelishadi, Roya; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kasaeian, Amir; Shafiee, Gita; Arefirad, Tahereh; Najafi, Fereshteh; Khoramdad, Maliheh; Asayesh, Hamid; Heshmat, Ramin; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are few epidemiological reports on adherence to physical activity (PA) and screen-time (ST) recommendations among Iranian children and adolescents at the provincial level. We used nationally representative data to provide recent prevalence estimates of Iranian children who met the recommendations for PA and ST. Methods: This nationwide study was conducted among 14,880 students aged 6-18 years from 30 provinces of Iran. The frequency of the recommended level for PA (>1 hours/week) and ST (<2 hours/day) and different combinations of PA and ST was determined in the studied population. Results: In this study, 13,486 students (response rate: 90.6%) were studied. Overall, 18.62%, 34.11%, 50.66% and 9.63% of the students reported high ST, low level of PA, high TV watching and high computer working, respectively. The frequency of the recommended level of PA and ST was 53.92%. Of the studied population, 6.63% had low PA and high ST. Paradox combinations of low PA and low ST and moderate/high PA and high ST was prevalent among 27.47% and 6.26% of the children and adolescents. The lowest and highest frequency of recommended level of PA and ST was 38.9% and 65%, respectively. The lowest and highest frequency of low PA and high ST was 1.87% and 13.77%, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the frequency of low PA was high and that approximately 46% of the students did not meet the recommended level of PA and ST. The findings indicated that preparing facilities for improving PA level among children should be the main priority in our future interventions in this field. PMID:28210587

  1. Cancer, physical activity, and exercise.

    PubMed

    Brown, Justin C; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2012-10-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underlying the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, and many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. The specific dose of exercise needed to optimize primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment remains to be elucidated.

  2. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  3. Physical Activity Level Improves the Predictive Accuracy of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score: The ATTICA Study (2002–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Bougatsas, Dimitrios; Chatzigeorgiou, Michael; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Chrysohoou, Christina; Skoumas, Ioannis; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Pitsavos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although physical activity (PA) has long been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), assessment of PA status has never been used as a part of CVD risk prediction tools. The aim of the present work was to examine whether the inclusion of PA status in a CVD risk model improves its predictive accuracy. Methods: Data from the 10-year follow-up (2002–2012) of the n = 2020 participants (aged 18–89 years) of the ATTICA prospective study were used to test the research hypothesis. The HellenicSCORE (that incorporates age, sex, smoking, total cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure levels) was calculated to estimate the baseline 10-year CVD risk; assessment of PA status was based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The estimated CVD risk was tested against the observed 10-year incidence (i.e., development of acute coronary syndromes, stroke, or other CVD according to the World Health Organization [WHO]-International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-10 criteria). Changes in the predictive ability of the nested CVD risk model that contained the HellenicSCORE plus PA assessment were evaluated using Harrell's C and net reclassification index. Results: Both HellenicSCORE and PA status were predictors of future CVD events (P < 0.05). However, the estimating classification bias of the model that included only the HellenicSCORE was significantly reduced when PA assessment was included (Harrel's C = 0.012, P = 0.032); this reduction remained significant even when adjusted for diabetes mellitus and dietary habits (P < 0.05). Conclusions: CVD risk scores seem to be more accurate by incorporating individuals’ PA status; thus, may be more effective tools in primary prevention by efficiently allocating CVD candidates. PMID:27076890

  4. Effect of Accelerometer Cut-Off Points on the Recommended Level of Physical Activity for Obesity Prevention in Children

    PubMed Central

    Dygrýn, Jan; Mitáš, Josef; Jakubec, Lukáš; Frömel, Karel

    2016-01-01

    There is no general consensus regarding which accelerometer cut-off point (CoP) is most acceptable to estimate the time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children and choice of an appropriate CoP primarily remains a subjective decision. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the influence of CoP selection on the mean MVPA and to define the optimal thresholds of MVPA derived from different accelerometer CoPs to avoid overweight/obesity and adiposity in children aged 7 to 12 years. Three hundred six children participated. Physical activity (PA) was monitored for seven consecutive days using an ActiGraph accelerometer (model GT3X) and the intensity of PA was estimated using the five most frequently published CoPs. Body adiposity was assessed using a multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. There was found a wide range of mean levels of MVPA that ranged from 27 (Puyau CoP) to 231 min∙d–1 (Freedson 2005 CoP). A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that the optimal thresholds for counts per minute (cpm) and MVPA derived from the Puyau CoP was the most useful in classifying children according to their body mass index (BMI) and fat mass percentage (FM%). In the total sample, the optimal thresholds of the MVPA derived from the Puyau CoP were 22 and 23 min∙d–1 when the categories based on BMI and FM%, respectively, were used. The children who did not meet these optimal thresholds had a significantly increased risk of being overweight/obese (OR = 2.88, P < 0.01) and risk of having excess fat mass (OR = 2.41, P < 0.01). In conclusion, the decision of selecting among various CoPs significantly influences the optimal levels of MVPA. The Puyau CoP of 3 200 cmp seems to be the most useful for defining the optimal level of PA for pediatric obesity prevention. PMID:27723835

  5. Association of the physical activity with leptin blood serum level, body mass indices and obesity in schoolgirls.

    PubMed

    Plonka, Malgorzata; Toton-Morys, A; Adamski, P; Suder, A; Bielanski, W; Dobrzanska, M J; Kaminska, A; Piorecka, B; Glodzik, J

    2011-12-01

    Decreased physical activity is undoubtedly significantly associated with obesity. Similarly, the proper hormones secretion, the proper weight and body development. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body mass composition and leptin concentration in relation to the degree of physical activity expressed in MET-h/week (metabolic equivalent per week). The study included 59 girls, aged 9-16 years (12.55±1.67) and divided into two groups: 1) PA: a physically active group of 29 girls and 2) PI: a group of 30 physically inactive girls. In all, physical activity was assessed using modified questionnaire concerning "activity for adolescents" and expressed in MET-h/week. Serum blood leptin concentrations in fasting girls were determined by RIA. Anthropometric parameters were measured and fatness indices calculated (BMI, SF, WHtR). Body composition (%BF, FM, FFM) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (BIA). Statistical analysis showed significant differences between groups of PA and PI concerning values of BMI, WHtR, %BF, WC and MET-h/week as well as in leptin concentrations. In both groups of girls negative correlations between physical activity measured in MET and leptin concentrations and in WHtR were observed. The concentration of leptin was directly proportional to the degree of body fat and to the body composition expressed by BMI, WHtR, log SF, WC and %BF, FM and FFM, respectively. Increased physical activity was associated with lower body fat ratios and WHtR, BMI, WC, %BF, but did not affect significantly the changes in the values of log SF, FM and FFM. Higher values of BMI, WHtR and WC can provide not only a greater risk of obesity in general, but also cause excessive accumulation of fat in the central part of the body (abdominal obesity).

  6. Quantifying Habitual Levels of Physical Activity According to Impact in Older People: Accelerometry Protocol for the VIBE Study

    PubMed Central

    Deere, Kevin C.; Hannam, Kimberly; Coulson, Jessica; Ireland, Alex; McPhee, Jamie S.; Moss, Charlotte; Edwards, Mark H.; Dennison, Elaine; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayers, Adrian; Lipperts, Matthijs; Grimm, Bernd; Tobias, Jon H.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) may need to produce high impacts to be osteogenic. The aim of this study was to identify threshold(s) for defining high impact PA for future analyses in the VIBE (Vertical Impact and Bone in the Elderly) study, based on home recordings with triaxial accelerometers. Recordings were obtained from 19 Master Athlete Cohort (MAC; mean 67.6 years) and 15 Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS; mean 77.7 years) participants. Data cleaning protocols were developed to exclude artifacts. Accelerations expressed in g units were categorized into three bands selected from the distribution of positive Y-axis peak accelerations. Data were available for 6.6 and 4.4 days from MAC and HCS participants respectively, with approximately 14 hr recording daily. Three-fold more 0.5–1.0g impacts were observed in MAC versus HCS, 20-fold more 1.0–1.5g impacts, and 140-fold more impacts ≥ 1.5g. Our analysis protocol successfully distinguishes PA levels in active and sedentary older individuals. PMID:26372670

  7. [Activity of cytochromes P-450p and P-450h in liver microsomes and blood corticosteroid levels in experimental animals under the action of physical factors].

    PubMed

    Zolotareva, T A; Gorchakova, G A; Konovalenko, V L; Konovalenko, L N; Grishanova, A Iu; Guliaeva, L F; Liakhovich, V V

    1992-05-01

    In experiments on male Wistar rats it has been found that physical factors applied in medicine (laser radiation of low intensity with wave length 0.89 microns, microwaves of centimeter range of 2450 MHz, and ultrasound of low intensity 880 KHz) changed catalytic activity of liver microsomal and rostenedione 16 alpha- and 6 beta-hydroxylating cytochromes P-450h and P-450p and blood corticosteroids level. Activities of these two steroid-metabolizing cytochromes decreased under ultrasonic skin application on liver region and increased under microwave and laser action. Contents of physiologically inactive form of corticosterone were not changed by the physical factors action while level of active hormone was increased under ultrasonic and microwave action. These findings suggest association of the activity of liver steroid-metabolizing cytochromes P-450 and level of physiologically active form of corticosterone in blood under physical factors skin application on liver region.

  8. "LET US Play": Maximizing Physical Activity "in" Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin; Beets, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Schools have been identified as a promising setting for increasing youth physical activity levels because of their broad reach and the amount of time youth spend in attendance. Specifically, physical education is one key time during the school day where youth can accumulate health-enhancing levels of physical activity. Indicators of quality…

  9. Empowering Sedentary Adults to Reduce Sedentary Behavior and Increase Physical Activity Levels and Energy Expenditure: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Barwais, Faisal A.; Cuddihy, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 4-week intervention in which an online personal activity monitor (Gruve-Technologies™) was used to reduce sedentary behavior among sedentary adults. Method: Eighteen, sedentary adult volunteers (12 men, six women, mean age 29 ± 4.0 years) were recruited to participate in the study. Time spent in sedentary activities and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed during waking hours using the monitor and the 7-day SLIPA Log at both baseline and post-intervention. Results: A significant decrease of 33% (3.1 h/day; p < 0.001) was found between the time spent in sedentary activities measured at baseline (9.4 ± 1.1 h/day) and at the end of the 4-week intervention (6.3 ± 0.8 h/day). Consequent to the changes in sedentary time, significant increases were found in the amount of time spent in light- (45% (2.6 h/day), p < 0.001), moderate- (33% (1 h/day) p < 0.001), vigorous-intensity physical activity (39% (0.16 h/day), p < 0.001), and energy expenditure (47% (216.7 kcal/day), p < 0.001). Conclusion: This monitor contributes to a meaningful reduction in time spent in sedentary activities and has a large effect on energy expenditure and physical activity patterns. PMID:25568971

  10. PE Teacher and Classmate Support in Level of Physical Activity: The Role of Sex and BMI Status in Adolescents from Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Bronikowski, Michal; Bronikowska, Malgorzata; Laudańska-Krzemińska, Ida; Kantanista, Adam; Morina, Besnik; Vehapi, Shemsedin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of physical education (PE) teacher and classmate support in relation to sex and BMI status in adolescents' physical activity (PA) in Kosovo. A Classmate and Teacher Support Scale (with additional questions) was used on a cross-sectional sample of 608 girls and 620 boys aged 15–18, randomly selected from secondary schools of seven major municipalities in Kosovo. PA level was determined with a Physical Activity Screening Measure questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and a three-way ANOVA, along with Tukey's HSD post hoc test, were employed. The findings showed the levels of teacher and classmate support to be important factors in stimulating adolescents' PA. It was found that boys with normal weight, high support from teachers, and medium or high support from classmates were more physically active, compared with girls. PMID:26380268

  11. PE Teacher and Classmate Support in Level of Physical Activity: The Role of Sex and BMI Status in Adolescents from Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Bronikowski, Michal; Bronikowska, Malgorzata; Laudańska-Krzemińska, Ida; Kantanista, Adam; Morina, Besnik; Vehapi, Shemsedin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of physical education (PE) teacher and classmate support in relation to sex and BMI status in adolescents' physical activity (PA) in Kosovo. A Classmate and Teacher Support Scale (with additional questions) was used on a cross-sectional sample of 608 girls and 620 boys aged 15-18, randomly selected from secondary schools of seven major municipalities in Kosovo. PA level was determined with a Physical Activity Screening Measure questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and a three-way ANOVA, along with Tukey's HSD post hoc test, were employed. The findings showed the levels of teacher and classmate support to be important factors in stimulating adolescents' PA. It was found that boys with normal weight, high support from teachers, and medium or high support from classmates were more physically active, compared with girls.

  12. Physical activity and risk of fatty liver in people with different levels of alcohol consumption: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tsunoda, Kenji; Kai, Yuko; Uchida, Ken; Kuchiki, Tsutomu; Nagamatsu, Toshiya

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether physical activity affects the future incidence of fatty liver in people with never-moderate and heavy alcohol consumption. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Health check-up programme at Meiji Yasuda Shinjuku Medical Center in Shinjuku Ward, Tokyo, Japan. Population A total of 10 146 people aged 18 years or older without fatty liver enrolled through baseline surveys conducted from 2005 to 2007. They were grouped into never-moderate alcohol drinkers (n=7803) and heavy alcohol drinkers (n=2343) and followed until 2013. Main outcome measure Incident fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasound. Results During a mean follow-up of 4.4 years (34 648 person-years), 1255 never-moderate alcohol drinkers developed fatty liver; 520 heavy alcohol drinkers developed fatty liver during a mean follow-up of 4.1 years (9596 person-years). For never-moderate alcohol drinkers, engaging in >3×/week of low-intensity (HR=0.82, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.96) and moderate-intensity (HR=0.56, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.81) physical activity significantly reduced incident fatty liver compared with those who engaged in physical activity <1×/week. For vigorous-intensity physical activity, frequencies of 2×/week (HR=0.57, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.86) and >3×/week (HR=0.55, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.79) were significantly associated with lower risk of incident fatty liver. In propensity-adjusted models, these significant associations still remained. By contrast, in heavy alcohol drinkers, there were no significant associations between the type or frequency of physical activity and incident fatty liver. Conclusions Physical activity had an independent protective effect on incident fatty liver only in the never-moderate alcohol drinkers, and the preventive effect increased with higher frequencies and intensities of physical activity. PMID:25095878

  13. Differences in Physical Activity during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: School recess provides a daily opportunity for physical activity engagement. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels during recess by gender, ethnicity, and grade, and establish the contribution of recess to daily school physical activity levels. Methods: Two hundred and ten children (45% boys) from grades 3…

  14. Exercise training alone or with the addition of activity counseling improves physical activity levels in COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Lahham, Aroub; McDonald, Christine F; Holland, Anne E

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is associated with poor outcomes in COPD, and as a result, interventions to improve physical activity (PA) are a current research focus. However, many trials have been small and inconclusive. Objective The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to study the effects of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) targeting PA in COPD. Methods Databases (Physiotherapy Evidence Database [PEDro], Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials) were searched using the following keywords: “COPD”, “intervention” and “physical activity” from inception to May 20, 2016; published RCTs that aimed to increase PA in individuals with COPD were included. The PEDro scale was used to rate study quality. Standardized mean differences (effect sizes, ESs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined. Effects of included interventions were also measured according to the minimal important difference (MID) in daily steps for COPD (599 daily steps). Results A total of 37 RCTs with 4,314 participants (mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) % predicted 50.5 [SD=10.4]) were identified. Interventions including exercise training (ET; n=3 studies, 103 participants) significantly increased PA levels in COPD compared to standard care (ES [95% CI]; 0.84 [0.44–1.25]). The addition of activity counseling to pulmonary rehabilitation (PR; n=4 studies, 140 participants) showed important effects on PA levels compared to PR alone (0.47 [0.02–0.92]), achieving significant increases that exceeded the MID for daily steps in COPD (mean difference [95% CI], 1,452 daily steps [549–2,356]). Reporting of methodological quality was poor in most included RCTs. Conclusion Interventions that included ET and PA counseling during PR were effective strategies to improve PA in COPD. PMID:27994451

  15. Applying the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to increase European preschool children's physical activity levels: the ToyBox-study.

    PubMed

    De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Verloigne, M; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Grammatikaki, E; Moreno, L; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Szott, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G

    2014-08-01

    Although sufficient physical activity is beneficial for preschoolers' health, activity levels in most preschoolers are low. As preschoolers spend a considerable amount of time at home and at kindergarten, interventions should target both environments to increase their activity levels. The aim of the current paper was to describe the six different steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol towards the systematic development and implementation of the physical activity component of the ToyBox-intervention. This intervention is a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention implemented across six European countries. Based on the results of literature reviews and focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers, matrices of change objectives were created. Then, theory-based methods and practical strategies were selected to develop intervention materials at three different levels: (i) individual level (preschoolers); (ii) interpersonal level (parents/caregivers) and (iii) organizational level (teachers). This resulted in a standardized intervention with room for local and cultural adaptations in each participating country. Although the Intervention Mapping protocol is a time-consuming process, using this systematic approach may lead to an increase in intervention effectiveness. The presented matrices of change objectives are useful for future programme planners to develop and implement an intervention based on the Intervention Mapping protocol to increase physical activity levels in preschoolers.

  16. Predicting energy requirement with pedometer-determined physical-activity level in women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Farooqi, Nighat; Slinde, Frode; Carlsson, Maine; Håglin, Lena; Sandström, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background In clinical practice, in the absence of objective measures, simple methods to predict energy requirement in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) needs to be evaluated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate predicted energy requirement in females with COPD using pedometer-determined physical activity level (PAL) multiplied by resting metabolic rate (RMR) equations. Methods Energy requirement was predicted in 18 women with COPD using pedometer-determined PAL multiplied by six different RMR equations (Harris–Benedict; Schofield; World Health Organization; Moore; Nordic Nutrition Recommendations; Nordenson). Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by the criterion method: doubly labeled water. The predicted energy requirement was compared with measured TEE using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland–Altman analyses. Results The energy requirement predicted by pedometer-determined PAL multiplied by six different RMR equations was within a reasonable accuracy (±10%) of the measured TEE for all equations except one (Nordenson equation). The ICC values between the criterion method (TEE) and predicted energy requirement were: Harris–Benedict, ICC =0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23–0.89; Schofield, ICC =0.71, 95% CI 0.21–0.89; World Health Organization, ICC =0.74, 95% CI 0.33–0.90; Moore, ICC =0.69, 95% CI 0.21–0.88; Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, ICC =0.70, 95% CI 0.17–0.89; and Nordenson, ICC =0.40, 95% CI −0.19 to 0.77. Bland–Altman plots revealed no systematic bias for predicted energy requirement except for Nordenson estimates. Conclusion For clinical purposes, in absence of objective methods such as doubly labeled water method and motion sensors, energy requirement can be predicted using pedometer-determined PAL and common RMR equations. However, for assessment of nutritional status and for the purpose of giving nutritional treatment, a clinical judgment is important regarding when

  17. Serum Zinc and Adiponectin Levels in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Adjusted for Anthropometric, Biochemical, Dietary Intake, and Physical Activity Measures.

    PubMed

    Mazloomi, Sahar; Alizadeh, Narges; Aminzare, Majid; Niroomand, Soudabeh; Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda

    2017-02-03

    Previous studies have shown that serum zinc and adiponectin levels are associated with insulin resistance in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. But there is no study to evaluate serum zinc and adiponectin levels as predictor markers of PCOS, adjusted for anthropometric, biochemical, dietary intake, and physical activity measures. Ninety-one new PCOS cases (based on the Rotterdam criteria) and 85 healthy control women participated and individually matched based on age. Food intake of all participants obtained by the food frequency and physical activity level was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaires. Serum glucose, lipid profile, androgens, insulin, adiponectin, and zinc concentrations were measured at the fasting state. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, and body fat, as well as serum levels of DHEAS, insulin, TG, LDL cholesterol (LDL.C), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and LH/FSH ratio, were significantly higher in the PCOS compared with those of the healthy control women. Serum levels of zinc and adiponectin were significantly lower in the PCOS than those of the healthy control women. Results of the logistic regression model showed significant effects of adiponectin, zinc, and LH/FSH ratio on the PCOS, adjusted for anthropometric and biochemical measures (p < 0.05). In the present study, serum level of zinc had significant correlation with adiponectin in the PCOS patients, and serum levels of zinc, adiponectin, and LH/FSH ratio had significant effects on the PCOS occurrence.

