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Sample records for activity levels conclusions

  1. Conclusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Wong, Terry T.

    2011-01-01

    This compilation of papers in this book represents approximately half of the works discussed at the MS&T 2010 symposium entitled Tools, Models, Databases, and Simulation Tools Developed and Needed to Realize the Vision of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering at Materials Science & Technology wherein five sessions comprised of 33 presentations was organized. The goal of the symposium was two fold To provide a forum in which current state-of-the-art methods for ICME (e.g., information informatics, experimentation, and modeling) could be openly discussed and critiqued by not only materials scientist but also structural engineers/researchers, component designers, industrial leaders and government program managers. To leave the symposium and in particular the panel discussion with a clear idea of the gaps and barriers (both technical, cultural and economical) that must be addressed in order for ICME to fully succeed. The organizers felt that these goals were met, as particularly evident by the standing room only attendance during a lively panel discussion session at the end of the Symposium. However it is the firm belief of the editors of this book that this symposium was merely a start in the right direction, and that subsequent conferences/symposium (e.g., First World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering to be held July 10-14, 2011 at Seven Springs Mountain Resort in Pennsylvania) must work hard to ensure that a truly diverse, multidisciplinary, community of researchers and practitioners are present and have ample opportunity for interaction. This will ensure that a proper balance between push and pull disciplines and technologies is maintained so that this emerging focus area, Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME), has the greatest potential for success and impact on "system-level" payoffs. Similarly, a pro-active approach is required to reform historical modes of operation in industry, government and the academic

  2. Conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, P.-M.; Smith, K.

    If you made it to this point, this is what we have tried to offer you: a view of language like no other book has provided before. It is quite possible that this is one of very few books you have read on the subject; it could even be your first. Chances are that those you have read were written for a general audience. Some of them are very good, but they usually try to push a particular viewpoint of their author. Or you may have followed an introductory linguistics course at the university level. Such courses, and their textbooks, focus on technical aspects of the subject: the details of theories of phonology, syntax, semantics and so on. Knowledge of all of these areas is absolutely necessary for a deep understanding of the subject. But both single-author general books and technical textbooks have the same shortcoming: they do not give the reader a broad and complete account of how language works.

  3. Examining the structure of emotional intelligence at the item level: new perspectives, new conclusions.

    PubMed

    Maul, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Despite twenty years of research, many unknowns remain regarding the Mayer-Salovey (e.g., 1997) model of emotional intelligence (EI) and the validity of tests that have been designed to measure it. Evidence relevant to the internal structure of EI has come mainly from factor-analytic studies of the MSCEIT and the MEIS, utilising parcelled task scores rather than individual test items. This approach has several deficiencies: in addition to the loss of item-level information, it results in an insufficient number of observed variables per factor and an inability to separate structural sources of local item dependence (i.e., method variance) from construct-related variance. The present study (N=707) employed multidimensional item response modelling to investigate the dimensional structure of the MSCEIT, at the item level, for the first time. It is shown that item format and the specific choice of task explain far more of the variance in response patterns than does the hypothesised dimensional structure of EI, to the point that there is no empirical reason to prefer a higher-dimensional model of EI over a unidimensional model. It is argued that the advantage of an item-level perspective can be fundamental, rather than merely incremental.

  4. Sweet Conclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirley, Britt M.; Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Camp, Kerri M.

    2012-01-01

    Jen Harrington is the owner and pastry chef of Sweet Conclusion, a bakery in Tampa, Florida. Most of Harrington's business comes from baking wedding cakes, but she has been attempting to attract customers to her retail bakery, where she sells cupcakes, pies, ice cream, and coffee. Nearly four years she opened Sweet Conclusion, the retail part of…

  5. Project Summary and Conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, Charles

    1999-01-01

    A top level summary of activities conducted throughout the course of the EDOMP in response to initial concerns at the outset of the program is provided. Significant findings from the investigations are summarized, together with resulting countermeasures that were implemented and flight rules that were developed in response to these findings. Subsequent paragraphs provide more information; details will be found in the referenced sections.

  6. Activation in Context: Differential Conclusions Drawn from Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses of Adolescents' Cognitive Control-Related Neural Activity.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Ethan M; Qu, Yang; Telzer, Eva H

    2017-01-01

    Although immature cognitive control, subserved by late-developing prefrontal regions, has been proposed to underlie increased risk taking during adolescence, it remains unclear what patterns of PFC activation represent mature brain states: more or less activation? One challenge to drawing cogent conclusions from extant work stems from its reliance on single-time point neuroimaging and cross-sectional comparisons, which are ill-suited for assessing the complex changes that characterize adolescence. This necessitates longitudinal fMRI work to track within-subject changes in PFC function and links to risk-taking behavior, which can serve as an external marker for maturation of neural systems involved in cognitive control. In the current study, 20 healthy adolescents (13 males) completed a go/nogo task during two fMRI scans, once at age 14 years and again at age 15 years. We found that the association between cognitive control-related VLPFC activation and risk-taking behavior reversed when examining wave 1 (W1) versus longitudinal change (W2 > W1) and wave 2 (W2) in neural activation, such that increased VLPFC activation at W1 was associated with lower risk taking, whereas longitudinal increases in cognitive control-related VLPFC activation as well as heightened VLPFC activation at W2 were associated with greater risk taking. Several steps were taken to disentangle potential alternative accounts that might explain these disparate results across time. Findings highlight the necessity of considering brain-behavior relationships in the context of ongoing developmental changes and suggests that using neuroimaging data at a single time point to predict behavioral changes can introduce interpretation errors when failing to account for changes in neural trajectories.

  7. Activation in Context: Differential Conclusions Drawn from Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses of Adolescents’ Cognitive Control-Related Neural Activity

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Ethan M.; Qu, Yang; Telzer, Eva H.

    2017-01-01

    Although immature cognitive control, subserved by late-developing prefrontal regions, has been proposed to underlie increased risk taking during adolescence, it remains unclear what patterns of PFC activation represent mature brain states: more or less activation? One challenge to drawing cogent conclusions from extant work stems from its reliance on single-time point neuroimaging and cross-sectional comparisons, which are ill-suited for assessing the complex changes that characterize adolescence. This necessitates longitudinal fMRI work to track within-subject changes in PFC function and links to risk-taking behavior, which can serve as an external marker for maturation of neural systems involved in cognitive control. In the current study, 20 healthy adolescents (13 males) completed a go/nogo task during two fMRI scans, once at age 14 years and again at age 15 years. We found that the association between cognitive control-related VLPFC activation and risk-taking behavior reversed when examining wave 1 (W1) versus longitudinal change (W2 > W1) and wave 2 (W2) in neural activation, such that increased VLPFC activation at W1 was associated with lower risk taking, whereas longitudinal increases in cognitive control-related VLPFC activation as well as heightened VLPFC activation at W2 were associated with greater risk taking. Several steps were taken to disentangle potential alternative accounts that might explain these disparate results across time. Findings highlight the necessity of considering brain-behavior relationships in the context of ongoing developmental changes and suggests that using neuroimaging data at a single time point to predict behavioral changes can introduce interpretation errors when failing to account for changes in neural trajectories. PMID:28392763

  8. System performance conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.

    1980-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of reducing power levels and using antennas with diameters smaller than 1 Km were evaluated if rectenna costs and land usage requirements become major factors, operating at 5800 megahertz should be considered. Three sequences (random, incoherent phasing, and concentric rings - center to edge) provided satisfactory performance in that the resultant sidelobe levels during startup/ shutdown were lower than the steady-state levels present during normal operations. Grating lobe peaks and scattered power levels were used to determine the array/subarray mechanical alignment requirements. The antenna alignment requirement is 1 min or 3 min depending on phase control configuration. System error parameters were defined to minimize scattered microwave power.

  9. Conclusions and Policy Directions,

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Thomas J; Romero-Lankao, Paty; Gnatz, P

    2011-01-01

    This chapter briefly revisits the constraints and opportunities of mitigation and adaptation, and highlights and the multiple linkages, synergies and trade-offs between mitigation, adaptation and urban development. The chapter then presents future policy directions, focusing on local, national and international principles and policies for supporting and enhancing urban responses to climate change. In summary, policy directions for linking climate change responses with urban development offer abundant opportunities; but they call for new philosophies about how to think about the future and how to connect different roles of different levels of government and different parts of the urban community. In many cases, this implies changes in how urban areas operate - fostering closer coordination between local governments and local economic institutions, and building new connections between central power structures and parts of the population who have often been kept outside of the circle of consultation and discourse. The difficulties involved in changing deeply set patterns of interaction and decision-making in urban areas should not be underestimated. Because it is so difficult, successful experiences need to be identified, described and widely publicized as models for others. However, where this challenge is met, it is likely not only to increase opportunities and reduce threats to urban development in profoundly important ways, but to make the urban area a more effective socio-political entity, in general - a better city in how it works day to day and how it solves a myriad of problems as they emerge - far beyond climate change connections alone. It is in this sense that climate change responses can be catalysts for socially inclusive, economically productive and environmentally friendly urban development, helping to pioneer new patterns of stakeholder communication and participation.

  10. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  11. Conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    Some say that an increase in security does not necessarily mean a further encroachment on privacy - indeed, security is necessary to protect personal data and our privacy. Networks must be secure, our personal devices, reliable, dependable and trustworthy. But security is a multifaceted term, with many dimensions. We are of the view that an increase in security most likely will encroach upon our privacy in an ambient intelligence world. Surveillance cameras will continue to proliferate. We assume that, whatever the law is, whatever privacy protections government and business say they honour, our telecommunications, e-mails and Internet usage will be monitored to an increasing degree. The same will be true of our interfaces with the world of ambient intelligence.

  12. Conclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    2015-11-01

    It is often held that things should always be made simple, which presumes that either that they can always be made simple or that all the jetisoned logic doesn't matter anyway. Alledgedly, anything should be explainable so that anyone can understand it. Don't get bogged down in dreary details. It should be effortless for the reader: low-dimensional systems exhibit complex behaviour while high-dimensional systems exhibit simple behaviour (to return to our prolegomonal opening), competition is a universal solution, demand must increase as price falls, and everything under the sun neatly fits a power law. Or so the story goes...

  13. Factors Influencing Cypriot Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present selected findings from a larger study, which set out to examine the physical activity levels of Cypriot primary school children and determinants of their activity. Twenty parents of children who obtained high and low activity scores based on pedometer counts and self-reports scores were interviewed. By…

  14. Conclusions and Recommendations. Chapter 37

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E.; Hummel, Dietrich

    2009-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief wrap-up of the task group report and focuses on the overall conclusions and recommendations for future work for the CAWAPI and VFE-2 facets beyond the task group. The overall conclusion is that the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of CFD solvers has been improved in predicting the flow-physics of vortex-dominated flows during the work of the task group, by having flight and wind-tunnel data available for comparison. Moreover, like all good scientific studies, this task group has identified flight conditions on the F-16XL airplane or wind-tunnel test conditions for a specific leading-edge radius on the 65 delta-wing model where the TRL still needs to be increased.

  15. Physical activity level, waist circumference, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Reeder, Bruce A.; Elliott, Susan; Joffres, Michel R.; Pahwa, Punam; Kirkland, Susan A.; Paradis, Gilles; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    This study predicted all-cause mortality based on physical activity level (active or inactive) and waist circumference (WC) in 8208 Canadian adults in Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan, surveyed between 1986–1995 and followed through 2004. Physically inactive adults had higher mortality risk than active adults overall (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval = 1.20, 1.05–1.37) and within the low WC category (1.51, 1.19–1.92). Detrimental effects of physical inactivity and high WC demonstrate the need for physical activity promotion. PMID:22703160

  16. Erythrocyte aldose reductase activity and sorbitol levels in diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, A.; Balakrishna, N.; Ayyagari, Radha; Padma, M.; Viswanath, K.; Petrash, J. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Activation of polyol pathway due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of diabetic complications including diabetic retinopathy (DR), a leading cause of blindness. However, the relationship between hyperglycemia-induced activation of polyol pathway in retina and DR is still uncertain. We investigated the relationship between ALR2 levels and human DR by measuring ALR2 activity and its product, sorbitol, in erythrocytes. Methods We enrolled 362 type 2 diabetic subjects (T2D) with and without DR and 66 normal subjects in this clinical case-control study. Clinical evaluation of DR in T2D patients was done by fundus examination. ALR2 activity and sorbitol levels along with glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels in erythrocytes were determined. Results T2D patients with DR showed significantly higher specific activity of ALR2 as compared to T2D patients without DR. Elevated levels of sorbitol in T2D patients with DR, as compared to T2D patients without DR, corroborated the increased ALR2 activity in erythrocytes of DR patients. However, the increased ALR2 activity was not significantly associated with diabetes duration, age, and HbA1C in both the DR group and total T2D subjects. Conclusions Levels of ALR2 activity as well as sorbitol in erythrocytes may have value as a quantitative trait to be included among other markers to establish a risk profile for development of DR. PMID:18385795

  17. [Subliminal perception and the levels of activation].

    PubMed

    Borgeat, F; Chabot, R; Chaloult, L

    1981-06-01

    The influence of the auditory subliminal messages on the level of activation has been evaluated through a double-blind study. Twenty consenting subjects were alternately submitted to activating and deactivating subliminal messages. Activation changes were estimated through the variations in the scores at the Mood Adjective Check List. Five out of this test's six factors concerned by the content of the subliminal messages responded differently according to the nature of these messages; four factors did so to a statistically significant degree. These results tend to indicate that auditory subliminal perceptions can influence the level of activation. The authors raise several questions, especially stressing that the parameters regulating subliminal response and susceptibility remain largely undefined and in need of systematic investigation.

  18. Locomotor activity and tissue levels following acute ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pyrethroids produce neurotoxicity that depends, in part, on the chemical structure. Common behavioral effects include locomotor activity changes and specific toxic syndromes (types I and II). In general these neurobehavioral effects correlate well with peak internal dose metrics. Products of cyhalothrin, a type II pyrethroid, include mixtures of isomers (e.g., λ-cyhalothrin) as well as enriched active isomers (e.g., γ-cyhalothrin). We measured acute changes in locomotor activity in adult male rats and directly correlated these changes to peak brain and plasma concentrations of λ- and γ-cyhalothrin using a within-subject design. One-hour locomotor activity studies were conducted 1.5 h after oral gavage dosing, and immediately thereafter plasma and brains were collected for analyzing tissue levels using LC/MS/MS methods. Both isomers produced dose-related decreases in activity counts, and the effective dose range for γ-cyhalothrin was lower than for λ-cyhalothrin. Doses calculated to decrease activity by 50% were 2-fold lower for the γ-isomer (1.29 mg/kg) compared to λ-cyhalothrin (2.65 mg/kg). Salivation, typical of type II pyrethroids, was also observed at lower doses of γ-cyhalothrin. Administered dose correlated well with brain and plasma concentrations, which furthermore showed good correlations with activity changes. Brain and plasma levels were tightly correlated across doses. While γ-cyhalothrin was 2-fold more potent based on administ

  19. Neck Muscle Activation Levels During Frontal Impacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    right and left upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid . Amplitude and frequency components of the signals were evaluated to determine the amount of...Gx acceleration levels. The trapezius produced more force than the sternocleidomastoid . Activity of both muscle groups was synchronized, by their...dynamic environment. The role of upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) during long-duration head and neck loading situations has been

  20. Play equipment, physical activity opportunities, and children's activity levels at childcare.

    PubMed

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Van Kann, Dave H H; Jansen, Maria W J

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between physical activity facilities at childcare (e.g., play equipment) and physical activity of 2- and 3-year olds. Observations of physical activity intensity were performed among 175 children at 9 childcare centers in The Netherlands, using the OSRAC-P. The physical activity facilities were assessed for indoors and outdoors separately, using the EPAO instrument. Regular (single-level) multivariate and multilevel linear regression analyses examined the association of the facilities and child characteristics (age and sex) with children's activity levels. Various physical activity facilities were available in all childcare centers (e.g., balls). Riding toys and a small playing area were associated with lower indoor physical activity levels. Outdoor physical activity levels were positively associated with the availability of portable jumping equipment and the presence of a structured track on the playground. Portable slides, fixed swinging equipment, and sandboxes were negatively associated with outdoor activity levels. In addition, the 3-year old children were more active outdoors than the 2-year olds. In conclusion, not all physical activity facilities at childcare were indeed positively associated with children's activity levels. The current findings provide concrete leads for childcare providers regarding which factors they can improve in the physical environment to facilitate children's physical activity.

  1. Conclusion: Major Findings and Future Activities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Hillel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) incorporates a number of major advances in the way that climate impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are being simulated. At its core is a protocol approach that results in impact assessments being more scientifically credible and thus ultimately having greater value to the wide range of agricultural stakeholders. Moreover, the use of the protocol approach enables closer scrutiny and intercomparison of models and methods so that they can be improved over time. By creating a truly trans-disciplinary, systems-based approach, AgMIP impact assessments and evaluation of adaptations become useful to agricultural decision-makers at multiple scales. The chapters in this two-part set demonstrate the use of this approach and represent early steps towards the full realization of these new methods and their application.

  2. Activity level and risk of overweight in male health professionals.

    PubMed Central

    Ching, P L; Willett, W C; Rimm, E B; Colditz, G A; Gortmaker, S L; Stampfer, M J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study undertook to examine relationships between nonsedentary activity level, time spent watching television (TV)/videocassette recorder (VCR), and risk of overweight among men. METHODS. Men participating in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study were mailed surveys. Cross-sectional analyses examined the prevalence and odds of being overweight, prospective analyses determined cumulative incidence rates and relative risks of becoming overweight over 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS. Cross-sectionally, odds of being overweight were 50% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 45%; 55%) lower for men in the highest quintile of nonsedentary activity level when compared with men in the lowest quintile. Among men watching 41 or more hours of TV/VCR per week, the odds of being overweight were 406 (95% CI = 2.67, 6.17) times greater than those for men watching no more than 1 hour per week. Prospectively, higher levels is of nonsedentary activity and lower levels of TV/VCR viewing were independently associated with lower relative risks for becoming overweight between survey years. CONCLUSIONS. Both a lack of nonsedentary activity and time spent watching TV/VCR contribute to the development of overweight in men. Sedentary and nonsedentary activities represent separate domains, each with independent risks for overweight. PMID:8561237

  3. Summary and conclusions from the SIWI Seminar for Young Water Professionals Drainage basin security--implications of virtual water trade and agricultural subsidies at regional, national and local levels.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, A

    2004-01-01

    This is a summary of the Young Water Professionals Seminar involving more than 50 young people from all over the world working with water. The presentations and following discussion were very lively and were about how subsidies and trade barriers imposed by the developed countries are influencing the income-generating capacity of millions of people in the developing world. Even though this is a very complex issue not easily resolved during the seminar it was also clear that there are some fundamental problems that need to be addressed. The importance of looking for solutions at different levels (i.e. local, regional, national) was highlighted as well as the policy of double standards, preaching free trade but only for the benefit of overdeveloped countries themselves. Further it was discussed how to achieve basin security through food security, and managing water for food security. The conclusion was that win-win solutions would be made if agricultural subsidies were to be completely removed.

