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Sample records for activity levels compared

  1. Comparison and Comparability: Fitness Tracking between Youths with Different Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Wenhao; Nichols, Randall A.; Zillifro, Traci D.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared a three-year tracking of health-related physical fitness between two comparable samples of six graders that enrolled either in a PE4life middle school ("n"?=?154) or another school with a traditional PE program ("n?"=?93) in the United States. For the cohort, the FITNESSGRAM[TM] (Cooper Institute for…

  2. Wound fluids from human pressure ulcers contain elevated matrix metalloproteinase levels and activity compared to surgical wound fluids.

    PubMed

    Yager, D R; Zhang, L Y; Liang, H X; Diegelmann, R F; Cohen, I K

    1996-11-01

    Fluid from acute surgical wounds and from nonhealing pressure ulcers was examined for the presence of several matrix metalloproteinases. Gelatin zymography demonstrated the presence of two major gelatinases with apparent molecular masses of 72 kDa and 92 kDa and two minor gelatinases with apparent mobilities of 68 kDa and 125 kDa. Antigen-specific sera identified the 72-kDa protein as matrix melloproteinase-2. The same sera also reacted with the 68-kDa protein, which is consistent with it being an activated form of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Antigen-specific sera identified the 92-kDa and 125-kDa proteins as matrix metalloproteinase-9. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were elevated more than 10-fold and 25-fold, respectively, in fluids from pressure ulcers compared with fluids from healing wounds. Examination of total potential and actual collagenolytic activity revealed that fluid from pressure ulcers contained significantly greater levels of both total and active collagenase compared with that of acute surgical wounds. In addition, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that fluids from pressure ulcers contained significantly more collagenase complexed with the inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases. Together, these observations suggest that an imbalance exists between levels of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in the fluids of pressure ulcers and that this is primarily the result of elevated levels of the matrix metalloproteinases. The presence of excessive levels of activated forms of matrix-degrading enzymes at the wound surface of pressure ulcers may impede the healing of these wounds and may be relevant to the development of new rationales for treatment.

  3. A comparative study of the electromyographic activities of lower extremity muscles during level walking and Pedalo riding

    PubMed Central

    Lee, DongGeon; Kim, YouJeong; Yun, JiHyeon; Jung, MiHye; Lee, GyuChang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To analyze the electromyographic (EMG) activities of several lower extremity muscles during ground walking and pedaling using the Pedalo Reha-Bar device. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy adults aged 20–29 year participated in this study. The subjects’ surface EMG signals while walking and Pedalo Reha-Bar riding were recorded. The subjects performed 20 steps on flat ground and 20 cycles on the Pedalo Reha-Bar. During the tasks, EMG signals of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, soleus, and gastrocnemius within a 20-second period were recorded. The mean EMG signals within the 10 seconds from 6 to 15 seconds were used for the data analysis. [Results] There was a significant increase in the bilateral use of the rectus femoris and a significant decrease in the use of the left tibialis anterior and left soleus in pedaling using the Pedalo Reha-Bar device compared to ground walking. [Conclusion] Level walking and the Pedalo Reha-Bar riding utilize different types of muscles activities. These results suggest that Pedalo Reha-Bar riding may be used for neuromuscular activation, especially of the rectus femoris. PMID:27313354

  4. Comparable reduction in Zif268 levels and cytochrome oxidase activity in the retrosplenial cortex following mammillothalamic tract lesions.

    PubMed

    Frizzati, Aura; Milczarek, Michal M; Sengpiel, Frank; Thomas, Kerrie L; Dillingham, Christopher M; Vann, Seralynne D

    2016-08-25

    Damage to the mammillothalamic tract (MTT) produces memory impairments in both humans and rats, yet it is still not clear why this diencephalic pathway is vital for memory. One suggestion is that it is an important route for midbrain inputs to reach a wider cortical and subcortical network that supports memory. Consistent with this idea, MTT lesions produce widespread hypoactivity in distal brain regions as measured by the immediate-early gene, c-fos. To determine whether these findings were selective to c-fos or reflected more general changes in neuronal function, we assessed the effects of MTT lesions on the expression of the immediate-early gene protein, Zif268 and the metabolic marker, cytochrome oxidase, in the retrosplenial cortex and hippocampus. The lesions decreased levels of both activity markers in the superficial and deep layers of the retrosplenial cortex in both its granular and dysgranular subregions. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in the hippocampus, despite the MTT-lesioned animals showing marked impairments on T-maze alternation. These findings are consistent with MTT lesions providing important, indirect inputs for normal retrosplenial cortex functioning. These distal functional changes may contribute to the memory impairments observed after MTT lesions. PMID:27233617

  5. Comparative evaluation of pentraxin 3 levels in GCF during canine retraction with active tieback and NiTi coil spring: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pratik; Shanthraj, Ravi; Bhagyalakshmi, A; Garg, Nekta; Vallakati, Anisha

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX-3) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in patients undergoing orthodontic canine retraction with active tieback and nickel titanium (NiTi) coil spring. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients of the age group 15–25 years with first premolar extraction undergoing canine retraction were selected. One month after placement of 0.019” × 0.025” stainless steel wire, canine retraction was started with active tieback (150 g force) on upper right quadrant and NiTi coil spring (150 g force) on upper left quadrant. GCF samples were collected 1 h before commencement of canine retraction and thereafter at intervals of 1 h, 1 day, 1 week, and 2 weeks after application of force. The collected GCF was eluted from the microcapillary pipette in 100 μl phosphate-buffered saline (pH 5–7.2). The samples were analyzed for PTX-3 levels by the ELISA technique. Results: The mean levels of PTX-3 at 1 h before canine retraction (baseline) was 1.30 ± 0.22 ng/ml and at 1 h 1.66 ± 0.33 ng/ml, 1 day 2.65 ± 0.09 ng/ml, 1 week 1.96 ± 0.15 ng/ml, and 2 weeks 1.37 ± 0.18 ng/ml in active tieback group. The mean levels of PTX-3 at 1 h before canine retraction was 1.32 ± 0.30 ng/ml, and at 1 h 1.71 ± 0.39 ng/ml, 1 day 2.78 ± 0.12 ng/ml, 1 week 2.52 ± 0.18 ng/ml, and 2 weeks 2.12 ± 0.17 ng/ml in NiTi coil spring group. A significant difference of P < 0.001 was found in PTX-3 levels in GCF during canine retraction between active tieback and NiTi coil spring at 1 day, 1 week, and 2 weeks. Conclusion: The results showed that PTX-3 levels increased from 1 h after application of orthodontic force and reached peak at 1 day, followed by a gradual decrease at 1 week and 2 weeks in both active tie back and NiTi coil spring groups. PMID:27127751

  6. Comparative adaptations in oxidative and glycolytic muscle fibers in a low voluntary wheel running rat model performing three levels of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Hayden W; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Ruegsegger, Greg; Mobley, C Brooks; Fox, Carlton D; McGinnis, Graham R; Quindry, John C; Booth, Frank W; Roberts, Michael D; Kavazis, Andreas N

    2015-11-01

    A unique polygenic model of rat physical activity has been recently developed where rats were selected for the trait of low voluntary wheel running. We utilized this model to identify differences in soleus and plantaris muscles of sedentary low voluntary wheel running rats and physically active low voluntary wheel running rats exposed to moderate amounts of treadmill training. Three groups of 28-day-old male Wistar rats were used: (1) rats without a running wheel (SEDENTARY, n = 7), (2) rats housed with a running wheel (WHEEL, n = 7), and (3) rats housed with a running wheel and exercised on the treadmill (5 days/week for 20 min/day at 15.0 m/min) (WHEEL + TREADMILL, n = 7). Animals were euthanized 5 weeks after the start of the experiment and the soleus and plantaris muscles were excised and used for analyses. Increases in skeletal muscle gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha and fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 in WHEEL + TREADMILL group were observed. Also, WHEEL + TREADMILL had higher protein levels of superoxide dismutase 2 and decreased levels of oxidative damage. Our data demonstrate that the addition of treadmill training induces beneficial muscular adaptations compared to animals with wheel access alone. Furthermore, our data expand our understanding of differential muscular adaptations in response to exercise in mitochondrial, antioxidant, and metabolic markers.

  7. Radon ( 222Rn) level variations on a regional scale from the Singhbhum Shear Zone, India: A comparative evaluation between influence of basement U-activity and porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, K. S.; Basu, A.; Guin, R.; Sengupta, D.

    2011-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the comparative study of the radon flux vs. uranium content and radon flux vs. porosity for mineral samples from some typical Indian rocks (schists, quartzites, argillaceous quartzites, slates and granites) used as building materials, primarily around the Singhbhum Shear Zone, Jharkhand State. As the radon flux of any particular rock type was investigated with reference to its uranium activity and porosity, a good concordance of porosity on radon flux was observed. Such a significant influence of porosity on radon flux was also observed when different rock types were inter-compared. For example, granite that is commonly considered as typical source of indoor radon showed depleted level of radon flux when compared to most other rocks in the study area. In case of rocks such as slates and argillaceous quartzites, low porosity exhibited reduced radon flux in spite of their enhanced radioactive source content. It is concluded that it may not be advisable to utilize materials that are uranium depleted for construction purposes without giving importance to the materials' porosity.

  8. A comparative study of visual and auditory reaction times on the basis of gender and physical activity levels of medical first year students

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Aditya; Bansal, Ramta; Kumar, Avnish; Singh, KD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reaction time (RT) is a measure of the response to a stimulus. RT plays a very important role in our lives as its practical implications may be of great consequences. Factors that can affect the average human RT include age, sex, left or right hand, central versus peripheral vision, practice, fatigue, fasting, breathing cycle, personality types, exercise, and intelligence of the subject. Aim: The aim was to compare visual RTs (VRTs) and auditory RTs (ARTs) on the basis of gender and physical activity levels of medical 1st year students. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 healthy medical students in age group of 18–20 years. RT for target stimulus that is, for the beep tone for measuring ART, and red circle for measuring VRT was determined using Inquisit 4.0 (Computer Software) in the laptop. The task was to press the spacebar as soon as the stimulus is presented. Five readings of each stimulus were taken, and their respective fastest RT's for each stimuli were recorded. Statistical analysis was done. Results: In both the sexes’ RT to the auditory stimulus was significantly less (P < 0.001) as compared to the visual stimulus. Significant difference was found between RT of male and female medical students (P < 0.001) as well as between sedentary and regularly exercising healthy medical 1st year students. Conclusion: The ART is faster than the VRT in medical students. Furthermore, male medical students have faster RTs as compared to female medical students for both auditory as well as visual stimuli. Regularly exercising medical students have faster RTs when compared with medical students with sedentary lifestyles. PMID:26097821

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF SERUM BINDING PROTEINS AND FEEDBACK CONTROL OF SERUM ESTRADIOL LEVELS ON THE COMPARATIVE POTENCY OF ENDOCRINE ACTIVE COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE INFLUENCE OF SERUM BINDING PROTEINS ON THE COMPARATIVE RECEPTOR BINDING POTENCY OF ENDOCRINE ACTIVE COMPOUNDS. JG Teeguarden1 and HA Barton2. 1ICF Consulting, Research Triangle Park NC; 2US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, Pharmacokinetics Branch, RTP, NC.

    Accurate comparison of...

  10. Comparing Content in Selected GCE A Levels and Advanced GNVQs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holding, Gordon; And Others

    1996-01-01

    In an action research project, four British further education colleges compared mandatory units of three Advanced General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQs)--business, art and design, and health and social care--with related General Certificate of Education Advanced Level (GCE A-level) syllabuses. Activities included a detailed comparison…

  11. Rudimentary Cleaning Compared to Level 300A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arpin, Christina Y. Pina; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A study was done to characterize the cleanliness level achievable when using a rudimentary cleaning process, and results were compared to JPR 5322.1G Level 300A. While it is not ideal to clean in a shop environment, some situations (e.g., field combat operations) require oxygen system hardware to be maintained and cleaned to prevent a fire hazard, even though it cannot be sent back to a precision cleaning facility. This study measured the effectiveness of basic shop cleaning. Initially, three items representing parts of an oxygen system were contaminated: a metal plate, valve body, and metal oxygen bottle. The contaminants chosen were those most likely to be introduced to the system during normal use: oil, lubricant, metal shavings/powder, sand, fingerprints, tape, lip balm, and hand lotion. The cleaning process used hot water, soap, various brushes, gaseous nitrogen, water nozzle, plastic trays, scouring pads, and a controlled shop environment. Test subjects were classified into three groups: technical professionals having an appreciation for oxygen hazards; professional precision cleaners; and a group with no previous professional knowledge of oxygen or precision cleaning. Three test subjects were in each group, and each was provided with standard cleaning equipment, a cleaning procedure, and one of each of the three test items to clean. The results indicated that the achievable cleanliness level was independent of the technical knowledge or proficiency of the personnel cleaning the items. Results also showed that achieving a Level 300 particle count was more difficult than achieving a Level A nonvolatile residue amount.

  12. Comparative Measurements of Radon Concentration in Soil Using Passive and Active Methods in High Level Natural Radiation Area (HLNRA) of Ramsar

    PubMed Central

    Amanat, B; Kardan, M R; Faghihi, R; Hosseini Pooya, S M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Radon and its daughters are amongst the most important sources of natural exposure in the world. Soil is one of the significant sources of radon/thoron due to both radium and thorium so that the emanated thoron from it may cause increased uncertainties in radon measurements. Recently, a diffusion chamber has been designed and optimized for passive discriminative measurements of radon/thoron concentrations in soil. Objective: In order to evaluate the capability of the passive method, some comparative measurements (with active methods) have been performed. Method: The method is based upon measurements by a diffusion chamber, including two Lexan polycarbonate SSNTDs, which can discriminate the emanated radon/thorn from the soil by delay method. The comparative measurements have been done in ten selected points of HLNRA of Ramsar in Iran. The linear regression and correlation between the results of two methods have been studied. Results: The results show that the radon concentrations are within the range of 12.1 to 165 kBq/m3 values. The correlation between the results of active and passive methods was measured by 0.99 value. As well, the thoron concentrations have been measured between 1.9 to 29.5 kBq/m3 values at the points. Conclusion: The sensitivity as well as the strong correlation with active measurements shows that the new low-cost passive method is appropriate for accurate seasonal measurements of radon and thoron concentration in soil. PMID:25505760

  13. Direct quantification of chemical warfare agents and related compounds at low ppt levels: comparing active capillary dielectric barrier discharge plasma ionization and secondary electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Schaer, Martin; Siegenthaler, Peter; Zenobi, Renato

    2015-01-01

    A novel active capillary dielectric barrier discharge plasma ionization (DBDI) technique for mass spectrometry is applied to the direct detection of 13 chemical warfare related compounds, including sarin, and compared to secondary electrospray ionization (SESI) in terms of selectivity and sensitivity. The investigated compounds include an intact chemical warfare agent and structurally related molecules, hydrolysis products and/or precursors of highly toxic nerve agents (G-series, V-series, and "new" nerve agents), and blistering and incapacitating warfare agents. Well-defined analyte gas phase concentrations were generated by a pressure-assisted nanospray with consecutive thermal evaporation and dilution. Identification was achieved by selected reaction monitoring (SRM). The most abundant fragment ion intensity of each compound was used for quantification. For DBDI and SESI, absolute gas phase detection limits in the low ppt range (in MS/MS mode) were achieved for all compounds investigated. Although the sensitivity of both methods was comparable, the active capillary DBDI sensitivity was found to be dependent on the applied AC voltage, thus enabling direct tuning of the sensitivity and the in-source fragmentation, which may become a key feature in terms of field applicability. Our findings underline the applicability of DBDI and SESI for the direct, sensitive detection and quantification of several CWA types and their degradation products. Furthermore, they suggest the use of DBDI in combination with hand-held instruments for CWAs on-site monitoring.

  14. Comparative evaluation of active learning and the traditional lectures in physiology: a case study of 200 level medical laboratory students of Imo State Unversity, Owerri.

    PubMed

    Anyaehie, U S B; Nwobodo, Ed; Njoku, C J; Inah, G A

    2007-01-01

    Currently, understanding of physiology and disease patterns is undergoing a fundamental paradigm shift with attendant shift in education of health professionals worldwide towards active learning to encourage exploration of connections and their relationships. We introduced problem-based learning to physiology teaching of medial laboratory students to confirm worldwide reports that active learning environments offer better learning opportunities over the traditional methods which is the predominant teaching method in Nigerian universities. Our findings indicate that problem-based learning increases students' attendance/participation in classes and performance in examination. We recommend the integration of active learning into physiology curriculum of Nigerian Universities.

  15. Examining Attitudes, Enjoyment, Flow, and Physical Activity Levels in Pre-Service Teachers Utilizing the BLISS Model Compared to Traditional Dance Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Christa Ann

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes two studies, based on data collection within a pre-existing collegiate course for pre-service teachers in a children's dance setting at a northwest public university. The overall purpose of these experimental studies was to compare traditional movement/dance with the influence of a relevance-based instructional model,…

  16. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Action levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, J.S.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1991-10-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide for early leak detection and to monitor performance of the active low-level waste disposal facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and the transuranic waste storage areas in SWSA 5 North. Early leak detection is accomplished by sampling runoff, groundwater, and perched water in burial trenches. Sample results are compared to action levels that represent background contamination by naturally occurring and fallout-derived radionuclides. 15 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. ACTIVITY LEVEL AND LEARNING EFFECTIVENESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SJOGREN, DOUGLAS D.; STAKE, ROBERT E.

    A STUDY OF LEARNING ACTIVITY EXPLORED (1) AN ACTIVITY-ACHIEVEMENT SCALE TO DESCRIBE THE IMPACT OF ACTIVITY ON ACHIEVEMENT AND (2) THE POSSIBLE COMPLEXITY OR DIMENSIONALITY OF THIS IMPACT. TEN GROUPS, OF 10 COLLEGE UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS EACH, WERE SCHEDULED TO STUDY UNDER EACH OF 10 LEARNING SITUATIONS. THE SITUATIONS CONSISTED OF TWO MODES OF…

  18. FET comparator detects analog signal levels without loading analog device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, H. L.

    1966-01-01

    FET comparator circuit detects discrete analog computer output levels without excessively loading the output amplifier of the computer. An FET common source amplifier is coupled by a differential amplifier to a bistable transistor flip-flop. This circuit provides a digital output for analog voltages above or below a predetermined level.

  19. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  20. The SLAC Vertical Comparator for the Calibration of Digital Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Woschitz, Helmut; Gassner, Georg; Ruland, Robert; /SLAC

    2006-12-06

    Digital levels replaced spirit levels in most fields of precise height measurements because of the automation of the height readings. Three manufacturers offer digital levels with a single reading resolution of 10 {micro}m, and for all of them systematic effects are known. In Europe several facilities for system calibration of digital levels using vertical comparators were established within the last decade. However, there still was no system calibration facility in North America. In order to guarantee the accuracy required for the alignment of experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) a calibration facility for the system calibration of digital levels was built. In this paper the setup of the SLAC vertical comparator is described in detail and its standard uncertainty is derived. In order to perform traditional rod calibration of conventional line-scaled rods, a CCD camera was integrated into the SLAC comparator. The CCD camera setup is also briefly described. To demonstrate the capabilities of the comparator, results of system and rod calibration are shown.

  1. Comparing Participation in Activities among Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masse, Louise C.; Miller, Anton R.; Shen, Jane; Schiariti, Veronica; Roxborough, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Compared to typically developing peers, children with disabilities due to neurodevelopmental disorders and disabilities (NDD/D) and to chronic medical conditions (CMC) have reduced participation in activities. The extent to which these two groups of children have different levels of participation is unknown and was examined in this…

  2. Comparing Recreational Reading Levels with Reading Levels from an Informal Reading Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lawrence L.; Joyner, C. Rosanne

    1990-01-01

    Compares second grade and fifth grade students' recreational reading levels (when students self-select library books for recreation reading) in relation to independent, instructional, and frustration levels as determined with an informal reading inventory. Concludes that recreational reading levels should not be viewed as synonymous with…

  3. Comparative Sensitivity Analysis of Muscle Activation Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rockenfeller, Robert; Günther, Michael; Schmitt, Syn; Götz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We mathematically compared two models of mammalian striated muscle activation dynamics proposed by Hatze and Zajac. Both models are representative for a broad variety of biomechanical models formulated as ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These models incorporate parameters that directly represent known physiological properties. Other parameters have been introduced to reproduce empirical observations. We used sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of model parameters on the ODE solutions. In addition, we expanded an existing approach to treating initial conditions as parameters and to calculating second-order sensitivities. Furthermore, we used a global sensitivity analysis approach to include finite ranges of parameter values. Hence, a theoretician striving for model reduction could use the method for identifying particularly low sensitivities to detect superfluous parameters. An experimenter could use it for identifying particularly high sensitivities to improve parameter estimation. Hatze's nonlinear model incorporates some parameters to which activation dynamics is clearly more sensitive than to any parameter in Zajac's linear model. Other than Zajac's model, Hatze's model can, however, reproduce measured shifts in optimal muscle length with varied muscle activity. Accordingly we extracted a specific parameter set for Hatze's model that combines best with a particular muscle force-length relation. PMID:26417379

  4. Factors Influencing Cypriot Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present selected findings from a larger study, which set out to examine the physical activity levels of Cypriot primary school children and determinants of their activity. Twenty parents of children who obtained high and low activity scores based on pedometer counts and self-reports scores were interviewed. By…

  5. Feature-level sentiment analysis by using comparative domain corpora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Changqin; Ren, Fuji

    2016-06-01

    Feature-level sentiment analysis (SA) is able to provide more fine-grained SA on certain opinion targets and has a wider range of applications on E-business. This study proposes an approach based on comparative domain corpora for feature-level SA. The proposed approach makes use of word associations for domain-specific feature extraction. First, we assign a similarity score for each candidate feature to denote its similarity extent to a domain. Then we identify domain features based on their similarity scores on different comparative domain corpora. After that, dependency grammar and a general sentiment lexicon are applied to extract and expand feature-oriented opinion words. Lastly, the semantic orientation of a domain-specific feature is determined based on the feature-oriented opinion lexicons. In evaluation, we compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods (including unsupervised and semi-supervised) using a standard product review test collection. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of using comparative domain corpora.

  6. Lower Back Injuries in Rowing National Level Compared to International Level Rowers

    PubMed Central

    Verrall, Geoffrey; Darcey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rowing injuries are common, with lower back injuries having the highest incidence. Objectives: This study was to investigate the major rowing injuries seen at a single high performance rowing sports program over a 5 years training period and establish if any relationship exists between these injuries and the level of competition that the rower is partaking in. Patients and Methods: All rowers at the South Australian Sports Institute (SASI) programs were designated as being either international or national level rowers. Injuries that caused greater than 5 days training loss during any one training year were recorded. The number of lower back injuries and rib stress injuries causing training time loss were analysed to assess whether there was any association between the level of rower and the nature and type of injury causing training time loss. Results: Forty-five national rowers (97 training years) had 15 lower back injuries compared to 12 international rowers 35 training years) with 1 lower back injury. Thus a national level rower was more likely to have a lower back injury compared to an international rower P = 0.05. In contrast an international level was more likely to have a rib stress fracture compared to a national rower P = 0.04. 21% of all injuries in this study were a consequence of cycling injuries. Conclusions: Lower back injuries are a significant cause of training time lost in rowers. These injuries are much more likely to occur in national level rowers when compared to international level rowers. In contrast rib stress injuries are associated with international compared to national level rowers. PMID:25741422

  7. Movement Activity Levels on Traditional and Contemporary Playground Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl P.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth

    This study investigated playground activity levels of children in grades K-4 and compared levels of use of traditional and creative playground apparatus. The traditional playground area consisted of climbing bars, slides, ladders, chin bars, swings, see saws, and a merry-go-round. The creative playground contained tire hurdles, tire walk, tire…

  8. Investigations of Digital Levels at the SLAC Vertical Comparator

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, G.

    2005-01-18

    Digital levels deliver highly accurate and fast measurements in an automated measuring process. A shortcoming is that they give less accurate measurements in some cases. There are several sources which are known to have a systematic effect on the height reading and therefore have to be investigated for our equipment. One parameter is the scale factor which has to be determined on a regular basis. Other sources for inaccurate height readings are measurements at critical distances and at the end sections of the rod, a defocused set-up and artificial illumination. With the findings of the experiments investigating the aforementioned error sources, rules for our fieldwork were established. The experiments were carried out with our instruments, a Trimble (formerly Zeiss) DiNi 12 (SW Version 1.21) and a Leica DNA03 (SW Version 3.40). In some cases, when it is not possible to avoid a critical set-up with the digital leveling system, we use the analog level Wild NA3. Therefore the analog rods have to be also controlled. The calibration is performed with a CCD camera which automatically detects the edges in the image and compares them with the interferometer readings. The CCD camera system is also used to determine the height offset between rods.

  9. Physical activity level, waist circumference, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Reeder, Bruce A.; Elliott, Susan; Joffres, Michel R.; Pahwa, Punam; Kirkland, Susan A.; Paradis, Gilles; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    This study predicted all-cause mortality based on physical activity level (active or inactive) and waist circumference (WC) in 8208 Canadian adults in Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan, surveyed between 1986–1995 and followed through 2004. Physically inactive adults had higher mortality risk than active adults overall (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval = 1.20, 1.05–1.37) and within the low WC category (1.51, 1.19–1.92). Detrimental effects of physical inactivity and high WC demonstrate the need for physical activity promotion. PMID:22703160

  10. Human macrophage polarization in vitro: maturation and activation methods compared.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Daphne Y S; Glim, Judith E; Stavenuiter, Andrea W D; Breur, Marjolein; Heijnen, Priscilla; Amor, Sandra; Dijkstra, Christine D; Beelen, Robert H J

    2014-09-01

    Macrophages form a heterogeneous cell population displaying multiple functions, and can be polarized into pro- (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages, by environmental factors. Their activation status reflects a beneficial or detrimental role in various diseases. Currently several in vitro maturation and activation protocols are used to induce an M1 or M2 phenotype. Here, the impact of different maturation factors (NHS, M-CSF, or GM-CSF) and activation methods (IFN-γ/LPS, IL-4, dexamethason, IL-10) on the macrophage phenotype was determined. Regarding macrophage morphology, pro-inflammatory (M1) activation stimulated cell elongation, and anti-inflammatory (M2) activation induced a circular appearance. Activation with pro-inflammatory mediators led to increased CD40 and CD64 expression, whereas activation with anti-inflammatory factors resulted in increased levels of MR and CD163. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was induced by activation with IFN-γ/LPS, and TGF-β production was enhanced by the maturation factors M-CSF and GM-CSF. Our data demonstrate that macrophage marker expression and cytokine production in vitro is highly dependent on both maturation and activation methods. In vivo macrophage activation is far more complex, since a plethora of stimuli are present. Hence, defining the macrophage activation status ex vivo on a limited number of markers could be indecisive. From this study we conclude that maturation with M-CSF or GM-CSF induces a moderate anti- or pro-inflammatory state respectively, compared to maturation with NHS. CD40 and CD64 are the most distinctive makers for human M1 and CD163 and MR for M2 macrophage activation and therefore can be helpful in determining the activation status of human macrophages ex vivo.

  11. Education Finance Legislative Activity and Trends at the State Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crampton, Faith E.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews 1997 school finance legislation, comparing legislative activity levels from 1994 to 1997. In 1997, 32 states passed legislation pertaining to capital-outlay funding, tax bases, and taxation for education funding. Half passed legislation for state aid, technology, special-purpose education, budgeting/fiscal management, and school personnel…

  12. A Comparative Case Study of State-Level Virtual Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Haixia; Morris, Libby V.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the consortial approach to distance education at the state level, with a focus on examining the way three state-level virtual universities engaged colleges and universities in participating in distance education initiatives. Specifically, three research questions guided this study: (1) What structure was…

  13. Physical activity as a determinant of fecal bile acid levels

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Betsy C.; Martínez, María Elena; Ashbeck, Erin L.; Roe, Denise J.; Jacobs, Elizabeth T.; Alberts, David S.; Thompson, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity is protective against colon cancer, whereas colonic bile acid exposure is a suspected risk factor. While likely related, the association between physical activity and bile acid levels has not been well studied. Furthermore, the effect of triglycerides, which are known to modify bile acid levels, on this relationship has not been investigated. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline fecal bile acid levels for 735 colorectal adenoma formers obtained from participants in a phase III ursodeoxycholic acid chemoprevention trial. Compared to the lowest quartile of recreational physical activity duration, the highest quartile was associated with a 17% lower fecal bile acid concentration, adjusted for age, sex, dietary fiber intake, and body mass index (P = 0.042). Furthermore, consistent with a previously established relationship between serum triglyceride levels and bile acid metabolism, we stratified by triglyceride level and observed a 34% lower fecal bile acid concentration (highest versus lowest quartiles of physical activity) in individuals with low triglycerides (< 136 mg/dL; P = 0.002). In contrast, no association between physical activity and fecal bile acid concentration was observed for subjects with high triglycerides (≥ 136 mg/dL). Our results suggest that the biological mechanism responsible for the protective effect of physical activity on the incidence of colon cancer may be partially mediated by decreasing colonic bile acid exposure. However, this effect may be limited to individuals with lower triglyceride levels. PMID:19383885

  14. A Physiologic Profile Comparing Levels and Styles of Female Dancers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmelar, Robin D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of 39 adult female dancers indicated that professional ballet dancers had significantly lower maximal oxygen uptake and lower peak blood lactate levels than other dancers (professional modern, university ballet or modern). Professional ballet dancers also had a significantly higher isokinetic hamstring-quadriceps ratio than modern…

  15. Can nursing students' confidence levels increase with repeated simulation activities?

    PubMed

    Cummings, Cynthia L; Connelly, Linda K

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, nursing faculty conducted a study with undergraduate nursing students on their satisfaction, confidence, and educational practice levels, as it related to simulation activities throughout the curriculum. The study was a voluntary survey conducted on junior and senior year nursing students. It consisted of 30 items based on the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning and the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Jeffries, 2012). Mean averages were obtained for each of the 30 items from both groups and were compared using T scores for unpaired means. The results showed that 8 of the items had a 95% confidence level and when combined the items were significant for p <.001. The items identified were those related to self-confidence and active learning. Based on these findings, it can be assumed that repeated simulation experiences can lead to an increase in student confidence and active learning. PMID:26599594

  16. Can nursing students' confidence levels increase with repeated simulation activities?

    PubMed

    Cummings, Cynthia L; Connelly, Linda K

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, nursing faculty conducted a study with undergraduate nursing students on their satisfaction, confidence, and educational practice levels, as it related to simulation activities throughout the curriculum. The study was a voluntary survey conducted on junior and senior year nursing students. It consisted of 30 items based on the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning and the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Jeffries, 2012). Mean averages were obtained for each of the 30 items from both groups and were compared using T scores for unpaired means. The results showed that 8 of the items had a 95% confidence level and when combined the items were significant for p <.001. The items identified were those related to self-confidence and active learning. Based on these findings, it can be assumed that repeated simulation experiences can lead to an increase in student confidence and active learning.

  17. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  18. Comparative in vitro activity of faropenem against staphylococci.

    PubMed

    von Eiff, Christof; Schepers, Sven; Peters, Georg

    2002-08-01

    The anti-staphylococcal activity of faropenem, a novel beta-lactam, was examined and compared with that of amoxicillin, cefuroxime, clindamycin and vancomycin using the agar dilution method. A total of 234 staphylococci, including a large number of clonally different methicillin-resistant strains and a representative number of Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants, were tested. While the activity of faropenem was independent of the staphylococcal phenotype, the novel penem was up to eight times more active against methicillin-susceptible strains compared with the other agents tested. In addition, faropenem was active against many methicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. PMID:12161412

  19. A Comparative Analysis of the Functional Disability Levels of Adult Day Care, Adult Day Health and ICF-Level Nursing Home Elderly in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashida, Cullen T.

    This study compared the functional disability levels of participants in adult day centers with patients in intermediate care facilities (ICFs). A three-page questionnaire measuring demographics, social resources, physical health, mental health, and activities of daily living as assessed by the Activities of Daily Living scale and the Instrumental…

  20. Comparative Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels in the Slender Pea and Other Pea Phenotypes 1

    PubMed Central

    Law, David M.; Davies, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    Free indole-3-acetic acid levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in three ultra-tall `slender' Pisum sativum L. lines differing in gibberellin content. Measurements were made for apices and stem elongation zones of light-grown plants and values were compared with wild-type, dwarf, and nana phenotypes in which internode length is genetically regulated, purportedly via the gibberellin level. Indole-3-acetic acid levels of growing stems paralleled growth rates in all lines, and were high in all three slender genotypes. Growth was inhibited by p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid, demonstrating the requirement of auxin activity for stem elongation, and also by the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. It is concluded that the slender phenotype may arise from constant activation of a gibberellin receptor or transduction chain event leading directly or indirectly to elevated levels of indole-3-acetic acid, and that increased indole-3-acetic acid levels are a significant factor in the promotion of stem elongation. PMID:16667653

  1. Physical activity changes during pregnancy in a comparative impact trail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delta Healthy Sprouts was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, physical activity, and other health behaviors of rural, Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to physical activity outcomes in the gestat...

  2. Uric acid levels in subjects with bipolar disorder: A comparative meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Francesco; Crocamo, Cristina; Mazza, Mario Gennaro; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has hypothesised increased uric acid levels, possibly because of an amplified purinergic metabolism and a reduced adenosine activity, in subjects with bipolar disorder. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at estimating if individuals with bipolar disorder had uric acid levels higher than both healthy controls and subjects with major depression (trait marker hypothesis). It also tested if uric acid levels could differ in different phases of bipolar disorder (state marker hypothesis). Meta-analyses were carried out generating pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs), using random-effects models. Heterogeneity between studies was estimated using the I(2) index. Relevant sensitivity and meta-regression analyses were conducted. We searched main Electronic Databases, identifying twelve studies that met our inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses showed increased uric acid levels in individuals with bipolar disorder as compared with both healthy controls (SMD = 0.65, p < 0.001, I(2) = 82.9%) and those with major depression (SMD = 0.46, p < 0.001; I(2) = 68.7%). However, meta-regression analyses confirmed this association only as compared with healthy controls. Finally, though uric acid levels were higher in manic/mixed phases as compared with depressive ones (SMD = 0.34; p = 0.04, I(2) = 58.8%), a sensitivity analysis did not confirm the association. In sum, our meta-analysis shows that subjects with bipolar disorder have uric acid levels higher than healthy controls. The potential role of factors that might clarify the nature of this association deserves additional research.

  3. Job level risk assessment using task level ACGIH hand activity level TLV scores: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Drinkaus, Phillip; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Donald S; Mann, Clay; Bernard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Existing upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder analytical tools are primarily intended for single or mono-task jobs. However, many jobs contain more than 1 task and some include job rotation. This case/control study investigates methods of modifying an existing tool, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Hand Activity Level (HAL) Threshold Limit Value (TLV), to assess the upper extremity risk of multi-task jobs. Various methods of combining the task differences and ratios into a job level assessment were explored. Two methods returned significant odds ratios, (p < .05) of 18.0 (95% CI 1.8-172) and 12.0 (95% CI 1.2-120). These results indicate that a modified ACGIH HAL TLV may provide insight into the work-related risk of multi-task jobs. Further research is needed to optimize this process. PMID:16219155

  4. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... under that Part. (b) Other State-level activities. (1) States may reserve a portion of their...

  5. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... under that Part. (b) Other State-level activities. (1) States may reserve a portion of their...

  6. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... under that Part. (b) Other State-level activities. (1) States may reserve a portion of their...

  7. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... under that Part. (b) Other State-level activities. (1) States may reserve a portion of their...

  8. Levels of health development: a new tool for comparative research and policy formulation.

    PubMed

    Hunter, S S

    1990-01-01

    Levels of health development are formed by mathematically clustering countries using six health status indicators: crude birth, crude death, infant mortality and child death rates, and male and female life expectancy. Stratifying two international samples of 128 and 163 countries into levels of health development--groups with similar health status profiles--improves the results of regression analyses used to identify economic, political, social, educational, health and other health determinants. For this reason, health development levels are a systematic framework for delineation of health determinants. Earlier large scale statistical studies have been limited in their success in part because they did not partition their data sets prior to analysis, or used inappropriate criteria that blurred rather than heightened developmental differences in underlying social systems. These developmental differences regulate the way in which health status inputs are converted into health status outputs, defining the relative importance of health determinants at various developmental levels. At lowest health development levels (countries with poorer health status), the under-development of economic, health and educational infrastructures creates a vacuum which allows international intervention (aid, investment, export/import activities) to play a dominant role in health status determination. At middle health development levels, health and educational infrastructures are better developed, but still secondary in importance as health status determinants to basic economic infrastructure. Demographic problems are particularly apparent at these levels. At higher health development levels, education, women's status, and political structure are especially important health status determinants. This research has facilitated the identification of health status determinants for use in health policy analysis. Recommendations for future research include use of findings in health policymaking by

  9. Level of Anxiety among Two Genders Appearing for National Level Test: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Zamirullah; Ahmed, Waseem; Khan, Naseem Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common mental, emotional and behavioral problem that occurs during exam. University students suffer to some levels of study anxiety, such as; have new experiences, environment and situation. Study anxiety is a real phenomenon. The prevalence of study anxiety has been acknowledged by students. An attempt has been made…

  10. Low level laser therapy reduces inflammation in activated Achilles tendinitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.

  11. Electrocortical activity distinguishes between uphill and level walking in humans.

    PubMed

    Bradford, J Cortney; Lukos, Jamie R; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if electrocortical activity is different between walking on an incline compared with level surface. Subjects walked on a treadmill at 0% and 15% grades for 30 min while we recorded electroencephalography (EEG). We used independent component (IC) analysis to parse EEG signals into maximally independent sources and then computed dipole estimations for each IC. We clustered cortical source ICs and analyzed event-related spectral perturbations synchronized to gait events. Theta power fluctuated across the gait cycle for both conditions, but was greater during incline walking in the anterior cingulate, sensorimotor and posterior parietal clusters. We found greater gamma power during level walking in the left sensorimotor and anterior cingulate clusters. We also found distinct alpha and beta fluctuations, depending on the phase of the gait cycle for the left and right sensorimotor cortices, indicating cortical lateralization for both walking conditions. We validated the results by isolating movement artifact. We found that the frequency activation patterns of the artifact were different than the actual EEG data, providing evidence that the differences between walking conditions were cortically driven rather than a residual artifact of the experiment. These findings suggest that the locomotor pattern adjustments necessary to walk on an incline compared with level surface may require supraspinal input, especially from the left sensorimotor cortex, anterior cingulate, and posterior parietal areas. These results are a promising step toward the use of EEG as a feed-forward control signal for ambulatory brain-computer interface technologies.

  12. Low Serum Level α-Synuclein and Tau Protein in Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared to Controls.

    PubMed

    Kadak, Muhammed Tayyib; Cetin, Ihsan; Tarakçıoğlu, Mahmut Cem; Özer, Ömer Faruk; Kaçar, Selma; Çimen, Behzat

    2015-12-01

    α-Synuclein (α-syn) and tau proteins are thought to be related with the synaptic loss and cell death underlying several important neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate serum α-syn and tau levels in autism. Serum levels of α-syn and tau were measured, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) severity was assessed at admission using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) total score. The mean CARS score of the autism group on admission was 47.91 points (SD: 5.97). The results indicated that the mean serum α-syn and serum tau levels were significantly (p < 0.001) lower in children with ASD as compared with normal cases (33.01 ± 20.78 and 55.19 ± 15.34 ng/mL and 241.23 ± 290.5 and 509.78 ± 269.25 ng/mL, respectively). There was a significant positive correlation between serum α-syn levels and serum levels of tau identified by Pearson correlation analysis (r = 0.922, n = 28, p < 0.001). Synaptic abnormality in autism may result from microglial activity. Furthermore, α-syn and tau aggregation may lead to synaptic dysfunction, and this may contribute to either neuronal or synaptic dysfunction or neurodegeneration. Our preliminary study suggests that low levels of serum α-syn and tau may be implicated in the relationship between synaptic activity and autism.

  13. Entry-Level Activities in System Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    System-level consultation or organizational development in schools is an area in great need of theoretical models and definitions. The three articles in this special issue provide a unique learning opportunity not only for consultation across borders but also for consultation within the same nation. In my commentary, I limit my remarks to a few…

  14. Controlled Systemic Delivery by Polymeric Implants Enhances Tissue and Plasma Curcumin Levels Compared with Oral Administration

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Shyam S.; Kausar, Hina; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Ravoori, Srivani; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin possess potent anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities but with poor biopharmaceutical attributes. To overcome these limitations, curcumin implants were developed and tissue (plasma, brain and liver) curcumin concentrations were measured in female ACI rats for 3 months. Biological efficacy of tissue levels achieved was analyzed by modulation of hepatic cytochromes. Curcumin implants exhibited diffusion-mediated biphasic release pattern with ~2-fold higher in vivo release as compared to in vitro. Plasma curcumin concentration from implants was ~3.3 ng/ml on day 1 which dropped to ~0.2 ng/ml after 3 months whereas only 0.2–0.3 ng/ml concentration was observed from 4–12 days with diet and was undetected subsequently. Almost 10 fold higher curcumin levels were observed in brain on day 1 from implants compared with diet (30.1±7.3 vs 2.7±0.8 ng/g) and were higher even after 90 days (7.7±3.8 vs 2.2±0.8 ng/g). Although, curcumin levels were similar in liver from both the routes (~25–30 ng/g from day 1–4 and ~10–15 ng/g at 90 days), implants were more efficacious in altering hepatic CYP1A1 levels and CYP3A4 activity at ~28 fold lower doses. Curcumin implants provided much higher plasma and tissue concentrations and are a viable alternative for delivery of curcumin to various organs like brain. PMID:22227368

  15. Neutral sphingomyelinase-2, acid sphingomyelinase, and ceramide levels in COPD patients compared to controls

    PubMed Central

    Lea, Simon R; Metcalfe, Hannah J; Plumb, Jonathan; Beerli, Christian; Poll, Chris; Singh, Dave; Abbott-Banner, Katharine H

    2016-01-01

    Background Increased pulmonary ceramide levels are suggested to play a causative role in lung diseases including COPD. Neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase-2) and acid SMase (aSMase), which hydrolyze sphingomyelin to produce ceramide, are activated by a range of cellular stresses, including inflammatory cytokines and pathogens, but notably cigarette smoke appears to only activate nSMase-2. Our primary objective was to investigate nSMase-2 and aSMase protein localization and quantification in lung tissue from nonsmokers (NS), smokers (S), and COPD patients. In addition, various ceramide species (C16, C18, and C20) were measured in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients versus controls. Materials and methods Patients undergoing surgical resection for suspected or confirmed lung cancer were recruited, and nSMase-2 and aSMase protein was investigated in different areas of lung tissue (small airways, alveolar walls, subepithelium, and alveolar macrophages) by immunohistochemistry. Ceramide species were measured in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients and controls by mass spectrometry. Results nSMase-2 and aSMase were detected in the majority of small airways. There was a significant increase in nSMase-2 immunoreactivity in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients (54%) compared with NS (31.7%) (P<0.05), and in aSMase immunoreactivity in COPD (68.2%) and S (69.5%) alveolar macrophages compared with NS (52.4%) (P<0.05). aSMase labeling was also increased in the subepithelium and alveolar walls of S compared with NS. Ceramide (C20) was significantly increased in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients compared with controls. Conclusion nSMase-2 and aSMase are both increased in COPD alveolar macrophages at the protein level; this may contribute toward the elevated ceramide (C20) detected in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients. PMID:27660431

  16. Neutral sphingomyelinase-2, acid sphingomyelinase, and ceramide levels in COPD patients compared to controls

    PubMed Central

    Lea, Simon R; Metcalfe, Hannah J; Plumb, Jonathan; Beerli, Christian; Poll, Chris; Singh, Dave; Abbott-Banner, Katharine H

    2016-01-01

    Background Increased pulmonary ceramide levels are suggested to play a causative role in lung diseases including COPD. Neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase-2) and acid SMase (aSMase), which hydrolyze sphingomyelin to produce ceramide, are activated by a range of cellular stresses, including inflammatory cytokines and pathogens, but notably cigarette smoke appears to only activate nSMase-2. Our primary objective was to investigate nSMase-2 and aSMase protein localization and quantification in lung tissue from nonsmokers (NS), smokers (S), and COPD patients. In addition, various ceramide species (C16, C18, and C20) were measured in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients versus controls. Materials and methods Patients undergoing surgical resection for suspected or confirmed lung cancer were recruited, and nSMase-2 and aSMase protein was investigated in different areas of lung tissue (small airways, alveolar walls, subepithelium, and alveolar macrophages) by immunohistochemistry. Ceramide species were measured in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients and controls by mass spectrometry. Results nSMase-2 and aSMase were detected in the majority of small airways. There was a significant increase in nSMase-2 immunoreactivity in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients (54%) compared with NS (31.7%) (P<0.05), and in aSMase immunoreactivity in COPD (68.2%) and S (69.5%) alveolar macrophages compared with NS (52.4%) (P<0.05). aSMase labeling was also increased in the subepithelium and alveolar walls of S compared with NS. Ceramide (C20) was significantly increased in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients compared with controls. Conclusion nSMase-2 and aSMase are both increased in COPD alveolar macrophages at the protein level; this may contribute toward the elevated ceramide (C20) detected in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients.

  17. Level of independence of motor unit properties from neuromuscular activity.

    PubMed

    Pierotti, D J; Roy, R R; Hodgson, J A; Edgerton, V R

    1994-11-01

    Neuromuscular activity was eliminated in the tibialis anterior muscle of adult cats for 6 months by spinal isolation (SI), i.e., complete spinal cord transections at T-12-13 and at L-7-S-1, plus bilateral dorsal rhizotomy between the two transection sites. One motor unit from each muscle was isolated using ventral root teasing procedures and physiologically tested. The fibers belonging to each motor unit were visualized in PAS-stained sections by the loss of glycogen following prolonged repetitive stimulation. Qualitatively, the normal enzymatic interrelationships among fibers identified by myosin heavy chain composition were unchanged by SI. Generally, each motor unit from SI cats were of a single myosin immunohistochemical type. The same physiological motor unit types that typify control muscles were found in SI cats. In SI compared to control cats, there was approximately a 10% increase in the number of muscle fibers expressing fast myosin. Mean fiber activity levels of ATPase and SDH for a given fiber type (based on MHC antibody reactions) decreased by approximately 10% and 25%, whereas GPD activity increased approximately 35%. It is concluded that differential levels or patterns of activity are not essential to maintain the range of histochemical and physiological motor unit types found in the tibialis anterior of normal adult cats.

  18. Comparing Theoretical Perspectives in Describing Mathematics Departments: Complexity and Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beswick, Kim; Watson, Anne; De Geest, Els

    2010-01-01

    We draw on two studies of mathematics departments in 11-18 comprehensive maintained schools in England to compare and contrast the insights provided by differing theoretical perspectives. In one study, activity theory was used to describe common features of the work of three departments. In the other, a mathematics department was viewed and…

  19. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P < 0.001), with HIT reaching higher BDNF levels than CON (P = 0.035) (experiment 2). These results suggest that shorter bouts of high intensity exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health.

  20. Decreased physical activity in Pima Indian compared with Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Fontvieille, A M; Kriska, A; Ravussin, E

    1993-08-01

    Since reduced physical activity might be a risk factor for body weight gain, we studied the relationship between physical activity and body composition in 43 Pima Indian children (22 male/21 female, mean +/- s.d.: 9.9 +/- 1.1 years) and 42 Caucasian children (21 male/21 female, 9.7 +/- 1.2 years). A list of usual sport leisure activities was established (e.g. bicycling, swimming, basketball) and the subjects were asked how much time they had devoted to each activity over the past week and the last year. Data on time spent playing outside (excluding sport leisure activities for the estimation of physical activity) and watching television/videos were also collected. Pima Indians were taller (143 +/- 9 vs. 137 +/- 8 cm, P < 0.001), heavier (48.6 +/- 15.8 vs. 32.9 +/- 7.8 kg, P < 0.0001) and fatter (39 +/- 16 vs. 24 +/- 7% fat, P < 0.001) than Caucasians. Pima Indian girls showed significantly lower past year and past week sport leisure activity than Caucasian girls (P < 0.01) and spent significantly more time watching television/videos (P < 0.05). Pima boys also showed significantly lower past week sport leisure activity than Caucasian boys (P < 0.05). In Pima Indian boys, past year sport leisure activity correlated negatively (P < 0.05) with body mass index (r = -0.49) and percentage body fat (r = -0.56). However, such correlations were not found in Pima Indian girls, possibly due their very low levels of activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (≥5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ≥75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition. PMID:25264672

  2. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (≥5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ≥75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition.

  3. Comparative blanching activities of proprietary diflucortolone valerate topical preparations.

    PubMed

    Coleman, G L; Kanfer, I; Haigh, J M

    1978-01-01

    The blanching activities and hence bioavailabilities of the cream, ointment and fatty ointment preparations of Nerisone and Temetex (diflucortolone valerate 0.1%) were evaluated using an occluded and unoccluded blanching assay. These products were compared to Synalar ointment and cream (fluocinolone acetonide 0.025%), established topical corticosteroid preparations. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences between similar formulations of diflucortolone valerate. Significant differences were noted between diflucortolone valerate and fluocinolone acetonide preparations. PMID:342295

  4. Physical Activity Levels during Adventure-Physical Education Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehris, Jeffrey; Myers, Elizabeth; Whitaker, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Adventure-physical education has been proposed to promote adolescents' physical development, but little is known about physical activity levels during such lessons. Using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time, we observed students' (ages 11-14 years) physical activity levels in co-educational classes during 43 adventure-physical…

  5. A Comparative Study of Student Satisfaction Level in Distance Learning and Live Classroom at Higher Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Azhar; Mahmood, Sheikh Tariq; Malik, Allah Bakhsh

    2012-01-01

    The technology has embraced the innovative learning methodologies. Distance Learning has taken the place of traditional face-to-face educational environment. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of student satisfaction of graduate distance learning educational psychology course to a traditional classroom educational psychology course…

  6. Solar Activity, Different Geomagnetic Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar

    Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.

  7. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    PubMed

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting.

  8. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    PubMed

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. PMID:27029522

  9. Comparative studies of brain activation with MEG and functional MRI

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.S.; Aine, C.J.; Sanders, J.A.; Lewine, J.D.; Caprihan, A.

    1993-12-31

    The past two years have witnessed the emergence of MRI as a functional imaging methodology. Initial demonstrations involved the injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent and required ultrafast echo planar imaging capability to adequately resolve the passage of the injected bolus. By measuring the local reduction in image intensity due to magnetic susceptibility, it was possible to calculate blood volume, which changes as a function of neural activation. Later developments have exploited endogenous contrast mechanisms to monitor changes in blood volume or in venous blood oxygen content. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that it is possible to make such measurements in a clinical imager, suggesting that the large installed base of such machines might be utilized for functional imaging. Although it is likely that functional MRI (fMRI) will subsume some of the clinical and basic neuroscience applications now touted for MEG, it is also clear that these techniques offer different largely complementary, capabilities. At the very least, it is useful to compare and cross-validate the activation maps produced by these techniques. Such studies will be valuable as a check on results of neuromagnetic distributed current reconstructions and will allow better characterization of the relationship between neurophysiological activation and associated hemodynamic changes. A more exciting prospect is the development of analyses that combine information from the two modalities to produce a better description of underlying neural activity than is possible with either technique in isolation. In this paper we describe some results from initial comparative studies and outline several techniques that can be used to treat MEG and fMRI data within a unified computational framework.

  10. Levels of physical activity and predictors of mortality in COPD*

    PubMed Central

    Nyssen, Samantha Maria; dos Santos, Júlia Gianjoppe; Barusso, Marina Sallum; de Oliveira, Antônio Delfino; Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires Di; Jamami, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE) index scores and its individual components between COPD patients with and without severe physical inactivity, as well as to correlate the number of steps/day with scores of physical activity questionnaires, age, and the BODE index (including its components). METHODS: We included 30 patients, who were evaluated for body composition, pulmonary function (FEV1), perception of dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council scale), and exercise capacity (six-minute walk distance [6MWD]). The patients also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), short version, and the modified Baecke questionnaire (mBQ). The level of physical activity was assessed by the number of steps/day (as determined by pedometer), using the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day to form two groups: no severe physical inactivity (SPI−) and severe physical inactivity (SPI+). We used the Mann-Whitney test or t-test, as well as Pearson's or Spearman's correlation tests, in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: In comparison with the SPI− group, the SPI+ group showed more advanced age, higher mBQ scores (leisure domain), lower 6MWD (in m and % of predicted), and lower IPAQ scores (metabolic equivalent-walk/week domain and total). The IPAQ scores showed weak correlations with steps/day (r = 0.399), age (r = −0.459), and 6MWD-in m (r = 0.446) and in % of predicted (r = 0.422). CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day was not sensitive enough to identify differences between the groups when compared with the predictors of mortality. The IPAQ, short version score correlated with steps/day. PMID:24473759

  11. Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.

  12. Trace element and magnesium levels and superoxide dismutase activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, S; Kamanli, A; Akçil, E; Kavas, G O; Seçkin, B; Atay, M B

    1999-05-01

    It has been suggested that reactive oxygen metabolites and trace elements play some role in the etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is believed to exert an important protective role against oxygen toxicity. The aim of the study was to investigate the probable changes in the levels of trace elements and SOD activity in RA. Plasma and erythrocyte copper, zinc, and magnesium levels and erythrocyte SOD activity were measured in groups of controls and RA cases. Significantly increased erythrocyte SOD activity was found in RA patients in comparison with controls (p < 0.0001). A rise in erythrocyte Zn level (p < 0.0001) and plasma Cu level (p < 0.0001) and a decrease in erythrocyte Cu level (p < 0.05) and plasma Zn level (p < 0.05) were obtained in RA patients when compared to controls. Plasma and erythrocyte Mg levels of the RA patients showed slight and statistically insignificant reductions when compared to controls (p > 0.05). In RA patients, there were positive correlations between erythrocyte SOD activity and Mg level (r = 0.4345, p < 0.01) and between erythrocyte Zn level and plasma Cu level (r = 0.4132, p < 0.01). There were negative correlations between erythrocyte SOD activity and plasma Zn level (r = -0.3605, p < 0.05) and between plasma Zn level and erythrocyte Cu level (r = -0.4578, p < 0.01) in RA patients.

  13. 77 FR 58416 - Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Spent Ion Exchange Resins From Commercial Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins from... Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent...

  14. Relationship of lipoprotein(a) levels to physical activity and family history of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Martín, S; Elosua, R; Covas, M I; Pavesi, M; Vila, J; Marrugat, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association of physical activity with serum lipoprotein(a) [La(a)] levels in individuals according to whether they had a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Lp(a) levels in 332 healthy Spanish men aged 20 to 60 years were measured. Physical activity and family history of CHD were assessed. RESULTS: For men with a family history of CHD, the odds ratio for Lp(a) levels above the median value was 0.13 (95% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.50) in very active men (energy expended in physical activity > 300 kcal/day) compared with active men (energy expended in physical activity < 300 kcal/day). CONCLUSIONS: Regular daily physical activity in individuals with a family history of CHD could be useful for controlling Lp(a) levels. PMID:10076490

  15. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  16. Comparative activities of milk components in reversing chronic colitis.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, J R; Kanwar, R K; Stathopoulos, S; Haggarty, N W; MacGibbon, A K H; Palmano, K P; Roy, K; Rowan, A; Krissansen, G W

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a poorly understood chronic immune disorder for which there is no medical cure. Milk and colostrum are rich sources of bioactives with immunomodulatory properties. Here we compared the therapeutic effects of oral delivery of bovine milk-derived iron-saturated lactoferrin (Fe-bLF), angiogenin, osteopontin (OPN), colostrum whey protein, Modulen IBD (Nestle Healthsciences, Rhodes, Australia), and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched milk fat in a mouse model of dextran sulfate-induced colitis. The CLA-enriched milk fat significantly increased mouse body weights after 24d of treatment, reduced epithelium damage, and downregulated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and nitrous oxide. Modulen IBD most effectively decreased the clinical score at d 12, and Modulen IBD and OPN most effectively lowered the inflammatory score. Myeloperoxidase activity that denotes neutrophil infiltration was significantly lower in mice fed Modulen IBD, OPN, angiogenin, and Fe-bLF. A significant decrease in the numbers of T cells, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, and a significant decrease in cytokine expression were observed in mice fed the treatment diets compared with dextran sulfate administered mice. The Fe-bLF, CLA-enriched milk fat, and Modulen IBD inhibited intestinal angiogenesis. In summary, each of the milk components attenuated IBD in mice, but with differing effectiveness against specific disease parameters. PMID:26805965

  17. Comparative antioxidant activities and synergism of resveratrol and oxyresveratrol.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Nan; Likhitwitayawuid, Kittisak; Vieira, Amandio

    2010-11-01

    Resveratrol (1) and oxyresveratrol (2) are phytoalexins with antioxidant activities (AAs) and proposed effects against several pathological processes. The main objective of this study was to provide a novel, comparative assessment of their AAs, and to test for potential synergism in their combined activities, or in combination with another phytochemical antioxidant, curcumin (3). The phytochemicals were tested at 10 µM total concentrations in a heme-based assay that involved, as the final step, quantification of tetramethyl-phenylene-diamine oxidation. Significant AAs were observed for both 1 and 2, 27-33% inhibition of oxidation (p < 0.05 relative to non-phytochemical control). The combination of 1 and 2 in the same assay (5 µM each) suggested a moderate synergistic effect of about 10% (41% inhibition of oxidation by 1/2 under the same conditions as for 1 and 2 separately). Combinations of 1/3 and 2/3 were also synergistic, but 1/3 had a two-fold greater AA (p < 0.05) than 2/3 (or 1/2). Our results indicate that (i) 1 and 2 are effective antioxidants in the assay, (ii) in combination, their AAs can synergise, and (iii) in relation to 2, 1 has a much greater synergistic potential with 3. The latter suggests different synergy mechanisms of the curcuminoid with each of the two stilbene phytoalexins.

  18. The Role of Various Curriculum Models on Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Dean O.; Tarr, Susan J.; Killion, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that physical education curricula can be highly effective in increasing physical activity levels at school (Sallis & Owen, 1999). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of various curriculum models on physical activity. Total steps were measured on 1,111 subjects and three curriculum models were studied…

  19. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  20. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand. PMID:27375903

  1. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand.

  2. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  3. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during and after closure

  4. Differential effects of prenatal cocaine and retinoic acid on activity level throughout day and night.

    PubMed

    Church, M W; Tilak, J P

    1996-12-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure is associated with disrupted state control and lowered activity levels. Prenatal retinoic acid excess also influences activity levels in laboratory rats. Activity level is usually monitored during a brief period in young offspring. The effects of these drugs on pup activity levels throughout the day is unknown. There is also little information on the long-lasting effects of these teratogens in adult animals. We compared the daily activity of rats which were prenatally exposed to cocaine or retinoic acid (RA). Appropriate control groups were also used. The offspring were evaluated for activity levels in a neophobic situation and for a 22-h period in same-sex groups of 3 littermates. As both pups and adults, the cocaine groups were hypoactive while the RA group was hyperactive when first placed into the testing cage (neophobic situation). Similarly, during the remainder of the 22-h testing period, the pup and adult cocaine animals exhibited reduced activity levels while the RA animals exhibited elevated activity levels. Thus, prenatal cocaine and retinoic acid exposures affected offspring activity levels differently, both drugs have long-lasting neurobehavioral effects that persist into adulthood, and effects are influenced by time-of-day. Strain-dependent differences and mechanisms of action are discussed.

  5. On the level of skill in predicting maximum sunspot number - A comparative study of single variate and bivariate precursor techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    The level of skill in predicting the size of the sunspot cycle is investigated for the two types of precursor techniques, single variate and bivariate fits, both applied to cycle 22. The present level of growth in solar activity is compared to the mean level of growth (cycles 10-21) and to the predictions based on the precursor techniques. It is shown that, for cycle 22, both single variate methods (based on geomagnetic data) and bivariate methods suggest a maximum amplitude smaller than that observed for cycle 19, and possibly for cycle 21. Compared to the mean cycle, cycle 22 is presently behaving as if it were a +2.6 sigma cycle (maximum amplitude of about 225), which means that either it will be the first cycle not to be reliably predicted by the combined precursor techniques or its deviation relative to the mean cycle will substantially decrease over the next 18 months.