  18. Physical Activity Level and Sedentary Behaviors among Public School Children in Dakar (Senegal) Measured by PAQ-C and Accelerometer: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Adama; Thiam, Mbeugué; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diongue, Ousmane; Mégné, Ndé; Diallo, Khady; Sembène, Pape Malick; Wade, Salimata

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles are major risk factors of childhood obesity. This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA) levels by accelerometer and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Senegalese school children and the relation with Body Mass Index (BMI) and body composition. Methodology: 156 pupils 8–11 years old were randomly selected in four elementary public schools of Dakar. BMI z-score was used to categorize children according to their weight status. PA was measured by PAQ-C in the 156 pupils and by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+, Pensacola, FL, USA) in a subsample of 42 children. Body composition was determined by deuterium dilution method. Results: PAQ-C results were comparable in the 156 and 42 pupils. The 42 pupils presented a light activity measured by accelerometer, while PAQ-C classified the majority of them (57%; n = 24) in the moderate PA level. Children spent most of their time (min/day) in sedentary activities and light activities than in moderate and intense activity levels. Accumulation of 60 min/day Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) was achieved by 54.8% (n = 23) of the pupils. MVPA decreased in girls in relation to their body fatness. There was a significant difference in MVPA between boys and girls. Similarly, overweight/obese (45 ± 16 min/day) children had lower MVPA than their normal and underweight peers (88 ± 34 and 74 ± 36 min/day, respectively; p = 0.004). Conclusions: The two methods are inconsistent for measuring light and moderate PA levels. Although PAQ-C is an uncomplicated routine method, various activities were not adapted for genuine activities in Senegalese children and therefore needs to be validated in African children. PMID:27735876

  19. Physical Activities for Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Dorothy C.; And Others

    The underlying premise of the University of Hawaii Physical Activities for Preschool curriculum is that important contributions to a positive self-concept are made by motor independence and a realistic body image. Program objectives include: (1) the development of strength, endurance, and flexibility in skills that involve the muscles,…

  20. Assessment of intake and nutritional status of vitamin b1, b2, and b6 in men and women with different physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Malara, M; Hübner-Wozniak, E; Lewandowska, I

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6 in respect to dietary intake of these vitamins and activity coefficients of the erythrocyte enzymes transketolase, glutathione reductase, and aspartic aminotransferase in young men and women with different physical activity levels. The participants of this study were 20 women and 20 men with high physical activity (groups HAW and HAM, respectively), and 20 women and 20 men with low physical activity (groups LAW and LAM, respectively). The intake of vitamins B1, B2, B6, proteins, and calorie content of the diet was based on the average of the 4-day dietary recalls. To assess nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6, the activity coefficients (α) of erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), erythrocyte glutathione reductase (EGR), and erythrocyte aspartic aminotransferase (EAST) were estimated in blood hemolysates. The intake of the studied vitamins in the diet was statistically significantly lower in the female groups compared with the respective male groups. Deficiency of vitamin B6 in the diet was present more often in women than in men (in terms of the recommended dietary allowances [RDA]). Values of the activity coefficient αETK indicated that none of the groups in this study suffered the risk of vitamin B1 deficiency. The value of the activity coefficient αEGR indicated that the groups of women and men with low physical activity were more prone to vitamin B2 deficiency compared with the high physical activity groups. The risk of vitamin B6 deficiency (αEAST) in both male groups was higher than in both female groups. The obtained results do not allow for unequivocal determination of the impact of sex and the level of physical activity on intake and nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6. Independently of sex and the level of physical activity, the women and men consumed insufficient quantities of vitamins B1 and B6, although this was not always related to

  1. Putting Physical Activity on the Policy Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…

  2. Physical Activity in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  3. Smoking, physical activity, and active life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, L; Izmirlian, G; Leveille, S; Phillips, C L; Corti, M C; Brock, D B; Guralnik, J M

    1999-04-01

    The effect of smoking and physical activity on active and disabled life expectancy was estimated using data from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE). Population-based samples of persons aged > or = 65 years from the East Boston, Massachusetts, New Haven, Connecticut, and Iowa sites of the EPESE were assessed at baseline between 1981 and 1983 and followed for mortality and disability over six annual follow-ups. A total of 8,604 persons without disability at baseline were classified as "ever" or "never" smokers and doing "low," "moderate," or "high" level physical activity. Active and disabled life expectancies were estimated using a Markov chain model. Compared with smokers, men and women nonsmokers survived 1.6-3.9 and 1.6-3.6 years longer, respectively, depending on level of physical activity. When smokers were disabled and close to death, most nonsmokers were still nondisabled. Physical activity, from low to moderate to high, was significantly associated with more years of life expectancy in both smokers (9.5, 10.5, 12.9 years in men and 11.1, 12.6, 15.3 years in women at age 65) and nonsmokers (11.0, 14.4, 16.2 years in men and 12.7, 16.2, 18.4 years in women at age 65). Higher physical activity was associated with fewer years of disability prior to death. These findings provide strong and explicit evidence that refraining from smoking and doing regular physical activity predict a long and healthy life.

  4. Classification of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Paulino, Thiago Marques Luz; Zaharieva, Dessi P.; Yavelberg, Loren; Jamnik, Veronica; Riddell, Michael C.; Cinar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has a wide range of effects on glucose concentrations in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depending on the type (ie, aerobic, anaerobic, mixed) and duration of activity performed. This variability in glucose responses to physical activity makes the development of artificial pancreas (AP) systems challenging. Automatic detection of exercise type and intensity, and its classification as aerobic or anaerobic would provide valuable information to AP control algorithms. This can be achieved by using a multivariable AP approach where biometric variables are measured and reported to the AP at high frequency. We developed a classification system that identifies, in real time, the exercise intensity and its reliance on aerobic or anaerobic metabolism and tested this approach using clinical data collected from 5 persons with T1D and 3 individuals without T1D in a controlled laboratory setting using a variety of common types of physical activity. The classifier had an average sensitivity of 98.7% for physiological data collected over a range of exercise modalities and intensities in these subjects. The classifier will be added as a new module to the integrated multivariable adaptive AP system to enable the detection of aerobic and anaerobic exercise for enhancing the accuracy of insulin infusion strategies during and after exercise. PMID:26443291

  5. Interventions for promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Charles; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Thorogood, Margaret; Kaur, Asha; Wedatilake, Thamindu

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies to enable people to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote physical activity in adults aged 16 years and older, not living in an institution. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 1 2005), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, BIDS ISI, SPORTDISCUS, SIGLE, SCISEARCH (from earliest dates available to December 2004). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared different interventions to encourage sedentary adults not living in an institution to become physically active. Studies required a minimum of six months follow up from the start of the intervention to the collection of final data and either used an intention-to-treat analysis or, failing that, had no more than 20% loss to follow up. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently assessed each study quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous measures of self-reported physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main results The effect of interventions on self-reported physical activity (19 studies; 7598 participants) was positive and moderate (pooled SMD random effects model 0.28 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41) as was the effect of interventions (11 studies; 2195 participants) on cardio-respiratory fitness (pooled SMD random effects model 0.52 95% CI 0.14 to 0.90). There was significant heterogeneity in the reported effects as well as heterogeneity in characteristics of the interventions. The heterogeneity in reported effects was reduced in higher quality studies, when physical

  6. The relationship between physical activity and the living environment: a multi-level analyses focusing on changes over time in environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Jongeneel-Grimen, Birthe; Droomers, Mariël; van Oers, Hans A M; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2014-03-01

    There is limited evidence on the causality of previously observed associations between neighborhood characteristics and physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether individual-level PA was associated with changes in fear of crime, social cohesion, green spaces, parking facilities, social disorder, and physical disorder that occurred over the past 3 years. In general, in neighborhoods where residents had more favorable perceptions of the environment in 2006, residents were more likely to be physically active in 2009. In addition, improvements between 2006 and 2009 with respect to perceived social cohesion, green spaces, social disorder, and physical disorder were associated with increased odds of being active in 2009. For both the levels in 2006 and trends in the period 2006-2009, the associations were somewhat stronger among women than among men, but associations did not vary by age or length of residence. For several environmental factors, we observed that not only the levels at a certain point in time, but also recent improvements over time were related to PA. These results provide new support for a causal relationship between these environmental factors and PA.

  7. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  8. Health-related factors correlate with behavior trends in physical activity level in old age: longitudinal results from a population in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity in leisure time is common among elderly in Brazil and this finding is particularly alarming considering that this population is greatly affected by chronic diseases. The identification of health factors that influence physical activity level (PAL) will help in the development of strategies for increasing PAL older adults. The current research aimed to identify variables that independently affect behavior trends in PAL over the course of two years among elderly. Methods A survey entitled the Epidoso Project ("Epidemiology of aging") studied 1,667 community-based older individuals in São Paulo city, Brazil over the course of two years. Physical activity level was determined through questions about frequency and duration of physical activities. Body Mass Index was calculated; functional capacity was assessed through the ADL (activities of daily living) scale; cognition was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination; and mental health was assessed through the Dysthymia Screening. Experiences of falls and fractures were also assessed. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their self-report of Physical Activity Level: a - Regularly Active; b - Insufficiently Active and c - Physically Inactive. Behavior trends in PAL were also measured after two years. Multivariate regression model methodology was used to test associations longitudinally. Results Results from the final model demonstrated that the risk of a not favorable behavior trend in PAL, which included the group who remained physically inactive and the group that displayed decreased PAL, in this cohort of older adults was significantly increased if the individual was female (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 1.60-3.89; P < 0.01), older (80 y vs. 65 y, OR = 6.29, 95% CI = 2.69-14.67; P < 0.01), dependent on help from others for activities in the ADL scale (moderate-severe = 4-7+ vs. 0 ADLs) (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.20-4.21; P < 0.011) or had experienced a history of falls with

  9. Year-round high physical activity levels in agropastoralists of Bolivian Andes: Results from repeated measurements of DLW method in peak and slack seasons of agricultural activities

    PubMed Central

    Kashiwazaki, Hiroshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Toshio; Rivera, Jose Orias; Coward, William A; Wright, Antony

    2009-01-01

    By the repeated use of the doubly labeled water method (DLW), this study aimed to investigate (1) the extent of changes in energy expenditure and physical activity level (PAL) in response to increased agricultural work demands, and (2) whether the seasonal work demands induce the changes in the fairly equitable division of work and similarity of energy needs between men and women observed in our previous study (Phase 1 study; Kashiwazaki et al., 1995: Am J Clin Nutr 62: 901–910). In a rural small agropastoral community of the Bolivian Andes, we made the follow-up study (Phase 2, 14 adults; a time of high agricultural activity) of the Phase 1 study (12 adults; a time of low agricultural activity). In the Phase 2 study, both men and women showed very high PAL (mean±SD), but there was no significant difference by sex (men; 2.18 ± 0.23 (age; 64 ± 11 years, n = 7), women; 2.26 ± 0.25 (63 ± 10 years, n = 7)). The increase of PAL by 11% (P = 0.023) in the Phase 2 was equally occurred in both men and women. The factorial approach underestimated PAL significantly by ≈15% (P < 0.05). High PAL throughout the year ranging on average 2.0 and 2.2 was attributable to everyday tasks for subsistence and domestic works undertaking over 9–11 h (men spent 2.7 h on agricultural work and 4.7 h on animal herding, whereas women spent 7.3 h almost exclusively on animal herding). The seasonal increase in PAL was statistically significant, but it was smaller than those anticipated from published reports. A flexible division of labor played an important role in the equitable energetic increase in both men and women. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19127525

  10. Barriers to Physical Activity on University Student

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajat; Sultoni, K.; Suherman, A.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the research is to analyze the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students based on physical activity level. An internet-based survey was conducted. The participants were 158 University students from Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. Barriers to Physical Activity Quiz (BPAQ) were used to assessed the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students. IPAQ (short form) were used to assessed physical activity level. The results show there was no differences BPAQ based on IPAQ level. But when analyzed further based on seven factors barriers there are differences in factors “social influence and lack of willpower” based IPAQ level. Based on this it was concluded that the “influence from other and lack of willpower” an inhibiting factor on students to perform physical activity.

  11. Effects of a Three-Tiered Intervention Model on Physical Activity and Fitness Levels of Elementary School Children.

    PubMed

    Dauenhauer, Brian; Keating, Xiaofen; Lambdin, Dolly

    2016-08-01

    Response to intervention (RtI) models are frequently used in schools to tailor academic instruction to the needs of students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of using RtI to promote physical activity (PA) and fitness in one urban elementary school. Ninety-nine students in grades 2-5 participated in up to three tiers of intervention throughout the course of one school year. Tier one included 150 min/week of physical education (increased from 90 min/week the previous year) and coordinated efforts to improve school health. Tier two consisted of 30 min/week of small group instruction based on goal setting and social support. Tier three included an after-school program for parents and children focused on healthy living. PA, cardiovascular fitness, and body composition were assessed before and after the interventions using pedometers, a 20-m shuttle run, and height/weight measurements. From pre- to post-testing, PA remained relatively stable in tier one and increased by 2349 steps/day in tier two. Cardiovascular fitness increased in tiers one and two by 1.17 and 1.35 ml/kg/min, respectively. Although body mass index did not change, 17 of the 99 students improved their weight status over the course of the school year, resulting in an overall decline in the prevalence of overweight/obesity from 59.6 to 53.5 %. Preliminary results suggest that the RtI model can be an effective way to structure PA/health interventions in an elementary school setting.

  12. Neighborhood context and immigrant children's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Mackenzie; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of obesity and overall health for children, but significant race/ethnic and nativity disparities exist in the amount of physical activity that children receive, with immigrant children particularly at risk for low levels of physical activity. In this paper, we examine and compare patterns in physical activity levels for young children of U.S.-born and immigrant mothers from seven race/ethnic and nativity groups, and test whether physical activity is associated with subjective (parent-reported) and objective (U.S. Census) neighborhood measures. The neighborhood measures include parental-reported perceptions of safety and physical and social disorder and objectively defined neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and immigrant concentration. Using restricted, geo-coded Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) data (N = 17,510) from 1998 to 1999 linked with U.S. Census 2000 data for the children's neighborhoods, we utilize zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) models to predict the odds of physical inactivity and expected days of physical activity for kindergarten-aged children. Across both outcomes, foreign-born children have lower levels of physical activity compared to U.S.-born white children. This disparity is not attenuated by a child's socioeconomic, family, or neighborhood characteristics. Physical and social disorder is associated with higher odds of physical inactivity, while perceptions of neighborhood safety are associated with increased expected days of physical activity, but not with inactivity. Immigrant concentration is negatively associated with both physical activity outcomes, but its impact on the probability of physical inactivity differs by the child's race/ethnic and nativity group, such that it is particularly detrimental for U.S.-born white children's physical activity. Research interested in improving the physical activity patterns of minority and second-generation immigrant children should

  13. Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1) to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2) to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA) levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n = 6 focus groups; n = 42 SED mothers) and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs) (n = 5 focus groups; n = 25 HRPs) involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n = 59). Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights. PMID:22500882

  14. Assessing physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD.

    PubMed

    Painter, Patricia; Marcus, Robin L

    2013-05-01

    Patients with CKD are characterized by low levels of physical functioning, which, along with low physical activity, predict poor outcomes in those treated with dialysis. The hallmark of clinical care in geriatric practice and geriatric research is the orientation to and assessment of physical function and functional limitations. Although there is increasing interest in physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD, the nephrology field has not focused on this aspect of care. This paper provides an in-depth review of the measurement of physical function and physical activity. It focuses on physiologic impairments and physical performance limitations (impaired mobility and functional limitations). The review is based on established frameworks of physical impairment and functional limitations that have guided research in physical function in the aging population. Definitions and measures for physiologic impairments, physical performance limitations, self-reported function, and physical activity are presented. On the basis of the information presented, recommendations for incorporating routine assessment of physical function and encouragement for physical activity in clinical care are provided.

  15. Asthma and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Oseid, S

    1982-01-01

    Physical activity regularly leads to a decline in lung function in children and adolescents with asthma. This decline is a consequence of what is known as exercise-induced asthma (EIA), and can be determined and graded with the help of lung function tests before and after submaximal workloads on the ergometer cycle or the treadmill. Typical EIA appears in asthmatic individuals with entirely normal lung function before the effort, but EIA may also become clinically manifest with exercise in patients who have a subclinical degree of obstruction. The grade of EIA is essentially dependent on the duration and intensity of effort but also on the type of exercise. For example, free running causes much greater bronchoconstriction than swimming. The temperature and humidity of the inspired air may partially explain this difference. At the Voksentoppen Allergy Institute we find that about 85% of children develop a fall in lung function of 15% or more after a six minute ergometer cycle test. With typical EIA the fall may be totally or partially abolished by prophylactic medication 10 minutes before the start of the test. Disodium cromoglycate (Intal) and/or beta-adrenergic drugs are regularly used before all physical activity. Training programmes must be based on the interval principle. Swimming, ball games, relay races and dancing are examples of useful activities in the training and rehabilitation of children and adolescents with asthma. Through prophylactic medication and physical training, the aerobic work capacity, muscle strength and lung function in asthmatic children is improved. Training also leads to a significant mobilisation of mental resources and an increase in social integration.

  16. [Sport and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Bria, S; Zeppilli, P

    2010-01-01

    A regular sport activity involves physical and psychological benefits helping to improve the quality of life at any age. This aspect is even more important in the developing age, when the sport takes on a role of training and education. In this context, instances directed to allow adolescent and young adults with heart disease to practice sports seem justified, and they're becoming more pressing since when the diagnostic and therapeutic advances, especially in cardiac surgery and in interventional hemodynamics, allow an increasing number of patients, previously allocated to physical inactivity, to lead an active lifestyle. However, we have to keep in mind that congenital heart disease population is varied, not only by the nature of the malformation, but also because in the same cardiopathy you can find subjects in "natural history" or after surgery and, between them, subjects treated with several techniques and different outcomes. This justifies the need for a close collaboration between sports doctors, cardiologists and heart surgeons, particularly in the management of the most difficult and delicate problems.

  17. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... more energy than resting. Walking, running, dancing, swimming, yoga, and gardening are a few examples of physical activity. According to the Department of Health and Human Services' 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for ...

  18. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity ... What foods can I eat if I have diabetes? You may worry that having diabetes means going ...

  19. Synergistic and Antagonistic Interplay between Myostatin Gene Expression and Physical Activity Levels on Gene Expression Patterns in Triceps Brachii Muscles of C57/BL6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Caetano-Anollés, Kelsey; Mishra, Sanjibita; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    Levels of myostatin expression and physical activity have both been associated with transcriptome dysregulation and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The transcriptome of triceps brachii muscles from male C57/BL6 mice corresponding to two genotypes (wild-type and myostatin-reduced) under two conditions (high and low physical activity) was characterized using RNA-Seq. Synergistic and antagonistic interaction and ortholog modes of action of myostatin genotype and activity level on genes and gene pathways in this skeletal muscle were uncovered; 1,836, 238, and 399 genes exhibited significant (FDR-adjusted P-value < 0.005) activity-by-genotype interaction, genotype and activity effects, respectively. The most common differentially expressed profiles were (i) inactive myostatin-reduced relative to active and inactive wild-type, (ii) inactive myostatin-reduced and active wild-type, and (iii) inactive myostatin-reduced and inactive wild-type. Several remarkable genes and gene pathways were identified. The expression profile of nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha subunit (Naca) supports a synergistic interaction between activity level and myostatin genotype, while Gremlin 2 (Grem2) displayed an antagonistic interaction. Comparison between activity levels revealed expression changes in genes encoding for structural proteins important for muscle function (including troponin, tropomyosin and myoglobin) and for fatty acid metabolism (some linked to diabetes and obesity, DNA-repair, stem cell renewal, and various forms of cancer). Conversely, comparison between genotype groups revealed changes in genes associated with G1-to-S-phase transition of the cell cycle of myoblasts and the expression of Grem2 proteins that modulate the cleavage of the myostatin propeptide. A number of myostatin-feedback regulated gene products that are primarily regulatory were uncovered, including microRNA impacting central functions and Piezo proteins that make cationic current

  20. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  1. Physical activity assessment in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sirard, J R; Pate, R R

    2001-01-01

    Chronic disease risk factors, including a sedentary lifestyle, may be present even in young children, suggesting that early prevention programmes may be critical to reducing the rates of chronic disease. Accurate assessment of physical activity in children is necessary to identify current levels of activity and to assess the effectiveness of intervention programmes designed to increase physical activity. This article summarises the strengths and limitations of the methods used to evaluate physical activity in children and adolescents. MEDLINE searches and journal article citations were used to locate 59 articles that validated physical activity measurement methods in children and adolescents. Only those methods that were validated against a more stringent measure were included in the review. Based on the definition of physical activity as any bodily movement resulting in energy expenditure (EE), direct observation of the individual's movement should be used as the gold standard for physical activity research. The doubly labelled water technique and indirect calorimetry can also be considered criterion measures for physical activity research, because they measure EE, a physiologic consequence closely associated with physical activity. Devices such as heart rate monitors, pedometers and accelerometers have become increasingly popular as measurement tools for physical activity. These devices reduce the subjectivity inherent in survey methods and can be used with large groups of individuals. Heart rate monitoring is sufficiently valid to use in creating broad physical activity categories (e.g. highly active, somewhat active, sedentary) but lacks the specificity needed to estimate physical activity in individuals. Laboratory and field validations of pedometers and accelerometers yield relatively high correlations using oxygen consumption (r = 0.62 to 0.93) or direct observation (r = 0.80 to 0.97) as criterion measures, although, they may not be able to capture all

  2. Effect of affordable technology on physical activity levels and mobility outcomes in rehabilitation: a protocol for the Activity and MObility UsiNg Technology (AMOUNT) rehabilitation trial

    PubMed Central

    Hassett, Leanne; van den Berg, Maayken; Lindley, Richard I; Crotty, Maria; McCluskey, Annie; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Smith, Stuart T; Schurr, Karl; Killington, Maggie; Bongers, Bert; Howard, Kirsten; Heritier, Stephane; Togher, Leanne; Hackett, Maree; Treacy, Daniel; Dorsch, Simone; Wong, Siobhan; Scrivener, Katharine; Chagpar, Sakina; Weber, Heather; Pearson, Ross; Sherrington, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction People with mobility limitations can benefit from rehabilitation programmes that provide a high dose of exercise. However, since providing a high dose of exercise is logistically challenging and resource-intensive, people in rehabilitation spend most of the day inactive. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of affordable technology to usual care on physical activity and mobility in people with mobility limitations admitted to inpatient aged and neurological rehabilitation units compared to usual care alone. Methods and analysis A pragmatic, assessor blinded, parallel-group randomised trial recruiting 300 consenting rehabilitation patients with reduced mobility will be conducted. Participants will be individually randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention group will receive technology-based exercise to target mobility and physical activity problems for 6 months. The technology will include the use of video and computer games/exercises and tablet applications as well as activity monitors. The control group will not receive any additional intervention and both groups will receive usual inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation care over the 6-month study period. The coprimary outcomes will be objectively assessed physical activity (proportion of the day spent upright) and mobility (Short Physical Performance Battery) at 6 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes will include: self-reported and objectively assessed physical activity, mobility, cognition, activity performance and participation, utility-based quality of life, balance confidence, technology self-efficacy, falls and service utilisation. Linear models will assess the effect of group allocation for each continuously scored outcome measure with baseline scores entered as a covariate. Fall rates between groups will be compared using negative binomial regression. Primary analyses will be preplanned, conducted while masked to group allocation and use an