  4. A Survey of Physical Activity Levels of Certified Athletic Trainers

    PubMed Central

    Cuppett, Marchell; Latin, Richard W.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the self-reported physical activities of certified athletic trainers (ATCs), both at work and at leisure. Design and Setting: We used the Baecke Questionnaire of Habitual Physical Activity and also asked for demographic information, including employment setting, years of experience, education level, and position. Subjects: The questionnaire was sent to 1200 randomly selected ATCs in the Mid-America Athletic Trainers' Association; the return rate was 53%. Measurements: We used means, standard deviations, and ranges to describe the age, total fitness index, work, and leisure and sport indexes of men and women subjects. Independent t tests were used to compare the mean total activity index between men and women within this study and with previous studies. We examined differences in activity indexes by employment setting, position, and age with one-way analysis of variance and Fisher pairwise comparison tests. Two-way χ2 analysis was used to determine the relationship between activity level and employment setting and position. Statistical significance was set at P = .05 for all analyses. Results: Certified athletic trainers who work in a clinical setting had the highest mean total activity score at 9.1 points. Clinic ATCs scored significantly higher than high school ATCs and college ATCs. When compared by position, there were no significant differences among the mean total activity indexes; however, the mean work index of program directors was significantly lower than all other positions and the mean work index of high school and clinic ATCs was significantly higher than all other employment settings. Conclusions: Female ATCs scored significantly higher in total activity levels on the Baecke Questionnaire than their male counterparts. This is in contrast to the general population, investigated by other authors, in which men scored significantly higher than women on the same scale. Additionally, we compared the total activity levels by age

  5. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  6. Low level laser therapy reduces inflammation in activated Achilles tendinitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.

  7. [SENTIERI Project: discussion and conclusions].

    PubMed

    Pirastu, Roberta; Ricci, Paolo; Comba, Pietro; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Biggeri, Annibale; Conti, Susanna; Fazzo, Lucia; Forastiere, Francesco; Iavarone, Ivano; Martuzzi, Marco; Musmeci, Loredana; Pasetto, Roberto; Zona, Amerigo; Crocetti, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    showing the increase, considering latency and the length of the observation period. Of further interest are results relating to diseases of the urinary tract such as kidney failure in the NPCSs of Basso bacino del fiume Chienti, Taranto, Milazzo and Priolo. Overall, the results discussed above are consistent with the previous findings pertaining to mortality for 1995-2002. The present analysis also introduces a new element - the study of cancer incidence and hospital discharges - which can tell us a great deal about diseases with high survival rates or non lethal ones. The first is the case of thyroid cancer, which presents increases in both databases and for both genders in a number of NPCSs (Brescia-Caffaro, Laghi di Mantova, Milazzo, Sassuolo- Scandiano and Taranto). The study of cancer incidence and hospital discharges also revealed cancer excesses for melanoma, breast cancer and non Hodgkin lymphoma in Brescia-Caffaro NPCS where PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyl) are the site's main pollutant. PCBs, according to the 2013 evaluation of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, are ascertained human carcinogens for melanoma and probable carcinogens for breast cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The results pertaining to cancer incidence in the 17 NPCSs can also be presented using rankings by area or disease analyzed by a multivariate hierarchical Bayesian model. These rankings reveal an overlapping of credibility intervals, such that it is not possible to speak of a limited number of cancer sites or of certain NPCSs as being particularly affected. Every NPCS, therefore, must be considered individually and ordering them by ranking of cancer incidence wouldn't be appropriate. Data collected concerning some of the NPCSs in the context of the SENTIERI Project is so conclusive that remediation measures can immediately be put in place. This is the case in the Biancavilla and Brescia-Caffaro NPCSs. A similar conclusion can be drawn for complex locations such as Taranto

  8. Human Development Program: Level V Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Geraldine

    The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for grade 5. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to help teachers instill responsibility and self-confidence in children. The activity guide presents topics and directions for 180 sequential Human…

  9. Monthly variations of the Caspian sea level and solar activity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanchuk, P. R.; Pasechnik, M. N.

    The connection between 11-year cycle of solar activity and the Caspian sea level is investigated. Seasonal changes of the Caspian sea level and annual variations of the sea level with variations of solar activity are studied. The results of the verifications of the sea level forecasts obtained with application of the rules discovered by the authors are given.

  10. Entry-Level Activities in System Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    System-level consultation or organizational development in schools is an area in great need of theoretical models and definitions. The three articles in this special issue provide a unique learning opportunity not only for consultation across borders but also for consultation within the same nation. In my commentary, I limit my remarks to a few…

  11. Physical activity levels in the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Sherry, David D

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is paramount in the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia, although some interventions use indirect methods to increase activity levels rather than address physical dysfunction head-on. New research explores the effects of a psychotherapeutic approach on levels of physical activity in adolescents with fibromyalgia.

  12. Physical activity levels of children during school playtime.

    PubMed

    Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2006-01-01

    School represents a suitable setting for intervention programmes aiming to promote physical activity to benefit health. During the school day, physical education and school playtime offer children regular opportunities to engage in physical activity. However, there is growing concern that, internationally, curricular time allocated to physical education is not meeting statutory guidelines. The effectiveness of the playground environment to promote physical activity has been considered as a complementary setting to physical education. Physical activity guidelines state that children should engage in at least 1 hour of moderate intensity physical activity a day. Currently no empirically tested guidelines exist for physical activity levels during playtime. However, studies cited in this article indicate that playtime can contribute between 5-40% of recommended daily physical activity levels when no interventions have been utilised. The limited school-based investigations that have been reported in the literature suggest that boys engage in more physical activity during playtime than girls. Studies that have implemented intervention strategies in order to promote physical activity levels indicate that playtime can substantially contribute towards daily optimal physical activity guidelines. Energy expenditure and physical activity levels have increased during playtime following the implementation of playtime-based interventions. In order to advance knowledge of children's physical activity during playtime, a number of key issues for consideration in future research are detailed. Research on children's use of playtime to be physically active and the extent of the contribution of playtime to daily physical activity guidelines is warranted.

  13. Relationship of lipoprotein(a) levels to physical activity and family history of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Martín, S; Elosua, R; Covas, M I; Pavesi, M; Vila, J; Marrugat, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association of physical activity with serum lipoprotein(a) [La(a)] levels in individuals according to whether they had a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Lp(a) levels in 332 healthy Spanish men aged 20 to 60 years were measured. Physical activity and family history of CHD were assessed. RESULTS: For men with a family history of CHD, the odds ratio for Lp(a) levels above the median value was 0.13 (95% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.50) in very active men (energy expended in physical activity > 300 kcal/day) compared with active men (energy expended in physical activity < 300 kcal/day). CONCLUSIONS: Regular daily physical activity in individuals with a family history of CHD could be useful for controlling Lp(a) levels. PMID:10076490

  14. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    PubMed

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting.

  15. Solar Activity, Different Geomagnetic Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar

    Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.

  16. Levels of physical activity and predictors of mortality in COPD*

    PubMed Central

    Nyssen, Samantha Maria; dos Santos, Júlia Gianjoppe; Barusso, Marina Sallum; de Oliveira, Antônio Delfino; Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires Di; Jamami, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE) index scores and its individual components between COPD patients with and without severe physical inactivity, as well as to correlate the number of steps/day with scores of physical activity questionnaires, age, and the BODE index (including its components). METHODS: We included 30 patients, who were evaluated for body composition, pulmonary function (FEV1), perception of dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council scale), and exercise capacity (six-minute walk distance [6MWD]). The patients also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), short version, and the modified Baecke questionnaire (mBQ). The level of physical activity was assessed by the number of steps/day (as determined by pedometer), using the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day to form two groups: no severe physical inactivity (SPI−) and severe physical inactivity (SPI+). We used the Mann-Whitney test or t-test, as well as Pearson's or Spearman's correlation tests, in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: In comparison with the SPI− group, the SPI+ group showed more advanced age, higher mBQ scores (leisure domain), lower 6MWD (in m and % of predicted), and lower IPAQ scores (metabolic equivalent-walk/week domain and total). The IPAQ scores showed weak correlations with steps/day (r = 0.399), age (r = −0.459), and 6MWD-in m (r = 0.446) and in % of predicted (r = 0.422). CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day was not sensitive enough to identify differences between the groups when compared with the predictors of mortality. The IPAQ, short version score correlated with steps/day. PMID:24473759

  17. Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.

  18. Effects of physical activity and training programs on plasma homocysteine levels: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    e Silva, Alexandre de Souza; da Mota, Maria Paula Gonçalves

    2014-08-01

    Homocysteine is an amino acid produced in the liver that, when present in high concentrations, is thought to contribute to plaque formation and, consequently, increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, daily physical activity and training programs may contribute to controlling atherosclerosis. Given that physical exercise induces changes in protein and amino acid metabolism, it is important to understand whether homocysteine levels are also affected by exercise and to determine possible underlying mechanisms. Moreover, regarding the possible characteristics of different training programs (intensity, duration, repetition, volume), it becomes prudent to determine which types of exercise reduce homocysteine levels. To these ends, a systematic review was conducted to examine the effects of daily physical activity and different training programs on homocysteine levels. EndNote(®) was used to locate articles on the PubMed database from 2002 to 2013 with the keyword combinations "physical activity and homocysteine", "training and homocysteine", and/or "exercise and homocysteine". After 34 studies were identified, correlative and comparative studies of homocysteine levels revealed lower levels in patients engaged in greater quantities of daily physical activity. Regarding the acute effects of exercise, all studies reported increased homocysteine levels. Concerning intervention studies with training programs, aerobic training programs used different methods and analyses that complicate making any conclusion, though resistance training programs induced decreased homocysteine levels. In conclusion, this review suggests that greater daily physical activity is associated with lower homocysteine levels and that exercise programs could positively affect homocysteine control.

  19. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  20. Children's Physical Activity Levels during Indoor Recess Dance Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Koufoudakis, Ryann; Beighle, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children's physical activity (PA) levels remain low, and schools are being asked to assume a leadership role in PA promotion. Research suggests outdoor recess contributes to children's overall PA levels. However, similar research is not available for indoor recess, which occurs frequently due to a variety of factors. The purpose of…

  1. Movement Activity Levels on Traditional and Contemporary Playground Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl P.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth

    This study investigated playground activity levels of children in grades K-4 and compared levels of use of traditional and creative playground apparatus. The traditional playground area consisted of climbing bars, slides, ladders, chin bars, swings, see saws, and a merry-go-round. The creative playground contained tire hurdles, tire walk, tire…

  2. The Role of Various Curriculum Models on Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Dean O.; Tarr, Susan J.; Killion, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that physical education curricula can be highly effective in increasing physical activity levels at school (Sallis & Owen, 1999). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of various curriculum models on physical activity. Total steps were measured on 1,111 subjects and three curriculum models were studied…

  3. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  4. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  5. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Md. Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand. PMID:27375903

  6. The Influence of Activation Level on Belief Bias in Relational Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Adrian P.

    2013-01-01

    A novel explanation of belief bias in relational reasoning is presented based on the role of working memory and retrieval in deductive reasoning, and the influence of prior knowledge on this process. It is proposed that belief bias is caused by the believability of a conclusion in working memory which influences its activation level, determining…

  7. Physical Activity Levels of Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Valderi Abreu; Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; Decimo, Juliana Pereira; de Souza, William Cordeiro; Monteiro, Anna Louise Stellfeld; Lahard, Ian; França, Suzana Nesi; Leite, Neiva

    2017-01-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in comparison with healthy scholar participants. Total of 154 teenagers (T1D=45 and CON=109). Height, weight, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), and the level of physical activity by the Bouchard's Physical Activity Record were measured, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in T1D. The VO2 max was lower in the T1D (38.38 ± 7.54) in comparison with the CON (42.44 ± 4.65; p<0.05). The VO2max had correlation with the amount of time of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (r = 0.63; p = 0.0001) and an inverse correlation with sedentary activities (r = -0.46; p = 0.006). In the T1D the levels of HbA1c had an inverse correlation with the amount of time of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (r = -0.34; p = 0.041) and correlation with the BMI z-score (r = 0.43; p = 0.017). Only 37,8% of the participants in the T1D reached the adequate amount of daily moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, in the CON 81,7% reached the WHO's recommendation.

  8. Age-associated changes in the level of physical activity in elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Daisuke; Nishida, Yuusuke; Fujita, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify how light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity in older adults changes with age, subdividing physical activity according to intensity levels, by using an accelerometer. [Subjects] Older adults living independently in the community were included (n = 106, age: 65–85 years). [Methods] A triaxial accelerometer was used to measure the amount of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity (1–2.9, 3–5.9, and ≥6 metabolic equivalents, respectively) and inactive time over 7 days. Light- and moderate-intensity physical activity levels were further subdivided into 1–1.9, 2–2.9, 3–3.9, and 4–5.9 metabolic equivalents, respectively. [Results] The amount of moderate-intensity physical activity at both sub-levels showed significant inverse correlations with age (r = −0.34, −0.33, respectively), but this was not seen with other levels. Both levels of moderate-intensity physical activity were independently predicted by age using multiple regression analysis adjusted for gender and body mass index. [Conclusion] These results suggest that understanding the reduction in moderate-intensity physical activity with age in older adults, subdivided according to intensity level, could be a useful index to increase the amount of higher intensity physical activity in stages, considering individual health conditions. PMID:26834332

  9. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  10. Mediators Affecting Girls’ Levels of Physical Activity Outside of School: Findings from the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Murray, David M.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Moody, Jamie; Pratt, Charlotte A.; Metcalfe, Lauve; Parra-Medina, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Background Providing after school activities is a community level approach for reducing the decline in physical activity of girls as they reach early adolescence. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial, environmental, and behavioral factors as potential mediators of after school physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods We assessed objectively measured levels of physical activity occurring outside of school and potential predictors and mediators of activity in girls participating in the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls (TAAG). Results We found that the TAAG intervention had a statistically significant and positive effect on out of school activity in the 2006 cohort. Self-efficacy, friends’ social support, total social support, and difficulty getting to and from community activities mediated the level of moderate to vigorous physical activity in girls. Conclusions Parents, communities, and schools should provide and enhance opportunities outside of the school day for adolescents to be active. Reducing transportation barriers and enlisting social support appear to be key. PMID:20012810

  11. Is a Coded Physical Activity Diary Valid for Assessing Physical Activity Level and Energy Expenditure in Stroke Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Vanroy, Christel; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Cras, Patrick; Feys, Hilde; Truijen, Steven; Michielsen, Marc; Vissers, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine the concurrent validity of a physical activity diary for measuring physical activity level and total energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Method Sixteen stroke patients kept coded activity diaries and wore SenseWear Pro2 multi-sensor activity monitors during daytime hours for one day. A researcher observed the patients and completed a diary. Data from the patients' diaries were compared with observed and measured data to determine total activity (METs*minutes), activity level and total energy expenditure. Results Spearman correlations between the patients' and researchers' diaries revealed a high correlation for total METs*minutes (rs = 0.75, p<0.01) for sedentary (rs = 0.74,p<0.01) and moderate activities (rs = 0.71,p<0.01) and a very high correlation (rs = 0.92, p<0.01) for the total energy expenditure. Comparisons between the patients' diaries and activity monitor data revealed a low correlation (rs 0.29) for total METs*minutes and energy expenditure. Conclusion Coded self-monitoring activity diaries appear feasible as a low-tech alternative to labor-intensive observational diaries for determining sedentary, moderate, and total physical activity and for quantifying energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Given the poor correlation with objective measurements of physical activity, however, further research is needed to validate its use against a gold-standard measure of physical activity intensity and energy expenditure. PMID:24905345

  12. Daily ambulatory activity levels in idiopathic Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, Frank M; Mackman, Chad A; Pav, Breckon; Shulman, Lisa M; Garvan, Cyndi; Macko, Richard F; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2008-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) may have decreased physical activity due to motor deficits. We recently validated the reliability of step activity monitors (SAMs) to accurately count steps in PD, and we wished to use them to evaluate the impact of disease severity on home activity levels in PD. Twenty-six subjects with PD (Hoehn and Yahr disease stage 2-4) were recruited to participate in a study of activity levels over 48 hours. Ability to achieve 95% device accuracy was an entry requirement. A Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) evaluation was performed on all subjects, subjects were monitored for 48 hours, and total number of steps per day and maximum steps taken per hour were calculated. Out of 26 subjects, 25 met entry requirements. We calculated the number of steps taken per day, as well as maximal activity levels, and correlated these with UPDRS total score, the activity of daily living subscale, and the UPDRS motor function subscale off and on medication (all p < 0.01). Transition from Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 to stage 3 was associated with a decline in functional mobility (p < 0.005). A microprocessor-linked SAM accurately counted steps in subjects with PD. The number of steps taken correlated highly with disease severity. SAMs may be useful outcome measures in PD.

  13. The relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as high (N=101), moderate (N=115), or low (N=111) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program’s standard was used. [Results] Waist circumference and triglyceride levels, factors of metabolic syndrome, were significantly higher in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were negatively correlated with physical activity level, and HDL cholesterol showed a positive correlation with waist circumference. The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome were 2.03 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.01–4.09) in the low physical activity group than in the high physical activity group. [Conclusion] Low physical activity was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. Therefore, increasing physical activity in daily life may prevent metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. PMID:27942116

  14. The relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as high (N=101), moderate (N=115), or low (N=111) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program's standard was used. [Results] Waist circumference and triglyceride levels, factors of metabolic syndrome, were significantly higher in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were negatively correlated with physical activity level, and HDL cholesterol showed a positive correlation with waist circumference. The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome were 2.03 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.09) in the low physical activity group than in the high physical activity group. [Conclusion] Low physical activity was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. Therefore, increasing physical activity in daily life may prevent metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers.

  15. Cascading Activation across Levels of Representation in Children's Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yi Ting; Snedeker, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in adult psycholinguistics has demonstrated that activation of semantic representations begins long before phonological processing is complete. This incremental propagation of information across multiple levels of analysis is a hallmark of adult language processing but how does this ability develop? In two experiments, we elicit…

  16. Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity Levels of Rural Appalachian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Rana, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to examine whether pedometer-assessed physical activity (PA) in Appalachian Ohio students differed by body mass index (BMI), school level (middle school vs. high school), and gender during school days and nonschool days and whether students met the recommended PA guidelines. Participants (N = 149) were…

  17. Cardiovascular effects of variations in habitual levels of physical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, C. G.; Mitchell, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in human cardiovascular adaption to stress, particularly adaption to different levels of physical activity are determined along with quantitative noninvasive methods for evaluation of cardiovascular function during stess in normal subjects and in individuals with latent or manifest cardiovascular disease. Results are summarized.