  6. Self-Rated Activity Levels and Longevity: Evidence from a 20 Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullee, Mark A.; Coleman, Peter G.; Briggs, Roger S. J.; Stevenson, James E.; Turnbull, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The study reports on factors predicting the longevity of 328 people over the age of 65 drawn from an English city and followed over 20 years. Both the reported activities score and the individual's comparative evaluation of their own level of activity independently reduced the risk of death, even when health and cognitive status were taken into…

  7. Apples and oranges: don't compare levelized cost of renewables: Joskow

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-15

    MIT Prof. Paul Joskow points out that the levelized metric is inappropriate for comparing intermittent generating technologies like wind and solar with dispatchable generating technologies like nuclear, gas combined cycle, and coal. The levelized comparison fails to take into account differences in the production profiles of intermittent and dispatchable generating technologies and the associated large variations in the market value of the electricity they supply. When the electricity is produced by an intermittent generating technology, the level of output and the value of the electricity at the times when the output is produced are key variables that should be taken into account.

  8. Comparing Infants' Preference for Correlated Audiovisual Speech with Signal-Level Computational Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollich, George; Prince, Christopher G.

    2009-01-01

    How much of infant behaviour can be accounted for by signal-level analyses of stimuli? The current paper directly compares the moment-by-moment behaviour of 8-month-old infants in an audiovisual preferential looking task with that of several computational models that use the same video stimuli as presented to the infants. One type of model…

  9. Stress Levels of Agricultural Science Cooperating Teachers and Student Teachers: A Repeated Measures Comparative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Billy R.; Rayfield, John; Harlin, Julie; Adams, Andy

    2013-01-01

    This study compared job stress levels of Texas agricultural science cooperating teachers and Texas agricultural science student teachers across a semester. The research objectives included describing secondary agricultural science cooperating teachers and student teachers perceptions of stressors, by time of semester (beginning, middle, and end),…

  10. A Comparative Investigation of Mental Practice Strategies Used by Collegiate-Level Cello Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh-Grifa, Abigail

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the relative effectiveness of three "mental" practice strategies: 1) silent, motionless mental practice, 2) singing/vocalizing, and 3) playing "air cello." Traditional physical practice was used as a control condition. Twelve collegiate-level cellists participated in the experiment, from which improvement…

  11. Connecting the Past to the Present in the Middle-Level Classroom: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This comparative case study examines the manner in which 2 middle-level social studies teachers established connections between the past and the present within their curriculums. The teachers who participated in this project worked in different school districts: one teaching a 7th-grade U.S. History curriculum and the other teaching a 6th-grade…

  12. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  13. Career Path Decisions of Masters-Level Mathematics Students: A Comparative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Hemasinha, Rohan

    2012-01-01

    There has been a flurry of research activity, in recent years, on the various aspects of STEM programs in the U.S. Yet there is scant research on vocational selection and career path aspirations of mathematics (hereon, math) students during their graduate-level education. The current study, based on a mixed-design, from data obtained on a small…

  14. Serum Renalase Levels Correlate with Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Minfang; Shao, Xinghua; Chang, Xinbei; Fan, Zhuping; Cao, Qin; Mou, Shan; Wang, Qin; Yan, Yucheng; Desir, Gary; Ni, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lupus nephritis (LN) is among the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Renalase is a novel, kidney-secreted cytokine-like protein that promotes cell survival. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase levels with LN and its role in the disease progression of LN. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 67 LN patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventeen active LN patients who received standard therapies were followed up for six months. Disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity–2000 (SLEDAI-2K) scoring system and serum renalase amounts were determined by ELISA. Predictive value of renalase for disease activity was assessed. Furthermore, the expression of renalase in the kidneys of patients and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Serum renalase amounts were significantly higher in LN patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, patients with proliferative LN had more elevated serum renalase levels than Class V LN patients. In proliferative LN patients, serum renalase levels were significantly higher in patients with active LN than those with inactive LN. Serum renalase levels were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K, 24-h urine protein excretion, ds-DNA and ESR but inversely correlated with serum albumin and C3. Renalase amounts decreased significantly after six-months of standard therapy. The performance of renalase as a marker for diagnosis of active LN was 0.906 with a cutoff value of 66.67 μg/ml. We also observed that the amount of renalase was significantly higher in glomerular of proliferative LN along with the co-expression of macrophages. Conclusion Serum renalase levels were correlated with disease activity in LN. Serum renalase might serve as a potential indicator for disease activity in LN. The marked increase of glomerular renalase and its association with macrophages suggest

  15. Comparative human and mouse antibody responses against tetanus toxin at clonal level.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Mehdi; Younesi, Vahid; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad; Abbasi, Ebrahim; Razavi, Alireza; Khosravi-Eghbal, Roya; Asgarin-Omran, Hossein; Shokri, Fazel

    2016-01-01

    Tetanus is a highly fatal disease caused by tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) and remains a major threat to human and animal health, despite preventive strategies. TeNT is composed of heavy and light chain linked by a disulfide bond. The antibody response to TeNT is polyclonal and directed to multiple epitopes within both the light and heavy chains, leading to toxin neutralization. This study was undertaken to localize and compare neutralizing epitopes recognized by human and mouse TeNT-specific antibodies at a clonal level. In the present study, 22 murine hybridoma clones and 50 human lymphoblastoid cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were generated against TeNT. The specificity of these mAb was determined using different recombinant fragments of tetanus toxin. Moreover, this study investigated the in vitro toxin neutralizing activity of these mAb by a ganglioside GT1b assay. The results showed that tetanus toxoid immunization in humans and BALB/c mice induced a vigorous humoral immune response against different fragments of TeNT, particularly the carboxyl-terminal fragment of the heavy chain (known as fragment C). The fragment C-specific human and mouse mAb could largely neutralize TeNT. However, while all fragment C-specific human mAb reacted with the carboxyl-terminal part of this fragment (H(CC)), the majority of the mouse mAb failed to recognize this region. These results suggested that fragment C is the major target for the TeNT neutralizing antibodies, although different epitopes seem to be targeted by human and mouse antibodies.

  16. Anesthetic Activity of Alfaxalone Compared with Ketamine in Mice.

    PubMed

    Siriarchavatana, Parkpoom; Ayers, Jessica D; Kendall, Lon V

    2016-01-01

    Alfaxalone encased in hydroxypropyl-β -cyclodextrin is a neuroactive steroid compound that has recently been approved in the United States for use as an anesthetic in dogs and cats. We evaluated the use of alfaxalone compared with ketamine, both alone and in combination with xylazine, for anesthesia of C57BL/6 mice. We assessed time to onset of anesthesia, duration of action, reflex responses, respiratory rate, and clinical signs. Alfaxalone (80 mg/kg IP) induced a light surgical plane of anesthesia in all mice, with a time to onset of 2.2 ± 0.2 min and duration of 57.1 ± 3.8 min, whereas ketamine (80 mg/kg IP) provided only sedative effects (time to onset, 5.4 ± 0.4 min; duration, 6.9 ± 0.8 min). Clinically, alfaxalone caused a spectrum of activities, including popcorn-like jumping movements after injection, intense scratching of the face, hyperresponsiveness to noise or touch, and marked limb jerking during recovery. Adding xylazine to the single-agent protocols achieved deep surgical anesthesia (duration: alfaxalone + xylazine, 80.3 ± 17.8 min; ketamine + xylazine, 37.4 ± 8.2 min) and ameliorated the adverse clinical signs. Our preliminary analysis suggests that, because of its side effects, alfaxalone alone is not a viable anesthetic option for mice. Although alfaxalone combined with xylazine appeared to be a more viable option, some mice still experienced mild adverse reactions, and the long duration of action might be problematic regarding the maintenance of body temperature and monitoring of recovery. Further studies evaluating different routes of administration and drug combinations are warranted. PMID:27423149

  17. Employee physical activity: how does it compare to the nation?

    PubMed

    Aldana, S G; Stone, W J

    1992-04-01

    1. Working adults exercise as much as the rest of society. 2. The amount of physical activity declines with age until 55, at which point increases were observed. 3. Marriage appears to have the largest effect on reducing the amount of physical activity a person gets. 4. Males are 1 1/2 times more likely than females to be vigorously active.

  18. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity. PMID:27010803

  19. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity.

  20. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity. PMID:27010803

  1. Comparative Analysis of GCF Resistin Levels in Obese Subjects with and without Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mahendra, Jaideep; Singh, Gurdeep; Pradeep, AR; Sundaravikram; Sekar, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Resistin is an adipocyte derived hormone that has been shown to play a substantial role in the development of insulin resistance. Resistin acts as a pro-inflammatory molecule and stimulates the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have reported the association of Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) resistin levels with periodontal condition. Aim The aim of this study was to assess and compare the GCF resistin levels in obese subjects with periodontal health and disease and to correlate the disease severity with GCF resistin levels. Materials and Methods Ninety subjects of both the sexes with age between 20–45 years were selected for the study and were categorized into four groups: 25 obese or overweight subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis (Group-I), 25 obese or overweight subjects with healthy periodontium (Group-II), 25 non-obese subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis (Group-III) and 15 non obese subjects with healthy periodontium (Group-IV). The demographic variables like age, Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC) were recorded and the clinical periodontal parameters such as Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) were also assessed in all the groups. GCF was collected and assessed for resistin levels. Results The mean GCF resistin levels in Groups I, II, III & IV were 15.14, 9.06, 12.74 and 5.41 ng/dl respectively and the difference in mean GCF resistin level was statistically significant with the p-value<0.001. The mean GCF resistin levels in Group-I was higher compared to Group II and III and the differences in mean GCF resistin levels were statistically significant. GCF resistin levels were positively correlated with BMI, WC and CAL in Group I and CAL correlated with GCF resistin in Group III and this correlation was statistically significant. Conclusion From our study we report that obese subjects with periodontitis have more GCF resistin levels

  2. Comparative Stress Levels among Residents in Three Chinese Provincial Capitals, 2001 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tingzhong; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Weifang; Cottrell, Randall R.; Rockett, Ian R. H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare stress levels among residents in large Chinese cities between 2001 and 2008. Methods Survey data were collected in three mainland Chinese capital cities in two waves, in 2001 and 2008, respectively. Participants were recruited through a multi-stage stratified sampling process. Stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale, Chinese version (CPSS). Descriptive methods were used to estimate mean stress levels and associated 95% confidence intervals. Estimates were adjusted by post-stratification weights. Results Indicating stable stress levels, respective adjusted mean stress scores for the combined samples of study participants were 23.90 (95%CI: 23.68–24.12) in 2001 and 23.69 (95%CI: 23.38–24.01) in 2008. A lower stress level in 2008 than in 2001 manifested among residents who were under 25 years of age; female; with a college or higher level education; divorced, widowed, or separated; members of the managerial and clerical group; students or army personnel; or with an annual income of at least 30,000 RMB. Conclusion The overall stress level did not change among the combined sample of residents in the three Chinese study cities between 2001 and 2008. However, levels remained high and varied across social strata, and may have reflected a national trend among urban residents. Findings indicate a need for a new health policy, and call for the design and implementation of evidence-based interventions that target the highest-risk groups. PMID:23152832

  3. Comparing two methods to measure preferred listening levels of personal listening devices.

    PubMed

    Worthington, Darrin A; Siegel, Jonathan H; Wilber, Laura Ann; Faber, Benjamin M; Dunckley, Kathleen T; Garstecki, Dean C; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2009-06-01

    The potential risk to hearing that mass-storage personal listening devices (PLDs) pose remains unclear. Previous research in this area has either focused on maximum outputs of these devices or on ear-canal measurements of listening levels that could not be compared to standards of occupational noise exposure. The purpose of this study was to compare two standard measurement protocols [ISO 11904-1 (2002), Switzerland; ISO 11904-2 (2004), Switzerland] for the measurement of preferred listening levels of PLD. Noise measurements, behavioral thresholds, and oral interviews were obtained from 30 (18-30 years) PLD users. Preferred listening levels for self-selected music were determined in quiet and background noise using a probe microphone, as well as in the DB-100 ear simulator mounted in KEMAR. The ear-canal measurements were compensated for diffuse-field. Only one of the subjects was found to be listening at hazardous levels once their reported daily usage was accounted for using industrial workplace standards. The variance across subjects was the smallest in the ear-canal measurements that were compensated for diffuse-field equivalence [ISO 11904-1 (2002), Switzerland]. Seven subjects were found to be listening at levels above 85 dBA based on measurements obtained in the KEMAR and then compensated for diffuse-field equivalence. PMID:19507955

  4. Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity Levels of Rural Appalachian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Rana, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to examine whether pedometer-assessed physical activity (PA) in Appalachian Ohio students differed by body mass index (BMI), school level (middle school vs. high school), and gender during school days and nonschool days and whether students met the recommended PA guidelines. Participants (N = 149) were…

  5. Genetic Influences on Mechanically-Assessed Activity Level in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Alexis C.; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Rogers, Hannah; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2007-01-01

    Background: Activity level is an important component of children's temperament, as well as being part of the core symptom domain of hyperactivity-impulsivity within attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Yet it is poorly understood, due partly to limitations on parent and teacher ratings, which are typically used as measurements of these…

  6. Cardiovascular effects of variations in habitual levels of physical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, C. G.; Mitchell, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in human cardiovascular adaption to stress, particularly adaption to different levels of physical activity are determined along with quantitative noninvasive methods for evaluation of cardiovascular function during stess in normal subjects and in individuals with latent or manifest cardiovascular disease. Results are summarized.

  7. Comparative analysis of cholinesterase activities in food animals using modified Ellman and Michel assays

    PubMed Central

    Askar, Kasim Abass; Kudi, A. Caleb; Moody, A. John

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated correlations between modified Ellman and Michel assay methods for measuring cholinesterase (ChE) activities. It also established a foundation for the applicability of measuring ChE activities in food animal species as biochemical biomarkers for evaluating exposure to and effects of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Measuring ChE activities in blood and tissue is currently the most important method of confirming the diagnosis of such exposure. The study also characterized the level of ChE activity in the selected organs/tissues of these animals and determined the best organ/tissue in which to measure ChE activity. The ChE activities were found to be higher in cattle than in sheep and higher in erythrocytes than in plasma and serum. The anticoagulant heparin significantly affects AChE activity in plasma compared with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). Of the different tissues tested, the mean of ChE activities was found to be highest in tissue from liver, followed by lung, muscle, kidney, and heart for sheep and cattle. In pigs, the ChE activities tested higher in kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and heart. The highest activities of ChE were found in pigs, followed by cattle and sheep. There was no significant difference between the modified Ellman and Michel method, but the percentage coefficient of variance (%CV) values were higher when the Michel method was used. PMID:22468023

  8. Motoneuron and sensory neuron plasticity to varying neuromuscular activity levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihara, Akihiko; Roy, Roland R.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2002-01-01

    The size and phenotypic properties of the neural and muscular elements of the neuromuscular unit are matched under normal conditions. When subjected to chronic decreases or increases in neuromuscular activity, however, the adaptations in these properties are much more limited in the neural compared with the muscular elements.

  9. Effects of Curricular Activity on Students' Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…

  10. Comparative measurements of the level of turbulence atmosphere by optical and acoustic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, V. P.; Botugina, N. N.; Gladkih, V. A.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.; Odintsov, S. L.; Torgaev, A. V.

    2014-11-01

    The complex measurements of level of atmospheric turbulence are conducted by the differential measurement device of turbulence (DMT), wave-front sensor (WFS), and also by ultrasonic weather-stations. Daytime measurements of structure parameters of refractive index of atmospheric turbulence carried out on horizontal optical paths on the Base Experimental Complex (BEC) of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS (IOA). A comparative analysis over of the got results is brought.

  11. Comparing alternative approaches to establishing regulatory levels for reproductive toxicants: DBCP as a case study.

    PubMed Central

    Pease, W; Vandenberg, J; Hooper, K

    1991-01-01

    This paper compares four alternative approaches for deriving regulatory levels for reproductive toxicants by applying them to the available data on the human spermatotoxicant 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP). The alternatives examined include the Proposition 65 approach (application of a mandatory 1000-fold uncertainty factor to a no-observed-adverse-effect level [NOAEL]), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approach (application of flexible uncertainty factors to a NOAEL), the Benchmark Dose approach (application of flexible uncertainty factors to a dose associated with a known level of change in a reproductive parameter), and the Quantitative Risk Estimation approach (using low-dose linear extrapolation and a model of the relationship between sperm count and infertility). Applied to DBCP, these approaches do not produce substantially different estimates of allowable exposure levels. However, the approaches do have different data requirements and provide different amounts of information on reproductive hazards to risk managers and the public. Neither the Proposition 65 nor the EPA approach provides information about the extent of health risk remaining at a regulatory level. In contrast, the Benchmark Dose approach can provide estimates of the magnitude of sperm count reduction at a regulatory level, and the Quantitative Risk Estimation approach can provide estimates of exposure-induced infertility. PMID:2040244

  12. Point-of-Care Testing of Troponin Levels Compared With Automated Laboratory Evaluation: A Reliability Study.

    PubMed

    Sardi, Adacilis Ramirez; Lamoureux, Julie A; Cohn, Tanya M; Phillip-Samuel, Shirley G

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, troponin levels are measured in the blood using an automated laboratory protocol, but the use of a faster technology, the point-of-care (POC) testing of troponin levels, has shown promise in the effective differential diagnosis of cardiac injury. The purpose of this study was to compare the 2 methods. A total of 1567 patients were seen in the emergency department who were tested with both the POC iSTAT troponin and laboratory troponin from a secondary analysis of retrospective data collected between June 2012 and December 2012. The values for laboratory troponin varied between 0 and 30 with a mean and standard deviation of 0.060 ± 0.842 and the values for POC testing varied between 0 and 17.2 with a mean and standard deviation of 0.042 ± 0.492. The Bland-Altman analysis showed a systematic negative bias for the POC values compared with the laboratory troponin values. Lowering the POC cut-off value for troponin to 0.035 yielded 3 out of 4 better validity coefficients compared with those with the suggested manufacturer's cut-off value of 0.08 when predicting the gold standard. The POC troponin can be used to measure troponin level and similar diagnosis if the cut-off value for the POC troponin is lowered to 0.035 instead of the 0.08 suggested manufacturer's cut-off. PMID:27575797

  13. Bone Mineral Density and Vitamin D Level Compared to Lifestyle in Resident Physicians.

    PubMed

    McConda, David B; Boukhemis, Karim W; Matthews, Leslie J; Watkins, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    Due to the demands of resident education and long periods of time spent indoors, resident physicians may have poorer bone quality than would be expected. Forty-four resident physicians underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D level testing at our institution. Results were correlated with a survey of self-reported duty hours, physical activity, and sun exposure. The average 25-hydroxyvitamin D level for all participants was 29 ng/dL, which fell into the insufficient range, and 31.5% of all participants were in the deficient range, with a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level < 20 ng/ dL. For the 40 subjects who underwent DEXA, 17 were found to be osteopenic and three were found to be osteoporotic. Greater awareness of bone health, with routine use of vitamin D supplementation and increased time spent outdoors during peak sunlight hours, may be indicated in this cohort. PMID:27491100

  14. Comparative studies of indoor radon concentration levels in Jordan using CR-39 based bag and cup dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N; Matiullah; Khatibeh, A J

    1998-07-01

    Indoor radon concentration levels have been measured in 9 major cities of Jordan using CR(-3)9 detectors placed in punched polyethylene bags to measure both radon and thoron, and in cups to measure radon only. The average value of indoor radon and thoron concentration levels measured with bag dosimeters vary from 32 to 107 Bq m(-3) and the indoor radon concentration levels measured with cup dosimeters vary from 27 to 88 Bq m(-3). The indoor radon concentration levels in Irbid and Zaraka are comparable to the world average of 27 Bq m(-3). In Ajloun, Jerash, Salt, Tafilah and Amman, the indoor radon levels are greater than the world average by a factor of up to 2, and in Madaba and Karak these levels are greater than the world average by a factor of more than 3. The large variation in the measured radon levels may be attributed to the large variation in the 226Ra activity in the soil of the region.

  15. Comparative genomic hybridisation divides retinoblastomas into a high and a low level chromosomal instability group

    PubMed Central

    van der Wal, J E; Hermsen, M A J A; Gille, H J P; Schouten-Van Meeteren, N Y N; Moll, A C; Imhof, S M; Meijer, G A; Baak, J P A; van der Valk, P

    2003-01-01

    Background: Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy in childhood and is responsible for approximately 1% of all deaths caused by childhood cancer. Aims/methods: Comparative genomic hybridisation was performed on 13 consecutive, histologically confirmed retinoblastomas to analyse patterns of chromosomal changes and correlate these to clinicopathological variables. Six cases were hereditary and seven cases were sporadic. Results: In 11 of the 13 tumours chromosomal abnormalities were detected, most frequently gains. Frequent chromosomal gains concerned 6p (46%), 1q (38%), 2p, 9q (30%), 5p, 7q, 10q, 17q, and 20q (23%). Frequent losses occurred at Xq (46%), 13q14, 16q, and 4q (23%). High level copy number gains were found at 5p15 and 6p11–12. A loss at 13q14 occurred in three cases only. Relatively few events occurred in the hereditary cases (27) compared with the non-hereditary cases (70 events). The number of chromosomal aberrations in these 13 retinoblastomas showed a bimodal distribution. Seven tumours showed less than four chromosomal aberrations, falling into a low level chromosomal instability (CIN) group, and six tumours showed at least eight aberrations, falling into a high level CIN group. In the low level CIN group the mean age was half that seen in the high level CIN group, there were less male patients, and there were more hereditary and bilateral cases. Microsatellite instability was not detected in either of the two groups. Conclusion: Despite the complex pattern of genetic changes in retinoblastomas, certain chromosomal regions appear to be affected preferentially. On the basis of the number of genetic events, retinoblastomas can be divided in low and a high level chromosomal instability groups, which have striking differences in clinical presentation. PMID:12499428

  16. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  17. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  18. Low level of self-reported physical activity in ambulatory patients new to dialysis.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Kirsten L; Chertow, Glenn M; Kutner, Nancy G; Dalrymple, Lorien S; Grimes, Barbara A; Kaysen, George A

    2010-12-01

    Physical inactivity contributes to the frailty and the decline in function that develops over time among patients with end-stage renal disease. We assessed physical activity among 1547 ambulatory patients new to dialysis in the United States Renal Data System Comprehensive Dialysis Study. We used a self-reporting Human Activity Profile that included Maximal and Adjusted Activity Scores and compared results to established norms by age and gender. Physical activity was found to be extremely low with scores for all age and gender categories below the 5th percentile of healthy individuals and 95% of patients had scores consonant with low fitness. Older age, female gender, diabetes, atherosclerotic disease, and a low level of education were associated with lower activity scores assessed by univariate and multivariable linear regression analysis. Higher serum albumin, creatinine, and lower body mass index, but not hemoglobin levels, were associated with greater physical activity. By multivariable analysis, patients on hemodialysis using a catheter reported lower levels of physical activity compared to those on peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis using an arteriovenous fistula, or with a graft. Lower Maximal and Adjusted Activity Scores were associated with poor physical function and mental health. Hence, physical activity is distressingly low among patients new to dialysis. Thus, strategies to enhance activity in these patients should be explored.

  19. NEU3 activity enhances EGFR activation without affecting EGFR expression and acts on its sialylation levels.

    PubMed

    Mozzi, Alessandra; Forcella, Matilde; Riva, Alice; Difrancesco, Carlotta; Molinari, Francesca; Martin, Vittoria; Papini, Nadia; Bernasconi, Barbara; Nonnis, Simona; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Mazzucchelli, Luca; Monti, Eugenio; Fusi, Paola; Frattini, Milo

    2015-08-01

    Several studies performed over the last decade have focused on the role of sialylation in the progression of cancer and, in particular, on the association between deregulation of sialidases and tumorigenic transformation. The plasma membrane-associated sialidase NEU3 is often deregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC), and it was shown that this enzyme co-immunoprecipitates in HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the molecular target of most recent monoclonal antibody-based therapies against CRC. To investigate the role of NEU3 sialidase on EGFR deregulation in CRC, we first collected data on NEU3 gene expression levels from a library of commercial colon cell lines, demonstrating that NEU3 transcription is upregulated in these cell lines. We also found EGFR to be hyperphosphorylated in all cell lines, with the exception of SW620 cells and the CCD841 normal intestinal cell line. By comparing the effects induced by overexpression of either the wild-type or the inactive mutant form of NEU3 on EGFR, we demonstrated that the active form of NEU3 enhanced receptor activation without affecting EGFR mRNA or protein expression. Moreover, through western blots and mass spectrometry analysis, we found that EGFR immunoprecipitated from cells overexpressing active NEU3, unlike the receptor from mock cells and cells overexpressing inactive NEU3, is desialylated. On the whole, our data demonstrate that, besides the already reported indirect EGFR activation through GM3, sialidase NEU3 could also play a role on EGFR activation through its desialylation. PMID:25922362

  20. Effect of Learning Activity on Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels and Effort/Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Lee, Amelia M.; Xiang, Ping; Kosma, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The type of learning activity offered in physical education may influence students' motivational beliefs, physical activity participation and effort/persistence in class. However, most empirical studies have focused on the individual level rather than on the learner-content interactions. Accordingly, the potential effects of learning activities on…

  1. THE EFFECT OF GAMBLING ACTIVITIES ON HAPPINESS LEVELS OF NURSING HOME RESIDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Mark R; Nastally, Becky L; Waterman, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results indicated that all residents exhibited a higher percentage of happiness levels while engaged in simulated gambling activities compared with baseline. Follow-up assessment took place 10 min and 30 min following the intervention; no lasting effects were observed. PMID:21358915

  2. Microgravity: a Teacher's Guide with Activities, Secondary Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L. (Editor); Wargo, Michael J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Educational Publication is a teacher's guide that focuses on microgravity for the secondary level student. The introduction answers the question 'What is microgravity?', as well as describing gravity and creating microgravity. Following the introduction is a microgravity primer which covers such topics as the fluid state, combustion science, materials science, biotechnology, as well as microgravity and space flight. Seven different activities are described in the activities section and are written by authors prominent in the field. The concluding sections of the book include a glossary, microgravity references, and NASA educational resources.

  3. Lifestyle determinants for social activity levels among the Japanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Aoki, R; Ohno, Y; Tamakoshi, A; Kawakami, N; Nagai, M; Hashimoto, S; Ikari, A; Shimizu, H; Sakata, K; Kawamura, T; Wakai, K; Senda, M

    1996-01-01

    We conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey to a total of 5239 elderly persons in four areas in Japan in 1993, which inquired about past lifestyles and present social activities. Based on the survey data, we first developed social activity measures, and then examined associations of the present total social activity measure with past lifestyles and physical conditions. The lifestyles significantly associated with high social activity after 65 years of age were 'high educational attainment'; having been 'healthy', 'plump', 'physically active' and 'having had hobbies' at about 50 years of age; and having 'frequent intake of many kinds of foods' during 30-50 years of age. Intake during 30-50 years of age of Japanese-style foods (rice, soybean paste soup, bean curd, pickles), noodles, beans, plant roots and potatoes was not significantly linked with the social activity levels at old age in either males or females. The same was true for smoking and drinking habits at about 50 years of age. Our findings essentially suggest the importance of a positive attitude at middle age to maintain and promote health status and improve lifestyles in order to attain high social activity at old age.

  4. Atmospheric O2 Levels Compared to Gastropod Body Size in the Phanerozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, C.; Seixas, G.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Body size greatly impacts the physiological and biological composition of an organism, and the tendency for body size to increase over time (Cope's Rule) indicates that large body size is evolutionally favored for some clades. However, many environmental and ecological factors driving Cope's Rule are poorly understood. In this study, we examine the effects of oxygen levels on gastropod body size during the Phanerozoic by taking numerous measurements of gastropod body size from the primary literature and comparing the resulting data with reconstructed atmospheric oxygen levels. Our graphs show that atmospheric oxygen levels had little effect on gastropod body size. Gastropod body size slowly decreased during the first half of the Paleozoic then stayed fairly constant, while atmospheric oxygen levels increased substantially through the same interval. This finding indicates that there must have been factors more dominant than oxygen in driving Gastropod body size during that time period. In contrast, starting 200mya, as oxygen levels steadily rose, gastropod body size also increased. Our findings act as strong motivation for future research in understanding whether or not oxygen became a dominant factor affecting Gastropod body size 200mya.

  5. Comparative analysis of Phytophthora infestans induced gene expression in potato cultivars with different levels of resistance.

    PubMed

    Ros, B; Thümmler, F; Wenzel, G

    2005-11-01

    Differential gene expression was analyzed after infection with Phytophthora infestans in six potato cultivars with different levels of resistance to late blight. To verify the infection of the potato leaflets, the amount of phytopathogen mRNA within the plant material was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. The expression of 182 genes selected from two subtracted cDNA libraries was studied with cDNA array hybridization using RNA from non-infected and infected potato leaflets. Gene up- and down-regulation were clearly detectable in all cultivars 72 h post inoculation. Gene expression patterns in susceptible cultivars differed from those in potato varieties with a higher level of resistance. In general, a stronger gene induction was observed in the susceptible cultivars compared to the moderately to highly resistant potato varieties. Five genes with the highest homology to stress and/or defence-related genes were induced specifically in the susceptible cultivars. Four genes responded to pathogen attack independently of the level of resistance of the cultivar used, and three genes were repressed in infected tissue of most cultivars. Even in the absence of P. infestans infection, six genes showed higher expression levels in the somewhat resistant cultivars Bettina and Matilda. Possible reasons for the different levels of gene expression are discussed.

  6. Comparative studies on Pb and Cd levels in parasites of terrestrial and aquatic animals

    SciTech Connect

    Sures, B.; Taraschewski, H.

    1995-12-31

    Several fish parasites (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Nematoda) and organs of their respective intermediate and final hosts were analyzed for heavy metals by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS). Pb and Cd were also quantified in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica as well as in different organs of the large intestinal roundworm Ascaris suum. The levels of these heavy metals in the parasites were compared to those of muscle, liver, kidney and intestine of the respective definitive hosts cattle and swine obtained from a slaughter house. Most parasites accumulated significantly higher levels of metals than their final hosts. This was most conspicuous in acanthocephalans which contained up to 3 {times} 10{sup 3} fold more lead than the muscle of their fish hosts and up to 1.1 {times} 10{sup 4} more lead than the water surrounding the fish. In these helminths cadmium was enriched up to 400 fold compared to the muscle of the fish and up to 2.7 {times} 10{sup 4} compared to the water. In contrast to the accumulation capacity of adult acanthocephalans their larvae contained about 30 to 180 times less Pb and Cd. Thus, the predominant accumulation of both metals appears in the adult worms. The cestodes of fish and the liver flukes of cattle accumulated the metals up to 200 fold compared to the muscle of their hosts. The nematodes did not contain higher levels of the metals than their hosts. Thus, parasites, especially acanthocephalans, seem to be sensitive bioindicators of Pb and Cd in their environments.

  7. Electrophysiological characteristics according to activity level of myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seong Hun; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the differences in electrophysiological characteristics of normal muscles versus muscles with latent or active myofascial trigger points, and identified the neuromuscular physiological characteristics of muscles with active myofascial trigger points, thereby providing a quantitative evaluation of myofascial pain syndrome and clinical foundational data for its diagnosis. [Subjects] Ninety adults in their 20s participated in this study. Subjects were equally divided into three groups: the active myofascial trigger point group, the latent myofascial trigger point group, and the control group. [Methods] Maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), endurance, median frequency (MDF), and muscle fatigue index were measured in all subjects. [Results] No significant differences in MVIC or endurance were revealed among the three groups. However, the active trigger point group had significantly different MDF and muscle fatigue index compared with the control group. [Conclusion] Given that muscles with active myofascial trigger points had an increased MDF and suffered muscle fatigue more easily, increased recruitment of motor unit action potential of type II fibers was evident. Therefore, electrophysiological analysis of these myofascial trigger points can be applied to evaluate the effect of physical therapy and provide a quantitative diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases Regulating Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gyun Jee; Kim, Jaehong; Kim, Jong-Heon; Song, Seungeun; Park, Hana; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key regulatory factors in inflammatory signaling pathways. Although PTPs have been extensively studied, little is known about their role in neuroinflammation. In the present study, we examined the expression of 6 different PTPs (PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, MEG2, LYP, and RPTPβ) and their role in glial activation and neuroinflammation. All PTPs were expressed in brain and glia. The expression of PTP1B, SHP2, and LYP was enhanced in the inflamed brain. The expression of PTP1B, TC-PTP, and LYP was increased after treating microglia cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To examine the role of PTPs in microglial activation and neuroinflammation, we used specific pharmacological inhibitors of PTPs. Inhibition of PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, LYP, and RPTPβ suppressed nitric oxide production in LPS-treated microglial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injection of PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, and RPTPβ inhibitors downregulated microglial activation in an LPS-induced neuroinflammation model. Our results indicate that multiple PTPs are involved in regulating microglial activation and neuroinflammation, with different expression patterns and specific functions. Thus, PTP inhibitors can be exploited for therapeutic modulation of microglial activation in neuroinflammatory diseases. PMID:27790059

  9. Comparative activation states of tumor-associated and peritoneal macrophages from mice bearing an induced fibrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Valdez, J C; de Alderete, N; Meson, O E; Sirena, A; Perdigon, G

    1990-11-01

    Balb/c mice bearing a methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma were used to compare the activation levels of tumor-associated and peritoneal macrophages. Two stages of tumor growth were examined, namely "small" and "large" tumors, with average diameters of 10 and 30 mm, respectively. The activation state, determined by measurement of both phagocytic index and beta-glucuronidase content, was found to be markedly higher in tumor-associated macrophages than in their peritoneal counterparts and it was, in addition, independent of tumor progression. The percentage of tumor-associated macrophages, which were detected on the basis of Fc receptor expression, remained constant in the growing neoplasm, at approximately 23% of total cell population. None of these parameters were affected by inoculation with an immunopotentiating dose of heat-killed Candida albicans which, on the other hand, seemed not to alter the course of the tumor. These data suggest that within the tumor microenvironment macrophages would somehow be maintained at a constant proportion and at a highly activated state, while outside the tumor they would be at a lower activation level. Our results also suggest that TAM would not possess antitumor activity in vivo, although we have found this activity in vitro.

  10. Comparative activation states of tumor-associated and peritoneal macrophages from mice bearing an induced fibrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Valdez, J C; de Alderete, N; Meson, O E; Sirena, A; Perdigon, G

    1990-11-01

    Balb/c mice bearing a methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma were used to compare the activation levels of tumor-associated and peritoneal macrophages. Two stages of tumor growth were examined, namely "small" and "large" tumors, with average diameters of 10 and 30 mm, respectively. The activation state, determined by measurement of both phagocytic index and beta-glucuronidase content, was found to be markedly higher in tumor-associated macrophages than in their peritoneal counterparts and it was, in addition, independent of tumor progression. The percentage of tumor-associated macrophages, which were detected on the basis of Fc receptor expression, remained constant in the growing neoplasm, at approximately 23% of total cell population. None of these parameters were affected by inoculation with an immunopotentiating dose of heat-killed Candida albicans which, on the other hand, seemed not to alter the course of the tumor. These data suggest that within the tumor microenvironment macrophages would somehow be maintained at a constant proportion and at a highly activated state, while outside the tumor they would be at a lower activation level. Our results also suggest that TAM would not possess antitumor activity in vivo, although we have found this activity in vitro. PMID:2099903

  11. Comparative study between two different active flutter suppression systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.

    1978-01-01

    An activated leading-edge (LE)-tailing-edge (TE) control system is applied to a drone aircraft with the objective of enabling the drone to fly subsonically at dynamic pressures which are 44% above the open-loop flutter dynamic pressure. The control synthesis approach is based on the aerodynamic energy concept and it incorporates recent developments in this area. A comparison is made between the performance of the activated LE-TE control system and the performance of a TE control system, analyzed in a previous work. The results obtained indicate that although all the control systems achieve the flutter suppression objectives, the TE control system appears to be somewhat superior to the LE-TE control system, in this specific application. This superiority is manifested through reduced values of control surface activity over a wide range of flight conditions.

  12. Comparative study of antral gastrin activity in some mammals.

    PubMed

    Amure, B O; Omole, A

    1971-04-01

    1. The amounts of crude gastrin extract and the gastrin activities of extracts from antral mucosa of several mammalian species have been determined.2. The yield of crude gastrin powder per gramme wet weight of antral mucosa was greater in goats and rabbits than in cat, dog, man or pig.3. Statistical differences do not appear to exist between the potencies of gastrin from the various species. The potencies of the powders were within the ranges 1.2-1.8 mug porcine gastrin II/mg with the exception of the extract from frozen dog antra (0.8 mug/mg).4. During prolonged freezing of animal antra and consequent thawing before extraction, significant losses in gastrin activity occurred in the dog.5. The amounts of gastrin activity per gramme wet weight of antral mucosa from herbivores (goat, rabbit and cattle) were greater than those from non-herbivores (cat, dog, man and pig).

  13. Speech recognition in noise with active and passive hearing protectors: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bockstael, Annelies; De Coensel, Bert; Botteldooren, Dick; D'Haenens, Wendy; Keppler, Hannah; Maes, Leen; Philips, Birgit; Swinnen, Freya; Bart, Vinck

    2011-06-01

    The perceived negative influence of standard hearing protectors on communication is a common argument for not wearing them. Thus, "augmented" protectors have been developed to improve speech intelligibility. Nevertheless, their actual benefit remains a point of concern. In this paper, speech perception with active earplugs is compared to standard passive custom-made earplugs. The two types of active protectors included amplify the incoming sound with a fixed level or to a user selected fraction of the maximum safe level. For the latter type, minimal and maximal amplification are selected. To compare speech intelligibility, 20 different speech-in-noise fragments are presented to 60 normal-hearing subjects and speech recognition is scored. The background noise is selected from realistic industrial noise samples with different intensity, frequency, and temporal characteristics. Statistical analyses suggest that the protectors' performance strongly depends on the noise condition. The active protectors with minimal amplification outclass the others for the most difficult and the easiest situations, but they also limit binaural listening. In other conditions, the passive protectors clearly surpass their active counterparts. Subsequently, test fragments are analyzed acoustically to clarify the results. This provides useful information for developing prototypes, but also indicates that tests with human subjects remain essential. PMID:21682395

  14. Comparative Population Dynamics of Two Closely Related Species Differing in Ploidy Level

    PubMed Central

    Černá, Lucie; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Background Many studies compare the population dynamics of single species within multiple habitat types, while much less is known about the differences in population dynamics in closely related species in the same habitat. Additionally, comparisons of the effect of habitat types and species are largely missing. Methodology and Principal Findings We estimated the importance of the habitat type and species for population dynamics of plants. Specifically, we compared the dynamics of two closely related species, the allotetraploid species Anthericum liliago and the diploid species Anthericum ramosum, occurring in the same habitat type. We also compared the dynamics of A. ramosum in two contrasting habitats. We examined three populations per species and habitat type. The results showed that single life history traits as well as the mean population dynamics of A. liliago and A. ramosum from the same habitat type were more similar than the population dynamics of A. ramosum from the two contrasting habitats. Conclusions Our findings suggest that when transferring knowledge regarding population dynamics between populations, we need to take habitat conditions into account, as these conditions appear to be more important than the species involved (ploidy level). However, the two species differ significantly in their overall population growth rates, indicating that the ploidy level has an effect on species performance. In contrast to what has been suggested by previous studies, we observed a higher population growth rate in the diploid species. This is in agreement with the wider range of habitats occupied by the diploid species. PMID:24116057

  15. Compared to Intermittant Claudication Critical Limb Ischemia Is Associated with Elevated Levels of Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Maksimow, Mikael; Hollmén, Maija; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Hakovirta, Harri

    2016-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is the advanced stage of peripheral artery disease (PAD) and associated with an extremely poor clinical outcome. In order to understand the possible role of circulating cytokines and poor outcome associated with CLI we compared the circulating cytokine profile of patients with CLI against patients with intermittent claudication (IC). The levels of 48 circulating cytokines were examined in 226 consecutive patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) admitted for elective, non-urgent, invasive treatment of IC or CLI. The PAD patient cohort was evenly distributed between subjects with IC (46.5%) and CLI (53.5%). As accustomed in PAD, CLI was associated with higher age, chronic kidney disease and diabetes when compared to IC (P < 0.01 for all). In multivariable linear regression modeling taking into account the baseline differences between IC and CLI groups CLI was independently associated with elevated levels of a large number of cytokines: IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2Rα, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, G-CSF (P < 0.01 for all), and IL-2, IL-7, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, bFGF, VEGF, SCGF-β (P < 0.05 for all). The current findings indicate that CLI is associated with a circulating cytokine profile, which resembles serious medical conditions such as severe pancreatitis, sepsis, or even cancer. Compared to IC, CLI is a systemic inflammatory condition, which may explain the extremely poor outcome associated with it. PMID:27611073

  16. Compared to Intermittant Claudication Critical Limb Ischemia Is Associated with Elevated Levels of Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Jalkanen, Juho; Maksimow, Mikael; Hollmén, Maija; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Hakovirta, Harri

    2016-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is the advanced stage of peripheral artery disease (PAD) and associated with an extremely poor clinical outcome. In order to understand the possible role of circulating cytokines and poor outcome associated with CLI we compared the circulating cytokine profile of patients with CLI against patients with intermittent claudication (IC). The levels of 48 circulating cytokines were examined in 226 consecutive patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) admitted for elective, non-urgent, invasive treatment of IC or CLI. The PAD patient cohort was evenly distributed between subjects with IC (46.5%) and CLI (53.5%). As accustomed in PAD, CLI was associated with higher age, chronic kidney disease and diabetes when compared to IC (P < 0.01 for all). In multivariable linear regression modeling taking into account the baseline differences between IC and CLI groups CLI was independently associated with elevated levels of a large number of cytokines: IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2Rα, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, G-CSF (P < 0.01 for all), and IL-2, IL-7, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, bFGF, VEGF, SCGF-β (P < 0.05 for all). The current findings indicate that CLI is associated with a circulating cytokine profile, which resembles serious medical conditions such as severe pancreatitis, sepsis, or even cancer. Compared to IC, CLI is a systemic inflammatory condition, which may explain the extremely poor outcome associated with it. PMID:27611073

  17. Physical Activity Enjoyment and Self-Efficacy As Predictors of Cancer Patients' Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Nadine; Wiskemann, Joachim; Sieverding, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can support cancer patients during medical treatment by reducing side-effects and increasing quality of life. However, PA levels mostly decline after diagnosis. Which factors can explain if patients are able to remain or even increase their PA level? Self-efficacy is an important cognitive factor that has been linked to cancer patients' PA across many studies. In contrast, affective factors such as PA enjoyment have rarely been examined. We compare the influence of self-efficacy and PA enjoyment on cancer patients' PA levels after completion of an exercise or stress-management intervention. Methods: Outpatient cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34%, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION study, a 4-week intervention (1 h counseling followed by weekly phone calls), with pre-test (T1), post-test (T2), and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise intervention (emphasizing self-regulatory strategies for behavior change) or to a stress management intervention (coping and relaxation techniques). Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA, a measure of maintenance self-efficacy (7 items, Cronbach's α = 0.88) and PA enjoyment (2 items, Cronbach's α = 0.89). Regression analyses were calculated with PA level (at T2 and T3) as dependent variable and relative weight analyses were conducted. The study was registered at clinicalTrials.gov (unique identifier:NCT01576107; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01576107?term=motivaction&rank=1). Results: Baseline self-efficacy and change in PA enjoyment significantly predicted cancer patients' PA level at T2 adjusting for baseline PA and type of intervention. Relative weight (RW) analysis revealed that PA enjoyment (baseline and change together) explained 34.3% of the dependent variable, self-efficacy (baseline and change) explained 38.4%. At follow

  18. A Comparative Study of Active Play on Differently Designed Playgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luchs, Antje; Fikus, Monika

    2013-01-01

    The physical and social environment of children in cities is continuously changing. Knowledge about the positive effects of natural play experiences within the child's development is becoming widely known. Affordances of diverse landscape elements and especially loose parts for play in natural environments influence play activities. New…

  19. Secular trends in storm-level geomagnetic activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis is made of K-index data from groups of ground-based geomagnetic observatories in Germany, Britain, and Australia, 1868.0-2009.0, solar cycles 11-23. Methods include nonparametric measures of trends and statistical significance used by the hydrological and climatological research communities. Among the three observatory groups, German K data systematically record the highest disturbance levels, followed by the British and, then, the Australian data. Signals consistently seen in K data from all three observatory groups can be reasonably interpreted as physically meaninginful: (1) geomagnetic activity has generally increased over the past 141 years. However, the detailed secular evolution of geomagnetic activity is not well characterized by either a linear trend nor, even, a monotonic trend. Therefore, simple, phenomenological extrapolations of past trends in solar and geomagnetic activity levels are unlikely to be useful for making quantitative predictions of future trends lasting longer than a solar cycle or so. (2) The well-known tendency for magnetic storms to occur during the declining phase of a sunspot-solar cycles is clearly seen for cycles 14-23; it is not, however, clearly seen for cycles 11-13. Therefore, in addition to an increase in geomagnetic activity, the nature of solar-terrestrial interaction has also apparently changed over the past 141 years. ?? Author(s) 2011.

  20. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Tolea, Magdalena I; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Metter, E Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway. PMID:23966753

  1. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Tolea, Magdalena I; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Metter, E Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway.

  2. Effect of cooking method (baking compared with frying) on acrylamide level of potato chips.

    PubMed

    Palazoğlu, T Koray; Savran, Derya; Gökmen, Vural

    2010-01-01

    The effect of cooking method (baking compared with frying) on acrylamide level of potato chips was investigated in this study. Baking and frying experiments were conducted at 170, 180, and 190 degrees C using potato slices with a thickness of 1.4 mm. Raw potatoes were analyzed for reducing sugars and asparagine. Surface and internal temperatures of potato slices were monitored during the experiments to better explain the results. Fried and baked chips were analyzed for acrylamide content using an LC-MS method. The results showed that acrylamide level of potato chips prepared by frying increased with frying temperature (19.6 ng/g at 170 degrees C, 39 ng/g at 180 degrees C, and 95 ng/g at 190 degrees C). In baking, however, the highest acrylamide level was observed in potato chips prepared at 170 degrees C (47.8 ng/g at 170 degrees C, 19.3 ng/g at 180 degrees C, and 29.7 ng/g at 190 degrees C). The results showed that baking at 170 degrees C more than doubled the acrylamide amount that formed upon frying at the same temperature, whereas at 180 and 190 degrees C, the acrylamide levels of chips prepared by baking were lower than their fried counterparts.

  3. Comparable profiles of serum histamine and IgG4 levels in allergic beekeepers.

    PubMed

    Chliva, C; Aggelides, X; Makris, M; Katoulis, A; Rigopoulos, D; Tiligada, E

    2015-04-01

    Growing evidence identifies histamine as a key player in allergic responses, but the reports relating serum histamine to tolerance are scarce and inconclusive. This study investigated the relationship of circulating histamine to the tolerant phenotype in allergic beekeepers. The results showed a positive correlation between the serum levels of histamine and specific immunoglobulin G4 (sIgG4) to honeybee venom, but not with total IgE or sIgE. Interestingly, both sIgG4 and histamine levels were negatively correlated with the time since the last bee sting. In contrast to total IgE and sIgE, serum sIgG4 and histamine levels followed comparable patterns, being higher in tolerant/recently stung individuals and lower in the least frequently stung subgroup. The data obtained in this pilot study associated, for the first time, serum histamine levels with allergen tolerance in allergic individuals and provided the lead for further considering the putative immunomodulatory properties of histamine in allergic responses.

  4. Design and comparative anticonvulsant activity assessment of CNS-active alkyl-carbamoyl imidazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Mawasi, Hafiz; Bibi, David; Bialer, Meir

    2016-09-15

    A novel series of carbamoyl derivatives of alkylimidazole has been designed and their anticonvulsant activity was comparatively evaluated in the mice- and rats-maximal-electroshock (MES), subcutaneous-metrazol (scMet) seizure tests and the mice-6Hz psychomotor (6Hz) models. The ten new designed molecules contain in their chemical structure imidazole, alkyl side-chain and carbamate as three potential active moieties. In spite of the close structural features of the carbamoyl imidazole derivatives only compounds 7, 8, 13 and 16 were active at the MES test with ED50 values ranging from 12 to 20mg/kg coupled with high protective index (PI=TD50/ED50) values of 4.1-7.3 after ip administration to rats. A similar phenomenon was observed in mice where compounds 7, 8, 9, 12 had MES-ED50 values of 14-26mg/kg. Compounds 7 and 13 also demonstrated anticonvulsant activity in the 6Hz model with ED50 values of 32 and 44mg/kg, respectively. As the most active entities, compounds 7, 8 followed by 13 and 16, thus offer an optimal efficacy-safety profile and consequently, might be promising candidates for development as new antiepileptics. PMID:27469980

  5. Piezoelectric ceramic fibers for active fiber composites: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornmann, Xavier; Huber, Christian; Elsener, Hans-Rudolf

    2003-08-01

    The morphology and the free strain performances of three different piezoelectric ceramic fibers used for the manufacture of active fiber composites (AFCs) have been investigated. The morphology of the fibers has a direct influence on the manufacture of the AFCs. Fibers with non-uniform diameters are more difficult to contact with the interdigitated electrodes and can be the cause of irreparable damages in AFCs. An indirect method requiring the use of a simple analytical model is proposed to evaluate the free strain of active fiber composites. This indirect method presents a relatively good agreement with direct free strain measurements performed with strain gages glued on both sides of an AFC. The results show a systematic difference of ca. 20 % between the indirect and the direct methods. However, the indirect method did not permit to see differences of piezoelectric performance between the types of fibers.

  6. Plasma levels and clinical response with imipramine in a study comparing efficacy with mianserin and nomifensine

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, S. A.; Roy, D.; Wynne-Willson, S.; Robinson, C.; Montgomery, D. B.

    1983-01-01

    1 The comparative antidepressant efficacy of 150 mg imipramine, 60 mg mianserin and 150 mg nomifensine was studied in 45 depressed patients in a six week double-blind investigation. 2 In the efficacy analysis of 41 patients completing the study there was no overall significant difference in efficacy between the groups. Individual group comparisons showed no significant difference in response between mianserin and nomifensine, and mianserin and imipramine. There was a significant (z=1.99, P<0.05) improved response in the imipramine compared with the nomifensine treated group. The imipramine treated group were significantly older. 3 No significant plasma concentration/clinical response relationships were demonstrated with nomifensine, mianserin, imipramine or desipramine. 4 Plasma level monitoring of imipramine recommended by some investigators does not seem to be appropriate. PMID:6337608

  7. Comparative analysis of two rapid, automated methods for determining aminoglycoside levels.

    PubMed Central

    Ngui-Yen, J H; Doyle, P W; Smith, J A

    1984-01-01

    Two rapid automated methods, the Syva EMIT Autolab 6000 (Syva Corp., Syntex Diagnostics, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) and the Abbott TDX (Abbott Diagnostics, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada) systems, for determining amikacin, gentamicin and tobramycin levels in serum were evaluated for accuracy, reproducibility, and cost. Both methods had a high degree of accuracy and reproducibility in assaying gentamicin, amikacin, and tobramycin. The Abbott TDX required an average of only 1 min and 43 s for a single assay compared with 4 min and 15 s for the Syva EMIT automated system. Excluding the capital cost of equipment, the cost per assay by the Abbott TDX was +3.55 Canadian compared with +3.00 Canadian with the Syva EMIT automated system. Both systems performed well during this evaluation in a general diagnostic laboratory, but the Syva EMIT required more daily maintenance than the Abbott TDX system. PMID:6392328

  8. Second-generation antipsychotics and adiponectin levels in schizophrenia: A comparative meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Francesco; Crocamo, Cristina; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    People with schizophrenia treated with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have lower plasma adiponectin levels, as compared with general population, that may lead to metabolic abnormalities. However, the contribution of different SGAs on adiponectin dysregulation is still unclear. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate differences in adiponectin levels among people with schizophrenia treated with different SGAs. We systematically searched for observational studies published up to March 2015 in main electronic databases. Different SGAs were included if data on adiponectin were available from at least three different samples involving as a minimum five participants per treatment arm. Standardized mean differences with relevant 95% confidence intervals were generated. I(2) was used to test heterogeneity among studies. Eight studies were included with data suitable for carrying out four different comparisons: Clozapine vs. Olanzapine (including n=877 individuals with schizophrenia); Clozapine vs. Risperidone (n=660); Olanzapine vs. Risperidone (n=738); Quetiapine vs. Risperidone (n=186). There were no differences on adiponectin levels between people taking Clozapine and those taking Olanzapine (p=0.86), but high heterogeneity was detected (I(2)=82%). Both individuals taking Clozapine (p<0.001; I(2)=0%) and those taking Olanzapine (p=0.02; I(2)=9%), but not subjects treated with Quetiapine (p=0.47; I(2)=0%), had adiponectin levels significantly lower than people taking Risperidone. Our findings are consistent with previous evidence showing greater metabolic abnormalities attributable to Clozapine and Olanzapine, as compared with other SGAs. Although mechanisms whereby both these SGAs influence adiponectin remain unexplained, its reduction might mediate relevant abnormalities. Prospective evaluations of long-term effects of different SGAs on adiponectin are needed. PMID:26164075

  9. Comparative evaluation of probing depth and clinical attachment level using a manual probe and Florida probe

    PubMed Central

    Kour, Amandeep; Kumar, Ashish; Puri, Komal; Khatri, Manish; Bansal, Mansi; Gupta, Geeti

    2016-01-01

    Background: To compare and evaluate the intra- and inter-examiner efficacy and reproducibility of the first-generation manual (Williams) probe and the third-generation Florida probe in terms of measuring pocket probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Materials and Methods: Forty subjects/4000 sites were included in this comparative, cross-sectional study. Group- and site-wise categorizations were done. Based on gingival index, PD, and CAL, patients were divided into four groups, i.e., periodontally healthy, gingivitis, mild to moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis. Further, based on these parameters, a total of 4000 sites, with 1000 sites in each category randomly selected from these 40 patients, were taken. Full mouth PD and CAL measurements were recorded with two probes, by Examiner 1 and on Ramfjord teeth by Examiner 2. Results: Full mouth and Ramfjord teeth group- and site-wise PD obtained with the manual probe by both the examiners were statistically significantly deeper than that obtained with the Florida probe. The full mouth and Ramfjord teeth mean CAL measurement by Florida probe was higher as compared to manual probe in mild to moderate periodontitis group and sites, whereas in severe periodontitis group and sites, manual probe recorded higher CAL as compared to Florida probe. Conclusion: Mean PD and CAL measurements were deeper with the manual probe as compared to the Florida probe in all the groups and sites, except for the mild-moderate periodontitis group and sites where the CAL measurements with the manual probe were less than the Florida probe. Manual probe was more reproducible and showed less interexaminer variability as compared to the Florida probe. PMID:27563204

  10. Comparative study of SoxR activation by redox-active compounds

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Atul K.; Shin, Jung-Ho; Lee, Kang-Lok; Imlay, James A.; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2013-01-01

    Summary SoxR from E. coli and related enterobacteria is activated by a broad range of redox-active compounds through oxidation or nitrosylation of its [2Fe-2S] cluster. Activated SoxR then induces SoxS, which subsequently activates more than 100 genes in response. In contrast, non-enteric SoxRs directly activate their target genes in response to redox-active compounds that include endogenously produced metabolites. We compared the responsiveness of SoxRs from Streptomyces coelicolor (ScSoxR), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PaSoxR) and E. coli (EcSoxR), all expressed in S. coelicolor, toward natural or synthetic redox-active compounds. EcSoxR responded to all compounds examined, whereas ScSoxR was insensitive to oxidants such as paraquat (Eh −440 mV) and menadione sodium bisulfite (Eh −45 mV) and to NO generators. PaSoxR was insensitive only to some NO generators. Whole cell EPR analysis of SoxRs expressed in E. coli revealed that the [2Fe-2S]1+ of ScSoxR was not oxidizable by paraquat, differing from EcSoxR and PaSoxR. The mid-point redox potential of purified ScSoxR was determined to be −185 ± 10 mV, higher by ~100 mV than those of EcSoxR and PaSoxR, supporting its limited response to paraquat. The overall sensitivity profile indicates that both redox potential and kinetic reactivity determine the differential responses of SoxRs toward various oxidants. PMID:24112649

  11. Environmental Influences on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels in Various Early-Learning Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderloo, Leigh M.; Tucker, Patricia; Johnson, Andrew M.; Burke, Shauna M.; Irwin, Jennifer D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to: (a) compare the physical activity (PA) levels (i.e., moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA] and total PA [TPA]) of preschoolers in 3 different early-learning environments (center-based childcare, home-based childcare, and full-day kindergarten [FDK]); and (b) assess which characteristics (e.g., play equipment, policies, etc.)…

  12. Comparative efficacy of switching to natalizumab in active multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Spelman, Timothy; Kalincik, Tomas; Zhang, Annie; Pellegrini, Fabio; Wiendl, Heinz; Kappos, Ludwig; Tsvetkova, Larisa; Belachew, Shibeshih; Hyde, Robert; Verheul, Freek; Grand-Maison, Francois; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Grammond, Pierre; Duquette, Pierre; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Hupperts, Raymond; Petersen, Thor; Barnett, Michael; Trojano, Maria; Butzkueven, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare treatment efficacy and persistence in patients who switched to natalizumab versus those who switched between glatiramer acetate (GA) and interferon-beta (IFNβ) after an on-treatment relapse on IFNβ or GA using propensity score matched real-world datasets. Methods Patients included were registered in MSBase or the TYSABRI Observational Program (TOP), had relapsed on IFNβ or GA within 12 months prior to switching to another therapy, and had initiated natalizumab or IFNβ/GA treatment ≤6 months after discontinuing prior therapy. Covariates were balanced across post switch treatment groups by propensity score matching at treatment initiation. Relapse, persistence, and disability measures were compared between matched treatment arms in the total population (n = 869/group) and in subgroups defined by prior treatment history (IFNβ only [n = 578/group], GA only [n = 165/group], or both IFNβ and GA [n = 176/group]). Results Compared to switching between IFNβ and GA, switching to natalizumab reduced annualized relapse rate in year one by 65–75%, the risk of first relapse by 53–82% (mean follow-up 1.7–2.2 years) and treatment discontinuation events by 48–65% (all P ≤ 0.001). In the total population, switching to natalizumab reduced the risk of confirmed disability progression by 26% (P = 0.036) and decreased the total disability burden by 1.54 EDSS-years (P < 0.0001) over the first 24 months post switch. Interpretation Using large, real-world, propensity-matched datasets we demonstrate that after a relapse on IFNβ or GA, switching to natalizumab (rather than between IFNβ and GA) led to superior outcomes for patients in all measures assessed. Results were consistent regardless of the prior treatment identity. PMID:25909083

  13. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of 19 essential oils.