  3. Support of Joint Function, Range of Motion, and Physical Activity Levels by Consumption of a Water-Soluble Egg Membrane Hydrolyzate

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Gitte S.; Lenninger, Miki R.; Beaman, Joni L.; Taylor, Robert; Benson, Kathleen F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the effects of consumption of hydrolyzed water-soluble egg membrane (WSEM) on joint function in an otherwise healthy population experiencing chronic pain. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study included two 4-week periods of placebo and WSEM consumption, separated by a 4-week washout period. Twenty-five study participants were randomized to either the “placebo-first” or “WSEM first” sequence in the crossover trial, and 22 participants completed the study requirements. Range of motion (ROM) was assessed using digital inclinometry for joints associated with vertical weight bearing from neck to knees and for shoulders. Pain at rest and when physically active was scored for the same anatomical areas using visual analog scales (VAS). Physical functioning was tracked using questionnaires with VAS. Consumption of WSEM was associated with improved ROM for neck, spine, hips, and knees, with ROM for the neck and right knee being significantly improved during WSEM consumption compared to placebo (P < .05). ROM improvement for the dominant shoulder was highly significant during WSEM consumption (P < .01). Physical activity levels were significantly higher after WSEM than after placebo consumption (P < .05). Many aspects of physical functioning as part of daily living improved. Subgroup analysis showed rapid improvement of lower back pain after 5 days of WSEM consumption compared to placebo consumption (P < .05) in subjects who participated in the study during the winter season. Daily consumption of 450 mg WSEM was associated with improved joint function, comfort during daily activities, and increased physical activity. PMID:26355952

  4. Quantification of Daily Physical Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

  5. Physical activity, hydration and health.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ascensión; Manonelles, Pedro; Palacios, Nieves; Wärnberg, Julia; Casajús, José A; Pérez, Margarita; Aznar, Susana; Benito, Pedro J; Martínez-Gomez, David; Ortega, Francisco B; Ortega, Eduardo; Urrialde, Rafael

    2014-06-01

    Since the beginning of mankind, man has sought ways to promote and preserve health as well as to prevent disease. Hydration, physical activity and exercise are key factors for enhancing human health. However, either a little dose of them or an excess can be harmful for health maintenance at any age. Water is an essential nutrient for human body and a major key to survival has been to prevent dehydration. However, there is still a general controversy regarding the necessary amount to drink water or other beverages to properly get an adequate level of hydration. In addition, up to now the tools used to measure hydration are controversial. To this end, there are several important groups of variables to take into account such as water balance, hydration biomarkers and total body water. A combination of methods will be the most preferred tool to find out any risk or situation of dehydration at any age range. On the other hand, physical activity and exercise are being demonstrated to promote health, avoiding or reducing health problems, vascular and inflammatory disea ses and helping weight management. Therefore, physical activity is also being used as a pill within a therapy to promote health and reduce risk diseases, but as in the case of drugs, dose, intensity, frequency, duration and precautions have to be evaluated and taken into account in order to get the maximum effectiveness and success of a treatment. On the other hand, sedentariness is the opposite concept to physical activity that has been recently recognized as an important factor of lifestyle involved in the obesogenic environment and consequently in the risk of the non-communicable diseases. In view of the literature consulted and taking into account the expertise of the authors, in this review a Decalogue of global recommendations is included to achieve an adequate hydration and physical activity status to avoid overweight/obesity consequences.

  6. Physical Activity 4 Everyone’ school-based intervention to prevent decline in adolescent physical activity levels: 12 month (mid-intervention) report on a cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Rachel; Campbell, Elizabeth; Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Okely, Anthony D; Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Wiese, Jarrod; Gillham, Karen; Hollis, Jenna; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a recognised period of physical activity decline, particularly among low-income communities. We report the 12-month (midpoint) effects of a 2-year multicomponent physical activity intervention implemented in disadvantaged secondary schools. Methods A cluster randomised trial was undertaken in 10 secondary schools located in disadvantaged areas in New South Wales, Australia. Students in Grade 7 were recruited, with follow-up in Grade 8. The intervention was guided by socioecological theory and included seven physical activity strategies, and six implementation adoption strategies. The primary outcome was mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day assessed using Actigraph GT3X accelerometers. Outcome data were analysed using repeated measures linear mixed models. Results At baseline, 1150 (93%) students participated in the data collection (mean age 12 years, 48% boys) and 1050 (79%) students participated at 12-month follow-up. By the 12-month follow-up, the six implementation adoption strategies had been used to support schools to deliver four of the seven physical activity elements. There was a significant group-by-time interaction for mean minutes of MVPA per day in favour of the intervention group (adjusted difference between groups at follow-up=3.85 min, 95% CI (0.79 to 6.91), p≤0.01), including significantly more vigorous physical activity (2.45 min, p≤0.01), equating to 27 min more MVPA per week. Summary At 12-month follow-up, the intervention had reduced the decline in physical activity among adolescents from disadvantaged schools. The intervention may assist students to meet physical activity guidelines. PMID:26359346

  7. Perceived environment and physical activity in youth.

    PubMed

    Fein, Allan J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Wild, T Cameron; Spence, John C

    2004-01-01

    The examination of physical environments to explain and promote physical activity is an important yet under-investigated area of research inquiry. This study explored relationships between the perceived availability of physical environmental resources and the perceived importance of these resources in relation to physical activity levels amongst youth. A self-report questionnaire was completed by 610 students (mean age = 15.5 years old; 62% female participants) from four high schools (grades 9-12) in rural Alberta, Canada. Perceived physical environment constructs explained 5% of the variance in physical activity, with home, neighborhood, and school as significant domains. Perceived importance constructs explained 8% of the variance in physical activity with school context showing the only significant relationship with physical activity. A hierarchical regression analysis entered sex, grade, self-efficacy, peer, family and physical education teacher relationships, as the first block and eight environmental constructs as the second block. The first block variables accounted for 22% of the variance and environmental constructs accounted for an added 4% of the variance in physical activity. Perceived importance of the school environment was the only environment variable significantly associated with physical activity (beta = .14; p < .05) after taking into account the impact of these traditional predictors. These findings reinforce the need to provide and support school physical environments related to physical activity.

  8. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Productivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    CONTINUED Aerobic exercises were the primary type of physical activity considered. The research focused on two specific objectives: (1) to review and... physical fitness and exercise activities . One of the priority objectives is to increase the proportion of adults (aged 18 to 65) participating in... physical activity will be used to encompass both aerobic fitness and exercise . This will allow consideration of the impact of varying levels of exercise

  9. Interventions for physical activity promotion applied to the primary healthcare settings for people living in regions of low socioeconomic level: study protocol for a non-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity practice has been widely recommended for promoting health, but the physical activity levels remain low in the population. Therefore, the study of interventions to promote physical activity is essential. Objective: To present the methodology of two physical activity interventions from the “Ambiente Ativo” (“Active Environment”) project. Methods 12-month non-randomized controlled intervention trial. 157 healthy and physically inactive individuals were selected: health education (n = 54) supervised exercise (n = 54) and control (n = 49). Intervention based on health education: a multidisciplinary team of health professionals organized the intervention in group discussions, phone calls, SMS and educational material. Intervention based on supervised exercise program: consisted of offering an exercise program in groups supervised by physical education professionals involving strength, endurance and flexibility exercises. The physical activity level was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version), physical activities recalls, pedometers and accelerometers over a seven-day period. Result This study described two different proposals for promoting physical activity that were applied to adults attended through the public healthcare settings. The participants were living in a region of low socioeconomic level, while respecting the characteristics and organization of the system and its professionals, and also adapting the interventions to the realities of the individuals attended. Conclusion Both interventions are applicable in regions of low socioeconomic level, while respecting the social and economic characteristics of each region. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01852981 PMID:24624930

  10. Activity Levels during Physical Education and Recess in Two Special Schools for Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sit, Cindy H. P.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Lian, John M. G.; McManus, Alison

    2008-01-01

    This study compared physical education (PE) and recess in two markedly different special schools for children with mild intellectual disabilities; one school had a reputation for focusing on sports (High Sport Focus-HSF) and the other did not (Low Sport Focus-LSF). Data were collected in 24 PE classes and 48 recess periods using a validated…

  11. State-Level Trends and Correlates for Cross-Sector Collaboration on School Nutrition and Physical Education Activities, 2000–2012

    PubMed Central

    Laska, Melissa N.; MacLehose, Richard; Nelson, Toben F.; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cross-sector collaboration on child obesity prevention is common, yet little research has examined the context of collaboration at the state level. This study describes secular trends in collaboration between state agency staff responsible for school nutrition and physical education activities and other organizations from 2000 to 2012. Methods Data from the School Health Policies and Practices Study were used to describe collaboration between state agency staff and 13 types of public, private, and nonprofit organizations. Breadth of collaboration in 2012 was examined across political, social, and economic conditions. Results Collaboration between state agency staff and other organization types increased from 2000 to 2006 and decreased or stabilized from 2006 to 2012. Breadth of collaboration was greater in states with a physical education coordinator, higher levels of poverty, higher prevalence of childhood obesity, and more public health funding. Breadth was similar across states by census region, political party of governor, majority party in state legislature, percentage non-Hispanic white population, high school graduation rate, and unemployment rate. Conclusion Cross-sector collaboration on school nutrition and physical education was widespread and did not vary substantially across most political, social, and economic measures. Expanded monitoring and surveillance of state-level collaboration would assist efforts to understand how state agencies work across sectors and whether this collaboration affects the support they provide to schools. PMID:27442994

  12. Rest Rust ! Physical active for active and healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Vollenbroek-Hutten, M; Pais, S; Ponce, S; Dekker-van Weering, M; Jansen-Kosterink, S; Schena, F; Tabarini, N; Carotenuto, F; Iadicicco, V; Illario, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an insight on how physical activity can be defined, parameterized and measured in older adults and on different options to deal with citizen physical activity promotion at European level. Three relevant aspects are highlighted: When talking about physical activity, two different aspects are often unfairly mixed up: “physical activity” and “physical capacity”. Physical activity, is referred to as the level of physical activity someone is actually performing in daily life.Physical capacity is referred to as the maximum physical activity a person can perform.Both physical activity and physical capacity can be expressed in different dimensions such as time, frequency, or type of activity with the consequence that there are many tools and techniques available. In order to support people to choose an appropriate instrument in their everyday practice a list of 9 criteria that are considered important is defined.Older adults score differently across the various physical dimensions, so strategies to promote physical activity should consider individual differences, in order to adapt for these variations. PMID:27042429

  13. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  14. Integrating Physical Activity into Academic Pursuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaus, Mark D.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2009-01-01

    Children of today may be the first generation in the United States in more than 200 years to have a life expectancy shorter than their parents. Low levels of fitness caused by physical inactivity and poor nutritional habits of many of today's youth may be a contributing factor. Combating low fitness levels with physical activity is of utmost…

  15. The Elderly's Need for Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foret, Claire M.; Clemons, James M.

    1996-01-01

    This article provides: information on the importance of physical activity for older adults and guidelines to ensure safe and successful activity. It discusses the need for activity, risk levels, prescription of exercise intensity, determination of entry level fitness and monitoring of improvement, and the role of the professional. (SM)

  16. Comparative adaptations in oxidative and glycolytic muscle fibers in a low voluntary wheel running rat model performing three levels of physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Hyatt, Hayden W; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Ruegsegger, Greg; Mobley, C Brooks; Fox, Carlton D; McGinnis, Graham R; Quindry, John C; Booth, Frank W; Roberts, Michael D; Kavazis, Andreas N

    2015-01-01

    A unique polygenic model of rat physical activity has been recently developed where rats were selected for the trait of low voluntary wheel running. We utilized this model to identify differences in soleus and plantaris muscles of sedentary low voluntary wheel running rats and physically active low voluntary wheel running rats exposed to moderate amounts of treadmill training. Three groups of 28-day-old male Wistar rats were used: (1) rats without a running wheel (SEDENTARY, n = 7), (2) rats housed with a running wheel (WHEEL, n = 7), and (3) rats housed with a running wheel and exercised on the treadmill (5 days/week for 20 min/day at 15.0 m/min) (WHEEL + TREADMILL, n = 7). Animals were euthanized 5 weeks after the start of the experiment and the soleus and plantaris muscles were excised and used for analyses. Increases in skeletal muscle gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha and fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 in WHEEL + TREADMILL group were observed. Also, WHEEL + TREADMILL had higher protein levels of superoxide dismutase 2 and decreased levels of oxidative damage. Our data demonstrate that the addition of treadmill training induces beneficial muscular adaptations compared to animals with wheel access alone. Furthermore, our data expand our understanding of differential muscular adaptations in response to exercise in mitochondrial, antioxidant, and metabolic markers. PMID:26603455

  17. Comparative adaptations in oxidative and glycolytic muscle fibers in a low voluntary wheel running rat model performing three levels of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Hayden W; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Ruegsegger, Greg; Mobley, C Brooks; Fox, Carlton D; McGinnis, Graham R; Quindry, John C; Booth, Frank W; Roberts, Michael D; Kavazis, Andreas N

    2015-11-01

    A unique polygenic model of rat physical activity has been recently developed where rats were selected for the trait of low voluntary wheel running. We utilized this model to identify differences in soleus and plantaris muscles of sedentary low voluntary wheel running rats and physically active low voluntary wheel running rats exposed to moderate amounts of treadmill training. Three groups of 28-day-old male Wistar rats were used: (1) rats without a running wheel (SEDENTARY, n = 7), (2) rats housed with a running wheel (WHEEL, n = 7), and (3) rats housed with a running wheel and exercised on the treadmill (5 days/week for 20 min/day at 15.0 m/min) (WHEEL + TREADMILL, n = 7). Animals were euthanized 5 weeks after the start of the experiment and the soleus and plantaris muscles were excised and used for analyses. Increases in skeletal muscle gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha and fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 in WHEEL + TREADMILL group were observed. Also, WHEEL + TREADMILL had higher protein levels of superoxide dismutase 2 and decreased levels of oxidative damage. Our data demonstrate that the addition of treadmill training induces beneficial muscular adaptations compared to animals with wheel access alone. Furthermore, our data expand our understanding of differential muscular adaptations in response to exercise in mitochondrial, antioxidant, and metabolic markers.

  18. Physical Activity among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Sarah J.; Sturts, Jill R.; Ross, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study provides insight into the perceived physical activity levels of students attending a Midwestern 2-year community college. Over 60% of respondents were classified as overweight or obese based on a BMI measurement. The majority of respondents were not participating regularly in physical activity to gain any health benefits,…

  19. Promoting Physical Activity in Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Beets, Michael W.; Erwin, Heather E.; Huberty, Jennifer; Moore, Justin B.; Stellino, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Children in the United States are not engaging in sufficient amounts of routine physical activity, and this lack is an emerging public health concern (Strong, Malina, Blimkie, Daniels, Dishman, Gutin, et al., 2005). Efforts to increase the physical activity levels of children and adolescents has become a national priority, attracting attention…

  20. [The effect of muscle load on the post-prandial content of blood serum hydrolytic enzymes in men with different levels and specificity of daily physical activity].

    PubMed

    Griaznykh, A V

    2014-01-01

    The article presents data on the effect of the combined action of food and muscular load on the level of hydrolytic enzymes in blood serum of healthy young people 18-22 years old, with various levels of adaptation to the effects of physical activity. The first group (n = 8) of the examined persons were high-qualified athletes developing their speed and power qualities in anaerobic energetic regime (Greco-Roman wrestling, sambo, judo). The second group (n = 8) were athletes developing endurance in aerobic energetic regime (skiers, track and field athletes--stayers, biathletes). The control group (n = 8) consists of non-athletes. The content of hydrolytic enzymes: pepsinogen-1, pepsinogen-2, the activity of pancreatic alpha-amylase, lipase were defined by ELISA. The content and activity of ferments were defined in blood serum, taken in the morning fasting and post-prandial period in dynamics after 15, 45, 75 and 105 min after administration of the test breakfast (100 g of ground boiled beef and 200 ml of unsweetened tea) in a state of relative physiological rest and after the veloergometric exercise muscular load (at the level of 60-70% of maximal oxygen consumption) during an hour (in 7-14 days). Multidirectional changes of concentration of investigated enzymes in the postprandial period among examined were defined in the conditions of relative physiological rest and under the action of the muscular tension. For groups of athletes higher alpha-amylase and lipase blood activity were characteristic both in a state of physiological rest and under the action of muscular load. It was also determined that after the muscular tension there was an increase in activity of alpha-amylase at 75 min and lipases at 15 min relative to background indicators at non-athletes. For the athletes from the second group the increase (p < 0.01) relative to background data of activity as alpha-amylase as lipase on an empty stomach was noted. However postprandial (15-45 min) alpha-amylase (p

  1. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing the amount of bone loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical ...

  2. The Physics of Sport Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Walter C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a physics course, Biomechanics, designed for physical education majors, where stroboscopic photography is used to provide student data to calculate average velocities of objects in different sport activities. (GA)

  3. Joint Association of Dietary Pattern and Physical Activity Level with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; He, Yuna; Li, Yanping; Luan, Dechun; Zhai, Fengying; Yang, Xiaoguang; Ma, Guansheng

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the joint associations of physical activity level (PAL) and dietary patterns in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Chinese men. The study population consisted of 13 511 Chinese males aged 18-59 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey. Based on dietary data collected by a food frequency questionnaire, four dietary patterns were identified and labeled as "Green Water" (high consumption of rice, vegetables, seafood, pork, and poultry), "Yellow Earth" (high consumption of wheat flour products and starchy tubers), "New Affluent" (high consumption of animal sourced foods and soybean products), and "Western Adopter" (high consumption of animal sourced foods, cakes, and soft drinks). From the information collected by a 1-year physical activity questionnaire, PAL was calculated and classified into 4 categories: sedentary, low active, active, and very active. As compared with their counterparts from the New Affluent pattern, participants who followed the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of abdominal obesity (AO; 50.2%), hypertension (HT; 37.9%), hyperglycemia (HG; 41.5%), elevated triglyceride (ETG; 14.5%), low HDL (LHDL; 39.8%), and metabolic syndrome (MS; 51.9%). When compared to sedentary participants, the odds ratio of participants with very active PAL was 0.62 for AO, 0.85 for HT, 0.71 for HG, 0.76 for ETG, 0.74 for LHDL, and 0.58 for MS. Individuals who followed both very active PAL and the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of CVD risk factors (AO: 65.8%, HT: 39.1%, HG: 57.4%, ETG: 35.4%, LHDL: 56.1%, and MS: 75.0%), compared to their counterparts who followed both sedentary PAL and the New Affluent pattern. In addition, adherence to both healthy dietary pattern and very active PAL presented a remarkable potential for CVD risk factor prevention.

  4. Physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women is associated with higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines and with reduced insulin response through interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    van Poppel, Mireille N M; Peinhaupt, Miriam; Eekhoff, Marelise E W; Heinemann, Akos; Oostdam, Nicolette; Wouters, Maurice G A J; van Mechelen, Willem; Desoye, Gernot

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Previously, we reported the positive association of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese pregnant women. We sought to assess whether these MVPA-induced changes in insulin sensitivity are mediated by changes in interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1β. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in 46 overweight and obese women at risk for gestational diabetes mellitus. Objective physical activity measurements and fasting blood samples were taken at 15, 24, and 32 weeks of pregnancy. At 24 and 32 weeks, a 100-g oral glucose test was performed in addition. Cytokines, C-reactive protein, and glucose and insulin levels were measured, and insulin sensitivity and first-phase insulin response were calculated. Relationships between the different parameters were assessed using linear regression models, adjusting for maternal age and BMI. RESULTS All cytokines were elevated in women with higher levels of MVPA at 15 weeks of gestation. Higher IL-6 was related to a lower first-phase insulin response (β -810.5 [95% CI -1,524.5 to -96.5]; P = 0.03). TNF-α and IL-1β had different effects in women with low MVPA (with low IL-6 levels) compared with more active women. CRP was not related to MVPA. CONCLUSIONS The association of MVPA with insulin sensitivity and first-phase insulin response may be (partly) mediated by IL-6, since this cytokine was related to reduced first-phase insulin response. The possible positive effects of the elevated cytokine profile in active obese pregnant women warrant further study.

  5. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... How much physical activity should I do each week? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend ... 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity a week, along with muscle-strengthening activities on 2 days ...

  6. Is More Area-Level Crime Associated With More Sitting and Less Physical Activity? Longitudinal Evidence From 37,162 Australians

    PubMed Central

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Kolt, Gregory S.; Jalaludin, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Does a rise in crime result in increased sitting time and a reduction in physical activity? We used unobserved (“fixed”)-effects models to examine associations between change in objectively measured crime (nondomestic violence, malicious damage, breaking and entering, and stealing, theft, and robbery) in Australia and measures of sitting time, walking, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a residentially stable sample of 17,474 men and 19,688 women at baseline (2006–2008) and follow-up (2009–2010). Possible sources of time-varying confounding included age, income, economic status, relationship (couple) status, and physical functioning. In adjusted models, an increase in all crimes of 10 counts per 1,000 residents was associated with an increase in sitting time (hours/day) among men (β = 0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.17, 0.25) and women (β = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.22). Counterintuitively, the same increase in crime was also associated with an increase in the weekly number of ≥10-minute walking sessions (men: rate ratio (RR) = 1.01 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.02); women: RR = 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.01)) and MVPA sessions (men: RR = 1.02 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.03); women: RR = 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.02)). Similar associations were found for the other area-level crime indicators. While area-level crime prevention may be considered a lever for promoting more active lifestyles, these results suggest that the association is not unequivocal. PMID:27856450

  7. Is More Area-Level Crime Associated With More Sitting and Less Physical Activity? Longitudinal Evidence From 37,162 Australians.