  18. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other State-level activities. 300.814 Section 300.814 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  19. Genetic Influences on Mechanically-Assessed Activity Level in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Alexis C.; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Rogers, Hannah; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2007-01-01

    Background: Activity level is an important component of children's temperament, as well as being part of the core symptom domain of hyperactivity-impulsivity within attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Yet it is poorly understood, due partly to limitations on parent and teacher ratings, which are typically used as measurements of these…

  20. Physical Activity Trajectories and Multi-Level Factors among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Zook, Kathleen R.; Saksvig, Brit I.; Wu, Tong Tong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although the decline of physical activity in adolescent girls is well-documented, there are girls whose physical activity does not follow this pattern. This study examined the relationships between physical activity trajectories and personal, psychosocial and environmental factors among adolescent girls. Methods Participants were from the University of Maryland field site of the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls. Of 730 girls measured in 8th grade, 589 were re-measured in 11th grade. Moderate to vigorous physical activity was assessed by accelererometers; participants were categorized as active maintainers (n=31), inactive maintainers (n=410), adopters (n=64), or relapsers (n=56). Height and weight were measured, personal and psychosocial information was collected from surveys, and distance from home to school and parks was assessed from Geographical Information Systems. Multivariable logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results Variables at individual, social, and environmental levels predicted active maintainers and inactive maintainers, while only individual-level variables predicted adoption. None predicted relapse. Higher (favorable) scores for physical self-concept, perceived body fat, friend and family physical activity support, frequency of physical activity with friends, and shorter distance from home to a park predicted active maintainers. Overweight/obese status, earlier age at menses, and lower scores for physical self-concept, perceived body fat, friend physical activity support, and frequency of physical activity with friends, and further distance from home to school predicted inactive maintainers. High physical self-concept and not being overweight/obese predicted adopters. Conclusion Multi-level factors appear to predict behavior maintenance rather than actual change. Implications and Contribution Although physical activity declines among girls during adolescence, some maintain and others increase their physical activity. Our

  1. Anterior cingulate activity and level of cognitive conflict: explicit comparisons.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rachel L C

    2006-12-01

    The role of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in attention is a matter of debate. One hypothesis suggests that its role is to monitor response-level conflict, but explicit evidence is somewhat lacking. In this study, the activation of ACC was compared in (a) color and number standard Stroop tasks in which response preparation and interference shared modality (response-level conflict) and (b) color and number matching Stroop tasks in which response preparation and interference did not share modality (non-response-level conflict). In the congruent conditions, there was no effect of task type. In the interference conditions, anterior cingulate activity in the matching tasks was less than that in the standard tasks. These results support the hypothesis that ACC specifically mediates generalized modality-independent selection processes invoked by response competition.

  2. Physical Activity Enjoyment and Self-Efficacy As Predictors of Cancer Patients' Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Nadine; Wiskemann, Joachim; Sieverding, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can support cancer patients during medical treatment by reducing side-effects and increasing quality of life. However, PA levels mostly decline after diagnosis. Which factors can explain if patients are able to remain or even increase their PA level? Self-efficacy is an important cognitive factor that has been linked to cancer patients' PA across many studies. In contrast, affective factors such as PA enjoyment have rarely been examined. We compare the influence of self-efficacy and PA enjoyment on cancer patients' PA levels after completion of an exercise or stress-management intervention. Methods: Outpatient cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34%, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION study, a 4-week intervention (1 h counseling followed by weekly phone calls), with pre-test (T1), post-test (T2), and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise intervention (emphasizing self-regulatory strategies for behavior change) or to a stress management intervention (coping and relaxation techniques). Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA, a measure of maintenance self-efficacy (7 items, Cronbach's α = 0.88) and PA enjoyment (2 items, Cronbach's α = 0.89). Regression analyses were calculated with PA level (at T2 and T3) as dependent variable and relative weight analyses were conducted. The study was registered at clinicalTrials.gov (unique identifier:NCT01576107; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01576107?term=motivaction&rank=1). Results: Baseline self-efficacy and change in PA enjoyment significantly predicted cancer patients' PA level at T2 adjusting for baseline PA and type of intervention. Relative weight (RW) analysis revealed that PA enjoyment (baseline and change together) explained 34.3% of the dependent variable, self-efficacy (baseline and change) explained 38.4%. At follow

  3. Effects of Curricular Activity on Students' Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…

  4. Association between physical activity level and consumption of fruit and vegetables among adolescents in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between low levels of physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 2,057 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. We analyzed the level of physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables by standardized and validated questionnaires. The control variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, maternal education, alcohol consumption and smoking. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of physical activity was 81.9%; the inadequate consumption of fruits ocurred in 79.1% and the inadequate consumption of vegetables in 90.6%. Adolescents who consumed few fruits daily had an increase in 40% of chance of being insufficiently active and, for those who consumed few vegetable's the likelihood of being insufficiently active was 50% higher, compared to those who had adequate intake of these foods. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of physical activity were associated with inadequate fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents in a city in northeastern Brazil. These findings suggest that insufficiently active adolescents have other unhealthy behaviors that may increase the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. PMID:25887930

  5. Cancer in Utah Mormon women by church activity level.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J W; Lyon, J L

    1982-08-01

    In light of low cancer rates by the Mormon Church, this study classifies female Mormon cancer patients in Utah according to measures of adherence to Church doctrines. The distribution by Church activity level is compared for each site to a group of other cancer sites felt to represent the overall activity level distribution of Utah Mormon women. Mormon women classified as having the strongest adherence to Church doctrines had lung cancer rates during 1966-1970 much lower than did women with the weakest adherence. The relationship was not as strong, however, as that seen in Mormon men when classified by lay priesthood office. Cancer of the uterine cervix also showed lower rates in the more active groups, but this finding was not statistically significant. Cancers of the breast and ovary did not show consistent associations with Church activity level, nor did most of the gastrointestinal cancers. These data suggest that some of the differences in cancer incidence between Mormons and non-Mormons may not be explained by adherence to specific Church doctrines.

  6. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  7. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  8. Protease inhibitor monotherapy is associated with a higher level of monocyte activation, bacterial translocation and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Berta; Guardo, Alberto C; Leal, Lorna; Leon, Agathe; Lucero, Constanza; Alvarez-Martinez, Míriam J; Martinez, Miguel J; Vila, Jordi; Martínez-Rebollar, María; González-Cordón, Ana; Gatell, Josep M; Plana, Montserrat; García, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Monotherapy with protease-inhibitors (MPI) may be an alternative to cART for HIV treatment. We assessed the impact of this strategy on immune activation, bacterial translocation and inflammation. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study comparing patients on successful MPI (n=40) with patients on cART (n=20). Activation, senescence, exhaustion and differentiation stage in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets, markers of monocyte activation, microbial translocation, inflammation, coagulation and low-level viremia were assessed. Results CD4+ or CD8+ T lymphocyte subset parameters were not significantly different between both groups. Conversely, as compared with triple cART, MPI patients showed a higher proportion of activated monocytes (CD14+ CD16−CD163+ cells, p=0.031), soluble markers of monocyte activation (sCD14 p=0.004, sCD163 p=0.002), microbial translocation (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein; LBP p=0.07), inflammation (IL-6 p=0.04) and low-level viremia (p=0.035). In a multivariate model, a higher level of CD14+ CD16−CD163+ cells and sCD14, and presence of very low-level viremia were independently associated with MPI. Monocyte activation was independently associated with markers of inflammation (IL-6, p=0.006), microbial translocation (LBP, p=0.01) and low-level viremia (p=0.01). Conclusions Patients on MPI showed a higher level of monocyte activation than patients on standard therapy. Microbial translocation and low-level viremia were associated with the high level of monocyte activation observed in patients on MPI. The long-term clinical consequences of these findings should be assessed. PMID:25280865

  9. Microgravity: a Teacher's Guide with Activities, Secondary Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L. (Editor); Wargo, Michael J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Educational Publication is a teacher's guide that focuses on microgravity for the secondary level student. The introduction answers the question 'What is microgravity?', as well as describing gravity and creating microgravity. Following the introduction is a microgravity primer which covers such topics as the fluid state, combustion science, materials science, biotechnology, as well as microgravity and space flight. Seven different activities are described in the activities section and are written by authors prominent in the field. The concluding sections of the book include a glossary, microgravity references, and NASA educational resources.

  10. Effect of Learning Activity on Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels and Effort/Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Lee, Amelia M.; Xiang, Ping; Kosma, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The type of learning activity offered in physical education may influence students' motivational beliefs, physical activity participation and effort/persistence in class. However, most empirical studies have focused on the individual level rather than on the learner-content interactions. Accordingly, the potential effects of learning activities on…

  11. Secular trends in storm-level geomagnetic activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis is made of K-index data from groups of ground-based geomagnetic observatories in Germany, Britain, and Australia, 1868.0-2009.0, solar cycles 11-23. Methods include nonparametric measures of trends and statistical significance used by the hydrological and climatological research communities. Among the three observatory groups, German K data systematically record the highest disturbance levels, followed by the British and, then, the Australian data. Signals consistently seen in K data from all three observatory groups can be reasonably interpreted as physically meaninginful: (1) geomagnetic activity has generally increased over the past 141 years. However, the detailed secular evolution of geomagnetic activity is not well characterized by either a linear trend nor, even, a monotonic trend. Therefore, simple, phenomenological extrapolations of past trends in solar and geomagnetic activity levels are unlikely to be useful for making quantitative predictions of future trends lasting longer than a solar cycle or so. (2) The well-known tendency for magnetic storms to occur during the declining phase of a sunspot-solar cycles is clearly seen for cycles 14-23; it is not, however, clearly seen for cycles 11-13. Therefore, in addition to an increase in geomagnetic activity, the nature of solar-terrestrial interaction has also apparently changed over the past 141 years. ?? Author(s) 2011.

  12. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Tolea, Magdalena I; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Metter, E Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway.

  13. Age, gender, and level of activity as moderators of personal incentives to physical activity in Israel.

    PubMed

    Raviv, Shulamith; Netz, Yael

    2007-05-01

    The authors conducted an exploratory study with Israeli adults examining their personal incentives for physical activity (e.g., appearance, weight management). The participants formed a sample of 379 physically active Israelis, aged 20-89 years, divided into 3 age groups and 3 levels of activity. The authors found a similar profile for men and women for most incentives, with men scoring more highly than did women on only competition and fitness. Participants in the highest level of activity attributed greater importance to all incentives than did those in the other levels, and older adults attributed less importance to all incentives except for health benefits. The findings are relevant for planning activities intended to encourage adults to engage in more physical activity.

  14. Association between Physical Activity Levels and Physical Symptoms or Illness among University Students in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sang-Hyun; Um, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Cheol Min; Kwon, Hyuktae

    2016-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity can cause various physical symptoms or illness. However, few studies on this association have been conducted in young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity levels and physical symptoms or illness in young adults. Methods Subjects were university students who participated in a web-based self-administered questionnaire in a university in Seoul in 2013. We obtained information on physical activities and physical symptoms or illness in the past year. Independent variables were defined as symptoms or illness which were associated with decreased academic performance. Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of each physical symptom or illness with adjustment for covariables. Results A total of 2,201 participants were included in the study. The main physical symptoms or illness among participants were severe fatigue (64.2%), muscle or joint pain (46.3%), gastrointestinal problems (43.1%), headache or dizziness (38.6%), frequent colds (35.1%), and sleep problems (33.3%). Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with high ORs of physical symptoms or illness. Multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) in the lowest vs. highest tertile of physical activity were 1.45 (1.14–1.83) for severe fatigue, 1.35 (1.07–1.70) for frequent colds, and 1.29 (1.02–1.63) for headaches or dizziness. We also found that lower levels of physical activity were associated with more physical symptoms or bouts of illness. Conclusion Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with various physical symptoms or illness among university students. Also, individuals in the lower levels of physical activity were more likely to experience more physical symptoms or bouts of illness than those in the highest tertile of physical activity. PMID:27688861

  15. Electrocortical activity distinguishes between uphill and level walking in humans.

    PubMed

    Bradford, J Cortney; Lukos, Jamie R; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if electrocortical activity is different between walking on an incline compared with level surface. Subjects walked on a treadmill at 0% and 15% grades for 30 min while we recorded electroencephalography (EEG). We used independent component (IC) analysis to parse EEG signals into maximally independent sources and then computed dipole estimations for each IC. We clustered cortical source ICs and analyzed event-related spectral perturbations synchronized to gait events. Theta power fluctuated across the gait cycle for both conditions, but was greater during incline walking in the anterior cingulate, sensorimotor and posterior parietal clusters. We found greater gamma power during level walking in the left sensorimotor and anterior cingulate clusters. We also found distinct alpha and beta fluctuations, depending on the phase of the gait cycle for the left and right sensorimotor cortices, indicating cortical lateralization for both walking conditions. We validated the results by isolating movement artifact. We found that the frequency activation patterns of the artifact were different than the actual EEG data, providing evidence that the differences between walking conditions were cortically driven rather than a residual artifact of the experiment. These findings suggest that the locomotor pattern adjustments necessary to walk on an incline compared with level surface may require supraspinal input, especially from the left sensorimotor cortex, anterior cingulate, and posterior parietal areas. These results are a promising step toward the use of EEG as a feed-forward control signal for ambulatory brain-computer interface technologies.

  16. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    PubMed Central

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  17. The Effects of Altered Membrane Cholesterol Levels on Sodium Pump Activity in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Metabolic dysfunctions characteristic of overt hypothyroidism (OH) start at the early stage of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Na+/K+-ATPase (the sodium pump) is a transmembrane enzyme that plays a vital role in cellular activities in combination with membrane lipids. We evaluated the effects of early changes in thyroid hormone and membrane cholesterol on sodium pump activity in SCH and OH patients. Methods In 32 SCH patients, 35 OH patients, and 34 euthyroid patients, sodium pump activity and cholesterol levels in red blood cell membranes were measured. Serum thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Differences in their mean values were analysed using post hoc analysis of variance. We assessed the dependence of the sodium pump on other metabolites by multiple regression analysis. Results Sodium pump activity and membrane cholesterol were lower in both hypothyroid groups than in control group, OH group exhibiting lower values than SCH group. In SCH group, sodium pump activity showed a significant direct dependence on membrane cholesterol with an inverse relationship with serum TSH levels. In OH group, sodium pump activity depended directly on membrane cholesterol and serum T4 levels. No dependence on serum cholesterol was observed in either case. Conclusion Despite the presence of elevated serum cholesterol in hypothyroidism, membrane cholesterol contributed significantly to maintain sodium pump activity in the cells. A critical reduction in membrane cholesterol levels heralds compromised enzyme activity, even in the early stage of hypothyroidism, and this can be predicted by elevated TSH levels alone, without any evident clinical manifestations. PMID:28256112

  18. Clinical application of asparaginase activity levels following treatment with pegaspargase.

    PubMed

    Bleyer, Archie; Asselin, Barbara L; Koontz, Susannah E; Hunger, Stephen P

    2015-06-01

    Asparaginase, an enzyme used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia and related forms of nonHodgkin lymphoma, depletes asparagine, which leads to lymphoblast cell death. Unlike most chemotherapeutic agents, asparaginase is a foreign protein that can result in clinical allergy and/or silent hypersensitivity with production of neutralizing antibodies that inactivate asparaginase. In North America, asparaginase activity levels can now be obtained via a commercially available assay, for therapeutic drug monitoring and investigation of potential allergic reactions. Herein, we provide recommendations and a corresponding algorithm for the clinical application of this assay after treatment with pegaspargase to evaluate suspected hypersensitivity reactions and/or silent inactivation.

  19. Cults and mental health: clinical conclusions.

    PubMed

    Levine, S V

    1981-12-01

    The field of cults and their relation to psychological and psychiatric disorder is reft with rhetoric and opinion. There has been a particular dearth of documentation and substantiated data supporting psychiatric opinion. As a result of considerable research, clinical work, and an extensive literature review, certain conclusions or strongly suggested positions are enunciated. An attempt is made to substantiate each of the ten assertions based on existing data, in the hope that they will clarify the muddy existing data, area, make clinical positions and interventions more soundly based, and inspire debate and heuristic efforts.

  20. History Scene Investigations: From Clues to Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces a social studies lesson that allows students to learn history and practice reading skills, critical thinking, and writing. The activity is called History Scene Investigation or HSI, which derives its name from the popular television series based on crime scene investigations (CSI). HSI uses discovery learning…

  1. Mediating role of activity level in the depressive realism effect.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; A Vadillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Several classic studies have concluded that the accuracy of identifying uncontrollable situations depends heavily on depressive mood. Nondepressed participants tend to exhibit an optimistic illusion of control, whereas depressed participants tend to better detect a lack of control. Recently, we suggested that the different activity levels (measured as the probability of responding during a contingency learning task) exhibited by depressed and nondepressed individuals is partly responsible for this effect. The two studies presented in this paper provide further support for this mediational hypothesis, in which mood is the distal cause of the illusion of control operating through activity level, the proximal cause. In Study 1, the probability of responding, P(R), was found to be a mediator variable between the depressive symptoms and the judgments of control. In Study 2, we intervened directly on the mediator variable: The P(R) for both depressed and nondepressed participants was manipulated through instructions. Our results confirm that P(R) manipulation produced differences in the participants' perceptions of uncontrollability. Importantly, the intervention on the mediator variable cancelled the effect of the distal cause; the participants' judgments of control were no longer mood dependent when the P(R) was manipulated. This result supports the hypothesis that the so-called depressive realism effect is actually mediated by the probability of responding.

  2. Effect of Cognitive Activity Level on Duration of Post-Concussion Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Naomi J.; Mannix, Rebekah C.; O’Brien, Michael J.; Gostine, David; Collins, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of cognitive activity level on duration of post-concussion symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients who presented to a Sports Concussion Clinic within 3 weeks of injury between October 2009 and July 2011. At each visit, patients completed a scale that recorded their average level of cognitive activity since the previous visit. The product of cognitive activity level and days between visits (cognitive activity-days) was calculated and divided into quartiles. Kaplan-Meier Product Limit method was used to generate curves of symptom duration based on cognitive activity level. To adjust for other possible predictors of concussion recovery, we constructed a Cox proportional hazard model with cognitive activity-days as the main predictor. RESULTS: Of the 335 patients included in the study, 62% were male, 19% reported a loss of consciousness, and 37% reported experiencing amnesia at the time of injury. The mean age of participants was 15 years (range, 8–23) and the mean number of previous concussions was 0.76; 39% of athletes had sustained a previous concussion. The mean Post-Concussion Symptom Scale score at the initial visit was 30 (SD, 26). The overall mean duration of symptoms was 43 days (SD, 53). Of all variables assessed, only total symptom burden at initial visit and cognitive activity level were independently associated with duration of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Increased cognitive activity is associated with longer recovery from concussion. This study supports the use of cognitive rest and adds to the current consensus opinion. PMID:24394679

  3. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (≥5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ≥75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition.

  4. Effect of recreational physical activity on insulin levels in Mexican/Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Macias-Cervantes, Maciste H; Malacara, Juan M; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia; Díaz-Cisneros, Francisco J

    2009-10-01

    The effect of increased recreational physical activity in children on insulin levels has not yet been studied. We carried out a randomized controlled trial in 76 children 6-9 years old, 32 of them increased their physical activity and 30 maintained the same level. In the intervention group, after a week of baseline, recreational activity three times/week was programmed for 12 weeks. We compared insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, glucose, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, and body mass index in both groups. Thereafter, we compared groups of normal weight, overweight, and with obesity in the experimental group. The group of recreational activity increased their median daily steps (15,329 to 19,910) and decreased insulin (p < 0.001) and HOMA index (4.36 vs. 2.39, p < 0.001). The diminution of insulin levels was more significant in the overweight group (p < 0.007). In conclusion, in our group, children who increased physical activity during 12 weeks decrease insulin levels and insulin resistance without change in other metabolic and anthropometric variables.