    PubMed

    Chaftar, Naouel; Girardot, Marion; Labanowski, Jérôme; Ghrairi, Tawfik; Hani, Khaled; Frère, Jacques; Imbert, Christine

    2016-01-01

    In our research on natural compounds efficient against human pathogen or opportunist microorganisms contracted by food or water, the antimicrobial activity of 19 essential oils (EOs) was investigated against 11 bacterial species (6 Gram positive, 5 Gram negative) and 7 fungal species (2 dermatophytes, 1 mould, 4 yeasts) using microdilution assays. Five essential oils were obtained from Tunisian plants (EOtun): Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Juniperus phoenicea L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta graveolens L. and Thymus vulgaris L., whereas others were commercial products (EOcom). Overall, T. vulgaris EOtun was the most efficient EO against both bacteria (Gram negative: MIC ≤ 0.34 mg/mL; Gram positive: MIC ≤ 0.70 mg/mL) and fungi (yeasts: MIC ≤ 0.55 mg/mL; mould: MIC = 0.30 mg/mL; dermatophytes: MIC ≤ 0.07 mg/mL). Two EOcom displayed both acceptable antibacterial and antifungal potency, although weaker than T. vulgaris EOtun activity: Origanum vulgare EOcom (bacteria: MIC ≤ 1.13 mg/mL, fungi: MIC ≤ 1.80 mg/mL), and Cymbopogon martinii var. motia EOcom (bacteria: MIC ≤ 1.00 mg/mL, fungi: MIC ≤ 0.80 mg/mL). Bacillus megaterium, Legionella pneumophila, Listeria monocytogenes and Trichophyton spp. were the most sensitive species to both EOcom and EOtun. This study demonstrated the noteworthy antimicrobial activity of two commercial EOs and points out the remarkable efficiency of T. vulgaris EOtun on all tested bacterial and fungal species, certainly associated with its high content in carvacrol (85 %). These three oils could thus represent promising candidates for applications in water and food protections. PMID:26566647

  14. Interleukin 35 Synovial Fluid Levels Are Associated with Disease Activity of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Šenolt, Ladislav; Šumová, Barbora; Jandová, Romana; Hulejová, Hana; Mann, Heřman; Pavelka, Karel; Vencovský, Jiří; Filková, Mária

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study the association of systemic and local interleukin-35 (IL-35) levels in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods 37 patients with treatment naïve early RA, 49 with established RA and 29 control patients with osteoarthritis (OA) were studied. Serum and paired synovial fluid samples were analysed for IL-35. Disease activity of RA patients was assessed according to the 28-Joint Count Disease Activity Score (DAS28). Results The levels of serum IL-35 were significantly higher in patients with treatment naïve early RA compared to those with established disease and control OA subjects. In addition, serum levels of IL-35 significantly decreased 12 weeks after initiation of glucocorticoids and conventional synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs in patients with treatment naïve early RA. Synovial fluid IL-35 levels were significantly higher in RA compared to OA patients, were significantly elevated compared to serum counterparts and correlated with synovial fluid leukocyte count (r=0.412; p<0.01), serum CRP levels (r=0.362; p<0.05) and DAS28 (r=0.430, p<0.01). Conclusion This is the first study showing elevated circulating levels of IL-35 in treatment naïve early RA, its significant decrease after treatment initiation and positive association between increased synovial fluid IL-35 and disease activity in patients with long-lasting RA. PMID:26204444

  15. Prostaglandin E2 levels and platelet function are different in cord blood compared to adults.

    PubMed

    Schlagenhauf, Axel; Haidl, Harald; Leschnik, Bettina; Leis, Hans-Joerg; Heinemann, Akos; Muntean, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal platelets support primary haemostasis and thrombin generation as well as adult platelets, despite observable hypoaggregability in vitro. High prostaglandin E2 levels at accouchement could account for inhibited platelet function via the EP4 receptor. We set out to determine prostaglandin E2 plasma levels in cord blood of healthy neonates and evaluate the impact of prostaglandin E2 on platelet function in adult and cord blood samples. Prostaglandin E2 plasma levels were measured in cord blood and venous adult blood using GC-MS. Impact of prostaglandin E2 on platelet aggregation was measured by spiking cord blood and adult samples. Contributions of EP3 and EP4 receptors were evaluated using respective antagonists. Intracellular cAMP concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA-kit. Prostaglandin E2 plasma levels were substantially higher in cord blood than in adult samples. Spiking with prostaglandin E2 resulted in a slight but consistent reduction of platelet aggregation in adult blood, but response to PGE2 was blunted in cord blood samples. Aggregation response of spiked adult samples was still higher than with non-spiked cord blood samples. Blockage of EP4 receptors resulted in improved platelet aggregation in adult platelets upon prostaglandin E2 spiking, while aggregation in cord blood samples remained unaltered. Intracellular cAMP concentrations after preincubation with prostaglandin E2 were only increased in adult samples. In conclusion, very high prostaglandin E2 concentrations in cord blood affect platelet function. This effect may partially explain neonatal platelet hypoaggregability. Peak levels of prostaglandin E2 can potentially protect against birth stress-induced platelet activation.

  16. A comparative Study of Circulation Patterns at Active Lava Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Einat; Oppenheimer, Clive; Spampinato, Letizia; Hernandez, Pedro; Unglert, Kathi

    2016-04-01

    Lava lakes present a rare opportunity to study magma dynamics in a large scaled-up "crucible" and provide a unique natural laboratory to ground-truth dynamic models of magma circulation. The persistence of lava lakes allows for long-term observations of flow dynamics and of lava properties, especially compared to surface lava flows. There are currently five persistent lava lakes in the world: Halemaumau in Kilauea (Hawaii, USA), Erta Ale (Ethiopia), Nyiragongo (Congo), Erebus (Antarctica), and Villarica (Chile). Marum and Benbow craters of Ambrym volcano (Vanuatu) and Masaya (Nicaragua) have often hosted lava lakes as well. We use visible-light and thermal infrared time-lapse and video footage collected at all above lakes (except Villarica, where the lake is difficult to observe), and compare the circulation patterns recorded. We calculate lake surface motion from the footage using the optical flow method (Lev et al., 2012) to produce 2D velocity fields. We mined both the surface temperature field and the surface velocity field for patterns using machine learning techniques such as "self-organizing maps (SOMs)" and "principle component analysis (PCA)". We use automatic detection technique to study the configuration of crustal plates at the lakes' surface. We find striking differences among the lakes, in flow direction, flow speed, frequency of changes in flow direction and speed, location and consistency of upwelling and downwelling, and crustal plate configuration. We relate the differences to lake size, shallow conduit geometry, lava viscosity, crystal and gas content, and crust integrity.

  17. Comparative study of Vamana and Virechanakarma in controlling blood sugar levels in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Nitin; Joshi, Nayan P.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) with its devastating consequences is a global health problem of this era. Presently India is having the largest diabetic population of 50.8 million. The characteristic features of DM have close resemblance with Prameha (obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes) in Ayurveda. Madhumeha is a Vatika subtype of Prameha that is most close to DM. One variety of this Madhumeha (DM) is Aavaranjanya (due to occlusion) in which Vayu aggravates due to occlusion by Pitta or Kapha. This type of Madhumeha (DM) can be managed if Samshodhana (bio-cleansing) is used in early stages of disease followed by palliative treatment. Vamana (emetic therapy) and Virechana (purgation therapy) are the Samsodhana Karma (bio-cleansing therapies) that are compatible to overcome this Aavarana (occlusion). A comparative study was planned to compare their efficacy in controlling blood sugar levels in patients with DM. Although none of them were completely able to control blood sugar in the long-term but the study yields some very interesting results in reducing the blood sugar levels which could be useful in the future studies related to DM. PMID:24501520

  18. Activity-dependent regulation of astrocyte GAT levels during synaptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Muthukumar, Allie K.; Stork, Tobias; Freeman, Marc R.

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytic uptake of GABA through GABA transporters (GATs) is an important mechanism regulating excitatory/inhibitory balance in the nervous system, however mechanisms by which astrocytes regulate GAT levels are undefined. Here we show at mid-pupal stages the Drosophila CNS neuropil is devoid of astrocyte membranes and synapses. Astrocyte membranes subsequently infiltrate the neuropil coordinate with synaptogenesis and a strocyte ablation reduces synapse numbers by half, indicating that Drosophila astrocytes are pro-synaptogenic. Shortly after synapses form in earnest, the GABA transporter, GAT, is up-regulated in astrocytes. Ablation or silencing of GABAergic neurons or disruption of metabotropic GABA receptor (GABABR1/2) signaling in astrocytes leads to decreased astrocytic GAT levels. Interestingly, developmental depletion of astrocytic GABABR1/2 signaling suppresses mechanosensory-induced seizure activity in mutants with hyperexcitable neurons. These data reveal astrocytes actively modulate GAT expression via metabotropic GABA receptor signaling, and highlight the importance of precise regulation of astrocytic GAT in modulation of seizure activity. PMID:25151265

  19. Comparative phyloinformatics of virus genes at micro and macro levels in a distributed computing environment

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dadabhai T; Trehan, Rahul; Schmidt, Bertil; Bretschneider, Timo

    2008-01-01

    Background Preparedness for a possible global pandemic caused by viruses such as the highly pathogenic influenza A subtype H5N1 has become a global priority. In particular, it is critical to monitor the appearance of any new emerging subtypes. Comparative phyloinformatics can be used to monitor, analyze, and possibly predict the evolution of viruses. However, in order to utilize the full functionality of available analysis packages for large-scale phyloinformatics studies, a team of computer scientists, biostatisticians and virologists is needed – a requirement which cannot be fulfilled in many cases. Furthermore, the time complexities of many algorithms involved leads to prohibitive runtimes on sequential computer platforms. This has so far hindered the use of comparative phyloinformatics as a commonly applied tool in this area. Results In this paper the graphical-oriented workflow design system called Quascade and its efficient usage for comparative phyloinformatics are presented. In particular, we focus on how this task can be effectively performed in a distributed computing environment. As a proof of concept, the designed workflows are used for the phylogenetic analysis of neuraminidase of H5N1 isolates (micro level) and influenza viruses (macro level). The results of this paper are hence twofold. Firstly, this paper demonstrates the usefulness of a graphical user interface system to design and execute complex distributed workflows for large-scale phyloinformatics studies of virus genes. Secondly, the analysis of neuraminidase on different levels of complexity provides valuable insights of this virus's tendency for geographical based clustering in the phylogenetic tree and also shows the importance of glycan sites in its molecular evolution. Conclusion The current study demonstrates the efficiency and utility of workflow systems providing a biologist friendly approach to complex biological dataset analysis using high performance computing. In particular, the

  20. Association between physical activity level and consumption of fruit and vegetables among adolescents in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between low levels of physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 2,057 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. We analyzed the level of physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables by standardized and validated questionnaires. The control variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, maternal education, alcohol consumption and smoking. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of physical activity was 81.9%; the inadequate consumption of fruits ocurred in 79.1% and the inadequate consumption of vegetables in 90.6%. Adolescents who consumed few fruits daily had an increase in 40% of chance of being insufficiently active and, for those who consumed few vegetable's the likelihood of being insufficiently active was 50% higher, compared to those who had adequate intake of these foods. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of physical activity were associated with inadequate fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents in a city in northeastern Brazil. These findings suggest that insufficiently active adolescents have other unhealthy behaviors that may increase the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. PMID:25887930

  1. Comparative activity profiles of Thielavia terrestris and Trichoderma reesei cellulases

    SciTech Connect

    Tuse, D.; Mason, B.J.; Skinner, W.A.

    1980-10-01

    The successful utilization of cellulosic materials depends on the development of economically feasible processes for the literation of low molecular weight soluble products from the polymers. These soluble products, such as hexoses and pentoses, can then be utilized as substrates for the microbial or chemical product of fuels, food, and chemical feedstocks. In the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose, one of the major roadblocks to the development of commercially attractive processes has been the instability of the cellulase complex. It is desirable, for example, to operate the conversion systems at elevated temperatures, but environments with high thermal energy can significantly shorten enzyme half life. The authors have isolated a strain of the fungus Thielavia terrestris that possesses a complete cellulase system, and its enzymes were found to have remarkable thermal stability. The author presents a comparison of the activities of the T. terrestris enzymes with those of Trichoderma reesei.

  2. [COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SEROTONIN LEVELS IN RAT PLATELETS, SERUM AND BRAIN ON THE AGING].

    PubMed

    Taborskaya, K I; Frolova, M Yu; Kuleva, N V

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin functions as neurotransmitter in central nervous system and is involved in the regulation of vascular tone, gastro-intestinal motility and blood coagulation in the periphery. The appearance of new data on the significant correlation between serotonin levels in platelets and cerebrospinal fluid (Audhya et al., 2012) renewed interest in the hypothesis in which the platelet is seen as a model of cerotoninergic neuron. In our study, the levels of serotonin in platelets, serum and various brain regions of rats aged 6 and 24 months have been determined and comparatively analyzed. The method of high performance liquid chromatography was used. The decrease of serotonin level in platelets from 0.768 to 0.359 μg per 10(9) cells and its increase in the middle brain from 0.260 to 0.439 μg per 1 of wet weight have been clearly demonstrated in aging of animals. The differences in the content of serotonin in other parts of the brain and in the blood serum of young and old animals were statistically insignificant. Therefore, despite the attractiveness of the concept of platelet as a model of a neuron, the extrapolation of the data on platelet serotonin transport into neuronal ones requires caution, especially in the study of aging.

  3. Comparing Canadian and American cybersecurity awareness levels: Educational strategies to increase public awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoggard, Amy

    Cybersecurity awareness is an important issue that affects everyone who uses a computer or a mobile device. Canada and the United States both recognize the value of mitigating cybersecurity risks in terms of national safety, economic stability and protection of their citizens. The research performed compared the levels of cybersecurity awareness in Canadian and American Internet users. Canadian and American users were equally aware of cybersecurity measures, but were not implementing best practices to keep themselves safe. The research suggested users needed to understand why a cybersecurity measure was important before being motivated to implement it. Educational strategies were reviewed in both Canada and the United States and it was determined that although there were significant resources available, they were not being utilized by both the educators and the public. In order to increase cybersecurity awareness levels, nations should focus on increasing the public's awareness by using various types of messaging, such as cartoons, in media. One possible consideration is a compulsory awareness model before accessing the Internet. Cybersecurity topics should be included in the curriculum for students at all levels of education and a focus on providing training and resources to teachers will help increase the cybersecurity knowledge of children and youth.

  4. Sea water level forecasting using genetic programming and comparing the performance with Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali Ghorbani, Mohammad; Khatibi, Rahman; Aytek, Ali; Makarynskyy, Oleg; Shiri, Jalal

    2010-05-01

    Water level forecasting at various time intervals using records of past time series is of importance in water resources engineering and management. In the last 20 years, emerging approaches over the conventional harmonic analysis techniques are based on using Genetic Programming (GP) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). In the present study, the GP is used to forecast sea level variations, three time steps ahead, for a set of time intervals comprising 12 h, 24 h, 5 day and 10 day time intervals using observed sea levels. The measurements from a single tide gauge at Hillarys Boat Harbor, Western Australia, were used to train and validate the employed GP for the period from December 1991 to December 2002. Statistical parameters, namely, the root mean square error, correlation coefficient and scatter index, are used to measure their performances. These were compared with a corresponding set of published results using an Artificial Neural Network model. The results show that both these artificial intelligence methodologies perform satisfactorily and may be considered as alternatives to the harmonic analysis.

  5. A Comparative Study of Serum Uric Acid levels and Lipid Ratios in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sathiya, R.; Velu, V. Kuzhandai; Niranjan, G.; Srinivasan, A. R.; Amirtha, Ganesh B.; Ramesh, R.; Babu, M. Sathish; Saha, Subiman

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) appears to be common in the Indian population of different geographical origins, religions and languages. Measurement of lipid fractions and ratios are widely recommended for risk assessment. A few studies have shown that serum uric acid plays a role in the development of cardiovascular morbidity. Very few reports are cited linking serum uric acid with the lipid fraction in CAD Objectives: To find the significance of non-HDL cholesterol, LDL-c/HDL-c ratio, TC/HDL ratio and serum uric acid level in CAD patients Subjects and Methodology: In this study, we included fifty CAD patients as subjects and an equal number of controls. Both subjects and controls were assessed for anthropometric, physiological and biochemical parameters Results: The present study showed significant increased levels of total cholesterol (p=0.002), TAGs (p<0.001), HDL (p=0.005), LDL (p<0.006) and non-HDL cholesterol (p<0.001). LDL-c/HDL-c ratio (p<0.001) and TC/HDL ratio (p<0.001) in CAD patients (subjects) were also significant when compared to controls. Uric acid level in CAD patients was increased (p<0.001). Conclusion: Serum Uric Acid, TC/HDL and LDL/HDL ratios could be regarded as objective markers, in association with existing atherogenic dyslipidemia in patients with CAD. PMID:25018681

  6. Comparing the Levels of Trace Elements in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy and Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Makhlough, Atieh; Makhlough, Marjan; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Mohammadian, Mozhdeh; Sedighi, Omid; Faghihan, Mansooreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in developed countries. Several trace elements were reported to be changed in diabetic nephropathy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate changes in serum levels of zinc, copper and chromium and their association with the incidence of ESRD in patients with diabetes. Patients and Methods: This study was performed on 70 patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy (macro and micro-albuminuria) and 70 healthy individuals. Samples were collected to survey metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data was analyzed by SPSS18 using descriptive and inferential analysis methods. Results: Mean ± SD levels of Zn, Cu and Cr were significantly decreased in blood samples of patients compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.01). Also the mean concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cr in drinking water of Sari were lower than the accepted limit. Only in one case, Cu was higher than the accepted limit, which was the possibility of contamination by water supply pipes. Conclusions: Cu, Zn and Cr play a specific role in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. Meanwhile in these patients, low serum levels of Cu, Zn and Cr were not associated with factors such as drinking water. Possible causes should be sought in other factors like urine, intervention factors in absorption and utilization and individual conditions. PMID:26539418

  7. Exploring human epileptic activity at the single-neuron level.

    PubMed

    Tankus, Ariel

    2016-05-01

    Today, localization of the seizure focus heavily relies on EEG monitoring (scalp or intracranial). However, current technology enables much finer resolutions. The activity of hundreds of single neurons in the human brain can now be simultaneously explored before, during, and after a seizure or in association with an interictal discharge. This technology opens up new horizons to understanding epilepsy at a completely new level. This review therefore begins with a brief description of the basis of the technology, the microelectrodes, and the setup for their implantation in patients with epilepsy. Using these electrodes, recent studies provide novel insights into both the time domain and firing patterns of epileptic activity of single neurons. In the time domain, seizure-related activity may occur even minutes before seizure onset (in its current, EEG-based definition). Seizure-related neuronal interactions exhibit complex heterogeneous dynamics. In the seizure-onset zone, changes in firing patterns correlate with cell loss; in the penumbra, neurons maintain their spike stereotypy during a seizure. Hence, investigation of the extracellular electrical activity is expected to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the disease; it may, in the future, serve for a more accurate localization of the seizure focus; and it may also be employed to predict the occurrence of seizures prior to their behavioral manifestation in order to administer automatic therapeutic interventions.

  8. Elevated plasma oxytocin levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome compared with healthy unrelated siblings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lisa; Manzardo, Ann M; Miller, Jennifer L; Driscoll, Daniel J; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-03-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder associated with distinct abnormal behaviors including hyperphagia, profound social deficits, and obsessive-compulsive tendencies. PWS males showed reduced oxytocin receptor (OTR) gene expression and density in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus that may play a role in PWS psychopathology. Oxytocin is an anorexigenic neuropeptide similar to vasopressin that is associated with social cognition and obsessive-compulsive behavior. To evaluate oxytocin biology in PWS, we examined overnight fasting plasma oxytocin levels in 23 children with PWS (mean ± SD age: 8.2 ± 2.0 year) having genetic confirmation and 18 age matched healthy unrelated siblings without PWS (mean ± SD age: 8.2 ± 2.3 year) and a similar gender ratio under the same clinical assessments, specimen processing and laboratory conditions. Multiplex immune assays were carried out using the Milliplex Human Neuropeptide Magnetic panel and the Luminex system. Natural log-transformed oxytocin levels were analyzed using general linear model adjusting for diagnosis, gender, age and body mass index (BMI). Oxytocin plasma levels were significantly elevated in children with PWS (168 ± 121 pg/ml) compared with unrelated and unaffected siblings without the diagnosis of PWS (64.8 ± 83.8 pg/ml, F = 8.8, P < 0.01) and the diagnosis of PWS predicted oxytocin level (F = 9.5, P < 0.003) in controlled regression analysis with an overall model fit R(2) = 0.33 (P < 0.01). The symptoms of hyperphagia, anxiety and repetitive behaviors classically seen in PWS may be related to the disruption of oxytocin responsivity or feedback in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus possibly influencing vasopressin signaling. Further study is needed to characterize oxytocin function in PWS. PMID:26615966

  9. A Comparison of the Fitness, Obesity, and Physical Activity Levels of High School Physical Education Students across Race and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kathryn L.; Wojcik, Janet R.; DeWaele, Christi S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the physical fitness, obesity, and physical activity (PA) levels of high school students in physical education classes when comparing racial and gender groups. Purpose: To compare the fitness, obesity, and PA levels of female and male students of different racial groups in 6 high schools in the southeastern…

  10. Visual-Somatosensory Integration is Linked to Physical Activity Level in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Jeannette R; Dumas, Kristina; Holtzer, Roee

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining multisensory integration (MSI) in aging consistently demonstrate greater reaction time (RT) facilitation in old compared to young adults, but often fail to determine the utility of MSI. The aim of the current experiment was to further elucidate the utility of MSI in aging by determining its relationship to physical activity level. 147 non-demented older adults (mean age 77 years; 57% female) participated. Participants were instructed to make speeded responses to visual, somatosensory, and visual-somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Depending on the magnitude of the individuals' RT facilitation, participants were classified into a MSI or NO MSI group. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity scale. As predicted, RTs to VS stimuli were significantly shorter than those elicited to constituent unisensory conditions. Multisensory RT facilitation was a significant predictor of total number of physical activity days per month, with individuals in the NO MSI group reporting greater engagement in physical activities compared to those requiring greater RT facilitation.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcuminoids, Turmerones, and Aqueous Extract of Curcuma longa

    PubMed Central

    Bagad, Ashish Subhash; Bhaskaran, Natarajan; Agarwal, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Curcuma longa is widely known for its anti-inflammatory activity in traditional system of medicine for centuries and has been scientifically validated extensively. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of curcuminoids and oil-free aqueous extract (COFAE) of C. longa and compare it with that of curcuminoids and turmerones (volatile oil), the bioactive components of C. longa that are proven for the anti-inflammatory potential. The activity against inflammation was evaluated in xylene-induced ear edema, cotton pellet granuloma models in albino Swiss mice and albino Wistar rats, respectively. The results showed that COFAE of C. longa at three dose levels significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibited inflammation in both models, as evidenced by reduction in ear weight and decrease in wet as well as dry weights of cotton pellets, when compared to the vehicle control. The COFAE of C. longa showed considerable anti-inflammatory effects against acute and chronic inflammation and the effects were comparable to those of curcuminoids and turmerones. PMID:24454348

  12. Research Note: Physical Activity Levels in Elementary-School Physical Education: A Comparison of Swimming and Nonswimming Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Greet; Verstraete, Stefanie; De Clercq, Dirk; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of the current study was to compare physical activity levels during swimming and nonswimming elementary physical education classes. We conducted a preliminary study and found that the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) could be used to register physical activity engagement levels in swimming classes. Thirty-nine…

  13. Health workforce remuneration: comparing wage levels, ranking, and dispersion of 16 occupational groups in 20 countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This article represents the first attempt to explore remuneration in Human Resources for Health (HRH), comparing wage levels, ranking and dispersion of 16 HRH occupational groups in 20 countries (Argentina, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, India, Mexico, the Netherlands, Poland, Russian Federation, Republic of South Africa (RSA), Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (USA)). The main aim is to examine to what extent the wage rankings, standardized wage levels, and wage dispersion are similar between the 16 occupational groups and across the selected countries and what factors can be shown to be related to the differences that emerge. Method The pooled data from the continuous, worldwide, multilingual WageIndicator web survey between 2008 and 2011 (for selected HRH occupations, n=49,687) have been aggregated into a data file with median or mean remuneration values for 300 occupation/country cells. Hourly wages are expressed in standardized US Dollars (USD), all controlled for purchasing power parity (PPP) and indexed to 2011 levels. Results The wage ranking of 16 HRH occupational groups is fairly similar across countries. Overall Medical Doctors have the highest and Personal Care Workers the lowest median wages. Wage levels of Nursing & Midwifery Professionals vary largely. Health Care Managers have lower earnings than Medical Doctors in all except six of the 20 countries. The largest wage differences are found for the Medical Doctors earning 20 times less in Ukraine than in the US, and the Personal Care Workers, who earn nine times less in the Ukraine than in the Netherlands. No support is found for the assumption that the ratio across the highest and lowest earning HRH occupations is similar between countries: it varies from 2.0 in Sweden to 9.7 in Brazil. Moreover, an increase in the percentage of women in an occupation has a large downward effect on its wage rank

  14. Ecological concerns following Superstorm Sandy: stressor level and recreational activity levels affect perceptions of ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy, including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, central Jersey), stressor level (power outages, high winds, flooding) and recreational rates. “Wildlife” and “fish” were the ecological concerns mentioned most often, while beaches and dunes were most often mentioned for environmental concerns. Television, radio, and web/internet were sources trusted for ecological information. The data indicate 1) stressor level was a better predictor of ratings of ecological services than geographical location, but days engaged in recreation contributed the most to variations in ratings, 2) ecological services were rated the highest by respondents with the highest stressor levels, and by those from the coast, compared to others, 3) Caucasians rated ecological services higher than all others, and 4) recreational rates were highest for coastal respondents, and ratings for ecological services increased with recreational rates. Only 20 % of respondents listed specific ecological services as one of their three most important environmental concerns. These data will be useful for increasing preparedness, enhancing educational strategies for shore protection, and providing managers and public policy makers with data essential to developing resiliency strategies. PMID:27011729

  15. Game-like tasks for comparative research: leveling the playing field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, D. A.; Gulledge, J. P.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Game-like computer tasks offer many benefits for psychological research. In this paper, the usefulness of such tasks to bridge population differences (e.g., age, intelligence, species) is discussed and illustrated. A task called ALVIN was used to assess humans' and monkeys' working memory for sequences of colors with or without tones. Humans repeated longer lists than did the monkeys, and only humans benefited when the visual stimuli were accompanied by auditory cues. However, the monkeys did recall sequences at levels comparable to those reported elsewhere for children. Comparison of similarities and differences between the species is possible because the two groups were tested with exactly the same game-like paradigm.

  16. Comparing rural ground and air emergency medical services: a level I trauma center's experience.

    PubMed

    von Recklinghausen, Friedrich Maximilian

    2011-01-01

    We sought to compare differences in patients transported by ground and air emergency medical services directly from the scenes of their injuries to a rural level I trauma facility. Variables examined included age, gender, vital signs, Glasgow Coma Scale score, discharge location, length of stay, and survival metrics. Student t tests and odds ratios were used for analysis. Demographics and vital signs differed between trauma patients transported by air versus those transported by ground. Generally, length of stay was longer in air-transported patients, who also had poorer survival metrics with negligible risk of death. Significant differences exist in the markers of physiology such as vital signs, expected survival, and degree of injury. PMID:22157533

  17. Comparative approaches to siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, W.F.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes activities in nine States to select site locations for new disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. These nine States have completed processes leading to identification of specific site locations for onsite investigations. For each State, the status, legal and regulatory framework, site criteria, and site selection process are described. In most cases, States and compact regions decided to assign responsibility for site selection to agencies of government and to use top-down mapping methods for site selection. The report discusses quantitative and qualitative techniques used in applying top-down screenings, various approaches for delineating units of land for comparison, issues involved in excluding land from further consideration, and different positions taken by the siting organizations in considering public acceptance, land use, and land availability as factors in site selection.

  18. Effect of recreational physical activity on insulin levels in Mexican/Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Macias-Cervantes, Maciste H; Malacara, Juan M; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia; Díaz-Cisneros, Francisco J

    2009-10-01

    The effect of increased recreational physical activity in children on insulin levels has not yet been studied. We carried out a randomized controlled trial in 76 children 6-9 years old, 32 of them increased their physical activity and 30 maintained the same level. In the intervention group, after a week of baseline, recreational activity three times/week was programmed for 12 weeks. We compared insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, glucose, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, and body mass index in both groups. Thereafter, we compared groups of normal weight, overweight, and with obesity in the experimental group. The group of recreational activity increased their median daily steps (15,329 to 19,910) and decreased insulin (p < 0.001) and HOMA index (4.36 vs. 2.39, p < 0.001). The diminution of insulin levels was more significant in the overweight group (p < 0.007). In conclusion, in our group, children who increased physical activity during 12 weeks decrease insulin levels and insulin resistance without change in other metabolic and anthropometric variables.

  19. Comparing M5 Model Trees and Neural Networks for River Level Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S.; See, L.

    2005-12-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been the subject of much research activity in hydrological modelling over the last decade yet this represents only one data-driven modelling approach from among a very rich set. M5 model trees are an example of a technique that has had little application in the hydrological domain yet the results are promising (Solomatine and Xue, 2004). They are a machine learning approach that combines regression trees and classification. The input space is partitioned into subsets based on entropy measures, and regression equations are then fit to these subsets. The advantages over ANNs are (a) their ability to provide knowledge in the form of a decision tree and (b) much faster training times. This has important implications for operational use as they are not black box models. In this study ANNs, M5 model trees and time series analysis have been used to develop models to predict river levels at a gauging station in the River Ouse catchment in Northern England. Two lead times have been used: t+6 and t+24 hours. The input data consisted of historical levels at the gauging stations, upstream level data and rainfall from five rain gauges across the catchment, determined by correlation with the output. The results of the study showed that the ANNs outperformed both the M5 model trees and time series approaches when considering global goodness-of-fit measures such as root mean squared error and coefficient of efficiency. However, the difference in performance between the ANNs and M5 model trees was not large, e.g. 1 percent difference in coefficient of efficiency for t+6 hours. When considering the longer lead time of t+24 hours, the performance of the ANNs and M5 model trees almost converged. The M5 model tree, however, also provides the rules of operation. The first partition for both the t+6 and t+24 hour models was determined by the value of the river level at one of the upstream stations. The individual regression equations associated with

  20. Healing of complement activating Ti implants compared with non-activating Ti in rat tibia.

    PubMed

    Harmankaya, N; Igawa, K; Stenlund, P; Palmquist, A; Tengvall, P

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have revealed that ozone ultraviolet (UVO) illumination of titanium (Ti) implants improves bone-implant anchorage by altering the physico-chemical and immune activating properties of the titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) layer. In the present rat tibia model, the authors compared the early events of inflammation and bone formation around UVO-treated Ti and complement activating immunoglobin g (IgG)-coated Ti. Machined Ti and machined Ti coated with a physical vapour-deposited Ti layer were used as references. Screw-shaped test and reference implants were implanted into rat tibia and harvested after 1, 7 and 28 days. Messenger RNA expression of implant adhered cells and peri-implant tissue ~250 μm from the surface were subsequently analysed with regard to IL-1β, TNF-α, osteocalcin, cathepsin K, BMP-2 and PDGF. Separate implants were retrieved after 7 and 28 days for removal torque measurements, and histological staining and histomorphometric analysis of bone area and bone-to-implant contact. While enhanced expression of inflammatory markers, TNF-α and IL-1β, was observed on IgG-coated surfaces throughout the observation time, UVO-treated surfaces indicated a significantly lower early inflammatory response. In the early phases (1 and 7 days), the UVO-treated surfaces displayed a significantly higher expression of osteoblast markers BMP-2 and osteocalcin. In summary, complement activating Ti implants elicited a stronger inflammatory response than UVO-treated Ti, with low complement activation during the first week of healing. In spite of this, the UVO-treated Ti induced only marginally more bone growth outside the implants.

  1. Activity-dependent regulation of astrocyte GAT levels during synaptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Allie K; Stork, Tobias; Freeman, Marc R

    2014-10-01

    Astrocytic uptake of GABA through GABA transporters (GATs) is an important mechanism regulating excitatory/inhibitory balance in the nervous system; however, mechanisms by which astrocytes regulate GAT levels are undefined. We found that at mid-pupal stages the Drosophila melanogaster CNS neuropil was devoid of astrocyte membranes and synapses. Astrocyte membranes subsequently infiltrated the neuropil coordinately with synaptogenesis, and astrocyte ablation reduced synapse numbers by half, indicating that Drosophila astrocytes are pro-synaptogenic. Shortly after synapses formed in earnest, GAT was upregulated in astrocytes. Ablation or silencing of GABAergic neurons or disruption of metabotropic GABA receptor 1 and 2 (GABA(B)R1/2) signaling in astrocytes led to a decrease in astrocytic GAT. Notably, developmental depletion of astrocytic GABA(B)R1/2 signaling suppressed mechanosensory-induced seizure activity in mutants with hyperexcitable neurons. These data reveal that astrocytes actively modulate GAT expression via metabotropic GABA receptor signaling and highlight the importance of precise regulation of astrocytic GAT in modulation of seizure activity.

  2. Total suspended dust and heavy metal levels emitted from a workplace compared with nearby residential houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A.; Yaghi, Basma

    Total suspended particulate matter (TSP) were collected from the workplace in Sohar Industrial Estate (SIE) in Oman. The samples were taken from 19 different industrial activities that represent major sources of particulate matter in the SIE. The collected samples were analyzed for 9 heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, V and Mo) by using the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry analysis (ICP-OES). Furthermore, the indoor TSP and heavy metal concentrations were measured inside 12 houses within Sohar residential area to determine the contributions of various industrial activities on nearby residential houses. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of heavy metals in the TSP were too low to yield any known environmental health effects. In general, the results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in the workplaces of SIE and its nearby houses were low compared to the guideline values. In addition, the values were low in comparison with other known sites around the world. Moreover, significant contribution from industrial sources at SIE was evidenced at nearby houses.

  3. Nanoscale charge transport in cytochrome c3/DNA network: Comparative studies between redox-active molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Harumasa; Che, Dock-Chil; Hirano, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Masayuki; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2015-09-01

    The redox-active molecule of a cytochrome c3/DNA network exhibits nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) characteristics with a threshold bias voltage at low temperature and zero-bias conductance at room temperature. I-V curves for the cytochrome c3/DNA network are well matched with the Coulomb blockade network model. Comparative studies of the Mn12 cluster, cytochrome c, and cytochrome c3, which have a wide variety of redox potentials, indicate no difference in charge transport, which suggests that the conduction mechanism is not directly related to the redox states. The charge transport mechanism has been discussed in terms of the newly-formed electronic energy states near the Fermi level, induced by the ionic interaction between redox-active molecules with the DNA network.

  4. Comparative metagenomics demonstrating different degradative capacity of activated biomass treating hydrocarbon contaminated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Trilok Chandra; Pal, Rajesh Ramavadh; Shastri, Sunita; Jadeja, Niti B; Kapley, Atya

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the diverse degradative capacity of activated biomass, when exposed to different levels of total dissolved solids (TDS) using a comparative metagenomics approach. The biomass was collected at two time points to examine seasonal variations. Four metagenomes were sequenced on Illumina Miseq platform and analysed using MG-RAST. STAMP tool was used to analyse statistically significant differences amongst different attributes of metagenomes. Metabolic pathways related to degradation of aromatics via the central and peripheral pathways were found to be dominant in low TDS metagenome, while pathways corresponding to central carbohydrate metabolism, nitrogen, organic acids were predominant in high TDS sample. Seasonal variation was seen to affect catabolic gene abundance as well as diversity of the microbial community. Degradation of model compounds using activated sludge demonstrated efficient utilisation of single aromatic ring compounds in both samples but cyclic compounds were not efficiently utilised by biomass exposed to high TDS.

  5. The influence of active seating on car passengers' perceived comfort and activity levels.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being.

  6. The influence of active seating on car passengers' perceived comfort and activity levels.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being. PMID:25479990

  7. [Comparison of eating habits among students according to sex and level of physical activity].

    PubMed

    Łagowska, Karolina; Woźniewicz, Małgorzata; Jeszka, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate nutritional habits of high school students, depending on their sex and physical activity. The investigated population included 147 students in age of 17.5 +/- 1.5 y (girls DZ = 98, boys CH = 49) with different level of physical activity (athletes SPO, moderate physical activity UAF, low physical activity NAF). Nutritional data were obtained by FFQ and calculated for selected food-groups and generally as young healthy eating index YHEI. International IPAQ was used to determine the level of physical activity and anthropometric measured were conducted to estimated BMI and body fat status. It was indicated the YHEI in athletes was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to rest of students. Moreover, a significant difference (p < 0.05) in YHEI in DZ compared to CH was also found. The significant differences (p < 0.05) in the frequency of consumption of red meat, vegetable oil and sweetned drinks was revealed between DZ and CH adolescents. The frequency of consumption of vegetable oil, fast - foods, sweets, alcoholic drinks, energy drinks and isotonic drinks varied with the level of physical activity. Frequency of consumption of sweets negatively correlated with skinfold thickness in DZ, whereas positive correlation between consumption frequency of energy drinks, BMI and skinfold thickness was found in CH. The results show, that nutritional habits of the athletes was most approached to nutritional guidelines. CH, nutritional habits may predicted to overweight and obesity in CH group more distinctly than in DZ group.

  8. Comparative analyses of venoms from American and African Sicarius spiders that differ in sphingomyelinase D activity.

    PubMed

    Zobel-Thropp, Pamela A; Bodner, Melissa R; Binford, Greta J

    2010-06-15

    Spider venoms are cocktails of toxic proteins and peptides, whose composition varies at many levels. Understanding patterns of variation in chemistry and bioactivity is fundamental for understanding factors influencing variation. The venom toxin sphingomyelinase D (SMase D) in sicariid spider venom (Loxosceles and Sicarius) causes dermonecrotic lesions in mammals. Multiple forms of venom-expressed genes with homology to SMase D are expressed in venoms of both genera. SMase D activity levels differ among major clades with American Sicarius vastly reduced relative to all Loxosceles and African Sicarius despite expression of SMase D homologs in venoms of American Sicarius. Here we report comparative analyses of protein composition and insecticidal activity of crude venoms from three Sicarius species, two from South Africa and one from Central America. Comparative 2-dimensional electrophoresis shows dense regions of proteins in the size range of SMase D in all three species, but there are differences in sizes and isoelectric points (pIs). Few proteins strictly co-migrate and there are clusters of proteins with similar pIs and molecular weights whose patterns of similarity do not necessarily reflect phylogenetic relatedness. In addition, PD(50) estimates on crickets indicate a small though significant decrease in potency of South American Sicarius venoms relative to African species.

  9. Comparative analysis of telomere length, telomerase and reverse transcriptase activity in human dental stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Byeong-Gyun; Kang, Eun-Ju; Kumar, B Mohana; Maeng, Geun-Ho; Ock, Sun-A; Kwack, Dae-Oh; Park, Bong-Wook; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells from dental tissues have been isolated and established for tooth regenerative applications. However, basic characterization on their biological properties still needs to be investigated before employing them for effective clinical trials. In this study, we compared the telomere length, relative telomerase activity (RTA), and relative reverse transcriptase activity (RRA) as well as the surface antigen profile and mesenchymal differentiation ability in human dental papilla stem cells (DPaSCs), dental pulp stem cells (DPuSCs), and dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs) with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow. Dental stem cells (DSCs) were strongly positive for cell surface markers, such as CD44 and CD90. However, slightly lower expression of CD105 was observed in DPaSCs and DPuSCs compared to DFSCs and MSCs. Following specific induction, DPaSCs, DFSCs, and MSCs were successfully differentiated into adipocytes and osteocytes. However, DPuSCS, in particular, were able to differentiate into adipocytes but failed to induce into osteogenic differentiation. Further, all DSCs, MSCs, and MRC-5 fibroblasts as control were investigated for telomere length by nonradioactive chemiluminescent assay, RTA by relative-quantitative telomerase repeat amplification protocol (RQ-TRAP), and RRA by PCR-based assay. Mean telomere lengths in DPaSCs, DPuSCs, DFSCs, and MSCs was ∼11 kb, and the values did not differ significantly (p < 0.05) among the cells analyzed. RTA levels in DPaSCs were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than in MSCs, DPuSCs, DFSCs, and MRC-5 fibroblasts and among DSCs, DFSCs showed a significantly (p < 0.05) lower RTA. Moreover, RRA levels were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in DPaSCs, DPuSCs, and MSCs than in DFSCs. Based on these observations, we conclude that among DSCs, DPaSCs possessed ideal characteristics on telomere length, telomerase activity and reverse transcriptase (RTase) activity, and may serve as suitable alternative candidates

  10. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  11. Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borremans, Erwin; Rintala, Pauli; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    While physical activity is beneficial for youth with developmental disabilities, little is known about those individuals' fitness profile and levels of activity. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile and physical activity level of 30 adolescents with and without Asperger syndrome (AS). Evaluations were…

  12. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid levels of malondialdehyde and glutathione reductase activity in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, V; Raffaele, R; Cosentino, E; Rizza, V

    1994-01-01

    The chemical composition of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is considered to reflect brain metabolism. In this study we measured malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the activity of enzymes involved in antioxidative processes, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase, in human cerebrospinal fluid of multiple-sclerosis (MS) patients and normal healthy volunteers. Our results indicated that the cerebrospinal fluid in MS showed significantly higher endogenous levels of MDA than the control, as well as a much greater resistance to in-vitro stimulation test. In addition, we found the activity of GSH reductase significantly increased, about twice the control values, whereas the activity of glutathione peroxidase was markedly decreased as compared to control values. Our findings suggest that in MS the activity of antioxidant enzymes is modified, and indicates the conceivable possibility of a pathogenic role of oxidative stress in the determinism of the disease. PMID:7607784

  13. Comparison of activation level between true and false items in the DRM paradigm.

    PubMed

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Sergi, Ida; Iachini, Tina

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the activation levels of true and false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. For this purpose, we used a lexical decision task (LDT) that can be considered a relative pure measure of activation. Participants had to study a list of words that were semantically associated to a critical non-presented word (CI), and afterwards had to classify the actually studied words, the CI and new words in the LDT. Results indicated that the classification latency of the CI was the same as actually studied words and shorter than new words. The results might be interpreted as evidence that the false and true memory items have the same activation level and that the false memory effect can be based on the indirect activation of the CI at the encoding.

  14. Downstream effects of mountaintop coal mining: comparing biological conditions using family- and genus-level macroinvertebrate bioassessment tools

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, G.J.; Passmore, M.E.; Borsuk, F.A.; Reynolds, L.; Rose, C.J.

    2008-09-15

    Surface coal mining with valley fills has impaired the aquatic life in numerous streams in the Central Appalachian Mountains. We characterized macroinvertebrate communities from riffles in 37 small West Virginia streams (10 unmined and 27 mined sites with valley fills) sampled in the spring index period (March-May) and compared the assessment results using family- and genus-level taxonomic data. Specific conductance was used to categorize levels of mining disturbance in mined watersheds as low (<500 {mu} S/cm), medium (500-1000 {mu} S/cm), or high (>1000 {mu} S/cm). Four lines of evidence indicate that mining activities impair biological condition of streams: shift in species assemblages, loss of Epherneroptera taxa, changes in individual metrics and indices, and differences in water chemistry. Results were consistent whether family- or genus-level data were used. In both family- and genus-level nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) ordinations, mined sites were significantly separated from unmined sites, indicating that shifts in community structure were caused by mining. Several Epherneroptera genera (e.g., Ephemerella, Epeorus, Drunella) and their families (Ephemerellidae, Heptageniidae) were correlated most strongly with the primary NMS axis. These same Ephemeroptera were absent and, thus, eliminated from most of the mined sites. Total Ephemeroptera richness and relative abundance both declined with increasing mining disturbance. Several other metrics, such as richness, composition, tolerance, and diversity, clearly discriminated unmined vs mined sites. The results show that mining activity has had subtle to severe impacts on benthic macroinvertebrate communities and that the biological condition most strongly correlates with a gradient of ionic strength.

  15. Increased CD28 serum levels are not associated with specific clinical activity in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Brambila-Tapia, Aniel J L; Gámez-Nava, Jorge I; Salazar-Páramo, Mario; Munoz-Valle, José F; González-López, Laura; Llamas-Covarrubias, Mara A; Gutiérrez-Urena, Sergio R; Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Ingrid P

    2011-10-01

    CD28 is one of the main activator receptors involved in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis, and its expression and serum levels are significantly higher in patients with SLE and other autoimmune diseases than in healthy controls (HC). However, it is unknown whether this increase is associated with specific organ damage. Therefore, our objective was to measure the CD28 levels in serum from SLE and HC groups to confirm the CD28 serum levels increase, as reported previously, and to determine whether this increase was associated with specific organ activity and the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Forty SLE patients and 40 matched HC were included, and the age, disease duration, SLEDAI and Mexican SLEDAI were recorded for the SLE group. CD28 serum levels were measured by ELISA. There was a statistically significant increase in the CD28 serum levels of SLE patients compared to controls (p = 0.039); however, we did not find any significant correlation with disease activity indices or organ involvement, although we found a significant but low correlation with C3. Our results and a review of the literature suggest that the increase in CD28 serum levels may be the result of CD28 gene overexpression, which could be related to the decrease in CD28+ T cells, T-cell hyporesponsiveness and immune impairment that occurs in SLE.

  16. Comparing two acromegalic patients with respect to central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and tear insulin-like growth factor levels before and after treatment

    PubMed Central

    Emrah, Kan; Elif, Kılıç Kan; Ali, Okuyucu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the central corneal thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP), and tear insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels of 2 patients with acromegaly before and after the surgical treatment of the disease. CCTs, IOP levels, and tear IGF-1 values showed a decrease after the treatment in 2 patients. As we found higher CCT, IOP, and tear IGF-1 levels in the active phase of the disease in two acromegaly patients, detailed information about the activity of the disease may be important before the examination of these patients. PMID:26632130

  17. Estimate of safe human exposure levels for lunar dust based on comparative benchmark dose modeling.

    PubMed

    James, John T; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Santana, Patricia A; Scully, Robert R

    2013-04-01

    Brief exposures of Apollo astronauts to lunar dust occasionally elicited upper respiratory irritation; however, no limits were ever set for prolonged exposure to lunar dust. The United States and other space faring nations intend to return to the moon for extensive exploration within a few decades. In the meantime, habitats for that exploration, whether mobile or fixed, must be designed to limit human exposure to lunar dust to safe levels. Herein we estimate safe exposure limits for lunar dust collected during the Apollo 14 mission. We instilled three respirable-sized (∼2 μ mass median diameter) lunar dusts (two ground and one unground) and two standard dusts of widely different toxicities (quartz and TiO₂) into the respiratory system of rats. Rats in groups of six were given 0, 1, 2.5 or 7.5 mg of the test dust in a saline-Survanta® vehicle, and biochemical and cellular biomarkers of toxicity in lung lavage fluid were assayed 1 week and one month after instillation. By comparing the dose--response curves of sensitive biomarkers, we estimated safe exposure levels for astronauts and concluded that unground lunar dust and dust ground by two different methods were not toxicologically distinguishable. The safe exposure estimates were 1.3 ± 0.4 mg/m³ (jet-milled dust), 1.0 ± 0.5 mg/m³ (ball-milled dust) and 0.9 ± 0.3 mg/m³ (unground, natural dust). We estimate that 0.5-1 mg/m³ of lunar dust is safe for periodic human exposures during long stays in habitats on the lunar surface.

  18. Estimate of safe human exposure levels for lunar dust based on comparative benchmark dose modeling.

    PubMed

    James, John T; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Santana, Patricia A; Scully, Robert R

    2013-04-01

    Brief exposures of Apollo astronauts to lunar dust occasionally elicited upper respiratory irritation; however, no limits were ever set for prolonged exposure to lunar dust. The United States and other space faring nations intend to return to the moon for extensive exploration within a few decades. In the meantime, habitats for that exploration, whether mobile or fixed, must be designed to limit human exposure to lunar dust to safe levels. Herein we estimate safe exposure limits for lunar dust collected during the Apollo 14 mission. We instilled three respirable-sized (∼2 μ mass median diameter) lunar dusts (two ground and one unground) and two standard dusts of widely different toxicities (quartz and TiO₂) into the respiratory system of rats. Rats in groups of six were given 0, 1, 2.5 or 7.5 mg of the test dust in a saline-Survanta® vehicle, and biochemical and cellular biomarkers of toxicity in lung lavage fluid were assayed 1 week and one month after instillation. By comparing the dose--response curves of sensitive biomarkers, we estimated safe exposure levels for astronauts and concluded that unground lunar dust and dust ground by two different methods were not toxicologically distinguishable. The safe exposure estimates were 1.3 ± 0.4 mg/m³ (jet-milled dust), 1.0 ± 0.5 mg/m³ (ball-milled dust) and 0.9 ± 0.3 mg/m³ (unground, natural dust). We estimate that 0.5-1 mg/m³ of lunar dust is safe for periodic human exposures during long stays in habitats on the lunar surface. PMID:23614726

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Ciprofloxacin Levels in GCF and Plasma of Chronic Periodontitis Patients: Quasi Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Denthumdas, Sunil Kumar; Wadgave, Umesh; Pharne, Pooja Mohan; Patil, Sandeep Jambukumar; Kondreddi, Sirisha; Deshpande, Pavan; Koppikar, Rajesh Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction For any antimicrobial approach to be successful in periodontal therapy, it is important that the antimicrobial agent targets the sub-gingival biofilm by attaining sufficient concentration at the sub-gingival site. Aim The purpose of the present study was to determine and compare the concentrations of ciprofloxacin present in Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) and plasma after its systemic administration. Materials and Methods A total of 20 subjects, in the age group of 30-60 years satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, were chosen from the outpatient Department of Periodontology, Government Dental College and Hospital, Hyderabad and consent was obtained. Subjects were put on oral ciprofloxacin therapy (Baycip, Bayer Corporation) of 500mg twice daily doses for five days to establish steady state tissue levels of the agent. GCF and serum samples were collected at the 72nd hour after the first dose of ciprofloxacin and were compared using unpaired t test. Results The mean gingival index value of the subjects was 1.8 ± 0.59 and the mean probing depth of the subjects taken in the study was 5.724 ± 0.47mm. The results of this study showed that ciprofloxacin concentrations were significantly higher (p<0.001) in GCF than in plasma. Conclusion Results from the present study and those from the earlier studies clearly indicate the ciprofloxacin’s ability to reach and concentrate in infected periodontal sites via GCF. This property of ciprofloxacin may be useful for eradication of periodontal pathogens, thus improving the outcome of periodontal therapy. PMID:27504410

  20. A descriptive-comparative study of performance characteristics in futsal players of different levels.

    PubMed

    Naser, Naser; Ali, Ajmol

    2016-09-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of futsal, there is little information on performance characteristics of players. We aimed to determine the validity and reliability of a futsal shooting test and to evaluate and compare performance characteristics of three futsal playing levels. Twenty-four males (n = 8 elite, n = 8 semi-elite, n = 8 social) completed two trials to examine the reliability of the Massey Futsal Shooting Test (MFST) and to compare various fitness characteristics between groups. MFST time taken (P = 0.010), shot speed (P < 0.001) and points scored per shot (P < 0.001) were better for elite relative to social players. Test-retest reliability was acceptable for all groups, but it was most repeatable in elite players. Loughborough Soccer Passing Test performance was better in elite relative to social players (P = 0.004). There were no differences in countermovement-jump height between groups. Elite players ran faster over 5 m than both semi-elite (P = 0.043) and social (P = 0.002) and faster than the social players through 10 m (P = 0.028) and 20 m (P = 0.026). Distance covered in the Futsal Intermittent Endurance Test was higher in elite relative to semi-elite (P = 0.005) and social (P < 0.001) groups. The MFST is a valid and reliable protocol to assess futsal shooting-skill performance; elite players have superior shooting and passing skill and have greater sprinting and intermittent-running ability. PMID:26800448

  1. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and insulin levels in various insulin resistance states.

    PubMed

    Scelles, V; Raccah, D; Alessi, M C; Vialle, J M; Juhan-Vague, I; Vague, P

    1992-01-01

    Among obese insulin resistant subjects plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI 1) levels are closely associated with fasting insulin levels in cross sectional as well as intervention studies. Insulin concentration by itself does not seem to modulate PAI 1 levels at least in acute conditions. PAI 1 levels could be more directly related to the insulin resistant state than to hyperinsulinaemia. To elucidate further this phenomenon we compared insulin, triglyceride and PAI 1 levels in twenty control subjects and in three groups of patients presenting insulin resistance 14 obese subjects, 6 patients with Cushing disease and 7 with acromegaly. None of the tested subjects was diabetic. Fasting insulin levels were elevated in obese (21.4 +/- 8.0) hypercortisolic (20.3 +/- 11.0) and acromegalic patients (16.1 +/- 5.0) compared to controls (9.2 +/- 3.0 microU/ml, m +/- SD). PAI activity and PAI 1 antigen levels were elevated in the obese group only (34.3 +/- 13.0 for PAI 1 activity) and not in the others: 10.2 +/- 10.0, 7.0 +/- 4.6 I U/l for hypercortisolic and acromegalic patients respectively (normal controls 9.7 +/- 5.4). Triglyceride levels were also elevated among obese subjects 2.2 +/- 1.3 vs 1.1 +/- 0.4 mM/l in the controls; they were slightly higher than normal but not significantly in the hypercortisolic (1.5 +/- 0.6) and acromegalic (1.43 +/- 0.6 mM/l) patients. The mechanism of insulin resistance is different in the three conditions studied here. This may explain why elevated PAI 1 concentration are restricted to the common form of insulin resistance as seen in obese subjects. Therefore insulin resistant state per se is not associated with elevated PAI 1 levels.

  2. Maintaining a High Physical Activity Level Over 20 Years and Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Hankinson, Arlene L.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Bouchard, Claude; Carnethon, Mercedes; Lewis, Cora E.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Context Data supporting physical activity guidelines to prevent long-term weight gain are sparse, particularly during the period when the highest risk of weight gain occurs. Objective To evaluate the relationship between habitual activity levels and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference over 20 years. Design, Setting, and Participants The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study is a prospective longitudinal study with 20 years of follow-up, 1985-86 to 2005-06. Habitual activity was defined as maintaining high, moderate, and low activity levels based on sex-specific tertiles of activity scores at baseline. Participants comprised a population-based multi-center cohort (Chicago, Illinois; Birmingham, Alabama; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Oakland, California) of 3554 men and women aged 18 to 30 years at baseline. Main Outcome Measures Average annual changes in BMI and waist circumference Results Over 20 years, maintaining high levels of activity was associated with smaller gains in BMI and waist circumference compared with low activity levels after adjustment for race, baseline BMI, age, education, cigarette smoking status, alcohol use, and energy intake. Men maintaining high activity gained 2.6 fewer kilograms (+ 0.15 BMI units per year; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.18 vs +0.20 in the lower activity group; 95% CI, 0.17-0.23) and women maintaining higher activity gained 6.1 fewer kilograms (+0.17 BMI units per year; 95 % CI, 0.12-0.21 vs. +0.30 in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.25-0.34). Men maintaining high activity gained 3.1 fewer centimeters in waist circumference (+0.52 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.43-0.61 cm vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75) and women maintaining higher activity gained 3.8 fewer centimeters (+0.49 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.39-0.58 vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75). Conclusion Maintaining high activity levels through young adulthood may lessen

  3. Comparing 2 National Organization-Level Workplace Health Promotion and Improvement Tools, 2013–2015

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Jason E.; Davis, Whitney D.; Jones-Jack, Nkenge H.; Mukhtar, Qaiser; Lu, Hua; Acharya, Sushama D.; Molloy, Meg E.

    2016-01-01

    Creating healthy workplaces is becoming more common. Half of employers that have more than 50 employees offer some type of workplace health promotion program. Few employers implement comprehensive evidence-based interventions that reach all employees and achieve desired health and cost outcomes. A few organization-level assessment and benchmarking tools have emerged to help employers evaluate the comprehensiveness and rigor of their health promotion offerings. Even fewer tools exist that combine assessment with technical assistance and guidance to implement evidence-based practices. Our descriptive analysis compares 2 such tools, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Worksite Health ScoreCard and Prevention Partners’ WorkHealthy America, and presents data from both to describe workplace health promotion practices across the United States. These tools are reaching employers of all types (N = 1,797), and many employers are using a comprehensive approach (85% of those using WorkHealthy America and 45% of those using the ScoreCard), increasing program effectiveness and impact. PMID:27685429

  4. Metabolism and evolution: A comparative study of reconstructed genome-level metabolic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaas, Eivind

    2008-03-01

    The availability of high-quality annotations of sequenced genomes has made it possible to generate organism-specific comprehensive maps of cellular metabolism. Currently, more than twenty such metabolic reconstructions are publicly available, with the majority focused on bacteria. A typical metabolic reconstruction for a bacterium results in a complex network containing hundreds of metabolites (nodes) and reactions (links), while some even contain more than a thousand. The constrain-based optimization approach of flux-balance analysis (FBA) is used to investigate the functional characteristics of such large-scale metabolic networks, making it possible to estimate an organism's growth behavior in a wide variety of nutrient environments, as well as its robustness to gene loss. We have recently completed the genome-level metabolic reconstruction of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, as well as the three Yersinia pestis biovars Antiqua, Mediaevalis, and Orientalis. While Y. pseudotuberculosis typically only causes fever and abdominal pain that can mimic appendicitis, the evolutionary closely related Y. pestis strains are the aetiological agents of the bubonic plague. In this presentation, I will discuss our results and conclusions from a comparative study on the evolution of metabolic function in the four Yersiniae networks using FBA and related techniques, and I will give particular focus to the interplay between metabolic network topology and evolutionary flexibility.

  5. Comparative observations on levels of mercury in scalp hair of humans from different Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renzoni, Aristeo

    1992-09-01

    Following the Minamata events, an extraordinary number of studies concerning mercury toxicity and human health have been undertaken. Particular attention has been given to the evaluation of the dose-response relationship, i.e., the body burden at which (evaluated through the mercury analyses in blood or hair) the risk of poisoning begins. The results of a comparative study concerning levels of mercury in the hair of fishermen living in small islands who eat seafood more than four times per week show that in two areas only, and only in a few cases in these areas, the mercury in the hair exceeds the limit at which a possible risk could exist. In fact, the limit of 50 mg/g of total mercury in the hair (indicated as the lower limit above which a possible risk could occur) is surpassed by nine fishermen out of a total of 39 at station 1 and by four fishermen out of a total of 26 at station 3. The average value at station 1 is 36.38 mg/g and that at station 3 is 30.31 mg. Many countries have set legal limits of mercury for seafood, but evidently the system does not offer a true protection for man. Only the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), as repeatedly suggested by WHO, should be considered the best guideline to prevent possibly harmful consequences.

  6. Clinical disease activity and acute phase reactant levels are discordant among patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: acute phase reactant levels contribute separately to predicting outcome at one year

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Clinical trials of new treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) typically require subjects to have an elevated acute phase reactant (APR), in addition to tender and swollen joints. However, despite the elevation of individual components of the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) (tender and swollen joint counts and patient and physician global assessment), some patients with active RA may have normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and/or C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and thus fail to meet entry criteria for clinical trials. We assessed the relationship between CDAI and APRs in the Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America (CORRONA) registry by comparing baseline characteristics and one-year clinical outcomes of patients with active RA, grouped by baseline APR levels. Methods This was an observational study of 9,135 RA patients who had both ESR and CRP drawn and a visit at which CDAI was >2.8 (not in remission). Results Of 9,135 patients with active RA, 58% had neither elevated ESR nor CRP; only 16% had both elevated ESR and CRP and 26% had either ESR or CRP elevated. Among the 4,228 patients who had a one-year follow-up visit, both baseline and one-year follow-up modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (mHAQ) and CDAI scores were lowest for patients with active RA but with neither APR elevated; both mHAQ and CDAI scores increased sequentially with the increase in number of elevated APR levels at baseline. Each individual component of the CDAI followed the same trend, both at baseline and at one-year follow-up. The magnitude of improvement in both CDAI and mHAQ scores at one year was associated positively with the number of APRs elevated at baseline. Conclusions In a large United States registry of RA patients, APR levels often do not correlate with disease activity as measured by joint counts and global assessments. These data strongly suggest that it is appropriate to obtain both ESR and CRP from RA patients at the initial

  7. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  8. Alteration of PON1 activity in adult and childhood obesity and its relation to adipokine levels.

    PubMed

    Seres, Ildikó; Bajnok, László; Harangi, Mariann; Sztanek, Ferenc; Koncsos, Peter; Paragh, György

    2010-01-01

    Obesity as a pathogenic disorder is a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases and shows an increasing incidence in the industrialized countries. Adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin have a great impact on the development of atherosclerosis in obesity. Elevated levels of leptin have been found to be atherogenic whereas decreased levels of adiponectin have been proved to be anti-atherogenic in recent studies. The exact role of resistin in the process of atherosclerosis has so far remained uncertain and controversial. In our recent work, we studied the alteration in human paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and adipokine levels; furthermore, we also aimed at identifying the potential correlation between these parameters in this metabolic disorder. We investigated the above-mentioned parameters both in adults and in children, with regard to the emerging role of childhood obesity and to get a clearer view of these factors during a whole lifetime. Investigating the adult population with a broad range of body mass index (BMI) we found significantly increased leptin and significantly decreased adiponectin and resistin levels and PON1 activity in the obese group compared to the lean controls. Adiponectin and resistin levels showed significantly positive correlation, while leptin and BMI showed significantly negative correlation with PON1 activity. Our findings were similar in childhood obesity: leptin showed significantly negative correlation, while adiponectin showed significantly positive correlation with PON1 activity. We found gender differences in the univariate correlations of leptin and adiponectin levels with PON1 activity in the adult population. In multiple regression analysis, adiponectin proved to be an independent factor of PON1 activity both in childhood and adult obesity, furthermore thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) also proved to be an independent predictor of the enzyme in adults, reflecting the important role of oxidative

  9. Upper Limb Muscle and Brain Activity in Light Assembly Task on Different Load Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadry, Hilma Raimona; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md.; Taha, Zahari

    2010-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of load on upper limb muscles and brain activities in light assembly task. The task was conducted at two levels of load (Low and high). Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure upper limb muscle activities of twenty subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) was simultaneously recorded with EMG to record brain activities from Fz, Pz, O1 and O2 channels. The EMG Mean Power Frequency (MPF) of the right brachioradialis and the left upper trapezius activities were higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task. The EMG MPF values also decrease as time increases, that reflects muscle fatigue. Mean power of the EEG alpha bands for the Fz-Pz channels were found to be higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task, while for the O1-O2 channels, they were higher on the low-load task than on the high-load task. These results indicated that the load levels effect the upper limb muscle and brain activities. The high-load task will increase muscle activities on the right brachioradialis and the left upper tapezius muscles, and will increase the awareness and motivation of the subjects. Whilst the low-load task can generate drowsiness earlier. It signified that the longer the time and the more heavy of the task, the subjects will be more fatigue physically and mentally.