    PubMed

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Kolt, Gregory S; Jalaludin, Bin

    2016-12-15

    Does a rise in crime result in increased sitting time and a reduction in physical activity? We used unobserved ("fixed")-effects models to examine associations between change in objectively measured crime (nondomestic violence, malicious damage, breaking and entering, and stealing, theft, and robbery) in Australia and measures of sitting time, walking, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a residentially stable sample of 17,474 men and 19,688 women at baseline (2006-2008) and follow-up (2009-2010). Possible sources of time-varying confounding included age, income, economic status, relationship (couple) status, and physical functioning. In adjusted models, an increase in all crimes of 10 counts per 1,000 residents was associated with an increase in sitting time (hours/day) among men (β = 0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.17, 0.25) and women (β = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.22). Counterintuitively, the same increase in crime was also associated with an increase in the weekly number of ≥10-minute walking sessions (men: rate ratio (RR) = 1.01 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.02); women: RR = 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.01)) and MVPA sessions (men: RR = 1.02 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.03); women: RR = 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.02)). Similar associations were found for the other area-level crime indicators. While area-level crime prevention may be considered a lever for promoting more active lifestyles, these results suggest that the association is not unequivocal.

  8. Physical activity levels and torso orientations of hospitalized patients at risk of developing a pressure injury: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Chaboyer, Wendy; Mills, Peter M; Roberts, Shelley; Latimer, Sharon

    2015-02-01

    Pressure injury guidelines recommend regular repositioning yet patients' mobility and repositioning patterns are unknown. An observational study using activity monitors was undertaken to describe the 24 h activity patterns of 84 hospitalized patients at risk of developing a pressure injury. The vast majority of participants' time was spent in the sedentary activity range (94% ± 3%) followed by the light range (5% ± 4 %). Patients changed their posture a median of 94 (interquartile range 48) time in the 24-h period (range 11-154), or ≈ 3.8 times per hour. Although a main focus for pressure injury prevention has been on repositioning, this study shows that patients with restricted mobility are actually moving quite often. Therefore, it might be appropriate to focus more attention on other pressure injury prevention strategies such as adequate nutrition, appropriate support surfaces and good skin care.

  9. Physical Activity- and Alcohol-dependent Association Between Air Pollution Exposure and Elevated Liver Enzyme Levels: An Elderly Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lee, Hyemi; Kim, Jin Hee; Jung, Kweon; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The deleterious effects of air pollution on various health outcomes have been demonstrated. However, few studies have examined the effects of air pollution on liver enzyme levels. Methods: Blood samples were drawn up to three times between 2008 and 2010 from 545 elderly individuals who regularly visited a community welfare center in Seoul, Korea. Data regarding ambient air pollutants (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm [PM2.5], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide) from monitoring stations were used to estimate air pollution exposure. The effects of the air pollutants on the concentrations of three liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase [γ-GTP)]) were evaluated using generalized additive and linear mixed models. Results: Interquartile range increases in the concentrations of the pollutants showed significant associations of PM2.5 with AST (3.0% increase, p=0.0052), ALT (3.2% increase, p=0.0313), and γ-GTP (5.0% increase, p=0.0051) levels; NO2 with AST (3.5% increase, p=0.0060) and ALT (3.8% increase, p=0.0179) levels; and O3 with γ-GTP (5.3% increase, p=0.0324) levels. Significant modification of these effects by exercise and alcohol consumption was found (p for interaction <0.05). The effects of air pollutants were greater in non-exercisers and heavy drinkers. Conclusions: Short-term exposure to air pollutants such as PM2.5, NO2, and O3 is associated with increased liver enzyme levels in the elderly. These adverse effects can be reduced by exercising regularly and abstinence from alcohol. PMID:26081652

  10. Physical Activity and Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David O.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increase in the cancer survivor population in the United States over the past several decades primarily due to improvements in early detection of first malignancies and effective treatment modalities. A wealth of evidence has demonstrated that regular physical activity is associated with a lower risk of death, all-cause mortality, cancer recurrence, and several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, common comorbid conditions in people who have survived cancer. Physical activity also is a central component of weight management. Methods This review summarizes the current physical activity recommendations and the evidence linking physical activity to improvements in weight management, physiological effects, and psychological health outcomes for cancer survivors. Results The available literature suggests physical activity is safe and is positively associated with weight management, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and endurance, quality of life, fatigue, and other psychosocial factors in cancer survivors. Yet relationships related to specific cancer diagnoses, treatments, and underlying cardiometabolic mechanisms associated with survival have not been thoroughly examined in randomized controlled trials. Furthermore, factors that influence adherence to physical activity behaviors must be identified to develop effective exercise programs. The use of objective measures of physical activity and the standardization of reporting outcome measures within intervention trials are needed to complement this effort. Conclusions Healthcare providers should consider individual differences among cancer survivors and tailor physical activity programs to meet the individual needs of the patient to assist in the adoption and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle. PMID:25335787

  11. Frequency of leisure-time physical activity and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in the US population: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Scragg, Robert; Camargo, Carlos A

    2008-09-15

    The decline in vitamin D status among older people is probably due to decreased synthesis of vitamin D by sun-exposed skin and/or decreased outdoor activity. The authors examined the association between outdoor leisure physical activity and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) (n = 15,148 aged >/=20 years). The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration declined with increasing age, with 79, 73, and 68 nmol/liter for persons aged 20-39, 40-59, and 60 or more years. The proportion that engaged in outdoor activity in the past month was 80% for persons aged 20-39 and 40-59 years but 71% for those aged 60 or more years. In contrast, the mean difference in 25-hydroxyvitamin D between those who participated in outdoor activities daily compared with those who did not participate in the past month was similar for the youngest and oldest age groups: 13 and 16 nmol/liter, respectively. Those persons aged 60 or more years who participated in daily outdoor activities had a mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration similar to that of persons aged 20-39 years: 77 versus 79 nmol/liter, respectively. These nationally representative data suggest that persons aged 60 or more years can synthesize enough vitamin D from daily outdoor activities to maintain vitamin D levels similar to those of young adults.

  12. The Street Level Built Environment and Physical Activity and Walking: Results of a Predictive Validity Study for the Irvine Minnesota Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boarnet, Marlon G.; Forsyth, Ann; Day, Kristen; Oakes, J. Michael

    2011-01-01

    The Irvine Minnesota Inventory (IMI) was designed to measure environmental features that may be associated with physical activity and particularly walking. This study assesses how well the IMI predicts physical activity and walking behavior and develops shortened, validated audit tools. A version of the IMI was used in the Twin Cities Walking…

  13. Functional status, physical activity level, and exercise regularity in patients with fibromyalgia after Multidisciplinary treatment: retrospective analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Salvat, I; Zaldivar, P; Monterde, S; Montull, S; Miralles, I; Castel, A

    2017-03-01

    Multidisciplinary treatments have shown to be effective for fibromyalgia. We report detailed functional outcomes of patients with fibromyalgia who attended a 3-month Multidisciplinary treatment program. The hypothesis was that patients would have increased functional status, physical activity level, and exercise regularity after attending this program. We performed a retrospective analysis of a randomized, simple blinded clinical trial. The inclusion criteria consisted of female sex, a diagnosis of fibromyalgia, age 18-60  and 3-8 years of schooling. Measures from the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the COOP/WONCA Functional Health Assessment Charts (WONCA) were obtained before and at the end of the treatment and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Patients recorded their number of steps per day with pedometers. They performed the six-minute walk test (6 MW) before and after treatment. In total, 155 women participated in the study. Their median (interquartile interval) FIQ score was 68.0 (53.0-77.0) at the beginning of the treatment, and the difference between the Multidisciplinary and Control groups was statistically and clinically significant in all of the measures (except the 6-month follow-up). The WONCA charts showed significant clinical improvements in the Multidisciplinary group, with physical fitness in the normal range across almost all values. In that group, steps/day showed more regularity, and the 6 MW results showed improvement of -33.00 (-59.8 to -8.25) m, and the differences from the Control group were statistically significant. The patients who underwent the Multidisciplinary treatment had improved functional status, physical activity level, and exercise regularity. The functional improvements were maintained 1 year after treatment completion.

  14. Physical activity in adulthood: genes and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Karvinen, Sira; Waller, Katja; Silvennoinen, Mika; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M.

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies report a strong inverse relationship between leisure-time physical activity and all-cause mortality. Despite suggestive evidence from population-based associations, scientists have not been able to show a beneficial effect of physical activity on the risk of death in controlled intervention studies among individuals who have been healthy at baseline. On the other hand, high cardiorespiratory fitness is known to be a strong predictor of reduced mortality, even more robust than physical activity level itself. Here, in both animals and/or human twins, we show that the same genetic factors influence physical activity levels, cardiorespiratory fitness, and risk of death. Previous observational follow-up studies in humans suggest that increasing fitness through physical activity levels could prolong life; however, our controlled interventional study with laboratory rats bred for low and high intrinsic fitness contrast with these findings. Also, we find no evidence for the suggested association using pairwise analysis among monozygotic twin pairs who are discordant in their physical activity levels. Based on both our animal and human findings, we propose that genetic pleiotropy might partly explain the frequently observed associations between high baseline physical activity and later reduced mortality in humans. PMID:26666586

  15. Canada's Physical Activity Guide: examining print-based material for motivating physical activity in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Todosijczuk, Ivan; Johnson, Steven T; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a secondary analysis on 202 adults from the Physical Activity Workplace Study. The aim of this analysis was to examine demographic characteristics associated with reading Canada's Physical Activity Guide (CPAG), being motivated by the guide, and whether participants in the Physical Activity Workplace Study who read the CPAG increased their physical activity levels over 1 year. Results revealed that less than 50% of participants read the full version of CPAG, and less than 10% were motivated by it. The CPAG also appears to be more appealing to and effective for women than for men. Although the CPAG had some influence in increasing mild physical activity levels in a workplace sample, there was also a decrease in physical activity levels among some members of the group. Overall, the effectiveness of CPAG was not substantial, and the findings of this analysis could help guide future targeted intervention materials and programs.

  16. Facts about Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... education. Adults whose family income is above the poverty level are more likely to meet the 2008 ... whose family income is at or near the poverty level. 2012 Age-Adjusted Estimates of the Percentage ...

  17. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  18. Does chronic physical activity level modify the airway inflammatory response to an acute bout of exercise in the post-prandial period?

    PubMed Central

    Kurti, Stephanie P.; Rosenkranz, Sara K.; Chapes, Stephen K.; Teeman, Colby S.; Cull, Brooke J.; Emerson, Sam R.; Levitt, Morton H.; Smith, Joshua R.; Harms, Craig A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that a single high-fat meal (HFM) leads to increased airway inflammation. However exercise is a natural anti-inflammatory and may modify post-prandial airway inflammation. The post-prandial airway inflammatory response is likely to be modified by chronic physical activity (PA) level. Purpose To investigate whether chronic PA modifies the airway inflammatory response to an acute bout of exercise in the post-prandial period in both insufficiently active and active subjects. Methods Thirty-nine non-asthmatic subjects (twenty active (ACT), 13M/7F) who exceeded PA guidelines (≥150 min moderate-vigorous PA/week) and (nineteen insufficiently active (IN), 6M/13F) underwent an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion to determine VO2peak. Subjects were then randomized to a condition (COND), either remaining sedentary (CON) or exercising (EX) post-HFM. Exercise was performed at the heart rate corresponding to 60% VO2peak on a treadmill one-hour post-HFM (63% fat, 10kcal/kgbw). Blood lipids and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO: marker of airway inflammation) were measured at baseline, 2 h and 4 h post-HFM. Sputum differential cell counts were performed at baseline and 4 h post-HFM. Results The mean eNO response for all groups increased at 2 h post-HFM (∼6%) and returned to baseline by 4 h (p=0.03). There was a time*COND interaction (p=0.04), where EX had a greater eNO response at 4 hours compared to CON. Sputum neutrophils increased at 4 hours post-HFM (p<0.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that airway inflammation occurs after a HFM when exercise is performed in the postprandial period, regardless of habitual activity level. PMID:28121185

  19. Psoriasis and physical activity: a review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P B; Bohjanen, K A; Ingraham, S J; Leon, A S

    2012-11-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic inflammatory skin disease that can cause significant discomfort and impairment to quality of life. Recent research indicates that individuals with moderate-to-severe psoriasis are likely at greater risk for chronic cardiometabolic co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Physical activity can be an effective primary and adjunctive treatment for these maladies in other populations. Unfortunately, only a limited number of studies have examined physical activity in psoriasis, which are limited by poor design and lack of validated physical activity assessment methodologies. A variety of data suggest shared physiologic pathways between physical activity, psoriasis, and psoriasis cardiometabolic co-morbidities. Increased adiposity, inflammation, oxidative stress, adhesion molecules and lipids are physiologically linked to psoriasis, the risk of psoriasis cardiometabolic co-morbidities, and low levels of physical activity. In addition, epigenetic pathways are involved in psoriasis and could be influenced by physical activity. The physical and psychosocial impairments common in psoriasis may make it difficult to participate in regular physical activity, and future studies should aim to determine if physical activity interventions improve functioning and reduce co-morbidities in psoriasis.

  20. Physical activity: practice this idea

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary habits or insufficient activities to promote health benefits can influence the occurrence of chronic diseases. The cardiovascular risk factors arise, at least partially, from the individual-environment interaction during life, and worsen with aging and lack of physical exercise. Health promotion and prevention are among the greatest challenges of public health policies. However, physical activity turns out to be rarely recommended and, thus have a very poor adhesion. In spite of consensus about the benefits of physical activity in both primary and secondary prevention, only 32% of adults and 66% of children and adolescents, according to Healthy People 2010 guideline, practice leisure-time physical activity. Thus, the regular practice of physical activity and healthy habits require changes in basic concepts in government and social policies. The higher involvement of public and private sectors related to health and education, the more expressive would be the reduction in socioeconomic costs and the improvement in quality of life. PMID:24551484

  1. From Physical Activity Guidelines to a National Activity Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Daniel B.; Pate, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) is a comprehensive strategic plan aimed at increasing physical activity levels in all segments of the American population. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the development of the NPAP, provide an update on the status of the NPAP, and comment on the future of the NPAP. The NPAP was released…

  2. Physical Activity and Health. A Report of the Surgeon General.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    The informatin in this report summarizes the existing literature on the role of physical activity in preventing disease and on the status of interventions to increase physical activity, focusing on endurance-type physical activity. School-based interventions have been shown to be successful in increasing physical activity levels. With evidence…

  3. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  4. Multimorbidity, cognitive function, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-02-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both physical activity and multimorbidity are associated with cognitive function. However, the extent to which physical activity may moderate the relationship between multimorbidity and cognitive function has not been thoroughly evaluated. Data from the 1999-2002 NHANES were used (60+ years; N = 2157). A multimorbidity index variable was created based on physician diagnosis of a multitude of chronic diseases. Physical activity was self-reported and cognitive function was evaluated from the digit symbol substitution test. Multimorbidity was inversely associated with cognitive function for the unadjusted and adjusted models. However, generally, multimorbidity was no longer associated with cognitive function for the majority of older adults who achieved the minimum recommended physical activity level (≥2000 MET-min-month), as issued by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. In this national sample of older adults, there was some evidence to suggest that physical activity moderates the relationship between multimorbidity and cognitive function.

  5. The effects of exergaming on physical activity in a third-grade physical education class.

    PubMed

    Shayne, Rachel K; Fogel, Victoria A; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Koehler, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of exergaming and traditional physical education on physical activity among 4 active children who were not overweight and who had experience with the exergaming activities prior to the study. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially higher percentages of physical activity and opportunity to engage in physical activity. In addition, an evaluation of the exergaming equipment showed that exergaming stations were associated with differential levels of physical activity across participants.

  6. NEW APPROACHES: Reading in Advanced level physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, Dorothy

    1997-11-01

    Teachers often report that their A-level pupils are unwilling to read physics-related material. What is it about physics texts that deters pupils from reading them? Are they just too difficult for 16 - 18 year olds, or is it that pupils lack specific reading skills? This article describes some of the results from my research into pupils' reading of physics-related texts and tries to clarify the situation.

  7. Skin microvascular reactivity in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in relation to levels of physical activity and aerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Roche, Denise M; Edmunds, Sarah; Cable, Tim; Didi, Mo; Stratton, Gareth

    2008-11-01

    No studies to date have evaluated the relationship between exercise and microvascular function in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Twenty-nine complication free children and adolescents with T1DM were assessed for skin microvascular reactivity, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and physical activity. VO2peak but not physical activity was significantly and independently associated with maximal hyperemia of the skin microcirculation (p < .01). No significant associations were found between venoarteriolar reflex (VAR) vasoconstriction and VO2peak or physical activity. Aerobic fitness may be an important indicator or mediator of effective microvascular endothelial function in youth with T1DM.

  8. Validation of reported physical activity for cholesterol control using two different physical activity instruments.

    PubMed

    Fan, Amy Z; Ham, Sandra A; Muppidi, Shravani Reddy; Mokdad, Ali H

    2009-01-01

    The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends increasing physical activity to improve cholesterol levels and overall cardiovascular health. We examined whether US adults who reported increasing their physical activity to control or lower blood cholesterol following physician's advice or on their own efforts had higher levels of physical activity than those who reported that they did not. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004, which implemented two physical activity assessment instruments. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) assessed self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of leisure-time, household, and transportation-related physical activity in the past month. Physical movement was objectively monitored using a waist accelerometer that assessed minute-by-minute intensity (counts of movement/minute) during waking time over a 7-day period. We adjusted our analysis for age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and body mass index. Participants who reported increasing physical activity to control blood cholesterol had more PAQ-assessed physical activity and more accelerometer-assessed active days per week compared to those who did not. However, there were no significant differences in cholesterol levels between comparison groups. These findings suggest that self-report of exercising more to control or lower cholesterol levels among US adults might be valid.

  9. Level and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in patients with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis of the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study_2

    PubMed Central

    Balducci, Stefano; D’Errico, Valeria; Haxhi, Jonida; Sacchetti, Massimo; Orlando, Giorgio; Cardelli, Patrizia; Di Biase, Nicolina; Bollanti, Lucilla; Conti, Francesco; Zanuso, Silvano; Nicolucci, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Objective Patients with type 2 diabetes usually show reduced physical activity (PA) and increased sedentary (SED)-time, though to a varying extent, especially for low-intensity PA (LPA), a major determinant of daily energy expenditure that is not accurately captured by questionnaires. This study assessed the level and correlates of PA and SED-time in patients from the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study_2 (IDES_2). Methods Three-hundred physically inactive and sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the IDES_2 to be randomized to an intervention group, receiving theoretical and practical exercise counseling, and a control group, receiving standard care. At baseline, LPA, moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), and SED-time were measured by accelerometer. Physical fitness and cardiovascular risk factors and scores were also assessed. Results LPA was 3.93±1.35 hours∙day-1, MVPA was 12.4±4.6 min∙day-1, and SED-time was 11.6±1.2 hours∙day-1, with a large range of values (0.89–7.11 hours∙day-1, 0.6–21.0 min∙day-1, and 9.14–15.28 hours∙day-1, respectively). At bivariate analysis, LPA and MVPA correlated with better cardiovascular risk profile and fitness parameters, whereas the opposite was observed for SED-time. Likewise, values of LPA, MVPA, and SED-time falling in the best tertile were associated with optimal or acceptable levels of cardiovascular risk factors and scores. At multivariate analysis, age, female gender, HbA1c, BMI or waist circumference, and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (for LPA and SED-time only) were negatively associated with LPA and MPA and positively associated with SED-time in an independent manner. Conclusions Physically inactive and sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes from the IDES_2 show a low level of PA, though values of LPA, MVPA, and SED-time vary largely. Furthermore, there is a strong correlation of these measures with glycemic control, adiposity and inflammation, thus suggesting that even

  10. Effects of an 8-month exercise intervention on physical capacity, NT-proBNP, physical activity levels and quality of life data in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension by NYHA class.

    PubMed

    Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanz-Ayan, Paz; González-Saiz, Laura; Quezada-Loaiza, Carlos A; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Flox-Camacho, Angela; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Santalla, Alfredo; Morán, María; Escribano-Subías, Pilar; Lucia, Alejandro

    2017-06-01

    This article provides descriptive detailed (pre and post) values of physical capacity variables, NT-proBNP, physical activity levels and quality of life in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH) (both, intervention and control group) by New York Heart Association (NYHA) class before and after an 8-month exercise intervention. The data are supplemental to our original Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) entitled "Benefits of skeletal-muscle exercise training in pulmonary arterial hypertension: The WHOLEi+12 trial" (L. González-Saiz, C. Fiuza-Luces, F. Sanchis-Gomar, A. Santos-Lozano, C.A. Quezada-Loaiza, A. Flox-Camacho, D. Munguía-Izquierdo, I. Ara, A. Santalla, M. Morán, P. Sanz-Ayan, P. Escribano-Subías, A. Lucia A, 2017) [1].

  11. Preparing students for degree-level physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairhurst, David; Lloyd, Steve

    2013-11-01

    On behalf of the physics department at Nottingham Trent University (NTU), I would like to reply to the letter from Helen Hare on the need for foundation programmes to prepare students for degree-level physics courses ("Firm foundations", September p23).

  12. [Physical activity and brain function].

    PubMed

    Kempermann, G

    2012-06-01

    Physical activity has direct and indirect effects on brain function in health and disease. Findings demonstrating that physical activity improves cognitive and non-cognitive functions and is preventive for several neuropsychiatric disorders have attracted particular interest. This short review focuses on sports and physical exercise in normal brain function and summarizes which mechanisms might underlie the observed effects, which methodological problems exist, which relationships exist to concepts of plasticity and neural reserves and what evolutionary relevance the initially surprising finding that physical exercise is good for the brain has.