  5. Physical Activity Levels and Domains Assessed by Accelerometry in German Adolescents from GINIplus and LISAplus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maia P.; Berdel, Dietrich; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is a well-known and underused protective factor for numerous health outcomes, and interventions are hampered by lack of objective data. We combined accelerometers with diaries to estimate the contributions to total activity from different domains throughout the day and week in adolescents. Methods Accelerometric and diary data from 1403 adolescents (45% male, mean age 15.6 ± 0.5 years) were combined to evaluate daily levels and domains of sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) during a typical week. Freedson’s cutoff points were applied to determine levels of activity. Total activity was broken down into school physical education (PE), school outside PE, transportation to school, sport, and other time. Results About 2/3 of adolescents’ time was spent sedentary, 1/3 in light activity, and about 5% in MVPA. Boys and girls averaged 46 (SD 22) and 38 (23) minutes MVPA per day. Adolescents were most active during leisure sport, spending about 30% of it in MVPA, followed by PE (about 20%) transport to school (14%) and either school class time or other time (3%). PE provided 5% of total MVPA, while leisure sport provided 16% and transportation to school 8%. School was the most sedentary part of the day with over 75% of time outside PE spent sedentary. Conclusions These German adolescents were typical of Europeans in showing low levels of physical activity, with significant contributions from leisure sport, transportation and school PE. Leisure sport was the most active part of the day, and participation did not vary significantly by sex, study center (region of Germany) or BMI. Transportation to school was frequent and thus accounted for a significant fraction of total MVPA. This indicates that even in a population with good access to dedicated sporting activities, frequent active transportation can add significantly to total MVPA. PMID:27010227

  6. Plantar pressures during level walking compared with other ambulatory activities.

    PubMed

    Lundeen, S; Lundquist, K; Cornwall, M W; McPoil, T G

    1994-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the magnitude of plantar pressures during level walking in comparison to other activities. These activities included climbing up stairs, going down stairs, a simple pivot while walking, and a crossover pivot while walking in normal individuals. Twelve volunteers, six men and six women, mean age 28 years, served as subjects. Data were collected on the dominant foot with an EMED-SF pressure sensor platform as each subject walked barefoot and did each of the five activities. Maximum plantar pressure (MPP) and pressure-time integral (PTI) was found in the metatarsal and heel regions. The results of repeated-measures analysis of variance tests showed that the five experimental conditions were statistically different for both MPP and PTI in the metatarsal and heel regions. Post hoc analysis indicated that MPP and PTI were decreased during the going down stairs condition in the heel and increased during the crossover pivot while walking and pivot while walking conditions for the metatarsal region.

  7. The Effect of Gender and Level of Vision on the Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…

  8. Does activity space size influence physical activity levels of adolescents?—A GPS study of an urban environment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nolan C.; Voss, Christine; Frazer, Amanda D.; Hirsch, Jana A.; McKay, Heather A.; Winters, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is closely linked with child and youth health, and active travel may be a solution to enhancing PA levels. Activity spaces depict the geographic coverage of one's travel. Little is known about activity spaces and PA in adolescents. Objective To explore the relation between adolescent travel (using a spatial measure of activity space size) and daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), with a focus on school days. Methods We used Global Positioning Systems to manually identify trips and generate activity spaces for each person-day; quantified by area for 39 students (13.8 ± 0.6 years, 38% female) attending high school in urban Downtown Vancouver, Canada. We assessed the association between activity space area and MVPA using multi-level regression. We calculated total, school-day and trip-based MVPA for each valid person-day (accelerometry; ≥ 600 min wear time). Results On school days, students accrued 68.2 min/day (95% CI 60.4–76.0) of MVPA. Daily activity spaces averaged 2.2 km2 (95% CI 1.3–3.0). There was no association between activity space size and school-day MVPA. Students accrued 21.8 min/day (95% CI 19.2–24.4) of MVPA during school hours, 19.4 min/day (95% CI 15.1–23.7) during travel, and 28.3 min/day (95% CI 22.3–34.3) elsewhere. Conclusion School and school travel are important sources of PA in Vancouver adolescents, irrespective of activity space area covered. PMID:26807349

  9. Structural aging program -- a summary of activities, results, and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Research has been conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. The purpose was to identify potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments. Primary program accomplishments have included formulation of a Structural Materials Information Center that contains data and information on the time variation of material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors for 144 materials, an aging assessment methodology to identify critical structures and degradation factors that can potentially impact their performance, guidelines and evaluation criteria for use in condition assessments of reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current condition assessments and estimations of future performance of reinforced concrete nuclear power plant structures. In addition, the Structural Aging Program conducted in-depth evaluations of several nondestructive evaluation and repair-related technologies to develop guidance on their applicability.

  10. Idaho Senior Center Activities, Activity Participation Level, and Managers' Perceptions of Activity Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girvan, James T.; Harris, Frances

    A survey completed by managers of 77 senior centers in Idaho revealed that meals, blood pressure screening, and games and trips were the most successful activities offered. Alzheimer's support groups, library books for loan, and exercise classes were the least successful. Possible reasons for the success or failure of these activities were…

  11. Supported and unsupported breast displacement in three dimensions across treadmill activity levels.

    PubMed

    Scurr, Joanna C; White, Jennifer L; Hedger, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate sports bras are crucial to limit potential breast pain and ptosis. In an attempt to optimize breast support during exercise, manufacturers now produce activity level-specific sports bras. However, until breast movement across activity levels is understood, the criterion for such apparel is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify multi-planar breast displacement across treadmill activity levels and breast support conditions. Twenty-one D cup participants had markers attached to their nipples and trunk to calculate relative 3D breast displacement. Supported and unsupported mediolateral, anterioposterior, vertical, and resultant breast displacement was assessed during treadmill walking up to maximum running. Unsupported resultant breast displacement increased from 4.2 ± 1.0 cm during walking to 15.2 ± 4.2 cm during running. There was no change in breast displacement amplitude or direction as running speed increased above 10 km · h⁻¹, with vertical breast displacement then accounting for ∼50% of overall displacement. While breast support was effective in reducing the amplitude of breast displacement during walking and running, the direction was unaffected. In conclusion, instead of activity level-specific breast support, future research should identify multi-planar breast kinematics during various sporting modalities. This might lead to production of a sports-specific bra to reduce the negative consequences of breast movement.

  12. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during and after closure

  13. Genistein upregulates LDLR levels via JNK-mediated activation of SREBP-2

    PubMed Central

    Kartawijaya, Medicia; Han, Hye Won; Kim, Yunhye; Lee, Seung-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Genistein has been proved in vitro and in vivo to lower LDLR level. It is also widely consumed and implicated for its anti-atherogenic effects. However, the molecular mechanism by which genistein lowers the LDL level is still unknown. Objective To understand the anti-atherogenic molecular mechanism of action, genistein was investigated for its impact on the expression of LDLR, the receptor for LDL cholesterol, and related signaling pathways in a human hepatoma cell line. Design HepG2 cell was used for the experiments. Genistein with different concentrations was diluted in media and was incubated for 24 h or more as indicated. Protein levels were measured by western blotting, and mRNA expression was detected by RT-qPCR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (CHIP) assay was used to determine protein binding levels, and luciferase assay was used to measure promoter activity. Result Genistein increased the mRNA and protein levels of LDLR in a time-dependent manner. Genistein increased the transcriptional activity of the LDLR promoter containing the reporter gene (pLDLR-luc, −805 to +50). But the sterol regulatory element deletion mutant construct failed to be activated by genistein. Genistein increased the nuclear fraction of SREBP-2 and the DNA-binding activity of SREBP-2 to LDLR promoter, as assessed by CHIP. The genistein-phosphorylated JNK inhibitor (SP600126) abolished the genistein-stimulated levels of LDLR and the nuclear SREBP-2. The addition of cholesterol up to 5 µg/mL for 24 h did not affect the effect of genistein on LDLR protein expression. Even the addition of 40 µM genistein increased the cholesterol uptake by more than 10% in the human hepatoma cell line. Conclusion Our data support the idea that genistein may have anti-atherogenic effects by activating JNK signals and SREBP-2 processing, which is followed by the upregulation of LDLR. PMID:27211318

  14. Physical Activity Level and Symptom Duration Are Not Associated After Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Howell, David R.; Mannix, Rebekah C.; Quinn, Bridget; Taylor, J. Andrew; Tan, Can Ozan; Meehan, William P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical rest after a concussion has been described as a key component in the management of the injury. Evidence supporting this recommendation, however, is limited. Purpose To examine the association between physical activity and symptom duration in a cohort of patients after a concussion. Study Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods This study included 364 patients who were diagnosed with a concussion, were seen by a physician within 3 weeks of injury, and completed a questionnaire at the initial clinic visit. The questionnaire assessed the postconcussion symptom scale (PCSS) score, previous number of concussions, presence of the loss of consciousness or amnesia at the time of injury, and prior treatment for headaches. During each follow-up clinic visit, physical activity level was self-reported. A Cox proportional hazard model was constructed to determine the association between symptom duration, initial clinic visit responses, and self-reported physical activity level after the injury. Results Study participants ranged in age from 8 to 27 years (mean age, 15.0 years) and had sustained a mean of 0.8 prior concussions; 222 patients (61%) were male. On initial examination, the mean PCSS score was 34.7. The mean symptom duration was 48.9 days after the injury. Among the variables included in the model, initial PCSS score and female sex were independently associated with symptom duration, while physical activity level after the injury was not. For participants aged between 13 and 18 years, however, higher levels of physical activity after the injury were associated with a shorter symptom duration. Conclusion Results from this study indicate that physical activity after the injury may not be universally detrimental to the recovery of concussion symptoms. PMID:26838933

  15. Conclusions: environmental change, wildlife conservation and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Holt, William V; Brown, Janine L; Comizzoli, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Our intention when planning this book was to explore the diverse ways that reproductive science is inextricably tied to many aspects of biodiversity conservation, using the opportunity to present a vast amount of specialised information in a way that forms a coherent and important body of work. Some of the chapters were therefore concerned with understanding how taxonomic groups and species are being affected by globally important environmental changes, mostly caused through anthropogenic influences. Others were more focused on monitoring and understanding the physiology of wild species, with the aim of better understanding mechanisms underlying responses to captive conditions and environmental change, in both wild and captive animals. We also wanted to review advances in technological measures that are being actively developed to support the breeding and management of wildlife. In a few cases we have presented specific case studies that highlight the amount of effort required for the successful development of assisted reproductive technologies for wild species. Viewed overall, the outcome is spectacular; the last decade has seen enormous progress in many aspects of the sciences and technologies relevant to the topic. It is also clear that the boundaries between different scientific disciplines are becoming ever more blurred, and it is no longer easy or even possible to remain focused on a highly specialized topic in reproduction or conservation, without having at least some understanding of allied subjects. Here we present a few concluding comments about what we have learnt, and how the various topics interact with each other. We also emphasize that, as far as we know, no similarly comprehensive consideration of the contribution of reproductive science to wildlife conservation has been published within the last decade.

  16. Physical activity level and quality of life in long term lung cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Nes, Lise Solberg; Liu, Heshan; Patten, Christi A.; Rausch, Sarah M.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Garces, Yolanda I.; Cheville, Andrea L; Yang, Ping; Clark, Matthew M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Lung cancer is associated with a multitude of challenges, and lung cancer survivors report significantly lower quality of life (QOL) than other cancer survivors. Methods This study aimed to examine the relationship between physical activity level and QOL in a large sample of long term lung cancer survivors (N = 1937). Average age at diagnosis was 65 years, 92% were Caucasian, and 51% male. Surveys were completed at lung cancer diagnosis and then average 4.2 years post-diagnosis. Results Most survivors reported having a sedentary lifestyle at both timepoints. However, 256 survivors reported a change in physical activity level from diagnosis to follow-up. Decreased physical activity (n = 140) was associated with decreased overall, mental, physical, emotional, social, and spiritual QOL (all ps < .001) and decreased symptom control as seen in reported pain, dry coughing, coughing with phlegm, shortness of breath, and level of fatigue (all ps < .05). In contrast, increased physical activity (n = 116) was associated with improved QOL (all ps < .05), and improved symptom control as seen in frequency and severity of pain (p < .01). For all participants, those engaging in regular physical activity (30 min or more per day, at least five days per week) reported significantly higher QOL scores (all ps < .001), and better symptom control than more sedentary survivors. Conclusions Results indicate a significant association between change in physical activity and QOL and symptom control for long term lung cancer survivors, and research exploring interventions designed to improve activity level for lung cancer survivors is further warranted. PMID:22681871

  17. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  18. Effects of a Classroom-Based Physical Activity Program on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Tan Leng; Hannon, James; Webster, Collin Andrew; Podlog, Leslie William; Brusseau, Timothy; Newton, Maria

    2014-01-01

    High levels of physical inactivity are evident among many American children. To address this problem, providing physical activity (PA) during the school day within the CSPAP framework, is one strategy to increase children's PA. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a classroom-based PA program on children's PA. Two hundred…

  19. Effect of low-level laser therapy on the modulation of the mitochondrial activity of macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Nadhia H. C.; Ferrari, Raquel A. M.; Silva, Daniela F. T.; Nunes, Fabio D.; Bussadori, Sandra K.; Fernandes, Kristianne P. S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Macrophages play a major role among the inflammatory cells that invade muscle tissue following an injury. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has long been used in clinical practice to accelerate the muscle repair process. However, little is known regarding its effect on macrophages. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of LLLT on the mitochondrial activity (MA) of macrophages. METHOD: J774 macrophages were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon - gamma (IFN-γ) (activation) for 24 h to simulate an inflammatory process, then irradiated with LLLT using two sets of parameters (780 nm; 70 mW; 3 J/cm2 and 660 nm; 15 mW; 7.5 J/cm2). Non-activated/non-irradiated cells composed the control group. MA was evaluated by the cell mitochondrial activity (MTT) assay (after 1, 3 and 5 days) in three independent experiments. The data were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: After 1 day of culture, activated and 780 nm irradiated macrophages showed lower MA than activated macrophages, but activated and 660 nm irradiated macrophages showed MA similar to activated cells. After 3 days, activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm) macrophages showed greater MA than activated macrophages, and after 5 days, the activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm) macrophages showed similar MA to the activated macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that 660 nm and 780 nm LLLT can modulate the cellular activation status of macrophages in inflammation, highlighting the importance of this resource and of the correct determination of its parameters in the repair process of skeletal muscle. PMID:25076002

  20. Symptom Assessment in Knee Osteoarthritis Needs to Account for Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Grace H.; McAlindon, Timothy E.; Hawker, Gillian A.; Driban, Jeffrey B.; Price, Lori Lyn; Song, Jing; Eaton, Charles B.; Hochberg, Marc C.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Kwoh, C. Kent; Nevitt, Michael C.; Dunlop, Dorothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pain is not always correlated with radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) severity possibly because people modify activities to manage symptoms. Measures of symptoms that consider pain in the context of activity level may therefore provide greater discrimination than pain alone. Our objective was to compare discrimination of a measure of pain alone with combined measures of pain relative to physical activity across radiographic OA levels. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of the Osteoarthritis Initiative accelerometer substudy, including those with and without knee OA. Two composite pain and activity knee symptom (PAKS) scores were calculated as Western Ontario and McMaster (WOMAC) Universities Osteoarthritis Pain Scale plus one divided by physical activity measures (step and activity counts). Symptom score discrimination across Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) grades were evaluated using histograms and quantile regression. Results 1806 participants, mean age 65.1 (9.1) years, mean BMI 28.4 (4.8) kg/m2, and 55.6% female, were included. WOMAC, but not PAKS scores, exhibited a floor effect. Adjusted median WOMAC by KL grades 0 – 4 were 0, 0, 1, 1, and 3 respectively. Median PAKS1 and PAKS2 were 24.9, 26.0, 32.4, 46.1, 97.9, and 7.2, 7.2, 9.2, 12.9, 23.8, respectively. PAKS scores had more statistically significant comparisons between KL grades compared with WOMAC. Conclusions Symptom assessments incorporating pain and physical activity did not exhibit a floor effect and were better able to discriminate radiographic severity than pain alone, particularly in milder disease. Pain in the context of physical activity level should be used to assess knee OA symptoms. PMID:26407008

  1. Factors increasing physical activity levels in diabetes mellitus: a survey of patients after an inpatient diabetes education program.

    PubMed

    Murano, Isamu; Asakawa, Yasutsugu; Mizukami, Masafumi; Takihara, Jun; Shimizu, Kaoru; Imai, Taihei

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to understand the factors involved in increasing physical activity levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients for improved glycemic control. [Subjects] The subjects were 101 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who had completed an inpatient diabetes education program. [Methods] The survey evaluated physical activity levels on the basis of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a questionnaire listing physical and psychosocial factors. [Results] Four variables-participation or non-participation in farm work, presence or absence of a job, stage of change in attitude toward exercise behavior, and social support-accounted for 34% of physical activity levels in these diabetes mellitus patients. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between physical activity level and HbA1c was -0.31. [Conclusion] Intervention in terms of practical use of living environments, promotion of exercise behavior, and social support may be effective in helping to improve glycemic control.

  2. Genetic variants in ABCA1 promoter affect transcription activity and plasma HDL level in pigs.

    PubMed

    Dang, Xiao-yong; Chu, Wei-wei; Shi, Heng-chuan; Yu, Shi-gang; Han, Hai-yin; Gu, Shu-Hua; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-25

    Excess accumulation of cholesterol in plasma may result in coronary artery disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to apolipoproteins, a process necessary for plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation. Higher plasma levels of HDL are associated with lower risk for cardiovascular disease. Studies of human disease and animal models had shown that an increased hepatic ABCA1 activity relates to an enhanced plasma HDL level. In this study, we hypothesized that functional mutations in the ABCA1 promoter in pigs may affect gene transcription activity, and consequently the HDL level in plasma. The promoter region of ABCA1 was comparatively scanned by direct sequencing with pool DNA of high- and low-HDL groups (n=30 for each group). Two polymorphisms, c. - 608A>G and c. - 418T>A, were revealed with reverse allele distribution in the two groups. The two polymorphisms were completely linked and formed only G-A or A-T haplotypes when genotyped in a larger population (n=526). Furthermore, we found that the G-A/G-A genotype was associated with higher HDL and ABCA1 mRNA level than A-T/A-T genotype. Luciferase assay also revealed that G-A haplotype promoter had higher activity than A-T haplotype. Single-nucleotide mutant assay showed that c.-418T>A was the causal mutation for ABCA1 transcription activity alteration. Conclusively, we identified two completely linked SNPs in porcine ABCA1 promoter region which have influence on the plasma HDL level by altering ABCA1 gene transcriptional activity.