  10. Aspects of activity behavior as a determinant of the physical activity level.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, A G; Plasqui, G; Goris, A H C; Westerterp, K R

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated which aspects of the individuals' activity behavior determine the physical activity level (PAL). Habitual physical activity of 20 Dutch adults (age: 26-60 years, body mass index: 24.5 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer. Accelerometer output was used to identify the engagement in different types of daily activities with a classification tree algorithm. Activity behavior was described by the daily duration of sleeping, sedentary behavior (lying, sitting, and standing), walking, running, bicycling, and generic standing activities. Simultaneously, the total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water. PAL was calculated as TEE divided by sleeping metabolic rate. PAL was significantly associated (P<0.05) with sedentary time (R=-0.72), and the duration of walking (R=0.49), bicycling (R=0.77), and active standing (R=0.62). A negative association was observed between sedentary time and the duration of active standing (R=-0.87; P<0.001). A multiple-linear regression analysis showed that 75% of the variance in PAL could be predicted by the duration of bicycling (Partial R(2) =59%; P<0.01), walking (Partial R(2) =9%; P<0.05) and being sedentary (Partial R(2) =7%; P<0.05). In conclusion, there is objective evidence that sedentary time and activities related to transportation and commuting, such as walking and bicycling, contribute significantly to the average PAL. PMID:20536909

  11. Maternal HIV status affects the infant hemoglobin level: A comparative cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Feleke, Berhanu Elfu

    2016-08-01

    Children, especially infants, are highly vulnerable to iron-deficiency anemia because of their rapid growth of the brain and the rest of the body. The objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in infants born from HIV-positive mothers and HIV-negative mothers and to identify the determinants of iron-deficiency anemia in infants.A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Bahir Dar city. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Mothers were interviewed; blood samples were collected from mothers and infants to measure the hemoglobin level and anthropometric indicators were obtained from the infants using world health organization standards. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the prevalence of infantile anemia. Binary logistic regression and multiple linear regressions were used to identify the determinants of infant anemia.A total of 1459 infants born from HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers were included. The prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in infants born from HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers was 41.9% (95% CI: 39-44). Infantile iron-deficiency anemia was associated with maternal HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.54 [95% CI: 1.65-3.9]), stunting (AOR 3.46 [95% CI: 2.41-4.97]), low income (AOR 2.72 [95% CI: 2-3.73]), maternal malaria during pregnancy (AOR 1.81 [95% CI: 1.33-2.47]), use of cow milk before 6 month (AOR 1.82 [95% CI: 1.35-2.45]), residence (AOR 0.09 [95% CI: 0.06-0.13]), history of cough or fever 7 days preceding the survey (AOR 2.71 [95% CI: 1.99-3.69]), maternal hemoglobin (B 0.65 [95% CI: 0.61-0.68]), educational status of mother (B 0.22 [95% CI: 0.2-0.23]), age of the mother (B -0.03 [95% CI: -0.03, -0.02]), and family size (B -0.14 [95% CI: -0.18,-0.11]). PMID:27495044

  12. Dietary selenium increases the antioxidant levels and ATPase activity in the arteries and veins of poultry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Changyu; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jinxin; Luan, Yilin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. It has been shown that oxidative levels and ATPase activity were involved in Se deficiency diseases in humans and mammals; however, the mechanism by how Se influences the oxidative levels and ATPase activity in the poultry vasculature is unclear. We assessed the effects of dietary Se deficiency on the oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyl radical) and ATPase (Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Ca(++)-ATPase, Mg(++)-ATPase, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase) activity in broiler poultry. A total of 40 broilers (1-day old) were randomly divided into a Se-deficient group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.08 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.20 mg/kg Se). Then, arteries and veins were collected following euthanasia when typical symptoms of Se deficiency appeared. Antioxidant indexes and ATPase activity were evaluated using standard assays in arteries and veins. The results indicated that superoxide dismutase activity in the artery according to dietary Se deficiency was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The catalase activity in the veins and hydroxyl radical inhibition in the arteries and veins by dietary Se deficiency were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The Se-deficient group showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) tendency in Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, Ca(++)-ATPase activity, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase activity. There were strong correlations between antioxidant indexes and Ca(++)-ATPase activity. Thus, these results indicate that antioxidant indexes and ATPases may have special roles in broiler artery and vein injuries under Se deficiency. PMID:26637493

  13. Cascading activation from lexical processing to letter-level processing in written word production.

    PubMed

    Buchwald, Adam; Falconer, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of language production have identified processes involved in producing language and the presence and type of interaction among those processes. In the case of spoken language production, consensus has emerged that there is interaction among lexical selection processes and phoneme-level processing. This issue has received less attention in written language production. In this paper, we present a novel analysis of the writing-to-dictation performance of an individual with acquired dysgraphia revealing cascading activation from lexical processing to letter-level processing. The individual produced frequent lexical-semantic errors (e.g., chipmunk → SQUIRREL) as well as letter errors (e.g., inhibit → INBHITI) and had a profile consistent with impairment affecting both lexical processing and letter-level processing. The presence of cascading activation is suggested by lower letter accuracy on words that are more weakly activated during lexical selection than on those that are more strongly activated. We operationalize weakly activated lexemes as those lexemes that are produced as lexical-semantic errors (e.g., lethal in deadly → LETAHL) compared to strongly activated lexemes where the intended target word (e.g., lethal) is the lexeme selected for production. PMID:25163539

  14. Comparative studies on the biological activities of cardiotoxin, melittin and prymnesin.

    PubMed

    Lin, S Y; Huang, M C; Tseng, W C; Lee, C Y

    1975-01-01

    The actions of cardiotoxin (CTX), melittin and prymnesin were compared on dog erythrocytes, chicken biventer cervicis muscle, rabbit conjunctiva, acetylcholinesterase, succinate-cytochrome c reductase and turbidity of the rat liver mitochondrial suspension. 1. CTX and melittin were approximately equipotent in the various biological activities, while prymnesin was not. 2. The rate of direct ehmolysis induced by CTX was slow, while that induced by either melittin or prymnesin was fast. 3. Phosphate ions, 10mM Ca++, as well as 1 mM reduced glutathione, considerably inhibited the CTX-induced hemolysis, but only slightly inhibited that induced by melittin or prymnesin. 4. CTX, melittin and prymnesin caused contracture of the chicken biventer cervicis muscle. Prymnesin was much less active in this preparation as compared with its hemolytic potency. The CTX contracture was completely inhibited by high Ca++ (10mM) medium, while the melittin contracture was not. 5. The rate of CTX contracture to reach the peak tension was increased when the concentration of CTX was increased, while the rate of melittin contracture did not change very much as the concentrations varied. 6. All three toxins caused a local irritation of the conjunctival sac of the rabbit eye. 7. Both CTX and melittin inhibited acetylcholinesterase and succinate-cytochrome c reductase activities, and also increased the turbidity of the rat liver mitochondrial suspension, while prymnesin was totally inactive in these respects. It is concluded that the mechanism of actions of these toxins may be different at the molecular level. The role of the detergent properties of these toxins in their biological activities is discussed.

  15. Tualang honey has higher phenolic content and greater radical scavenging activity compared with other honey sources.

    PubMed

    Kishore, R Krishna; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Syazana, M S Nurul; Sirajudeen, K N S

    2011-04-01

    Many chronic diseases are associated with increased oxidative stress caused by an imbalance between free-radical production and the antioxidant level. Antioxidants, which are abundant in natural honey, are free-radical scavengers that either reduce the formation of or neutralize free radicals. The composition and source of honey greatly dictates its biochemical properties. We performed a comparative analysis of the total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of common commercially available honeys along with Malaysian tualang honey. In vitro biochemical analysis of the phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteau method revealed a significantly elevated phenolic content (83.96 ± 4.53 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g) in tualang honey. In addition, the antioxidant capacity (53.06 ± 0.41 mg ascorbic acid equivalents per gram) of tualang honey was greater, as assessed by the phosphomolybdenum method, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl assay, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay. Peroxynitrite and superoxide radical scavenging activity was determined by spectrophotometric analysis in different honey types. Our data suggest that the elevated free-radical scavenging and antioxidant activity observed in tualang honey is due to the increased level of phenolic compounds. In addition to its antibacterial, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, our study highlights the favorable antioxidant properties of tualang honey, which may be important to human nutrition and health.

  16. Superoxide dismutase activity and gene expression levels in Saudi women with recurrent miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    GHNEIM, HAZEM K.; AL-SHEIKH, YAZEED A.; ALSHEBLY, MASHAEL M.; ABOUL-SOUD, MOURAD A. M.

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and SOD2, as well as the levels of the oxidant superoxide anion (SOA) and the micronutrients zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn), were assayed in plasma, whole blood and placental tissue of non-pregnant (NP), healthy pregnant (HP) women and recurrent miscarriage (RM) patients. The results showed that SOD1 and SOD2 activities and the levels of Zn, Cu and Mn in plasma and whole blood of HP women were slightly, but significantly lower, and even more significantly decreased in RM patients compared to those observed in NP women (P<0.05 and P<0.0001, respectively). Additionally, whereas plasma SOD1 and SOD2 activities and Zn, Cu and Mn levels were significantly lower in RM patients, those of whole blood and placental tissue were significantly lower when compared to HP women (P<0.001 and P<0.0001, respectively). Concurrently, there were consistent increases of equal magnitude and statistical significance in SOA levels in all the assayed samples as identified by a comparison between the subjects. The findings thus supported oxidative metabolism and excessive reactive oxygen species generation. The resultant oxidative stress, identified in whole blood and placental tissues of RM patients, may have been a primary cause of RM. Dietary supplementation of Zn, Cu and Mn may be beneficial to these patients pre- and post-conception. PMID:26821085

  17. Three Dimensions and Four Levels: Towards a Methodology for Comparative Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bråten, Oddrun Marie Hovde

    2015-01-01

    This article is an abstract of a suggested methodology for comparative studies in religious education. It is based on a study where religious education in state schools in England and Norway were compared. The methodology is a synthesis of two sets of ideas. The first is an idea of three dimensions in comparative education: supranational, national…

  18. Levels of Oxidized LDL, Estrogens, and Progesterone in Placenta Tissues and Serum Paraoxonase Activity in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Açıkgöz, Şerefden; Özmen Bayar, Ülkü; Can, Murat; Güven, Berrak; Mungan, Görkem; Doğan, Suat; Sümbüloğlu, Vildan

    2013-01-01

    In vitro literature studies have suggested that atherosclerotic oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) inhibits trophoblast invasion. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of OxLDL and to examine the relationship between antioxidative estradiol, estriol, and prooxidative progestin in normal and preeclamptic placental tissues and measure the serum activity of antioxidative paraoxonase (PON1). The study included 30 preeclamptic and 32 normal pregnant women. OxLDL was determined with ELISA, estradiol, unconjugated estriol, and progesterone that were determined with chemiluminescence method in placental tissues. Serum PON1 activity was determined with spectrophotometric method. Levels of OxLDL (P = 0.027), estriol (P < 0.001), estradiol (P = 0.008), and progesterone (P = 0.009) were lower in the placental tissues of preeclamptic group compared to the normal pregnant women. Serum PON1 activity was higher in preeclamptic group (P = 0.040) and preeclamptic group without intrauterine growth restriction (P = 0.008) compared to normal pregnant women. Tissue estriol of preeclamptic group without/with IUGR (P < 0.001, P = 0.002) was lower than the normal group. Results of our study suggest that the events leading to fetoplacental insufficiency lead to a reduction in the levels of estriol limit deposition of OxLDL in placental tissues. The serum PON1 activity is probably important in the inhibition of OxLDL in preeclampsia. PMID:23606795

  19. Sub-chronic exposure to methylmercury at low levels decreases butyrylcholinesterase activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Juliana; Vicentini, Juliana; Grotto, Denise; Tonello, Raquel; Garcia, Solange C; Barbosa, Fernando

    2010-02-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of low levels and sub-chronic exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) on butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity in rats. Moreover, we examined the relationship between BuChE activity and oxidative stress biomarkers [delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALA-D) and malondialdehyde levels (MDA)] in the same animals. Rats were separated into three groups (eight animals per group): (Group I) received water by gavage; (Group II) received MeHg (30 microg/kg/day) by gavage; (Group III) received MeHg (100 microg/kg/day). The time of exposure was 90 days. BuChE and ALA-D activities were measured in serum and blood, respectively; whereas MDA levels were measured in plasma. We found BuChE and ALA-D activities decreased in groups II and III compared to the control group. Moreover, we found an interesting negative correlation between plasmatic BuChE activity and MDA (r = -0.85; p < 0.01) and a positive correlation between plasmatic BuChE activity and ALA-D activities (r = 0.78; p < 0.01), thus suggesting a possible relationship between oxidative damage promoted by MeHg exposure and the decrease of BuChE activity. In conclusion, long-term exposure to low doses of MeHg decreases plasmatic BuChE activity. Moreover, the decrease in the enzyme is strongly correlated with the oxidative stress promoted by the metal exposure. This preliminary finding highlights a possible mechanism for MeHg to reduce BuChE activity in plasma. Additionally, this enzyme could be an auxiliary biomarker on the evaluation of MeHg exposure.

  20. Determining cleanup levels in bioremediation: Quantitative structure activity relationship techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Arulgnanendran, V.R.J.; Nirmalakhandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    An important feature in the process of planning and initiating bioremediation is the quantification of the toxicity of either an individual chemical or a group of chemicals when multiple chemicals are involved. A laboratory protocol was developed to test the toxicity of single chemicals and mixtures of organic chemicals in a soil medium. Portions of these chemicals are used as a training set to develop Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models. These predictive models are tested using the chemicals in the testing set, i.e., the remaining chemicals. Moreover mixtures with 10 contaminants in each mixture are tested experimentally to determine joint toxicity for mixtures of chemicals. Using the concepts of Toxic Units, Additivity Index, and Mixture Toxicity Index, the laboratory results are tested for additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effects of the contaminants. These concepts are further validated on mixtures containing eight chemicals that are tested in the laboratory. In addition to the use of the predictive models in evaluating cleanup levels for hazardous waste locations, they are useful to predict microbial toxicity in soils of new chemicals from a congeneric group acting by the same mode of toxicity. These models are applicable when the contaminants act singly or jointly in a mixture.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Begonia Plastid Genomes and Their Utility for Species-Level Phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Nicola; Harrison, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent, rapid radiations make species-level phylogenetics difficult to resolve. We used a multiplexed, high-throughput sequencing approach to identify informative genomic regions to resolve phylogenetic relationships at low taxonomic levels in Begonia from a survey of sixteen species. A long-range PCR method was used to generate draft plastid genomes to provide a strong phylogenetic backbone, identify fast evolving regions and provide informative molecular markers for species-level phylogenetic studies in Begonia. PMID:27058864

  2. Comparative Analysis of Begonia Plastid Genomes and Their Utility for Species-Level Phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Nicola; Harrison, Richard J; Kidner, Catherine A

    2016-01-01

    Recent, rapid radiations make species-level phylogenetics difficult to resolve. We used a multiplexed, high-throughput sequencing approach to identify informative genomic regions to resolve phylogenetic relationships at low taxonomic levels in Begonia from a survey of sixteen species. A long-range PCR method was used to generate draft plastid genomes to provide a strong phylogenetic backbone, identify fast evolving regions and provide informative molecular markers for species-level phylogenetic studies in Begonia.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Begonia Plastid Genomes and Their Utility for Species-Level Phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Nicola; Harrison, Richard J; Kidner, Catherine A

    2016-01-01

    Recent, rapid radiations make species-level phylogenetics difficult to resolve. We used a multiplexed, high-throughput sequencing approach to identify informative genomic regions to resolve phylogenetic relationships at low taxonomic levels in Begonia from a survey of sixteen species. A long-range PCR method was used to generate draft plastid genomes to provide a strong phylogenetic backbone, identify fast evolving regions and provide informative molecular markers for species-level phylogenetic studies in Begonia. PMID:27058864

  4. Isophosphoramide mustard, a metabolite of ifosfamide with activity against murine tumours comparable to cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed Central

    Struck, R. F.; Dykes, D. J.; Corbett, T. H.; Suling, W. J.; Trader, M. W.

    1983-01-01

    Isophosphoramide mustard was synthesized and was found to demonstrate activity essentially comparable to cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide against L1210 and P388 leukaemia. Lewis lung carcinoma, mammary adenocarcinoma 16/C, ovarian sarcoma M5076, and colon tumour 6A, in mice and Yoshida ascitic sarcoma in rats. At doses less than, or equivalent to, the LD10, isophosphoramide mustard retained high activity against cyclophosphamide-resistant L1210 and P388 leukaemias, but was less active against intracerebrally-implanted P388 leukaemia while cyclophosphamide produced a 4 log10 tumour cell reduction. It was also less active (one log10 lower cell kill) than cyclophosphamide against the B16 melonoma. Metabolism studies on ifosfamide in mice identified isophosphoramide mustard in blood. In addition, unchanged drug, carboxyifosfamide, 4-ketoifosfamide, dechloroethyl cyclophosphamide, dechloroethylifosfamide, and alcoifosfamide were identified. The latter 4 metabolites were also identified in urine from an ifosfamide-treated dog. In a simulated in vitro pharmacokinetic experiment against L1210 leukaemia in which drugs were incubated at various concentrations for various times, both 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide and isophosphoramide mustard exhibited significant cytoxicity at concentration times time values of 100-1000 micrograms X min ml-1, while acrolein was significantly cytotoxic at 10 micrograms X min ml-1. Treatment of mice with drug followed by L1210 cells demonstrated a shorter duration of effective levels of cytotoxic activity for isophosphoramide mustard and phosphoramide mustard in comparison with cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide. Isophosphoramide mustard and 2-chloroethylamine, a potential hydrolysis product of isophosphoramide mustard and carboxyifosfamide, were less mutagenic in the standard Ames test than the 2 corresponding metabolites of cyclophosphamide [phosphoramide mustard and bis(2-chloroethyl)amine]. PMID:6821629

  5. Muscular activity level during pedalling is not affected by crank inertial load.

    PubMed

    Duc, S; Villerius, V; Bertucci, W; Pernin, J N; Grappe, F

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of gear ratio (GR) and thus crank inertial load (CIL), on the activity levels of lower limb muscles. Twelve competitive cyclists performed three randomised trials with their own bicycle equipped with a SRM crankset and mounted on an Axiom ergometer. The power output ( approximately 80% of maximal aerobic power) and the pedalling cadence were kept constant for each subject across all trials but three different GR (low, medium and high) were indirectly obtained for each trial by altering the electromagnetic brake of the ergometer. The low, medium and high GR (mean +/- SD) resulted in CIL of 44 +/- 3.7, 84 +/- 6.5 and 152 +/- 17.9 kg.m(2), respectively. Muscular activity levels of the gluteus maximus (GM), the vastus medialis (VM), the vastus lateralis (VL), the rectus femoris (RF), the medial hamstrings (MHAM), the gastrocnemius (GAS) and the soleus (SOL) muscles were quantified and analysed by mean root mean square (RMS(mean)). The muscular activity levels of the measured lower limb muscles were not significantly affected when the CIL was increased approximately four fold. This suggests that muscular activity levels measured on different cycling ergometers (with different GR and flywheel inertia) can be compared among each other, as they are not influenced by CIL. PMID:16032416

  6. Turbulence levels in a flume compared to the field: Implications for larval settlement studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriks, Iris E.; van Duren, Luca A.; Herman, Peter M. J.

    2006-01-01

    The settlement stage of shellfish larvae is important in determining distribution patterns of adults. In order to reach the substratum, the larvae need to cross the benthic boundary layer near the sediment surface. Suspended larvae reach the substratum by a combination of passive sinking, turbulent advection and possibly active swimming. Subsequently the larvae need a certain amount of time in contact with the substratum to attach themselves to the bed. Flumes are commonly used experimental set-ups to study larval settlement in flowing water. Since turbulence plays an important role in the vertical transport of larvae and in the probability of resuspension, such experiments must take turbulence scaling into account. This study compares turbulence characteristics in the flume at the NIOO-CEME with field conditions encountered by intertidal bivalve larvae during their settlement stage. Turbulence in the flume was manipulated throughout the water column using a grid and in the benthic boundary layer by introducing roughness structures. Hydrodynamic parameters such as shear velocity ( u*), roughness height (z 0), turbulence intensity (TI) and Reynolds stress were determined. We used the dimensionless Rouse number to scale the ratio between advective motion and random (turbulent) motion. Relative particle concentrations (Rouse distribution) near the bottom, as calculated theoretically for the flume under normal conditions and in the field, show that the flume is biased towards sinking. In the Oosterschelde, where flow is tidally driven, the ratio between advective motion and random (turbulent) motion for flow velocities around 0.35 m s - 1 is balanced. In this situation a small change in directional movement (e.g. by swimming) may have an effect on settlement success of larvae. The grid has a modifying effect on mixing throughout the water column, but close to the bottom turbulence intensities are similar to the situation without a grid. Turbulence introduced by bottom

  7. The relationship between active ghrelin levels and human obesity involves alterations in resting energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Marzullo, Paolo; Verti, Barbara; Savia, Giulio; Walker, Gillian E; Guzzaloni, Gabriele; Tagliaferri, Mariantonella; Di Blasio, Annamaria; Liuzzi, Antonio

    2004-02-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric hormone that exerts a stimulatory effect on appetite and fat accumulation. Ser(3) octanoylation is regarded as a prerequisite for ghrelin biological activity, although des-octanoylated forms may retain biological functions in vitro. Circulating ghrelin levels are usually low in obesity and in states of positive energy balance. Hence, the aim of our study was to analyze plasma active and serum total ghrelin levels in 20 obese (ages, 22-42 yr; body mass index, 41.3 +/- 1.1 kg/m(2)) and 20 lean subjects (ages, 22-43 yr; body mass index, 22.4 +/- 0.6 kg/m(2)) as well as their relationship to measures of glucose homeostasis, body fat, and resting energy expenditure (REE). The measured/predicted REE percentage ratio was calculated to subdivide groups into those with positive (> or = 100% ) and negative (<100%) ratio values. In obese patients, plasma active (180 +/- 18 vs. 411 +/- 57 pg/ml; P < 0.001) and serum total ghrelin levels (3650 +/- 408 vs. 5263 +/- 643 pg/ml; P < 0.05) were significantly lower when compared with lean subjects. Hence, ghrelin activity, defined as the proportion of active over total ghrelin levels, was similarly reduced in the obese state (6.1 +/- 0.9% vs. 8.4 +/- 1%; P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between active and total ghrelin (r = 0.62; P < 0.001), and between total ghrelin and insulin (r = -0.53; P < 0.001) or insulin resistance using the homeostatis model of assessment-insulin resistance (r = -0.49; P < 0.001) approach. Significantly higher active ghrelin levels (214 +/- 22 vs. 159 +/- 30 pg/ml; P < 0.05) and ghrelin activity (8 +/- 1.7% vs. 4.9 +/- 0.9%; P < 0.05) were observed in patients with positive compared with negative measured/predicted REE ratio values. Our study shows that obesity is associated with an impairment of the entire ghrelin system. The observation that ghrelin is further decreased in cases of abnormal energy profit adds new evidence to the relationship between ghrelin activity and

  8. The effect of gender and level of vision on the physical activity level of children and adolescents with visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakcı; Kitiş, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between 8 and 16 years participated in the study. The physical activity level of cases was evaluated with a physical activity diary (PAD) and one-mile run/walk test (OMR-WT). No difference was found between the PAD and the OMR-WT results of low vision and blind children and adolescents. The visually impaired children and adolescents were detected not to participate in vigorous physical activity. A difference was found in favor of low vision boys in terms of mild, moderate activities and OMR-WT durations. However, no difference was found between physical activity levels of blind girls and boys. The results of our study suggested that the physical activity level of visually impaired children and adolescents was low, and gender affected physical activity in low vision children and adolescents.

  9. Increased levels of brain serotonin correlated with MMP-9 activity and IL-4 levels resulted in severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M; Seo, J-E; Rahaman, K A; Kang, M-J; Jung, B-H; Kwon, O-S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of monoamine neurotransmitters on the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in obese mice. EAE was induced in mice with normal diets (ND-EAE) and obese mice with high-fat diets (HFD-EAE) through the immune response to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) (35-55). The levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites in different anatomical brain regions were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The plasma and tissue NADPH oxidase and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9 activities were analyzed by fluorescence spectrophotometry. The cumulative disease index and disease peaks were significantly higher in HFD-EAE compared with those in ND-EAE. Significantly higher 5-HT levels and lower 5-HT turnovers 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid ((5-HIAA)/5-HT) were found in the brains of HFD-EAE mice compared with those found in the HFD-CON and ND-EAE mice brains. Moreover, increased DA levels were observed in the caudate nucleus of the HFD-EAE mice compared with the control and ND-EAE mice. The NADPH oxidase and MMP-9 activities in the plasma and tissues were significantly higher in both the ND-EAE and HFD-EAE groups than in their respective controls. The cytokine levels in the plasma, tissues, and cultured splenocytes were found to be significantly altered in EAE mice compared with control mice. Moreover, HFD-EAE mice exhibited significantly higher MMP-9 activity and lower IL-4 levels than ND-EAE mice and were significantly correlated with brain 5-HT levels. In conclusion, the increased 5-HT levels in the brain significantly correlated with MMP-9 activity and IL-4 levels play an important role in the exacerbation of disease severity in HFD-EAE mice. PMID:26820599

  10. A Comparative Study upon Determination of Scientific Literacy Level of Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akengin, Hamza; Sirin, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    It is of great importance that individuals should become scientifically literate apart from basic education in rapidly integrated world. Until the beginning of 20th century, while development level of countries were determined by literacy rates, today it is thought that one of the basic concepts which would determine development levels will be…

  11. Comparing State- Versus Facility-Level Effects on Crowding in U.S. Correctional Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Benjamin; Wooldredge, John

    2008-01-01

    The literature on prison crowding underscores the potential importance of both state- and facility-level effects on crowding, although empirical research has not assessed these relative effects because of the sole focus on states as units of analysis. This article describes findings from bi-level analyses of crowding across 459 state-operated…

  12. Ecological and Motivational Determinants of Activation: Studying Compared to Sports and Watching TV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delespaul, Philippe A. E. G.; Reis, Harry T.; DeVries, Marten W.

    2004-01-01

    How can we enhance activation? Studying should be a challenging, yet rewarding activity for students who intend to graduate. The Flow theory (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, 1997) predicts that differential levels of perceived challenge and skill (flow) are related to optimized mental states and increased activation. However, the influence of concurrent…

  13. Comparing the Effectiveness of Traditional and Active Learning Methods in Business Statistics: Convergence to the Mean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltman, David; Whiteside, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This research shows that active learning is not universally effective and, in fact, may inhibit learning for certain types of students. The results of this study show that as increased levels of active learning are utilized, student test scores decrease for those with a high grade point average. In contrast, test scores increase as active learning…

  14. Effect of different levels of alcohol consumption on natural killer and lymphokine activated killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Klassen, L.W.; DeVasure, J.M.; Lemley-Gillespie, S.D.; Thiele, G.M. Omaha VA Hospital, NE )

    1991-03-11

    The effect of alcohol consumption on natural killer (NK) cell activity is controversial as both increased and decreased levels have been reported. It was the purpose of this study to determine the effects of feeding BDF1 mice different levels of alcohol on NK and lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell activity. After four-six weeks of chronic alcohol feeding, mice were sacrificed, spleen cells obtained and assayed for NK and IL-2 boosted NK activity against YAC-1 cells in a traditional {sup 51}chromium release assay. Cells were also cultured in the presence of IL-2 for five days and tested for cytolytic activity using P815 cells as targets. Cells from each group were passed over a nylon wool column and the adherent (AD) and nonadherent (NAD) populations collected and tested as above. Increased NK, 24 hour IL-2 boosted NK and 5 day LAK activity were observed only in the spleen cells obtained from mice on 20% alcohol. Also, NAD populations had a 2-4 fold higher lytic unit values (LU{sub 20}) at all levels of alcohol consumption and in all assays, as compared with the unseparated spleen cells. Analysis of cell surface markers on these three populations of cells show that there were differences in MAC-2, Asialo GM-1, Thy 1.2, B220 and NK 1.1 that may correlate with the differences observed in the cytolytic assays. These data suggest that different levels of alcohol affect the cytolytic activity of NK and LAK cells and may result from alterations in the cell subset populations.

  15. Comparing Mathematics Interventions: Does Initial Level of Fluency Predict Intervention Effectiveness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codding, Robin S.; Shiyko, Mariya; Russo, Maria; Birch, Sarah; Fanning, Erica; Jaspen, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    A paucity of research has directly compared empirically supported interventions to examine their effectiveness among students with different mathematics fluency skills. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two empirically supported interventions and a control condition on the mathematics fluency of 98 second and third grade…

  16. Measuring Activity Level with Actometers: Reliability, Validity, and Arm Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.

    1983-01-01

    The gross-motor activity of 27 three- and four- year-olds was assessed through teacher ratings, parent responses to the activity scale of the Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory, and data from uncalibrated actometers worn by children during free play. Activity scores composited across multiple actometers had high reliability and correlated…

  17. Participating in Political Activities: Political Systems, Unit Three. Comparing Political Experiences, Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Judith A.; Patrick, John J.

    The third unit to the first-semester course, "Comparing Political Experiences," provides 16 activities to help 12th-grade students acquire in-depth knowledge of various kinds of political activities, such as decision making, leadership, communication, and participation. The activities and readings are divided into six sections which stress the…

  18. Comparing the validity of 2 physical activity questionnaire formats in African-American and Hispanic women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of 2 physical activity questionnaire formats—one that lists activities (Checklist questionnaire) and one that assesses overall activities (Global questionnaire) by domain. Two questionnaire formats were validated among 260 African-American and Hi...

  19. Few differences found in the typical eating and physical activity habits of lower-level and upper-level university students.

    PubMed

    Driskell, Judy A; Kim, Young-Nam; Goebel, Kelly J

    2005-05-01

    Typical eating and exercise habits of a group of lower-level (freshmen/sophomores, n=144) and upper-level (juniors/seniors, n=114) students, 19 to 25 years of age, attending a midwestern university were compared. Both groups reported similar snacking practices, nonalcoholic beverage consumption, places of meal consumption, factors influencing food choices, duration and frequency of various types of physical activity, and places of physical performance, with few exceptions. Significant differences between groups were observed for typical afternoon snack consumption, frequency of eating in university cafeterias, typical time spent walking, typical frequency of performing other aerobic activities, and factors that most influenced their physical activity habits. Few differences existed in typical eating and physical activity habits of lower- and upper-level students.

  20. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  1. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-06-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=-0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=-0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index.

  2. A comparative study of two dosage levels of ibuprofen syrup in children with pyrexia.

    PubMed

    Kotob, A

    1985-01-01

    In a study of the antipyretic effect of two dosage levels of ibuprofen syrup in children with fever due to a variety of causes, forty-four out of the fifty children admitted completed the 24-hour trial period, twenty-three receiving 20 mg ibuprofen/kg body-weight, twenty-one receiving 30 mg/kg ibuprofen. Both dosage levels gave highly significant (p less than 0.001) reductions in rectal temperatures, with a statistically significant reduction, at the 5% level, in favour of the higher dose at 12 and 20 hours. No side-effects were reported at either dosage level, and the taste was acceptable to all the children. It is concluded that ibuprofen was a useful and effective antipyretic drug in the population studied, and that the higher dosage is preferable to the lower, being more effective, equally palatable, and giving rise to no side-effects in this study. PMID:3888726

  3. 78 FR 59729 - Final Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    .... On September 20, 2012 (77 FR 58416), the NRC staff published a notice in the Federal Register..., depending on the concentrations and radioactivity levels of radionuclides present. Currently, there are...

  4. Comparative carcinogenicity of the PAHs as a basis for acceptable exposure levels (AELs) in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Rugen, P.J.; Stern, C.D.; Lamm, S.H. )

    1989-06-01

    The carcinogenicity of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has generally been demonstrated by their ability to act as complete carcinogens in the development of cancers in rodent skin tests. In order to develop proposed acceptable concentration levels for various PAHs in drinking water, we reviewed the studies that formed the basis for determining that these specific PAHs were carcinogenic in animals. We found that the relative potency of these PAHs varied over a range of many orders of magnitude. For example, the carcinogenic strength of benz(a)anthracene (BaA) is found to be about 1/2000th that of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). We have used the calculated carcinogenic potency of the various PAHs relative to that of BaP as a means for proposing specific acceptable concentration levels in drinking water for each of the specific PAHs. BaP is the only carcinogenic PAH for which EPA has published an acceptable concentration level based on carcinogenicity. Based on the level EPA set for BaP (0.028 micrograms/liter), this methodology has provided for the specific PAHs a determination of proposed acceptable concentration levels quantitatively based on the same data that were used to qualitatively determine them to be animal carcinogens. We have proposed acceptable concentration levels for the carcinogenic PAHs in drinking water that range from 0.03 micrograms/liter for BaP to 6.5 micrograms/liter for BaA. We recommend that acceptable concentration levels for the various PAHs be based on their relative carcinogenic potencies rather than the EPA method of using the potency of only one specific PAH, BaP, to serve as the exposure level determinant for all PAHs. We further suggest that this methodology may be applicable to other classes of carcinogenic compounds.

  5. An elevated level of physical activity is associated with normal lipoprotein(a) levels in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Aparicio, Daniel; Rojas, Edward; Peñaranda, Lianny; Finol, Freddy; Acosta, Luis; Mengual, Edgardo; Rojas, Joselyn; Arráiz, Nailet; Toledo, Alexandra; Colmenares, Carlos; Urribarí, Jesica; Sanchez, Wireynis; Pineda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Dalia; Faria, Judith; Añez, Roberto; Cano, Raquel; Cano, Clímaco; Sorell, Luis; Velasco, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death worldwide. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in which concentrations are genetically regulated. Contradictory results have been published about physical activity influence on Lp(a) concentration. This research aimed to determine associations between different physical activity levels and Lp(a) concentration. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was made in 1340 randomly selected subjects (males = 598; females = 712) to whom a complete clinical history, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Lp(a) level determination were made. Statistical analysis was carried out to assess qualitative variables relationship by chi2 and differences between means by one-way analysis of variance considering a P value <0.05 as statistically significant. Results are shown as absolute frequencies, percentages, and mean +/- standard deviation according to case. Physical activity levels were ordinal classified as follows: low activity with 24.3% (n = 318), moderate activity with 35.0% (n = 458), and high physical activity with 40.8% (n = 534). Lp(a) concentration in the studied sample was 26.28 +/- 12.64 (IC: 25.59-26.96) mg/dL. Lp(a) concentration according to low, moderate, and high physical activity levels were 29.22 +/- 13.74, 26.27 +/- 12.91, and 24.53 +/- 11.35 mg/dL, respectively, observing statistically significant differences between low and moderate level (P = 0.004) and low and high level (P < 0.001). A strong association (chi2 = 9.771; P = 0.002) was observed among a high physical activity level and a normal concentration of Lp(a) (less than 30 mg/dL). A lifestyle characterized by high physical activity is associated with normal Lp(a) levels.

  6. Assessing adrenocortical activity by determining levels of urinary free cortisol and urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, J; Yakata, M

    1989-03-01

    A comparative study of urinary free cortisol and urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol levels as a diagnostic test for hypercortisolemic states was carried out by measuring the excretion in 24-h specimens from 289 apparently healthy subjects and 10 Cushing patients. The diurnal variations of both variables were examined in normal subjects and subjects with altered adrenal activities. Two of the 289 apparently normal subjects had high values of urinary free cortisol; one had a high, the other a normal 6 beta-hydroxycortisol level; they were later diagnosed as having Cushing's syndrome and infertility, respectively. Three other subjects had high values of the urinary variables, but during 5 years of follow-up did not show any clinical evidence of hypercortisolism. The two urinary variables gave no false-negative results in the Cushing patients. The diurnal variation revealed that levels of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol change in parallel with those of free cortisol in normal subjects and in subjects with altered adrenal activities. However, the ratio of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol to free cortisol during the diurnal variation varied from low values when free cortisol levels were high to high values when free cortisol levels were low. In normal subjects, 1 mg of dexamethasone taken orally at 23.00 h completely suppressed the levels of both variables on the following day. It is concluded that urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol is correlated to urinary free cortisol so that measurement of urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol levels can be used as a diagnostic test for hypercortisolism in a way comparable to the method using urinary free cortisol.

  7. Genetic variants in ABCA1 promoter affect transcription activity and plasma HDL level in pigs.

    PubMed

    Dang, Xiao-yong; Chu, Wei-wei; Shi, Heng-chuan; Yu, Shi-gang; Han, Hai-yin; Gu, Shu-Hua; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-25

    Excess accumulation of cholesterol in plasma may result in coronary artery disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to apolipoproteins, a process necessary for plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation. Higher plasma levels of HDL are associated with lower risk for cardiovascular disease. Studies of human disease and animal models had shown that an increased hepatic ABCA1 activity relates to an enhanced plasma HDL level. In this study, we hypothesized that functional mutations in the ABCA1 promoter in pigs may affect gene transcription activity, and consequently the HDL level in plasma. The promoter region of ABCA1 was comparatively scanned by direct sequencing with pool DNA of high- and low-HDL groups (n=30 for each group). Two polymorphisms, c. - 608A>G and c. - 418T>A, were revealed with reverse allele distribution in the two groups. The two polymorphisms were completely linked and formed only G-A or A-T haplotypes when genotyped in a larger population (n=526). Furthermore, we found that the G-A/G-A genotype was associated with higher HDL and ABCA1 mRNA level than A-T/A-T genotype. Luciferase assay also revealed that G-A haplotype promoter had higher activity than A-T haplotype. Single-nucleotide mutant assay showed that c.-418T>A was the causal mutation for ABCA1 transcription activity alteration. Conclusively, we identified two completely linked SNPs in porcine ABCA1 promoter region which have influence on the plasma HDL level by altering ABCA1 gene transcriptional activity.

  8. Dietary habits and physical activity levels in Jordanian adolescents attending private versus public schools.

    PubMed

    Tayyem, R F; Al-Hazzaa, H M; Abu-Mweis, S S; Bawadi, H A; Hammad, S S; Musaiger, A O

    2014-07-08

    The present study examined differences in dietary habits and physical activity levels between students attending private and public high schools in Jordan. A total of 386 secondary-school males and 349 females aged 14-18 years were randomly recruited using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling technique. Dietary habits and physical activity level were self-reported in a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among adolescents in private (26.0%) than in public schools (16.7%). The frequency of breakfast intake was significantly higher among adolescents in private schools, whereas French fries and sweets intake was significantly higher in public schools. Television viewing showed a significant interaction with school type by sex. A higher rate of inactivity was found among students attending private schools. Despite a slightly better overall dietary profile for students in private schools, they had a higher rate of overweight and obesity compared with those in public schools.

  9. Comparisons of three practical field devices used to measure personal light exposures and activity levels

    PubMed Central

    Figueiro, M G; Hamner, R; Bierman, A; Rea, M S

    2012-01-01

    This paper documents the spectral and spatial performance characteristics of two new versions of the Daysimeter, devices developed and calibrated by the Lighting Research Center to measure and record personal circadian light exposure and activity levels, and compares them to those of the Actiwatch Spectrum (Philips Healthcare). Photometric errors from the Daysimeters and the Actiwatch Spectrum were also determined for various types of light sources. The Daysimeters had better photometric performance than the Actiwatch Spectrum. To assess differences associated with measuring light and activity levels at different locations on the body, older adults wore four Daysimeters and an Actiwatch Spectrum for five consecutive days. Wearing the Daysimeter or Actiwatch Spectrum on the wrist compromises accurate light measurements relative to locating a calibrated photosensor at the plane of the cornea. PMID:24443644

  10. Comparative Assessment of Blood Lead Levels of Automobile Technicians in Organised and Roadside Garages in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Adebayo, Onajole; Kofoworola, Odeyemi; Babatunde, Ogunowo; Ismail, Abdussalam

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U) test. Seventy-three (40.3%) of the organised compared to 59 (34.3%) of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0 µg/dL than the roadside 43.5 µg/dL (P < 0.05). There was also statistically significant association between high blood lead levels and abnormal discolouration of the mucosa of the mouth in the organised group. Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation), and ensure the use of personal protective equipment. PMID:25759723

  11. Comparative assessment of blood lead levels of automobile technicians in organised and roadside garages in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Adebayo, Onajole; Kofoworola, Odeyemi; Babatunde, Ogunowo; Ismail, Abdussalam

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U) test. Seventy-three (40.3%) of the organised compared to 59 (34.3%) of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0 µg/dL than the roadside 43.5 µg/dL (P < 0.05). There was also statistically significant association between high blood lead levels and abnormal discolouration of the mucosa of the mouth in the organised group. Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation), and ensure the use of personal protective equipment.

  12. College Students’ Drinking Motives and Social-Contextual Factors: Comparing Associations across Levels of Analysis

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Ross E.; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Prior investigations have established between-person associations between drinking motives and both levels of alcohol use and social-contextual factors surrounding that use, but these relations have yet to be examined at the within-person level of analysis. Moreover, exploring previously posited subtypes of coping motives (i.e., coping with depression, anxiety, and anger) may shed light on the within-person processes underlying drinking to cope. In this daily diary study of college student drinking (N = 722; 54% female), students reported each day how many drinks they consumed the previous evening in both social and nonsocial settings along with their motives for each drinking episode. Additionally, they reported whether they attended a party the evening before, the number of people they were with, the gender makeup of that group, and their perceptions of their companions’ drinking prevalence and quantity. External reasons for drinking—social and conformity motives—showed patterns largely consistent across levels of analysis and in agreement with motivational models. However, internal reasons for drinking—enhancement and coping motives—demonstrated divergent associations that suggest different processes across levels of analysis. Finally, coping subtypes showed differing associations with drinking levels and social-contextual factors dependent on the predisposing emotion and the level of analysis. These results suggest that internal drinking motives have unique state and trait components, which could have important implications for the application of motivational models to prevention and treatment efforts. We recommend including drinking motives (including coping subtypes) as within-person measures in future micro-longitudinal studies. PMID:25546143

  13. College students' drinking motives and social-contextual factors: Comparing associations across levels of analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2015-06-01

    Prior investigations have established between-person associations between drinking motives and both levels of alcohol use and social-contextual factors surrounding that use, but these relations have yet to be examined at the within-person level of analysis. Moreover, exploring previously posited subtypes of coping motives (i.e., coping with depression, anxiety, and anger) may shed light on the within-person processes underlying drinking to cope. In this daily diary study of college student drinking (N = 722; 54% female), students reported each day how many drinks they consumed the previous evening in both social and nonsocial settings along with their motives for each drinking episode. Additionally, they reported whether they attended a party the evening before, the number of people they were with, the gender makeup of that group, and their perceptions of their companions' drinking prevalence and quantity. External reasons for drinking-social and conformity motives-showed patterns largely consistent across levels of analysis and in agreement with motivational models. However, internal reasons for drinking-enhancement and coping motives-demonstrated divergent associations that suggest different processes across levels of analysis. Finally, coping subtypes showed differing associations with drinking levels and social-contextual factors dependent on the predisposing emotion and the level of analysis. These results suggest that internal drinking motives have unique state and trait components, which could have important implications for the application of motivational models to prevention and treatment efforts. We recommend including drinking motives (including coping subtypes) as within-person measures in future microlongitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. In vitro activity of azithromycin compared with that of erythromycin against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    Pajukanta, R; Asikainen, S; Saarela, M; Alaluusua, S; Jousimies-Somer, H

    1992-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to azithromycin, a new macrolide antibiotic of a new class known as azalides, was compared with that of erythromycin by the agar dilution method on Mueller-Hinton Haemophilus test medium. Eighty-two A. actinomycetemcomitans strains, 79 recent clinical isolates obtained from 40 periodontally healthy or diseased subjects, and 3 type strains were included in the study. Erythromycin showed poor in vitro activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans. Azithromycin, however, was highly effective against A. actinomycetemcomitans: all strains were inhibited at 2.0 micrograms/ml. Azithromycin exhibited the best in vitro activity against the serotype a subpopulation of A. actinomycetemcomitans: 100% of the strains were inhibited at 1.0 micrograms/ml. The lowest MICs were, however, recorded by serotype b strains. Since azithromycin has favorable pharmacokinetic properties, including excellent distribution into tissues, it could be expected to pass into gingival crevicular fluid at levels sufficient to inhibit A. actinomycetemcomitans in vivo. Therefore, it is a good candidate for future clinical trials in A. actinomycetemcomitans-associated periodontitis. PMID:1329617

  15. Comparative analysis of fecal microbiota and intestinal microbial metabolic activity in captive polar bears.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota depends on gut physiology and diet. Ursidae possess a simple gastrointestinal system composed of a stomach, small intestine, and indistinct hindgut. This study determined the composition and stability of fecal microbiota of 3 captive polar bears by group-specific quantitative PCR and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) using the 16S rRNA gene as target. Intestinal metabolic activity was determined by analysis of short-chain fatty acids in feces. For comparison, other Carnivora and mammals were included in this study. Total bacterial abundance was approximately log 8.5 DNA gene copies·(g feces)-1 in all 3 polar bears. Fecal polar bear microbiota was dominated by the facultative anaerobes Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci, and the Clostridium cluster I. The detection of the Clostridium perfringens α-toxin gene verified the presence of C. perfringens. Composition of the fecal bacterial population was stable on a genus level; according to results obtained by PCR-DGGE, dominant bacterial species fluctuated. The total short-chain fatty acid content of Carnivora and other mammals analysed was comparable; lactate was detected in feces of all carnivora but present only in trace amounts in other mammals. In comparison, the fecal microbiota and metabolic activity of captive polar bears mostly resembled the closely related grizzly and black bears.

  16. Comparative analysis of fecal microbiota and intestinal microbial metabolic activity in captive polar bears.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota depends on gut physiology and diet. Ursidae possess a simple gastrointestinal system composed of a stomach, small intestine, and indistinct hindgut. This study determined the composition and stability of fecal microbiota of 3 captive polar bears by group-specific quantitative PCR and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) using the 16S rRNA gene as target. Intestinal metabolic activity was determined by analysis of short-chain fatty acids in feces. For comparison, other Carnivora and mammals were included in this study. Total bacterial abundance was approximately log 8.5 DNA gene copies·(g feces)-1 in all 3 polar bears. Fecal polar bear microbiota was dominated by the facultative anaerobes Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci, and the Clostridium cluster I. The detection of the Clostridium perfringens α-toxin gene verified the presence of C. perfringens. Composition of the fecal bacterial population was stable on a genus level; according to results obtained by PCR-DGGE, dominant bacterial species fluctuated. The total short-chain fatty acid content of Carnivora and other mammals analysed was comparable; lactate was detected in feces of all carnivora but present only in trace amounts in other mammals. In comparison, the fecal microbiota and metabolic activity of captive polar bears mostly resembled the closely related grizzly and black bears. PMID:21358758

  17. Comparative study of surface-active properties and antimicrobial activities of disaccharide monoesters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Song, Fei; Taxipalati, Maierhaba; Wei, Wei; Feng, Fengqin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of sugar or fatty acid in sugar ester compounds on the surface-active properties and antimicrobial activities of these compounds. Disaccharides of medium-chain fatty acid monoesters were synthesized through transesterifications by immobilized lipase (Lipozyme TLIM) to yield nine monoesters for subsequent study. Their antimicrobial activities were investigated using three pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Candida albicans. Their surface-active properties including air-water surface tension, critical micelle concentration, and foaming and emulsion power and stability were also studied. The results showed that all of the tested monoesters were more effective against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium) than against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Gram-negative bacterium). The results demonstrated that the carbon chain length was the most important factor influencing the surface properties, whereas degree of esterification and hydrophilic groups showed little effect.

  18. Comparative Study of Surface-Active Properties and Antimicrobial Activities of Disaccharide Monoesters

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Song, Fei; Taxipalati, Maierhaba; Wei, Wei; Feng, Fengqin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of sugar or fatty acid in sugar ester compounds on the surface-active properties and antimicrobial activities of these compounds. Disaccharides of medium-chain fatty acid monoesters were synthesized through transesterifications by immobilized lipase (Lipozyme TLIM) to yield nine monoesters for subsequent study. Their antimicrobial activities were investigated using three pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Candida albicans. Their surface-active properties including air–water surface tension, critical micelle concentration, and foaming and emulsion power and stability were also studied. The results showed that all of the tested monoesters were more effective against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium) than against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Gram-negative bacterium). The results demonstrated that the carbon chain length was the most important factor influencing the surface properties, whereas degree of esterification and hydrophilic groups showed little effect. PMID:25531369

  19. State-Level Activities: A Plan for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamborn, Robert L.

    A variety of specific activities that have been successfully undertaken by the Council for American Private Education (CAPE) are suggested for state members. The activities are related to developing private school communications within states and developing working relationships with local, metropolitan, and state governments and their agencies.…

  20. Distant Interactions and Their Effects on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Background: It has been observed that physical activity patterns of health-related behavior are established in childhood and may continue into adulthood. Recent findings showing a relationship between the onset of chronic diseases and sedentary lifestyles support the importance of examining Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA). One…

  1. A Comparative Study of Autistic Subjects' Performance at Two Levels of Visual and Cognitive Perspective Taking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Taffy; Peterson, Candida

    1990-01-01

    This study found that 13 autistic subjects performed less well on cognitive than on visual perspective-taking tasks at two levels of difficulty. Autistic subjects performed as well as 13 intellectually handicapped controls and 13 normal controls on visual perspective-taking tasks but more poorly than controls on cognitive perspective-taking tasks.…

  2. A comparative study of different level interpolations for improving spatial resolution in diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; Zhu, Yue-Min; Luo, Jian-Hua; Robini, Marc; Liu, Jie; Croisille, Pierre

    2014-07-01

    This paper studies and evaluates the feasibility and the performance of different level interpolations for improving spatial resolution of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI or DTI). In particular, the following techniques are investigated: anisotropic interpolation operating on scalar gray-level images, log-Euclidean interpolation method, and the quaternion interpolation method, which operate on diffusion tensor fields. The performance is evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively using criteria such as tensor determinant, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), fiber length, etc. We conclude that tensor field interpolations allow avoiding undesirable swelling effect in DTI, which is not the case with scalar gray-level interpolation, and that scalar gray-level image interpolation and log-Euclidean tensor field interpolation suffer from decrease in FA and MD, which may mislead the interpretation of the clinical parameters FA and MD. In contrast, the quaternion tensor field interpolation avoids such FA and MD decrease, which suggests its use for clinical applications. PMID:25014936

  3. Advancing Ecological Models to Compare Scale in Multi-Level Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, David James

    2016-01-01

    Education systems as units of analysis have been metaphorically likened to ecologies to model change. However, ecological models to date have been ineffective in modelling educational change that is multi-scale and occurs across multiple levels of an education system. Thus, this paper advances two innovative, ecological frameworks that improve on…

  4. Predicting groundwater level fluctuations with meteorological effect implications—A comparative study among soft computing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiri, Jalal; Kisi, Ozgur; Yoon, Heesung; Lee, Kang-Kun; Hossein Nazemi, Amir

    2013-07-01

    The knowledge of groundwater table fluctuations is important in agricultural lands as well as in the studies related to groundwater utilization and management levels. This paper investigates the abilities of Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) techniques for groundwater level forecasting in following day up to 7-day prediction intervals. Several input combinations comprising water table level, rainfall and evapotranspiration values from Hongcheon Well station (South Korea), covering a period of eight years (2001-2008) were used to develop and test the applied models. The data from the first six years were used for developing (training) the applied models and the last two years data were reserved for testing. A comparison was also made between the forecasts provided by these models and the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) technique. Based on the comparisons, it was found that the GEP models could be employed successfully in forecasting water table level fluctuations up to 7 days beyond data records.

  5. Predicting Sentencing for Low-Level Crimes: Comparing Models of Human Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Helversen, Bettina; Rieskamp, Jorg

    2009-01-01

    Laws and guidelines regulating legal decision making are often imposed without taking the cognitive processes of the legal decision maker into account. In the case of sentencing, this raises the question of whether the sentencing decisions of prosecutors and judges are consistent with legal policy. Especially in handling low-level crimes, legal…

  6. Levels of novel hybridization in the saltcedar invasion compared over seven decades

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybridization is proposed as one process that can enhance a plant species’ invasive ability. We quantified the levels of hybridization of 180 saltcedar plants (Tamarix spp.) of varying ages that span the history of an invasion along the Green River, UT, USA. Plants ranging in establishment dates fro...

  7. Examining Perspectives of Entry-Level Teacher Candidates: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ping

    2010-01-01

    This study examines entry-level teacher candidates on career choice, professional goals and view on a teacher's role. The candidates were enrolled in two elementary teacher education programs in the People's Republic of China and the United States of America. A total of 66 participants responded in writing to three questions about why they decided…

  8. How Does Undergraduate Research Experience Impact Career Trajectories and Level of Career Satisfaction: A Comparative Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaffe, Kirsten; Bender, Carol; Sechrest, Lee

    2014-01-01

    The immediate benefits of research experiences for undergraduates have been documented. However, little has appeared about the long-term impacts of these experiences on participants' career trajectories and their level of career satisfaction. In addition, many studies of undergraduate research lack a comparison group. This article reports a…

  9. Learner-Centered Teaching Style: Comparing Face-to-Face and Online Adult Educators' Commitment Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Shanda E.

    2013-01-01

    For at least 50 years, prominent adult learning theorists have recommended that adult educators commit to a learner-centered teaching approach. Extensive teaching styles research has been conducted on face-to-face and online adult educators, albeit separately, to examine their commitment levels to the learner-centered style. In addition, there has…

  10. An Interlaboratory Comparative Study on the Quantitative Determination of Glyphosate at Low Levels in Wheat Flour.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Emanuela; Cartaud, Gérald; Quinn, Robert M; Marotti, Ilaria; Dinelli, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the use of glyphosate has dramatically increased worldwide, and there is growing concern about contamination of organic products caused by its heavy use on neighboring fields. Glyphosate is found as a residue not only in soil, plants, and groundwater but also in humans and animals. Considering the controversy on glyphosate maximum residue level in foodstuff and the difficulties in its analytical determination, the main purpose of the present paper was to investigate the competence and accuracy of 13 accredited European laboratories in determining glyphosate in wheat flour at a level close to their reporting limit of 10 μg/kg. According to the results of this performance assessment, the laboratories were not able to quantify glyphosate at trace levels. Therefore, their specified reporting limits of 10 μg/kg were not supported by their results, and a reporting limit of around 50 μg/kg of glyphosate in flour seems to be more appropriate to guarantee reliable and robust results. The widespread use of glyphosate and its harmfulness to humans make its detection at trace levels a primary goal for analytical laboratories. This is achievable through the improvement of QA and/or the optimization of the method of analysis used for glyphosate detection.

  11. Group Assessment at First Year and Final Degree Level: A Comparative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plastow, N.; Spiliotopoulou, G.; Prior, S.

    2010-01-01

    Group projects are an established but debated pedagogical technique in higher education. The purpose of this study was to assess the appropriateness of combining individual and group marks in assessment. A mixed method design involving correlational and comparative elements was used. The sample included one cohort of students who completed a group…

  12. A Comparative Analysis of the Emotional Intelligence Levels of American and Chinese Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margavio, Thomas M.; Margavio, Geanie W.; Hignite, Michael A.; Moses, Duane R.