  13. Electronic Instrumentation in A-Level Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellse, Mark

    1986-01-01

    Describes: (1) the light beam galvanometer; (2) the electrometer/direct current amplifier; and (3) digital multimeters. Focuses on the uses or potential uses of these instruments in teaching A-level physics. (JN)

  14. Predictors and grade level trends of school day physical activity achievement in low-income children from the U.S.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A; Fang, Yi; Myrer, Rachel S; Fu, You; Hannon, James C

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of recommended levels (≥ 30 min/day) of school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is paramount to decrease risk of chronic disease in children from low-income families. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and grade-level trends of school day MVPA achievement in low-income children. Data were collected during the Fall of 2014 on 1232 children (Mean age = 8.8 ± 1.6 years; 625 girls, 607 boys) recruited from three low-income schools from the state of Utah in the U.S. Children wore pedometers for one school week and a stratified random subsample (n = 533) also wore accelerometers to record sedentary time and MVPA. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to calculate odds ratios for achieving school MVPA standards (≥ 30 min/day) from various predictors and to determine odds of achievement across grade levels, accounting for school and classroom clustering. Odds of meeting MVPA standards were 3 times greater if a student achieved at least 6000 steps during the school day (p < 0.01), and were 55% lower for every 1% increase in sedentary time (p < 0.001). Older children had 26% lower odds of meeting the recommended levels of MVPA compared to children in an immediately younger grade level (p < 0.05). A significant proportion of MVPA variance was explained by classroom and school affiliation (Rho = 0.09 to 0.54, p < 0.001). Daily steps, sedentary times, grade level, and classroom and school affiliation associate with school MVPA achievement in low-income children.

  15. Predictors and grade level trends of school day physical activity achievement in low-income children from the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Ryan D.; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Fang, Yi; Myrer, Rachel S.; Fu, You; Hannon, James C.

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of recommended levels (≥ 30 min/day) of school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is paramount to decrease risk of chronic disease in children from low-income families. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and grade-level trends of school day MVPA achievement in low-income children. Data were collected during the Fall of 2014 on 1232 children (Mean age = 8.8 ± 1.6 years; 625 girls, 607 boys) recruited from three low-income schools from the state of Utah in the U.S. Children wore pedometers for one school week and a stratified random subsample (n = 533) also wore accelerometers to record sedentary time and MVPA. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to calculate odds ratios for achieving school MVPA standards (≥ 30 min/day) from various predictors and to determine odds of achievement across grade levels, accounting for school and classroom clustering. Odds of meeting MVPA standards were 3 times greater if a student achieved at least 6000 steps during the school day (p < 0.01), and were 55% lower for every 1% increase in sedentary time (p < 0.001). Older children had 26% lower odds of meeting the recommended levels of MVPA compared to children in an immediately younger grade level (p < 0.05). A significant proportion of MVPA variance was explained by classroom and school affiliation (Rho = 0.09 to 0.54, p < 0.001). Daily steps, sedentary times, grade level, and classroom and school affiliation associate with school MVPA achievement in low-income children. PMID:26844162

  16. Effects of a Movement Integration Program on Elementary School Children's Physical Activity, Fitness Levels, and On-Task Behavior and Teachers' Implementation Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Tan Leng

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is an increasing problem among children and adolescents. The TAKE 10!® program, which integrates physical activity (PA) into academic subjects, was implemented in one elementary school in Magna, Utah to increase children's daily in-school PA. A three-study approach was used to examine: (a) effects of TAKE 10!® on elementary…

  17. Physics of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  18. The Built Environment Predicts Observed Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Cheryl; Wilson, Jeffrey S.; Schootman, Mario; Clennin, Morgan; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In order to improve our understanding of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity, it is important to identify associations between specific geographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors. Purpose: Examine relationships between observed physical activity behavior and measures of the built environment collected on 291 street segments in Indianapolis and St. Louis. Methods: Street segments were selected using a stratified geographic sampling design to ensure representation of neighborhoods with different land use and socioeconomic characteristics. Characteristics of the built environment on-street segments were audited using two methods: in-person field audits and audits based on interpretation of Google Street View imagery with each method blinded to results from the other. Segments were dichotomized as having a particular characteristic (e.g., sidewalk present or not) based on the two auditing methods separately. Counts of individuals engaged in different forms of physical activity on each segment were assessed using direct observation. Non-parametric statistics were used to compare counts of physically active individuals on each segment with built environment characteristic. Results: Counts of individuals engaged in physical activity were significantly higher on segments with mixed land use or all non-residential land use, and on segments with pedestrian infrastructure (e.g., crosswalks and sidewalks) and public transit. Conclusion: Several micro-level built environment characteristics were associated with physical activity. These data provide support for theories that suggest changing the built environment and related policies may encourage more physical activity. PMID:24904916

  19. High-intensity physical activity modulates diet effects on cerebrospinal amyloid-β levels in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laura D; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L; Skinner, Jeannine; Montine, Thomas J; Cholerton, Brenna A; Callaghan, Maureen; Leverenz, James B; Walter, Brooke K; Tsai, Elaine; Postupna, Nadia; Lampe, Johanna; Craft, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed that amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ(42)) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were markedly altered in response to a 4-week dietary intervention in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here, we re-examined the data to assess whether diet-induced effects on CSF Aβ(42) were modulated by high intensity physical activity (hi-PA). Normal older adults (n = 18, mean age = 68.6 ± 7.4 y) and adults with amnestic MCI (n = 23, mean age = 68.0 ± 6.5 y) received a low saturated fat/low glycemic index (LOW) diet or a high saturated fat/high glycemic index (HIGH) diet, and CSF levels of Aβ(42), tau, and IL-8 were measured at baseline and week 4. Pre-study activity levels were assessed using a 7-d questionnaire, and weekly duration of hi-PA was quantified. At baseline, increased hi-PA in normals predicted lower CSF levels of tau (r = -0.54, p = 0.020) and IL-8 (r = -0.70, p = 0.025). Diet-induced effects on CSF Aβ(42) during the intervention study were modulated by hi-PA, and the nature of this effect differed for normals and MCI (ANOVA, p = 0.039). That is, for normal adults, increased hi-PA attenuated the effects of the HIGH diet on CSF Aβ(42) whereas in MCI, increased hi-PA potentiated the effects of the LOW diet. Our results suggest that normal adults who engage in hi-PA are less vulnerable to the pathological effects of an unhealthy diet, while in MCI, the benefit of a healthy diet on Aβ modulation is greatest when paired with hi-PA. Exercise may thus interact with diet to alter pathological processes that ultimately modify risk of Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Connecting Physical Education to Out-of-School Physical Activity through Sport Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwamberger, Benjamin; Sinelnikov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    One of the goals of physical education, according to The Society of Health and Physical Educators, is for children to establish "patterns of regular participation in meaningful physical activity." However, participation alone in physical education classes is not enough for students to reach daily recommended levels of physical activity.…

  1. Upper level experimental physics resource materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Lee E.

    1992-04-01

    During a 1990 NSF-sponsored workshop on improving upper level experimental physics laboratories, it was agreed that a list of resources from publishers and from institutions with strong upper level labs would be useful to the physics teaching community. This compilation is by no means exhaustive, and suggestions for additions are welcome. If you have or know of materials that should be included, please contact the compiler of this list, Lee Larson, Department of Physics, Denison University, Granville, Ohio (614-587-6468; Bitnet LARSON@DENISON).

  2. The Value of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern; Vogel, Paul

    This booklet summarizes results of research and literature reviews that had been collected in a source book titled "Physical Activity & Well-Being" and published in 1986 by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. The evidence presented suggests that exercise can reduce or delay the undesirable effects of many degenerative…

  3. Physical Activity & Well-being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern, Ed.

    This book reviews evidence in the biological and behavioral sciences relating physical activity to human well-being. The following articles are included: (1) "Physical Growth and Maturation" (Robert M. Malina); (2) "Acquisition of Motor Skills During Childhood" (John L. Haubenstricker and Vern D. Seefeldt); (3) "Development of Sensory-Motor…

  4. Influence of High School Physical Education on University Student's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Jessica; Jenkins, Jayne; Wallhead, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the Lifelong Physical Activity (LLPA) framework to examine the influence of high school physical education (PE) on university students' level of physical activity (PA). Participants included 365 undergraduate students from the Rocky Mountain West of the USA enrolled in a university physical activity course.…

  5. Physical Activity and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of physical activity among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which low levels of physical activity and fitness adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to increase physical activity and physical fitness among youth. Methods:…

  6. Return to physical activity after gastrocnemius recession

    PubMed Central

    Tang Qian Ying, Camelia; Lai Wei Hong, Sean; Lee, Bing Howe; Thevendran, Gowreeson

    2016-01-01

    AIM To prospectively investigate the time taken and patients’ ability to resume preoperative level of physical activity after gastrocnemius recession. METHODS Endoscopic gastrocnemius recession (EGR) was performed on 48 feet in 46 consecutive sportspersons, with a minimum follow-up of 24 mo. The Halasi Ankle Activity Score was used to quantify the level of physical activity. Time taken to return to work and physical activity was recorded. Functional outcomes were evaluated using the short form 36 (SF-36), American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Hindfoot score and modified Olerud and Molander (O and M) scores respectively. Patient’s satisfaction and pain experienced were assessed using a modified Likert scale and visual analogue scales. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS Ninety-one percent (n = 42) of all patients returned to their preoperative level of physical activity after EGR. The mean time for return to physical activity was 7.5 (2-24) mo. Ninety-eight percent (n = 45) of all patients were able to return to their preoperative employment status, with a mean time of 3.6 (1-12) mo. Ninety-six percent (n = 23) of all patients with an activity score > 2 were able to resume their preoperative level of physical activity in mean time of 8.8 mo, as compared to 86% (n = 19) of patients whose activity score was ≤ 2, with mean time of 6.1 mo. Significant improvements were noted in SF-36, AOFAS hindfoot and modified O and M scores. Ninety percent of all patients rated good or very good outcomes on the Likert scale. CONCLUSION The majority of patients were able to return to their pre-operative level of sporting activity after EGR. PMID:27900272

  7. Physical Activity Levels in Women Attending Breast Screening, Receiving Chemotherapy and Post-Breast Cancer Treatment; A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lahart, Ian M.; Metsios, George S.; Nevill, Alan M.; Carmichael, Amtul R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A lack of physical activity (PA) is a well-recognised risk factor in the development of breast cancer (BC) and evidence-base research on the impact of PA on BC survival is consolidating. However, evidence reveals that BC survivors have low levels of PA, suggesting the need of targeted interventions to enhance the PA behaviour of BC survivors. Unfortunately, there is lack of data from the UK about the PA behaviours of women at various stages of diagnosis and treatment of BC. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess PA levels in women at different stages of BC pathway. Patients and Methods: A convenient sample of patients was selected at various stages of presentation and treatment of BC. Patients attending for breast screening for NHSBSP (n = 188), post-operative patients attending for chemotherapy (n = 41) and BC patients within one year’s post-treatment (n = 80) were invited to take part in this cross-sectional study. Results: Based on the odds ratio, the likelihood of a chemotherapy participant not meeting PA guidelines (i.e., being in the low activity category) were three times higher than the odds of a NHSBPS attendee not meeting PA guidelines, and compared to post-treatment participants, the chemotherapy patient’s odds of not meeting PA guidelines was four times higher. The odds of NHSBPS attendees being in the high activity category compared to the moderate category were three times higher than that of a post-treatment participant. Conclusions: The current study suggests the need to establish robust PA interventions to enhance the PA behaviour of breast cancer survivors. PMID:24852599

  8. Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borremans, Erwin; Rintala, Pauli; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    While physical activity is beneficial for youth with developmental disabilities, little is known about those individuals' fitness profile and levels of activity. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile and physical activity level of 30 adolescents with and without Asperger syndrome (AS). Evaluations were…

  9. Associations between neighborhood-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary intake, physical activity, and support for obesity prevention polices among rural adults.

    PubMed

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas C; Johnston, Larry F; Smith, Tosha W; McGuirt, Jared T; Evenson, Kelly R; Rafferty, Ann P; Gizlice, Ziya; Garcia, Beverly A; Ammerman, Alice S

    2015-04-01

    We examined cross-sectional associations among neighborhood- and individual-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary intake, physical activity (PA), and support for obesity prevention polices in rural eastern North Carolina adults. We examined perceived neighborhood barriers to a healthful lifestyle, and associations between neighborhood barriers to healthy eating and PA, participants' support for seven obesity prevention policies, and dependent variables of self-reported dietary and PA behaviors, and measured body mass index (BMI) (n = 366 study participants). We then used participants' residential addresses and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software to assess neighborhood-level factors related to access to healthy food and PA opportunities. Correlational analyses and adjusted linear regression models were used to examine associations between neighborhood-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary and PA behaviors, BMI, and obesity prevention policy support. The most commonly reported neighborhood barriers (from a list of 18 potential barriers) perceived by participants included: not enough bicycle lanes and sidewalks, not enough affordable exercise places, too much crime, and no place to buy a quick, healthy meal to go. Higher diet quality was inversely related to perceived and GIS-assessed neighborhood nutrition barriers. There were no significant associations between neighborhood barriers and PA. More perceived neighborhood barriers were positively associated with BMI. Support for obesity prevention policy change was positively associated with perceptions of more neighborhood barriers. Neighborhood factors that promote a healthful lifestyle were associated with higher diet quality and lower BMI. Individuals who perceived more neighborhood-level barriers to healthy eating and PA usually supported policies to address those barriers. Future studies should examine mechanisms to garner such support for health

  10. General and Abdominal Obesity Is Related to Physical Activity, Smoking and Sleeping Behaviours and Mediated by the Educational Level: Findings from the ANIBES Study in Spain

    PubMed Central

    López-Sobaler, Ana M.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the association of socioeconomic (SES) and lifestyle factors, with the conditions of overweight (OW), general (OB) and abdominal obesity (AO) in Spanish adults. A representative sample of 1655 Spanish adults (18 to 65 years) from the ANIBES Study was investigated. Collected data included measured anthropometry (weight, height and waist circumference), demographic and SES data (region and habitant population size, educational level, family income, unemployment rate), physical activity (PA) and other lifestyle factors (sleeping time and frequency of viewing television). OW, OB and AO were determined in each participant. Being male, older than 40 years, and watching television more frequently were associated with higher risk of OB and AO, whereas those with a higher level of education, smokers, and more time in sleeping and in vigorous PA, but not in moderate-vigorous PA, were associated with a lower risk. Living in the Atlantic region and stating no answer to the question regarding family income were also associated with lower risk of AO. Strategies for preventing and reducing OB and AO should consider improving sleeping habits and PA. They should also pay more attention to the most vulnerable groups such as those less educated. PMID:28033380

  11. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ji, Cheng-Ye

    2007-01-01

    Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%)), four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%)). Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving) when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences of physical activity on

  12. The physical sacrifice of thinking: Investigating the relationship between thinking and physical activity in everyday life.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Todd; Dickinson, David L; Stroh, Nathan; Dickinson, Christopher A

    2016-08-01

    Physical activity level is an important contributor to overall human health and obesity. Research has shown that humans possess a number of traits that influence their physical activity level including social cognition. We examined whether the trait of "need for cognition" was associated with daily physical activity levels. We recruited individuals who were high or low in need for cognition and measured their physical activity level in 30-second epochs over a 1-week period. The overall findings showed that low-need-for-cognition individuals were more physically active, but this difference was most pronounced during the 5-day work week and lessened during the weekend.

  13. Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight Language: English Español (Spanish) ... calories are used in typical activities? Why is physical activity important? Regular physical activity is important for good ...

  14. Perceived climate in physical activity settings.

    PubMed

    Gill, Diane L; Morrow, Ronald G; Collins, Karen E; Lucey, Allison B; Schultz, Allison M

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the perceived climate for LGBT youth and other minority groups in physical activity settings. A large sample of undergraduates and a selected sample including student teachers/interns and a campus Pride group completed a school climate survey and rated the climate in three physical activity settings (physical education, organized sport, exercise). Overall, school climate survey results paralleled the results with national samples revealing high levels of homophobic remarks and low levels of intervention. Physical activity climate ratings were mid-range, but multivariate analysis of variation test (MANOVA) revealed clear differences with all settings rated more inclusive for racial/ethnic minorities and most exclusive for gays/lesbians and people with disabilities. The results are in line with national surveys and research suggesting sexual orientation and physical characteristics are often the basis for harassment and exclusion in sport and physical activity. The current results also indicate that future physical activity professionals recognize exclusion, suggesting they could benefit from programs that move beyond awareness to skills and strategies for creating more inclusive programs.

  15. Leisure-time physical activity in relation to occupational physical activity among women

    PubMed Central

    Ekenga, Christine C.; Parks, Christine G.; Wilson, Lauren E.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between occupational physical activity and leisure-time physical activity among US women in the Sister Study. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 26,334 women who had been employed in their current job for at least 1 year at baseline (2004–2009). Occupational physical activity was self-reported and leisure-time physical activity was estimated in metabolic equivalent hours per week. Log multinomial regression was used to evaluate associations between occupational (sitting, standing, manually active) and leisure-time (insufficient, moderate, high) activity. Models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, geographic region, and body mass index. Results Only 54% of women met or exceeded minimum recommended levels of leisure-time physical activity (moderate 32% and high 22%). Women who reported sitting (PR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74–0.92) or standing (PR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.75–0.94) most of the time at work were less likely to meet the requirements for high leisure-time physical activity than manually active workers. Associations were strongest among women living in the Northeast and the South. Conclusion In this nationwide study, low occupational activity was associated with lower leisure-time physical activity. Women who are not active in the workplace may benefit from strategies to promote leisure-time physical activity. PMID:25773471

  16. Physical activity information seeking and advertising recall.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion.

  17. Physical activity in physical education: teacher or technology effects.

    PubMed

    Grissom, Traci; Ward, Phillip; Martin, Beth; Leenders, Nicole Y J M

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed if wearing a heart rate monitor influenced student activity levels in elementary physical education. Data were analyzed for 4 students using an alternating treatment design to assess differential effects between accelerometer activity counts obtained from students when wearing the heart rate monitor and when they were not wearing the monitor. Results show that (a) there was no difference in activity counts between the 2 conditions, (b) boys had higher means than girls, and (c) the variance between more and less active boys was greater than the variance among the girls.

  18. Increasing opportunities for physical activity.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Sue

    2007-07-01

    Being physically active can have a number of benefits - having fun, meeting with friends, keeping healthy and experiencing success. For children with Down syndrome the foundations need to be laid early if they are to keep active in school, teenage and adult years and parents ask for more help in this area from professionals.

  19. The Role of Physical Activity and Physical Function on the Risk of Falls in Older Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Al Snih, Soham

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between physical activity and physical function on the risk of falls over time in a cohort of Mexican-American adults aged 75 and older from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (H-EPESE). Participants were divided into four groups according to their level of physical activity and physical function: low physical activity and low physical function (n = 453); low physical activity and high physical function (n = 54); high physical activity and low physical function (n = 307); and high physical activity and high physical function (n = 197). Using generalized linear equation estimation, we showed that participants with high physical activity and low physical function had a greater fall risk over time, followed by the high physical activity and high physical function group. Participants seldom took part in activities that improve physical function. To prevent falls, modifications to physical activity should be made for older Mexican Americans.

  20. [Physical activity and cardiovascular health].

    PubMed

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that regular moderate physical activity, in the context of a healthy lifestyle, significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. In addition, it is scientifically proven that exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer and colon cancer. Despite this strong evidence, sedentary lifestyle remains a widespread habit in the western world. Even in Italy the adult population has a poor attitude to regular physical activity. It is therefore necessary, as continuously recommended by the World Health Organization, to motivate people to "move" since the transition from inactivity to regular light to moderate physical activity has a huge impact on health, resulting in significant savings of resources. We do not need to be athletes to exercise - it should be part of all our daily routines.

  1. Children's Physical Activity and Environmental Influences during Elementary School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Bik C.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Louie, Lobo

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) during physical education is important for health purposes and for developing physical fitness and movement skills. To examine PA levels and how PA was influenced by environmental and instructor-related characteristics, we assessed children's activity during 368 lessons taught by 105 physical education specialists in 42…

  2. Motivating People To Be Physically Active. Physical Activity Intervention Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.

    This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…

  3. Teaching Techniques: Physical Vocabulary in the Beginner-Level Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiullo, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    After having success with this warm-up activity in his theater classes, the author adapted it for his beginner-level English classes, knowing his students would appreciate the opportunity to move around. The activity allows students to create their own physical interpretation of a vocabulary word, which increases their ability to remember it…

  4. Design, Development, and Formative Evaluation of a Smartphone Application for Recording and Monitoring Physical Activity Levels: The 10,000 Steps "iStepLog"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirwan, Morwenna; Duncan, Mitch J.; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Mummery, W. Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Limited research exists addressing the development of health-related smartphone apps, a new and potentially effective health promotion delivery strategy. This article describes the development and formative evaluation of a smartphone app associated with a physical activity promotion website. Methods: A combination of qualitative and…

  5. Utility of a Web-based intervention for individuals with type 2 diabetes: the impact on physical activity levels and glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chun-Ja; Kang, Duck-Hee

    2006-01-01

    Despite the numerous benefits of physical activity for patients with diabetes, most healthcare providers in busy clinical settings rarely find time to counsel their patients about it. A Web-based program for healthcare providers can be used as an effective counseling tool, when strategies are outlined for specific stages of readiness for physical activity. Seventy-three adults with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to Web-based intervention, printed-material intervention, or usual care. After 12 weeks, the effects of the interventions on physical activity, fasting blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin were evaluated. Both Web-based and printed material intervention, compared with usual care, were effective in increasing physical activity (P < .001) and decreasing fasting blood sugar (P<.01) and glycosylated hemoglobin (P < .01). Post hoc analysis for change scores indicated significant differences between Web-based intervention and usual care and between printed material intervention and usual care, but not between web-based and printed material intervention. The findings of this study support the value of Web-based and printed material interventions in healthcare counseling. With increasing Web access, the effectiveness of Web-based programs offered directly to patients needs to be tested.

  6. [Metabolic fitness: physical activity and health].