  3. Judging disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis by serum free kappa and lambda light chain levels.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yun; Li, Su-Liang; Xie, Ming; Jiang, Ping; Liu, Kai-Ge; Li, Ya-Jun

    2013-10-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the levels of serum free kappa (κ) and lambda (λ) light chains in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as exploring the association between serum free κ and λ light chains and activity of RA. For this purpose, healthy individuals and patients with active RA and RA in remission were enrolled, and their serum levels of free κ and λ light chains were measured using rate nephelometry. The diagnostic accuracy of serum free κ and λ light chains was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves and 95% confidence intervals for areas under the curve (AUC). The results obtained indicated that the levels of serum free κ and λ light chains in patients with active RA were significantly higher than those of patients in remission and of healthy controls (p < 0.05). Further, the AUC values in patients with active RA were 0.871 for free κ light chain and 0.781 for free λ light chain. When the optimal cut-off point for serum κ light chain was 8.02 g/L, the maximum sensitivity and specificity were 82.5% and 82.5%, respectively, and when the optimal cut-off point for serum λ light chain was 3.57 g/L, the maximum sensitivity and specificity were 80% and 82.5%, respectively. It was thus found that serum levels of free κ and λ light chains were positively correlated with disease activity in RA, the Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), and values for C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), platelet count (PLT), rheumatoid factor (RF), and anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, high serum levels of free κ and λ light chains in patients with active RA are closely correlated with disease activity parameters including DAS28, CRP, ESR, PLT, RF, and ACPA. Thus, the above-mentioned levels of serum free κ and λ light chains may be used as important indicators of activity of RA.

  4. Urban versus rural lifestyle in adolescents: associations between environment, physical activity levels and sedentary behavior

    PubMed Central

    Regis, Manuela Ferreira; de Oliveira, Luciano Machado Ferreira Tenório; dos Santos, Ana Raquel Mendes; Leonidio, Ameliane da Conceição Reubens; Diniz, Paula Rejane Beserra; de Freitas, Clara Maria Silvestre Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in adolescents living in urban and rural areas. Methods An epidemiological, cross-section study with quantitative design, carried out at the regional level. The sample comprised 6,234 students aged 14 to 19 years, selected using random cluster sampling. The χ2 test and binary logistic regression were used in the analysis. Results A total of 74.5% of adolescents lived in urban areas. After adjustment, rural residents spent less time watching television (odds ratio – OR: 0.45; 95% confidence interval – 95%CI: 0.39-0.52), using a computer and/or playing video games (OR: 0.30; 95%CI: 0.22-0.42), or sitting down (OR: 0.66; 95%CI: 0.54-0.80); chose passive leisure less often (OR: 0.83; 95%IC: 0.72-0.95) and were less likely to be classified as insufficiently active (OR: 0.88; 95%IC: 0.78-0.99) when compared to urban residents, regardless of sex or age. The fact that adolescents living in rural areas who did not work were more likely to be classified as insufficiently active (OR: 2.59; 95%CI: 2.07-3.24) emphasized the significant role of occupation in physical activity levels in this group. Conclusion Adolescents living in rural areas were less exposed to the sedentary behaviors, chose more active leisure, and had higher levels of physical activity. Place of residence and occupation may play a major role in youth lifestyle. PMID:28076591

  5. Hydrogen sulfide diminishes the levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin in activated mast cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Na-Ra; Moon, Phil-Dong; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2016-03-01

    Bamboo salt (BS) is a Korean traditional type of salt and has been reported to have therapeutic effects on allergic inflammation. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) aggravates inflammation in the pathogenesis of allergic reactions, such as allergic rhinitis (AR). To confirm an active compound of BS, we investigated the effect of sulfur, a compound of BS, on the levels of TSLP in a human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells and a mouse model of AR using hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH). We treated NaSH or BS in HMC-1 cells and activated the HMC-1 cells with phorbol myristate acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI). ELISA for the production measurement of TSLP, PCR for the mRNA expression measurement of TSLP, and western blot analysis for the expression measurement of upstream mediators were performed. Mice were treated with NaSH and sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). The levels of TSLP were measured in serum and nasal mucosa tissue in an OVA-induced AR mouse model. NaSH or BS diminished the production and mRNA expression of TSLP as well as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. NaSH or BS diminished the level of intracellular calcium in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. NaSH or BS reduced the expression and activity of caspase-1 in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. And NaSH or BS inhibited the expression of receptor interacting protein-2 and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. The translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus as well as the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα in the cytoplasm were diminished by NaSH or BS in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. Furthermore, NaSH inhibited the production of TSLP, IL-6, and IL-8 in TNF-α-activated HMC-1 cells. Finally, the administration of NaSH showed a decrease in number of rubs on mice with OVA-induced AR. And the levels of immunoglobulin E and TSLP in the serum and the level of TSLP in the

  6. Anesthetic Isoflurane Increases Phosphorylated Tau Levels Mediated by Caspase Activation and Aβ Generation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuanlin; Wu, Xu; Xu, Zhipeng; Zhang, Yiying; Xie, Zhongcong

    2012-01-01

    Anesthetic isoflurane has been shown to promote Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathogenesis by inducing caspase activation and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ). Phosphorylation of tau protein is another important feature of AD neuropathogenesis. However, the effects of isoflurane on phosphorylated tau levels remain largely to be determined. We therefore set out to determine whether isoflurane can increase phosphorylated tau levels. 5 to 8 month-old wild-type and AD transgenic mice [B6.Cg-Tg (APPswe, PSEN1dE9)85Dbo/J] were treated with 1.4% isoflurane for two hours. The mice brain tissues were harvested at six, 12 and 24 hours after the anesthesia. For the in vitro studies, primary neurons from wild-type and the AD transgenic mice were exposed to 2% isoflurane for six hours, and were harvested at the end of anesthesia. The harvested brain tissues and neurons were subjected to Western blot analysis by which the levels of phosphorylated tau protein at Serine 262 (Tau-PS262) were determined. Here we show that the isoflurane anesthesia increased Tau-PS262 levels in brain tissues and primary neurons from the wild-type and AD transgenic mice. Moreover, the isoflurane anesthesia may induce a greater increase in Tau-PS262 levels in primary neurons and brain tissues from the AD transgenic mice. Finally, caspase activation inhibitor Z-VAD and Aβ generation inhibitor L-685,458 attenuated the isoflurane-induced increases in Tau-PS262 levels. In conclusion, clinically relevant isoflurane anesthesia increases phosphorylated tau levels, which may result from the isoflurane-induced caspase activation and Aβ generation. These findings will promote more studies to determine the effects of anesthetics on tau phosphorylation. PMID:22745746

  7. Physical activity levels, duration pattern and adherence to WHO recommendations in German adults

    PubMed Central

    Luzak, Agnes; Heier, Margit; Thorand, Barbara; Laxy, Michael; Nowak, Dennis; Peters, Annette; Schulz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Background Intensity and duration of physical activity are associated with the achievement of health benefits. Our aim was to characterize physical activity behavior in terms of intensity, duration pattern, and adherence to the WHO physical activity recommendations in a population-based sample of adults from southern Germany. Further, we investigated associations between physical activity and sex, age, and body mass index (BMI), considering also common chronic diseases. Methods We analyzed 475 subjects (47% males, mean age 58 years, range 48–68 years) who wore ActiGraph accelerometers for up to seven days. Measured accelerations per minute obtained from the vertical axis (uniaxial) and the vector magnitude of all three axes (triaxial) were classified as sedentary, light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) according to predefined acceleration count cut-offs. The average minutes/day spent in each activity level per subject served as outcome. Associations of sex, age, BMI, and seven chronic diseases or health limitations, with the activity levels were analyzed by negative binomial regression. Results Most of the wear time was spent in sedentarism (median 61%/day), whereas the median time spent in MVPA was only 3%, with men achieving more MVPA than women (35 vs. 28 minutes/day, p<0.05). Almost two thirds of MVPA was achieved in short bouts of less than 5 minutes, and 35% of the subjects did not achieve a single 10-minute bout. Hence, only 14% adhered to the WHO recommendation of 2.5 hours of MVPA/week in at least 10-minute bouts. Females, older subjects and obese subjects spent less time in MVPA (p<0.05), but no clear association with hypertension, asthma, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety/depression, pain or walking difficulties was observed in regression analyses with MVPA as outcome. Conclusions Activity behavior among middle-aged German adults was highly insufficient, indicating a further need for physical activity promotion in

  8. Effects of a Community-Based, Professionally Supervised Intervention on Physical Activity Levels Among Residents of Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hallal, Pedro; Pratt, Michael; Ramos, Luiz; Munk, Marcia; Damascena, Wilson; Parra Perez, Diana; Hoehner, Christine M.; Gilbertz, David; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Brownson, Ross C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effects of a community-based intervention, the Academia da Cidade program (ACP), on increasing leisure-time physical activity among residents of Recife, Brazil. Methods. We used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess leisure-time physical activity and transport physical activity (i.e., activities involved in traveling from place to place) levels in a random sample of 2047 Recife residents surveyed in 2007. We also examined factors related to exposure to ACP (participation in the intervention, residing near an intervention site, hearing about or seeing intervention activities). We estimated prevalence odds ratios (ORs) of moderate to high leisure-time and transport physical activity levels via intervention exposures adjusted for sociodemographic, health, and environmental variables. Results. Prevalence ORs for moderate to high levels of leisure-time physical activity were higher among former (prevalence OR = 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 3.9) and current (prevalence OR = 11.3; 95% CI = 3.5, 35.9) intervention participants and those who had heard about or seen an intervention activity (prevalence OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.5). Transport physical activity levels were inversely associated with residing near an ACP site. Conclusions. The ACP program appears to be an effective public health strategy to increase population-level physical activity in urban developing settings. PMID:19008499

  9. Effects of curricular activity on students' situational motivation and physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students'situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve students in grades 7-9 participated in three activities (cardiovascular fitness, ultimate football, and Dance Dance Revolution [DDR]) in physical education. ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers were used to measure students' PA levels for three classes for each activity. Students also completed a Situational Motivation Scale (Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, 2000) at the end of each class. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that students spent significantly higher percentages of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in fitness and football classes than they did in DDR class. Students reported higher lM and IR toward fitness than DDR They also scored higher in IR toward fitness than football. In contrast, students displayed significantly lower AM toward fitness than football and DDR Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that IM was the only positive predictor for time in MVPA (p = .02), whereas AM was the negative predictor (p < .01). The findings are discussed in regard to the implications for educational practice.

  10. Millimeter-Wave Measurements of High Level and Low Level Activity Glass Melts

    SciTech Connect

    Woskov, Paul P.; Sundaram, S.K.; Daniel, William E., Jr.

    2006-06-01

    The primary objectives of the current research is to develop on-line sensors for characterizing molten glass in high-level and low-activity waste glass melters using millimeter-wave (MMW) technology and to use this technology to do novel research of melt dynamics. Existing and planned waste glass melters lack sophisticated diagnostics due to the hot, corrosive, and radioactive melter environments. Without process control diagnostics, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at Hanford operate by a feed forward process control scheme that relies on predictive models with large uncertainties. This scheme severely limits production throughput and waste loading. Also operations at DWPF have shown susceptibility to anomalies such as pouring, foaming, and combustion gas build up, which can seriously disrupt operations. Future waste chemistries will be even more challenging. The scientific goals of this project are to develop new reliable on-line monitoring capability for important glass process parameters such as temperature profiles, emissivity, density, viscosity, and other characteristics using the unique advantages of millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation that can be eventually implemented in the operating melters. Once successfully developed and implemented, significant cost savings would be realized in melter operations by increasing production through put, reduced storage volumes (through higher waste loading), and reduced risks (prevention or mitigation of anomalies).

  11. Are self-reported physical activity levels associated with perceived desirability of activity-friendly communities?

    PubMed

    Librett, John J; Yore, Michelle M; Schmid, Thomas L; Kohl, Harold W

    2007-09-01

    People living in activity-friendly communities (AFCs) are more active but the self-selection influence is unknown. From 4856 respondents we explored mediating variables with expressed desire to live in AFCs. Association with desire to live in AFCs included ages 18-24 years (odds ratio [OR]=1.9), African American (OR=1.9) or Hispanic (OR=1.5), and believing AFCs would support activity-based transportation (OR=2.4). Regular physical activity (PA) was marginally associated with desire to live in AFCs (OR=1.3). These findings suggest that PA may be a significant factor in communities of this style. Strategies for social marketing along with changes to the built environment to increase PA levels are discussed.

  12. Postgraduation Activities: All Degree Levels in Pennsylvania, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donny, William F.

    The employment of graduates of all degree levels in Pennsylvania institutions of higher education was assessed in 1980, based on data for 48,162 graduates, or 54.3 percent of the graduates at all degree levels. Attention was directed to the proportions of graduates in each degree field and level: (1) employed in their fields of preparation, (2)…

  13. [Physical activity level and home blood pressure measurement: Pilot study "Acti-HTA"].

    PubMed

    Sosner, P; Ott, J; Steichen, O; Bally, S; Krummel, T; Brucker, M; Lequeux, B; Dourmap, C; Llaty, P; Le Coz, S; Baguet, S; Miranne, A; Labrunée, M; Gremeaux, V; Lopez-Sublet, M

    2015-06-01

    While physical activity (PA) is recommended for high blood pressure management, the level of PA practice of hypertensive patients remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association between the level of both PA and blood pressure of individuals consulting in 9 hypertension specialist centres. Eighty-five hypertensive patients were included (59 ± 14 years, 61% men, 12% smokers, 29% with diabetes). Following their consultation, they performed home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) over 7 days (2 in the morning+2 in the evening), they wrote in a dedicated form their daily activities to estimate the additional caloric expenditure using Acti-MET device (built from International physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]). Thus, patients completed a self-administered questionnaire "score of Dijon" (distinguishing active subjects with a score>20/30, from sedentary<10/30). Subjects with normal HBPM value (<135/85 mm Hg) (55% of them) compared to those with high HBPM were older, had a non-significant trend towards higher weekly caloric expenditure (4959 ± 5045 kcal/week vs. 4048 ± 4199 kcal/week, P=0.3755) and score of Dijon (19.44 ± 5.81 vs. 18.00 ± 4.32, P=0.2094) with a higher proportion of "active" subjects (48.9% vs. 34.2%, P=0.1773). In conclusion, our results demonstrate a "tendency" to a higher level of reported PA for subjects whose hypertension was controlled. This encourages us to continue with a study that would include more subjects, which would assess PA level using an objective method such as wearing an accelerometer sensor.

  14. Physical Activity Level of Urban Pregnant Women in Tianjin, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Dong, Shengwen; Zuo, Jianhua; Hu, Xiangqin; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the physical activity level and factors influencing physical activity among pregnant urban Chinese women. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 1056 pregnant women (18–44 years of age) in Tianjin, China. Their socio-demographic characteristics were recorded, and the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess their physical activity during pregnancy. The data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Median total energy expenditure of pregnant women in each of the three trimesters ranged from 18.50 to 21.90 metabolic equivalents of task (METs) h/day. They expended 1.76–1.85 MET h/day on moderate and vigorous activities and 0.11 MET h/day on exercise. Only 117 of the women (11.1%) met the international guideline for physical activity in pregnancy (≥150 min moderate intensity exercise per week). The most frequent reason given for not being more physically active was the fear of miscarriage. Higher education level (OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 1.59–10.62), habitual exercise before pregnancy (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.39–3.28), and husbands who exercised regularly (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.33–3.67) significantly increased the odds of meeting the guideline (p<0.001). A low pre gravid body mass index (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20–0.87) significantly decreased the odds (p<0.001). Conclusions Few urban Chinese pregnant women met the recommended physical activity guideline. They also expended little energy exercising. Future interventions should be based on the clinic environment and targeting family members as well as the subjects. All pregnant women should be targeted, not just those in high-risk groups. PMID:25286237

  15. A Survey of Physical Activity Levels of Certified Athletic Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuppett, Marchell; Latin, Richard W.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the physical activities of certified athletic trainers (ATCs), both at work and at leisure. Survey data indicated that those who worked in clinical versus school settings had the highest mean total activity score. Females scored significantly higher than males. The mean total index activity of the over-36-years-old group was…

  16. Virome analysis of antiretroviral-treated HIV patients shows no correlation between T-cell activation and anelloviruses levels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Da Costa, Antonio Charlys; Bruhn, Roberta; Deeks, Steven G.; Delwart, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background Abnormally high levels of T-cell activation can persist in HIV-infected subjects despite effective anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and has been associated with negative health outcomes. The nature of the antigenic drivers or other causes of this residual T-cell activation remain uncertain. Anelloviruses are universally acquired soon after birth, resulting in persistent viremia, and considered part of the commensal human virome. Reduced immunocompetence results in increased anellovirus levels. Objectives To test whether increased levels of anelloviruses or other viruses in plasma are associated with higher levels of persistent T-cell activation during ART. Study design Two amplification methods combined with next generation sequencing were used to detect all viruses and estimate relative anellovirus levels in plasma from 19 adults on effective ART who exhibited a wide range of T-cell activation levels. Results Nucleic acids from HBV and HCV were detected in one patient each while pegivirus A (GBV-C) was found in three patients. Anellovirus DNA was detected in all patients with some individuals carrying up to eight different genotypes. Specific anellovirus genotypes or higher level of co-infections were not detected in subjects with higher levels of T-cell activation. No association was detected between relative plasma anellovirus DNA levels and the percentage of activated CD4 or CD8 T cells. Conclusions Human anelloviruses were detected in all HIV suppressed subjects, exhibited a wide range of viremia levels, and were genetically highly diverse. The level of persistent T-cell activation was not correlated with the level of viremia or genotypes present indicating that anellovirus antigens are unlikely to be a dominant source of antigens driving chronic T-cell activation. PMID:26479202

  17. Chill activation of compatible solute transporters in Corynebacterium glutamicum at the level of transport activity.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Nuran; Krämer, Reinhard; Morbach, Susanne

    2005-07-01

    The gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum harbors four osmoregulated secondary uptake systems for compatible solutes, BetP, EctP, LcoP, and ProP. When reconstituted in proteoliposomes, BetP was shown to sense hyperosmotic conditions via the increase in luminal K(+) and to respond by instant activation. To study further putative ways of stimulus perception and signal transduction, we have investigated the responses of EctP, LcoP, and BetP, all belonging to the betaine-carnitine-choline transporter family, to chill stress at the level of activity. When fully activated by hyperosmotic stress, they showed the expected increase of activity at increasing temperature. In the absence of osmotic stress, EctP was not activated by chill and LcoP to only a very low extent, whereas BetP was significantly stimulated at low temperature. BetP was maximally activated at 10 degrees C, reaching the same transport rate as that observed under hyperosmotic conditions at this temperature. A role of cytoplasmic K(+) in chill-dependent activation of BetP was ruled out, since (i) the cytoplasmic K(+) concentration did not change significantly at lower temperatures and (ii) a mutant BetP lacking the C-terminal 25 amino acids, which was previously shown to have lost the ability to be activated by luminal K(+), was fully competent in chill sensing. When heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, BetP did not respond to chill stress. This may indicate that the membrane in which BetP is inserted plays an important role in chill activation and thus in signal transduction by BetP, different from the previously established K(+)-mediated process.