    2012-01-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a characteristic of business students that has been the subject of significant research. This study was designed to extend that prior research by comparing the EI scores of American business students with those of Chinese business students. The study further focuses on those factors which may be related to ways in…

  13. A Quantitative Study Comparing the Level of Teaching Innovation in Cypriot Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjioannou, Adamantia

    2012-01-01

    Most research regarding information and communication technology implementation has focused on teachers' technology use for personal, administrative, and preparatory purposes. Very little is known about how technology is authentically used to improve active student learning and enhance 21st century skills. The need for investigating how Cypriot…

  14. Effect of innate glutathione levels on activity of redox-responsive gene delivery vectors

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, Devika S.; Li, Jing; Putt, David A.; Zhou, Qing-Hui; Wu, Chao; Lash, Lawrence H.; Oupický, David

    2009-01-01

    Redox-responsive polyplexes represent a promising class of non-viral gene delivery vectors. The reducible disulfide bonds in the polyplexes undergo intracellular reduction owing to the presence of high concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH). Available evidence suggests improved transfection activity of redox-sensitive polyplexes upon artificial modulation of intracellular GSH. This study investigates the effect of innate differences in GSH concentration in a panel of human pancreatic cancer cell lines on activity of reducible polyplexes of the four major classes of nucleic acid therapeutics: plasmid DNA (pDNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AON) and siRNA. In general, reducible polyplexes of linear poly(amido amines) (PAA) show improved activity compared to non-reducible polyplexes of PAA. Results demonstrate that increased GSH levels are associated with improved transfection of mRNA polyplexes but no clear trend is observed for pDNA, AON and siRNA polyplexes. PMID:19720098

  15. Playground Designs to Increase Physical Activity Levels during School Recess: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escalante, Yolanda; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Backx, Karianne; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    School recess provides a major opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. Various studies have described strategies to increase levels of physical activity. The purpose of this systematic review is therefore to examine the interventions proposed as forms of increasing children's physical activity levels during recess. A…

  16. Activity Level from Birth through First Grade: Stability or Inversion of Intensity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined two hypotheses regarding activity level: (1) early appearing stability; and (2) inversion of intensity. Measured behavioral intensity or activity level six times between the neonatal period and first grade. Results indicated that parent ratings supported activity level stability. Observations revealed that intense neonatal activity…

  17. Increased serum levels of soluble l-selectin (CD62L) in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

    PubMed Central

    Font, J; Pizcueta, P; Ramos-Casals, M; Cervera, R; García-Carrasco, M; Navarro, M; Ingelmo, M; Engel, P

    2000-01-01

    The adhesion molecule l-selectin (CD62L) mediates lymphocyte recirculation and leucocyte rolling on vascular endothelium at sites of inflammation. Serum levels of soluble l-selectin (sl-selectin) were measured in patients with SLE in order to relate these levels to clinical activity and immunological parameters. An ELISA was used to detect the soluble form of human l-selectin (CD62L) in 42 patients with SLE and in 33 healthy individuals. The mean ± s.e.m. values of sl-selectin were 1285 ± 121 ng/ml for patients with SLE and 986 ± 180 ng/ml for healthy blood donors, but there was no significant difference. When patients with active SLE were analysed, higher levels of circulating sl-selectin were found when compared with patients without activity (1497 ± 167 ng/ml versus 941 ± 150 ng/ml; P = 0.028). We found a significant correlation between the levels of sl-selectin and of dsDNA antibodies (r = 0.36, P = 0.044) and between levels of sl-selectin and SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) score (r = 0.42, P = 0.003). Patients with active SLE studied cross-sectionally showed significant elevations of sl-selectin (CD62L) compared with controls. Thus, the levels of this soluble adhesion molecule correlated with active disease and levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies. PMID:10606979

  18. Hand Sensibility, Strength, and Laxity of High-Level Musicians Compared to Non- Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Susan EG; Engel, Laura; Hammert, Warren C; Elfar, John C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether musicians have more sensitive, stronger, and flexible hands than non-musicians. Methods One hundred musicians and 100 control subjects were assessed for two-point discrimination, Semmes-Weinstein monofilament light touch, grip and pinch strength, and laxity. Musicians were included if enrolled as instrumental performance majors at a four-year accredited conservatory of music. Non-musician controls were university students who never or rarely engaged in playing an instrument. All subjects were between the ages of 18 and 28. Exclusion criteria were history of any hand condition, trauma, surgery, or diabetes. Statistical analyses were carried out using t-test, ANOVA, and correlation coefficients as appropriate. Results High-level musicians in our cohort showed the same handedness (dominance) as the general population. The musicians were weaker than the non-musicians Male musicians were significantly weaker in pinch and grip bilaterally than non-musicians whereas female musicians were significantly weaker only in grip on the right/dominant side. Two-point discrimination was significantly less in musicians for the left/non-dominant index, ring, and small fingers, right/dominant small and dominant index finger. Semmes-Weinstein testing was significantly better for the right/dominant digits, including the thumb, but not the left digits with the exception of the ring and non-dominant middle and ring. There was no difference in laxity between the 2 groups. Discussion High-level musicians have, in general, more sensitive but weaker hands than non-musicians but the differences seem small and may not be clinically important. Level of Evidence Diagnostic Level III PMID:26253604

  19. Comparable Low-Level Mosaicism in Affected and Non Affected Tissue of a Complex CDH Patient

    PubMed Central

    Veenma, Danielle; Beurskens, Niels; Douben, Hannie; Eussen, Bert; Noomen, Petra; Govaerts, Lutgarde; Grijseels, Els; Lequin, Maarten; de Krijger, Ronald; Tibboel, Dick; de Klein, Annelies; Van Opstal, Dian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the detailed clinical and cytogenetic analysis of a prenatally detected complex Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH) patient with a mosaic unbalanced translocation (5;12). High-resolution whole genome SNP array confirmed a low-level mosaicism (20%) in uncultured cells, underlining the value of array technology for identification studies. Subsequently, targeted Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization in postmortem collected tissues demonstrated a similar low-level mosaicism, independently of the affected status of the tissue. Thus, a higher incidence of the genetic aberration in affected organs as lung and diaphragm cannot explain the severe phenotype of this complex CDH patient. Comparison with other described chromosome 5p and 12p anomalies indicated that half of the features presented in our patient (including the diaphragm defect) could be attributed to both chromosomal areas. In contrast, a few features such as the palpebral downslant, the broad nasal bridge, the micrognathia, microcephaly, abnormal dermatoglyphics and IUGR better fitted the 5p associated syndromes only. This study underlines the fact that low-level mosaicism can be associated with severe birth defects including CDH. The contribution of mosaicism to human diseases and specifically to congenital anomalies and spontaneous abortions becomes more and more accepted, although its phenotypic consequences are poorly described phenomena leading to counseling issues. Therefore, thorough follow–up of mosaic aberrations such as presented here is indicated in order to provide genetic counselors a more evidence based prediction of fetal prognosis in the future. PMID:21203572

  20. Gingival crevicular fluid levels of clindamycin compared with its minimal inhibitory concentrations for periodontal bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, C B; Gordon, J M; Cornwall, H A; Murphy, J C; Socransky, S S

    1981-01-01

    Clindamycin concentrations in gingival crevicular fluid and in blood were determined over a 7-h period and were related to the minimal inhibitory concentrations of this agent for 340 bacterial strains isolated from diseased periodontal sites. The clindamycin levels after administration of single 300-mg oral doses were measured in gingival crevicular fluids by using an agar diffusion bioassay. Minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined by agar dilution techniques for 30 species of periodontal bacteria. With the exception of Eikenella corrodens and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, most of the bacteria were inhibited by a concentration of 1.0 microgram of clindamycin per ml or less. The peak concentrations in crevicular fluid (2.0 +/- 0.3 microgram/ml) and in blood (1.9 +/- 0.3 micrograms/ml) were approximately the same. However, crevicular fluid levels of 1.0 micrograms/ml and above were present for up to 6 h, whereas blood concentrations dropped below 1.0 micrograms/ml within 2 h after administration. Based on its minimal inhibitory concentrations, clindamycin at crevicular fluid levels of 1.0 micrograms/ml or above should inhibit most bacteria associated with diseased periodontal sites. PMID:6794446

  1. Estradiol levels modulate brain activity and negative responses to psychosocial stress across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Albert, Kimberly; Pruessner, Jens; Newhouse, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Although ovarian hormones are thought to have a potential role in the well-known sex difference in mood and anxiety disorders, the mechanisms through which ovarian hormone changes contribute to stress regulation are not well understood. One mechanism by which ovarian hormones might impact mood regulation is by mediating the effect of psychosocial stress, which often precedes depressive episodes and may have mood consequences that are particularly relevant in women. In the current study, brain activity and mood response to psychosocial stress was examined in healthy, normally cycling women at either the high or low estradiol phase of the menstrual cycle. Twenty eight women were exposed to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), with brain activity determined through functional magnetic resonance imaging, and behavioral response assessed with subjective mood and stress measures. Brain activity responses to psychosocial stress differed between women in the low versus high estrogen phase of the menstrual cycle: women with high estradiol levels showed significantly less deactivation in limbic regions during psychosocial stress compared to women with low estradiol levels. Additionally, women with higher estradiol levels also had less subjective distress in response to the MIST than women with lower estradiol levels. The results of this study suggest that, in normally cycling premenopausal women, high estradiol levels attenuate the brain activation changes and negative mood response to psychosocial stress. Normal ovarian hormone fluctuations may alter the impact of psychosocially stressful events by presenting periods of increased vulnerability to psychosocial stress during low estradiol phases of the menstrual cycle. This menstrual cycle-related fluctuation in stress vulnerability may be relevant to the greater risk for affective disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder in women.

  2. Engaging students in blended and online collaborative courses at university level through Second Life: comparative perspectives and instructional affordances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellas, Nikolaos; kazanidis, Ioannis

    2014-04-01

    Students' opinions about the degree of impact, status, and socio-cognitive viability with the utilization of the emerging three-dimensional (3D) computer-generated technologies may vary. Indisputably, 3D technology-enhanced environments have provided considerable benefits and affordances to the contemporary e-Education. In these circumstances, virtual worlds (VWs) like second life (SL) have generally intensified with an extensive perpetuation and penetration of innovative performances that encapsulated or enacted from the vast majority of higher education fields. At the same time, there is growing widespread recognition of reasons affecting the high or low degree of students' engagement in online and blended course delivery methods held in 3D VWs. Notwithstanding that most notable studies have disclosed SL functional capabilities from a plethora of pilot case studies, however, it is still lacking an experiential-based research approach to determine the degree of students' engagement in blended and online courses at university level through SL. The present comparative study explores students' engagement overall as a multidimensional construct consisting of emotional, behavioral, and cognitive factors. One hundred and thirty-five undergraduate and postgraduate students in almost identical blended and online instructional conditions held in SL took part in this project. Preliminary results have decoded students' satisfaction for both methods, despite the fact that the voluntary sample composed of different educational disciplines. The quantitative analysis showed that postgraduate students of the online course had more positive results and the degree of engagement significantly increased compared to those who enrolled with the blended course delivery method. The instructional affordances from the utilization of SL were the collaborative climate between users (instructor and students) who eliminated various intractable boundaries which were predominantly observed by

  3. [Physical activity level and home blood pressure measurement: Pilot study "Acti-HTA"].

    PubMed

    Sosner, P; Ott, J; Steichen, O; Bally, S; Krummel, T; Brucker, M; Lequeux, B; Dourmap, C; Llaty, P; Le Coz, S; Baguet, S; Miranne, A; Labrunée, M; Gremeaux, V; Lopez-Sublet, M

    2015-06-01

    While physical activity (PA) is recommended for high blood pressure management, the level of PA practice of hypertensive patients remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association between the level of both PA and blood pressure of individuals consulting in 9 hypertension specialist centres. Eighty-five hypertensive patients were included (59 ± 14 years, 61% men, 12% smokers, 29% with diabetes). Following their consultation, they performed home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) over 7 days (2 in the morning+2 in the evening), they wrote in a dedicated form their daily activities to estimate the additional caloric expenditure using Acti-MET device (built from International physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]). Thus, patients completed a self-administered questionnaire "score of Dijon" (distinguishing active subjects with a score>20/30, from sedentary<10/30). Subjects with normal HBPM value (<135/85 mm Hg) (55% of them) compared to those with high HBPM were older, had a non-significant trend towards higher weekly caloric expenditure (4959 ± 5045 kcal/week vs. 4048 ± 4199 kcal/week, P=0.3755) and score of Dijon (19.44 ± 5.81 vs. 18.00 ± 4.32, P=0.2094) with a higher proportion of "active" subjects (48.9% vs. 34.2%, P=0.1773). In conclusion, our results demonstrate a "tendency" to a higher level of reported PA for subjects whose hypertension was controlled. This encourages us to continue with a study that would include more subjects, which would assess PA level using an objective method such as wearing an accelerometer sensor.

  4. Comparative study of key exchange and authentication methods in application, transport and network level security mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathirad, Iraj; Devlin, John; Jiang, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The key-exchange and authentication are two crucial elements of any network security mechanism. IPsec, SSL/TLS, PGP and S/MIME are well-known security approaches in providing security service to network, transport and application layers; these protocols use different methods (based on their requirements) to establish keying materials and authenticates key-negotiation and participated parties. This paper studies and compares the authenticated key negotiation methods in mentioned protocols.

  5. Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP), Characterization and Microbial Activity of Soil Amended with Dairy Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Frąc, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of organic amendment applications compared to mineral fertilization on soil microbial activity and functional diversity. The field experiment was set up on a soil classified as an Eutric Cambisol developed from loess (South-East Poland). Two doses of both dairy sewage sludge (20 Mg·ha−1 and 26 Mg·ha−1) and of mineral fertilizers containing the same amount of nutrients were applied. The same soil without any amendment was used as a control. The soil under undisturbed native vegetation was also included in the study as a representative background sample. The functional diversity (catabolic potential) was assessed using such indices as Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon–Weaver index (H). These indices were calculated, following the community level physiological profiling (CLPP) using Biolog Eco Plates. Soil dehydrogenase and respiratory activity were also evaluated. The indices were sensitive enough to reveal changes in community level physiological profiles due to treatment effects. It was shown that dairy sewage amended soil was characterized by greater AWCD, R, H and dehydrogenase and respiratory activity as compared to control or mineral fertilized soil. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to depict the differences of the soil bacterial functional diversity between the treatments. PMID:22737006

  6. Physical activity of men from Wroclaw compared with their discretionary income

    PubMed Central

    Puciato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This paper attempted to determine the relationship between physical activity of men from Wrocław and their discretionary income. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 1,601 male survey respondents aged from 18 to 65 years old. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for the assessment of physical activity. [Results] Among respondents, low intensity physical activity was predominant. The level of physical activity of the respondents increased with their discretionary income. Statistically significant differences were observed between activities of low and high intensity and total activities in Wrocław. [Conclusion] Discretionary income seems to be better predictor of physical activity than gross income, however, this should be verified in future research. PMID:27799711

  7. Comparing Pictorial and Video Modeling Activity Schedules during Transitions for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihak, David F.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the differential effects of two different visual schedule strategies. In the context of an alternating treatments design, static-picture schedules were compared to video based activity schedules as supports for three middle school aged students with autism. Students used the visual schedules to transition between activities in…

  8. Comparing Pictorial and Video-Modeling Activity Schedules during Transitions for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihak, David F.; Ayres, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the differential effects of two different visual schedule strategies. In the context of an alternating treatments design, static-picture schedules were compared to video based activity schedules as supports for three middle school aged students with autism. Students used the visual schedules to transition between activities in…

  9. Comparing Activity Patterns, Biological, and Family Factors in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutum, Monique Natalie; Cordier, Reinie; Bundy, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The association between motor proficiency and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) suggests children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may be susceptible to inactivity-related conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare children with and without DCD on physical activity patterns, activity…

  10. Favoured Free-Time: Comparing Children's Activity Preferences in the UK and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Merris

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a comparative study of the free-time activity preferences of 9- to 11-year-old children in the UK and USA, as drawn by them in art workshops. Six themes emerged relating to sport, outdoor play, family/peers, media, special occasions and other (indefinable) activities. The children's talk about their drawings revealed additional…

  11. Comparing Role-Playing Activities in Second Life and Face-to-Face Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fei; Noh, Jeongmin J.; Koehler, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared student performances in role-playing activities in both a face-to-face (FTF) environment and a virtual 3D environment, Second Life (SL). We found that students produced a similar amount of communication in the two environments, but the communication styles were different. In SL role-playing activities, students took more…

  12. Comparing Two Forms of Concept Map Critique Activities to Facilitate Knowledge Integration Processes in Evolution Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwendimann, Beat A.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Concept map activities often lack a subsequent revision step that facilitates knowledge integration. This study compares two collaborative critique activities using a Knowledge Integration Map (KIM), a form of concept map. Four classes of high school biology students (n?=?81) using an online inquiry-based learning unit on evolution were assigned…

  13. Plasma level of neopterin as a marker of disease activity in treated rheumatoid arthritis patients: association with gender, disease activity and anti-CCP antibody.

    PubMed

    Arshadi, Delnia; Nikbin, Behrouz; Shakiba, Yadollah; Kiani, Amir; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza; Boroushaki, Mohammad Taher

    2013-11-01

    Immune system activation is known to be involved in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ in various cells, including monocytes, induces neopterin production. Plasma level of neopterin has been measured in many autoimmune diseases and can be used as a marker of cellular immunity activation. In this study we measured the plasma level of neopterin in 418 treated RA patients and 398 age and sex matched healthy people by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Disease activity score was calculated in all patients by DAS-CRP method. Plasma level of neopterin was compared between RA and control groups. We also determined the association between neopterin level with gender and disease activity score in RA patients. Significantly higher level of neopterin was observed in RA patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, there was higher neopterin level in male RA patients versus female patients. Plasma neopterin level was increased in patients with active disease and also was correlated with disease activity parameters. There was a significant correlation of plasma level of neopterin with age in both RA and control group and also age of onset and disease duration in RA patients. Anti-CCP positive patients had higher level of neopterin in comparison to anti-CCP negative patients and there was a significant correlation between neopterin level and anti-CCP titer. Our results indicated that neopterin is a sensitive marker for assaying background inflammation and disease activity score in RA patients and may be used as a marker for evaluation of therapy efficacy.

  14. Human hair neutron activation analysis: Analysis on population level, mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, L. I.; Kist, A. A.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is an outstanding analytical method having very wide applications in various fields. Analysis of human hair within last decades mostly based on neutron activation analysis is a very attractive illustration of the application of nuclear analytical techniques. Very interesting question is how the elemental composition differs in different areas or cities. In this connection the present paper gives average data and maps of various localities in the vicinity of drying-out Aral Sea and of various industrial cities in Central Asia.

  15. Online Activity Levels Are Related to Caffeine Dependency.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James G; Landhuis, C Erik; Shepherd, Daniel; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-05-01

    Online activity could serve in the future as behavioral markers of emotional states for computer systems (i.e., affective computing). Hence, this study considered relationships between self-reported stimulant use and online study patterns. Sixty-two undergraduate psychology students estimated their daily caffeine use, and this was related to study patterns as tracked by their use of a Learning Management System (Blackboard). Caffeine dependency was associated with less time spent online, lower rates of file access, and fewer online activities completed. Reduced breadth or depth of processing during work/study could be used as a behavioral marker of stimulant use. PMID:27096737

  16. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Preschool Grants for Children with Disabilities § 300.814 Other State-level... process required by section 615(e) of the Act), which may benefit children with disabilities younger than three or older than five as long as those services also benefit children with disabilities aged...

  17. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Preschool Grants for Children with Disabilities § 300.814 Other State-level... process required by section 615(e) of the Act), which may benefit children with disabilities younger than three or older than five as long as those services also benefit children with disabilities aged...

  18. Reduced enzyme activity and starch level in an induced mutant of chloroplast phosphoglucose isomerase

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.W.; Gottlieb, L.D.; Pichersky, E.

    1986-06-01

    Ethyl methane sulfonate treatment was used to induce a mutation in the nuclear gene encoding the chloroplast isozyme of phosphoglucose isomerase in Clarkia xantiana. The mutation, which proved allelic to wild type activity, was backcrossed to wild type for five generations so that the two could be compared in a near isogenic background. An immunological analysis showed that the mutant, when homozygous, reduced the activity of the isozyme by about 50%. In contrast to wild type, the mutant showed little change in leaf starch level over a diurnal period or following a 72-hour continuous light treatment. By the end of the diurnal light period, the mutant accumulated only about 60% as much starch as wild type. However, mutant leaves had an increased sucrose level presumably because photosynthate was directly exported from the chloroplasts. The mutant also exhibited reduced leaf weight. These changes in metabolism and growth suggest that the wild type level of plastid phosphoglucose isomerase activity is necessary to achieve wild type carbohydrate status.

  19. Emotional facial expressions evoke faster orienting responses, but weaker emotional responses at neural and behavioural levels compared to scenes: A simultaneous EEG and facial EMG study.

    PubMed

    Mavratzakis, Aimee; Herbert, Cornelia; Walla, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded simultaneously with facial electromyography (fEMG) to determine whether emotional faces and emotional scenes are processed differently at the neural level. In addition, it was investigated whether these differences can be observed at the behavioural level via spontaneous facial muscle activity. Emotional content of the stimuli did not affect early P1 activity. Emotional faces elicited enhanced amplitudes of the face-sensitive N170 component, while its counterpart, the scene-related N100, was not sensitive to emotional content of scenes. At 220-280ms, the early posterior negativity (EPN) was enhanced only slightly for fearful as compared to neutral or happy faces. However, its amplitudes were significantly enhanced during processing of scenes with positive content, particularly over the right hemisphere. Scenes of positive content also elicited enhanced spontaneous zygomatic activity from 500-750ms onwards, while happy faces elicited no such changes. Contrastingly, both fearful faces and negative scenes elicited enhanced spontaneous corrugator activity at 500-750ms after stimulus onset. However, relative to baseline EMG changes occurred earlier for faces (250ms) than for scenes (500ms) whereas for scenes activity changes were more pronounced over the whole viewing period. Taking into account all effects, the data suggests that emotional facial expressions evoke faster attentional orienting, but weaker affective neural activity and emotional behavioural responses compared to emotional scenes.

  20. [Vitamin D levels in ankylosing spondylitis: does deficiency correspond to disease activity?].

    PubMed

    Pokhai, Gabriel G; Bandagi, Sabiha; Abrudescu, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory disorder that presents with arthritis of the axial skeleton, including sacroiliac joints. Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone with a long-established role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, and in the regulation of bone formation and resorption. It is now known that vitamin D plays an immunosuppressive role in the body, and there is interest of late in the role of vitamin D in autoimmune diseases. Inflammation may be responsible for some of the loss of bone mineral density seen in AS. We reviewed the literature for studies assessing vitamin D level as a marker of AS disease activity and those examining vitamin D levels in AS in comparison to healthy controls. Four of 7 studies found a significant negative correlation between vitamin D levels and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Index (BASDAI), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). In a review of 8 case-control studies, the mean level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was 22.8 ± 14.1 ng/mL in 555 AS patients versus 26.6 ± 12.5 ng/mL in 557 healthy controls. When compared with a 2-sample t test, vitamin D levels were significantly higher in healthy controls (p < 0.01). We conclude that patients with AS appear to have lower vitamin D levels versus healthy controls; however, the cause is unclear. Existing studies do not demonstrate a consistent link between vitamin D levels and disease activity in AS. Further studies are in need to determine if a causative link exists between vitamin D deficiency and AS. PMID:25627231

  1. Comparative study of two structures of shunt active filter suppressing particular harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benchaita, L.; Salem Nia, A.; Saadate, S.

    1998-07-01

    This paper deals with the study of shunt active filters used for suppressing particular harmonics generated by nonlinear loads in utility distribution power systems. Both structures of shunt active filter, voltage source active filter (VSAF) and current source active filter (CSAF), are considered. The analytical study of specific harmonics identification in a given spectrum is first presented. For simulation as well as experimentation the nonlinear load is a conventional three phase thyristor rectifier and harmonics 5 and 7 are selected to be eliminated by active filter. The whole system consisting of the ac power supply network, the SCR rectifier and the shunt active filter (VSAF/CSAF) is then simulated. The simulation results are discussed and the efficiency of the two kinds of active filter are compared. Finally, for the first structure, VSAF, the simulation results are confirmed by experimental test realized by means of a fully digital control active power filter developed in our laboratory.

  2. Microgravity: A Teacher's Guide with Activities. Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L., Ed.; Wargo, Michael J., Ed.

    A microgravity environment is one that will impart to an object a net acceleration that is small compared with that produced by Earth at its surface. In practice, such acceleration will range from about one percent of Earth's gravitational acceleration to better than one part in a million. this teacher's guide presents an introduction to…

  3. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  4. A comparative study of allowable pesticide residue levels on produce in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The U.S. imports a substantial and increasing portion of its fruits and vegetables. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration currently inspects less than one percent of import shipments. While countries exporting to the U.S. are expected to comply with U.S. tolerances, including allowable pesticide residue levels, there is a low rate of import inspections and few other incentives for compliance. Methods This analysis estimates the quantity of excess pesticide residue that could enter the U.S. if exporters followed originating country requirements but not U.S. pesticide tolerances, for the top 20 imported produce items based on quantities imported and U.S. consumption levels. Pesticide health effects data are also shown. Results The model estimates that for the identified items, 120 439 kg of pesticides in excess of U.S. tolerances could potentially be imported to the U.S., in cases where U.S. regulations are more protective than those of originating countries. This figure is in addition to residues allowed on domestic produce. In the modeling, the top produce item, market, and pesticide of concern were oranges, Chile, and Zeta-Cypermethrin. Pesticides in this review are associated with health effects on 13 body systems, and some are associated with carcinogenic effects. Conclusions There is a critical information gap regarding pesticide residues on produce imported to the U.S. Without a more thorough sampling program, it is not possible accurately to characterize risks introduced by produce importation. The scenario presented herein relies on assumptions, and should be considered illustrative. The analysis highlights the need for additional investigation and resources for monitoring, enforcement, and other interventions, to improve import food safety and reduce pesticide exposures in originating countries. PMID:22293037

  5. Comparing different approaches to two-level modelling of electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Line; Pedersen, Signe S; Tilma, Helene B; Andersen, Stig K

    2005-01-01

    Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems are being developed to improve the communication of patient data. The health care domain includes many different types of data and concepts, of which some are constantly changing, and some are more lasting. This makes the development of an EHR a complex task. In order to improve the handling of this complexity, a new two-level modelling approach in EHR system development has emerged, using a concept of archetypes as the pivot in the representation of the health care knowledge. The key issue in this approach involves dividing the problem field into two separate models: A generic information model and a domain knowledge model. By analysis of how this layering has been carried out in two different two-level EHR systems - the OpenEHR (formerly the Australian GEHR, Good Electronic Health Record) and the EHR project of Aarhus County, Denmark. We have identified critical meta model parameters influencing the ability of the modelling paradigm to meet the expectation for easy handling of the development process (flexibility) and the capability to manage changing models (dynamics). The OpenEHR has defined the division line in such a way that it makes the generic model small and the domain model large. The opposite is the case of the Aarhus EHR system, where the information model is large, and the knowledge model is small. A small information model and a large knowledge model make more of the system changeable, but it also makes it less flexible to develop. The opposite is the case for a large information model and a small knowledge model. PMID:16160245

  6. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Klaren, Rachel E; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W

    2016-05-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  7. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  8. Higher daily physical activity is associated with higher osteocalcin levels in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Saydi E.; Frohnert, Brigitte I.; Thomas, William; Kelly, Aaron S.; Nathan, Brandon M.; Polgreen, Lynda E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise stimulates bone remodeling and improves insulin sensitivity (Si), even without associated weight loss. Osteocalcin (OCN), a bone-derived protein, is associated with improved Si. Purpose We examined how daily physical activity is associated with OCN and Si. Methods Physical activity was measured through questionnaires completed in Minneapolis from 2010 to 2012. A physical activity score (PAQsum) was calculated to quantify physical activity (range 1–5). OCN and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were measured by ELISA. Si was measured by the insulin modified frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test. Results The mean PAQsum value was 2.4 ± 0.8 in 47 participants (12–17.9 years old). PAQsum was positively associated with OCN (p = 0.006). Participants with PAQsum <  2 had significantly lower OCN levels compared to participants with PAQsum >  2 (p < 0.02). Obesity did not modify the association between PAQsum and OCN. There was no statistically significant association between PAQsum and Si or between OCN and Si, even after adjustment for percent body fat. Conclusions OCN is higher in more physically active individuals. More research is needed to clarify the relationship between OCN, physical activity and Si. PMID:26236583

  9. Anterior cruciate ligament injury after more than 20 years: I. Physical activity level and knee function.

    PubMed

    Tengman, E; Brax Olofsson, L; Nilsson, K G; Tegner, Y; Lundgren, L; Häger, C K

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about physical activity level and knee function including jump capacity and fear of movement/reinjury more than 20 years after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Seventy persons with unilateral ACL injury participated (23 ± 2 years post-injury): 33 treated with physiotherapy in combination with surgical reconstruction (ACLR ), and 37 treated with physiotherapy alone (ACLPT ). These were compared with 33 age- and gender-matched controls. Assessment included knee-specific and general physical activity level [Tegner activity scale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)], knee function [Lysholm score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)], jump capacity (one-leg hop, vertical jump, side hops), and fear of movement/reinjury [Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK)]. Outcomes were related to degree of osteoarthritis (OA). ACL-injured had lower Lysholm, KOOS, and Tegner scores than controls (P < 0.001), while IPAQ score was similar. ACL-injured demonstrated inferior jump capacity in injured compared with noninjured leg (6-25%, P < 0.001-P = 0.010 in the different jumps), while noninjured leg had equal jump capacity as controls. ACL groups scored 33 ± 7 and 32 ± 7 of 68 on TSK. Lower scores on Lysholm and KOOS symptom were seen for persons with moderate-to-high OA than for no-or-low OA, while there were no differences for physical activity and jump capacity. Regardless of treatment, there are still negative knee-related effects of ACL injury more than 20 years later.

  10. Vocalisations of the bigeye Pempheris adspersa: characteristics, source level and active space.

    PubMed

    Radford, Craig A; Ghazali, Shahriman; Jeffs, Andrew G; Montgomery, John C

    2015-03-01

    Fish sounds are an important biological component of the underwater soundscape. Understanding species-specific sounds and their associated behaviour is critical for determining how animals use the biological component of the soundscape. Using both field and laboratory experiments, we describe the sound production of a nocturnal planktivore, Pempheris adspersa (New Zealand bigeye), and provide calculations for the potential effective distance of the sound for intraspecific communication. Bigeye vocalisations recorded in the field were confirmed as such by tank recordings. They can be described as popping sounds, with individual pops of short duration (7.9±0.3 ms) and a peak frequency of 405±12 Hz. Sound production varied during a 24 h period, with peak vocalisation activity occurring during the night, when the fish are most active. The source level of the bigeye vocalisation was 115.8±0.2 dB re. 1 µPa at 1 m, which is relatively quiet compared with other soniferous fish. Effective calling range, or active space, depended on both season and lunar phase, with a maximum calling distance of 31.6 m and a minimum of 0.6 m. The bigeyes' nocturnal behaviour, characteristics of their vocalisation, source level and the spatial scale of its active space reported in the current study demonstrate the potential for fish vocalisations to function effectively as contact calls for maintaining school cohesion in darkness.

  11. Magnetic cycles of Sun-like stars with different levels of coronal and chromospheric activity — comparison with the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimanovskaya, Elena; Bruevich, Vasiliy; Bruevich, Elena

    2016-09-01

    The atmospheric activity of the Sun and Sun-like stars is analyzed involving observations from the HK-project at the Mount Wilson Observatory, the California and Carnegie Planet Search Program at the Keck and Lick Observatories and the Magellan Planet Search Program at the Las Campanas Observatory. We show that for stars of F, G and K spectral classes, the cyclic activity, similar to the 11-yr solar cycle, is different: it becomes more prominent in K-stars. Comparative study of Sun-like stars with different levels of chromospheric and coronal activity confirms that the Sun belongs to stars with a low level of chromospheric activity and stands apart among these stars by its minimum level of coronal radiation and minimum level of variations in photospheric flux.

  12. Is the activity level of HD 80606 influenced by its eccentric planet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, P.; Santerne, A.; Suárez Mascareño, A.; Gomes da Silva, J.; Abe, L.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Bendjoya, P.; Correia, A. C. M.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Faria, J. P.; Hebrard, G.; Lovis, C.; Oshagh, M.; Rivet, J.-P.; Santos, N. C.; Suarez, O.; Vidotto, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    Aims: Several studies suggest that the activity level of a planet-host star can be influenced by the presence of a close-by orbiting planet. Moreover, the interaction mechanisms that have been proposed, magnetic interaction and tidal interaction, exhibit a very different dependence on the orbital separation between the star and the planet. A detection of activity enhancement and characterization of its dependence on planetary orbital distance can, in principle, allow us to characterize the physical mechanism behind the activity enhancement. Methods: We used the HARPS-N spectrograph to measure the stellar activity level of HD 80606 during the planetary periastron passage and compared the activity measured to that close to apastron. Being characterized by an eccentricity of 0.93 and an orbital period of 111 days, the system's extreme variation in orbital separation makes it a perfect target to test our hypothesis. Results: We find no evidence for a variation in the activity level of the star as a function of planetary orbital distance, as measured by all activity indicators employed: log(R'HK), Hα, NaI, and HeI. None of the models employed, whether magnetic interaction or tidal interaction, provides a good description of the data. The photometry revealed no variation either, but it was strongly affected by poor weather conditions. Conclusions: We find no evidence for star-planet interaction in HD 80606 at the moment of the periastron passage of its very eccentric planet. The straightforward explanation for the non-detection is the absence of interaction as a result of a low magnetic field strength on either the planet or the star and of the low level of tidal interaction between the two. However, we cannot exclude two scenarios: i) the interaction can be instantaneous and of magnetic origin, being concentrated on the substellar point and its surrounding area; and ii) the interaction can lead to a delayed activity enhancement. In either scenario, a star

  13. Finding solutions for bird restoration and livestock management: comparing grazing exclusion levels.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kara S; Gray, Elizabeth M; Evans, James R

    2011-03-01

    Riparian habitats in the western United States support high avian abundance and diversity and are important areas for livestock grazing, although grazing contributes to the degradation of riparian vegetation. Complete removal of livestock is generally the most beneficial for bird communities, but alternative management approaches allowing for seasonal livestock grazing may also increase avian habitat quality. Determining management approaches that integrate conservation priorities and human use has the potential to improve conditions for birds across many grazed landscapes. We anticipated that both the full and seasonal exclusion of cattle from riparian areas would result in the recovery of avian populations. To test this, we experimentally compared the effects of total cattle exclusion vs. seasonal usage on bird populations in the riparian areas of two creeks in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA. Avian species richness and average abundance were measured over six years, from 2001 to 2006. In general, native avian abundance and richness increased in both full- and seasonal-exclosure areas, with increases compared to the pretreatment year for all years except 2005. Habitats that had complete cattle exclusion recovered more significantly, with 29% lower avian abundance in seasonally grazed habitats. There was no significant difference in avian richness between the two grazing treatments, although richness did increase over time. In addition to increases in native species, abundance of nonnative birds and brood parasites also increased significantly, with a greater avian abundance in the full-exclusion areas. A direct comparison with the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS), to further investigate annual avian population trends, explained the native species decline in 2005. This comparison revealed that observed trends were the effect of experimental treatment rather than a reflection of regional trends. Although the overall trends indicate that the full exclusion of

  14. Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) natural diets: comparing iron levels across seasons and geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Helary, Stephane F; Shaw, Joanne A; Brown, Derek; Clauss, Marcus; Owen-Smith, Norman

    2012-09-01

    Although excessive iron storage in black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) has been a cause for continuous concern over the last four decades and differences in the iron content of diet items fed in captivity and in the wild have been documented, no reports exist on the iron content of the total diet ingested by free-ranging animals. Here, the results of field studies using backtracking to record the ingested diets of black rhinoceros from three habitats across three seasons are reported. Levels of iron and of condensed tannins, which might reduce iron availability, averaged at 91 +/- 41 ppm dry matter and 3.0 +/- 1.0% dry matter, respectively, across all habitats and seasons. Although geographic and seasonal variation was significant, these differences are of a much lower magnitude than differences between the averages of these diets and those fed to black rhinoceros in captivity. The results can provide guidelines for the iron content of diets designed for black rhinoceros and suggest that the effect of tannins in these species should be further investigated.

  15. Comparative life-cycle cost analysis for low-level mixed waste remediation alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.A.; White, T.P.; Kloeber, J.M.; Toland, R.J.; Cain, J.P.; Buitrago, D.Y.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to develop a generic, life-cycle cost model for evaluating low-level, mixed waste remediation alternatives, and (2) to apply the model specifically, to estimate remediation costs for a site similar to the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati, OH. Life-cycle costs for vitrification, cementation, and dry removal process technologies are estimated. Since vitrification is in a conceptual phase, computer simulation is used to help characterize the support infrastructure of a large scale vitrification plant. Cost estimating relationships obtained from the simulation data, previous cost estimates, available process data, engineering judgment, and expert opinion all provide input to an Excel based spreadsheet for generating cash flow streams. Crystal Ball, an Excel add-on, was used for discounting cash flows for net present value analysis. The resulting LCC data was then analyzed using multi-attribute decision analysis techniques with cost and remediation time as criteria. The analytical framework presented allows alternatives to be evaluated in the context of budgetary, social, and political considerations. In general, the longer the remediation takes, the lower the net present value of the process. This is true because of the time value of money and large percentage of the costs attributed to storage or disposal.

  16. Comparative life-cycle cost analysis for low-level mixed waste remediation alternatives. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.A.; White, T.P.; Kloeber, J.M.; Toland, R.J.; Cain, J.P.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to develop a generic, life-cycle cost model for evaluating low-level, mixed waste remediation alternatives, and (2) to apply the model, specifically, to estimate remediation costs for a site similar to the Femald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati, OH. Life-cycle costs for virtification, cementation, and dry removal process technologies are estimated. Since vitrification is in a conceptual phase, computer simulation is used to help characterize the support infrastructure of a large scale vitrification plant. Cost estimating relationships obtained from the simulation data, previous cost estimates, available process data, engineering judgment, and expert opinion all provide input to an Excel based spreadsheet for generating cash flow streams. Crystal Ball, an Excel add-on, was used for discounting cash flows for net present value analysis. The resulting LCC data was then analyzed using multi-attribute decision analysis techniques with cost and remediation time as criteria. The analytical framework presented allows alternatives to be evaluated in the context of budgetary, social, and political considerations. In general, the longer the remediation takes, the lower the net present value of the process.

  17. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors strongly regulate postsynaptic activity levels during optic nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kolls, Brad J; Meyer, Ronald L

    2013-10-01

    During development, neuronal activity is used as a cue to guide synaptic rearrangements to refine connections. Many studies, especially in the visual system, have shown that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) plays a key role in mediating activity-dependent refinement through long-term potentiation (LTP)-like processes. Adult goldfish can regenerate their optic nerve and utilize neuronal activity to generate precise topography in their projection onto tectum. Although the NMDAr has been implicated in this process, its precise role in regeneration has not been extensively studied. In examining NMDAr function during regeneration, we found salient differences compared with development. By using field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) recordings, the contribution of the NMDAr at the primary optic synapse was measured. In contrast to development, no increase in NMDAr function was detectable during synaptic refinement. Unlike development, LTP could not be reliably elicited during regeneration. Unexpectedly, we found that NMDAr exerted a major effect on regulating ongoing tectal (postsynaptic) activity levels during regeneration. Blocking NMDAr strongly suppressed spontaneous activity during regeneration but had no significant effect in the normal projection. This difference could be attributed to an occlusion effect of strong optic drive in the normal projection, which dominated ongoing tectal activity. During regeneration, this optic drive is largely absent. Optic nerve stimulation further indicated that the NMDAr had little effect on the ability of optic fibers to evoke early postsynaptic impulse activity but was important for late network activity. These results indicate that, during regeneration, the NMDAr may play a critical role in the homeostatic regulation of ongoing activity and network excitability. PMID:23873725

  18. Genome-level identification, gene expression, and comparative analysis of porcine ß-defensin genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Beta-defensins (β-defensins) are innate immune peptides with evolutionary conservation across a wide range of species and has been suggested to play important roles in innate immune reactions against pathogens. However, the complete β-defensin repertoire in the pig has not been fully addressed. Result A BLAST analysis was performed against the available pig genomic sequence in the NCBI database to identify β-defensin-related sequences using previously reported β-defensin sequences of pigs, humans, and cattle. The porcine β-defensin gene clusters were mapped to chromosomes 7, 14, 15 and 17. The gene expression analysis of 17 newly annotated porcine β-defensin genes across 15 tissues using semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed differences in their tissue distribution, with the kidney and testis having the largest pBD expression repertoire. We also analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mature peptide region of pBD genes from 35 pigs of 7 breeds. We found 8 cSNPs in 7 pBDs. Conclusion We identified 29 porcine β-defensin (pBD) gene-like sequences, including 17 unreported pBDs in the porcine genome. Comparative analysis of β-defensin genes in the pig genome with those in human and cattle genomes showed structural conservation of β-defensin syntenic regions among these species. PMID:23150902

  19. Comparing environmental risks: a consultative approach to setting priorities at the community level.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, T L

    1994-01-01

    Environmental risk management is facing a crisis. The number of recognized environmental hazards has clearly outstripped the resources available to do detailed studies on each or to establish effective control measures for each on an individual basis. Some method of prioritizing environmental hazards is required that does not involve detailed and individualized quantitative risk assessment. An alternative approach that has gained favour in recent years has been "risk comparison", as sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and as applied in several American states and local communities. Risk comparison is an approach that involves expert panels and the interested public in a consultative and iterative process leading to widespread agreement, if not consensus, on the relative rankings of often disparate environmental hazards. An outline of steps in the process formulated by the Northeast Center for Comparative Risk at the Vermont Law School is presented with commentary regarding its applicability to the Canadian scene. Implicit tradeoffs in risk comparison are also explored, including emphasis on categorical hazards v. media quality, magnitude of hazard v. population affected, ecological integrity v. human health, social concern v. scientific assessment, and novel v. familiar hazards. In practice, risk comparison is a process-oriented and often tedious approach, but it represents one way out of the current conundrum in dealing with environmental hazards. PMID:7708943

  20. Alien insects in Italy: comparing patterns from the regional to European level.

    PubMed

    Inghilesi, Alberto F; Mazza, Giuseppe; Cervo, Rita; Gherardi, Francesca; Sposimo, Paolo; Tricarico, Elena; Zapparoli, Marzio

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species outside their native range contributes to the loss of biodiversity, alters the structure and functioning of ecosystems, and damages economy and human health. Insects are one of the taxa with the highest frequency of introduction due to their high diversity, biological properties, and close association with human activities. Here, the allodiversity of Italian entomofauna was analyzed, with a focus on Tuscany (Central Italy). A list of alien insects in Tuscany is included. The status of the alien entomofauna in Italy was updated. The number of alien insects amounts to 122 in Tuscany and 923 in Italy. An introduction rate of 98 species per decade was estimated in Italy. In Tuscany, alien insects belong to 10 orders, mostly Coleoptera (38%), Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha and Auchenorrhyncha) (23%), and Hymenoptera (13%). They have been most often introduced through vegetable items (ornamental plants or crops). Most species come from the Nearctic region (26%) and are both phytophagous (63%) and amphigonic (80%). Differences and similarities in introduction patterns and in insect abundances across orders among regional, national, and European scales, also considering worldwide abundances, are discussed. Finally, a paucity of information regarding the negative impacts of many species, except for economic pests, phytosanitary threats, and vectors of disease, is underlined. A deeper understanding of the alien insects' ecological impact might help designate policies aimed at preventing further introductions and control the invasive populations of already established species.

  1. Community fall prevention programs: comparing three InSTEP models by levels of intensity.

    PubMed

    Kramer, B Josea; Creekmur, Beth; Mitchell, Michael N; Rose, Debra J; Pynoos, Jon; Rubenstein, Laurence Z

    2014-07-01

    The Fall Prevention Center of Excellence designed three progressive-intensity fall prevention program models, Increasing Stability Through Evaluation and Practice (InSTEP), to reduce risk in community-dwelling older adults. Each model included physical activity, medical risk, and home safety components and was implemented as a 12-week program for small class sizes (12-15 people) in community and senior centers. Change in fall rates and fall risk factors was assessed using a battery of performance tests, self-reports of function, and fall diaries in a 3-group within-subjects (N = 200) design measured at baseline, immediately postintervention, and at 3 and 9 months postintervention. Overall, participants experienced a reduction in falls, improved selfperception of gait and balance, and improved dynamic gait function. The medium-intensity InSTEP model significantly (p = .003) reduced self-reported falls in comparison with the other models. InSTEP is a feasible model for addressing fall risk reduction in community-dwelling older adults.

  2. Alien Insects in Italy: Comparing Patterns from the Regional to European Level

    PubMed Central

    Inghilesi, Alberto F.; Mazza, Giuseppe; Cervo, Rita; Gherardi, Francesca; Sposimo, Paolo; Tricarico, Elena; Zapparoli, Marzio

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species outside their native range contributes to the loss of biodiversity, alters the structure and functioning of ecosystems, and damages economy and human health. Insects are one of the taxa with the highest frequency of introduction due to their high diversity, biological properties, and close association with human activities. Here, the allodiversity of Italian entomofauna was analyzed, with a focus on Tuscany (Central Italy). A list of alien insects in Tuscany is included. The status of the alien entomofauna in Italy was updated. The number of alien insects amounts to 122 in Tuscany and 923 in Italy. An introduction rate of 98 species per decade was estimated in Italy. In Tuscany, alien insects belong to 10 orders, mostly Coleoptera (38%), Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha and Auchenorrhyncha) (23%), and Hymenoptera (13%). They have been most often introduced through vegetable items (ornamental plants or crops). Most species come from the Nearctic region (26%) and are both phytophagous (63%) and amphigonic (80%). Differences and similarities in introduction patterns and in insect abundances across orders among regional, national, and European scales, also considering worldwide abundances, are discussed. Finally, a paucity of information regarding the negative impacts of many species, except for economic pests, phytosanitary threats, and vectors of disease, is underlined. A deeper understanding of the alien insects' ecological impact might help designate policies aimed at preventing further introductions and control the invasive populations of already established species. PMID:24219427

  3. Comparative study of the antioxidative activities of caffeoylquinic and caffeic acids.

    PubMed

    Marković, Svetlana; Tošović, Jelena

    2016-11-01

    A detailed conformational analysis was performed to determine the most stable conformers of chlorogenic, cryptochlorogenic, and neochlorogenic acids. The simulated and experimental NMR spectra of caffeoylquinic acids are in excellent agreement. The bond dissociation enthalpies, proton affinities, electron transfer enthalpies, ionisation potentials, and proton dissociation enthalpies for these compounds and caffeic acid in benzene, methanol, and water were used for thermodynamic consideration of the major antioxidative mechanisms: HAT (Hydrogen Atom Transfer), SPLET (Sequential Proton-Loss Electron-Transfer), and SET-PT (Single Electron Transfer - Proton Transfer). All compounds are characterised with very similar values of each enthalpy, suggesting that they will exhibit comparable antioxidative activities. This assumption is in perfect accord with the experimental findings. It was suggested that HAT may be the predominant mechanism in nonpolar solvents, while HAT and SPLET are competitive pathways in polar media. All calculations were performed using the B3LYP-D2/6-311++G(d,p) and M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory and CPCM solvation model. PMID:27211685

  4. Bone speed of sound and physical activity levels of overweight and normal-weight girls and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yao, Mathew; Ludwa, Izabella; Corbett, Lauren; Klentrou, Panagiota; Bonsu, Peter; Gammage, Kimberley; Falk, Bareket

    2011-02-01

    Bone properties, reflected by speed of sound (SOS), and physical activity levels were examined in overweight (OW) girls (n = 19) and adolescents (n = 22), in comparison with normal-weight (NW) girls (n = 21) and adolescents (n = 13). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was higher in NW than in OW in both age groups. Tibial SOS was lower in OW compared with NW in both age groups. MVPA correlated with tibial SOS, once age was partialed out. The results suggest that overweight girls and adolescents are characterized by low tibial SOS, which may be partially attributed to lower physical activity levels.

  5. Minocycline treatment inhibits microglial activation and alters spinal levels of endocannabinoids in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Guasti, Leonardo; Richardson, Denise; Jhaveri, Maulik; Eldeeb, Khalil; Barrett, David; Elphick, Maurice R; Alexander, Stephen P H; Kendall, David; Michael, Gregory J; Chapman, Victoria

    2009-07-01

    Activation of spinal microglia contributes to aberrant pain responses associated with neuropathic pain states. Endocannabinoids (ECs) are present in the spinal cord, and inhibit nociceptive processing; levels of ECs may be altered by microglia which modulate the turnover of endocannabinoids in vitro. Here, we investigate the effect of minocycline, an inhibitor of activated microglia, on levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and the related compound N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA), in neuropathic spinal cord. Selective spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats resulted in mechanical allodynia and the presence of activated microglia in the ipsilateral spinal cord. Chronic daily treatment with minocycline (30 mg/kg, ip for 14 days) significantly reduced the development of mechanical allodynia at days 5, 10 and 14 post-SNL surgery, compared to vehicle-treated SNL rats (P < 0.001). Minocycline treatment also significantly attenuated OX-42 immunoreactivity, a marker of activated microglia, in the ipsilateral (P < 0.001) and contralateral (P < 0.01) spinal cord of SNL rats, compared to vehicle controls. Minocycline treatment significantly (P < 0.01) decreased levels of 2-AG and significantly (P < 0.01) increased levels of PEA in the ipsilateral spinal cord of SNL rats, compared to the contralateral spinal cord. Thus, activation of microglia affects spinal levels of endocannabinoids and related compounds in neuropathic pain states.

  6. The National Curriculum: A Study to Compare Levels of Attainment with Data from APU Science Surveys (1980-4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Compared are the levels of attainment for the Science in the National Curriculum assessment in Great Britain in 1989 and the performance of students on the application of science concepts part of the Assessment of Performance Unit-Science carried out in 1980-84. (KR)

  7. Comparing Levels of Anti-Fat Bias between American and Mexican Athletes and Undergraduate Physical Education and Exercise Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alameda, Miriam Wood; Whitehead, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatization consequent to anti-fat bias (AFB) may affect the services people who are obese receive from health professionals, including physical education and exercise science (PEX) professionals. In this study, we compared AFB levels of American and Mexican PEX students and Mexican athletes. We also investigated if socially desirable (SD)…

  8. TISSUE CONCENTRATION OF PCBS IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS AS COMPARED WITH THOSE IN HUMANS WITH BACKGROUND-LEVEL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    TISSUE CONCENTRATION OF PCBS IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS AS COMPARED WITH THOSE IN HUMANS WITH BACKGROUND-LEVEL EXPOSURE. M J DeVito1 and M P Longnecker2. 1NHEERL, ORD, USEPA; Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Epidemiology
    Branch, NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

    To ...

  9. Comparative study of the small signal gain coefficient and the dissipative losses evaluation methods of three-level microchip lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, J.; Belghachem, N.

    2015-08-01

    The paper describes the study of three methods of evaluation of the small signal gain coefficient and the dissipative losses of three-level microchip lasers. Engaging optimization procedure for cw lasers a very simple way to compare these methods was proposed. On the basis of laser generation investigations and calculations the most accurate method was chosen.

  10. Comparative study of alternative high-level waste-solidification processes

    SciTech Connect

    Treat, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The followig nine processes were evaluated: in-can glass melting process; joule-heated glass melting process; glass-ceramic process; marbles-in-lead matrix process; coated supercalcine pellets-in-lead matrix process; SYNROC process; titanate process; concrete process; and cermet process. In general, and probably as expected, it can be concluded that the processes with the fewest processing components require the fewest motorized parts and the fewest steps to produce a canister of waste. The requirements for the in-can glass melting, joule-heated glass melting and glass-ceramic processes are lower in all categories when compared to any of the remaining six processes. The average difference in requirements between the in-can glass melting, joule-heated glass melting and glass-ceramic processes and the remaining six processes is about a factor of 1.5 to 2. As previously stated, in-cell and out-of-cell service equipment were not included. Equipment requirements are also likely to change as these processes reach a more advanced state of development. Other equipment will likely be required as process and waste form criteria are established. Although the equipment and process steps identified in this study are of somewhat limited value, they could serve as a basis for more advanced analyses. For example, the reliability of each unit of equipment and each process step identified in this study could be estimated. Repair or replacement times for failed equipment could also be estimated. With reliability and repair or replacement data, it may also be possible to determine the additional equipment requirements, if any, for operating the process at its design rate. With a more complete summary of equipment requirements, other important processing parameters, such as product variability, safety and ease of decontamination, could be estimated.

  11. Levels of autistic traits in anorexia nervosa: a comparative psychometric study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of characteristics associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are over-represented among patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) as well as among relatives of these patients. Yet the co-occurrence of autistic traits in AN has not been fully explored and no previous study has directly compared self-reported evaluations of cognitive and socio-affective skills in AN and ASD. Methods We aimed to determine the degree of overlap between AN and ASD from scores on questionnaires classically used to measure ASD impairments. Fifteen AN participants, 15 ASD participants and two groups of matched controls completed a battery of self-reports measuring: autistic traits (Autism-Spectrum Quotient), empathy (Empathy Quotient-short and Interpersonal Reactivity Index), systemizing (Systemizing Quotient-short) and alexithymia (Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire-B). Univariate comparisons of mean totalled scores were performed on each measure (patients vs. controls, and AN vs. ASD), and a Principal Component Analysis was used to study subject proximities in a reduced-factor space constructed from AQ, BVAQ-B and IRI subscales. Results These analyses revealed similarities in a few cognitive domains (Attention Switching, Perspective Taking and Fantasy, lack of emotional introspection) and in some nonspecific affective dimensions (depression and feelings of distress), but also marked dissimilarities in social skills (the ability to communicate emotions to others, empathizing). Conclusion The AN and ASD participants reported similar needs for sameness, and similar difficulties understanding their emotions and taking the perspective of another, but contrasting abilities to feel concerned in interpersonal situations. Our mixed findings encourage further exploration of transdiagnostic similarities and associations between these disorders. PMID:24015680

  12. Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Levels in Patients With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Røge, Rasmus; Pristed, Sofie Gry; Viuff, Anne Grethe; Ullum, Henrik; Thørner, Lise Wegner; Werge, Thomas; Vang, Torkel

    2015-01-01

    Background: The etiology of schizophrenia remains largely unknown but alterations in the immune system may be involved. In addition to the psychiatric symptoms, schizophrenia is also associated with up to 20 years reduction in life span. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a protein that can be measured in blood samples and reflects the levels of inflammatory activity. It has been associated with mortality and the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Methods: suPAR levels in patients with schizophrenia were compared to healthy controls from the Danish Blood Donor Study. SuPAR levels were dichotomized at >4.0 ng/ml, which is considered the threshold for low grade inflammation. A multiple logistic regression model was used and adjusted for age, sex, and current smoking. Results: In total we included 1009 subjects, 105 cases with schizophrenia (10.4%) and 904 controls (89.6%). The mean suPAR values were 4.01 ng/ml (SD = 1.43) for the cases vs 1.91 ng/ml (SD = 1.35) for the controls (P < .001). Multiple logistic regression with odds ratio (OR) for suPAR levels >4.0 ng/ml yielded: schizophrenia, OR: 46.15 95% CI 22.69–93.87, P < .001; age, OR: 1.02 95% CI 0.99–1.02, P = .15; male sex, OR: 0.70 95% CI 0.35–1.36, P = .29; and current smoking, OR: 3.51 95% CI 1.78–6.94, P < .001. Conclusions: Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher suPAR levels than healthy controls. Further studies are warranted to clarify if elevated suPAR levels are involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and/or the increased mortality found in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25154621

  13. Decreased modulation by the risk level on the brain activation during decision making in adolescents with internet gaming disorder

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xin; Du, Xin; Yang, Yongxin; Du, Guijin; Gao, Peihong; Zhang, Yang; Qin, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Greater impulse and risk-taking and reduced decision-making ability were reported as the main behavioral impairments in individuals with internet gaming disorder (IGD), which has become a serious mental health issue worldwide. However, it is not clear to date how the risk level modulates brain activity during the decision-making process in IGD individuals. In this study, 23 adolescents with IGD and 24 healthy controls (HCs) without IGD were recruited, and the balloon analog risk task (BART) was used in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment to evaluate the modulation of the risk level (the probability of balloon explosion) on brain activity during risky decision making in IGD adolescents. Reduced modulation of the risk level on the activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the active BART was found in IGD group compared to the HCs. In the IGD group, there was a significant negative correlation between the risk-related DLPFC activation during the active BART and the Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-11) scores, which were significantly higher in IGD group compared with the HCs. Our study demonstrated that, as a critical decision-making-related brain region, the right DLPFC is less sensitive to risk in IGD adolescents compared with the HCs, which may contribute to the higher impulsivity level in IGD adolescents. PMID:26578922

  14. Antibacterial Activity of Netilmicin, a New Aminoglycoside Antibiotic, Compared with That of Gentamicin

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Ian; Smith, Anne; Shannon, Kevin

    1977-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of netilmicin (Sch 20569), a new semisynthetic aminoglycoside, was compared with that of gentamicin against a variety of gram-negative bacteria, staphylococci, and streptococci. Both antibiotics had similar activity against most organisms, but netilmicin had appreciably greater activity against gram-negative organisms that were resistant to gentamicin because these species synthesized aminoglycoside 3-N-acetyltransferase I or aminoglycoside 2″-O-nucleotidyltransferase. Netilmicin was also more active than gentamicin against gentamicin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus that produced two enzymes–aminoglycoside-2″-O-phosphotransferase and aminoglycoside-6′-N-acetyltransferase. PMID:301004

  15. Association between Municipal Health Promotion Volunteers’ Health Literacy and Their Level of Outreach Activities in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Atsuko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the association between health literacy and levels of three types of core activities among health promotion volunteers (developing a healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community members). Study Design A cross-sectional, anonymous, self-administered postal survey of registered health promotion volunteers in the Konan area in Shiga Prefecture in Japan, conducted in January 2010. The study sample was 575 registered health promotion volunteers. Methods The survey collected data on health literacy, gender, age, education, self-rated health, perceptions about the volunteer organization, and perceptions of recognition in the community. The level of engagement in health promotion activities was measured by the extent to which the participants engaged in seven healthy behaviors and promoted them to family members and the community. The authors compared the health literacy level and other characteristics of the participants by core health promotion activities, using a chi-squared test, to examine the associations between demographic and other variables and the three core activities (healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community).Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between the degree to which the volunteers engaged in core activities (“healthy lifestyle,” “outreach to family,” “outreach to community”) and the levels of health literacy (low, medium, high) among health promotion volunteers, controlling for the effects of age, gender, health condition, education which may also have an impact on volunteers’ outreach activities. Results Four hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were returned, a 79.0% response rate. Excluding 16 cases with missing values on health literacy or the degree of health promotion activities, 438 research subjects were included in the analysis (valid response rate: 76.2%). Health literacy and a few demographic and other characteristics of the

  16. Levels of HVA, 5-HIAA, and MHPG in the CSF of vascular parkinsonism compared to Parkinson's disease and controls.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Megan K; Kuiperij, H Bea; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Verbeek, Marcel M

    2013-12-01

    The neurochemical abnormalities underlying vascular parkinsonism (VP) have not been well characterised. A better understanding may help to optimize pharmacological interventions. Since VP patients generally have a poorer response to l-Dopa than Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, we investigated whether levels of relevant CSF neurotransmitter metabolites may be differentially altered in VP and PD and assessed the potential of neurotransmitter metabolites as biomarkers. We compared CSF levels of homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol, in 16 VP patients, 57 PD patients and 60 non-neurological controls. We found that levels of HVA were reduced in PD compared with both VP and controls but did not differ significantly between VP and controls indicating that dopamine deficiency was less pronounced in VP. PMID:24122060

  17. A comparative analysis of multi-level computer-assisted decision making systems for traumatic injuries

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper focuses on the creation of a predictive computer-assisted decision making system for traumatic injury using machine learning algorithms. Trauma experts must make several difficult decisions based on a large number of patient attributes, usually in a short period of time. The aim is to compare the existing machine learning methods available for medical informatics, and develop reliable, rule-based computer-assisted decision-making systems that provide recommendations for the course of treatment for new patients, based on previously seen cases in trauma databases. Datasets of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients are used to train and test the decision making algorithm. The work is also applicable to patients with traumatic pelvic injuries. Methods Decision-making rules are created by processing patterns discovered in the datasets, using machine learning techniques. More specifically, CART and C4.5 are used, as they provide grammatical expressions of knowledge extracted by applying logical operations to the available features. The resulting rule sets are tested against other machine learning methods, including AdaBoost and SVM. The rule creation algorithm is applied to multiple datasets, both with and without prior filtering to discover significant variables. This filtering is performed via logistic regression prior to the rule discovery process. Results For survival prediction using all variables, CART outperformed the other machine learning methods. When using only significant variables, neural networks performed best. A reliable rule-base was generated using combined C4.5/CART. The average predictive rule performance was 82% when using all variables, and approximately 84% when using significant variables only. The average performance of the combined C4.5 and CART system using significant variables was 89.7% in predicting the exact outcome (home or rehabilitation), and 93.1% in predicting the ICU length of stay for airlifted TBI patients

  18. Objectively-Measured Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education among Homeschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Sarah; Pope, Zachary; Zeng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Despite a growing population of homeschool children in the United States, little is known regarding their physical activity (PA) levels. Without access to physical education, homeschool children may engage in inadequate PA levels. The purpose of this study was to objectively examine the activity levels of homeschool students participating in a…

  19. The impact of sport and active recreation injuries on physical activity levels at 12 months post-injury.

    PubMed

    Andrew, N; Wolfe, R; Cameron, P; Richardson, M; Page, R; Bucknill, A; Gabbe, B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of serious sport and active recreation injury on 12-month physical activity levels. Adults admitted to hospital with sport and active recreation-related injuries, and captured by the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry were recruited to the study. Changes between preinjury and 12 month post-injury physical activity was assessed using the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Independent demographic, injury, and hospital variables were assessed for associations with changes in physical activity levels, using multivariate linear regression. A total of 324 patients were recruited, of which 98% were followed up at 12 months. Mean short IPAQ scores decreased from 7650 METS (95% CI: 7180, 8120) preinjury to 3880 METS; (95% CI: 3530, 4250) post-injury, independent of functional recovery. Education level and occupation group were the only variables independently associated with changes in physical activity levels post-injury. These results highlighted that sport and active recreation injuries lead to significant reductions in physical activity levels. Hence, the prevention of sport and active recreation injuries is important when considering promotion of activity at a population level.

  20. Increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression levels in visceral adipose tissue, and serum CCL2 and interleukin-6 levels during visceral adipose tissue accumulation.

    PubMed

    Yogarajah, Thaneswary; Bee, Yvonne-Tee Get; Noordin, Rahmah; Yin, Khoo Boon

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in visceral adipose tissue, as well as serum adipokine levels, in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were fed either a normal (control rats) or excessive (experimental rats) intake of food for 8 or 16 weeks, then sacrificed, at which time visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, as well as blood samples, were collected. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PPARs in the visceral adipose tissues were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. In addition, the levels of adipokines in the serum samples were determined using commercial ELISA kits. The results revealed that at 8 weeks, the mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue was higher than that of the visceral adipose tissue in the experimental rats, but the reverse occurred at 16 weeks. Furthermore, at 16 weeks the experimental rats exhibited an upregulation of PPARγ mRNA and protein expression levels in the visceral adipose tissues, and significant increases in the serum levels of CCL2 and interleukin (IL)-6 were observed, compared with those measured at 8 weeks. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the PPARγ expression level was likely correlated with serum levels of CCL2 and IL-6, molecules that may facilitate visceral adipose tissue accumulation. In addition, the levels of the two adipokines in the serum may be useful as surrogate biomarkers for the expression levels of PPARγ in accumulated visceral adipose tissues.