    PubMed

    Saltin, Bengt; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2002-04-15

    Physical inactivity is strongly associated with an increased risk of premature disease and death, and the falling level of physical activity in Denmark (as in many other countries) makes physical inactivity a major life-style risk factor in many western countries today. Both aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen uptake) and metabolic capacity of the muscles are important in this matter. The present paper focuses on the role of the metabolic capacity/fitness of muscle, because this appears to be especially critical for the development of metabolic-related diseases and thus for the health of the individual. A definition of metabolic fitness is proposed as the ratio between mitochondrial capacity for substrate utilisation and maximum oxygen uptake of the muscle. Indirect means of determining this parameter are discussed. Skeletal muscle is an extraordinarily plastic tissue and metabolic capacity/fitness changes quickly when the level of physical activity is altered. High metabolic fitness includes an elevated use of fat at rest and during exercise. The capacity for glucose metabolism is also enhanced in trained muscle. Some of these adaptations to physical activity are explained. Exercise-induced activation of genes coding for proteins involved in metabolism is described as an underlying mechanism for some of these adaptations. The increased gene expression is of relatively short duration, which implies that a certain regularity of physical activity is required to maintain high metabolic fitness. Thus, metabolic fitness is directly related to how much the muscle is used, but even low levels of physical activity have a beneficial effect on metabolic fitness and the overall health of the individual.

  7. Physical Activity and Modernization among Bolivian Amerindians

    PubMed Central

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V.; Kaplan, Hillard; Cummings, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity. Methods and Findings A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR), the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL) of 2.02–2.15 and 1.73–1.85, respectively. Little time was spent “sedentary”, whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity. Conclusions Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely caused by

  8. Assessment of physical activity using wearable monitors: Measures of physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activitymay be defined broadly as "all bodily actions produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increase energy expenditure above basal level." Physical activity is a complex construct that can be classified into major categories qualitatively, quantitatively, or contextually. The...

  9. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  10. Best Practices and Recommendations for Increasing Physical Activity in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Beets, Michael W.; Centeio, Erin; Morrow, James R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Many efforts to increase the physical activity levels of Americans have been introduced and implemented over the past 20 years. National Physical Activity Guidelines have been established, and the National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) is now in place, which includes a specific sector dedicated to education. This article addresses the Education…

  11. Who Attends Physical Activity Programmes in Deprived Neighbourhoods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withall, J.; Jago, R.; Fox, K. R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Physical activity can reduce the risk of several chronic diseases. Such diseases are most prevalent in economically-disadvantaged groups where physical activity levels are consistently lower. There is a need to engage disadvantaged groups in programmes to increase physical activity. This case study examined programmes on offer in a…

  12. After-School Physical Activity Programs for Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Doris L.; Poczwaradowski, Artur; Eisenman, Pat

    2000-01-01

    Describes adolescent girls' responses to an after-school physical activity program, examining how it functioned as a listening tool within a social marketing approach to promoting physical activity. Focus groups and interviews indicated that girls enjoyed and valued the program. Though the program did not increase girls' physical activity levels,…

  13. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult life span. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by…

  14. The Effect of Outdoor Activity Context on Physical Activity in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Normand, Matthew P.; Larson, Tracy A.; Morley, Allison J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and test a method for assessing the effect of outdoor activity context on level of physical activity in preschool children. The Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children was used to define the test conditions and various levels of physical activity within a multielement design.…

  15. Validity of method to quantify transtibial amputees' free-living prosthetic wearing times and physical activity levels when using suction suspension sockets.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kit Tzu; Spence, William D; Maxwell, Douglas; Stansfield, Benedict William

    2012-01-01

    Prostheses are prescribed to restore the mobility of people with amputated lower limbs. Monitoring the prosthesis wearing times and physical activity of prosthesis users would provide invaluable information regarding rehabilitation progress and suitability of the prosthesis. The validation of a method to determine wearing times and physical activity state, as well as strides taken, of amputees wearing suction suspension sockets is reported. Eight participants with transtibial amputation were fitted with custom-made suction sockets. Analysis algorithms were used to automatically characterize physical activity based on the pressure at the socket's relief valve. The algorithms were validated in a laboratory-based protocol that included walking, stair climbing, standing, sitting, donning, and doffing. Intraclass correlation coefficient (2,1) values of >0.98 were achieved with mean differences of - 2.0%, 0.3%, 1.3%, and 0.7% for agreement between "off," "static," and "dynamic" times and stride count, respectively, as determined by the analysis algorithms and a concurrent video analysis. This study demonstrates that an interpretation of the pressure at the pressure-relief valve of suction suspension sockets can be used to determine wearing times and activity state.

  16. Fitness and Physical Activity. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    What can be done to support fitness and physical activity? Schools can guide students in developing life-long habits of participating in physical activities. According to the National Association for Sports and Physical Education, the concepts of physical fitness activities and physical education are used synonymously, however, they are not the…

  17. VIP in construction: systematic development and evaluation of a multifaceted health programme aiming to improve physical activity levels and dietary patterns among construction workers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of both overweight and musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the construction industry is high. Many interventions in the occupational setting aim at the prevention and reduction of these health problems, but it is still unclear how these programmes should be designed. To determine the effectiveness of interventions on these health outcomes randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are needed. The aim of this study is to systematically develop a tailored intervention for prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD among construction workers and to describe the evaluation study regarding its (cost-)effectiveness. Methods/Design The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol was applied to develop and implement a tailored programme aimed at the prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD. The (cost-) effectiveness of the intervention programme will be evaluated using an RCT. Furthermore, a process evaluation will be conducted. The research population will consist of blue collar workers of a large construction company in the Netherlands. Intervention The intervention programme will be aimed at improving (vigorous) physical activity levels and healthy dietary behaviour and will consist of tailored information, face-to-face and telephone counselling, training instruction (a fitness "card" to be used for exercises), and materials designed for the intervention (overview of the company health promoting facilities, waist circumference measuring tape, pedometer, BMI card, calorie guide, recipes, and knowledge test). Main study parameters/endpoints The intervention effect on body weight and waist circumference (primary outcome measures), as well as on lifestyle behaviour, MSD, fitness, CVD risk indicators, and work-related outcomes (i.e. productivity, sick leave) (secondary outcome measures) will be assessed. Discussion The development of the VIP in construction intervention led to a health programme tailored to the needs of construction workers. This programme

  18. Assessing Preschool Children's Physical Activity: The Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Almeida, M. Joao C. A.; Pate, Russell R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present initial information concerning a new direct observation system--the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version. The system will allow researchers to record young children's physical activity levels while also coding the topography of their physical activity, as well as detailed…

  19. Is physical activity in natural environments better for mental health than physical activity in other environments?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that there may be synergy between the psychological benefits of physical activity, and the restorative effects of contact with a natural environment; physical activity in a natural environment might produce greater mental health benefits than physical activity elsewhere. However, such experiments are typically short-term and, by definition, artificially control the participant types, physical activity and contact with nature. This observational study asked whether such effects can be detected in everyday settings at a population level. It used data from the Scottish Health Survey 2008, describing all environments in which respondents were physically active. Associations were sought between use of each environment, and then use of environments grouped as natural or non-natural, and the risk of poor mental health (measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)) and level of wellbeing (measured by the Warwick Edinburgh Mental health and Wellbeing Score (WEMWBS). Results showed an independent association between regular use of natural environments and a lower risk of poor mental health, but not for activity in other types of environment. For example, the odds of poor mental health (GHQ ≥ 4) among those regularly using woods or forests for physical activity were 0.557 (95% CI 0.323-0.962), compared to non-users. However, regular use of natural environments was not clearly associated with greater wellbeing, whilst regular use of non-natural environments was. The study concludes that physical activity in natural environments is associated with a reduction in the risk of poor mental health to a greater extent than physical activity in other environments, but also that activity in different types of environment may promote different kinds of positive psychological response. Access to natural environments for physical activity should be protected and promoted as a contribution to protecting and improving population mental health.

  20. Aerobic Physical Activity and the Leadership of Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiser, Kari

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore if there was a connection between regular aerobic physical activity and the stress and energy levels of principals as they reported it. To begin the research, the current aerobic physical activity level of principals was discovered. Additionally, the energy and stress levels of the principals who do engage…

  1. Morningness-eveningness interferes with perceived health, physical activity, diet and stress levels in working women: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Haraszti, Réka Ágnes; Purebl, Gyorgy; Salavecz, Gyongyver; Poole, Lydia; Dockray, Samantha; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Sleep and health are closely interrelated and sleep quality is a well-known contributor to perceived health. However, effects of sleep-timing preference i.e. morningness-eveningness on health has yet to be revealed. In this study, we explored the relationship between morningness-eveningness and perceived health in a sample of female working professionals (N = 202). Sleep-timing preference was measured using the Composite Scale of Morningness. Perceived health was characterized by Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, WHO Well-Being Scale-5 and Patient Health Questionnaire-15 scores. We also investigated possible mechanisms, including stress and health-impairing behaviours. In accordance with previous data, we found more depressive mood, lower well-being and poorer perceived health among evening types. To assess health-impairing behaviours we collected data on smoking habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet. Among the possible mechanism variables, greater stress, less frequent physical activity and less healthy diet were associated with eveningness. Furthermore, stress diminished the strength of the association between morningness-eveningness and depressed mood. Physical activity attenuated the strength of the association between morningness-eveningness and well-being. No effects of alcohol consumption could be identified. Our data show that evening preference behaves as a health risk in terms of associating with poor perceived health. Our findings also suggest that this effect might be mediated by health behaviours and stress.

  2. Physical Education: A Cornerstone for Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tappe, Marlene K.; Burgeson, Charlene R.

    2004-01-01

    "Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" ("Physical Activity and Health"; United States Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], 1996) documented for the first time the cumulative body of evidence related to physical activity and health. This report completed the set of Surgeon General's reports…

  3. Let's Get Moving! Physical Activity and Students with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menear, Kristi Sayers; Shapiro, Deborah R.

    2004-01-01

    Roughly 39% of children and youth with disabilities are physically active (Longmuir & Bar-Or, 2000). Increasing the number of individuals with disabilities who are physically active is a public health priority (Kosma, Cardinal & Rintala, 2002). This paper will highlight the current status of physical activity for persons with a disability by…

  4. Decreased levels of physical activity in adolescents with down syndrome are related with low bone mineral density: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Down syndrome (DS) has been described as one of the main contributors for low bone mineral density (BMD). Physical activity (PA) is a key factor in skeletal health and thus, PA levels might be associated to the risk of developing osteoporosis. Therefore, the aims were (1) to describe PA patterns in adolescents with DS compared to their counterparts and (2) to determine the relationships between PA and the risk of having low bone mass in adolescents with DS. Methods Nineteen adolescents (10 girls) with DS and 14 without disabilities (7 girls) participated in the study. Minutes in different PA intensities were objectively assessed with accelerometers (ActiTrainer). Moreover adolescents with DS were classified into PA tertiles taking into account the amount of total minutes of PA at any intensity, resulting in those performing low, medium or high of PA (lowPA, medPA and highPA). BMD was measured at the whole body, hip and lumbar spine with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and the BMD Z-score was calculated for each region taking into account age- and sex-matched reference data. Student’s unpaired t-tests and analysis of covariance were used to compare variables between different conditions (DS vs. control) and PA levels (low, medium and high). Results None of the adolescents with DS achieved the minimum of 60 min of daily moderate to vigorous PA (VPA) intensity recommended by PA guidelines; adolescents with DS group spent less time in sedentary and in VPA and more time in light PA than those without DS (p < 0.05). Adolescents with DS showed lower BMD Z-score values than those without (p < 0.05). Those adolescents with DS allocated in the lowPA tertile showed significant lower BMD Z-score at the hip and a general tendency towards lower BMD Z-score was found at whole body and lumbar spine compared to those in highPA tertile and (p < 0.05). Conclusions Adolescents with DS in the highPA tertile showed lower risk of developing future osteoporosis by having

  5. [Effect of short term graded physical exercise on the level of glycemia in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: data of long term ECG monitoring and registration of motor activity].

    PubMed

    Laptev, D N; Kruzhkova, M N; Riabykina, G V; Poliakov, S D; Korneeva, I T

    2012-01-01

    Study aim was to elucidate effect of graded physical exercise on glycemia level and interval QT duration in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We carried out 25-hours parallel monitoring of glycemia, ECG and physical activity in 15 children and adolescents aged 9-17 years. During monitoring these patients performed an exercise test (PWC170). We found that there were two periods of significant and prolonged lowering of glycemia: in 120-420 min and 19-21 hours after exercise. Lowering of glycemia after physical exercise was associated with prolongation of QT interval. Registration of motor activity allowed to exclude changes of glycemia due to physical activity unrelated to graded exercise.

  6. Impact of an After-School Physical Activity Program on Youth's Physical Activity Correlates and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chaoqun; Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Schultz, Barry; Newton, Maria; Jenson, William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of a sports-based, after-school physical activity (PA) program on youth's physical activity PA levels and PA correlates. After the pretest, 130 youth were assigned to the intervention group (i.e., after-school PA group) or the comparison (i.e., no after-school PA group) group.…

  7. DOING Physics: Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Recommends an experiment which will help students experience the physical evidence that floors, tables, and walls actually bend when pressure is exerted against them. Set-up includes: laser, radio, solar cell, and wall-mounted mirror. When the beam is moved by pressure on the wall, participants can "hear the wall bend." (DH)

  8. Physical activity and lung cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Emaus, Aina; Thune, Inger

    2011-01-01

    Since lung cancer is among the cancers with the highest incidence and has the highest mortality rate of cancer worldwide, the means of reducing its impact are urgently needed. Emerging evidence shows that physical activity plays an etiological role in lung cancer risk reduction. The majority of studies support the fact that total and recreational physical activity reduces lung cancer risk by 20-30% for women and 20-50% for men, and there is evidence of a dose-response effect. The biological mechanisms operating between physical activity and lung cancer are likely complex and influenced by many factors including inherited or acquired susceptibility genes, gender, smoking, and other environmental factors. Several plausible biological factors and mechanisms have been hypothesized linking physical activity to reduced lung cancer risk including: improved pulmonary function, reduced concentrations of carcinogenic agents in the lungs, enhanced immune function, reduced inflammation, enhanced DNA repair capacity, changes in growth factor levels and possible gene-physical activity interactions. Future research should target the possible subgroup effects and the biologic mechanisms that may be involved.

  9. Physical activity in preschoolers: understanding prevalence and measurement issues.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Melody; Schofield, Grant M; Kolt, Gregory S

    2007-01-01

    Accurate physical activity quantification in preschoolers is essential to establish physical activity prevalence, dose-response relationships between activity and health outcomes, and intervention effectiveness. To date, best practice approaches for physical activity measurement in preschool-aged children have been relatively understudied. This article provides a review of physical activity measurement tools for preschoolers, an overview of measurement of preschoolers' physical activity, and directions for further research. Electronic and manual literature searches were used to identify 49 studies that measured young children's physical activity, and 32 studies that assessed the validity and/or reliability of physical activity measures with preschool-aged children. While no prevalence data exist, measurement studies indicate that preschool children exhibit low levels of vigorous activity and high levels of inactivity, boys are more active than girls, and activity patterns tend to be sporadic and omnidirectional. As such, measures capable of capturing differing activity intensities in very short timeframes and over multiple planes are likely to have the most utility with this population. Accelerometers are well suited for this purpose, and a number of models have been used to objectively quantify preschoolers' physical activity. Only one model of pedometer has been investigated for validity with preschool-aged children, showing equivocal results. Direct observation of physical activity can provide detailed contextual information on preschoolers' physical activity, but is subjective and impractical for understanding daily physical activity. Proxy-report questionnaires are unlikely to be useful for determining actual physical activity levels of young children, and instead may be useful for identifying potential correlates of activity. Establishing validity is challenging due to the absence of a precise physical activity measure, or 'criterion', for young children

  10. Nutrition and function, with emphasis on physical activity.

    PubMed

    Torun, B; Viteri, F E

    1993-01-01

    Consumption of insufficient quantities of food would result to energy deficiency in children, and this can be prevented by early assessment of changes in physical activity. This paper focuses on the effects of general undernutrition on physical activity and on growth, behavior, and cognitive development in Mexico, Uganda, Colombia, and Guatemala. The paper contains studies investigating the influence of undernutrition on physical activity; total energy expenditure; level of physical fitness; influence of physical activity and growth; and relationship of physical activity with behavior and cognitive development. The level of energy expenditure between nutritional groups could be accounted for the smaller size of the body among undernourished children. On the other hand, physiological potential to physically perform work can be maintained by children with mild or moderate malnutrition, but their smaller size limits their output. Lastly, increased physical activity of children receiving food supplementation was associated with exploratory and behavioral differences compared with nonsupplemented children.

  11. Comparisons of a Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to the Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Healthy Young Adults Depending on their Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Verney, Julien; Schwartz, Chloé; Amiche, Saliha; Pereira, Bruno; Thivel, David

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at comparing BIA and DXA results in assessing body composition in young adults depending on their physical activity level. Eighty healthy 19–30 years old subjects were enrolled and their body composition (Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and by a newly developed Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer (BIA - Tanita MC780). A seven-day physical activity level was assessed using a 3-axial accelerometer. DXA-FM% and BIA-FM% were correlated (p<0.001; r= 0.852; ICC [IC95%]: 0.84 [0.75 – 0.90]; concordance coefficient: 0.844). DXA-FFM and BIA FFM were correlated (p<0.001; r=0.976; ICC [IC95%]: 0.95 [0.93 – 0.97], concordance coefficient: 0.955). DXA and BIA measurements of FM% and FFM were highly correlated in both boys and girls regardless of the physical activity level. Compared with DXA scans, newly developed bioelectrical impedance analyzers provide satisfactory fat mass and lean mass measures in healthy young women and men, despite their physical activity level. PMID:26557191

  12. Comparisons of a Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to the Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Healthy Young Adults Depending on their Physical Activity Level.

    PubMed

    Verney, Julien; Schwartz, Chloé; Amiche, Saliha; Pereira, Bruno; Thivel, David

    2015-09-29

    This study aimed at comparing BIA and DXA results in assessing body composition in young adults depending on their physical activity level. Eighty healthy 19-30 years old subjects were enrolled and their body composition (Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and by a newly developed Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer (BIA - Tanita MC780). A seven-day physical activity level was assessed using a 3-axial accelerometer. DXA-FM% and BIA-FM% were correlated (p<0.001; r= 0.852; ICC [IC95%]: 0.84 [0.75 - 0.90]; concordance coefficient: 0.844). DXA-FFM and BIA FFM were correlated (p<0.001; r=0.976; ICC [IC95%]: 0.95 [0.93 - 0.97], concordance coefficient: 0.955). DXA and BIA measurements of FM% and FFM were highly correlated in both boys and girls regardless of the physical activity level. Compared with DXA scans, newly developed bioelectrical impedance analyzers provide satisfactory fat mass and lean mass measures in healthy young women and men, despite their physical activity level.

  13. Skill Levels of Prospective Physics Teachers on Problem Posing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cildir, Sema; Sezen, Nazan

    2011-01-01

    Problem posing is one of the topics which the educators thoroughly accentuate. Problem posing skill is defined as an introvert activity of a student's learning. In this study, skill levels of prospective physics teachers on problem posing were determined and their views on problem posing were evaluated. To this end, prospective teachers were given…

  14. The Role of Physical Activity Assessments for School-Based Physical Activity Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The emphasis in public health on lifestyle physical activity in recent years has focused attention on the promotion of lifetime physical activity as the primary objective of physical education. If used properly, physical activity and physical fitness assessments can enhance individual promotion of physical activity and also provide valuable…

  15. Effects of a Physical Education Supportive Curriculum and Technological Devices on Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Emily Dean; Sullivan, Eileen C.; Ciccomascolo, Lori E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a physical education supportive curriculum and technological devices, heart rate monitor (HRM) and pedometer (PED), on physical activity. A single-subject ABAB research design was used to examine amount and level of participation in physical activity among 106 suburban fourth and fifth…

  16. Nivel de Actividad Física, Autoeficacia, Beneficios y Barreras Percibidas en Mujeres Mayores Mexicanas Independientes (Physical Activity Level, Exercise Self-Efficacy, Benefits and Perceived Barriers of Independent Mexican Older Women).

    PubMed

    Enríquez-Reyna, María Cristina; Cruz-Castruita, Rosa María; Zamarripa, Jorge; Ceballos-Gurrola, Oswaldo; Guevara-Valtier, Milton Carlos

    2016-03-01

    This descriptive comparative study examined differences in personal characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, benefits and barriers of independent elderly women to perform physical activity (PA) according with the PA level. Two hundred three women older than 60 years of age, from a community located in Nuevo Leon, Mexico participated in the study. Data was collected using: a) A personal data questionnaire, b) Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale, c) Exercise Benefits/ Barriers Scale and d) Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly were completed. Age was similar in participants with low and acceptable PA level. Participants with lower levels of PA reported consuming more medications, fewer years of education and lower values of exercise self-efficacy, benefits and barriers. In this sample, exercise self-efficacy and benefits were positively associated with the PA level.

  17. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which demonstrates standing waves in air generated by a loudspeaker driven by an audio oscillator. The waves are detected by cool spots on a glowing nichrome wire contained in an inexpensive piece of equipment. Also describes activities involving analysis of kinematics through data taking and graphing. (JM)

  18. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Glenn; Insley, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Explains two activities: (1) a "rotator demonstration" (a turntable, pendulum, chalk, and other materials), which can be used in many activities to demonstrate rotational concepts; and (2) an "Eskimo yo-yo," consisting of two balls (plus long strings and a glass tube) which rotate in opposite directions to show centripetal force. (JN)

  19. Physical Function and Physical Activity in Obese Adults After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Smith, Webb A; Zucker-Levin, Audrey; Mihalko, William M; Williams, Michael; Loftin, Mark; Gurney, James G

    2017-04-01

    Obese patients are more likely to have osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This investigation sought to evaluate physical function, activity level, and quality of life (QOL). Obese participants near 1-year postsurgical follow-up appointment were recruited. Evaluation included QOL and activity questionnaire, medical histories, anthropometrics, strength, and aerobic capacity. Sixty participants completed assessments. Obese TKA patients have physical performance limitations and low physical activity levels 1 year after surgery and completion of postoperative rehabilitation.