  18. An elevated level of physical activity is associated with normal lipoprotein(a) levels in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Aparicio, Daniel; Rojas, Edward; Peñaranda, Lianny; Finol, Freddy; Acosta, Luis; Mengual, Edgardo; Rojas, Joselyn; Arráiz, Nailet; Toledo, Alexandra; Colmenares, Carlos; Urribarí, Jesica; Sanchez, Wireynis; Pineda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Dalia; Faria, Judith; Añez, Roberto; Cano, Raquel; Cano, Clímaco; Sorell, Luis; Velasco, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death worldwide. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in which concentrations are genetically regulated. Contradictory results have been published about physical activity influence on Lp(a) concentration. This research aimed to determine associations between different physical activity levels and Lp(a) concentration. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was made in 1340 randomly selected subjects (males = 598; females = 712) to whom a complete clinical history, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Lp(a) level determination were made. Statistical analysis was carried out to assess qualitative variables relationship by chi2 and differences between means by one-way analysis of variance considering a P value <0.05 as statistically significant. Results are shown as absolute frequencies, percentages, and mean +/- standard deviation according to case. Physical activity levels were ordinal classified as follows: low activity with 24.3% (n = 318), moderate activity with 35.0% (n = 458), and high physical activity with 40.8% (n = 534). Lp(a) concentration in the studied sample was 26.28 +/- 12.64 (IC: 25.59-26.96) mg/dL. Lp(a) concentration according to low, moderate, and high physical activity levels were 29.22 +/- 13.74, 26.27 +/- 12.91, and 24.53 +/- 11.35 mg/dL, respectively, observing statistically significant differences between low and moderate level (P = 0.004) and low and high level (P < 0.001). A strong association (chi2 = 9.771; P = 0.002) was observed among a high physical activity level and a normal concentration of Lp(a) (less than 30 mg/dL). A lifestyle characterized by high physical activity is associated with normal Lp(a) levels.

  19. Plasma levels of M-CSF are increased in ANCA-associated vasculitides with active nephritis.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Giuseppe A; Blasi, Miriam; Sciorati, Clara; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Manfredi, Angelo A

    2015-01-01

    Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) are characterized by small vessel injury and in some cases granulomatous lesions and glomerular inflammation. The pathogenic bases of these clinical phenotypes are incompletely understood, but evidence from patients with AAV and other inflammatory diseases suggest a role for monocyte/macrophages in the perpetuation of tissue injury. Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a promoter of monocyte recruitment and macrophage proliferation, involved in mesangial cell proliferation and experimental nephritis development. Serum concentrations of M-CSF mark and herald the onset of lupus nephritis. Plasma samples from 29 patients with AAV (18 granulomatosis with polyangiitis, GPA, 6 eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, EGPA, and 5 microscopic polyangiitis, MPA) and from 10 healthy controls were collected together with clinical data. Patients with AAV had higher levels of M-CSF when compared to controls. M-CSF levels correlated positively with the BVAS, serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, while haemoglobin correlated inversely with M-CSF. Patients with active renal disease had significantly higher levels of M-CSF when compared to the other subgroups. M-CSF levels did not differ between ANCA subserotypes and were not associated with the involvement of other organs. In conclusion, M-CSF is higher in patients with AAV and active nephritis and could contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases. In addition, M-CSF could behave as a useful marker of renal involvement in AAV.

  20. Low level laser therapy modulates viability, alkaline phosphatase and matrix metalloproteinase-2 activities of osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Flávia Amadeu de; Matos, Adriana Arruda; Matsuda, Sandra Satiko; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Bagnato, Vanderley Salvador; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; Damante, Carla Andreotti; Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso de; Peres-Buzalaf, Camila

    2017-04-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been shown to stimulate bone cell metabolism but their impact on the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activity is little explored. This study evaluated the influence of LLLT at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, on MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and MMP-2 and -9 activities. To accomplish this, MC3T3-E1 cells were irradiated with a punctual application of either red (660nm; InGaAIP active medium) or infrared (780nm; GaAlAs active medium) lasers both at a potency of 20mW, energy dose of 0.08 or 0.16J, and energy density of 1.9J/cm(2) or 3.8J/cm(2), respectively. The control group received no irradiation. Cellular viability, ALP and MMP-2 and -9 activities were assessed by MTT assay, enzymatic activity and zymography, respectively, at 24, 48 and 72h. The treatment of cells with both red and infrared lasers significantly increased the cellular viability compared to the non-irradiated control group at 24 and 48h. The ALP activity was also up modulated in infrared groups at 24 and 72h, depending on the energy densities. In addition, the irradiation with red laser at the energy density of 1.9J/cm(2) promoted an enhancement of MMP-2 activity at 48 and 72h. However, no differences were observed for the MMP-9 activity. In conclusion, when used at these specific parameters, LLL modulates both preosteoblast viability and differentiation highlighted by the increased ALP and MMP-2 activities induced by irradiation.

  1. Higher daily physical activity is associated with higher osteocalcin levels in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Saydi E.; Frohnert, Brigitte I.; Thomas, William; Kelly, Aaron S.; Nathan, Brandon M.; Polgreen, Lynda E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise stimulates bone remodeling and improves insulin sensitivity (Si), even without associated weight loss. Osteocalcin (OCN), a bone-derived protein, is associated with improved Si. Purpose We examined how daily physical activity is associated with OCN and Si. Methods Physical activity was measured through questionnaires completed in Minneapolis from 2010 to 2012. A physical activity score (PAQsum) was calculated to quantify physical activity (range 1–5). OCN and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were measured by ELISA. Si was measured by the insulin modified frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test. Results The mean PAQsum value was 2.4 ± 0.8 in 47 participants (12–17.9 years old). PAQsum was positively associated with OCN (p = 0.006). Participants with PAQsum <  2 had significantly lower OCN levels compared to participants with PAQsum >  2 (p < 0.02). Obesity did not modify the association between PAQsum and OCN. There was no statistically significant association between PAQsum and Si or between OCN and Si, even after adjustment for percent body fat. Conclusions OCN is higher in more physically active individuals. More research is needed to clarify the relationship between OCN, physical activity and Si. PMID:26236583

  2. Forensic scientists' conclusions: how readable are they for non-scientist report-users?

    PubMed

    Howes, Loene M; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Kemp, Nenagh

    2013-09-10

    Scientists have an ethical responsibility to assist non-scientists to understand their findings and expert opinions before they are used as decision-aids within the criminal justice system. The communication of scientific expert opinion to non-scientist audiences (e.g., police, lawyers, and judges) through expert reports is an important but under-researched issue. Readability statistics were used to assess 111 conclusions from a proficiency test in forensic glass analysis. The conclusions were written using an average of 23 words per sentence, and approximately half of the conclusions were expressed using the active voice. At an average Flesch-Kincaid Grade level of university undergraduate (Grade 13), and Flesch Reading Ease score of difficult (42), the conclusions were written at a level suitable for people with some tertiary education in science, suggesting that the intended non-scientist readers would find them difficult to read. To further analyse the readability of conclusions, descriptive features of text were used: text structure; sentence structure; vocabulary; elaboration; and coherence and unity. Descriptive analysis supported the finding that texts were written at a level difficult for non-scientists to read. Specific aspects of conclusions that may pose difficulties for non-scientists were located. Suggestions are included to assist scientists to write conclusions with increased readability for non-scientist readers, while retaining scientific integrity. In the next stage of research, the readability of expert reports in their entirety is to be explored.

  3. Low body mass index, physical work capacity and physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Durnin, J V

    1994-11-01

    In a normal population the distribution of body mass index (BMI) is such that a certain proportion of the population is likely to be at low values without necessarily being malnourished. However, although they may have low BMIs without being malnourished, they could certainly be physiologically and physically disadvantaged. An attempt is made to dissect out the probability of work capacity and physical activity being influenced by changes occurring in the human body with diminishing BMI. The conclusion reached is therefore that before physical activity is affected, the BMI would probably have to be 17 or less, although it is possible that work capacity might be reduced before this level is reached. In any case, work requiring the use of the body mass - such as carrying loads, digging or shovelling earth or coal, pulling or cycling a rickshaw, stone splitting etc.- would impose a greater stress on people of low BMI.

  4. Daily activity level improvement with antidepressant medications predicts long-term clinical outcomes in outpatients with major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Manish K; Teer, Raymond B; Minhajuddin, Abu; Greer, Tracy L; Rush, A John; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2017-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) significantly impacts performance of both work- and nonwork-related routine daily activities. We have shown that work productivity is significantly impaired in employed MDD patients, but the extent of impairments in nonwork-related routine activities and its association with antidepressant treatment outcomes has not been established. Materials and methods Activity impairment was measured using the sixth item of Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Scale in the Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes (CO-MED) trial (n=665). Published norms were used to define activity impairment levels. The relationship between activity impairment and baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was evaluated along with changes in activity impairment and its relationship with other clinical outcomes such as symptom severity, function, and side effect burden. Remission status at 3 and 7 months was predicted based on week 6 activity impairment level. Results Higher psychosocial and cognitive impairments and greater number of comorbid medical conditions were associated with greater activity impairment at baseline. Proportion of participants with severe activity impairment declined from 47.6% at baseline to 18.7% at 3 months, while mean activity impairment decreased from 57.1 at baseline to 32.8 at 3 months. During course of treatment, levels of activity impairment correlated most strongly with psychosocial function among measures of symptom severity, function, quality of life, and side effect burden. No or minimal activity impairment at week 6 was associated with two to three times higher rates of remission at 3 and 7 months as compared to moderate or severe activity impairment levels even after controlling for remission status at week 6 and select baseline variables. Conclusion Depressed patients have high levels of nonwork-related activity impairment at baseline that improves significantly with treatment and

  5. Postgraduation Activities: All Degree Levels in Pennsylvania, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donny, William F.

    The employment of graduates of all degree levels in Pennsylvania institutions of higher education in 1979 was examined, based on data for 44,875 graduates or 50.6 percent of all higher education graduates. Research was designed to determine what proportion of graduates in each degree field and degree level were employed in their fields of…

  6. Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Adolescents: Race, Season, Adiposity, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanbin; Pollock, Norman; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger Susanne; Gutin, Bernard; Lan, Ling; Chen, Tai C; Keeton, Daniel; Petty, Karen; Holick, Michael F; Zhu, Haidong

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to characterize the vitamin D status of black and white adolescents residing in the southeastern United States (latitude: 33°N) and to investigate relationships with adiposity. Methods Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy for 559 adolescents 14 to 18 years of age (45% black and 49% female). Fat tissues, physical activity, and cardiovascular fitness also were measured. Results The overall prevalences of vitamin D insufficiency (<75nmol/L) and deficiency (≤50 nmol/L) were 56.4% and 28.8%, respectively. Black versus white subjects had significantly lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in every season (winter, 35.9±2.5 vs 77.4±2.7 nmol/L; spring, 46.4±3.5 vs 101.3±3.5 nmol/L; summer, 50.7±4.0 vs 104.3±4.0 nmol/L; autumn, 54.4± 4.0 vs 96.8±2.7 nmol/L). With adjustment for age, gender, race, season, height, and sexual maturation, there were significant inverse correlations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and all adiposity measurements, including BMI percentile (P=.02), waist circumference (P<.01), total fat mass (P<.01), percentage of body fat (P <.01), visceral adipose tissue (P <.015), and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (P<.039). There were significant positive associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and vigorous physical activity (P <.01) and cardiovascular fitness (P =.025). Conclusions Low vitamin D status is prevalent among adolescents living in a year-round sunny climate, particularly among black youths. The relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, adiposity, physical activity, and fitness seem to be present in adolescence. PMID:20439594

  7. Distant Interactions and Their Effects on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Background: It has been observed that physical activity patterns of health-related behavior are established in childhood and may continue into adulthood. Recent findings showing a relationship between the onset of chronic diseases and sedentary lifestyles support the importance of examining Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA). One…

  8. Physical activity levels in three Brazilian birth cohorts as assessed with raw triaxial wrist accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Inácio CM; van Hees, Vincent T; Ramires, Virgílio V; Knuth, Alan G; Bielemann, Renata M; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Hallal, Pedro C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Data on objectively measured physical activity are lacking in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to describe objectively measured overall physical activity and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in individuals from the Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohorts, according to weight status, socioeconomic status (SES) and sex. Methods: All children born in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in hospitals in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, constitute the sampling frame; of these 99% agreed to participate. The most recent follow-ups were conducted between 2010 and 2013. In total, 8974 individuals provided valid data derived from raw triaxial wrist accelerometry. The average acceleration is presented in milli-g (1 mg = 0.001g), and time (min/d) spent in MVPA (>100 mg) is presented in 5- and 10-min bouts. Results: Mean acceleration in the 1982 (mean age 30.2 years), 1993 (mean age 18.4 years) and 2004 (mean age 6.7 years) cohorts was 35 mg, 39 mg and 60 mg, respectively. Time spent in MVPA was 26 [95% confidence interval (CI) 25; 27], 43 (95% CI 42; 44) and 45 (95% CI 43; 46) min/d in the three cohorts, respectively, using 10-min bouts. Mean MVPA was on average 42% higher when using 5-min bouts. Males were more active than females and physical activity was inversely associated with age of the cohort and SES. Normal-weight individuals were more active than underweight, overweight and obese participants. Conclusions: Overall physical activity and time spent in MVPA differed by cohort (age), sex, weight status and SES. Higher levels of activity in low SES groups may be explained by incidental physical activity. PMID:25361583

  9. Cooperative autoinhibition and multi-level activation mechanisms of calcineurin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng-Jie; Wang, Jue; Ma, Lei; Lu, Chang; Wang, Jie; Wu, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin (CN), a heterodimer composed of a catalytic subunit A and an essential regulatory subunit B, plays critical functions in various cellular processes such as cardiac hypertrophy and T cell activation. It is the target of the most widely used immunosuppressants for transplantation, tacrolimus (FK506) and cyclosporin A. However, the structure of a large part of the CNA regulatory region remains to be determined, and there has been considerable debate concerning the regulation of CN activity. Here, we report the crystal structure of full-length CN (β isoform), which revealed a novel autoinhibitory segment (AIS) in addition to the well-known autoinhibitory domain (AID). The AIS nestles in a hydrophobic intersubunit groove, which overlaps the recognition site for substrates and immunosuppressant-immunophilin complexes. Indeed, disruption of this AIS interaction results in partial stimulation of CN activity. More importantly, our biochemical studies demonstrate that calmodulin does not remove AID from the active site, but only regulates the orientation of AID with respect to the catalytic core, causing incomplete activation of CN. Our findings challenge the current model for CN activation, and provide a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of CN activity regulation. PMID:26794871

  10. delta-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid concentration and zinc protoporphyrin level among people with low level of lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Zhao, Huan-hu; Chen, Jian-wei; Hao, Qiao-ling; Gu, Kang-ding; Zhu, Ye-xiang; Zhou, Yi-kai; Ye, Lin-xiang

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALAU) level and blood zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentration to low blood lead (PbB) levels, these biomarkers were determined for all subjects enrolled from a rural area of southeast China where people had low levels of exposure to lead. The mean values of PbB, ALAD, ALAU and ZPP were 67.11 microg/L (SD: 1.654, range: 10.90-514.04), 339.66 nmol ml(-1)h(-1) (1.419, 78.33-793.13), 20.64 microg/L (1.603, 2.00-326.00), and 0.14 micromol/L (3.437, 0.01-2.26), respectively. ALAD was inversely associated with low levels of PbB. ZPP was inversely related to low levels of PbB but positively related to relatively higher levels of PbB. Alcohol drinking contributed to low ALAD in men. Women had higher ZPP than men. ALAU had no significant association with PbB. In conclusion, ALAD possibly has a non-linear relation with low to moderate levels of PbB. At moderate levels of PbB, ZPP increases with increasing levels of PbB. ALAU is not suitable as an indicator for low levels of lead exposure.

  11. Playground Designs to Increase Physical Activity Levels during School Recess: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escalante, Yolanda; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Backx, Karianne; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    School recess provides a major opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. Various studies have described strategies to increase levels of physical activity. The purpose of this systematic review is therefore to examine the interventions proposed as forms of increasing children's physical activity levels during recess. A…

  12. Level of Physical Activity and In-Hospital Course of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Juliana de Goes; Santos, Marcos Antonio Almeida; Barreto Filho, José Augusto Soares; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes; de Melo, Enaldo Vieira; de Oliveira, Norma Alves; Faro, Gustavo Baptista de Almeida; Sousa, Antônio Carlos Sobral

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the modern world. A sedentary lifestyle, present in 85% of the Brazilian population, is considered a risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease. However, the correlation of a sedentary lifestyle with cardiovascular events (CVE) during hospitalization for ACS is not well established. Objective To evaluate the association between physical activity level, assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), with in-hospital prognosis in patients with ACS. Methods Observational, cross-sectional, and analytical study with 215 subjects with a diagnosis of ACS consecutively admitted to a referral hospital for cardiac patients between July 2009 and February 2011. All volunteers answered the short version of the IPAQ and were observed for the occurrence of CVE during hospitalization with a standardized assessment conducted by the researcher and corroborated by data from medical records. Results The patients were admitted with diagnoses of unstable angina (34.4%), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) without ST elevation (41.4%), and AMI with ST elevation (24.2%). According to the level of physical activity, the patients were classified as non-active (56.3%) and active (43.7%). A CVE occurred in 35.3% of the cohort. The occurrence of in-hospital complications was associated with the length of hospital stay (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15) and physical inactivity (OR = 2.54), and was independent of age, systolic blood pressure, and prior congestive heart failure. Conclusion A physically active lifestyle reduces the risk of CVE during hospitalization in patients with ACS. PMID:26690692

  13. Relation between self-reported physical activity level, fitness, and cardiometabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Minder, Camille Michael; Shaya, Gabriel E; Michos, Erin D; Keenan, Tanya E; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram; Carvalho, Jose A M; Conceição, Raquel D; Santos, Raul D; Blaha, Michael J

    2014-02-15

    Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with improved cardiovascular health and reduced all-cause mortality. The relation between self-reported physical activity, objective physical fitness, and the association of each with cardiometabolic risk has not been fully described. We studied 2,800 healthy Brazilian subjects referred for an employer-sponsored health screening. Physical activity level was determined as "low," "moderate," or "high" with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: Short Form (IPAQ-SF). Fitness was measured as METs achieved on a maximal, symptom-limited, treadmill stress test. Using multivariate linear regression analysis, we calculated age, gender, and smoking-adjusted correlation coefficients among IPAQ-SF, fitness, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Mean age of study participants was 43 ± 9 years; 81% were men, and 43% were highly active. Mean METs achieved was 12 ± 2. IPAQ-SF category and fitness were moderately correlated (r = 0.377). Compared with IPAQ-SF category, fitness was better correlated with cardiometabolic risk factors including anthropomorphic measurements, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, dyslipidemia, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hepatic steatosis (all p <0.01). Among these, anthropomorphic measurements, blood pressure, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hepatic steatosis had the largest discrepancies in correlation, whereas lipid factors had the least discrepant correlation. When IPAQ-SF and fitness were discordant, poor fitness drove associations with elevated cardiometabolic risk. In conclusion, self-reported physical activity level and directly measured fitness are moderately correlated, and the latter is more strongly associated with a protective cardiovascular risk profile.