  1. Liquid-Phase Adsorption of Phenol onto Activated Carbons Prepared with Different Activation Levels.

    PubMed

    Hsieh; Teng

    2000-10-01

    The influence of the pore size distribution of activated carbon on the adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions was explored. Activated carbons with different porous structures were prepared by gasifying a bituminous coal char to different extents of burn-off. The results of adsorption experiments show that the phenol capacity of these carbons does not proportionally increase with their BET surface area. This reflects the heterogeneity of the carbon surface for adsorption. The pore size distributions of these carbons, determined according to the Dubinin-Stoeckli equation, were found to vary with the burn-off level. By incorporating the distribution with the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation using an inverse proportionality between the micropore size and the adsorption energy, the isotherms for the adsorption of phenol onto these carbons can be well predicted. The present study has demonstrated that the heterogeneity of carbon surface for the phenol adsorption can be attributed to the different energies required for adsorption in different-size micropores. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10998301

  2. Activity of extracellular enzymes on the marine beach differing in the level of antropopressure.

    PubMed

    Perliński, P; Mudryk, Z J

    2016-03-01

    The level of activity of extracellular enzymes was determined on two transects characterised by different anthropic pressure on a sandy beach in Ustka, the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Generally, the level of activity of the studied enzymes was higher on the transect characterised by high anthropic pressure. The ranking order of the mean enzyme activity rates in the sand was as follows: lipase > phosphatase > aminopeptidase > β-glucosidase > α-glucosidase > chitinase. Each enzyme had its characteristic horizontal profile of activity. The levels of activity of the studied enzymes were slightly higher in the surface than subsurface sand layer. Extracellular enzymatic activities were strongly influenced by the season. PMID:26911592

  3. Activation of intracellular kinases in Xenopus oocytes by p21ras and phospholipases: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Carnero, A; Lacal, J C

    1995-02-01

    Signal transduction induced by generations of second messengers from membrane phospholipids is a major regulatory mechanism in the control of cell proliferation. Indeed, oncogenic p21ras alters the intracellular levels of phospholipid metabolites in both mammalian cells and Xenopus oocytes. However, it is still controversial whether this alteration it is biologically significant. We have analyzed the ras-induced signal transduction pathway in Xenopus oocytes and have correlated its mechanism of activation with that of the three most relevant phospholipases (PLs). After microinjection, ras-p21 induces a rapid PLD activation followed by a late PLA2 activation. By contrast, phosphatidylcholine-specific PLC was not activated under similar conditions. When each of these PLs was studied for its ability to activate intracellular signalling kinases, all of them were found to activate maturation-promoting factor efficiently. However, only PLD was able to activate MAP kinase and S6 kinase II, a similar pattern to that induced by p21ras proteins. Thus, the comparison of activated enzymes after microinjection of p21ras or PLs indicated that only PLD microinjection mimetized p21ras signalling. Finally, inhibition of the endogenous PLD activity by neomycin substantially reduced the biological activity of p21ras. All these results suggest that PLD activation may constitute a relevant step in ras-induced germinal vesicle breakdown in Xenopus oocytes.

  4. A sensitive and facile assay for the measurement of activated protein C activity levels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Orthner, C L; Kolen, B; Drohan, W N

    1993-05-01

    Activated protein C (APC) is a serine protease which plays an important role as a naturally occurring antithrombotic enzyme. APC, which is formed by thrombin-catalyzed limited proteolysis of the zymogen protein C, functions as an anticoagulant by proteolytic inactivation of the coagulation cofactors VIIIa and Va: APC is inhibited by several members of the serpin family as well a by alpha 2-macroglobulin. APC is being developed as a therapeutic for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis. We have developed an assay to quantify circulating levels of enzymatically active APC during its administration to patients, in healthy individuals, and in various disease states. This assay utilizes an EDTA-dependent anti-protein C monoclonal antibody (Mab) 7D7B10 to capture both APC and protein C from plasma, prepared from blood collected in an anticoagulant supplemented with the reversible inhibitor p-aminobenzamidine. Mab 7D7B10-derivatized agarose beads are added to the wells of a 96-well filtration plate, equilibrated with Tris-buffered saline, and incubated for 10 min with 200 microliters of plasma. After washing, APC and protein C are eluted from the immunosorbent beads with a calcium-containing buffer into the wells of a 96-well microtiter plate containing antithrombin III (ATIII) and heparin. The amidolytic activity of APC is then measured on a kinetic plate reader following the addition of L-pyroglutamyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (S-2366) substrate. The rate of substrate hydrolysis was proportional to APC concentration over a 200-fold concentration range (5.0 to 1,000 ng/ml) when measured continuously over a 15 to 30 min time period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Circulating kisspeptin and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) do not correlate with gonadotropin serum levels.

    PubMed

    Kanasaki, Haruhiko; Purwana, Indri N; Oride, Aki; Mijiddorj, Tselmeg; Sukhbaatar, Unurjargal; Miyazaki, Kohji

    2013-06-01

    Kisspeptins are known to be the principle regulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis. In addition, the role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the regulation of pituitary gonadotropins has been elucidated. We measured plasma concentrations of kisspeptin and PACAP and determined whether the levels of these peptides varied in proportion to circulating gonadotropin levels. Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were higher in postmenopausal women and in patients with premature ovarian failure (POF) and lower in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) compared with the LH level in normally menstruating women. Similarly, serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels were higher in postmenopausal women and in patients with POF but lower in pregnant women and patients with IHH compared with normally menstruating women. Plasma levels of kisspeptins were significantly higher in pregnant women compared with normally menstruating women. However, no significant differences were observed in postmenopausal women, patients with POF, and patients with IHH. On the other hand, plasma levels of PACAP were significantly lower in pregnant women, patients with POF, and in IHH patients when compared with normally menstruating women. No significant differences were observed in PACAP concentration between postmenopausal women and in normally menstruating women. Our observations suggest that the serum levels of kisspeptins and PACAP did not correlate with variations in serum gonadotropin levels.

  6. Levels of dioxins and dibenzofurans in breast milk of women residing in two cities in the Irkutsk Region of Russian Siberia compared with American levels.

    PubMed

    Schecter, A; Piskac, A L; Grosheva, E I; Matorova, N I; Ryan, J J; Fürst, P; Päpke; Adibi, J; Pavuk, M; Silver, A; Ghaffar, S

    2002-04-01

    The presence of dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human tissue, food, and environmental samples from Russia has been monitored since 1988 as part of a research collaboration between a number of countries including Finland, the United States, Germany, the former Soviet Union, and Canada. Although elevated TCDD and PnCDD levels have previously been found in blood of male and female Russian chemical manufacturing workers and in their children, dioxin levels in the general population have usually been found to be lower than in Americans and Europeans. This study continues earlier work in the Irkutsk region of Russian Siberia, where we report levels of dioxin, dibenzofurans, and PCBs in human milk samples taken from general population women living in the industrialized cities of Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye, near Lake Baikal. Total polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) toxic equivalents (TEQs) compared in this paper for the industrialized regions of Siberia, Ukraine, and the US are similar, ranging from 6.1 to 7 parts per trillion (ppt). Recent 1998 milk samples from Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye have total mean polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) TEQs of 10 and 21.7 ppt, respectively, with the other industrialized countries ranging from 2.3 to 6.7 ppt. Although dioxin-like PCBs were not measured for the city of Usolye-Sibirskoye (1998), total mean PCDD/F TEQ from Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye (1998) were the two highest levels in this study, with 26.9 and 28.5 ppt, respectively, followed by 1993-1994 Ukraine samples with 24 ppt, 1989 Siberian samples with 13.6 ppt, and 1996 USA with 11.4 ppt total TEQ. In this study, higher levels of dioxins are noted in milk from Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye than found in earlier Russian studies, with mean levels also exceeding 1996 and 1999 US breast milk dioxin levels. PMID:11993631

  7. [Effect of fertilization levels on soil microorganism amount and soil enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Ling; Du, Jun-Bo; Xu, Fu-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hu

    2013-11-01

    Field experiments were conducted in Shangluo pharmaceutical base in Shaanxi province to study the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in different fertilization levels on Platycodon grandiflorum soil microorganism and activities of soil enzyme, using three-factor D-saturation optimal design with random block design. The results showed that N0P2K2, N2P2K0, N3P1K3 and N3P3K1 increased the amount of bacteria in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0 by 144.34%, 39.25%, 37.17%, 53.58%, respectively. The amount of bacteria in 2040 cm of soil of N3P1K3 increased by 163.77%, N0P0K3 increased the amount of soil actinomycetes significantly by 192.11%, while other treatments had no significant effect. N2P0K2 and N3P1K3 increased the amounts of fungus significantly in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0, increased by 35.27% and 92.21%, respectively. N3P0K0 increased the amounts of fungus significantly in 20-40 cm of soil by 165.35%, while other treatments had no significant effect. All treatments decrease soil catalase activity significantly in 0-20 cm of soil except for N2P0K2, and while N2P2K0 and NPK increased catalase activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil. Fertilization regime increased invertase activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil, and decreased phosphatase activity inordinately in 0-20 cm of soil, while increased phosphatase activity in 2040 cm of soil other than N1P3K3. N3P0K0, N0P0K3, N2P0K2, N2P2K0 and NPK increased soil urease activity significantly in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0 by 18.22%, 14.87%,17.84%, 27.88%, 24.54%, respectively. Fertilization regime increased soil urease activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil other than N0P2K2. PMID:24558863

  8. Comparing trapezius muscle activity in the different planes of shoulder elevation.

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, Tomonobu; Ishida, Tomoya; Samukawa, Mina; Saito, Hiroshi; Hirokawa, Motoki; Ezawa, Yuya; Sugawara, Makoto; Tohyama, Harukazu; Yamanaka, Masanori

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the upper, middle, and lower trapezius muscles' activity in the different planes of shoulder elevation. [Subjects] Twenty male subjects volunteered for this study. [Methods] Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity for each of the three regions of the trapezius muscles in the three different planes of elevation were collected while the participants maintained 30, 60, and 90 degrees of elevation in each plane. The EMG data were normalized with maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC), and compared among the planes at each angle of elevation. [Results] There were significantly different muscle activities among the elevation planes at each angle. [Conclusion] This study found that the three regions of the trapezius muscles changed their activity depending on the planes of shoulder elevation. These changes in the trapezius muscles could induce appropriate scapular motion to face the glenoid cavity in the correct directions in different planes of shoulder elevation.

  9. Comparative Study of Plasma Endotoxin with Procalcitonin Levels in Diagnosis of Bacteremia in Intensive Care Unit Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Cui, Yun-Liang; Lin, Zhao-Fen; Chen, De-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Both procalcitonin (PCT) and plasma endotoxin levels cannot be solely used for a definite diagnosis of bacteremia or sepsis, and there has been few study comparing the values of the two biomarkers for the diagnosis of bacteremia. The aim of this study was to identify bacteria causing bacteremia and evaluate the role of the two biomarkers in the diagnosis of bacteremia in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Methods: The medical records of 420 patients in ICU were retrospectively reviewed. Patients (n = 241) who met the inclusion criteria were subjected to blood culture (BC) for the analysis of the endotoxin or PCT levels. The exclusion criteria included the presence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus and/or AIDS, neutropenia without sepsis, pregnancy, treatment with immunosuppressive therapies, or blood diseases such as hematological tumors. Patients’ BC episodes were divided into BC negative, Gram-negative (GN) bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi groups. The PCT and plasma endotoxin levels were compared in the different groups. Results: A total of 241 patients with 505 episodes of BC were analyzed. The GN bacteria group showed higher levels of PCT and endotoxin than the BC negative, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi groups. GN bacteremia was more prevalent than Gram-positive bacteremia. The GN bacteremia caused by non-Enterobacteriaceae infection presented higher endotoxin level than that by Enterobacteriaceae, but no significant difference in PCT levels was observed between the two groups. The plasma endotoxin significantly differed among different groups and was bacterial species dependent. Conclusions: Plasma endotoxin was more related to GN than to Gram-positive bacteremia, and that endotoxin level was species dependent, but PCT level remained relatively more stable within the GN bacteria caused bacteremia. Both GN and positive bacteria caused bacteremia in the ICU patients in different regions of China. And PCT is a more valuable

  10. Transketolase activity modulates glycerol-3-phosphate levels in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Vimala, A; Harinarayanan, R

    2016-04-01

    Transketolase activity provides an important link between the metabolic pathways of glycolysis and pentose phosphate shunt and catalyzes inter-conversions between pentose phosphates and glycolytic intermediates. It is widely conserved in life forms. A genetic screen for suppression of the growth defect of Escherichia coli tktA tktB mutant in LB medium revealed two mutations, one that rendered the glpK expression constitutive and another that inactivated deoB. Characterizing these mutations aided in uncovering the role of ribose-5-P (a transketolase substrate) as an inhibitor of glycerol assimilation and de novo glycerol-3-P synthesis. Using lacZ fusions, we show that ribose-5-P enhances GlpR-mediated repression of the glpFKX operon and inhibits glycerol assimilation. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) showed ribose-5-P made the DNA-GlpR complex less sensitive to the inducer glycerol-3-P. In addition to inhibition of glycerol assimilation, obstruction of ribose-5-P metabolism retards growth from glycerol-3-P limitation. Glucose helps to overcome this limitation through a mechanism involving catabolite repression. To our knowledge, this report is the first to show ribose-5-P can modulate glycerol-3-P concentration in the cell by regulation of glycerol assimilation as well as its de novo synthesis. This regulation could be prevalent in other organisms. PMID:26691989

  11. Comparative study of sexual dysfunction and serum prolactin level associated with olanzapine, risperidone, and clozapine in patients with remitted schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Sathish Kumar, S. V.; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sexual dysfunctions have been a major side effect of the second generation anti-psychotic drugs which often affects treatment compliance in patients with schizophrenia. There is no/few systematic review or research addressing sexual dysfunction and their effect on serum prolactin level among different atypical antipsychotics in India. Aims: To determine and compare the frequency of sexual dysfunction associated with olanzapine, risperidone, and clozapine and their effect on serum prolactin level in remitted patients with schizophrenia. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional hospital-based study. Recruitment by purposive sampling. Estimation of serum prolactin was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Materials and Methods: The total sample size was 103, consisting of 31, 23, and 19 patients in olanzapine, risperidone, and clozapine groups, respectively and 30 controls. A Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser (UKU) Side Effect Rating Scale and Sexual Functioning Questionnaire were administered. Analysis of variance was used to compare clinical variables. Chi-square test was used to identify the frequency of sexual dysfunction. Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare UKU side effect, sexual dysfunction, and blood parameters across the study groups. Results and Conclusion: Eighty-six percentage reported sexual dysfunction in one or more domains of sexual functioning in risperidone group as compared to 48.3% in olanzapine and 31% in clozapine groups, respectively. Prolactin level elevation was statistically significant in risperidone group followed by clozapine and olanzapine groups, respectively. PMID:26816428

  12. A comparison of the levels of oil, carotenoids, and lipolytic enzyme activities in modern lines and hybrids of grain sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen modern commercial grain sorghum hybrids and five sorghum lines were extracted and the levels of oil and carotenoids were analyzed and compared. The same samples were also evaluated for lipolytic enzyme activity. The oil content in all eighteen samples ranged from 3.21 to 4.29 wt%. Beta c...

  13. Comparative analysis of serum malondialdehyde, antioxidant vitamins and immunoglobulin levels in patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Islam, M R; Ahmed, M U; Islam, M S; Sayeed, M S B; Sadia, F; Chowdhury, Z S; Nahar, Z; Hasnat, A

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between the elevated levels of serum malondialdehyde, depleted level of antioxidants (vitamin A, E and C) and altered level of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG and IgM) in several psychiatric disorders has been established by various experimental evidences over the past few years. But previously no study was carried out to determine these components in patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in Bangladesh. This study was conducted to compare the serum concentration of these components in GAD patients and healthy volunteers; matched by socioeconomic and sociodemographic parameters. Serum level of malondialdehyde and vitamin C were determined by UV spectrophotometric method, vitamins A and E were detected by RP-HPLC method whereas immunoglobulin levels were determined by turbidimetric method. Data were analyzed by independent t-test, Pearson's correlation and regression analysis. Significantly lower level of vitamin E (p<0.05) and significantly higher level of vitamin C were found in GAD patients than the healthy controls, whereas the change of vitamin A was insignificant. Serum malondialdehyde content was significantly higher (p<0.05) and IgM level was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of the controls. Change in concentrations of IgG and IgA were insignificant (p>0.05). Pearson's correlation coefficient suggested that there were some significant positive and negative correlations among these tested components. Our study reveals that GAD patients have considerably higher level of malondialdehyde, immunoglobulins and altered level of antioxidant vitamins. These findings may play a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of GAD patients.

  14. Comparing a Combination of Validated Questionnaires and Level III Portable Monitor with Polysomnography to Diagnose and Exclude Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Effie J.; Driver, Helen S.; Stewart, Steven C.; Fitzpatrick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Questionnaires have been validated as screening tools in adult populations at risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Portable monitors (PM) have gained acceptance for confirmation of OSA in some patients with a high pretest probability of the disorder. We evaluated the combined diagnostic utility of 3 validated questionnaires and a Level III PM in the diagnosis and exclusion of OSA, as compared with in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) derived apnea hypopnea index (AHI). Methods: Consecutive patients referred to the Sleep Disorders Clinic completed 3 testing components: (1) 3 questionnaires (Berlin, STOP-Bang, and Sleep Apnea Clinical Score [SACS]); (2) Level III at-home PM (MediByte) study; and (3) Level I in-laboratory PSG. The utility of individual questionnaires, the Level III device alone, and the combination of questionnaires and the Level III device were compared with the PSG. Results: One hundred twenty-eight patients participated in the study (84M, 44F), mean ± SD age 50 ± 12.3years, BMI 31 ± 6.6 kg/m2. At a PSG threshold AHI = 10, the PM derived respiratory disturbance index (RDI) had a sensitivity and specificity of 79% and 86%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for the other screening tools were: Berlin 88%, 25%; STOP-Bang 90%, 25%; SACS 33%, 75%. The sensitivity and specificity at a PSG AHI = 15 were: PM 77%, 95%; Berlin 91%, 28%; STOP-Bang 93%, 28%; SACS 35%, 78%. Conclusions: Questionnaires alone, possibly given a reliance on sleepiness as a symptom, cannot reliably rule out the presence of OSA. Objective physiological measurement is critical for the diagnosis and exclusion of OSA. Citation: Pereira EJ; Driver HS; Stewart SC; Fitzpatrick MF. Comparing a combination of validated questionnaires and level III portable monitor with polysomnography to diagnose and exclude sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(12):1259-1266. PMID:24340287

  15. Mastication Frequency and Postprandial Blood Sugar Levels in Normoglycaemic and Dysglycaemic Individuals: A Cross- Sectional Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Madhu, Vinayak; Pawaskar, Priyanka Niwas; Madi, Deepak; Chowta, Nithyananda; Ramapuram, John Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mastication has potential to affect postprandial blood glucose levels by affecting cephalic phase of insulin release. However, limited number of studies done in this regard has yielded conflicting results. Aim To evaluate effects of mastication on postprandial blood glucose levels. Materials and Methods We compared routine and thorough mastication in 2 separate groups: dysglycaemic (prediabetics and diabetics) and normoglycaemic in prospective interventional study. Blood glucose levels were measured pre-prandial and postprandial (after 2 hours) on separate days after routine and thorough mastication in both groups. Results In normoglycaemic group, thorough mastication significantly reduced postprandial blood glucose levels at 2 hours (128.25± 7.82 mg/dl on routine mastication vs 119.74±9.08 mg/dl on thorough mastication, p<0.05). Comparatively, in dysglycaemic group, thorough mastication had little effect on postprandial blood glucose levels at 2 hours (244.07±22.37 mg/dl vs. 243.55±22.87 mg/dl). Conclusion In normoglycaemic group, postprandial blood glucose concentration upon thorough mastication was significantly lower, due to early-phase insulin secretion. This simple lifestyle modification of thorough mastication can be a useful preventive measure against diabetes in people with a strong family history and other risk factors for diabetes who have not yet developed diabetes or prediabetes. PMID:27630879

  16. Correlation between vitamin D levels and muscle fatigue risk factors based on physical activity in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas S; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum vitamin D levels with physical activity, obesity, muscle fatigue biomarkers, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in healthy older adults. Methods A total of 85 healthy older subjects aged 64–96 years were recruited in this study. Based on estimated energy expenditure scores, the participants were classified into three groups: inactive (n=25), moderate (n=20), and physically active (n=35). Serum 25(OH)D (25-hydroxy vitamin D) levels, metabolic syndrome parameters, TAC activity, muscle fatigue biomarkers (Ca, creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline), physical activity, body fatness, and fatigue score (visual analog scale) were estimated using immunoassay techniques and prevalidated questionnaires, respectively. Results Physical activity was estimated in 64.6% of the participants. Males showed higher physical activity (42.5%) compared to females (26.25%). Compared to participants with lower activity, significant reduction in body mass index, waist circumference, hips, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were observed in moderate and physically active participants. Also, significant increase in the levels of serum 25(OH)D concentrations, calcium, and TAC activity along with reduction in the levels of muscle fatigue biomarkers: creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline, and fatigue scores (visual analog scale) were reported in physically active participants compared to those of lower physical activity. In all participants, serum 25(OH)D concentrations correlated positively with Ca, TAC, physical activity scores, and negatively with body mass index, lipid profile, fatigue scores (visual analog scale), and muscle fatigue biomarkers. Stepwise regression analysis showed that serum 25(OH)D concentrations, physical activity, Ca, TAC, and demographic parameters explained

  17. Segmentation of hand radiographs by using multi-level connected active appearance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, Joost A.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Bernelot Moens, Hein J.

    2005-04-01

    Robust and accurate segmentation methods are important for the computerized evaluation of medical images. For treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, joint damage assessment in radiographs of hands is frequently used for monitoring disease progression. Current clinical scoring methods are based on visual measurements that are time-consuming and subject to intra and inter-reader variance. A solution may be found in the development of partially automated assessment procedures. This requires reliable segmentation algorithms. Our work demonstrates a segmentation method based on multiple connected active appearance models (AAM) with multiple search steps using different quality levels. The quality level can be regulated by setting the image resolution and the number of landmarks in the AAMs. We performed experiments using two models of different quality levels for shape and texture information. Both models included AAMs for the carpal region, the metacarpals, and all phalanges. By starting an iterative search with the faster, low-quality model, we were able to determine the initial parameters of the second, high-quality model. After the second search, the results showed successful segmentation for 22 of 30 test images. For these images, 70% of the landmarks were found within 1.3 mm difference from manual placement by an expert. The multi-level search approach resulted in a reduction of 50% in calculation time compared to a search using a single model. Results are expected to improve when the model is refined by increasing the number of training examples and the resolution of the models.

  18. Inter-level Scaffolding and Sequences of Representational Activities in Teaching a Chemical System with Graphical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Black, John B.

    2016-05-01

    Chemistry knowledge can be represented at macro-, micro- and symbolic levels, and learning a chemistry topic requires students to engage in multiple representational activities. This study focused on scaffolding for inter-level connection-making in learning chemistry knowledge with graphical simulations. We also tested whether different sequences of representational activities produced different student learning outcomes in learning a chemistry topic. A sample of 129 seventh graders participated in this study. In a simulation-based environment, participants completed three representational activities to learn several ideal gas law concepts. We conducted a 2 × 3 factorial design experiment. We compared two scaffolding conditions: (1) the inter-level scaffolding condition in which participants received inter-level questions and experienced the dynamic link function in the simulation-based environment and (2) the intra-level scaffolding condition in which participants received intra-level questions and did not experience the dynamic link function. We also compared three different sequences of representational activities: macro-symbolic-micro, micro-symbolic-macro and symbolic-micro-macro. For the scaffolding variable, we found that the inter-level scaffolding condition produced significantly better performance in both knowledge comprehension and application, compared to the intra-level scaffolding condition. For the sequence variable, we found that the macro-symbolic-micro sequence produced significantly better knowledge comprehension performance than the other two sequences; however, it did not benefit knowledge application performance. There was a trend that the treatment group who experienced inter-level scaffolding and the micro-symbolic-macro sequence achieved the best knowledge application performance.

  19. Inter-level Scaffolding and Sequences of Representational Activities in Teaching a Chemical System with Graphical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Black, John B.

    2016-10-01

    Chemistry knowledge can be represented at macro-, micro- and symbolic levels, and learning a chemistry topic requires students to engage in multiple representational activities. This study focused on scaffolding for inter-level connection-making in learning chemistry knowledge with graphical simulations. We also tested whether different sequences of representational activities produced different student learning outcomes in learning a chemistry topic. A sample of 129 seventh graders participated in this study. In a simulation-based environment, participants completed three representational activities to learn several ideal gas law concepts. We conducted a 2 × 3 factorial design experiment. We compared two scaffolding conditions: (1) the inter- level scaffolding condition in which participants received inter-level questions and experienced the dynamic link function in the simulation-based environment and (2) the intra- level scaffolding condition in which participants received intra-level questions and did not experience the dynamic link function. We also compared three different sequences of representational activities: macro-symbolic-micro, micro-symbolic-macro and symbolic-micro-macro. For the scaffolding variable, we found that the inter- level scaffolding condition produced significantly better performance in both knowledge comprehension and application, compared to the intra- level scaffolding condition. For the sequence variable, we found that the macro-symbolic-micro sequence produced significantly better knowledge comprehension performance than the other two sequences; however, it did not benefit knowledge application performance. There was a trend that the treatment group who experienced inter- level scaffolding and the micro-symbolic-macro sequence achieved the best knowledge application performance.

  20. Treatment of industrial effluents using electron beam accelerator and adsorption with activated carbon: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Sampa, Maria Helena; Rela, Paulo Roberto; Casas, Alexandre Las; Mori, Manoel Nunes; Duarte, Celina Lopes

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of a study that compares the use of electron beam processing and activated carbon adsorption to clean up a standardized organic aqueous solution and a real industrial effluent. The electron beam treatment was performed in a batch system using the IPEN's Electron Beam Accelerators from Radiation Dynamics Inc., Dynamitron 37.5 kW. The granular activated carbon removal treatment was performed using charcoal made from wood "pinus". If the adequate irradiation dose is delivered to the organic pollutant, it is possible to conclude for the studied compounds that the Electron Beam Process is similar to the activated carbon process in organic removal efficiency.

  1. Comparative study of activation analyses for the determination of trace halogens in geological and cosmochemical samples.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Tomoshi; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2007-09-01

    Halogens (fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine) were determined by activation analyses (neutron activation analysis (NAA), photon activation analysis (PAA) and prompt gamma-ray analysis (PGA)) for geological and cosmochemical solid samples. We studied how each analytical method was for the determination of trace amounts of halogens in rock samples. Radiochemical NAA (RNAA) showed the highest analytical reliability for three halogens (chlorine, bromine and iodine), whereas a set of four halogens (fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine) could be determined in principle by radiochemical PAA (RPAA) from a single specimen. Although it is a non-destructive method, PGA showed an analytical sensitivity for chlorine comparable to those of RNAA and RPAA.

  2. Comparative evaluation of levels of C-reactive protein and PMN in periodontitis patients related to cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, G.; Nagaraj, M.; Jayashree, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Numerous cross-sectional studies have suggested that chronic periodontitis is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. There is evidence that periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases are linked by inflammatory factors including C-reactive protein. The purpose of the study was to investigate the levels of CRP and PNM cells as a marker of inflammatory host response in the serum of chronic periodontitis patients and in patients with CVD. Materials and Methods: Study population included 75 patients; both male and female above 35 years were included for the study. The patients were divided into three groups of 25 each – Group I: Chronic periodontitis patients with CVD, Group II: Chronic periodontitis patients without CVD and Group III: Control subjects (without chronic periodontitis and CVD). Patients with chronic periodontitis had ≥8 teeth involved with probing depth (PD) ≥5 mm involved. The control group had PD ≤ 3 mm and no CVD. Venous blood was collected from the patients and C-reactive protein levels were analyzed by immunoturbidimetry. PMN was recorded by differential count method. Results: On comparison, OHI-S Index, GI, mean PD, CRP and PMN values showed significant difference from Group I to III. CRP level was highly significant in Group I when compared with Group II and Group III. PMN level was highly significant in Group I when compared with Group III PMN level which was not significant. Conclusion: This study indicated that periodontitis may add the inflammation burden of the individual and may result in increased levels of CVD based on serum CRP levels. Thus, controlled prospective trials with large sample size should be carried out to know the true nature of the relationship if indeed one exists. PMID:24049333

  3. Category activation effects in judgment and behaviour: the moderating role of perceived comparability.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Henk; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2002-03-01

    Previous research on category activation effects demonstrates that extreme exemplar priming can lead to contrast effects as well as assimilation effects in target judgments. Two experiments extended this line of research by investigating the moderating role of perceived comparability, that is, the extent to which the exemplar and target are believed to belong to the same category and thus can be compared. In both experiments, participants judged the speed of a person displayed on a picture following priming with animals exemplifying either extreme speed ('cheetah') or extreme slowness ('turtle'). In addition, in the second experiment a behavioural measure was included. In the first experiment individual differences concerning the perceived comparability between animals and humans were assessed. In the second experiment perceived comparability was experimentally varied. Results showed that the direction of category activation effects (i.e. assimilation versus contrast) depended on the extent to which the prime and target categories were seen as comparable. Contrast effects on both judgments and behaviour emerged when the prime and the target category were perceived as comparable. However, assimilation effects on judgment and behaviour ensued when the prime and target category were not perceived as comparable.

  4. Comparative Effectiveness of After-School Programs to Increase Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Sabina B.; Sommer, Evan C.; Lambert, E. Warren; Vides de Andrade, Ana Regina; Davis, Lauren; Beech, Bettina M.; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Neloms, Stevon; Ryan, Colleen K.

    2013-01-01

    Background. We conducted a comparative effectiveness analysis to evaluate the difference in the amount of physical activity children engaged in when enrolled in a physical activity-enhanced after-school program based in a community recreation center versus a standard school-based after-school program. Methods. The study was a natural experiment with 54 elementary school children attending the community ASP and 37 attending the school-based ASP. Accelerometry was used to measure physical activity. Data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks, with 91% retention. Results. At baseline, 43% of the multiethnic sample was overweight/obese, and the mean age was 7.9 years (SD = 1.7). Linear latent growth models suggested that the average difference between the two groups of children at Week 12 was 14.7 percentage points in moderate-vigorous physical activity (P < .001). Cost analysis suggested that children attending traditional school-based ASPs—at an average cost of $17.67 per day—would need an additional daily investment of $1.59 per child for 12 weeks to increase their moderate-vigorous physical activity by a model-implied 14.7 percentage points. Conclusions. A low-cost, alternative after-school program featuring adult-led physical activities in a community recreation center was associated with increased physical activity compared to standard-of-care school-based after-school program. PMID:23984052

  5. Comparative blood levels and metabolism of INH and an INH-matrix preparation in fast and slow inactivators.

    PubMed

    Jeanes, C W; Schaefer, O; Eidus, L

    1973-09-15

    Two groups of tuberculosis patients, phenotyped as either slow or fast inactivators of isoniazid, participated in a preliminary bioavailability study of a new INH-matrix preparation with sustained action. The absorption, excretion and metabolic patterns of the new form were compared with those of standard INH tablets in both sets of patients, using a crossover technique.The INH-matrix was more slowly absorbed by both slow and fast inctivators. When the latter were treated with 30 mg./kg. of the matrix formulation the blood levels attained were comparable with those observed in slow acetylators treated with 10 mg./kg. normal INH. Although this dose is three times that normally recommended with standard INH, blood levels remained within safe limits owing to the drug's slow release from the matrix.

  6. Compendium of Interdisciplinary Activities for an Introductory Course in Communication Systems at the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasko, David J.

    This compendium of interdisciplinary learning activities is designed to assist technology education instructors who are conducting an introductory secondary-level course in communication technology. The 12 activities, which are sequenced from introductory, low-cost activities to more advanced and more involved activities, deal with the following…

  7. A new classification paradigm of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in activated sludge: separation and characterization of exopolymers between floc level and microcolony level.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin-Bin; Chang, Qing; Peng, Dang-Cong; Hou, Yin-Ping; Li, Hui-Juan; Pei, Li-Ying

    2014-11-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) play a crucial role in the formation of activated sludge flocs. However, until now, the EPS are rather classified by the method used for extraction than by a theoretical consideration of their function and composition. In this paper, a new classification paradigm of EPS was proposed, which offered a novel approach to identify the role of EPS in the formation of activated sludge flocs. The current study gave an exploration to distinguish the EPS in the floc level (extra-microcolony polymers, EMPS) and in the microcolony level (extra-cellular polymers, ECPS). It was found that cation exchange resin treatment is efficient to disintegrate the flocs for EMPS extraction, however, inefficient to disaggregate the microcolonies for ECPS harvesting. A two-steps extraction strategy (cation exchange resin treatment followed by ultrasonication-high speed centrifugation treatment) was suggested to separate these two types of EPS in activated sludge flocs and the physicochemical characteristics of EMPS and ECPS were compared. The protein/polysaccharide ratio of ECPS was higher than that of EMPS and the molecular weight of proteins in EMPS and ECPS were found to be different. The ECPS contained higher molecular weight proteins and more hydrophobic substances than the EMPS contained. The result of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy analysis also showed that the EMPS and the ECPS have different fluorescent expressions and the components of EMPS were more diverse than that of ECPS. All results reported herein demonstrated that two different types of exopolymers exist in the activated sludge flocs and the inter-particle forces for aggregation of activated sludge flocs are not identical between the floc level and the microcolony level. It suggested that cation bridging interactions are more crucial in floc level flocculation, while the entanglement and hydrophobic interactions are more important in microcolony level cohesion.

  8. Comparative Benchmark Dose Modeling as a Tool to Make the First Estimate of Safe Human Exposure Levels to Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Scully, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Brief exposures of Apollo Astronauts to lunar dust occasionally elicited upper respiratory irritation; however, no limits were ever set for prolonged exposure ot lunar dust. Habitats for exploration, whether mobile of fixed must be designed to limit human exposure to lunar dust to safe levels. We have used a new technique we call Comparative Benchmark Dose Modeling to estimate safe exposure limits for lunar dust collected during the Apollo 14 mission.

  9. Comparing Research Activities of Women and Men Faculty in Departments of Internal Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Barbara A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study compared research activities of men and women from data obtained in a 1982-83 survey of 7,947 medical school faculty in departments of internal medicine. Among findings were that women researchers had significantly fewer National Institutes of Health grants as well as reduced laboratory space. (Author/DB)

  10. [The comparative study of bioelectronic brain activity at the drug and Internet-addiction].

    PubMed

    Rabadanova, A I; Abacharova, Z S

    2014-01-01

    The comparative estimation of the bioelectric brain activities at different drug (heroin, opium, toxic organic join, home chemistry) and internet addiction are studied. These data can be interest for problem of general and specific mechanism of the influence of different factors, causing the addiction, on neirofisiological and neirochemical processes. PMID:25702456

  11. [A comparative study of the antiviral activity of chemical compounds concerning the orthopoxviruses experiments in vivo].

    PubMed

    Kabanov, A S; Sergeev, Al A; Shishkina, L N; Bulychev, L E; Skarnovich, M O; Sergeev, Ar A; Bormotov, N I; P'iankov, O V; Serova, O A; Bodnev, S A; Selivanov, B A; Tikhonov, A Ia; Agafonov, A P; Sergeev, A N

    2013-01-01

    In the experiments using intranasal (i/n) infection of mice with the ectromelia virus (EV) in a dose 10 LD50/head (10 x 50% lethal doselhead) or with the monkaypox virus (MPXV) in a dose 10 ID50/head (10 x 50% infective dose/ head) it was demonstrated that the antiviral efficiency of chemical compounds - the condensed derivatives of pyrrolidin-2,5-dion, as well as their predecessors and the nearest analogues, synthesized in Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (NIOCH SB RAS) was observed. As a positive control we used the antipoxvirus chemical preparation ST-246 available from SIGA Technologies Inc. (USA), synthesized in NIOCH SB RAS by the technique suggested by the authors. It was demonstrated that the compound NIOCH-14 (7-[N'-(4-Trifluoromethylbenzoil)-hydrazidecarbonil]-tricyclo[3.2.2.02,4]non-8-en-6-carbonic acid) possessed comparable with ST-246 antiviral activity concerning EV and MPXV on all indicators used. Therefore, at infection of mice with EV (strain K-1) and peroral administration of NIOCH-14 and ST-246 in a dose 50 mkg/g of mouse weight (12-14 g) within 10 days the survival rate and average life expectancy of mice authentically exceeded the control levels. EV titers in lungs through 6 days after infection in the same groups were lower than in the control. In addition to that, after 7 days of infection of mice with MPXV (strain V79-1-005) and daily peroral administration of NIOCH-14 and ST-246 in a dose 60 mkg/g of mouse weight (9-11 g) authentic decrease in a part of infected animals and MPXV titers in lungs was observed.

  12. Biomechanical performance of rigid compared to dynamic anterior cervical plating: analysis of adjacent upper and lower level compressive forces.

    PubMed

    Connor, David E; Shamieh, Khader Samer; Ogden, Alan L; Mukherjee, Debi P; Sin, Anthony; Nanda, Anil

    2012-12-01

    Dynamic anterior cervical plating is well established as a means of enhancing graft loading and subsequent arthrodesis. Current concerns center on the degree of adjacent-level stress induced by these systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the load transferred to adjacent levels for single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion utilizing rigid compared to dynamic anterior plating systems. Nine cadaveric adult human cervical spine specimens were subjected to range-of-motion testing prior to and following C5-C6 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion procedures. Interbody grafting was performed with human fibula tissue. Nondestructive biomechanical testing included flexion/extension and lateral bending loading modes. A constant displacement of 5mm was applied in each direction and the applied load was measured in newtons (N). Specimens were tested in the following order: intact, following discectomy, after rigid plating, then after dynamic plating. Adjacent level (C4-C5 [L(S)] and C6-C7 [L(I)]) compressive forces were measured using low profile load cells inserted into each disc space. The measured load values for plating systems were then normalized using values measured for the intact specimens. Mean loads transferred to L(S) and L(I) during forced flexion in specimens with rigid plating were 23.47 N and 8.76 N, respectively; while the corresponding values in specimens with dynamic plating were 18.55 N and 1.03 N, respectively. Dynamic plating yielded no significant change at L(I) and a 21.0% decrease in load at L(S) when compared with rigid plating, although the difference was not significant. The observed trend suggests that dynamic plating may diminish superior adjacent level compressive stresses.

  13. Comparing the role of absolute sea-level rise and vertical tectonic motions in coastal flooding, Torres Islands (Vanuatu)

    PubMed Central

    Ballu, Valérie; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Siméoni, Patricia; Crawford, Wayne C.; Calmant, Stephane; Boré, Jean-Michel; Kanas, Tony; Pelletier, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, rising sea levels around the Torres Islands (north Vanuatu, southwest Pacific) have caused strong local and international concern. In 2002–2004, a village was displaced due to increasing sea incursions, and in 2005 a United Nations Environment Programme press release referred to the displaced village as perhaps the world’s first climate change “refugees.” We show here that vertical motions of the Torres Islands themselves dominate the apparent sea-level rise observed on the islands. From 1997 to 2009, the absolute sea level rose by 150 + /-20 mm. But GPS data reveal that the islands subsided by 117 + /-30 mm over the same time period, almost doubling the apparent gradual sea-level rise. Moreover, large earthquakes that occurred just before and after this period caused several hundreds of mm of sudden vertical motion, generating larger apparent sea-level changes than those observed during the entire intervening period. Our results show that vertical ground motions must be accounted for when evaluating sea-level change hazards in active tectonic regions. These data are needed to help communities and governments understand environmental changes and make the best decisions for their future. PMID:21795605

  14. Comparing the role of absolute sea-level rise and vertical tectonic motions in coastal flooding, Torres Islands (Vanuatu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballu, Valérie; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Siméoni, Patricia; Crawford, Wayne C.; Calmant, Stephane; Boré, Jean-Michel; Kanas, Tony; Pelletier, Bernard

    2011-08-01

    Since the late 1990s, rising sea levels around the Torres Islands (north Vanuatu, southwest Pacific) have caused strong local and international concern. In 2002-2004, a village was displaced due to increasing sea incursions, and in 2005 a United Nations Environment Programme press release referred to the displaced village as perhaps the world's first climate change "refugees." We show here that vertical motions of the Torres Islands themselves dominate the apparent sea-level rise observed on the islands. From 1997 to 2009, the absolute sea level rose by 150 + /-20 mm. But GPS data reveal that the islands subsided by 117 + /-30 mm over the same time period, almost doubling the apparent gradual sea-level rise. Moreover, large earthquakes that occurred just before and after this period caused several hundreds of mm of sudden vertical motion, generating larger apparent sea-level changes than those observed during the entire intervening period. Our results show that vertical ground motions must be accounted for when evaluating sea-level change hazards in active tectonic regions. These data are needed to help communities and governments understand environmental changes and make the best decisions for their future.

  15. Comparing the role of absolute sea-level rise and vertical tectonic motions in coastal flooding, Torres Islands (Vanuatu).

    PubMed

    Ballu, Valérie; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Siméoni, Patricia; Crawford, Wayne C; Calmant, Stephane; Boré, Jean-Michel; Kanas, Tony; Pelletier, Bernard

    2011-08-01

    Since the late 1990s, rising sea levels around the Torres Islands (north Vanuatu, southwest Pacific) have caused strong local and international concern. In 2002-2004, a village was displaced due to increasing sea incursions, and in 2005 a United Nations Environment Programme press release referred to the displaced village as perhaps the world's first climate change "refugees." We show here that vertical motions of the Torres Islands themselves dominate the apparent sea-level rise observed on the islands. From 1997 to 2009, the absolute sea level rose by 150 + /-20 mm. But GPS data reveal that the islands subsided by 117 + /-30 mm over the same time period, almost doubling the apparent gradual sea-level rise. Moreover, large earthquakes that occurred just before and after this period caused several hundreds of mm of sudden vertical motion, generating larger apparent sea-level changes than those observed during the entire intervening period. Our results show that vertical ground motions must be accounted for when evaluating sea-level change hazards in active tectonic regions. These data are needed to help communities and governments understand environmental changes and make the best decisions for their future.

  16. "Children with cerebral palsy experience greater levels of loading at the low back during gait compared to healthy controls".

    PubMed

    Kiernan, D; Malone, A; O'Brien, T; Simms, C K

    2016-07-01

    Excessive trunk motion has been shown to be characteristic of cerebral palsy (CP) gait. However, the associated demands on the lower spine are unknown. This study investigated 3-dimensional reactive forces and moments at the low back in CP children compared to healthy controls. In addition, the impact of functional level of impairment was investigated (GMFCS levels). Fifty-two children with CP (26 GMFCS I and 26 GMFCS II) and 26 controls were recruited to the study. Three-dimensional thorax kinematics and reactive forces and moments at the low back (L5/S1 spine) were examined. Discrete kinematic and kinetic parameters were assessed between groups. Thorax movement demonstrated increased range for CP children in all 3 planes while L5/S1 reactive forces and moments increased with increasing level of functional impairment. Peak reactive force data were increased by up to 57% for GMFCS I and 63% for GMFCS II children compared to controls. Peak moment data were increased by up to 21% for GMFCS II children compared to GMFCS I and up to 90% for GMFCS II compared to control. In addition, a strong correlation was demonstrated between thorax side flexion and L5/S1 lateral bend moment (r=0.519, p<0.01) and medial/lateral force (r=0.352, p<0.01). Children with CP demonstrated increased lower spinal loading compared to TD. Furthermore, GMFCS II children demonstrated significantly more involvement. Intervention should be aimed at reducing excessive thorax movement, especially in the coronal plane, in order to reduce abnormal loading on the spine in this population.

  17. Comparative toxicity assessment of ozone and activated carbon treated sewage effluents using an in vivo test battery.

    PubMed

    Stalter, Daniel; Magdeburg, Axel; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2010-04-01

    Wastewater treatment plants do not eliminate micropollutants completely and are thus important point sources for these substances. Ozonation and activated carbon treatment might be beneficial for ecosystem health as these techniques provide effective barriers to organic contaminants. However, a toxicity evaluation is required to investigate toxicity reduction and to assess the potential formation of toxic oxidation byproducts during ozonation. Therefore a comparative toxicity evaluation of different treated wastewater effluents was performed on site at a half scale treatment plant equipped with an ozonation step and an activated carbon treatment step in parallel subsequent to conventional activated sludge treatment. For this purpose four invertebrate and one higher plant toxicity test were selected to assess potential biological effects on whole organisms. The reproduction test with the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum exhibited a decreased reproductive output after advanced treatment compared to conventional treatment. This indicates an effective estrogenicity removal by ozonation and activated carbon treatment and is confirmed by results of the yeast estrogen screen with a reduction of in vitro estrogenic activity by >75%. The Lumbriculus variegatus test revealed a significantly enhanced toxicity after ozonation compared to conventional treatment whereas this effect was reduced following subsequent sand filtration. When ozonation was applied, a significantly increased genotoxicity was observed, detected with the comet assay using haemolymph of the zebra mussel. Again, this effect was removed by subsequent sand filtration to the level of conventional treatment. Activated carbon treatment even resulted in a significant reduction of genotoxicity. Adverse effects after the ozone reactor are possibly a result of the formation of toxic oxidation byproducts. Biologically active sand filtration obviously is an effective barrier to such compounds.

  18. Decrease of physical activity level in adolescents with limb fractures: an accelerometry-based activity monitor study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Immobilization and associated periods of inactivity can cause osteopenia, the physiological response of the bone to disuse. Mechanical loading plays an essential role in maintaining bone integrity. Skeletal fractures represent one cause of reduction of the physical activity (PA) level in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to quantify the reduction of PA in adolescents with limb fractures during the cast immobilization period compared with healthy controls. Methods Two hundred twenty adolescents were divided into three groups: those with upper limb fractures (50 cases); lower limb fractures (50 cases); and healthy cases (120 cases). Patients and their healthy peers were matched for gender, age, and seasonal assessment of PA. PA level was assessed during cast immobilization by accelerometer. Time spent in PA in each of the different intensity levels - sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous - was determined for each participant and expressed in minutes and as a percentage of total valid time. Results Reduction in PA during cast immobilization was statistically significant in patients with limb fractures compared to healthy controls. The total PA count (total number of counts/min) was significantly lower in those with upper and lower limb fractures (-30.1% and -62.4%, respectively) compared with healthy controls (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0003, respectively). Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA by patients with upper and lower limb injuries decreased by 36.9% (p = 0.0003) and 76.6% (p < 0.0001), respectively, and vigorous PA was reduced by 41.4% (p = 0.0008) and 84.4% (p < 0.0001), respectively. Conclusions PA measured by accelerometer is a useful and valid tool to assess the decrease of PA level in adolescents with limb fractures. As cast immobilization and reduced PA are known to induce bone mineral loss, this study provides important information to quantify the decrease of skeletal loading in this patient population. The observed reduction of high

  19. Comparative Analysis of Immune Cells Activation and Cytotoxicity upon Exposure Pathogen and Glycoconjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saheb, Entsar; Tarasenko, Olga

    2010-04-01

    Peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC) including macrophages are key players in the immune responses against pathogens. Any infection could be attenuated if PMNC would be activated and capable to kill pathogen on exposure. It was shown that glycoconjugates (GCs) play an important role in adhesion to, activation, and recognition of pathogens. Nitric oxide (NO) is a regulatory molecule released by immune cells against pathogens that include bacteria, protozoa, helminthes, and fungi. NO is a highly reactive and diffusible molecule that controls replication or intracellular killing of pathogens during infection and immune responses against infections caused by pathogens. Avirulent Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores were used as a model in our study. The purpose of this study was two-fold: A) to analyze PMNC activation through NO production and B) to determine the cytotoxicity effect based on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) upon exposure to pathogen exerted by GCs. The latter were used "prior to," "during," and "following" PMNC exposure to pathogen in order to modulate immune responses to spores during phagocytosis. Post-phagocytosis study involved the assessment of NO and LDH release by macrophages upon exposure to spores. Results have shown that untreated PMNC released low levels of NO. However, in the presence of GCs, PMNC were activated and produced high levels of NO under all experimental conditions. In addition, the results showed that GC1, GC3 are capable of increasing PMNC activity as evidenced by higher NO levels under the "prior," "during" and "following" to pathogen exposure conditions. On the other hand, GCs were capable of controlling cytotoxicity and decreased LDH levels during phagocytosis of spores. Our findings suggest that GCs stimulate NO production by activating PMNC and decrease cytotoxicity caused by pathogens on PMNC.

  20. Environmental and social determinants of youth physical activity intensity levels at neighborhood parks in Las Vegas, NV.

    PubMed

    Coughenour, Courtney; Coker, Lisa; Bungum, Tim J

    2014-12-01

    Parks can play an important role in youth activity. This study used observational data to evaluate the relationship of environmental and social determinants to youth physical activity intensity levels in Las Vegas neighborhood parks. System for observing play and leisure activity in youth was used to code activity levels as sedentary, walking, or vigorous in five low-income and five high-income parks. Environmental determinants included amenities, incivilities, size, high-speed streets, sidewalk condition, and temperature. Social determinants included percent minority and Hispanic, gender, and income. A multinomial logistic regression model was performed. We observed 1,421 youth, 59% male, 41% female; 21% were sedentary, 38% walking, and 41% vigorous. Males were more likely to be observed walking (OR 1.42) and vigorous (OR 2.21) when compared to sedentary. High-speed streets (OR 0.76), sidewalks condition (OR 0.34), and low-income neighborhoods (OR 0.07) was associated with decreased odds of vigorous activity; incivilities (OR 1.34) and amenities (OR 1.27) were associated with greater odds of being vigorous. Environmental and social determinants are associated with physical activity intensity levels at parks. Stakeholders should ensure quality parks, as they relate to physical activity levels in youth. Understanding environmental and social determinants that influence physical activity at parks is critical to utilizing their full potential in an effort to combat childhood obesity.

  1. A comparative study of concurrence and negativity of general three-level quantum systems of two particles

    SciTech Connect

    Erol, V.

    2015-03-30

    Quantum entanglement is at the heart of quantum information processing. Ordering the quantum systems due to their entanglement is a popular problem of the field. For two level (qubit) systems of two particles, state ordering has been studied with respect to well-known entanglement measures such as Concurrence, Negativity and Relative Entropy of Entanglement (REE) [1-5]. In this work, we study the state ordering of the three-level quantum systems of two particles with respect to Concurrence and Negativity. In particular, constructing 10K random states and calculating their Concurrences and Negativities, we obtain the orderings of the states and present our results which are interesting when compared to that of two-level systems.

  2. Comparative evaluation of antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and aspirin in children with pyrexia of varied aetiology.

    PubMed

    Kandoth, P W; Joshi, M K; Joshi, V R; Satoskar, R S

    1984-01-01

    The antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and aspirin was compared in sixteen children with pyrexia due to upper respiratory tract infection and in twelve with fever due to other causes. All 28 children received ibuprofen (7 mg/kg of body-weight) and aspirin (15 mg/kg of body-weight) in a single dose on 2 consecutive days in a crossover manner. Rectal temperature was recorded prior to and at regular intervals up to 8 hours after drug administration. Analysis of the results indicate that ibuprofen and aspirin effectively lower temperature and the two drugs are comparable in their antipyretic activity. In conclusion, significant antipyretic activity, good tolerance profile and availability in syrup form make ibuprofen a useful substitute for aspirin in children with fever. PMID:6500169

  3. Dietary thiamin level influences levels of its diphosphate form and thiamin-dependent enzymic activities of rat liver.

    PubMed

    Blair, P V; Kobayashi, R; Edwards, H M; Shay, N F; Baker, D H; Harris, R A

    1999-03-01

    This study was prompted by our incomplete understanding of the mechanism responsible for the clinical benefits of pharmacological doses of thiamin in some patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and the question of whether thiamin diphosphate (TDP), a potent inhibitor of the activity of the protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates the isolated branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex, affects the activity state of the complex. Rats were fed a chemically-defined diet containing graded levels of thiamin (0, 0.275, 0.55, 5.5, and 55 mg thiamin/kg diet). Maximal weight gain was attained over a 3-wk period only in rats fed diets with 5.5 and 55 mg thiamin/kg. Feeding rats the thiamin-free diet for just 2 d caused loss of nearly half of the TDP from liver mitochondria. Three more days caused over 70% loss, an additional 3 wk, over 90%. Starvation for 2 d had no effect, suggesting a mechanism for conservation of TDP in this nutritional state. Mitochondrial TDP was higher in rats fed pharmacological amounts of thiamin (55 mg thiamin/kg diet) than in rats fed adequate thiamin for maximal growth. Varying dietary thiamin had marked but opposite effects on the activities of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (alpha-KGDH) and BCKDH. Thiamin deficiency decreased alpha-KGDH activity, increased BCKDH activity, and increased the proportion of BCKDH in the active, dephosphorylated, state. Excess dietary thiamin had the opposite effects. TDP appears to be more tightly associated with alpha-KGDH than BCKDH in thiamin-deficient rats, perhaps denoting retention of alpha-KGDH activity at the expense of BCKDH activity. Thus, thiamin deficiency and excess cause large changes in mitochondrial TDP levels that have a major influence on the activities of the keto acid dehydrogenase complexes.

  4. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Insulin regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is mediated at posttranscriptional and posttranslational levels.

    PubMed

    Semenkovich, C F; Wims, M; Noe, L; Etienne, J; Chan, L

    1989-05-25

    Insulin is a major regulator of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. The molecular events associated with LPL regulation by insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were studied by determining LPL enzyme activity, mRNA levels, protein synthetic rate, and transcription run-off activity. Adipocytes treated with insulin (10(-6) M for 48 h) had substantially higher LPL activity (mean difference compared to carrier-treated cells 146%) with little difference in LPL mRNA levels (mean level 109% of control). Insulin regulation of LPL activity was dose-dependent but changes in LPL mRNA were not. Within 2 h of hormone addition, LPL activity was higher in insulin-treated versus carrier-treated adipocytes although their LPL mRNA levels were similar. In [35S]methionine pulse-labeled adipocytes, insulin decreased LPL protein synthetic rate measured by immunoprecipitation 42-48%, although increases (75-340%) in heparin-releasable LPL activity were detected in the same cells. In contrast, during differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts to the adipocyte state, 5-80-fold increases of heparin-releasable LPL activity were closely associated with similar (8-60-fold) increases in LPL mRNA levels. LPL synthetic rate was 16-fold greater, and LPL gene transcription initiation measured by transcriptional run-off was 10-fold higher in adipocytes than in undifferentiated cells. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts increases transcription of the LPL gene leading to increased LPL mRNA, protein synthetic rate, and enzyme activity. Insulin regulation of LPL activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, however, is mediated entirely at posttranscriptional and posttranslational levels.

  6. Comparative analysis of active drag using the MAD system and an assisted towing method in front crawl swimming.

    PubMed

    Formosa, Daniel P; Toussaint, Huub M; Mason, Bruce R; Burkett, Brendan

    2012-12-01

    The measurement of active drag in swimming is a biomechanical challenge. This research compared two systems: (i) measuring active drag (MAD) and (ii) assisted towing method (ATM). Nine intermediate-level swimmers (19.7 ± 4.4 years) completed front crawl trials with both systems during one session. The mean (95% confidence interval) active drag for the two systems, at the same maximum speed of 1.68 m/s (1.40-1.87 m/s), was significantly different (p = .002) with a 55% variation in magnitude. The mean active drag was 82.3 N (74.0-90.6 N) for the MAD system and 148.3 N (127.5-169.1 N) for the ATM system. These differences were attributed to variations in swimming style within each measurement system. The inability to measure the early catch phase and kick, along with the fixed length and depth hand place requirement within the MAD system generated a different swimming technique, when compared with the more natural free swimming ATM protocol. A benefit of the MAD system was the measurement of active drag at various speeds. Conversely, the fixed towing speed of the ATM system allowed a natural self-selected arm stroke (plus kick) and the generation of an instantaneous force-time profile.

  7. Stress hormone levels in a freshwater turtle from sites differing in human activity.

    PubMed

    Polich, Rebecca L

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone (CORT), commonly serve as a measure of stress levels in vertebrate populations. These hormones have been implicated in regulation of feeding behaviour, locomotor activity, body mass, lipid metabolism and other crucial behaviours and physiological processes. Thus, understanding how glucocorticoids fluctuate seasonally and in response to specific stressors can yield insight into organismal health and the overall health of populations. I compared circulating CORT concentrations between two similar populations of painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, which differed primarily in the level of exposure to human recreational activities. I measured basal CORT concentrations as well as the CORT stress response and did not find any substantive difference between the two populations. This similarity may indicate that painted turtles are not stressed by the presence of humans during the nesting season. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of CORT concentrations in freshwater reptiles, a group that is historically under-represented in studies of circulating hormone concentrations; specifically, studies that seek to use circulating concentrations of stress hormones, such as CORT, as a measure of the effect of human activities on wild populations. They also give insight into how these species as a whole may respond to human recreational activities during crucial life-history stages, such as the nesting season. Although there was no discernable difference between circulating CORT concentrations between the urban and rural populations studied, I did find a significant difference in circulating CORT concentrations between male and female C. picta. This important finding provides better understanding of the sex differences between male and female painted turtles and adds to our understanding of this species and other species of freshwater turtle. PMID:27293763

  8. Stress hormone levels in a freshwater turtle from sites differing in human activity

    PubMed Central

    Polich, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone (CORT), commonly serve as a measure of stress levels in vertebrate populations. These hormones have been implicated in regulation of feeding behaviour, locomotor activity, body mass, lipid metabolism and other crucial behaviours and physiological processes. Thus, understanding how glucocorticoids fluctuate seasonally and in response to specific stressors can yield insight into organismal health and the overall health of populations. I compared circulating CORT concentrations between two similar populations of painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, which differed primarily in the level of exposure to human recreational activities. I measured basal CORT concentrations as well as the CORT stress response and did not find any substantive difference between the two populations. This similarity may indicate that painted turtles are not stressed by the presence of humans during the nesting season. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of CORT concentrations in freshwater reptiles, a group that is historically under-represented in studies of circulating hormone concentrations; specifically, studies that seek to use circulating concentrations of stress hormones, such as CORT, as a measure of the effect of human activities on wild populations. They also give insight into how these species as a whole may respond to human recreational activities during crucial life-history stages, such as the nesting season. Although there was no discernable difference between circulating CORT concentrations between the urban and rural populations studied, I did find a significant difference in circulating CORT concentrations between male and female C. picta. This important finding provides better understanding of the sex differences between male and female painted turtles and adds to our understanding of this species and other species of freshwater turtle. PMID:27293763

  9. Oscillatory activity in auditory cortex reflects the perceptual level of audio-tactile integration

    PubMed Central

    Plöchl, Michael; Gaston, Jeremy; Mermagen, Tim; König, Peter; Hairston, W. David

    2016-01-01

    Cross-modal interactions between sensory channels have been shown to depend on both the spatial disparity and the perceptual similarity between the presented stimuli. Here we investigate the behavioral and neural integration of auditory and tactile stimulus pairs at different levels of spatial disparity. Additionally, we modulated the amplitudes of both stimuli in either a coherent or non-coherent manner. We found that both auditory and tactile localization performance was biased towards the stimulus in the respective other modality. This bias linearly increases with stimulus disparity and is more pronounced for coherently modulated stimulus pairs. Analyses of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity at temporal–cortical sources revealed enhanced event-related potentials (ERPs) as well as decreased alpha and beta power during bimodal as compared to unimodal stimulation. However, while the observed ERP differences are similar for all stimulus combinations, the extent of oscillatory desynchronization varies with stimulus disparity. Moreover, when both stimuli were subjectively perceived as originating from the same direction, the reduction in alpha and beta power was significantly stronger. These observations suggest that in the EEG the level of perceptual integration is mainly reflected by changes in ongoing oscillatory activity. PMID:27647158

  10. Unexpected Levels of Biological Activity during the Polar Night Offer New Perspectives on a Warming Arctic.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jørgen; Daase, Malin; Renaud, Paul E; Ambrose, William G; Darnis, Gerald; Last, Kim S; Leu, Eva; Cohen, Jonathan H; Johnsen, Geir; Moline, Mark A; Cottier, Finlo; Varpe, Øystein; Shunatova, Natalia; Bałazy, Piotr; Morata, Nathalie; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Kosobokova, Ksenia; Hoppe, Clara J M; Węsławski, Jan Marcin; Kukliński, Piotr; Legeżyńska, Joanna; Nikishina, Daria; Cusa, Marine; Kędra, Monika; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Vogedes, Daniel; Camus, Lionel; Tran, Damien; Michaud, Emma; Gabrielsen, Tove M; Granovitch, Andrei; Gonchar, Anya; Krapp, Rupert; Callesen, Trine A

    2015-10-01

    The current understanding of Arctic ecosystems is deeply rooted in the classical view of a bottom-up controlled system with strong physical forcing and seasonality in primary-production regimes. Consequently, the Arctic polar night is commonly disregarded as a time of year when biological activities are reduced to a minimum due to a reduced food supply. Here, based upon a multidisciplinary ecosystem-scale study from the polar night at 79°N, we present an entirely different view. Instead of an ecosystem that has entered a resting state, we document a system with high activity levels and biological interactions across most trophic levels. In some habitats, biological diversity and presence of juvenile stages were elevated in winter months compared to the more productive and sunlit periods. Ultimately, our results suggest a different perspective regarding ecosystem function that will be of importance for future environmental management and decision making, especially at a time when Arctic regions are experiencing accelerated environmental change [1]. PMID:26412132

  11. Oscillatory activity in auditory cortex reflects the perceptual level of audio-tactile integration.

    PubMed

    Plöchl, Michael; Gaston, Jeremy; Mermagen, Tim; König, Peter; Hairston, W David

    2016-09-20

    Cross-modal interactions between sensory channels have been shown to depend on both the spatial disparity and the perceptual similarity between the presented stimuli. Here we investigate the behavioral and neural integration of auditory and tactile stimulus pairs at different levels of spatial disparity. Additionally, we modulated the amplitudes of both stimuli in either a coherent or non-coherent manner. We found that both auditory and tactile localization performance was biased towards the stimulus in the respective other modality. This bias linearly increases with stimulus disparity and is more pronounced for coherently modulated stimulus pairs. Analyses of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity at temporal-cortical sources revealed enhanced event-related potentials (ERPs) as well as decreased alpha and beta power during bimodal as compared to unimodal stimulation. However, while the observed ERP differences are similar for all stimulus combinations, the extent of oscillatory desynchronization varies with stimulus disparity. Moreover, when both stimuli were subjectively perceived as originating from the same direction, the reduction in alpha and beta power was significantly stronger. These observations suggest that in the EEG the level of perceptual integration is mainly reflected by changes in ongoing oscillatory activity.