  20. Macronutrient Intake for Physical Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, Thomas

    Proper nutrition is an essential element of athletic performance, body composition goals, and general health. Although natural variability among persons makes it impossible to create a single diet that can be recommended to all; examining scientific principles makes it easier for athletes and other physically active persons to eat a diet that prepares them for successful training and/or athletic competition. A proper nutritional design incorporates these principles and is tailored to the individual. It is important for the sports nutritionist, coach, and athlete to understand the role that each of the macronutrients plays in an active lifestyle. In addition, keys to success include knowing how to determine how many calories to consume, the macronutrient breakdown of those calories, and proper timing to maximize the benefits needed for the individual's body type and activity schedule.

  1. Doing Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Materials needed and procedures for conducting two activities are provided. The first investigates drops of a liquid which float on water in a watchglass resting on top of a loudspeaker. The second investigates electromagnetic phenomena. (JN)

  2. [Protein nutrition and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Navarro, M P

    1992-09-01

    The relationship between physical exercise and diet in order to optimize performance is getting growing interest. This review examines protein needs and protein intakes as well as the role of protein in the body and the metabolic changes occurring at the synthesis and catabolic levels during exercise. Protein synthesis in muscle or liver, amino acids oxidation, glucose production via gluconeogenesis from amino acids, etc., are modified, and consequently plasma and urinary nitrogen metabolites are affected. A brief comment on the advantages, disadvantages and forms of different protein supplements for sportsmen is given.

  3. Weight Status and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Helen; Blanco, Estela; Algarín, Cecilia; Peirano, Patricio; Burrows, Raquel; Reyes, Marcela; Wing, David; Godino, Job G.; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    We tested the independent and combined influence of overweight/obesity and meeting moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines (≥60 minutes per day) on cardiometabolic risk factors among healthy adolescents. We measured anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting lipids, and activity by accelerometer in 223 adolescents. They were categorized as overweight/obese versus normal weight and meeting the World Health Organization guidelines for MVPA per day. Adolescents were 16.8 years, 41% overweight/obese, 30% met MVPA guidelines, 50% low high-density lipoprotein, 22% high triglycerides, 12% high blood pressure, and 6% high fasting glucose. Controlling for sex, overweight/obese adolescents who did not meet MVPA guidelines had 4.0 and 11.9 increased odds for elevated triglycerides and systolic blood pressure, respectively, compared to normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines. Overweight/obese and normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines did not differ in cardiometabolic risk factors. Among overweight/obese adolescents, being physically active attenuated the likelihood of high triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. PMID:27803943

  4. [Physical activity for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Masashi; Ishijima, Muneaki; Kaneko, Haruka; Takazawa, Yuji; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kazuo

    Elder populations have been increasing in Japan and estimated 24 million people have knee osteoarthritis(OA). Recently, people have diverse sociological background and demand for participating sports has been growing. People may participate sports to prevent some diseases such as locomotive syndrome. According to the recent studies, excessive high impact sports increase the risk of OA, while daily life exercise decrease the risk. Epidemiological approach demonstrated that reduced knee extension muscle strength increases the risk of OA. We reviewed and discussed the recent topics including efficacy of physical therapy for knee OA and how much sports activities could be beneficial after knee surgery.

  5. Is there such a thing as sustainable physical activity?

    PubMed

    Bjørnarå, H B; Torstveit, M K; Stea, T H; Bere, E

    2017-03-01

    There is a global need to diminish climate gas emissions, and a simultaneous call for enhanced levels of physical activity. Increased physical activity entails reduced risk for overweight and chronic diseases, as well as a potential to reduce transport's major contribution to global CO2 emissions. However, increased physical activity level also implies increased energy expenditure. Therefore, we aim to introduce the concept of sustainable physical activity, and to suggest certain physical activity habits due to their potentially sustainable properties. Worldwide, a third of adults and four fifths of adolescents ought to be more physically active in order to comply with current physical activity recommendations. Yet, considering upcoming resource challenges, types of physical activity should be taken into account. Active transportation represents carbon-friendly means of transportation as well as an opportunity for enhanced physical activity. Physical activity conducted in the local community is likely to favor sustainability through less use of fossil fuel, as it makes transportation redundant. Moreover, going "back to basic", using less equipment and appliances for everyday tasks could contribute toward energy balance through increased physical activity, and could decrease resource use. Finally, balancing food intake and energy expenditure would require less food production with accompanying energy savings.

  6. Summary of International Guidelines for Physical Activity Following Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Mottola, Michelle F.; Owe, Katrine M.; Rousham, Emily K.; Brown, Wendy J.

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum physical activity can improve mood, maintain cardiorespiratory fitness, improve weight control, promote weight loss, and reduce depression and anxiety. This review summarizes current guidelines for postpartum physical activity worldwide. PubMed (MedLINE) was searched for country-specific government and clinical guidelines on physical activity following pregnancy through the year 2013. Only the most recent guideline was included in the review. An abstraction form facilitated extraction of key details and helped to summarize results. Six guidelines were identified from five countries (Australia, Canada, Norway, United Kingdom, United States). All guidelines were embedded within pregnancy-related physical activity recommendations. All provided physical activity advice related to breastfeeding and three remarked about physical activity following Caesarean delivery. Recommended physical activities mentioned in the guidelines included aerobic (3/6), pelvic floor exercise (3/6), strengthening (2/6), stretching (2/6), and walking (2/6). None of the guidelines discussed sedentary behavior. The guidelines that were identified lacked specificity for physical activity. Greater clarity in guidelines would be more useful to both practitioners and the women they serve. Postpartum physical activity guidelines have the potential to assist women to initiate or resume physical activity following childbirth, so that they can transition to meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Health care providers have a critical role in encouraging women to be active at this time, and the availability of more explicit guidelines may assist them to routinely include physical activity advice in their postpartum care. PMID:25112589

  7. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity in which two pulleys are connected by a wire loop; when the bottom pulley is dipped into hot water, the pulleys rotate. Also suggests that students design/build a machine to propel a bean; the machine must use materials including one bean, two plastic straws, and two rubber bands. (JN)

  8. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations/activities that involve forces: (1) a canoe-like boat made from copper window screen; (2) magnetic forces with a paper clip and ceramic magnetic; and (3) an "icemobile" machine that cuts ice cubes without an obvious source of energy. (DH)

  9. Activities report in applied physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Research concerning acoustics, heat, architecture, materials research, and (optical) instrumentation is presented; active noise control and acoustic path identification were investigated. Energy conservation, solar energy, and building physics activities were carried out. Ultraviolet absorbing glasses, glass fibers, sheet glass, and aluminium and silicon oxynitrides, were studied. Glass fiber based sensor and laser applications, and optical space-instrumentation are discussed. Signal processing, sensors, and integrated electronics applications were developed. Scale model experiments for flow induced noise and vibrations, caused by engines, ventilators, wind turbines, and propellers, were executed. A multispectral charge coupled device airborne scanner, with four modules (one for forward observations) is described. A ground radar, based on seismic exploration signal processing and used for the location of pipes, sewers and cables, was developed.

  10. Adolescents' physical activity in physical education, school recess, and extra-curricular sport by motivational profiles.

    PubMed

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Viciana, Jesús

    2014-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in adolescents´ objective physical activity levels and perceived effort in physical education, school recess, and extra-curricular organized sport by motivational profiles in physical education. A sample of 102 students 11-16 yr. old completed a self-report questionnaire assessing self-determined motivation toward physical education. Subsequently, students' objective physical activity levels (steps/min., METs, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) and perceived effort were evaluated for each situation. Cluster analysis identified a two-cluster structure: "Moderate motivation toward physical education profile" and "High motivation toward physical education profile." Adolescents in the second cluster had higher physical activity and perceived effort values than adolescents in the first cluster, except for METs and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in extra-curricular sport. These results support the importance of physical education teachers who should promote self-determined motivation toward physical education so that students can reach the recommended physical activity levels.

  11. School Programs to Increase Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Amelia; Solmon, Melinda

    2007-01-01

    A quality physical education program is at the heart of any plan to promote lifelong participation in physical activity, but it has become evident at many schools that physical education specialists alone cannot address the physical activity needs of children. This is why a series of studies were conducted to develop strategies for the…

  12. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recommends that all PK-12 schools implement a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program. Schools play an important role in public health, and the physical, mental, and social benefits of regular physical activity for youth are well documented. Leading public health, medical,…

  13. Physical Activity during the School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Ward, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    In response to concerns that children are physically inactive, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention committee developed school-based implementation strategies centered on the components of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP), composed of the physical education program, physical activity during the school day, staff…

  14. Correlates of physical activity: why are some people physically active and others not?

    PubMed

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F; Wells, Jonathan C; Loos, Ruth J F; Martin, Brian W

    2012-07-21

    Physical inactivity is an important contributor to non-communicable diseases in countries of high income, and increasingly so in those of low and middle income. Understanding why people are physically active or inactive contributes to evidence-based planning of public health interventions, because effective programmes will target factors known to cause inactivity. Research into correlates (factors associated with activity) or determinants (those with a causal relationship) has burgeoned in the past two decades, but has mostly focused on individual-level factors in high-income countries. It has shown that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking of physical activity throughout life. An understanding of correlates and determinants, especially in countries of low and middle income, could reduce the eff ect of future epidemics of inactivity and contribute to effective global prevention of non-communicable diseases.

  15. Daily Spousal Influence on Physical Activity in Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Martire, Lynn M.; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Mogle, Jacqueline; Schulz, Richard; Brach, Jennifer; Keefe, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical activity is critical for the management of knee osteoarthritis, and the spouse may play a role in encouraging or discouraging physical activity. Purpose To examine four types of spousal influence—spouses' daily activity, autonomy support, pressure, and persuasion--on the daily physical activity of adults living with knee osteoarthritis. Methods A total of 141 couples reported their daily experiences for 22 days using a handheld computer, and wore an accelerometer to measure moderate activity and steps. Results Spouses' autonomy support for patient physical activity, as well as their own level of activity, was concurrently associated with patients' greater daily moderate activity and steps. In addition, on days when male patients perceived that spouses exerted more pressure to be active, they spent less time in moderate activity. Conclusions Couple-oriented interventions for knee osteoarthritis should target physical activity in both partners and spousal strategies for helping patients stay active. PMID:23161472

  16. Role of physical activity in preventing and treating obesity.

    PubMed

    Hill, James O; Wyatt, Holly R

    2005-08-01

    There is an inverse relationship between physical activity and weight gain. However, additional research is needed to quantify the amount of physical activity required to prevent weight gain in different populations, improve the way we convey physical activity recommendations to the public, and help the individuals increase their physical activity. Although physical activity does not appear to contribute significantly to weight loss, it is critical for maintenance of weight loss. Available data are consistent in that 60-90 min/day of moderate-intensity physical activity is required to maintain a significant weight loss. Although there is agreement about the need for high levels of physical activity to maintain weight loss, there is a need for more research to understand why physical activity is critical for weight loss maintenance. Finally, additional research is needed to determine whether there is an optimal level of physical activity below which it is difficult for most people to achieve a balance between energy intake and expenditure at a healthy body weight. The increasing prevalence of obesity may reflect the fact that the majority of the population has fallen below such a level of physical activity.

  17. Nordic Walking: A Simple Lifetime Physical Activity for Every Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Luis; Fernandez-Rio, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Children who become competent in a wide variety of motor skills and movement patterns are more likely to remain physically active for life. Physical education can achieve this goal by providing an extensive selection of activities and by including learning units that encourage students to increase their skill level and stay active year-round.…

  18. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 2012 Trends in Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity From a Physician or ...

  19. Physical Education and Physical Activity: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guedes, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Although many recent studies have shown that the lack of physical activity is one of the major causes of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease among children and adolescents, few studies have shown the connection between the lack of physical education and the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle. However, it is clear that physical education…

  20. The effect of outdoor activity context on physical activity in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Hustyi, Kristin M; Normand, Matthew P; Larson, Tracy A; Morley, Allison J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and test a method for assessing the effect of outdoor activity context on level of physical activity in preschool children. The observational system for recording physical activity in children was used to define the test conditions and various levels of physical activity within a multielement design. In general, all participants were fairly sedentary during the analysis. The fixed playground equipment condition produced the most moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, a finding that does not correspond to the descriptive assessment literature on childhood physical activity.

  1. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…

  2. The effect of a behaviour change intervention on the diets and physical activity levels of women attending Sure Start Children’s Centres: results from a complex public health intervention

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Janis; Jarman, Megan; Lawrence, Wendy; Black, Christina; Davies, Jenny; Tinati, Tannaze; Begum, Rufia; Mortimore, Andrew; Robinson, Sian; Margetts, Barrie; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary; Inskip, Hazel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The UK government's response to the obesity epidemic calls for action in communities to improve people's health behaviour. This study evaluated the effects of a community intervention on dietary quality and levels of physical activity of women from disadvantaged backgrounds. Design Non-randomised controlled evaluation of a complex public health intervention. Participants 527 women attending Sure Start Children's Centres (SSCC) in Southampton (intervention) and 495 women attending SSCCs in Gosport and Havant (control). Intervention Training SSCC staff in behaviour change skills that would empower women to change their health behaviours. Outcomes Main outcomes dietary quality and physical activity. Intermediate outcomes self-efficacy and sense of control. Results 1-year post-training, intervention staff used skills to support behaviour change significantly more than control staff. There were statistically significant reductions of 0.1 SD in the dietary quality of all women between baseline and follow-up and reductions in self-efficacy and sense of control. The decline in self-efficacy and control was significantly smaller in women in the intervention group than in women in the control group (adjusted differences in self-efficacy and control, respectively, 0.26 (95% CI 0.001 to 0.50) and 0.35 (0.05 to 0.65)). A lower decline in control was associated with higher levels of exposure in women in the intervention group. There was a statistically significant improvement in physical activity in the intervention group, with 22.9% of women reporting the highest level of physical activity compared with 12.4% at baseline, and a smaller improvement in the control group. The difference in change in physical activity level between the groups was not statistically significant (adjusted difference 1.02 (0.74 to 1.41)). Conclusions While the intervention did not improve women's diets and physical activity levels, it had a protective effect on intermediate factors

  3. [Evidence-based guidelines for physical activity of adult Canadians].

    PubMed

    Warburton, Darren E R; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Rhodes, Ryan E; Shephard, Roy J

    2007-01-01

    This review of the literature provides an update on the scientific biological and psychosocial bases for Canada's Physical Activity Guide for Health Active Living, with particular reference to the effect of physical activity on the health of adults aged 20-55 years. Existing physical activity guidelines for adults from around the world are summarized briefly and compared to the Canadian guidelines. The descriptive epidemiology of physical activity and inactivity in Canada is presented, and the strength of the relationship between physical activity and specific health outcomes is evaluated, with particular emphasis on minimal and optimal physical activity requirements. Finally, areas requiring further investigation are highlighted. Summarizing the findings, Canadian and most international physical activity guidelines advocate moderate-intensity physical activity on most days of the week. Physical activity appears to reduce the risk for over 25 chronic conditions, in particular coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, breast cancer, colon cancer, type 2 diabetes, and osteoporosis. Current literature suggests that if the entire Canadian population followed current physical activity guidelines, approximately one-third of deaths related to coronary heart disease, one quarter of deaths related to stroke and osteoporosis, 20% of deaths related to colon cancer, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes, and 14% of deaths related to breast cancer could be prevented. It also appears that the prevention of weight gain and the maintenance of weight loss require greater physical activity levels than current recommendations.

  4. Local school policies increase physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Ellen; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Samdal, Oddrun

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The implementation of school policies to support the adoption of physical activity is one of the main strategies recommended to increase physical activity levels among this age group. However, documentation of the effect of such policies is so far limited. The purpose of this study was to explore policy-related practices to support physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools and their association with recess physical activity. Emphasis was given to examine the association between policies and physical activity, over and beyond, individual level interests and environmental factors and to examine cross-level interaction effects. This cross-sectional study was based on a nationally representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Data were collected through questionnaires. The results showed that schools with a written policy for physical activity and schools offering organized non-curricular physical activity several times a week had a higher proportion of students reporting daily participation in recess physical activity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis demonstrated a cross-level main effect of the policy index after controlling for sex, socio-economic status, individual-level interests and the physical environment. A significant contribution of adding the policy index to the prediction of recess physical activity above that provided by the individual-level interests and the physical environment was demonstrated. The results are encouraging and give scientific support to policy documents recommending the implementation of school policies to increase physical activity. PMID:19884244

  5. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2016-06-23

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.

  6. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  7. Symptoms and physical activity behavior in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; Snook, Erin M; Schapiro, Randall T

    2008-10-01

    We examined overall and specific symptoms as correlates of physical activity in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Participants (N = 133) completed questionnaires that measured overall symptoms; and specific symptoms of depression, pain, and fatigue; difficulty walking; and physical activity. Initial analyses indicated that higher levels of overall symptoms (r = -.50), fatigue (r = -.26), and difficulty walking (r = -.46) were associated with lower levels of physical activity. Path analysis demonstrated that higher levels of overall symptoms were directly and indirectly associated with lower levels of physical activity; the indirect pathway involved difficulty walking (gamma beta = -.17). Such findings indicate that walking difficulty may partially explain the negative relationship between overall symptoms and physical activity behavior in MS.

  8. Physical activity and cognitive vitality.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Erickson, Kirk I; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-03

    We examine evidence supporting the associations among physical activity (PA), cognitive vitality, neural functioning, and the moderation of these associations by genetic factors. Prospective epidemiological studies provide evidence for PA to be associated with a modest reduction in relative risk of cognitive decline. An evaluation of the PA-cognition link across the life span provides modest support for the effect of PA on preserving and even enhancing cognitive vitality and the associated neural circuitry in older adults, with the majority of benefits seen for tasks that are supported by the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. The literature on children and young adults, however, is in need of well-powered randomized controlled trials. Future directions include a more sophisticated understanding of the dose-response relationship, the integration of genetic and epigenetic approaches, inclusion of multimodal imaging of brain-behavior changes, and finally the design of multimodal interventions that may yield broader improvements in cognitive function.

  9. [Physical activity and breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Karol; Acevedo, Francisco; Herrera, María Elisa; Ibáñez, Carolina; Sánchez, César

    2017-01-01

    In Chile breast cancer (BC) is the first cause of death in women. While the most important risk factor for its development is estrogenic stimulation, environmental factors and lifestyles also contribute to its pathogenesis. Epidemiological studies show a direct relationship between physical activity (PA), incidence and recurrence of BC. Supervised PA practice is recommended in most cancer patients to improve their quality of life, to reduce adverse effects from treatment and eventually to improve the prognosis of the disease. We review the epidemiological evidence linking PA and BC and the biological basis of this relationship. We also review the relevant interventional studies and we explore some practical indications of PA in patients with BC, as a model for other tumors of epidemiological importance.

  10. Firefighters’ Physical Activity across Multiple Shifts of Planned Burn Work

    PubMed Central

    Chappel, Stephanie E.; Aisbett, Brad; Vincent, Grace E.; Ridgers, Nicola D.

    2016-01-01

    Little is currently known about the physical activity patterns of workers in physically demanding populations. The aims of this study were to (a) quantify firefighters’ physical activity and sedentary time within (2-h periods) and across planned burn shifts; and (b) examine whether firefighters’ activity levels during one shift or 2-h period was associated with their activity levels in the following shift or 2-h period. Thirty-four salaried firefighters (26 men, 8 women) wore an Actical accelerometer for 28 consecutive days. Time spent sedentary (SED) and in light- (LPA), moderate- (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) were derived using validated cut-points. Multilevel analyses (shift, participant) were conducted using generalised linear latent and mixed models. Firefighters spent the majority of a planned burn shift (average length 10.4 h) or 2-h period engaged in LPA (69% and 70%, respectively). No significant associations were observed between SED and physical activity levels between consecutive planned burned shifts or 2-h periods. The physical activity that a firefighter engaged in during one shift (or 2-h period) did not subsequently affect their physical activity levels in the subsequent shift (or 2-h period). Further research is needed to establish how workers in physically demanding populations are able to sustain their activity levels over long periods of time. PMID:27706057

  11. Firefighters' Physical Activity across Multiple Shifts of Planned Burn Work.

    PubMed

    Chappel, Stephanie E; Aisbett, Brad; Vincent, Grace E; Ridgers, Nicola D

    2016-09-30

    Little is currently known about the physical activity patterns of workers in physically demanding populations. The aims of this study were to (a) quantify firefighters' physical activity and sedentary time within (2-h periods) and across planned burn shifts; and (b) examine whether firefighters' activity levels during one shift or 2-h period was associated with their activity levels in the following shift or 2-h period. Thirty-four salaried firefighters (26 men, 8 women) wore an Actical accelerometer for 28 consecutive days. Time spent sedentary (SED) and in light- (LPA), moderate- (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) were derived using validated cut-points. Multilevel analyses (shift, participant) were conducted using generalised linear latent and mixed models. Firefighters spent the majority of a planned burn shift (average length 10.4 h) or 2-h period engaged in LPA (69% and 70%, respectively). No significant associations were observed between SED and physical activity levels between consecutive planned burned shifts or 2-h periods. The physical activity that a firefighter engaged in during one shift (or 2-h period) did not subsequently affect their physical activity levels in the subsequent shift (or 2-h period). Further research is needed to establish how workers in physically demanding populations are able to sustain their activity levels over long periods of time.