  14. Serum levels of lipids, lipoproteins and paraoxonase activity in pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Demir, B; Demir, S; Atamer, Y; Guven, S; Atamer, A; Kocyigit, Y; Hekimoglu, A; Toprak, G

    2011-01-01

    Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and the oxidation of lipoproteins were investigated in 35 women with pre-eclampsia and in 35 healthy control women with normal pregnancies. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and lipoprotein (a) (Lp[a]), and PON1 activity were assessed. There were no significant between-group differences in subject age, gestational age at diagnosis of pre-eclampsia, BMI, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and ApoB levels. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures and serum Lp(a) were significantly higher in subjects with pre-eclampsia than in controls. Mean serum HDL, ApoA1 and PON1 activity were significantly lower in subjects with pre-eclampsia compared with controls. In conclusion, lipids and oxidized lipoproteins may play important roles in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.

  15. In vitro antibacterial activity of seven Indian spices against high level gentamicin resistant strains of enterococci

    PubMed Central

    Bipin, Chapagain; Chitra, Pai (Bhat); Minakshi, Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of seven ethanolic extracts of spices against high level gentamicin resistant (HLGR) enterococci isolated from human clinical samples. Material and methods Two hundred and fifteen enterococcal strains were isolated from clinical samples. High level gentamicin resistance in ethanolic extracts of cumin (Cuminum cyminum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) and black pepper (Piper nigrum) were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The antibacterial effect of the extracts was studied using the well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was carried out by χ2 test using SPSS 17 software. Results Only cinnamon and ginger were found to have activity against all the isolates, whereas cumin and cloves had a variable effect on the strains. Fenugreek, black pepper and cardamom did not show any effect on the isolates. The zone diameter of inhibition obtained for cinnamon, ginger, cloves and cumin was in the range 31–34 mm, 27–30 mm, 25–26 mm and 19–20 mm respectively. Conclusions Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Z. officinale showed the maximum antibacterial activity against the enterococcal isolates followed by S. aromaticum and C. cyminum. The findings of the study show that spices used in the study can contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents for inclusion in the anti-enterococcal treatment regimen. PMID:26322099

  16. Playing outdoor and practising sport: A study of physical activity levels in Portuguese children.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paula; Santos, Maria Paula

    2017-03-01

    In outdoor activities, it seems reasonable that the longer children spend in spontaneous physical activity (PA), the higher the probability of being active. Indeed, the time spent outdoor has been identified as a variable consistently associated with the children's PA. Outdoor playing, such as the organized sports practice, appears associated with healthier lifestyle standards. All the recommendations mention the importance of increasing daily PA practice in children and teenagers, but few studies highlight the relationship between outdoor play and the recommended PA levels. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between the frequency of outdoor play, the frequency of the organized sports practice, and the compliance of the recommendations for PA practice in children in the inner city area of Porto. The sample of this study is composed of 422 individuals (mean age of 11.6 years). Two hundred and twenty-five of them were girls and 197 were boys from the sixth grade (elementary schools located in the inner city area of Porto). PA was objectively evaluated using accelerometers. Participants reported frequency of participation in different PA contexts, such as sports practice and outdoor play. The results show a predictor effect of participating in sports three or more times per week on compliance of PA guidelines. In conclusion, organized sports practice seems more effective than outdoor play to reach the recommended levels of PA in children.

  17. Physical activity levels during phase IV cardiac rehabilitation in a group of male myocardial infarction patients

    PubMed Central

    Woolf-May, K; Bird, S; MacIntyre, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine physical activity levels during phase IV cardiac rehabilitation in 31 male myocardial infarction patients (median age 62, range 53–77 years). Methods: Patients recorded daily physical activity over 16 weeks in a diary. Diaries were analysed for total general physical activity (TGPA), leisure time physical activity (LTPA), and "active for life" exercise classes (AFL). Pre- and post-observation period (OP) subjects underwent a 10 m shuttle walking test (SWT) to determine changes in aerobic fitness. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) determined exercise intensity. Estimated gross energy expenditure (EEE) was determined by a regression equation between RPE and Vo2 (l min–1) during SWT. A total of 97% of subjects were on lipid lowering medication. Results: There were no correlations between Vo2 (l min–1) and body mass, therefore kcal min–1 indicated activity intensity. There were no significant changes in physical activity patterns or in aerobic fitness. Estimated total LTPA (median 1376, range 128–3380 kcal week–1) was less than that recommended to improve aerobic fitness and/or slow progression of coronary artery disease. Sixteen subjects attended a median of 29 (range 1–46) AFL during LTPA; one way ANOVA showed these subjects worked at greater EEE (AFL, n = 16, 6.6 (standard deviation 1.4) v no-AFL, n = 15, 5.1 (1.8) EEE kcal min–1, p = 0.017). Conclusion: Physical activity was stable, but patients' EEE appeared insufficient to improve aerobic fitness or slow progression of coronary artery disease. It was suggested that the promotion of LTPA and the availability of AFL classes should be reconsidered. PMID:15728680

  18. Association between Municipal Health Promotion Volunteers’ Health Literacy and Their Level of Outreach Activities in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Atsuko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2016-01-01

    volunteers were associated with the three core health promotion activities. In bivariate analyses, active participation in the core activities was more prevalent among older volunteers (p<0.001 for all three activities). Self-rated health condition was associated with both outreach to family (p = 0.018) and community (p = 0.046). Years of experience as volunteer and perception of being recognized in the community also had statistically significant association with outreach to the community (p<0.001). In multiple logistic regression, those with higher level of health literacy were more likely than others to actively engage in outreach to family (OR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.80; OR = 1.76, 95%CI 1.04 to 3.00 for medium and high, respectively) and outreach to community (OR = 2.26, 95%CI 1.34 to 3.83; OR = 2.61 95%CI 1.49 to 4.58 for medium and high, respectively). Perception of being recognized in the community also had a statistically significant and positive impact on outreach to the community (OR = 1.52, 95%CI 1.17 to 1.99). Conclusions Volunteers with higher health literacy were more likely to actively engage in outreach to family and outreach to community. Providing educational programs to improve volunteers’ health literacy may facilitate their work. PMID:27736942

  19. Online Activity Levels Are Related to Caffeine Dependency.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James G; Landhuis, C Erik; Shepherd, Daniel; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-05-01

    Online activity could serve in the future as behavioral markers of emotional states for computer systems (i.e., affective computing). Hence, this study considered relationships between self-reported stimulant use and online study patterns. Sixty-two undergraduate psychology students estimated their daily caffeine use, and this was related to study patterns as tracked by their use of a Learning Management System (Blackboard). Caffeine dependency was associated with less time spent online, lower rates of file access, and fewer online activities completed. Reduced breadth or depth of processing during work/study could be used as a behavioral marker of stimulant use.

  20. Mid-level Features Improve Recognition of Interactive Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-14

    Recognizing action as clouds of space-time interest points. In CVPR, 2009. [5] W. Brendel, A. Fern , and S. Todorovic. Probabilistic event logic for interval...context. In CVPR, 2009. [27] R. Messing, C. Pal, and H. Kautz. Activity recognition using the velocity histories of tracked keypoints. In ICCV, 2009

  1. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  2. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mental health services for children with disabilities; (iv) To improve the use of technology in the classroom by children with disabilities to enhance learning; (v) To support the use of technology, including... training; (ii) To support paperwork reduction activities, including expanding the use of technology in...

  3. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mental health services for children with disabilities; (iv) To improve the use of technology in the classroom by children with disabilities to enhance learning; (v) To support the use of technology, including... training; (ii) To support paperwork reduction activities, including expanding the use of technology in...

  4. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mental health services for children with disabilities; (iv) To improve the use of technology in the classroom by children with disabilities to enhance learning; (v) To support the use of technology, including... training; (ii) To support paperwork reduction activities, including expanding the use of technology in...

  5. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mental health services for children with disabilities; (iv) To improve the use of technology in the classroom by children with disabilities to enhance learning; (v) To support the use of technology, including... training; (ii) To support paperwork reduction activities, including expanding the use of technology in...

  6. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... certify to the Secretary that the arrangements to establish responsibility for services pursuant to... transition of students with disabilities to postsecondary activities; (vii) To assist LEAs in meeting... State Medicaid program under Title XIX of the Social Security Act. (9) Funds reserved under paragraph...

  7. Motoneuron and sensory neuron plasticity to varying neuromuscular activity levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihara, Akihiko; Roy, Roland R.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2002-01-01

    The size and phenotypic properties of the neural and muscular elements of the neuromuscular unit are matched under normal conditions. When subjected to chronic decreases or increases in neuromuscular activity, however, the adaptations in these properties are much more limited in the neural compared with the muscular elements.

  8. Low Levels of Physical Activity Increase Metabolic Responsiveness to Cold in a Rat (Rattus fuscipes)

    PubMed Central

    Seebacher, Frank; Glanville, Elsa J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Physical activity modulates expression of metabolic genes and may therefore be a prerequisite for metabolic responses to environmental stimuli. However, the extent to which exercise interacts with environmental conditions to modulate metabolism is unresolved. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that even low levels of physical activity are beneficial by improving metabolic responsiveness to temperatures below the thermal neutral zone, thereby increasing the capacity for substrate oxidation and energy expenditure. Methodology/Principal Findings We used wild rats (Rattus fuscipes) to avoid potential effects of breeding on physiological phenotypes. Exercise acclimation (for 30 min/day on 5 days/week for 30 days at 60% of maximal performance) at 22°C increased mRNA concentrations of PGC1α, PPARδ, and NRF-1 in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue compared to sedentary animals. Lowering ambient temperature to 12°C caused further increases in relative expression of NRF-1 in skeletal muscle, and of PPARδ of brown adipose tissue. Surprisingly, relative expression of UCP1 increased only when both exercise and cold stimuli were present. Importantly, in sedentary animals cold acclimation (12°C) alone did not change any of the above variables. Similarly, cold alone did not increase maximum capacity for substrate oxidation in mitochondria (cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase activities) of either muscle or brown adipose tissue. Animals that exercised regularly had higher exercise induced metabolic rates in colder environments than sedentary rats, and temperature induced metabolic scope was greater in exercised rats. Conclusions/Significance Physical activity is a necessary prerequisite for the expression of transcriptional regulators that influence a broad range of physiological functions from energy metabolism to cardiovascular function and nutrient uptake. A sedentary lifestyle leads to decreased daily energy expenditure because of a lack of direct use

  9. Brain Injury Alters Ectonucleotidase Activities and Adenine Nucleotide Levels in Rat Serum

    PubMed Central

    Laketa, Danijela; Savić, Jasmina; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Lavrnja, Irena; Vasić, Vesna; Stojiljković, Mirjana; Nedeljković, Nadežda

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Cortical stab injury (CSI) induces changes in the activity, expression and cellular distribution of specific ectonucleotidases at the injury site. Also, several experimentally induced neuropathologies are associated with changes in soluble ectonucleotidase activities in the plasma and serum, whilst various insults to the brain alter purine compounds levels in cerebrospinal fluid, but also in serum, indicating that insults to the brain may induce alterations in nucleotides release and rate of their hydrolysis in the vascular system. Since adenine nucleotides and adenosine regulate diverse cellular functions in the vascular system, including vascular tone, platelet aggregation and inflammatory responses of lymphocytes and macrophages, alterations of ectonucleotidase activities in the vascular system may be relevant for the clinical outcome of the primary insult. Methods We explored ectonucleotidase activities using specific enzyme assays and determined adenine nucleotides concentrations by the UPLC method in the rat serum after cortical stab injury. Results At 4-h post-injury, ATP and AMP hydrolysis increased by about 60% and 40%, respectively, while phosphodiesterase activity remained unchanged. Also, at 4-h post-injury a marked decrease in ATP concentration and more than 2-fold increase in AMP concentration were recorded. Conclusions CSI induces rapid up-regulation of nucleotide catabolizing soluble ectonucleotidases in rat serum, which leads to the observed shift in serum nucleotide levels. The results obtained imply that ectonucleotidases and adenine nucleotides participate in the communication between the brain and the vascular system in physiological and pathological conditions and thereby may be involved in the development of various human neuropathologies.

  10. Ecological concerns following Superstorm Sandy: stressor level and recreational activity levels affect perceptions of ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy, including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, central Jersey), stressor level (power outages, high winds, flooding) and recreational rates. “Wildlife” and “fish” were the ecological concerns mentioned most often, while beaches and dunes were most often mentioned for environmental concerns. Television, radio, and web/internet were sources trusted for ecological information. The data indicate 1) stressor level was a better predictor of ratings of ecological services than geographical location, but days engaged in recreation contributed the most to variations in ratings, 2) ecological services were rated the highest by respondents with the highest stressor levels, and by those from the coast, compared to others, 3) Caucasians rated ecological services higher than all others, and 4) recreational rates were highest for coastal respondents, and ratings for ecological services increased with recreational rates. Only 20 % of respondents listed specific ecological services as one of their three most important environmental concerns. These data will be useful for increasing preparedness, enhancing educational strategies for shore protection, and providing managers and public policy makers with data essential to developing resiliency strategies. PMID:27011729

  11. Correlation between High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL) Level and Aerobic Activity Level.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    over a 40 day period for HDtJICholesteroll and Total Choleis- added with the "reverse" technique, This technique is only poai- tarot . The results are...Stand- tarot and Total Cholestero levels, it is beat that eet laoatr ard and a control Serum were each analyzed 10 times giving the * determinle its

  12. Ecological concerns following Superstorm Sandy: stressor level and recreational activity levels affect perceptions of ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2015-06-01

    Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy, including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, central Jersey), stressor level (power outages, high winds, flooding) and recreational rates. "Wildlife" and "fish" were the ecological concerns mentioned most often, while beaches and dunes were most often mentioned for environmental concerns. Television, radio, and web/internet were sources trusted for ecological information. The data indicate 1) stressor level was a better predictor of ratings of ecological services than geographical location, but days engaged in recreation contributed the most to variations in ratings, 2) ecological services were rated the highest by respondents with the highest stressor levels, and by those from the coast, compared to others, 3) Caucasians rated ecological services higher than all others, and 4) recreational rates were highest for coastal respondents, and ratings for ecological services increased with recreational rates. Only 20 % of respondents listed specific ecological services as one of their three most important environmental concerns. These data will be useful for increasing preparedness, enhancing educational strategies for shore protection, and providing managers and public policy makers with data essential to developing resiliency strategies.

  13. The effect of bilateral trainings on upper extremities muscle activation on level of motor function in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kyung Min; Jung, Jinhwa; Shim, Sunhwa

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted in order to compare muscle activation level on the affected and unaffected limb according to the recovery level of upper limb between bilateral activity with hands clasped and bilateral activity with pilates ring. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty inpatient who have had a stroke were recruited. Subjects were divided into two groups by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Motor Function score of moderately recovered group and well recovered group. The muscles activation of upper extremity and Co-Contraction Ratio (CCR) were analyzed. [Results] In the muscles activation of the well group, trapezius, anterior deltoid, and triceps muscles of affected side and biceps muscles of both sides were significantly higher when activity with pilates ring than activity with hands clasped. CCR of both side in the well group was significantly decreased during activity with pilates ring and in the moderate group, CCR of affected side was significantly decreased during activity with pilates ring. [Conclusion] Bilateral activity with a pilates ring is more effective than activity with hands clasped for the facilitation of muscle activation and coordination in stroke patients. PMID:28174466

  14. Salivary Platelet Activating Factor Levels in Periodontal Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    multifarious and is activated through multiple mediators. The inflammatory process can be subdivided into acute and chronic inflammation. Stedman’s Medical...Just recently, inflammed human gingival tissues were analyzed and found to contain PAF (Noguchi, et al, 1989). Thus, multiple components of the...17.9% release of peroxidase, 20.6% release of P-glucuronidase, 22.4% release of alkaline phosphatase and 28.8% release of aryl sulfatase . At higher

  15. Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Emeville, Elise; Giton, Frank; Giusti, Arnaud; Oliva, Alejandro; Fiet, Jean; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Blanchet, Pascal; Multigner, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals) on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. Objective We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153, and chlordecone. Methods We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. Results DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. Conclusions These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether this response pattern

  16. Circadian Variation of Plasminogen-Activator-Inhibitor-1 Levels in Children with Meningococcal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Boeddha, Navin P.; Driessen, Gertjan J.; Cnossen, Marjon H.; Hazelzet, Jan A.; Emonts, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study whether the circadian variation of plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, with high morning levels, is associated with poor outcome of children with meningococcal sepsis presenting in the morning hours. Design Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected clinical and laboratory data. Setting Single center study at Erasmus MC-Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Subjects 184 patients aged 3 weeks to 18 years with meningococcal sepsis. In 36 of these children, PAI-1 levels at admission to the PICU were measured in plasma by ELISA. Interventions None. Measurements and main results Circadian variation was studied by dividing one day in blocks of 6 hours. Patients admitted between 6:00 am and 12:00 am had increased illness severity scores and higher PAI-1 levels (n = 9, median 6912 ng/mL, IQR 5808–15600) compared to patients admitted at night (P = 0.019, n = 9, median 3546 ng/mL, IQR 1668–6118) or in the afternoon (P = 0.007, n = 7, median 4224 ng/mL, IQR 1804–5790). In 184 patients, analysis of circadian variation in relation to outcome showed more deaths, amputations and need for skin grafts in patients admitted to the PICU between 6:00 am and 12:00 am than patients admitted during the rest of the day (P = 0.009). Conclusions Circadian variation of PAI-1 levels is present in children with meningococcal sepsis and is associated with illness severity, with a peak level in the morning. Whether circadian variation is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality in meningococcal sepsis needs to be explored in future studies. PMID:27893784

  17. Access to environmental resources and physical activity levels of adults in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Geller, KS; Nigg, CR; Ollberding, NJ; Motl, RW; Horwath, C; Dishman, RK

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Examine associations between physical activity (PA) and spatial accessibility to environmental PA resources in Hawaii. Methods Metabolic equivalents (METs) of mild, moderate, and strenuous PA were compared for accessibility to environmental PA resources within a population-based sample of Hawaiian adults (n=381). Multiple linear regression estimated differences in PA levels for residing further from a PA resource or residing in an area with a greater number of resources. Results No associations were found in the total sample. Analyses within subsamples stratified by ethnicity revealed that greater spatial accessibility to a PA resource was positively associated with strenuous PA among Caucasians (p=0.04), but negatively associated with moderate PA among Native Hawaiians (p=0.00). Conclusion The lack of association in the total sample may be a consequence of Hawaii’s unique environment. Results of stratified sample analyses are unique, providing groundwork for future examinations within parallel environments and among similar ethnic groups. PMID:22500037

  18. Continuum Level Results from Particle Simulations of Active Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmotte, Blaise; Climent, Eric; Plouraboue, Franck; Keaveny, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Accurately simulating active suspensions on the lab scale is a technical challenge. It requires considering large numbers of interacting swimmers with well described hydrodynamics in order to obtain representative and reliable statistics of suspension properties. We have developed a computationally scalable model based on an extension of the Force Coupling Method (FCM) to active particles. This tool can handle the many-body hydrodynamic interactions between O (105) swimmers while also accounting for finite-size effects, steady or time-dependent strokes, or variable swimmer aspect ratio. Results from our simulations of steady-stroke microswimmer suspensions coincide with those given by continuum models, but, in certain cases, we observe collective dynamics that these models do not predict. We provide robust statistics of resulting distributions and accurately characterize the growth rates of these instabilities. In addition, we explore the effect of the time-dependent stroke on the suspension properties, comparing with those from the steady-stroke simulations. Authors acknowledge the ANR project Motimo for funding and the Calmip computing centre for technical support.