  12. Pillared clays and pillared acid-activated clays: A comparative study of physical, acidic, and catalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Mokaya, R.; Jones, W.

    1995-04-15

    The preparation, characterisation, and catalytic properties of alumina-pillared materials derived from an acid-treated host clay matrix is described. Various levels of acid treatment are studied in order to ascertain the level of acid treatment which yields pillared materials with the most suitable physicochemical properties and thermal stability. The pillared acid-activated clays prepared possess basal spacing (19.3 {angstrom} after thermal treatment at 500{degrees}C) and surface areas (315-374 m{sup 2}/g) comparable to conventional pillared clays but significantly higher pore volume (0.33-0.48 cm{sup 3}/g), average pore diameter and surface acidity. The improvement in acidity is mainly of the Broensted acid type. As a result of improved acidity, the pillared acid-activated clays are better catalysts compared to conventional pillared clays and they exhibit activity indicative of the presence of strong Broensted acid sites in the temperature range 250-400{degrees}C. 36 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Low-level supermassive black hole activity and star formation in isolated ellipticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinkus, Charlotte; Miller, Brendan; Gallo, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We present and discuss Chandra ACIS-S X-ray observations of six early-type galaxies located within cosmic voids. The targeted galaxies have comparable stellar masses of 6-9e10 solar but span a wide range of star formation rates, from 0.03 to 6.5 solar masses per year. These data permit clean investigation of the link, if any, between star formation and low-level supermassive black hole activity. We isolate the nuclear X-ray emission associated with SMBH activity through analyzing the X-ray surface brightness profiles and calculating the predicted X-ray binary contamination within the extraction aperture. The galaxies with higher star formation rates also tend to have greater SMBH-associated X-ray luminosities, perhaps suggestive of a mutual dependence on cold gas. We also compare our void galaxies to cluster early-type galaxies of similar stellar mass, finding that the void galaxies have, on average, more compact optical surface brightness profiles along with greater X-ray luminosities.

  14. Taste-active compound levels in Korean native chicken meat: The effects of bird age and the cooking process.

    PubMed

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Yong, Hae In; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-08-01

    The effects of bird age and the cooking process on the levels of several taste-active compounds, including inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), glutamic acid, cysteine, reducing sugars, as well as oleic, linoleic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), in the breast and leg meats from a certified meat-type commercial Korean native chicken (KNC) strain (Woorimatdag) were investigated. KNC cocks were raised under similar standard conditions at a commercial chicken farm, and breast and leg meats from birds of various ages (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 wk; 10 birds/age group) were obtained. After raw and cooked meat samples were prepared, they were analyzed for the aforementioned taste-active compounds. Compared to the leg meat, KNC breast meat had higher levels of IMP, arachidonic acid, and DHA, but lower levels of the other taste-active compounds (P < 0.05). KNC meat lost significant amounts of all the taste-active compounds, excluding oleic and linoleic acids, during the cooking process (P < 0.05). However, bird age only had a minor effect on the levels of these taste-active compounds. The results of this study provide useful information regarding the levels of taste-active compounds in KNC meat from birds of different ages, and their fate during the cooking process. This information could be useful for selection and breeding programs, and for popularizing native chicken meat. PMID:26049798

  15. Taste-active compound levels in Korean native chicken meat: The effects of bird age and the cooking process.

    PubMed

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Yong, Hae In; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-08-01

    The effects of bird age and the cooking process on the levels of several taste-active compounds, including inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), glutamic acid, cysteine, reducing sugars, as well as oleic, linoleic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), in the breast and leg meats from a certified meat-type commercial Korean native chicken (KNC) strain (Woorimatdag) were investigated. KNC cocks were raised under similar standard conditions at a commercial chicken farm, and breast and leg meats from birds of various ages (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 wk; 10 birds/age group) were obtained. After raw and cooked meat samples were prepared, they were analyzed for the aforementioned taste-active compounds. Compared to the leg meat, KNC breast meat had higher levels of IMP, arachidonic acid, and DHA, but lower levels of the other taste-active compounds (P < 0.05). KNC meat lost significant amounts of all the taste-active compounds, excluding oleic and linoleic acids, during the cooking process (P < 0.05). However, bird age only had a minor effect on the levels of these taste-active compounds. The results of this study provide useful information regarding the levels of taste-active compounds in KNC meat from birds of different ages, and their fate during the cooking process. This information could be useful for selection and breeding programs, and for popularizing native chicken meat.

  16. A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of Noise Pollution Levels in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Baloye, David O.; Palamuleni, Lobina G.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful noise levels. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct noise laws and regulations. This study characterized noise pollution levels in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred noise measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average noise levels in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest noise pollution levels recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable noise and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean noise levels across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores noise pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban noise pollution with appropriate and effective policies. PMID:26426033

  17. A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of Noise Pollution Levels in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Baloye, David O; Palamuleni, Lobina G

    2015-10-01

    Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful noise levels. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct noise laws and regulations. This study characterized noise pollution levels in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred noise measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average noise levels in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest noise pollution levels recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable noise and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean noise levels across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores noise pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban noise pollution with appropriate and effective policies.

  18. Correlation between the Physical Activity Level and Grade Point Averages of Faculty of Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imdat, Yarim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find the correlation that exists between physical activity level and grade point averages of faculty of education students. The subjects consist of 359 (172 females and 187 males) under graduate students To determine the physical activity levels of the students in this research, International Physical Activity…

  19. Differences in Physical Activity Levels between Urban and Rural School Children in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.; Bennett, Neville

    2004-01-01

    This study attempted to examine differences in physical activity levels between urban and rural primary school children. The sample consisted of 256 Greek-Cypriot children and their parents from two schools representing urban areas and three schools representing rural areas. Children's activity levels were assessed for 4 weekdays in the winter and…

  20. Physical Activity Level of Post-menopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Dallanezi, Glauber; Freire, Beatriz Funayama Alvarenga; Nahás, Eliana Aguiar Petri; Nahás-Neto, Jorge; Corrente, José Eduardo; Mazeto, Gláucia Maria Ferreira da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Proper physical activity is related to the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis. Purpose To assess the level of physical activity (PA) in post-menopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This cross-sectional clinical study included 123 post-menopausal women. The inclusion criteria were: age of ≥ 45 years with last menses at least 12 months prior to the initiation of the study, and bone density scan (BDS) values measured over the preceding 12 months. Women with severe osteoarthritis were excluded. Women were allocated into three groups, according to BMD measured by BDS [osteoporosis (OP; 54 women), osteopenia (35 women), and normal bone density (NBD; 35 women)], and compared for general, clinical, and anthropometric data, and for PA level. The latter was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), in metabolic equivalent of task (MET) units. Participants were classified as sedentary, active or very active. Quantitative variables were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Associations between qualitative variables were tested by Chi-square (χ2) or Fisher's exact test. In order to check for differences among groups and IPAQ domains, a generalized linear model with Gamma distribution was adjusted for values in METs. Results The OP group differed from the NBD group regarding age (61.8 ± 10.1 and 52.9 ± 5.4 years), percentage of participants with self-declared white ethnicity (43.9 and 28.0%), body mass index (BMI - 25.7 ± 5.4 and 30.9 ± 5.1 kg/m(2)), and time since menopause (15.5 ± 7.5 and 5.8 ± 4.5 years). Smoking rates were higher in the OP (55.6%) and NBD groups (33.3%) than in the osteopenia group (11.1%). Within the OP group, the rate of subjects with sedentary lifestyles was higher (42.6%), and time spent sitting was greater (344.3 ± 204.8 METs) than in the groups with osteopenia (20.0% and 300.9 ± 230.6 METs) and NBD (17.7% and 303

  1. Increased error-related thalamic activity during early compared to late cocaine abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chiang-shan R.; Luo, Xi; Sinha, Rajita; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Malison, Robert T.; Ding, Yu-Shin; Zhang, Sheng; Ide, Jaime S.

    2010-01-01

    Altered cognitive control is implicated in the shaping of cocaine dependence. One of the key component processes of cognitive control is error monitoring. Our previous imaging work highlighted greater activity in distinct cortical and subcortical regions including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), thalamus and insula when participants committed an error during the stop signal task (Li et al., 2008b). Importantly, dACC, thalamic and insular activity has been associated with drug craving. One hypothesis is that the intense interoceptive activity during craving prevents these cerebral structures from adequately registering error and/or monitoring performance. Alternatively, the dACC, thalamus and insula show abnormally heightened responses to performance errors, suggesting that excessive responses to salient stimuli such as drug cues could precipitate craving. The two hypotheses would each predict decreased and increased activity during stop error (SE) as compared to stop success (SS) trials in the SST. Here we showed that cocaine dependent patients (PCD) experienced greater subjective feeling of loss of control and cocaine craving during early (average of day 6) compared to late (average of day 18) abstinence. Furthermore, compared to PCD during late abstinence, PCD scanned during early abstinence showed increased thalamic as well as insular but not dACC responses to errors (SE>SS). These findings support the hypothesis that heightened thalamic reactivity to salient stimuli co-occur with cocaine craving and loss of self control. PMID:20163923

  2. Comparative evaluation of passive, active, and passive-active distraction techniques on pain perception during local anesthesia administration in children.

    PubMed

    Abdelmoniem, Soad A; Mahmoud, Sara A

    2016-05-01

    Local anesthesia forms the backbone of pain control techniques and is necessary for a painless dental procedure. Nevertheless, administering a local anesthetic injection is among the most anxiety-provoking procedures to children. This study was performed to compare the efficacy of different distraction techniques (passive, active, and passive-active) on children's pain perception during local anesthesia administration. A total of 90 children aged four to nine years, requiring inferior alveolar nerve block for primary molar extraction, were included in this study and randomly divided into three groups according to the distraction technique employed during local anesthesia administration. Passive distraction group: the children were instructed to listen to a song on headphones; Active distraction group: the children were instructed to move their legs up and down alternatively; and Passive-active distraction group: this was a combination between both techniques. Pain perception during local anesthesia administration was evaluated by the Sounds, Eyes, and Motor (SEM) scale and Wong Baker FACES® Pain Rating Scale. There was an insignificant difference between the three groups for SEM scale and Wong Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale at P = 0.743 and P = 0.112 respectively. The examined distraction techniques showed comparable results in reducing pain perception during local anesthesia administration.

  3. Comparative evaluation of passive, active, and passive-active distraction techniques on pain perception during local anesthesia administration in children

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmoniem, Soad A.; Mahmoud, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Local anesthesia forms the backbone of pain control techniques and is necessary for a painless dental procedure. Nevertheless, administering a local anesthetic injection is among the most anxiety-provoking procedures to children. This study was performed to compare the efficacy of different distraction techniques (passive, active, and passive-active) on children’s pain perception during local anesthesia administration. A total of 90 children aged four to nine years, requiring inferior alveolar nerve block for primary molar extraction, were included in this study and randomly divided into three groups according to the distraction technique employed during local anesthesia administration. Passive distraction group: the children were instructed to listen to a song on headphones; Active distraction group: the children were instructed to move their legs up and down alternatively; and Passive-active distraction group: this was a combination between both techniques. Pain perception during local anesthesia administration was evaluated by the Sounds, Eyes, and Motor (SEM) scale and Wong Baker FACES® Pain Rating Scale. There was an insignificant difference between the three groups for SEM scale and Wong Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale at P = 0.743 and P = 0.112 respectively. The examined distraction techniques showed comparable results in reducing pain perception during local anesthesia administration. PMID:27222759

  4. Comparative ex vivo activity of novel endoperoxides in multidrug-resistant plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax.

    PubMed

    Marfurt, Jutta; Chalfein, Ferryanto; Prayoga, Pak; Wabiser, Frans; Wirjanata, Grennady; Sebayang, Boni; Piera, Kim A; Wittlin, Sergio; Haynes, Richard K; Möhrle, Jörg J; Anstey, Nicholas M; Kenangalem, Enny; Price, Ric N

    2012-10-01

    The declining efficacy of artemisinin derivatives against Plasmodium falciparum highlights the urgent need to identify alternative highly potent compounds for the treatment of malaria. In Papua Indonesia, where multidrug resistance has been documented against both P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria, comparative ex vivo antimalarial activity against Plasmodium isolates was assessed for the artemisinin derivatives artesunate (AS) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439, the semisynthetic 10-alkylaminoartemisinin derivatives artemisone and artemiside, and the conventional antimalarial drugs chloroquine (CQ), amodiaquine (AQ), and piperaquine (PIP). Ex vivo drug susceptibility was assessed in 46 field isolates (25 P. falciparum and 21 P. vivax). The novel endoperoxide compounds exhibited potent ex vivo activity against both species, but significant differences in intrinsic activity were observed. Compared to AS and its active metabolite DHA, all the novel compounds showed lower or equal 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) in both species (median IC(50)s between 1.9 and 3.6 nM in P. falciparum and 0.7 and 4.6 nM in P. vivax). The antiplasmodial activity of novel endoperoxides showed different cross-susceptibility patterns in the two Plasmodium species: whereas their ex vivo activity correlated positively with CQ, PIP, AS, and DHA in P. falciparum, the same was not apparent in P. vivax. The current study demonstrates for the first time potent activity of novel endoperoxides against drug-resistant P. vivax. The high activity against drug-resistant strains of both Plasmodium species confirms these compounds to be promising candidates for future artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) regimens in regions of coendemicity.

  5. P-glycoprotein substrate transport assessed by comparing cellular and vesicular ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Nervi, Pierluigi; Li-Blatter, Xiaochun; Aänismaa, Päivi; Seelig, Anna

    2010-03-01

    We compared the P-glycoprotein ATPase activity in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles and living NIH-MDR1-G185 cells with the aim to detect substrate transport. To this purpose we used six substrates which differ significantly in their passive influx through the plasma membrane. In cells, the cytosolic membrane leaflet harboring the substrate binding site of P-glycoprotein has to be approached by passive diffusion through the lipid membrane, whereas in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles, it is accessible directly from the aqueous phase. Compounds exhibiting fast passive influx compared to active efflux by P-glycoprotein induced similar ATPase activity profiles in cells and inside-out plasma membrane vesicles, because their concentrations in the cytosolic leaflets were similar. Compounds exhibiting similar influx as efflux induced in contrast different ATPase activity profiles in cells and inside-out vesicles. Their concentration was significantly lower in the cytosolic leaflet of cells than in the cytosolic leaflet of inside-out membrane vesicles, indicating that P-glycoprotein could cope with passive influx. P-glycoprotein thus transported all compounds at a rate proportional to ATP hydrolysis (i.e. all compounds were substrates). However, it prevented substrate entry into the cytosol only if passive influx of substrates across the lipid bilayer was in a similar range as active efflux. PMID:20004641

  6. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  7. Bacteriophages of wastewater foaming-associated filamentous Gordonia reduce host levels in raw activated sludge

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mei; Gill, Jason J.; Young, Ry; Summer, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous bacteria are a normal and necessary component of the activated sludge wastewater treatment process, but the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria results in foaming and bulking associated disruptions. Bacteriophages, or phages, were investigated for their potential to reduce the titer of foaming bacteria in a mixed-microbial activated sludge matrix. Foaming-associated filamentous bacteria were isolated from activated sludge of a commercial wastewater treatment plan and identified as Gordonia species by 16S rDNA sequencing. Four representative phages were isolated that target G. malaquae and two un-named Gordonia species isolates. Electron microscopy revealed the phages to be siphophages with long tails. Three of the phages - GordTnk2, Gmala1, and GordDuk1 - had very similar ~76 kb genomes, with >93% DNA identity. These genomes shared limited synteny with Rhodococcus equi phage ReqiDocB7 and Gordonia phage GTE7. In contrast, the genome of phage Gsput1 was smaller (43 kb) and was not similar enough to any known phage to be placed within an established phage type. Application of these four phages at MOIs of 5–15 significantly reduced Gordonia host levels in a wastewater sludge model by approximately 10-fold as compared to non-phage treated reactors. Phage control was observed for nine days after treatment. PMID:26349678

  8. Bacteriophages of wastewater foaming-associated filamentous Gordonia reduce host levels in raw activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Gill, Jason J; Young, Ry; Summer, Elizabeth J

    2015-09-09

    Filamentous bacteria are a normal and necessary component of the activated sludge wastewater treatment process, but the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria results in foaming and bulking associated disruptions. Bacteriophages, or phages, were investigated for their potential to reduce the titer of foaming bacteria in a mixed-microbial activated sludge matrix. Foaming-associated filamentous bacteria were isolated from activated sludge of a commercial wastewater treatment plan and identified as Gordonia species by 16S rDNA sequencing. Four representative phages were isolated that target G. malaquae and two un-named Gordonia species isolates. Electron microscopy revealed the phages to be siphophages with long tails. Three of the phages--GordTnk2, Gmala1, and GordDuk1--had very similar ~76 kb genomes, with >93% DNA identity. These genomes shared limited synteny with Rhodococcus equi phage ReqiDocB7 and Gordonia phage GTE7. In contrast, the genome of phage Gsput1 was smaller (43 kb) and was not similar enough to any known phage to be placed within an established phage type. Application of these four phages at MOIs of 5-15 significantly reduced Gordonia host levels in a wastewater sludge model by approximately 10-fold as compared to non-phage treated reactors. Phage control was observed for nine days after treatment.

  9. Selenium levels and Glutathione peroxidase activity in the plasma of patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    González de Vega, Raquel; Fernández-Sánchez, María Luisa; Fernández, Juan Carlos; Álvarez Menéndez, Francisco Vicente; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2016-09-01

    Selenium, an essential trace element, is involved in the complex system of defense against oxidative stress through selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases (GPx) and other selenoproteins. Because of its antioxidant properties, selenium or its selenospecies at appropriate levels could hinder oxidative stress and so development of diabetes. In this vein, quantitative speciation of selenium in human plasma samples from healthy and diabetic patients (controlled and non-controlled) was carried out by affinity chromatography (AF) coupled on-line to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and isotope dilution analysis (IDA). Similarly, it is well known that patients with diabetes who exhibit poor control of blood glucose show a decreased total antioxidant activity. Thus, we evaluated the enzymatic activity of GPx in diabetic and healthy individuals, using the Paglia and Valentine enzymatic method, observing a significant difference (p<0.05) between the three groups of assayed patients (healthy (n=24): 0.61±0.11U/ml, controlled diabetic (n=38): 0.40±0.12U/ml and non-controlled diabetic patients (n=40): 0.32±0.09U/ml). Our results show that hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress in diabetic patients compared with healthy controls. What is more, glycation of GPx experiments demonstrated that it is the degree of glycation of the selenoenzyme (another species of the Se protein) what actually modulates its eventual activity against ROS in type II diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:27473831

  10. A comparative study of carboxyfluorescein diacetate and carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester as indicators of bacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Hoefel, Daniel; Grooby, Warwick L; Monis, Paul T; Andrews, Stuart; Saint, Christopher P

    2003-03-01

    Staining bacteria with esterified fluorogenic substrates followed by flow cytometric analysis offers a means for rapid detection of metabolically active bacteria. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to assess carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA/SE) as indicators of bacterial activity for cultured bacteria, including Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and bacteria from environmental waters. In theory, CFDA/SE should be a better indicator of metabolic bacterial activity compared to CFDA due to greater intracellular retention of the fluorescent product. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of exponential phase cultures, mixtures of active and inactive cells and bacteria from environmental waters revealed CFDA was successful in detecting active bacteria, whereas CFDA/SE was not. CFDA/SE labelled inactive cells with intensities equal to that of the active population and could not even discriminate between bacteria in exponential phase growth and a fixed cell preparation. We propose that the specific mode of action of the succinimidyl ester (SE) group in combination with the nonenzymatic aqueous hydrolysis of the CFDA moiety results in the nonspecific labelling of all cells, irrespective of their metabolic state. This study shows that CFDA/SE is a poor marker of bacterial activity. PMID:12531507

  11. Comparative study of the antibacterial activity of propolis from different geographical and climatic zones.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Véronique; Peyfoon, Elham; Watson, David G; Fearnley, James

    2008-09-01

    Propolis is a natural substance produced by honeybees upon collection and transformation of resins and exudates from plants. Comparative studies on propolis collected from a wide range of countries are crucial for linking its provenance to antibacterial activity and thus ensuring that the beneficial properties of propolis are used more efficiently by the general public. This study reports the in vitro screening of ethanol extracts of propolis (n = 40), collected from a wide range of countries within the tropical, subtropical and temperate zones, and on the comparison of their activity against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using a broth microdilution assay. The results obtained revealed that propolis extracts were mostly active against Gram-positive bacteria. The samples were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) in order to model their activity against Gram-positive microorganisms. Three distinct clusters were distinguished in the PCA mapping based on MIC values, categorizing samples with strong (MIC range 3.9-31.25 mg/L), moderate (MIC range 31.25-> or =500 mg/L) and weak antibacterial activity or inactivity (MIC > or = 500 mg/L only). It is hypothesized that for samples of tropical provenance differences in the activity profiles may depend on the climatic characteristics of the collection sites. High antibacterial activity was observed for samples from locations characterized by a wet-tropical rainforest-type climate.

  12. Comparing the Effects of Light- or Sonic-Activated Drug Delivery: Photochemical/Sonochemical Internalization.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Steen J; Gonzales, Jonathan; Zamora, Genesis; Berg, Kristian; Nair, Rohit Kumar; Hirschberg, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a technique that uses the photochemical properties of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the enhanced delivery of endolysosomal-trapped macromolecules into the cell cytoplasm. The released agent can therefore exert its full biological activity, in contrast to being degraded by lysosomal hydrolases. Activation of photosensitizers via ultrasound (US), called sonodynamic therapy (SDT), has been proposed as an alternative to light-activated PDT for the treatment of cancerous tumors. The use of focused US (FUS) to activate photosensitizers allows treatment at tumor sites buried deep within tissues, overcoming one of the main limitations of PDT/PCI. We have examined ultrasonic activation of photosensitizers together with the anticancer agent bleomycin (BLM) using sonochemical internalization (SCI), as an alternative to light-activated PCI. Our results indicate that, compared to drug or US treatment alone, US activation of the photosensitizer AlPcS2a together with BLM significantly inhibits the ability of treated glioma cells to form clonogenic colonies.

  13. Comparing the Effects of Light- or Sonic-Activated Drug Delivery: Photochemical/Sonochemical Internalization.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Steen J; Gonzales, Jonathan; Zamora, Genesis; Berg, Kristian; Nair, Rohit Kumar; Hirschberg, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a technique that uses the photochemical properties of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the enhanced delivery of endolysosomal-trapped macromolecules into the cell cytoplasm. The released agent can therefore exert its full biological activity, in contrast to being degraded by lysosomal hydrolases. Activation of photosensitizers via ultrasound (US), called sonodynamic therapy (SDT), has been proposed as an alternative to light-activated PDT for the treatment of cancerous tumors. The use of focused US (FUS) to activate photosensitizers allows treatment at tumor sites buried deep within tissues, overcoming one of the main limitations of PDT/PCI. We have examined ultrasonic activation of photosensitizers together with the anticancer agent bleomycin (BLM) using sonochemical internalization (SCI), as an alternative to light-activated PCI. Our results indicate that, compared to drug or US treatment alone, US activation of the photosensitizer AlPcS2a together with BLM significantly inhibits the ability of treated glioma cells to form clonogenic colonies. PMID:27279586

  14. Comparative studies on polyphenolic composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Schisandra chinensis leaves and fruits.

    PubMed

    Mocan, Andrei; Crișan, Gianina; Vlase, Laurian; Crișan, Ovidiu; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Raita, Oana; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Toiu, Anca; Oprean, Radu; Tilea, Ioan

    2014-09-22

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and the polyphenolic content of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. leaves and fruits. The leaves are an important source of flavonoids (35.10 ± 1.23 mg RE/g plant material). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the polyphenolic compounds were achieved using a HPLC-UV-MS method. The main flavonoid from the leaves was isoquercitrin (2486.18 ± 5.72 μg/g plant material), followed by quercitrin (1645.14 ± 2.12 μg/g plant material). Regarding the fruit composition, the dominant compound there was rutin (13.02 ± 0.21 μg/g plant material), but comparing with the leaves, fruits can be considered a poor source of phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX), inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c and EPR spectroscopic assays, revealing a better antioxidant activity for the S. chinensis leaves extract. In the antimicrobial assay, S. chinensis leaves extract showed efficient activities against the targeted bacteria, being more active than the fruits extract. The results suggest the leaves of S. chinensis as a valuable source of antioxidant compounds with significant antioxidant activity.

  15. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age.

    PubMed

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Linek, Pawel; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = -0.581), Psychological Domain (r = -0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = -0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = -0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  16. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581), Psychological Domain (r = –0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  17. Fixed-Dose Combination Drug Approvals, Patents and Market Exclusivities Compared to Single Active Ingredient Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jing; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fixed-dose combinations (FDC) contain two or more active ingredients. The effective patent and exclusivity life of FDC compared to single active ingredient has not been assessed. Objectives Trends in FDA approved FDC in the period 1980–2012 and time lag between approval of FDC and single active ingredients in the combination were assessed, and the effective patent and exclusivity life of FDC was compared with their single active ingredients. Materials and Methods New molecular entities (NMEs), new therapeutic biologics license applications (BLAs) and FDC data were collected from the FDA Orange Book and Drugs@FDA. Analysis included FDC containing one or more NMEs or BLAs at first FDA approval (NMEs-FDC) and only already marketed drugs (Non-NMEs-FDC). Descriptive, Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon Rank Sum analyses were performed. Results During the study period, the FDA approved 28 NMEs-FDC (3.5% of NMEs) and 117 non-NMEs-FDC. FDC approvals increased from 12 in the 1980s to 59 in the 2000s. Non-NMEs-FDC entered the market at a median of 5.43 years (interquartile range 1.74, 10.31) after first FDA approval of single active ingredients in the combination. The Non-NMEs-FDC entered the market at a median of 2.33 years (-7.55, 2.39) before approval of generic single active ingredient. Non-NME-FDC added a median of 9.70 (2.75, 16.24) years to the patent and exclusivity life of the single active ingredients in the combination. Conclusion FDC approvals significantly increased over the last twenty years. Pharmaceutical companies market FDC drugs shortly before the generic versions of the single ingredients enter the market extending the patent and exclusivity life of drugs included in the combination. PMID:26469277

  18. The influence comparing of activated biochar and conventional biochar on the soil biological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořáčková, Helena; Mykajlo, Irina; Záhora, Jaroslav

    2016-04-01

    In our experiment we have used biochar. This material is the product of the pyrolysis that has shown a positive effect on numerous physical and chemical soil properties. However, its influence on the biological component of the soil is very variable. A number of toxic substances that inhibit the soil productivity may be produced during pyrolysis process. The experiment dealt with the hypothesis concerning biochar toxicity reduction by simulating natural processes in the soil. Biochar has been exposed to aeration in the aquatic environment, enriched with nutrients and a source of native soil microflora. It has been created 6 variants in total, each with four replications. The soils samples have been placed in a phytotron for 90 days. Variants consisted of the soil with fertilizers adding (compost, biochar, activated biochar) and have been prepared as well as variants containing compost and biochar and activated biochar optionally. The highest aboveground biomass production has been estimated in variants containing compost, while the lowest production - in the variants containing conventional biochar. During production comparing of the variants with the conventional biochar, activated biochar and control samples it has been evident that activated biochar promotes plant growth, and in contradiction conventional biochar inhibits it. We will approach to the same conclusions when comparing variants with a combination of conventional biochar + compost and activated biochar + compost. Mineral nitrogen leaching has been another investigated parameter. The highest leaching has occurred in the control variant, while the lowest - in the variant with activated biochar (the leaching of nitrate nitrogen has been negligeable). Our results suggest that activated biochar has the potential; however, it is necessary to carry out similar experiments in the field conditions.

  19. Increased active metabolite formation explains the greater platelet inhibition with prasugrel compared to high-dose clopidogrel.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christopher D; Li, Ying Grace; Small, David S; Ernest, C Steven; Farid, Nagy A; Jakubowski, Joseph A; Brandt, John T; Salazar, Daniel E; Winters, Kenneth J

    2007-11-01

    Prasugrel pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics after a 60-mg loading dose (LD) and daily 10-mg maintenance doses (MD) were compared in a 3-way crossover study to clopidogrel 600-mg/75-mg and 300-mg/75-mg LD/MD in 41 healthy, aspirin-free subjects. Each LD was followed by 7 days of daily MD and a 14-day washout period. Inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) was assessed by turbidometric aggregometry (20 and 5 microM ADP). Prasugrel 60-mg achieved higher mean IPA (54%) 30 minutes post-LD than clopidogrel 300-mg (3%) or 600-mg (6%) (P < 0.001) and greater IPA by 1 hour (82%) and 2 hours (91%) than the 6-hour IPA for clopidogrel 300-mg (51%) or 600-mg (69%) (P < 0.01). During MD, IPA for prasugrel 10-mg (78%) exceeded that of clopidogrel (300-mg/75-mg, 56%; 600-mg/75-mg, 52%; P < 0.001). Active metabolite area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-tlast) after prasugrel 60-mg (594 ng.hr/mL) was 2.2 times that after clopidogrel 600-mg. Prasugrel active metabolite AUC0-tlast was consistent with dose-proportionality from 10-mg to 60-mg, while clopidogrel active metabolite AUC0-tlast exhibited saturable absorption and/or metabolism. In conclusion, greater exposure to prasugrel's active metabolite results in faster onset, higher levels, and less variability of platelet inhibition compared with high-dose clopidogrel in healthy subjects. PMID:18030066

  20. Catalase activity, serum trace element and heavy metal concentrations, and vitamin A, D and E levels in pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Kolusari, A; Kurdoglu, M; Yildizhan, R; Adali, E; Edirne, T; Cebi, A; Demir, H; Yoruk, I H

    2008-01-01

    Catalase (antioxidant enzyme) activity in erythrocytes and serum levels of trace elements (copper, iron, zinc), heavy metals (cadmium, cobalt) and vitamins A (retinol), D (cholecalciferol) and E (alpha-tocopherol) were measured in 145 subjects comprising 47 pre-eclamptic pregnant women (PE), 48 healthy pregnant women (HP) and 50 healthy non-pregnant controls (NP). Catalase, vitamins A, D and E and levels of cobalt were significantly lower in the PE group compared with the HP and NP groups, whereas levels of copper, iron and cadmium were significantly higher in the PE group than in the HP and NP groups. Levels of zinc were significantly lower in both the PE and HP groups compared with the NP group. This assessment of oxidant/antioxidant imbalance in pregnant women could be useful in the early identification of pre-eclampsia and antioxidant supplementation in the early weeks of gestation might be useful.

  1. Minimum income protection and European integration: trends and levels of minimum benefits in comparative perspective, 1990-2005.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    This article draws attention to the Europeanization of social policy and the development of minimum income protection in a large number of welfare democracies. The empirical analyses are based on unique institutional and comparative data on benefit levels from the Social Assistance and Minimum Income Protection Interim Dataset. There is some evidence of convergence in benefit levels among the European countries in the new millennium, but there is no clear proof of universal ambitions to fight poverty or of the existence of a single European social model. There are still welfare front-runners and those who lag behind in this regard, not only among industrial welfare democracies in general but also in Europe.

  2. A comparative study of shallow groundwater level simulation with three time series models in a coastal aquifer of South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Delgado, J.

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and reliable groundwater level forecasting models can help ensure the sustainable use of a watershed's aquifers for urban and rural water supply. In this paper, three time series analysis methods, Holt-Winters (HW), integrated time series (ITS), and seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA), are explored to simulate the groundwater level in a coastal aquifer, China. The monthly groundwater table depth data collected in a long time series from 2000 to 2011 are simulated and compared with those three time series models. The error criteria are estimated using coefficient of determination (R 2), Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (E), and root-mean-squared error. The results indicate that three models are all accurate in reproducing the historical time series of groundwater levels. The comparisons of three models show that HW model is more accurate in predicting the groundwater levels than SARIMA and ITS models. It is recommended that additional studies explore this proposed method, which can be used in turn to facilitate the development and implementation of more effective and sustainable groundwater management strategies.

  3. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  4. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  5. Levels and Characteristics of Physical Activity among a College Student Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kim; Staten, Ruth R.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Noland, Melody

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity levels and the relationships between activity and personal characteristics among a cohort of college students and to determine personal characteristics that predict activity. A sample of 1,700 undergraduates was mailed a survey that requested demographic information and assessed health…

  6. Carotid endarterectomy in patients with heparin-induced platelet activation: comparative efficacy of aspirin and iloprost (ZK36374).

    PubMed

    Kappa, J R; Cottrell, E D; Berkowitz, H D; Fisher, C A; Sobel, M; Ellison, N; Addonizio, V P

    1987-05-01

    Patients with heparin-induced platelet activation who are reexposed to heparin may have recurrent thrombocytopenia, intravascular thrombosis, arterial emboli, or sudden death. To permit carotid endarterectomy in two patients with confirmed heparin-induced platelet activation, we compared the efficacies of aspirin and iloprost, a stable analogue of prostacyclin, in preventing heparin-induced platelet activation. In the first patient, although aspirin prevented both in vitro heparin-induced platelet aggregation (70% without and 7.5% with aspirin) and 14C serotonin release (48% without and 0% with aspirin), intraoperative administration of heparin resulted in an increase in plasma levels of platelet factor 4 from 8 to 260 ng/ml and beta-thromboglobulin levels from 29 to 39 ng/ml. In addition, the circulating platelet count decreased from 221,000 to 174,000 microliters, and 15% spontaneous platelet aggregation was observed. Fortunately, fibrinopeptide A levels remained less than 10 ng/ml intraoperatively, and no thrombotic complications occurred. In the second patient, aspirin did not prevent heparin-induced platelet aggregation in vitro (65% without and 41% with aspirin); however, iloprost (0.01 mumol/L) prevented both in vitro heparin-induced platelet aggregation (59.5% without and 0.0% with iloprost) and 14C serotonin release (56.7% without and 0.0% with iloprost). Therefore, a continuous infusion of iloprost was begun before administration of heparin and was continued until 20 minutes after reversal of heparin with protamine. After intraoperative administration of heparin, plasma levels of platelet factor 4 increased from 19 to 200 ng/ml, and beta-thromboglobulin levels increased from 56 to 76 ng/ml.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2437338

  7. The Devon Active Villages Evaluation (DAVE) trial of a community-level physical activity intervention in rural south-west England: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of adults are not meeting the guidelines for physical activity despite activity being linked with numerous improvements to long-term health. In light of this, researchers have called for more community-level interventions. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate whether a community-level physical activity intervention increased the activity levels of rural communities. Methods 128 rural villages (clusters) were randomised to receive the intervention in one of four time periods between April 2011 and December 2012. The Devon Active Villages intervention provided villages with 12 weeks of physical activity opportunities for all age groups, including at least three different types of activities per village. Each village received an individually tailored intervention, incorporating a local needs-led approach. Support was provided for a further 12 months following the intervention. The evaluation study used a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial design. All 128 villages were measured at each of five data collection periods using a postal survey. The primary outcome of interest was the proportion of adults reporting sufficient physical activity to meet internationally recognised guidelines. Minutes spent in moderate-and-vigorous activity per week was analysed as a secondary outcome. To compare between intervention and control modes, random effects linear regression and marginal logistic regression models were implemented for continuous and binary outcomes respectively. Results 10,412 adults (4693 intervention, 5719 control) completed the postal survey (response rate 32.2%). The intervention did not increase the odds of adults meeting the physical activity guideline (adjusted OR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.88 to 1.17; P = 0.80), although there was weak evidence of an increase in minutes of moderate-and-vigorous-intensity activity per week (adjusted mean difference = 171, 95% CI: -16 to 358; P = 0.07). The

  8. Long-latency muscle activity reflects continuous, delayed sensorimotor feedback of task-level and not joint-level error

    PubMed Central

    Safavynia, Seyed A.

    2013-01-01

    In both the upper and lower limbs, evidence suggests that short-latency electromyographic (EMG) responses to mechanical perturbations are modulated based on muscle stretch or joint motion, whereas long-latency responses are modulated based on attainment of task-level goals, e.g., desired direction of limb movement. We hypothesized that long-latency responses are modulated continuously by task-level error feedback. Previously, we identified an error-based sensorimotor feedback transformation that describes the time course of EMG responses to ramp-and-hold perturbations during standing balance (Safavynia and Ting 2013; Welch and Ting 2008, 2009). Here, our goals were 1) to test the robustness of the sensorimotor transformation over a richer set of perturbation conditions and postural states; and 2) to explicitly test whether the sensorimotor transformation is based on task-level vs. joint-level error. We developed novel perturbation trains of acceleration pulses such that perturbations were applied when the body deviated from the desired, upright state while recovering from preceding perturbations. The entire time course of EMG responses (∼4 s) in an antagonistic muscle pair was reconstructed using a weighted sum of center of mass (CoM) kinematics preceding EMGs at long-latency delays (∼100 ms). Furthermore, CoM and joint kinematic trajectories became decorrelated during perturbation trains, allowing us to explicitly compare task-level vs. joint feedback in the same experimental condition. Reconstruction of EMGs was poorer using joint kinematics compared with CoM kinematics and required unphysiologically short (∼10 ms) delays. Thus continuous, long-latency feedback of task-level variables may be a common mechanism regulating long-latency responses in the upper and lower limbs. PMID:23803325

  9. A comparative study of diffraction of shallow-water waves by high-level IGN and GN equations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, B.B.; Ertekin, R.C.; Duan, W.Y.

    2015-02-15

    This work is on the nonlinear diffraction analysis of shallow-water waves, impinging on submerged obstacles, by two related theories, namely the classical Green–Naghdi (GN) equations and the Irrotational Green–Naghdi (IGN) equations, both sets of equations being at high levels and derived for incompressible and inviscid flows. Recently, the high-level Green–Naghdi equations have been applied to some wave transformation problems. The high-level IGN equations have also been used in the last decade to study certain wave propagation problems. However, past works on these theories used different numerical methods to solve these nonlinear and unsteady sets of differential equations and at different levels. Moreover, different physical problems have been solved in the past. Therefore, it has not been possible to understand the differences produced by these two sets of theories and their range of applicability so far. We are thus motivated to make a direct comparison of the results produced by these theories by use of the same numerical method to solve physically the same wave diffraction problems. We focus on comparing these two theories by using similar codes; only the equations used are different but other parts of the codes, such as the wave-maker, damping zone, discretion method, matrix solver, etc., are exactly the same. This way, we eliminate many potential sources of differences that could be produced by the solution of different equations. The physical problems include the presence of various submerged obstacles that can be used for example as breakwaters or to represent the continental shelf. A numerical wave tank is created by placing a wavemaker on one end and a wave absorbing beach on the other. The nonlinear and unsteady sets of differential equations are solved by the finite-difference method. The results are compared with different equations as well as with the available experimental data.

  10. Comparative effects of petrol and diesel on enzyme activity in Tympanotonus fuscatus after sublethal exposure.

    PubMed

    Edori, O S; Festus, C; Edori, E S

    2014-04-01

    Pollution of the aquatic environment by petroleum and its products is common the world over. This study is aimed at examining sublethal effects of petrol and diesel on enzymes in Tympanotonus fuscatus namely: Aspartate Transaminase (AST) (E.C. 2.6.1.1), Alanine Transaminase (ALT) (E.C. 2.6.2.2) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) (E.C. 3.1.3.1) activity after exposure. The periwinkles were exposed to 10.40, 15.60, 21.00, 26.00 ml L(-1) and a control. The organs were removed on the sixth day and were prepared for enzymatic analysis. Enzyme activities were compared to the control value and between the toxicants. The effects of the toxicants on AST activity in the muscle and viscera were significantly different (p > 0.05) from the control value (137.50 ± 15.10 IU L(-1)). AST activity were raised more in petrol concentrations than the diesel concentrations in the muscle. The reverse was the case in the viscera at 15.60 ml L(-1) (227.50 ± 24.75 IU L(-1)). ALT activity in the muscle were not significant (p > 0.05) between the toxicant media. In the viscera, significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in some of the concentrations with petrol showing higher activity. ALP activity in the muscle were not significant (p > 0.05) in both media, but were more elicited in the diesel concentrations. In the viscera, the activities of ALP were more pronounced in the petrol concentrations and were significant (p > 0.05) at the higher diesel concentrations. The exposure of Tympanotonus fuscatus to petrol and diesel concentrations caused changes in the enzymatic activities in the organism with those of petrol more pronounced than those of the diesel.

  11. Comparative phytohormone profiles, lipid kinase and lipid phosphatase activities in barley aleurone, coleoptile, and root tissues.

    PubMed

    Meringer, Maria V; Villasuso, Ana L; Pasquaré, Susana J; Giusto, Norma M; Machado, Estela E; Racagni, Graciela E

    2012-09-01

    We analyzed lipid kinase and lipid phosphatase activities and determined endogenous phytohormone levels by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in root and coleoptile tissues following germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seeds. The enzymes showing highest activity in aleurone cells were diacylglycerol kinase (DAG-k, EC 2.7.1.107) and phosphatidate kinase (PA-k). The ratio of gibberellins (GAs) to abscisic acid (ABA) was 2-fold higher in aleurone than in coleoptile or root tissues. In coleoptiles, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4-k, EC 2.7.1.67) showed the highest enzyme activity, and jasmonic acid (JA) level was higher than in aleurone. In roots, activities of PI4-k, DAG-k, and PA-k were similar, and salicylic acid (SA) showed the highest concentration. In the assays to evaluate the hydrolysis of DGPP (diacylglycerol pyrophosphate) and PA (phosphatidic acid) we observed that PA hydrolysis by LPPs (lipid phosphate phosphatases) was not modified; however, the diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase (DGPPase) was strikingly higher in coleoptile and root tissues than to aleurone. Relevance of these findings in terms of signaling responses and seedling growth is discussed.

  12. Redefining Neighborhoods Using Common Destinations: Social Characteristics of Activity Spaces and Home Census Tracts Compared

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Malia; Pebley, Anne R.

    2014-01-01

    Research on neighborhood effects has focused largely on residential neighborhoods, but people are exposed to many other places in the course of their daily lives—at school, at work, when shopping, and so on. Thus, studies of residential neighborhoods consider only a subset of the social-spatial environment affecting individuals. In this article, we examine the characteristics of adults’ “activity spaces”—spaces defined by locations that individuals visit regularly, in Los Angeles County, California. Using geographic information system (GIS) methods, we define activity spaces in two ways and estimate their socioeconomic characteristics. Our research has two goals. First, we determine whether residential neighborhoods represent the social conditions to which adults are exposed in the course of their regular activities. Second, we evaluate whether particular groups are exposed to a broader or narrower range of social contexts in the course of their daily activities. We find that activity spaces are substantially more heterogeneous in terms of key social characteristics, compared to residential neighborhoods. However, the characteristics of both home neighborhoods and activity spaces are closely associated with individual characteristics. Our results suggest that most people experience substantial segregation across the range of spaces in their daily lives, not just at home. PMID:24719273

  13. A study of motor activity and catecholamine levels in different brain regions following Japanese encephalitis virus infection in rats.

    PubMed

    Misra, Usha Kant; Kumar, Sandeep; Kalita, Jayantee; Ahmad, Ausaf; Khanna, Vinay Kumar; Khan, Mohammad Yahiya; Palit, Gautam

    2009-10-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is associated with a variety of movement disorders including transient form of pakinsonian features, dystonia and miscellaneous movement disorders. The neurotransmitters have important role in movement disorders. However their role in different brain regions in relation to behavioral activities in animal model of JE is not understood. The present study was aimed to investigate the behavioral parameters, the levels of catecholamine in brain regions--thalamus, midbrain, corpus striatum and frontal cortex on 0, 10 and 20 days post inoculation (dpi) with histopathological observations. Twelve day old Wistar strain rats were inoculated intracerebrally with a dose of 3 x 10(6) pfu of JE virus. Spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) and grip strength were monitored. The levels of catecholamine were estimated using HPLC-ECD and histopathological changes were observed using haematoxylin and eosine staining. A significant decrease in SLA and grip strength was observed in JEV infected rats as compared to controls on 10 and 20 dpi. The levels of norepinephrine, dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, and serotonin were significantly decreased in all the brain regions studied with respect to controls. We did not find significant recovery in catecholamine levels and locomotor activities up to 20 dpi and any significant correlation between behavioral changes and neurotransmitter levels. However histopathological studies revealed mild reduction in degree of damage on 20 dpi. The present study demonstrates the involvement of different brain regions in altered locomotor activity which may be associated with reduction in catecholamine levels in rat model of JE.

  14. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis.

    PubMed

    Machado, Christiane Schineider; Mokochinski, João Benhur; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; de Oliveira, Fátima de Cassia Evangelista; Cardoso, Magda Vieira; Ferreira, Roseane Guimarães; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Pessoa, Cláudia; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; de Campos, Mônica Soares; Torres, Yohandra Reyes

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS), were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing (1)H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated.

  15. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Christiane Schineider; Mokochinski, João Benhur; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; de Oliveira, Fátima de Cassia Evangelista; Cardoso, Magda Vieira; Ferreira, Roseane Guimarães; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Pessoa, Cláudia; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; de Campos, Mônica Soares

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS), were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing 1H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated. PMID:27525023

  16. Pain Sensitisation in Women with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Vladimirova, Nora; Jespersen, Anders; Bartels, Else Marie; Christensen, Anton W.; Bliddal, Henning; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In some rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, joint pain persists without signs of inflammation. This indicates that central pain sensitisation may play a role in the generation of chronic pain in a subgroup of RA. Our aim was to assess the degree of peripheral and central pain sensitisation in women with active RA compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods. 38 women with active RA (DAS28 > 2.6) and 38 female HC were included in, and completed, the study. Exclusion criteria were polyneuropathy, pregnancy, and no Danish language. Cuff Pressure Algometry measurements were carried out on the dominant lower leg. Pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain sensitivity during tonic painful stimulation were recorded. Results. Women with active RA had significantly lower pain threshold (p < 0.01) and pain tolerance (p < 0.01) than HC. The mean temporal summation- (TS-) index in RA patients was 0.98 (SEM: 0.09) and 0.71 (SEM: 0.04) in HC (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Patients with active RA showed decreased pressure-pain threshold compared to HC. In addition, temporal summation of pressure-pain was increased, indicating central pain sensitization, at least in some patients. Defining this subgroup of patients may be of importance when considering treatment strategies. PMID:26266046

  17. Pain Sensitisation in Women with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Vladimirova, Nora; Jespersen, Anders; Bartels, Else Marie; Christensen, Anton W; Bliddal, Henning; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In some rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, joint pain persists without signs of inflammation. This indicates that central pain sensitisation may play a role in the generation of chronic pain in a subgroup of RA. Our aim was to assess the degree of peripheral and central pain sensitisation in women with active RA compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods. 38 women with active RA (DAS28 > 2.6) and 38 female HC were included in, and completed, the study. Exclusion criteria were polyneuropathy, pregnancy, and no Danish language. Cuff Pressure Algometry measurements were carried out on the dominant lower leg. Pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain sensitivity during tonic painful stimulation were recorded. Results. Women with active RA had significantly lower pain threshold (p < 0.01) and pain tolerance (p < 0.01) than HC. The mean temporal summation- (TS-) index in RA patients was 0.98 (SEM: 0.09) and 0.71 (SEM: 0.04) in HC (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Patients with active RA showed decreased pressure-pain threshold compared to HC. In addition, temporal summation of pressure-pain was increased, indicating central pain sensitization, at least in some patients. Defining this subgroup of patients may be of importance when considering treatment strategies. PMID:26266046

  18. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Spanish and Virginia groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Mahatma, M K; Thawait, L K; Bishi, S K; Khatediya, N; Rathnakumar, A L; Lalwani, H B; Misra, J B

    2016-05-01

    Kernels of sixty groundnut genotypes comprising thirty each of Spanish and Virginia groups were characterized and compared for the content of oil, protein, phenols and antioxidant activity along with their fatty acid and sugars profiles. The antioxidant activity for Virginia genotypes was ranged from 12.5 to 16.5 μM Trolox equivalent activity for Spanish genotypes ranged from 6.8-15.2 μM. Amongst Virginia types, the highest oleic acid/linoleic acid (O/L) ratio of 2.38 was observed for NRCG 12312 while from Spanish group the highest O/L ratio of 1.24 was observed for NRCG 12731. The sucrose content for Virginia genotypes ranged from 38.5 to 69.0 mg/g while it was 27.9 to 53.3 mg/g for Spanish genotypes. Average myo-inositol content was higher for Spanish genotypes (0.8-2.1 mg/g) compared to Virginia (0.4-1.8 mg/g) while the reverse was true for stachayose content (Spanish: 3.5-7.9 mg/g; Virginia: 4.6-10.3 mg/g). Thus, Virginia genotypes could be preferred to Spanish genotypes for better oil stability and antioxidant activity. PMID:27407194

  19. Comparative hepatic cytochrome P450 activities and contaminant concentrations in caged carp and juvenile ducks

    SciTech Connect

    O`Keefe, P.; Gierthy, J.; Connor, S.; Bush, B.; Hong, C.S.; Wood, L.; Clayton, W.; Storm, R.

    1995-12-31

    Juvenile carp (Cyprinius carpio) weighing approx. 60 g were placed in cages located on the surface of sediments near an aluminum plant and an automobile parts plant in the Massena area of the St. Lawrence River. Fish were removed at weekly intervals over a 35 day exposure period and composited samples of liver tissue, cranial lipid, and fillet tissue were prepared for analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). Liver tissue was also stored at {minus}80 C for determination of microsomal Cytochrome P450 activity using the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) assay. A control exposure was carried out upstream at an uncontaminated site. Juvenile pre-flight ducks (mallards, gadwalls, wood ducks and common mergansers) were collected in the contaminated areas on the St. Lawrence and on the Hudson River two to three months after hatching. Control pre-flight mallards, wood ducks and common mergansers were collected from remote lakes in the Addirondack State Park. Samples of subcutaneous fat and liver tissue were removed for analysis as described above for the carp. There was a three fold increase in AHH activity in the carp liver tissue at the end of the 35 day exposure period and there was a similar increase it activity for the mallards, common mergansers and wood ducks compared to controls. For each species the enzyme activity increases will be compared to the contaminant concentrations.

  20. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis.

    PubMed

    Machado, Christiane Schineider; Mokochinski, João Benhur; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; de Oliveira, Fátima de Cassia Evangelista; Cardoso, Magda Vieira; Ferreira, Roseane Guimarães; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Pessoa, Cláudia; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; de Campos, Mônica Soares; Torres, Yohandra Reyes

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS), were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing (1)H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated. PMID:27525023

  1. [Antitumor Activity of Polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum Mycelium: in vivo Comparative Study].

    PubMed

    Krasnopolskaya, L M; Yarina, M S; Avtonomova, A V; Usov, A I; Isakova, E B; Bukchman, V M

    2015-01-01

    Fractions of water soluble and alkali soluble polysaccharides, as well as fucogalactan, a water soluble polysaccharide, and xylomannan, an alkali soluble polysaccharide, were isolated from the Ganoderma lucidum submerged mycelium. When administered orally, the polysaccharides showed antitumor activity in vivo on murine models of solid tumors. Xylomannan and fucogalactan showed the highest antitumor activity. Sensitivity to xylomannan was more pronounced in adenocarcinoma Ca755 as compared to the T-cell lymphocytic leukemia P388. The antitumor activity of the water soluble polysaccharides total fractions from the mycelium and fruiting bodies of the G. lucidum strain was almost identical. The maximum antitumor effect of the mycelium water soluble polysaccharides total fraction was observed with the use of the daily dose of 2 mg/kg.

  2. Irisin Levels are Not Affected by Physical Activity in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Tobias; Elbelt, Ulf; Ahnis, Anne; Kobelt, Peter; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Irisin was recently identified as muscle-derived hormone that increases energy expenditure. Studies in normal weight and obese subjects reported an increased irisin expression following physical activity, although inconsistent results were observed. Increased physical activity in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) complicates the course of the disease. Since irisin could account for differences in clinical outcomes, we investigated irisin levels in anorexic patients with high and moderate physical activity to evaluate whether irisin differs with increasing physical activity. Hospitalized female anorexic patients (n = 39) were included. Plasma irisin measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and locomotor activity were assessed at the same time. Patients were separated into two groups (n = 19/group; median excluded): moderate and high activity (6331 ± 423 vs. 13743 ± 1047 steps/day, p < 0.001). The groups did not differ in body mass index (14.2 ± 0.4 vs. 15.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2), irisin levels (558.2 ± 26.1 vs. 524.9 ± 25.2 ng/ml), and body weight-adjusted resting energy expenditure (17.6 ± 0.3 vs. 18.0 ± 0.3 kcal/kg/day, p > 0.05), whereas body weight-adjusted total energy expenditure (46.0 ± 1.4 vs. 41.1 ± 1.1 kcal/kg/day), metabolic equivalents (METs, 1.9 ± 0.1 vs. 1.7 ± 0.1 METs/day), body weight-adjusted exercise activity thermogenesis (1.8 ± 0.5 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 kcal/kg/day), duration of exercise (18.6 ± 4.7 vs. 6.2 ± 3.1 min/day), and body weight-adjusted non-exercise activity thermogenesis (21.6 ± 1.0 vs. 18.8 ± 0.8 kcal/kg/day) were higher in the high activity compared to the moderate activity group (p < 0.05). No correlations were observed between irisin and activity parameters in the whole sample (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the current data do not support the concept of irisin being induced by exercise, at least not under

  3. Physical activity, fatness, educational level and snuff consumption as determinants of semen quality: findings of the ActiART study.

    PubMed

    Pärn, Triin; Grau Ruiz, Raúl; Kunovac Kallak, Theodora; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Davey, Eva; Hreinsson, Julius; Wånggren, Kjell; Salumets, Andres; Sjöström, Michael; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli; Ortega, Francisco B; Altmäe, Signe

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the association between physical activity and other potential determinants, objectively measured by accelerometry, was examined. Sixty-two men attending an infertility clinic participated in the study. Obese men (body mass index ≥ 30) and those with a waist circumference 102 cm or more had lower semen volume than the other men (P < 0.05). Higher values in sperm parameters were observed in participants who completed university studies and those who did not consume snuff, compared with the other participants (P < 0.05). Finally, men who spent an average number of 10 min-bouts of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity had significantly better semen quality than those who engaged in low or high numbers of bouts of activity (P < 0.05). No associations were found for sedentary or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity time when it was not sustained over 10 min, i.e. not in bouts. Men who have average levels of physical activity over sustained periods of 10 min are likely to have better semen quality than men who engage in low or high levels of such activity. Similarly, high levels of total and central adiposity, low educational level and snuff consumption are negatively related to semen quality.

  4. Physical activity levels and patterns in older adults: the influence of a DVD-based exercise program.

    PubMed

    Gothe, Neha P; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Olson, Erin A; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Chung, H David; Zuniga, Krystle E; Mackenzie, Michael J; Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2015-02-01

    The use of multimedia to influence health behaviors offers unique advantages over more traditional center-based programs, however, little is known about the effectiveness of such approaches in improving physical activity levels over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a progressive and age-appropriate, DVD-delivered exercise program in promoting physical activity levels among older adult cohorts. Community dwelling older adults (N = 307, Mean age = 71 years) were randomized to one of two groups: a 6-month home-based DVD-delivered exercise (i.e., FlexToBa™) intervention group or a healthy aging DVD control group. Physical activity was assessed objectively using a standard 7-day accelerometer wear period and subjectively using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, at baseline and follow-up. Analysis of covariances indicated a statistically significant treatment effect for subjectively [F(1,250) = 8.42, P = .004, η(2) = .03] and objectively [F(1,240) = 3.77, P = .05, η(2) = .02] measured physical activity. The older cohort (>70) in the FlexToBa condition further had significantly larger improvements in physical activity levels compared to their younger counterparts. From a public health perspective, media-delivered interventions such as the FlexToBa program might prove to be cost-effective, have a broader reach and at the same time be effective in improving physical activity levels in older adults.

  5. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a stronger indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors and risk prediction than self-reported physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Gray, Benjamin J; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Williams, Sally P; Davies, Christine A; Turner, Daniel; Bracken, Richard M

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the relationships of self-reported physical activity levels and cardiorespiratory fitness in 81 males to assess which measurement is the greatest indicator of cardiometabolic risk. Physical activity levels were determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed using the Chester Step Test. Cardiovascular disease risk was estimated using the QRISK2, Framingham Lipids, Framingham body mass index and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 equations, and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk calculated using QDiabetes, Leicester Risk Assessment, Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and Cambridge Risk Score models. Categorising employees by cardiorespiratory fitness categories ('Excellent/Good' vs 'Average/Below Average') identified more differences in cardiometabolic risk factor (body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, HbA(1c)) scores than physical activity (waist circumference only). Cardiorespiratory fitness levels also demonstrated differences in all four type 2 diabetes mellitus risk prediction models and both the QRISK2 and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 cardiovascular disease equations. Furthermore, significant negative correlations (p < 0.001) were observed between individual cardiorespiratory fitness values and estimated risk in all prediction models. In conclusion, from this preliminary observational study, cardiorespiratory fitness levels reveal a greater number of associations with markers of cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to physical activity determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool.

  6. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a stronger indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors and risk prediction than self-reported physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Gray, Benjamin J; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Williams, Sally P; Davies, Christine A; Turner, Daniel; Bracken, Richard M

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the relationships of self-reported physical activity levels and cardiorespiratory fitness in 81 males to assess which measurement is the greatest indicator of cardiometabolic risk. Physical activity levels were determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed using the Chester Step Test. Cardiovascular disease risk was estimated using the QRISK2, Framingham Lipids, Framingham body mass index and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 equations, and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk calculated using QDiabetes, Leicester Risk Assessment, Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and Cambridge Risk Score models. Categorising employees by cardiorespiratory fitness categories ('Excellent/Good' vs 'Average/Below Average') identified more differences in cardiometabolic risk factor (body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, HbA(1c)) scores than physical activity (waist circumference only). Cardiorespiratory fitness levels also demonstrated differences in all four type 2 diabetes mellitus risk prediction models and both the QRISK2 and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 cardiovascular disease equations. Furthermore, significant negative correlations (p < 0.001) were observed between individual cardiorespiratory fitness values and estimated risk in all prediction models. In conclusion, from this preliminary observational study, cardiorespiratory fitness levels reveal a greater number of associations with markers of cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to physical activity determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool. PMID:26361778

  7. Distribution and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Gebhard, Christiane; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Miller, Ingrid; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and metastasis dissemination. We investigated whether the contrasting metastatic behavior of feline and canine osteosarcoma is related to levels and activities of MMP2 and MMP9. Zymography and immunohistochemistry were used to determine expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma. Using immunohistochemistry, increased MMP9 levels were identified in most canine osteosarcomas, whereas cat samples more often displayed moderate levels. High levels of pro-MMP9, pro-MMP2, and active MMP2 were detected by gelatin zymography in both species, with significantly higher values for active MMP2 in canine osteosarcoma. These findings indicate that MMP2 is probably involved in canine and feline osteosarcoma and their expression and activity could be associated with the different metastatic behavior of canine and feline osteosarcoma. PMID:26733734

  8. Comparative Assessment of the Anticoagulant Activity of Rivaroxaban and Dabigatran in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: A Noninterventional Study.