  12. Physical aspects of biological activity and cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, Jiří

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondria are organelles at the boundary between chemical-genetic and physical processes in living cells. Mitochondria supply energy and provide conditions for physical mechanisms. Protons transferred across the inner mitochondrial membrane diffuse into cytosol and form a zone of a strong static electric field changing water into quasi-elastic medium that loses viscosity damping properties. Mitochondria and microtubules form a unique cooperating system in the cell. Microtubules are electrical polar structures that make possible non-linear transformation of random excitations into coherent oscillations and generation of coherent electrodynamic field. Mitochondria supply energy, may condition non-linear properties and low damping of oscillations. Electrodynamic activity might have essential significance for material transport, organization, intra- and inter-cellular interactions, and information transfer. Physical processes in cancer cell are disturbed due to suppression of oxidative metabolism in mitochodria (Warburg effect). Water ordering level in the cell is decreased, excitation of microtubule electric polar oscilations diminished, damping increased, and non-linear energy transformation shifted towards the linear region. Power and coherence of the generated electrodynamic field are reduced. Electromagnetic activity of healthy and cancer cells may display essential differences. Local invasion and metastastatic growth may strongly depend on disturbed electrodynamic activity. Nanotechnological measurements may disclose yet unknown properties and parameters of electrodynamic oscillations and other physical processes in healthy and cancer cells.

  13. Exergaming for Physical Activity in Online Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooiman, Brian J.; Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Wesolek, Michael; Reategui, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    For many the thought of students taking an online course conjures up images of students sitting at a computer desk. Students taking online physical education (OLPE) at home may lack opportunities for competitive or cooperative physical activity that are available to students in a traditional setting. Active video games (exergames) can be played…

  14. Physical Disability, Stigma, and Physical Activity in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barg, Carolyn J.; Armstrong, Brittany D.; Hetz, Samuel P.; Latimer, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Using the stereotype content model as a guiding framework, this study explored whether the stigma that able-bodied adults have towards children with a physical disability is reduced when the child is portrayed as being active. In a 2 (physical activity status) x 2 (ability status) study design, 178 university students rated a child described in…

  15. Physical Activity Intensity, Lesson Context, and Teacher Interactions during an Unstructured Afterschool Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Miller, Daniel J.; Schuna, John M.; Liebert, Mina L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Afterschool programs are promising arenas to improve youth physical activity (PA) levels. During the school year for 2012-2013, 5 elementary schools from a low-socioeconomic status (SES) school district in southern Colorado participated in evaluation of the afterschool program entitled Keep It Moving! (KIM). Methods: In this…

  16. Physical activity helps to control music performance anxiety.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Sérgio F; Marocolo, Moacir; Corrêa, Elisangela N V; Morato, Gledys S G; da Mota, Gustavo R

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated if regular physical activity could influence musical performance anxiety (MPA) in college music students. Levels of MPA, as measured with the Kenny MPA Inventory, and a survey about the physical activity habits were obtained from 87 students of music. The results showed that physically active musicians had lower MPA scores (p<0.05) than non-active ones, independent of gender. We conclude that there is an association between physical activity and minor MPA, and studies with a longitudinal design should be done to explore this important issue.

  17. Relation Between Higher Physical Activity and Public Transit Use

    PubMed Central

    Vernez Moudon, Anne; Kang, Bumjoon; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We isolated physical activity attributable to transit use to examine issues of substitution between types of physical activity and potential confounding of transit-related walking with other walking. Methods. Physical activity and transit use data were collected in 2008 to 2009 from 693 Travel Assessment and Community study participants from King County, Washington, equipped with an accelerometer, a portable Global Positioning System, and a 7-day travel log. Physical activity was classified into transit- and non–transit-related walking and nonwalking time. Analyses compared physical activity by type between transit users and nonusers, between less and more frequent transit users, and between transit and nontransit days for transit users. Results. Transit users had more daily overall physical activity and more total walking than did nontransit users but did not differ on either non–transit-related walking or nonwalking physical activity. Most frequent transit users had more walking time than least frequent transit users. Higher physical activity levels for transit users were observed only on transit days, with 14.6 minutes (12.4 minutes when adjusted for demographics) of daily physical activity directly linked with transit use. Conclusions. Because transit use was directly related to higher physical activity, future research should examine whether substantive increases in transit access and use lead to more physical activity and related health improvements. PMID:24625142

  18. The Association between Belgian Older Adults’ Physical Functioning and Physical Activity: What Is the Moderating Role of the Physical Environment?

    PubMed Central

    Van Holle, Veerle; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Gheysen, Freja; Van Dyck, Delfien; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Background Better physical functioning in the elderly may be associated with higher physical activity levels. Since older adults spend a substantial part of the day in their residential neighborhood, the neighborhood physical environment may moderate associations between functioning and older adults’ physical activity. The present study investigated the moderating role of the objective and perceived physical environment on associations between Belgian older adults’ physical functioning and transport walking, recreational walking, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Methods Data from 438 older adults were included. Objective physical functioning was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Potential moderators included objective neighborhood walkability and perceptions of land use mix diversity, access to recreational facilities, access to services, street connectivity, physical barriers for walking, aesthetics, crime-related safety, traffic speeding-related safety, and walking infrastructure. Transport and recreational walking were self-reported, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was assessed through accelerometers. Multi-level regression analyses were conducted using MLwiN to examine two-way interactions between functioning and the environment on both walking outcomes. Based on a previous study where environment x neighborhood income associations were found for Belgian older adults’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, three-way functioning x environment x income interactions were examined for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results Objectively-measured walkability moderated the association between functioning and transport walking; this positive association was only present in high-walkable neighborhoods. Moreover, a three-way interaction was observed for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Only in high-income, high-walkable neighborhoods, there was a positive association between functioning and moderate

  19. Reversing the AAPT Photo Contest: A Physics Teacher Education Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hechter, Richard P.

    2016-11-01

    This year while awaiting the arrival of the AAPT High School Physics Photo Contest poster, I developed an idea for my physics teacher education course that used the photo contest in a new context. While using an external source like a photograph to learn physics is not new to physics education, this article describes how we used the foundational idea of the AAPT photo contest as the context to facilitate new lessons and activities for secondary-level students. The blending of photography and physics education can also be done at the high school level and undergraduate level as a creative means for content review and communication of conceptual understanding.

  20. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THE PELVIC FLOOR

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Ingrid E.; Shaw, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic floor disorders (PFDs) are common, with one in four U.S. women reporting moderate to severe symptoms of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse or fecal incontinence. Given the high societal burden of these disorders, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial. Physical activity is one such potentially modifiable risk factor; the large number of girls and women participating in sport and strenuous training regimens increases the need to understand associated risks and benefits of these exposures. The aim of this review is to summarize studies reporting the association between physical activity and PFDs. Most studies are cross-sectional and most include small numbers of participants. The primary findings of this review include: Urinary incontinence during exercise is common and is more prevalent in women during high-impact sports. Mild to moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, decreases both the odds of having and the risk of developing urinary incontinence. In older women, mild to moderate activity also decreases the odds of having fecal incontinence; however, young women participating in high intensity activity are more likely to report anal incontinence than less active women. Scant data suggest that in middle-aged women, lifetime physical activity increases the odds of stress urinary incontinence slightly and does not increase the odds of pelvic organ prolapse. Women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are more likely to report a history of heavy work than controls; however, women recruited from the community with pelvic organ prolapse on examination report similar lifetime levels of strenuous activity as women without this exam finding. Data are insufficient to determine whether strenuous activity while young predisposes to pelvic floor disorders later in life. The existing literature suggests that most physical activity does not harm the pelvic floor and does provide numerous health benefits for women. However

  1. Physical activity and the pelvic floor.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are common, with 1 in 4 US women reporting moderate to severe symptoms of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, or fecal incontinence. Given the high societal burden of these disorders, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial. Physical activity is one such potentially modifiable risk factor; the large number of girls and women participating in sport and strenuous training regimens increases the need to understand associated risks and benefits of these exposures. The aim of this review was to summarize studies reporting the association between physical activity and pelvic floor disorders. Most studies are cross-sectional and most include small numbers of participants. The primary findings of this review include that urinary incontinence during exercise is common and is more prevalent in women during high-impact sports. Mild to moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, decreases both the odds of having and the risk of developing urinary incontinence. In older women, mild to moderate activity also decreases the odds of having fecal incontinence; however, young women participating in high-intensity activity are more likely to report anal incontinence than less active women. Scant data suggest that in middle-aged women, lifetime physical activity increases the odds of stress urinary incontinence slightly and does not increase the odds of pelvic organ prolapse. Women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are more likely to report a history of heavy work than controls; however, women recruited from the community with pelvic organ prolapse on examination report similar lifetime levels of strenuous activity as women without this examination finding. Data are insufficient to determine whether strenuous activity while young predisposes to pelvic floor disorders later in life. The existing literature suggests that most physical activity does not harm the pelvic floor and does provide numerous health benefits for

  2. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    PubMed

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  3. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tallner, Alexander; Waschbisch, Anne; Hentschke, Christian; Pfeifer, Klaus; Mäurer, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients. PMID:26147422

  4. Physical activity and its determinants among adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chang, Yu-Yu; Wu, Sheng-Ru; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a global public health problem, and it has been linked to many of the most serious illnesses facing many industrialized nations. There is little evidence examining the physical activity profile and determinants for the vulnerable population such as people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The present paper aims to describe the regular physical activity prevalence and to examine its determinants among adolescents with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan. Participants were recruited from 3 special education schools in Taiwan, with the entire response participants composed of 351 primary caregivers of adolescents with ID (age 16-18 years). There were 29.9% ID individuals had regular physical activity habits, and the main physical activities were walking, sports, and jogging. There were only 8% individuals with ID met the national physical activity recommendation in Taiwan which suggests at least exercise 3 times per week and 30 min per time. In a stepwise logistic regression analysis of regular physical activity habit, we found that the factors of caregiver's educational level and preference toward physical activity were variables that can significantly predict ID individuals who had regular physical activity habit in their daily livings after controlling other factors. To maximize the positive effect of physical activity on people with ID, the present study suggests that it is needed to initiate appropriate techniques used for motivation to participate in physical activity for this population.

  5. Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

    2015-05-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children's MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types, and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the SOSPAN (System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1,733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150 minutes) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer, and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs' physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities.

  6. Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children’s MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition (SOSPAN). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150min) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs’ physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities. PMID:25586132

  7. Global positioning system: a new opportunity in physical activity measurement.

    PubMed

    Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2009-11-04

    Accurate measurement of physical activity is a pre-requisite to monitor population physical activity levels and design effective interventions. Global Positioning System (GPS) technology offers potential to improve the measurement of physical activity. This paper 1) reviews the extant literature on the application of GPS to monitor human movement, with a particular emphasis on free-living physical activity, 2) discusses issues associated with GPS use, and 3) provides recommendations for future research. Overall findings show that GPS is a useful tool to augment our understanding of physical activity by providing the context (location) of the activity and used together with Geographical Information Systems can provide some insight into how people interact with the environment. However, no studies have shown that GPS alone is a reliable and valid measure of physical activity.

  8. Global positioning system: a new opportunity in physical activity measurement

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2009-01-01

    Accurate measurement of physical activity is a pre-requisite to monitor population physical activity levels and design effective interventions. Global Positioning System (GPS) technology offers potential to improve the measurement of physical activity. This paper 1) reviews the extant literature on the application of GPS to monitor human movement, with a particular emphasis on free-living physical activity, 2) discusses issues associated with GPS use, and 3) provides recommendations for future research. Overall findings show that GPS is a useful tool to augment our understanding of physical activity by providing the context (location) of the activity and used together with Geographical Information Systems can provide some insight into how people interact with the environment. However, no studies have shown that GPS alone is a reliable and valid measure of physical activity. PMID:19887012

  9. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  10. Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidorn, Brent D.; Hall, Tina J.; Carson, Russell L.

    2010-01-01

    A Comprehensive School-based Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) represents a commitment to support the health and well-being of students, faculty, staff, and the community. A CSPAP is a similar approach that specifically focuses on incorporating additional physical activity opportunities for youth within the school day and beyond physical education…

  11. Exergaming: Syncing Physical Activity and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Lisa; Higgins, John

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses exergaming, a groundbreaking type of video game which is creating a revolution in physical education. Exergaming combines physical activity and video gaming to create an enjoyable and appealing way for students to be physically active. An extremely popular choice in this genre is the music video/dance rhythm game (MVDG). One…

  12. Promoting Physical Activity for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Barriers, Benefits, and Strategies for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menear, Kristi S.; Neumeier, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Many students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) fall short of the recommended physical activity levels and experience challenges in physical activity and physical education settings. This article reviews factors that can improve the physical activity statistics of students with ASD, outlines the researched benefits of physical activity for…

  13. Urban, Rural, and Regional Variations in Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sarah Levin; Kirkner, Gregory J.; Mayo, Kelly; Matthews, Charles E.; Durstine, Larry; Hebert, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: There is some speculation about geographic differences in physical activity (PA) levels. We examined the prevalence of physical inactivity (PIA) and whether US citizens met the recommended levels of PA across the United States. In addition, the association between PIA/PA and degree of urbanization in the 4 main US regions (Northeast,…

  14. Increasing Student Physical Activity during the School Day: Opportunities for the Physical Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Joan D.; Luebbers, Paul E.; Shane, Shawna D.

    2009-01-01

    America is facing an obesity epidemic--one that is difficult to ignore. In order to combat the nation's obesity crisis, it is imperative that schools find ways to increase the physical activity levels of students during the school day, as well as encourage additional activity outside of school. By teaching youth to incorporate physical activity…

  15. Effectiveness of a school-community linked program on physical activity levels and health-related quality of life for adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the effectiveness of a school-community program on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL; the primary outcome), physical activity (PA), and potential mediators of PA among adolescent girls living in low-socioeconomic rural/regional settings. Method The study was a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Twelve communities with the requisite sports clubs and facilities were paired according to relevant criteria; one of each pair was randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. Eight schools per condition were randomly selected from these communities and the intervention was conducted over one school year (2011). Female students in grades 7–9 in intervention schools participated in two 6-session PA units – a sport unit (football or tennis) and a recreational unit (leisure centre-based). These were incorporated into physical education (PE) curriculum and linked to PA opportunities for participation outside school. Students were surveyed at baseline and endpoint, self-reporting impact on primary and secondary outcome measures (HRQoL, PA) and PA mediators (e.g. self-efficacy). Linear mixed models for two-group (intervention, control) and three-group (completers, non-completers, control) analyses were conducted with baseline value, age and BMI as covariates, group as a fixed effect and school as random cluster effect. Results Participants completing baseline and endpoint measures included: 358 intervention (baseline response rate 33.7%, retention rate 61.3%) and 256 control (14.1% and 84.0%). Adjustment for age and BMI made no substantive difference to outcomes, and there were no cluster effects. For HRQoL, after adjustment for baseline scores, the intervention group showed significantly higher scores on all three PedsQL scores (physical functioning: M ± SE = 83.9 ± 0.7, p = .005; psychosocial: 79.9 ± 0.8, p = .001; total score: 81.3 ± 0.7, p = .001) than the control group (80.9 ± 0

  16. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN NONOVERWEIGHT AND OVERWEIGHT HISPANIC CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the high prevalence of childhood obesity among U.S. Hispanic children and adolescents, quantitative, objective data on their patterns and levels of physical activity are scarce. Our objectives were: 1) To describe qualitatively the types of physical activities in which nonoverweight and over...

  17. Physical Activity and Cervical Cancer Testing among American Indian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla B.; Bogart, T. Andy; Duncan, Glen E.; Jacobsen, Clemma; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have shown that women who engage in high levels of physical activity have higher rates of cancer screening, including Papanicalaou (Pap) tests. Because American Indian (AI) women are at high risk for cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, we examined Pap screening prevalence and assessed whether physical activity was associated…

  18. The Dynamic Association between Motor Skill Development and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David F.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2007-01-01

    Although significant attention has been given to promoting physical activity among children, little attention has been given to the developmental process of how children learn to move or to the changing role that motor skill development plays in children's physical activity levels as they grow. In order to successfully address the obesity…

  19. Exergaming: Hope for future physical activity? or blight on mankind?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and maybe even light physical activity, have been related to better health, motor skills, and cognitive outcomes in virtually all age and ability groups. However, most people in general are not prone to enjoy and participate in substantial amo...

  20. Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Promotion: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Carson, Russell L.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation levels among youth remain well below national recommendations. Thus, a variety of strategies to promote youth PA have been advocated, including multifaceted, school-based approaches. One identified as having great potential is a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP). The goal of a CSPAP is to…

  1. Education Is Associated with Physical Activity among American Indian Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Craig N.; Bogart, Andy; Charles, Steve; Goldberg, Jack; Forquera, Ralph; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Buchwald, Dedra

    2008-01-01

    Although educational attainment and physical activity levels tend to be positively associated in majority populations, this relationship has not been investigated in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) elders. This study examined the association between education and physical activity among AI/AN elders (N = 107) using self-report and…

  2. A column level, low power, 1 M sample/s double ramp A/D converter for monolithic active pixel sensors in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillet, N.; Heini, S.; Hu, Y.

    2010-08-01

    Monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) using standard low cost CMOS technologies available from industrial manufacturers have demonstrated excellent tracking performances for minimum ionizing particles. The need for highly granular, fast, thin sensors with a full digital output drives an R&D effort, aiming to design and optimize a low power high speed A/D converter integrated at the column level. Following this main issue, a double digital ramp A/D converter has been proposed for CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors in this paper. This A/D converter responds to the constraints of size, power dissipation and precision for CMOS sensors for particle detection. It also represents a first step in order to reach the high speed of conversion needed for this kind of application. The A/D converter has a resolution of 4 bits for conversion speed of 1 M sample/s with only 264 μW of static consumption in a very particular pitch of 25 μm×900 μm.

  3. Eating breakfast more frequently is cross-sectionally associated with greater physical activity and lower levels of adiposity in overweight Latina and African American girls1234

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Cheng Kun; Davis, Jaimie N; Shen, Ernest; Nguyen-Rodriguez, Selena T; Belcher, Britni R; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Weigensberg, Marc J; Goran, Michael I; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2013-01-01

    Background: Eating breakfast is believed to promote a healthy body weight. Yet, few studies have examined the contribution of energy balance–related behavioral factors to this relation in minority youth. Objective: We assessed the associations between breakfast consumption and dietary intake, physical activity (PA), and adiposity before and after accounting for energy intake and PA in minority girls. Design: Cross-sectional data were obtained on body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat (measured by BodPod), dietary intake (measured with 3-d dietary records), and PA (measured with 7-d accelerometry) from 87 Latina and African American girls 8–17 y of age (75% Latina, 80% overweight). Dietary records were used to categorize girls as more frequent breakfast eaters (MF; 2 or 3 of 3 d; n = 57) or less frequent breakfast eaters (LF; 0 or 1 of 3 d; n = 30). Chi-square tests, ANCOVA, and multiple regression analyses were conducted. Mediation was assessed with a Sobel test. Results: Compared with the MF group, the LF group spent 30% less time (12.6 min/d) in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA; P = 0.004) and had a higher percentage body fat (P = 0.029). MVPA accounted for 25% (95% CI: −8.8%, 58.1%; P = 0.139) of the relation between breakfast consumption and percentage body fat. We were unable to show that energy intake or MVPA was a significant mediator of the relation between breakfast consumption and adiposity in this sample. Conclusions: Evidence suggests that among predominantly overweight minority girls, MVPA, but not energy intake, was associated with both breakfast consumption and adiposity; however, a lack of power reduced our ability to detect a significant mediation effect. Other unobserved variables likely contribute to this relation. PMID:23803890

  4. The effects of an early motor skill intervention on motor skills, levels of physical activity, and socialization in young children with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ketcheson, Leah; Hauck, Janet; Ulrich, Dale

    2017-05-01

    Despite evidence suggesting one of the earliest indicators of an eventual autism spectrum disorder diagnoses is an early motor delay, there remain very few interventions targeting motor behavior as the primary outcome for young children with autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this pilot study was to measure the efficacy of an intensive motor skill intervention on motor skills (Test of Gross Motor Development-2), physical activity (accelerometers), and socialization (Playground Observation of Peer Engagement) in young children with autism spectrum disorder. A total of 20 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 4-6 years participated. The experimental group ( n = 11) participated in an 8-week intervention consisting of motor skill instruction for 4 h/day, 5 days/week. The control group ( n = 9) did not receive the intervention. A repeated-measures analysis of covariance revealed statistically significant differences between groups in all three motor outcomes, locomotor ( F(1, 14) = 10.07, p < 0.001, partial η(2) = 0.42), object control ( F(1, 14) = 12.90, p < 0.001, partial η(2) = 0.48), and gross quotient ( F(1, 14) = 15.61, p < 0.01, partial η(2) = 0.53). Findings shed light on the importance of including motor programming as part of the early intervention services delivered to young children with autism spectrum disorder.

  5. Intention to be Physically Active is Influenced by Physical Activity and Fitness, Sedentary Behaviours, and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Nuviala, Alberto; Pérez-Turpin, José A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of levels of physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), sedentary lifestyle and life satisfaction with the intention to be physically active after secondary school graduation, in teenagers of both genders. A total of 1986 Spanish adolescents (12-16 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. PA, sedentary lifestyle, life satisfaction and intention to be physically active were assessed through validated questionnaires, and PF was evaluated objectively with the ALPHA battery tests. In both genders, adolescents who had significantly higher odds ratios (OR) of showing low intention to be physically active had low level of PA, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness in the lower body, and they were more sedentary in front of the computer. The girls that spent a lot of time watching TV and the boys with low life satisfaction also showed higher OR of having low intention to be physically active.

  6. Technology to promote and increase physical activity in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Nina C

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is firmly recommended as part of a multifaceted approach to heart failure (HF) self-management. Unfortunately, research indicates that most patients are less likely to engage in and adhere to such activities. The widespread use of information and communication technology tools and resources offers an innovative and potentially beneficial avenue for increasing physical activity levels in HF patients. This article presents specific ways in which advances in information and communication technologies, including Internet- and mobile-based communications, social media platforms, and self-monitoring health devices, can serve as a means to broadly promote increasing levels of physical activity to improve health outcomes in the HF population.

  7. Daily physical activity and type 2 diabetes: A review

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity improves glycemic control and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moderate to vigorous physical activity is recommended to manage T2D; however, patients with T2D can be physically weak, making it difficult to engage in the recommended levels of physical