    PubMed

    Tsantes, Argirios E; Kyriakou, Elias; Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Katogiannis, Konstantinos; Papadakis, Ioannis; Douramani, Panagiota; Kopterides, Petros; Kapsimali, Violetta; Lekakis, John; Tsangaris, Iraklis; Bonovas, Stefanos

    2016-04-01

    There is a shortage of data in everyday clinical practice about the anticoagulant effects caused by the new oral anticoagulants (NOAs). Our aim was to estimate the intensity of anticoagulant activity induced by rivaroxaban 20 mg qd and dabigatran 110 mg bid among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NV-AF).We studied 20 patients with NV-AF treated with dabigatran, and 20 patients treated with rivaroxaban. We performed conventional coagulation tests, thrombin generation (TG) test, thromboelastometry (ROTEM), and epinephrine-induced light transmission aggregometry (LTA) in all 40 patients and 20 controls. Hemoclot Thrombin Inhibitors (HTI) and Factor Xa Direct Inhibitor (DiXaI) assay were used to measure dabigatran and rivaroxaban plasma levels, respectively.Measurements of all assays estimating anticoagulant activity across the 2 patient groups were similar, except for aPTT. Patients on dabigatran exhibited statistically significantly prolonged aPTT values (P < 0.001). In LTA, patients on dabigatran also showed decreased aggregation compared to those on rivaroxaban (P = 0.045). Regarding the TG test, there was no association between endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) and rivaroxaban plasma levels (P = 0.33) as opposed to dabigatran levels (P < 0.001), but significant correlations were observed between rivaroxaban plasma concentrations and kinetic parameters of TG assay (Tlag, P = 0.045; Tmax, P = 0.016; and Cmax, P = 0.003).Based on ROTEM and TG assays, the anticoagulant effects induced by the 2 drugs given in the specific dose regimens in real-world patients were comparable. Only platelet aggregation was found to be more affected by dabigatran as compared to rivaroxaban.

  9. Comparative Assessment of the Anticoagulant Activity of Rivaroxaban and Dabigatran in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: A Noninterventional Study.

    PubMed

    Tsantes, Argirios E; Kyriakou, Elias; Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Katogiannis, Konstantinos; Papadakis, Ioannis; Douramani, Panagiota; Kopterides, Petros; Kapsimali, Violetta; Lekakis, John; Tsangaris, Iraklis; Bonovas, Stefanos

    2016-04-01

    There is a shortage of data in everyday clinical practice about the anticoagulant effects caused by the new oral anticoagulants (NOAs). Our aim was to estimate the intensity of anticoagulant activity induced by rivaroxaban 20 mg qd and dabigatran 110 mg bid among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NV-AF).We studied 20 patients with NV-AF treated with dabigatran, and 20 patients treated with rivaroxaban. We performed conventional coagulation tests, thrombin generation (TG) test, thromboelastometry (ROTEM), and epinephrine-induced light transmission aggregometry (LTA) in all 40 patients and 20 controls. Hemoclot Thrombin Inhibitors (HTI) and Factor Xa Direct Inhibitor (DiXaI) assay were used to measure dabigatran and rivaroxaban plasma levels, respectively.Measurements of all assays estimating anticoagulant activity across the 2 patient groups were similar, except for aPTT. Patients on dabigatran exhibited statistically significantly prolonged aPTT values (P < 0.001). In LTA, patients on dabigatran also showed decreased aggregation compared to those on rivaroxaban (P = 0.045). Regarding the TG test, there was no association between endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) and rivaroxaban plasma levels (P = 0.33) as opposed to dabigatran levels (P < 0.001), but significant correlations were observed between rivaroxaban plasma concentrations and kinetic parameters of TG assay (Tlag, P = 0.045; Tmax, P = 0.016; and Cmax, P = 0.003).Based on ROTEM and TG assays, the anticoagulant effects induced by the 2 drugs given in the specific dose regimens in real-world patients were comparable. Only platelet aggregation was found to be more affected by dabigatran as compared to rivaroxaban. PMID:27057830

  10. Association of After-School Physical Activity Levels and Organized Physical Activity Participation in Hong Kong Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Peggy PY

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to 1) describe the children's physical activity (PA) patterns during the after-school period and 2) to compare the type and intensity of activity during the after-school period of children with or without participation in organized PA programmes. The participants were 456 children from four primary schools in Hong Kong.…

  11. Higher plasma orexin A levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome compared with healthy unrelated sibling controls.

    PubMed

    Manzardo, Ann M; Johnson, Lisa; Miller, Jennifer L; Driscoll, Daniel J; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-08-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder associated with maladaptive social behavior, hyperphagia, and morbid obesity. Orexin A is a hypothalamic neuropeptide important as a homeostatic regulator of feeding behavior and in energy metabolism through actions in the lateral hypothalamus. Dysregulation of orexin signaling may contribute to behavioral problems and hyperphagia seen in PWS and we sought to assess orexin A levels in PWS relative to controls children. Morning fasting plasma orexin A levels were analyzed in 23 children (aged 5-11 years) with genetically confirmed PWS and 18 age and gender matched healthy unrelated siblings without PWS. Multiplex immune assays utilized the Milliplex Human Neuropeptide Magnetic panel and the Luminex platform. Natural log-transformed orexin A data were analyzed using general linear model adjusting for diagnosis, gender, age, total body fat and body mass index (BMI). Plasma orexin A levels were significantly higher (P < 0.006) in children with PWS (average ±SD = 1028 pg/ml ± 358) compared with unrelated siblings (average ±SD = 609 pg/ml ± 351; P < 0.001). Orexin A levels correlated with age in females and were significantly elevated in PWS even after these effects were controlled. These findings support the hypothesis that dysregulation of orexin signaling may contribute to behavioral problems and hyperphagia in PWS. Further studies are warranted to better understand the complex relationship between orexin A levels and the problematic behaviors consistently found in individuals with PWS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27214028

  12. Higher plasma orexin a levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome compared with healthy unrelated sibling controls.

    PubMed

    Manzardo, Ann M; Johnson, Lisa; Miller, Jennifer L; Driscoll, Daniel J; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder associated with maladaptive social behavior, hyperphagia and morbid obesity. Orexin A is a hypothalamic neuropeptide important as a homeostatic regulator of feeding behavior and in energy metabolism through actions in the lateral hypothalamus. Dysregulation of orexin signaling may contribute to behavioral problems and hyperphagia seen in PWS and we sought to assess orexin A levels in PWS relative to controls children. Morning fasting plasma orexin A levels were analyzed in 23 children (aged 5-11 years) with genetically confirmed PWS and 18 age and gender matched healthy unrelated siblings without PWS. Multiplex immune assays utilized the Milliplex Human Neuropeptide Magnetic panel and the Luminex platform. Natural log-transformed orexin A data were analyzed using general linear model adjusting for diagnosis, gender, age, total body fat, and body mass index (BMI). Plasma orexin A levels were significantly higher (P < 0.006) in children with PWS (average ±SD = 1,028 pg/ml ± 358) compared with unrelated siblings (average ±SD = 609 pg/ml ± 351; P < 0.001). Orexin A levels correlated with age in females and were significantly elevated in PWS even after these effects were controlled. These findings support the hypothesis that dysregulation of orexin signaling may contribute to behavioral problems and hyperphagia in PWS. Further studies are warranted to better understand the complex relationship between orexin A levels and the problematic behaviors consistently found in individuals with PWS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27518917

  13. Comparative Study of Serum Leptin and Insulin Resistance Levels Between Korean Postmenopausal Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun-Jung

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to compare serum leptin and insulin resistance levels between Korean postmenopausal long-term semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Subjects of this study belonged to either a group of postmenopausal vegetarian women (n = 54), who maintained a semi-vegetarian diet for over 20 years or a group of non-vegetarian controls. Anthropometric characteristics, serum leptin, serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance), and nutrient intake were compared between the two groups. The vegetarians showed significantly lower body weight (p < 0.01), body mass index (p < 0.001), percentage (%) of body fat (p < 0.001), and serum levels of leptin (p < 0.05), glucose (p < 0.001), and insulin (p < 0.01), than the non-vegetarians. The HOMA-IR of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the non-vegetarians (p < 0.01) after adjustment for the % of body fat. A long-term vegetarian diet might be related to lower insulin resistance independent of the % of body fat in postmenopausal women.

  14. Physical activity parenting: A systematic review of questionnaires and their associations with child activity levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insufficient physical activity (PA) is considered a critical contributor to childhood overweight. Parents are a key in influencing their child's PA through various mechanisms of PA parenting, including support, restriction of PA, and facilitation of enrollment in PA classes or activities. However, s...

  15. Interlaboratory comparability of serum cotinine measurements at smoker and nonsmoker concentration levels: A round-robin study

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Peyton; Holiday, David B.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Sosnoff, Connie S.; Doig, Mira V.; Feyerabend, Colin; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Sharifi, Mehran; Kellogg, Mark D.; Langman, Loralie J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Cotinine, the primary proximate metabolite of nicotine, is commonly measured as an index of exposure to tobacco in both active users of tobacco and nonsmokers with possible exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). A number of laboratories have implemented analyses for measuring serum cotinine in recent years, but there have been few interlaboratory comparisons of the results. Among nonsmokers exposed to SHS, the concentration of cotinine in blood can be quite low, and extensive variability in these measurements has been reported in the past. Methods: In this study, a group of seven laboratories, all experienced in serum cotinine analysis, measured eight coded serum pools with concentrations ranging from background levels of about 0.05 ng/ml to relatively high concentrations in the active smokers range. All laboratories used either gas–liquid chromatography with nitrogen–phosphorus detection or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Results: All seven laboratories reliably measured the cotinine concentrations in samples that were within the range of their methods. In each case, the results for the pools were correctly ranked in order, and no significant interlaboratory bias was observed at the 5% level of significance for results from any of the pools. Discussion: We conclude that present methods of chromatographic analysis of serum cotinine, as used by these experienced laboratories, are capable of providing accurate and precise results in both the smoker and the nonsmoker concentration range. PMID:19933777

  16. Spinal Motion and Muscle Activity during Active Trunk Movements - Comparing Sheep and Humans Adopting Upright and Quadrupedal Postures.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Stephanie; Licka, Theresia F

    2016-01-01

    Sheep are used as models for the human spine, yet comparative in vivo data necessary for validation is limited. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare spinal motion and trunk muscle activity during active trunk movements in sheep and humans. Three-dimensional kinematic data as well as surface electromyography (sEMG) of spinal flexion and extension was compared in twenty-four humans in upright (UR) and 4-point kneeling (KN) postures and in 17 Austrian mountain sheep. Kinematic markers were attached over the sacrum, posterior iliac spines, and spinous and transverse processes of T5, T8, T11, L2 and L5 in humans and over the sacrum, tuber sacrale, T5, T8, T12, L3 and L7 in sheep. The activity of erector spinae (ES), rectus abdominis (RA), obliquus externus (OE), and obliquus internus (OI) were collected. Maximum sEMG (MOE) was identified for each muscle and trial, and reported as a percentage (MOE%) of the overall maximally observed sEMG from all trials. Spinal range of motion was significantly smaller in sheep compared to humans (UR / KN) during flexion (sheep: 6-11°; humans 12-34°) and extension (sheep: 4°; humans: 11-17°). During extension, MOE% of ES was greater in sheep (median: 77.37%) than UR humans (24.89%), and MOE% of OE and OI was greater in sheep (OE 76.20%; OI 67.31%) than KN humans (OE 21.45%; OI 19.34%), while MOE% of RA was lower in sheep (21.71%) than UR humans (82.69%). During flexion, MOE% of RA was greater in sheep (83.09%) than humans (KN 47.42%; UR 41.38%), and MOE% of ES in sheep (45.73%) was greater than KN humans (14.45%), but smaller than UR humans (72.36%). The differences in human and sheep spinal motion and muscle activity suggest that caution is warranted when ovine data are used to infer human spine biomechanics.

  17. Spinal Motion and Muscle Activity during Active Trunk Movements – Comparing Sheep and Humans Adopting Upright and Quadrupedal Postures

    PubMed Central

    Valentin, Stephanie; Licka, Theresia F.

    2016-01-01

    Sheep are used as models for the human spine, yet comparative in vivo data necessary for validation is limited. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare spinal motion and trunk muscle activity during active trunk movements in sheep and humans. Three-dimensional kinematic data as well as surface electromyography (sEMG) of spinal flexion and extension was compared in twenty-four humans in upright (UR) and 4-point kneeling (KN) postures and in 17 Austrian mountain sheep. Kinematic markers were attached over the sacrum, posterior iliac spines, and spinous and transverse processes of T5, T8, T11, L2 and L5 in humans and over the sacrum, tuber sacrale, T5, T8, T12, L3 and L7 in sheep. The activity of erector spinae (ES), rectus abdominis (RA), obliquus externus (OE), and obliquus internus (OI) were collected. Maximum sEMG (MOE) was identified for each muscle and trial, and reported as a percentage (MOE%) of the overall maximally observed sEMG from all trials. Spinal range of motion was significantly smaller in sheep compared to humans (UR / KN) during flexion (sheep: 6–11°; humans 12–34°) and extension (sheep: 4°; humans: 11–17°). During extension, MOE% of ES was greater in sheep (median: 77.37%) than UR humans (24.89%), and MOE% of OE and OI was greater in sheep (OE 76.20%; OI 67.31%) than KN humans (OE 21.45%; OI 19.34%), while MOE% of RA was lower in sheep (21.71%) than UR humans (82.69%). During flexion, MOE% of RA was greater in sheep (83.09%) than humans (KN 47.42%; UR 41.38%), and MOE% of ES in sheep (45.73%) was greater than KN humans (14.45%), but smaller than UR humans (72.36%). The differences in human and sheep spinal motion and muscle activity suggest that caution is warranted when ovine data are used to infer human spine biomechanics. PMID:26741136

  18. A comparison of professional-level faculty and student perceptions of active learning: its current use, effectiveness, and barriers

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Active learning is an instructional method in which students become engaged participants in the classroom through the use of in-class written exercises, games, problem sets, audience-response systems, debates, class discussions, etc. Despite evidence supporting the effectiveness of active learning strategies, minimal adoption of the technique has occurred in many professional programs. The goal of this study was to compare the perceptions of active learning between students who were exposed to active learning in the classroom (n = 116) and professional-level physiology faculty members (n = 9). Faculty members reported a heavy reliance on lectures and minimal use of educational games and activities, whereas students indicated that they learned best via the activities. A majority of faculty members (89%) had observed active learning in the classroom and predicted favorable effects of the method on student performance and motivation. The main reported barriers by faculty members to the adoption of active learning were a lack of necessary class time, a high comfort level with traditional lectures, and insufficient time to develop materials. Students hypothesized similar obstacles for faculty members but also associated many negative qualities with the traditional lecturers. Despite these barriers, a majority of faculty members (78%) were interested in learning more about the alternative teaching strategy. Both faculty members and students indicated that active learning should occupy portions (29% vs. 40%) of face-to-face class time. PMID:25179615

  19. A comparison of professional-level faculty and student perceptions of active learning: its current use, effectiveness, and barriers.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cynthia J; Metz, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Active learning is an instructional method in which students become engaged participants in the classroom through the use of in-class written exercises, games, problem sets, audience-response systems, debates, class discussions, etc. Despite evidence supporting the effectiveness of active learning strategies, minimal adoption of the technique has occurred in many professional programs. The goal of this study was to compare the perceptions of active learning between students who were exposed to active learning in the classroom (n = 116) and professional-level physiology faculty members (n = 9). Faculty members reported a heavy reliance on lectures and minimal use of educational games and activities, whereas students indicated that they learned best via the activities. A majority of faculty members (89%) had observed active learning in the classroom and predicted favorable effects of the method on student performance and motivation. The main reported barriers by faculty members to the adoption of active learning were a lack of necessary class time, a high comfort level with traditional lectures, and insufficient time to develop materials. Students hypothesized similar obstacles for faculty members but also associated many negative qualities with the traditional lecturers. Despite these barriers, a majority of faculty members (78%) were interested in learning more about the alternative teaching strategy. Both faculty members and students indicated that active learning should occupy portions (29% vs. 40%) of face-to-face class time. PMID:25179615

  20. A comparison of professional-level faculty and student perceptions of active learning: its current use, effectiveness, and barriers.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cynthia J; Metz, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Active learning is an instructional method in which students become engaged participants in the classroom through the use of in-class written exercises, games, problem sets, audience-response systems, debates, class discussions, etc. Despite evidence supporting the effectiveness of active learning strategies, minimal adoption of the technique has occurred in many professional programs. The goal of this study was to compare the perceptions of active learning between students who were exposed to active learning in the classroom (n = 116) and professional-level physiology faculty members (n = 9). Faculty members reported a heavy reliance on lectures and minimal use of educational games and activities, whereas students indicated that they learned best via the activities. A majority of faculty members (89%) had observed active learning in the classroom and predicted favorable effects of the method on student performance and motivation. The main reported barriers by faculty members to the adoption of active learning were a lack of necessary class time, a high comfort level with traditional lectures, and insufficient time to develop materials. Students hypothesized similar obstacles for faculty members but also associated many negative qualities with the traditional lecturers. Despite these barriers, a majority of faculty members (78%) were interested in learning more about the alternative teaching strategy. Both faculty members and students indicated that active learning should occupy portions (29% vs. 40%) of face-to-face class time.

  1. Study of the effects of oral zinc supplementation on peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity in seminal plasma of Iraqi asthenospermic patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) are necessary for the biology and physiology of spermatozoa, but high levels of NO are toxic and have negative effects on sperm functions. Although several studies have considered the relationship between infertility and semen NO concentrations, no study on the effects of asthenospermia treatments such as oral zinc supplementation on concentrations of NO, which are important in fertility, has been reported. Studies have shown that oral zinc supplementation develops sperm count, motility and the physical characteristics of sperm in animals and in some groups of infertile men. The present study was conducted to study the effect of zinc supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen, along with enzymes of the NO pathway in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic patients. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 60 fertile and 60 asthenozoospermic infertile men of matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate; each participant took two capsules (220 mg per capsule) per day for 3 months. Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation). After liquefaction of the seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. The stable metabolites of NO (nitrite) in seminal plasma were measured by nitrophenol assay. Arginase activity and NO synthase activity were measured spectrophotometrically. Results Peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity, NO synthase activity and various sperm parameters were compared among fertile controls and infertile patients (before and after treatment with zinc sulfate). Peroxynitrite levels and NO synthase activity were significantly higher in the infertile patients compared to the fertile group. Conversely, arginase activity was significantly higher in the fertile group than the infertile patients. Peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity of the infertile patient were restored to

  2. Antioxidant levels and activities of selected seeds of malaysian tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Norshazila, S; Syed Zahir, I; Mustapha Suleiman, K; Aisyah, M R; Kamarul Rahim, K

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study are to determine and compare the antioxidant levels and activities (i.e. primary and secondary) between selected seeds of Malaysian tropical fruits - guava (Psidium guajava), mango (Mangifera indica L.) and papaya (Carica papaya L.). Seeds are among byproducts from the processing of fruitsbased products. Instead of discarding seeds as waste, seeds with high potential as antioxidants could be utilised for commercial purposes. Accordingly, the selected seeds of Malaysian tropical fruits were tested in this study for total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging activity by 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and metal ion chelating effect by ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. Extraction of antioxidant compounds from sample was done with 70% ethanol. TPCs of the seeds were expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) in mg per 100 g fresh seed weight. TPC assay showed that mango seeds had the highest TPC (i.e. 32 ± 0.001 mg GAE) followed by guava seeds (i.e. 20 ± 0.001 mg GAE) and papaya seeds (8 ± 0.003 mg GAE). For DPPH assay, IC50 data showed that mango seed extract scavenged 50% DPPH radicals at the lowest concentration (0.11 ± 0.01 mg/mL) followed by the positive control BHA (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL), guava seed extract (0.26 ± 0.01 mg/mL) and papaya seed extract (0.34 ± 0.01 mg/mL). Interestingly, all seed extracts showed higher free radical scavenging activities than BHA after sample concentration of 0.60 mg/mL. However, FIC assay indicated that metal ion chelating effects of all seed extracts were weaker than BHA suggesting that the fruit seeds are not sources of good metal ion chelators. Overall, present results suggest that TPC of the seeds show strong negative correlation with their primary antioxidant activity (r= -0.985, R2= 0.970), and not all compounds in extracts which could scavenge DPPH radicals are good metal ion chelators. Mango seeds relatively showed the highest antioxidant level and primary antioxidant

  3. A comparative study on the relationship between acetylcholinesterase activity and acute toxicity in Daphnia magna exposed to anticholinesterase insecticides.

    PubMed

    Printes, Liane Biehl; Callaghan, Amanda

    2004-05-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was measured in Daphnia magna that had been exposed to four organophosphates (OPs; parathion, chlorpyrifos, malathion, and acephate) and one carbamate (propoxur) for 48 h. These results were related to acute toxicity (median effective concentration [EC50] for immobility). For the four OPs, the EC50s were 7.03 pM, 3.17 pM, 10.56 pM, and 309.82 microM, respectively. The EC50 for propoxur was 449.90 pM. Reduction in AChE activity was directly related to an increase in immobility in all chemicals tested. However, the ratio between the EC50 and the AChE median inhibiting concentration ranged from 0.31 to 0.90. A 50% reduction in AChE activity generally was associated with detrimental effects on mobility. However, for acephate, high levels of AChE inhibition (70%) were observed in very low concentrations and were not associated with immobility. In addition, increasing the concentration of acephate further had a slight negative effect on AChE activity but a strong detrimental effect on mobility. Binding sites other than AChE possibly are involved in acephate toxicity to D. magna. Our findings demonstrate different associations between AChE inhibition and toxicity when different chemicals are compared. Therefore, the value of using AChE activity as a biomarker in D. magna will be dependent on the chemical tested.

  4. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Fumagalli, Marco; Colombo, Elisa; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Colombo, Francesca; Peres de Sousa, Luis; Altindişli, Ahmet; Restani, Patrizia; Dell’Agli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) are dried grapes largely consumed as important source of nutrients and polyphenols. Several studies report health benefits of raisins, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity at gastric level of the hydro-alcoholic extracts, which are mostly used for food supplements preparation, was not reported until now. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of five raisin extracts focusing on Interleukin (IL)-8 and Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB pathway. Raisin extracts were characterized by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis and screened for their ability to inhibit Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-induced IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells. Turkish variety significantly inhibited TNFα-induced IL-8 release, and the effect was due to the impairment of the corresponding promoter activity. Macroscopic evaluation showed the presence of seeds, absent in the other varieties; thus, hydro-alcoholic extracts from fruits and seeds were individually tested on IL-8 and NF-κB pathway. Seed extract inhibited IL-8 and NF-κB pathway, showing higher potency with respect to the fruit. Although the main effect was due to the presence of seeds, the fruit showed significant activity as well. Our data suggest that consumption of selected varieties of raisins could confer a beneficial effect against gastric inflammatory diseases. PMID:27447609

  5. Comparative analysis of the protective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on pulmonary contusion lung oxidative stress and serum copper and zinc levels in experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Sırmalı, Mehmet; Solak, Okan; Tezel, Cagatay; Sırmalı, Rana; Ginis, Zeynep; Atik, Dilek; Agackıran, Yetkin; Koylu, Halis; Delibas, Namık

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in the lungs by biochemical and histopathological analyses in an experimental isolated lung contusion model. Eighty-one male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The animals were divided randomly into four groups: group 1 (n = 9) was defined as without contusion and without CAPE injection. Group 2 (n = 9) was defined as CAPE 10 μmol/kg injection without lung contusion. Group 3 (n = 36) was defined as contusion without CAPE-administrated group which consisted of four subgroups that were created according to analysis between days 0, 1, 2, and 3. Group 4 (n = 27) was defined as CAPE 10 μmol/kg administrated after contusion group divided into three subgroups according to analysis on days 1, 2, and 3. CAPE 10 μmol/kg was injected intraperitoneally 30 min after trauma and on days 1 and 2. Blood samples were obtained to measure catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and for blood gas analysis. Trace elements such as zinc and copper were measured in serum. The lung tissue was also removed for histopathological examination. Isolated lung contusion increased serum and tissue SOD and CAT activities and MDA levels (p < 0.05). Both serum and tissue SOD, MDA, and CAT levels on day 3 were lower in group 4 compared to group 3 (p < 0.05). Further, the levels of SOD, MDA, and CAT in group 4 were similar compared to group 1 (p > 0.05). CAPE also had a significant beneficial effect on blood gases (p < 0.05). Both serum zinc and copper levels were (p < 0.05) influenced by the administration of CAPE. Histopathological examination revealed lower scores in group 4 compared to group 3 (p < 0.05) and no significant differences compared to group 1 (p > 0.05). CAPE appears to be effective in protecting against severe oxidative stress and tissue damage caused by pulmonary contusion in an

  6. Arsenic levels in immigrant children from countries at risk of consuming arsenic polluted water compared to children from Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Piñol, S; Sala, A; Guzman, C; Marcos, S; Joya, X; Puig, C; Velasco, M; Velez, D; Vall, O; Garcia-Algar, O

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a highly toxic element that pollutes groundwater, being a major environmental problem worldwide, especially in the Bengal Basin. About 40% of patients in our outpatient clinics come from those countries, and there is no published data about their arsenic exposure. This study compares arsenic exposure between immigrant and native children. A total of 114 children (57 natives, 57 immigrants), aged 2 months to 16 years, were recruited and sociodemographic and environmental exposure data were recorded. Total arsenic in urine, hair, and nails and arsenic-speciated compounds in urine were determined. We did not find significant differences in total and inorganic arsenic levels in urine and hair, but in organic arsenic monomethylarsenic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA) in urine and in total arsenic in nails. However, these values were not in the toxic range. There were significant differences between longer than 5 years exposure and less than 5 years exposure (consumption of water from tube wells), with respect to inorganic and organic MMA arsenic in urine and total arsenic in nails. There was partial correlation between the duration of exposure and inorganic arsenic levels in urine. Immigrant children have higher arsenic levels than native children, but they are not toxic. At present, there is no need for specific arsenic screening or follow-up in immigrant children recently arrived in Spain from exposure high-risk countries.

  7. Does Percutaneous Kyphoplasty Have Better Functional Outcome Than Vertebroplasty in Single Level Osteoporotic Compression Fractures? A Comparative Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Omidi-Kashani, F.; Samini, F.; Hasankhani, E. G.; Kachooei, A. R.; Toosi, K. Z.; Golhasani-Keshtan, F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the relative differences in surgical outcome of kyphoplasty (KP) versus vertebroplasty (VP) in the patients with single level refractory osteoporotic compression fractures (OCFs). Method. From August 2008 to May 2012, we intermittently treated 57 patients with single level OCF by PV and KP (Groups A and B, resp.). We used visual analogue scale (VAS) and short form 36 (SF36) questionnaire to measure functional recovery and followed them for six months. Independent samples t- and Kendall's tau-b tests were for statistics. Results. In terms of age, number, and bone mineral density of the patients, there were no significant differences between the two groups. In both groups, VAS and SF-36 scores improved significantly and remained relatively stable throughout the follow-up period. We had 9 and 6 asymptomatic cement extravasations and 5 and 8 new vertebral fractures in Group A and B, respectively. In comparing the two groups, the results indicated that KP almost failed to show any significant higher effect relative to VP during this period. Conclusions. In considering the high cost of KP relative to VP in the developing countries like Iran, there is no logical reason to use KP in a single level refractory OCF in these regions. PMID:23970997

  8. Comparative Sigma Factor-mRNA Levels in Mycobacterium marinum under Stress Conditions and during Host Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, B. M. Fredrik; Das, Sarbashis; Behra, Phani Rama Krishna; Jordan, Heather R.; Ramesh, Malavika; Mallick, Amrita; Root, Kate M.; Cheramie, Martin N.; de la Cruz Melara, Irma; Small, Pamela L. C.; Dasgupta, Santanu; Ennis, Don G.; Kirsebom, Leif A.

    2015-01-01

    We have used RNASeq and qRT-PCR to study mRNA levels for all σ-factors in different Mycobacterium marinum strains under various growth and stress conditions. We also studied their levels in M. marinum from infected fish and mosquito larvae. The annotated σ-factors were expressed and transcripts varied in relation to growth and stress conditions. Some were highly abundant such as sigA, sigB, sigC, sigD, sigE and sigH while others were not. The σ-factor mRNA profiles were similar after heat stress, during infection of fish and mosquito larvae. The similarity also applies to some of the known heat shock genes such as the α-crystallin gene. Therefore, it seems probable that the physiological state of M. marinum is similar when exposed to these different conditions. Moreover, the mosquito larvae data suggest that this is the state that the fish encounter when infected, at least with respect to σ-factor mRNA levels. Comparative genomic analysis of σ-factor gene localizations in three M. marinum strains and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv revealed chromosomal rearrangements that changed the localization of especially sigA, sigB, sigD, sigE, sigF and sigJ after the divergence of these two species. This may explain the variation in species-specific expression upon exposure to different growth conditions. PMID:26445268

  9. Arsenic levels in immigrant children from countries at risk of consuming arsenic polluted water compared to children from Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Piñol, S; Sala, A; Guzman, C; Marcos, S; Joya, X; Puig, C; Velasco, M; Velez, D; Vall, O; Garcia-Algar, O

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a highly toxic element that pollutes groundwater, being a major environmental problem worldwide, especially in the Bengal Basin. About 40% of patients in our outpatient clinics come from those countries, and there is no published data about their arsenic exposure. This study compares arsenic exposure between immigrant and native children. A total of 114 children (57 natives, 57 immigrants), aged 2 months to 16 years, were recruited and sociodemographic and environmental exposure data were recorded. Total arsenic in urine, hair, and nails and arsenic-speciated compounds in urine were determined. We did not find significant differences in total and inorganic arsenic levels in urine and hair, but in organic arsenic monomethylarsenic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA) in urine and in total arsenic in nails. However, these values were not in the toxic range. There were significant differences between longer than 5 years exposure and less than 5 years exposure (consumption of water from tube wells), with respect to inorganic and organic MMA arsenic in urine and total arsenic in nails. There was partial correlation between the duration of exposure and inorganic arsenic levels in urine. Immigrant children have higher arsenic levels than native children, but they are not toxic. At present, there is no need for specific arsenic screening or follow-up in immigrant children recently arrived in Spain from exposure high-risk countries. PMID:26431705

  10. Comparative analysis on the distribution of protease activities among fruits and vegetable resources.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Qiao-Juan; Jiang, Zheng-Qiang

    2016-12-15

    In this study, a comparative analysis on the distribution of protease activities among 90 plant resources, including fruits and vegetables, has been performed. Protease activities of plant extracts were assayed at different pH values (pH 3.0, pH 7.5 and pH 10.5) using casein as a substrate. Ten fruits and thirteen vegetables show protease activities above 10U/g. Pineapple, fig and papaya, which are used for commercial protease production, exhibited high protease activities. Additionally, high protease activities were detected in kiwifruit (28.8U/g), broccoli (16.9U/g), ginger (16.6U/g), leek (32.7U/g) and red pepper (15.8U/g) at different pH values. SDS-PAGE and zymograms confirmed that various types of proteases existed in the five plant extracts and might be explored. Furthermore, five plant extracts were treated by different protease inhibitors. These results show that there are still many plant resources unexplored, which may be promising candidates for plant-derived protease production.

  11. Comparative analysis on the distribution of protease activities among fruits and vegetable resources.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Qiao-Juan; Jiang, Zheng-Qiang

    2016-12-15

    In this study, a comparative analysis on the distribution of protease activities among 90 plant resources, including fruits and vegetables, has been performed. Protease activities of plant extracts were assayed at different pH values (pH 3.0, pH 7.5 and pH 10.5) using casein as a substrate. Ten fruits and thirteen vegetables show protease activities above 10U/g. Pineapple, fig and papaya, which are used for commercial protease production, exhibited high protease activities. Additionally, high protease activities were detected in kiwifruit (28.8U/g), broccoli (16.9U/g), ginger (16.6U/g), leek (32.7U/g) and red pepper (15.8U/g) at different pH values. SDS-PAGE and zymograms confirmed that various types of proteases existed in the five plant extracts and might be explored. Furthermore, five plant extracts were treated by different protease inhibitors. These results show that there are still many plant resources unexplored, which may be promising candidates for plant-derived protease production. PMID:27451238

  12. A comparative structure-function analysis of active-site inhibitors of Vibrio cholerae cholix toxin.

    PubMed

    Lugo, Miguel R; Merrill, A Rod

    2015-09-01

    Cholix toxin from Vibrio cholerae is a novel mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase (mART) toxin that shares structural and functional properties with Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A and Corynebacterium diphtheriae diphtheria toxin. Herein, we have used the high-resolution X-ray structure of full-length cholix toxin in the apo form, NAD(+) bound, and 10 structures of the cholix catalytic domain (C-domain) complexed with several strong inhibitors of toxin enzyme activity (NAP, PJ34, and the P-series) to study the binding mode of the ligands. A pharmacophore model based on the active pose of NAD(+) was compared with the active conformation of the inhibitors, which revealed a cationic feature in the side chain of the inhibitors that may determine the active pose. Moreover, a conformational search was conducted for the missing coordinates of one of the main active-site loops (R-loop). The resulting structural models were used to evaluate the interaction energies and for 3D-QSAR modeling. Implications for a rational drug design approach for mART toxins were derived.

  13. National level promotion of physical activity: results from England's ACTIVE for LIFE campaign

    PubMed Central

    Hillsdon, M; Cavill, N; Nanchahal, K; Diamond, A; White, I

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To assess the impact of a national campaign on awareness of the campaign, change in knowledge of physical activity recommendations and self reported physical activity.
DESIGN—three year prospective longitudinal survey using a multi-stage, cluster random probability design to select participants.
SETTING—England.
PARTICIPANTS—A nationally representative sample of 3189 adults aged 16-74 years.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Awareness of the advertising element of the campaign, changes in knowledge of physical activity recommendations for health and self reported physical activity.
RESULTS—38% of participants were aware of the main advertising images, assessed six to eight months after the main television advertisement. The proportion of participants knowledgeable about moderate physical activity recommendations increased by 3.0% (95% CI: 1.4%, 4.5%) between waves 1 and 2 and 3.7% (95% CI: 2.1%, 5.3%) between waves 1 and 3. The change in proportion of active people between baseline and waves 1 and 2 was
−0.02 (95% CI: −2.0 to +1.7) and between waves 1 and 3 was −9.8 (−7.9 to −11.7).
CONCLUSION—The proportion of participants who were knowledgeable about the new recommendations, increased significantly after the campaign. There was however, no significant difference in knowledge by awareness of the main campaign advertisement. There is no evidence that ACTIVE for LIFE improved physical activity, either overall or in any subgroup.


Keywords: exercise; mass media; follow up studies; health promotion; physical activity PMID:11553661

  14. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study.

    PubMed

    Abdulnour, Joseph; Razmjou, Sahar; Doucet, Éric; Boulay, Pierre; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Prud'homme, Denis

    2016-12-01

    To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter "fitness") and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa) on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB) and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥ 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) compared to women with a fitness < 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) (P < 0.05). However, only fasting triglycerides was lower in women with physical activity levels ≥ 770.0 Kcal/day (P < 0.05). Between fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition.

  15. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study.

    PubMed

    Abdulnour, Joseph; Razmjou, Sahar; Doucet, Éric; Boulay, Pierre; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Prud'homme, Denis

    2016-12-01

    To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter "fitness") and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa) on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB) and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥ 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) compared to women with a fitness < 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) (P < 0.05). However, only fasting triglycerides was lower in women with physical activity levels ≥ 770.0 Kcal/day (P < 0.05). Between fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition. PMID:27453812

  16. Increasing discordant antioxidant protein levels and enzymatic activities contribute to increasing redox imbalance observed during human prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Chaiswing, Luksana; Zhong, Weixiong; Oberley, Terry D.

    2014-01-01

    A metabolomics study demonstrated a decrease in glutathione and an increase in cysteine (Cys) levels in human prostate cancer (PCa) tissues as Gleason scores increased, indicating redox imbalance with PCa progression. These results were extended in the present study by analyzing redox state of the protein thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) and sulfinylation (SO3) of peroxiredoxins (Prxs) (PrxsSO3) in PCa tissues and cell lines. Lysates of paired human PCa tissues with varying degree of aggressiveness and adjacent benign (BN) tissues were used for analysis. Redox western blot analysis of Trx1 demonstrated low levels of reduced and high levels of oxidized Trx1 (functional and non-functional, respectively) in high grade PCa (Gleason scores 4+4 to 4+5) in comparison to intermediate grade PCa (Gleason scores 3+3 to 3+4) or BN tissues. PrxsSO3 were increased in high grade PCa. Oxidized Trx1 and PrxsSO3 are indicators of oxidative stress. To study whether redox imbalance may potentially affect enzyme activities of antioxidant proteins (AP), we determined levels of selected AP in PCa tissues by western blot analysis and found that mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), Prx 3, and Trx1 were increased in high grade PCa tissues when compared with BN tissues. Enzyme activities of MnSOD in high grade PCa tissues were significantly increased but at a lower magnitude when compared with the levels of MnSOD protein (0.5 folds vs. 2 folds increase). Trx1 activity was not changed in high grade PCa tissues despite a large increase in Trx1 protein expression. Further studies demonstrated a significant increase in posttranslational modifications of tyrosine and lysine residues in MnSOD protein and oxidation of Cys at active site (Cys 32 and Cys 35) and regulatory site (Cys 62 and Cys 69) of Trx1 in high grade PCa compared to BN tissues. These discordant changes between protein levels and enzyme activities are consistent with protein inactivation by redox imbalance and

  17. Wireless multi-level terahertz amplitude modulator using active metamaterial-based spatial light modulation.

    PubMed

    Rout, Saroj; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2016-06-27

    The ever increasing demand for bandwidth in wireless communication systems will inevitably lead to the extension of operating frequencies toward the terahertz (THz) band known as the 'THz gap'. Towards closing this gap, we present a multi-level amplitude shift keying (ASK) terahertz wireless communication system using terahertz spatial light modulators (SLM) instead of traditional voltage mode modulation, achieving higher spectral efficiency for high speed communication. The fundamental principle behind this higher efficiency is the conversion of a noisy voltage domain signal to a noise-free binary spatial pattern for effective amplitude modulation of a free-space THz carrier wave. Spatial modulation is achieved using an an active metamaterial array embedded with pseudomorphic high-electron mobility (pHEMT) designed in a consumer-grade galium-arsenide (GaAs) integrated circuit process which enables electronic control of its THz transmissivity. Each array is assembled as individually controllable tiles for transmissive terahertz spatial modulation. Using the experimental data from our metamaterial based modulator, we show that a four-level ASK digital communication system has two orders of magnitude improvement in symbol error rate (SER) for a degradation of 20 dB in transmit signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) using spatial light modulation compared to voltage controlled modulation. PMID:27410614

  18. Comparative study of active and passive sensing with AE and PWAS transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lingyu; Giurgiutiu, Victor; Yu, Jianguo; Ziehl, Paul; Zhao, Liuxian

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring of fatigue cracking in bridges using a combined passive and active scheme has been approached by the authors. Passive Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring has shown to be able to detect crack growth behavior by picking up the stress waves resulting from the breathing of cracks while active ultrasonic pulsing can quantitatively assess structural integrity by sensing out an interrogating pulse and receive the structural reflections from the discontinuity. In this paper, we present a comparative study of active and passive sensing with two types of transducers: (a) AE transducers, and (b) embeddable piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS). The study was performed experimentally on steel plates. Both pristine and damaged (notched) conditions were considered. For active sensing, pitchcatch configuration was examined in which one transducer was the transmitter and another transducer acted as the receiver. The ping signal was generated by the AE hardware/software package AEwin. For passive sensing, 0.5-mm lead breaks were executed both on top and on the edge of the plate. The comparative nature of the study was achieved by having the AE and PWAS transducers placed on the same location but on the opposite sides of the plate. The paper presents the main findings of this study in terms of (a) signal strength; (b) signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio; (c) waveform clarity; (d) waveform Fourier spectrum contents and bandwidth; (e) capability to detect and localize AE source; (f) capability to detect and localize damage. The paper performs a critical discussion of the two sensing methodologies, conventional AE transducers vs. PWAS transducers.

  19. Comparing effects of active and passive restoration on the Middle Fork John Day River, NE Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, P. F.; Goslin, M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2000, cattle grazing has been eliminated on over 14 km of the upper Middle Fork John Day. Starting in 2008, active restoration (log structures with dug pools, woody vegetation planting, and modifications to increase channel-floodplain hydrologic connectivity) was implemented on nearly 6 km within the cattle exclosure length. Implementation of active and passive restoration strategies in the same and adjacent reaches allows comparison of these two approaches. We have been monitoring these reaches since 2008. Unexpectedly in response to grazing exclosure, a native sedge, Carex nudata (torrent sedge), has exploded in population. C. nudata grows in the active channel, anchoring itself tightly to the gravel-cobble river bed with a dense root network. As a result, C. nudata has changed erosion and sedimentation patterns including bank erosion, channel bed scour, and island formation. We present data on fish cover increases due to C. nudata and log structures, and on channel complexity before and after restoration. Both active and passive restorations are increasing channel complexity and juvenile fish cover, although in different ways. Fish cover provided by active and passive restoration are similar in area but different in depth and position, with C. nudata fish cover generally shallower and partly mid-channel. Residual pool depth is larger in log structure pools than in C. nudata scour pools, but C. nudata pools are more numerous in some reaches. By producing frequent, small scour features and small islands, it can be argued that C. nudata is increasing hydraulic complexity more than the large, meander-bend pools at log structures, but this is hard to quantify. C. nudata has also stabilized active bars, perhaps changing the bedload sediment budget. Positive habitat benefits of active restoration appear to be greater in the short term, but over the long term (20 years or more) effects of C. nudata may be comparable or greater.

  20. Antioxidative activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to its main components.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Wu, N; Zu, Y G; Fu, Y J

    2008-06-01

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant activities of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to three of its main components (1,8-cineole, α-pinene, β-pinene). GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 19 compounds, representing 97.97% of the oil, the major constituents of the oil were described as 1,8-cineole (27.23%), α-pinene (19.43%), camphor (14.26%), camphene (11.52%) and β-pinene (6.71%). The oil and the components were subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity by means of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and β-carotene bleaching test. In the DPPH test system, free radical-scavenging activity of R. officinalis L. essential oil, 1,8-cineole, α-pinene and β-pinene were determined to be 62.45%±3.42%, 42.7%±2.5%, 45.61%±4.23% and 46.21%±2.24% (v/v), respectively. In the β-carotene bleaching test system, we tested series concentration of samples to show the antioxidant activities of the oil and its main components, whereas the concentrations providing 50% inhibition (IC50) values of R. officinalis L. essential oil, 1,8-cineole, α-pinene and β-pinene were 2.04%±0.42%, 4.05%±0.65%, 2.28%±0.23% and 2.56%±0.16% (v/v), respectively. In general, R. officinalis L. essential oil showed greater activity than its components in both systems, and the antioxidant activities of all the tested samples were mostly related to their concentrations. Antioxidant activities of the synthetic antioxidant, ascorbic acid and BHT, were also determined in parallel experiments as positive control.

  1. Food reward in active compared to inactive men: Roles for gastric emptying and body fat.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy M; Finlayson, Graham; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2016-06-01

    Habitual exercise could contribute to weight management by altering processes of food reward via the gut-brain axis. We investigated hedonic processes of food reward in active and inactive men and characterised relationships with gastric emptying and body fat. Forty-four men (active: n=22; inactive: n=22, BMI range 21-36kg/m(2); percent fat mass range 9-42%) were studied. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast and an ad libitum lunch meal 5h later. Explicit liking, implicit wanting and preference among high-fat, low-fat, sweet and savoury food items were assessed immediately post-breakfast (fed state) and again pre-lunch (hungry state) using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Gastric emptying was assessed by (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. Active individuals exhibited a lower liking for foods overall and a greater implicit wanting for low-fat savoury foods in the fed state, compared to inactive men. Differences in the fed state remained significant after adjusting for percent fat mass. Active men also had a greater increase in liking for savoury foods in the interval between breakfast and lunch. Faster gastric emptying was associated with liking for savoury foods and with an increase in liking for savoury foods in the postprandial interval. In contrast, greater implicit wanting for high-fat foods was associated with slower gastric emptying. These associations were independent of each other, activity status and body fat. In conclusion, active and inactive men differ in processes of food reward. The rate of gastric emptying may play a role in the association between physical activity status and food reward, via the gut-brain axis.

  2. Comparative biochemical responses and antioxidant activities of the rabbit urinary bladder to whole grapes versus resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Francis, Johdi-Ann; Leggett, Robert E; Schuler, Catherine; Levin, Robert M

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the antioxidant activity of a whole-grape suspension with the antioxidant activity or pure resveratrol on the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on malondialdehyde (MDA) generation, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, calcium ATPase activity, and sarcoendoplasmic reticular ATPase (SERCA) of the male rabbit urinary bladder. MDA was used as a model for the effect of H2O2 on lipid peroxidation. ChAT, SERCA, and calcium ATPase were evaluated based on their importance in urinary bladder physiology and pathology. Four male rabbit bladders were used. Each bladder was separated into muscle and mucosa, frozen under liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C for biochemical evaluation. The effect of H2O2 on the enzymes listed above was determined in the presence and absence of either resveratrol or a whole-grape suspension. (1) Resveratrol was significantly more effective than the grape suspension at protecting the bladder muscle and mucosa against peroxidation as quantitated by MDA formation. (2) The grape suspension was significantly more effective at protecting ChAT activity against oxidative stress of the muscle than resveratrol. (3) Neither the grape suspension nor resveratrol were particularly effective at protecting the bladder muscle or mucosa calcium ATPase or SERCA against oxidative stress. (4) ChAT was significantly more sensitive to oxidative stress than either calcium ATPase or SERCA. These data support the idea that the grape suspension protects the mitochondria and nerve terminals to a significantly greater degree than resveratrol which suggests that the activities of the grape suspension are due to the combination of active components found in the grape suspension and not just resveratrol alone.

  3. Free radical scavenging activity and comparative metabolic profiling of in vitro cultured and field grown Withania somnifera roots.

    PubMed

    Senthil, Kalaiselvi; Thirugnanasambantham, Pankajavalli; Oh, Taek Joo; Kim, So Hyun; Choi, Hyung Kyoon

    2015-01-01

    Free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) of in vitro cultured and field grown Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) roots were investigated. Withanolides analysis and comprehensive metabolic profiling between 100% methanol extracts of in vitro and field grown root tissues was performed using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. Significantly higher levels of FRSA, TPC, and TFC were observed in in-vitro cultured roots compared with field grown samples. In addition, 30 day-cultured in vitro root samples (1 MIR) exhibited a significantly higher FRSA (IC50 81.01 μg/mL), TPC (118.91 mg GAE/g), and TFC (32.68 mg CE/g) compared with those in 45 day-cultured samples (1.5 MIR). Total of 29 metabolites were identified in in vitro cultured and field grown roots by GC-MS analysis. The metabolites included alcohols, organic acids, purine, pyrimidine, sugars, and putrescine. Vanillic acid was only observed in the in vitro cultured root samples, and higher level of the vanillic acid was observed in 1 MIR when compared to 1.5 MIR. Therefore, it is suggested that 1 MIR might serve as an alternative to field grown roots for the development of medicinal and functional food products.

  4. Free radical scavenging activity and comparative metabolic profiling of in vitro cultured and field grown Withania somnifera roots.

    PubMed

    Senthil, Kalaiselvi; Thirugnanasambantham, Pankajavalli; Oh, Taek Joo; Kim, So Hyun; Choi, Hyung Kyoon

    2015-01-01

    Free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) of in vitro cultured and field grown Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) roots were investigated. Withanolides analysis and comprehensive metabolic profiling between 100% methanol extracts of in vitro and field grown root tissues was performed using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. Significantly higher levels of FRSA, TPC, and TFC were observed in in-vitro cultured roots compared with field grown samples. In addition, 30 day-cultured in vitro root samples (1 MIR) exhibited a significantly higher FRSA (IC50 81.01 μg/mL), TPC (118.91 mg GAE/g), and TFC (32.68 mg CE/g) compared with those in 45 day-cultured samples (1.5 MIR). Total of 29 metabolites were identified in in vitro cultured and field grown roots by GC-MS analysis. The metabolites included alcohols, organic acids, purine, pyrimidine, sugars, and putrescine. Vanillic acid was only observed in the in vitro cultured root samples, and higher level of the vanillic acid was observed in 1 MIR when compared to 1.5 MIR. Therefore, it is suggested that 1 MIR might serve as an alternative to field grown roots for the development of medicinal and functional food products. PMID:25874568

  5. Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Comparative Metabolic Profiling of In Vitro Cultured and Field Grown Withania somnifera Roots

    PubMed Central

    Senthil, Kalaiselvi; Thirugnanasambantham, Pankajavalli; Oh, Taek Joo; Kim, So Hyun; Choi, Hyung Kyoon

    2015-01-01

    Free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) of in vitro cultured and field grown Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) roots were investigated. Withanolides analysis and comprehensive metabolic profiling between 100% methanol extracts of in vitro and field grown root tissues was performed using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. Significantly higher levels of FRSA, TPC, and TFC were observed in in-vitro cultured roots compared with field grown samples. In addition, 30 day-cultured in vitro root samples (1MIR) exhibited a significantly higher FRSA (IC50 81.01 μg/mL), TPC (118.91 mg GAE/g), and TFC (32.68 mg CE/g) compared with those in 45 day-cultured samples (1.5MIR). Total of 29 metabolites were identified in in vitro cultured and field grown roots by GC-MS analysis. The metabolites included alcohols, organic acids, purine, pyrimidine, sugars, and putrescine. Vanillic acid was only observed in the in vitro cultured root samples, and higher level of the vanillic acid was observed in 1MIR when compared to 1.5MIR. Therefore, it is suggested that 1MIR might serve as an alternative to field grown roots for the development of medicinal and functional food products. PMID:25874568

  6. Endogenous testosterone levels are associated with neural activity in men with schizophrenia during facial emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ellen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Catts, Stanley V; Vercammen, Ans; White, Christopher; Gur, Raquel E; Weickert, Thomas W

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that testosterone may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia given that testosterone has been linked to cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Here, we determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels are related to neural activity in affective processing circuitry in men with schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes as 32 healthy controls and 26 people with schizophrenia performed a facial emotion identification task. Whole brain analyses were performed to determine regions of differential activity between groups during processing of angry versus non-threatening faces. A follow-up ROI analysis using a regression model in a subset of 16 healthy men and 16 men with schizophrenia was used to determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels were related to neural activity. Healthy controls displayed significantly greater activation than people with schizophrenia in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). There was no significant difference in circulating testosterone levels between healthy men and men with schizophrenia. Regression analyses between activation in the IFG and circulating testosterone levels revealed a significant positive correlation in men with schizophrenia (r=.63, p=.01) and no significant relationship in healthy men. This study provides the first evidence that circulating serum testosterone levels are related to IFG activation during emotion face processing in men with schizophrenia but not in healthy men, which suggests that testosterone levels modulate neural processes relevant to facial emotion processing that may interfere with social functioning in men with schizophrenia.

  7. Measurements of activation induced by environmental neutrons using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martínez Canet, M J; Hult, M; Köhler, M; Johnston, P N

    2000-03-01

    The flux of environmental neutrons is being studied by activation of metal discs of selected elements. Near the earth's surface the total neutron flux is in the order of 10(-2) cm(-2)s(-1), which gives induced activities of a few mBq in the discs. Initial results from this technique, involving activation at ground level for several materials (W, Au, Ta, In, Re, Sm, Dy and Mn) and ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory located at 500 m.w.e., are presented. Diffusion of environmental neutrons in water is also measured by activation of gold at different depths.

  8. Measurement error of self-reported physical activity levels in New York City: assessment and correction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungwoo; Wyker, Brett; Bartley, Katherine; Eisenhower, Donna

    2015-05-01

    Because it is difficult to objectively measure population-level physical activity levels, self-reported measures have been used as a surveillance tool. However, little is known about their validity in populations living in dense urban areas. We aimed to assess the validity of self-reported physical activity data against accelerometer-based measurements among adults living in New York City and to apply a practical tool to adjust for measurement error in complex sample data using a regression calibration method. We used 2 components of data: 1) dual-frame random digit dialing telephone survey data from 3,806 adults in 2010-2011 and 2) accelerometer data from a subsample of 679 survey participants. Self-reported physical activity levels were measured using a version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, whereas data on weekly moderate-equivalent minutes of activity were collected using accelerometers. Two self-reported health measures (obesity and diabetes) were included as outcomes. Participants with higher accelerometer values were more likely to underreport the actual levels. (Accelerometer values were considered to be the reference values.) After correcting for measurement errors, we found that associations between outcomes and physical activity levels were substantially deattenuated. Despite difficulties in accurately monitoring physical activity levels in dense urban areas using self-reported data, our findings show the importance of performing a well-designed validation study because it allows for understanding and correcting measurement errors.

  9. Measurement Error of Self-Reported Physical Activity Levels in New York City: Assessment and Correction

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sungwoo; Wyker, Brett; Bartley, Katherine; Eisenhower, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Because it is difficult to objectively measure population-level physical activity levels, self-reported measures have been used as a surveillance tool. However, little is known about their validity in populations living in dense urban areas. We aimed to assess the validity of self-reported physical activity data against accelerometer-based measurements among adults living in New York City and to apply a practical tool to adjust for measurement error in complex sample data using a regression calibration method. We used 2 components of data: 1) dual-frame random digit dialing telephone survey data from 3,806 adults in 2010–2011 and 2) accelerometer data from a subsample of 679 survey participants. Self-reported physical activity levels were measured using a version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, whereas data on weekly moderate-equivalent minutes of activity were collected using accelerometers. Two self-reported health measures (obesity and diabetes) were included as outcomes. Participants with higher accelerometer values were more likely to underreport the actual levels. (Accelerometer values were considered to be the reference values.) After correcting for measurement errors, we found that associations between outcomes and physical activity levels were substantially deattenuated. Despite difficulties in accurately monitoring physical activity levels in dense urban areas using self-reported data, our findings show the importance of performing a well-designed validation study because it allows for understanding and correcting measurement errors. PMID:25855646

  10. A fast method to study the secretory activity of neuroendocrine cells at the ultrastructural level.

    PubMed

    Van Herp, F; Coenen, T; Geurts, H P M; Janssen, G J A; Martens, G J M

    2005-04-01

    Cryo field emission scanning electron microscopy (cryo-FE-SEM) is a versatile technique that allows the investigation of the three-dimensional organization of cells at the ultrastructural level over a wide range of magnifications. Unfortunately, cryopreparation of the specimens for this technique remains cumbersome, in particular because ice crystal formation must be prevented during freezing. Here we report that a light prefixation with glutaraldehyde and incubation in glycerol as cryoprotectant or a high-pressure freezing approach are both excellent procedures for cryopreparation of animal cells to be used in combination with cryo-FE-SEM. Using the proopiomelanocortin-producing intermediate pituitary melanotrope cells of Xenopus laevis as a physiologically inducible neuroendocrine system, we compared the ultrastructural characteristics of inactive and hyperactive neuroendocrine cells. The overall quality of the ultrastructural images was comparable for the two cryopreparation procedures, although some fine structures were better conserved using high-pressure freezing. Melanotrope cells in a secretory inactive state contained numerous storage granules and a poorly developed endoplasmic reticulum (ER), while large amounts of rough ER were present in hyperactive cells. Thus, the cryo-FE-SEM approach described here allows a fast ultrastructural study on the secretory activity of neuroendocrine cells.

  11. Recovery of physical activity levels in adolescents after lower limb fractures: a longitudinal, accelerometry-based activity monitor study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In adolescents, loss of bone mineral mass usually occurs during phases of reduced physical activity (PA), such as when an injured extremity spends several weeks in a cast. We recorded the PA of adolescents with lower limb fractures during the cast immobilization, at 6 and at 18 months after the fracture, and we compared these values with those of healthy controls. Methods Fifty adolescents with a first episode of limb fracture and a control group of 50 healthy cases were recruited for the study through an advertisement placed at the University Children’s Hospital of Geneva, Switzerland. PA was assessed during cast immobilization and at 6- and 18-month follow-up by accelerometer measurement (Actigraph® 7164, MTI, Fort Walton Beach, FL, USA). Patients and their healthy peers were matched for gender and age. Time spent in PA at each level of intensity was determined for each participant and expressed in minutes and as a percentage of total valid time. Results From the 50 initial teenagers with fractures, 44 sustained functional evaluations at 6 months follow-up, whereas only 38 patients were studied at 18 months. The total PA count (total number of counts/min) was lower in patients with lower limb fractures (-62.4%) compared with healthy controls (p<0.0001) during cast immobilization. Similarly, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA was lower by 76.6% (p<0.0001), and vigorous PA was reduced by 84.4% (p<0.0001) in patients with cast immobilization for lower limb injuries compared to healthy controls values. At 6 and 18 months after the fracture, the mean PA level of injured adolescents was comparable to those of healthy teenagers (-2.3%, and -1.8%, respectively). Importantly, we observed that time spent in vigorous PA, which reflects high-intensity forces beneficial to skeletal health, returned to similar values between both groups from the six month follow-up in adolescents who sustained a fracture. However, a definitive reduction in time spent

  12. Anatomically-adapted graph wavelets for improved group-level fMRI activation mapping.

    PubMed

    Behjat, Hamid; Leonardi, Nora; Sörnmo, Leif; Van De Ville, Dimitri

    2015-12-01

    A graph based framework for fMRI brain activation mapping is presented. The approach exploits the spectral graph wavelet transform (SGWT) for the purpose of defining an advanced multi-resolutional spatial transformation for fMRI data. The framework extends wavelet based SPM (WSPM), which is an alternative to the conventional approach of statistical parametric mapping (SPM), and is developed specifically for group-level analysis. We present a novel procedure for constructing brain graphs, with subgraphs that separately encode the structural connectivity of the cerebral and cerebellar gray matter (GM), and address the inter-subject GM variability by the use of template GM representations. Graph wavelets tailored to the convoluted boundaries of GM are then constructed as a means to implement a GM-based spatial transformation on fMRI data. The proposed approach is evaluated using real as well as semi-synthetic multi-subject data. Compared to SPM and WSPM using classical wavelets, the proposed approach shows superior type-I error control. The results on real data suggest a higher detection sensitivity as well as the capability to capture subtle, connected patterns of brain activity.

  13. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved.

  14. Risk factors associated with serum levels of the inflammatory biomarker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in a general population.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Thomas H; Kallemose, Thomas; Ladelund, Steen; Rasmussen, Line Jh; Thorball, Christian W; Andersen, Ove; Pisinger, Charlotta; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a biomarker of mortality risk in various patient populations. However, little is known about the implications of lifestyle for suPAR levels in the general population. Lifestyle, demographic, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor data were collected from 5,538 participants in the Danish population-based Inter99 study. Their suPAR levels were measured using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the final adjusted model, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher suPAR levels (P < 0.001). An unhealthy diet and alcohol abstinence in men were also associated with higher suPAR levels. Physical activity in leisure time had a modest impact on suPAR levels in univariate analysis, but not in the final adjusted model. In conclusion, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher serum suPAR levels in this general population. Diet and alcohol consumption also seemed to impact suPAR levels. Lifestyle changes are likely to affect suPAR since ex-smokers had suPAR levels comparable to those of never-smokers. PMID:25574132