  19. Objectively-Measured Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education among Homeschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Sarah; Pope, Zachary; Zeng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Despite a growing population of homeschool children in the United States, little is known regarding their physical activity (PA) levels. Without access to physical education, homeschool children may engage in inadequate PA levels. The purpose of this study was to objectively examine the activity levels of homeschool students participating in a…

  20. Physical activity level in Achilles tendinosis is associated with blood levels of pain-related factors: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bagge, J; Gaida, J E; Danielson, P; Alfredson, H; Forsgren, S

    2011-12-01

    Physical activity affects the pain symptoms for Achilles tendinosis patients. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and their receptors have been detected in human Achilles tendon. This pilot study aimed to compare serum BDNF and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNFRI) levels in Achilles tendinosis patients and healthy controls and to examine the influence of physical activity, and BMI and gender, on these levels. Physical activity was measured with a validated questionnaire, total physical activity being the parameter analyzed. Physical activity was strongly correlated with BDNF among tendinosis women [Spearman's rho (ρ)=0.90, P<0.01] but not among control women (ρ=-0.08, P=0.83), or among tendinosis and control men. Physical activity was significantly correlated with sTNFRI in the entire tendinosis group and among tendinosis men (ρ=0.65, P=0.01), but not in the entire control group or among control men (ρ=0.04, P=0.91). Thus, the physical activity pattern is related to the TNF and BDNF systems for tendinosis patients but not controls, the relationship being gender dependent. This is new information concerning the relationship between physical activity and Achilles tendinosis, which may be related to pain for the patients. This aspect should be further evaluated using larger patient materials.

  1. Systems level-based RNAi screening by high content analysis identifies UBR5 as a regulator of estrogen receptor-α protein levels and activity.

    PubMed

    Bolt, M J; Stossi, F; Callison, A M; Mancini, M G; Dandekar, R; Mancini, M A

    2015-01-08

    Estrogen receptor-α (ERα) is a central transcription factor that regulates mammary gland physiology and a key driver in breast cancer. In the present study, we aimed to identify novel modulators of ERα-mediated transcriptional regulation via a custom-built siRNA library screen. This screen was directed against a variety of coregulators, transcription modifiers, signaling molecules and DNA damage response proteins. By utilizing a microscopy-based, multi-end point, estrogen responsive biosensor cell line platform, the primary screen identified a wide range of factors that altered ERα protein levels, chromatin remodeling and mRNA output. We then focused on UBR5, a ubiquitin ligase and known oncogene that modulates ERα protein levels and transcriptional output. Finally, we demonstrated that UBR5 also affects endogenous ERα target genes and E2-mediated cell proliferation in breast cancer cells. In conclusion, our multi-end point RNAi screen identified novel modulators of ERα levels and activity, and provided a robust systems level view of factors involved in mechanisms of nuclear receptor action and pathophysiology. Utilizing a high throughput RNAi screening approach we identified UBR5, a protein commonly amplified in breast cancer, as a novel regulator of ERα protein levels and transcriptional activity.

  2. Active beam shaping in multi-levels amplification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tianzhuo; Fan, Zhongwei; Qiu, Jisi; Tang, Xiongxin; Lin, Weiran; Zhang, Hongbo

    2016-09-01

    Using Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator (LC-SLM) as a beam shaping device to improve beam quality in high-gain amplification system is reported. 1.6 nJ injected small-size signal Gaussian beam can be amplified to 5 J by 4 stages amplification, and finally output beam is a 50mm×50mm square spot with flat-top intensity distribution. In the amplification system we designed, LC-SLM is placed after the second level of amplifier, where the signal laser energy is about 20mJ, and beam size is 10mm×10mm. The structure of Fourier image transfer is also implemented in this amplifications system to be capable of maintaining high-quality image transmission in the amplification process. The LC-SLM as an object, is imaged by beam expand lenses and spatial filters lenses in the amplifications system to get good quality of imaging. By catching output spot and making a feed-back, transmission efficiency of each pixel on LC-SLM is modulated, high energy density area can be decreased to realize flat-top intensity distribution. A spot modulation function is defined as, using the maximum grey value on spot area divided by the average grey value of the image after background correction. By this, amplified laser obtains the spot modulation of 1.24 on central 90% area of the spot. Furthermore, un-uniform distribution on the full spot, soften effects of spot edge, and output beam shape can also be optimized by the LC-SLM shaping scheme in the amplification system.

  3. Conclusions from the Image Analysis of the VSOP Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, R.; Fomalont, E.; Wiik, K.

    2009-08-01

    In February 1997, the Japanese radio astronomy satellite HALCA was launched to provide the space-bourne element for the VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP) mission. A significant fraction of the mission time was to be dedicated to the VSOP Survey of bright compact Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) at 5 GHz, which was lead by ISAS. The VSOP Survey Sources are an unbiased dataset of 294 targets, of which 82% were successfully observed. These are now undergoing statistical analysis to tease out the characteristics of typical AGN sources. We present here the summary of the imaging and conclusions we have reached.

  4. Serum Vitamin D Level and Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity: Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jin; Liu, Jian; Davies, Michael L.; Chen, Weiqian

    2016-01-01

    Background The evidence from epidemiological studies concerning the relationship between serum vitamin D concentrations and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is inconsistent. This meta-analysis is aimed at determining the magnitude of the correlation between this common autoimmune disease and vitamin D, an important nutrient known to dampen adaptive immune responses. Methods Through multiple search strategies, relevant literature was identified and evaluated for quality before May 16 2015. Data extracted from eligible studies was synthesized to calculate pooled correlation coefficient (r), mean difference (MD) and odds ratio (OR). The Venice criteria were applied to assess the credibility of the evidence for each statistically significant association. Results A total of 24 reports involving 3489 patients were selected for analysis. RA patients had lower vitamin D levels than healthy controls (MD:-16.52 nmol/L, 95% confidence intervals [CI]:-18.85 to -14.19 nmol/L). There existed a negative relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level and disease activity index, e.g. 25OHD vs. Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28): r = -0.13, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.09; 25OHD vs. C-reactive protein: r = -0.12, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.00. Additionally, latitude-stratified subgroup analysis yielded a relatively stronger negative correlation between 25OHD and DAS28 in low-latitude areas. This inverse relationship also appeared more significant in developing countries than in developed countries. No publication bias was detected. Conclusion RA patients had lower vitamin D values than healthy controls. There was a negative association between serum vitamin D and RA disease activity. However, more strictly controlled studies are needed to validate these findings. PMID:26751969

  5. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a stronger indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors and risk prediction than self-reported physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Gray, Benjamin J; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Williams, Sally P; Davies, Christine A; Turner, Daniel; Bracken, Richard M

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the relationships of self-reported physical activity levels and cardiorespiratory fitness in 81 males to assess which measurement is the greatest indicator of cardiometabolic risk. Physical activity levels were determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed using the Chester Step Test. Cardiovascular disease risk was estimated using the QRISK2, Framingham Lipids, Framingham body mass index and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 equations, and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk calculated using QDiabetes, Leicester Risk Assessment, Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and Cambridge Risk Score models. Categorising employees by cardiorespiratory fitness categories ('Excellent/Good' vs 'Average/Below Average') identified more differences in cardiometabolic risk factor (body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, HbA(1c)) scores than physical activity (waist circumference only). Cardiorespiratory fitness levels also demonstrated differences in all four type 2 diabetes mellitus risk prediction models and both the QRISK2 and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 cardiovascular disease equations. Furthermore, significant negative correlations (p < 0.001) were observed between individual cardiorespiratory fitness values and estimated risk in all prediction models. In conclusion, from this preliminary observational study, cardiorespiratory fitness levels reveal a greater number of associations with markers of cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to physical activity determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool.

  6. Physical activity level and related factors in adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    van Eck, Mirjam; Dallmeijer, Annet J; Beckerman, Heleen; van den Hoven, Petronella A M; Voorman, Jeanine M; Becher, Jules G

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity level of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and to investigate the associated factors. The physical activity level was measured by means of a questionnaire filled in by the parents of 72 adolescents with CP (12-16 years of age) and expressed in METs. Older age, female gender, and hip dysplasia were significantly associated with a lower level of physical activity. Eighty-nine percent were not physically active enough according to the Dutch norm. Physical activity needs to be promoted, especially among older adolescents with CP (age 14-16 years), girls, and adolescents with hip dysplasia.

  7. The Devon Active Villages Evaluation (DAVE) trial of a community-level physical activity intervention in rural south-west England: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    ineffectiveness of the intervention may have been due to its low penetration—only 16% of intervention mode participants reported awareness of the intervention and just 4% reported participating in intervention events. Conclusions A community-level physical activity intervention providing tailored physical activity opportunities to rural villages did not improve physical activity levels in adults. Greater penetration of such interventions must be achieved if they are to increase physical activity prevalence at the community level. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN37321160. PMID:25198068

  8. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Physical Activity Levels in Early Knee Osteoarthritis Patients Measured by Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Joshua N.; Going, Scott B.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Rankin, Lucinda; Kasle, Shelley; Cornett, Michelle; Cussler, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Physical activity (PA) is recommended for osteoarthritis (OA) management to reduce pain and improve function. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess the level and pattern of PA in male and female knee OA patients to determine adherence to CDC/ACSM and EPAC recommendations for PA. Methods: Early OA patients (n = 255, 76% women, 54.6 ± 7.1 years, body mass index (BMI) 27.8 ± 4.3 kg/m2) having radiographic status of Kellgren and Lawrence-defined grade II OA (and no higher) in at least one knee wore an accelerometer (Actigraph MTI) for 6-7 contiguous days. Light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) PA intensities were defined as accelerometer recordings of 100 to 2,224, 2,225 to 5,950, and > 5,950 counts per minute, respectively. Results: Subjects wore accelerometers for 6.8 ± 0.3 days and 13.8 ± 2.2 hours per day (hr/day) and spent much more (P < 0.001) time in MPA (23.6 ± 17.2 min/day) compared to VPA (0.95 ± 3.5 min/day). Males spent significantly (P < 0.05) more time in all PA intensities than females. Only 30% of subjects achieved recommended PA levels. The proportion of males (47%) achieving the recommendation was significantly (P = 0.04) higher than females (24%). Conclusion: Knee OA patients accumulate little vigorous PA and most (70%) do not achieve recommended levels for moderate or greater intensity PA. New strategies to increase levels of PA in this population are needed. PMID:18759320

  10. Correlation between vitamin D levels and muscle fatigue risk factors based on physical activity in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas S; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A

    2016-01-01

    approximately 61.4%–85.8% of reduction in both fatigue scores and muscle fatigue biomarkers with substantial improvement in muscle performance in healthy older adults. Conclusion The data showed that considerable levels of 25(OH)D concentrations, calcium intake, and lower obesity positively correlated with the improvement in the muscle relief and performance of physically active participants. These results demonstrate that 25(OH)D concentrations and calcium might prevent muscle fatigue by regulation of the biosynthesis of creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, and hydroxyproline via a proposed antifree radical mechanism reported by higher TAC activity. It was suggested that vitamin D status could be reported as a marker of the improvement of muscle performance, especially in healthy older adults with lower physical activity. PMID:27217733

  11. Risk Factors Associated with Serum Levels of the Inflammatory Biomarker Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Haupt, Thomas H; Kallemose, Thomas; Ladelund, Steen; Rasmussen, Line JH; Thorball, Christian W; Andersen, Ove; Pisinger, Charlotta; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a biomarker of mortality risk in various patient populations. However, little is known about the implications of lifestyle for suPAR levels in the general population. Lifestyle, demographic, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor data were collected from 5,538 participants in the Danish population-based Inter99 study. Their suPAR levels were measured using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the final adjusted model, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher suPAR levels (P < 0.001). An unhealthy diet and alcohol abstinence in men were also associated with higher suPAR levels. Physical activity in leisure time had a modest impact on suPAR levels in univariate analysis, but not in the final adjusted model. In conclusion, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher serum suPAR levels in this general population. Diet and alcohol consumption also seemed to impact suPAR levels. Lifestyle changes are likely to affect suPAR since ex-smokers had suPAR levels comparable to those of never-smokers. PMID:25574132

  12. Physical Activity Levels in Chinese One-Year-Old Children and Their Parents, an Early STOPP China Study

    PubMed Central

    Hagströmer, Maria; Xiong, Yuelin; Zhang, Lanlan; Zhang, Jianduan; Marcus, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is associated with health benefits, already in childhood. However, little is known about actual levels, patterns and gender differences in PA level in very young children. This study examines Chinese one-year-old children and their parents’ PA levels and patterns, and assesses the correlations between children’s PA level and gender, body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS), parental BMI and parental PA level. Methods Data from 123 families participating in the Early STOPP China study were used. Families were recruited based on parental BMI and were classified as either high-risk or low-risk of obesity. Parents and children wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ to assess the average PA levels. PA levels and hourly patterns during weekdays and weekends were examined as were correlations with gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI and parental PA levels. Results There were no significant differences in children’s averaged PA between risk groups, genders, or between weekdays and weekends. Children’s peak average activity level was at 7 pm and they were least active at 3 pm (p<0.001). Both mothers and fathers demonstrated a similar PA pattern as their children, although paternal PA level was consistently lower than that of mothers and children. No significant association was found between children’s PA and their gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA levels. Maternal PA was found positively associated with child PA (p<0.05). Conclusion PA in one-year-old Chinese children vary over the day but weekdays and weekends are similar. At this age, children’s PA is not related to gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA. Larger scale studies with more contextual information are needed to improve the understanding of our findings. PMID:27078684

  13. Leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1966-01-01

    Geodetic leveling by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a framework of accurate elevations for topographic mapping. Elevations are referred to the Sea Level Datum of 1929. Lines of leveling may be run either with automatic or with precise spirit levels, by either the center-wire or the three-wire method. For future use, the surveys are monumented with bench marks, using standard metal tablets or other marking devices. The elevations are adjusted by least squares or other suitable method and are published in lists of control.

  14. Correlation between the Physical Activity Level and Grade Point Averages of Faculty of Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imdat, Yarim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find the correlation that exists between physical activity level and grade point averages of faculty of education students. The subjects consist of 359 (172 females and 187 males) under graduate students To determine the physical activity levels of the students in this research, International Physical Activity…

  15. Differences in Physical Activity Levels between Urban and Rural School Children in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.; Bennett, Neville

    2004-01-01

    This study attempted to examine differences in physical activity levels between urban and rural primary school children. The sample consisted of 256 Greek-Cypriot children and their parents from two schools representing urban areas and three schools representing rural areas. Children's activity levels were assessed for 4 weekdays in the winter and…

  16. Relationships among Physical Activity Levels, Psychomotor, Psychosocial, and Cognitive Development of Primary Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isler, Ayse Kin; Asci, F. Hulya; Kosar, S. Nazan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationships of physical activity levels and psychomotor, psychosocial, and cognitive development among Turkish elementary school students. Student evaluations indicated that physical activity level was an important factor in determining student psychomotor development, but it was not important in determining psychosocial and…

  17. Levels of Engagement and Barriers to Physical Activity in a Population of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Andrew; Look, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This study examined levels of, and barriers to, physical activity in a population of 19 adults with learning disabilities living in community supported accommodation, using diary records and semi-structured interviews with staff. The levels of physical activity were higher in the sample population than previous figures for adults with learning…

  18. Bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) activity and pollination levels in commercial tomato greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Morandin, L A; Laverty, T M; Kevan, P G

    2001-04-01

    Commercial greenhouse studies were conducted to assess levels of pollination of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) flowers in relation to bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) colony activity and colony densities. For the assessment of pollination levels of tomato flowers, five categories were defined based on bruising levels caused by bumble bee pollination. Colony activity was measured as bee trips per ha/d using electric powered photodiode monitors inserted into the hive entrance. Levels of pollination were positively correlated with bee activity levels, up to a mean of approximately 400 pollen grains per stigma per day, after which greater activity did not result in further increases in daily pollination levels. Densities of colonies in the commercial greenhouses studied ranged from 7.6 to 19.8 colonies per hectare with a mean of 11.6 +/- 0.9. We found that an average activity of 2,000 bee trips per hectare per day was more than adequate to ensure sufficient pollination, and that this level of activity could be achieved with 7-15 colonies per hectare, depending on greenhouse conditions. Greenhouses requiring >15 colonies per hectare to achieve this level of pollination may be able to increase bee activity through alteration of greenhouse conditions. Across 50-m rows of tomato plants, levels of pollination decreased with increasing distance from bee colonies, suggesting that colonies should be evenly distributed throughout the greenhouses.

  19. 39 CFR 954.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 954.18 Section... and conclusions. (a) A party to a proceeding may submit proposed findings of fact and conclusions of... conclusions of law with supporting reasons. When the proposed findings and conclusions are not...

  20. 39 CFR 954.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 954.18 Section... and conclusions. (a) A party to a proceeding may submit proposed findings of fact and conclusions of... conclusions of law with supporting reasons. When the proposed findings and conclusions are not...

  1. 39 CFR 954.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 954.18 Section... and conclusions. (a) A party to a proceeding may submit proposed findings of fact and conclusions of... conclusions of law with supporting reasons. When the proposed findings and conclusions are not...

  2. 39 CFR 954.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 954.18 Section... and conclusions. (a) A party to a proceeding may submit proposed findings of fact and conclusions of... conclusions of law with supporting reasons. When the proposed findings and conclusions are not...

  3. 39 CFR 954.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 954.18 Section... and conclusions. (a) A party to a proceeding may submit proposed findings of fact and conclusions of... conclusions of law with supporting reasons. When the proposed findings and conclusions are not...

  4. Examination of Attention Level in Nurses Working Night Shifts in terms of the Relationship between Electrodermal Activity and Sex Hormones

    PubMed Central

    DOLU, Nazan; ELALMIŞ, Derya Deniz; KELOĞLAN, Seval

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an electrical activity of eccrine sweat gland stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. Skin conductance level (SCL) is measured with EDA. SCL and sweat gland activity increase in emotional situations, such as high activation, attention or stress. In this study, we investigated whether working in shifts affects attention level of nurses with EDA and explored the relationship between EDA and sex hormones. Method The study was carried out on nurses working night shifts (16.00–08.00 h) (n=22) and nurses working without a shift (08.00–16.00 h) (n=20). Firstly, The Epworth Sleepiness Scale which evaluates a person’s daytime sleepiness was applied to the subjects. For EDA measurement, Ag/AgCl electrodes were put on two fingers of their dominant hand. SCL was measured via MP30 system and GSR connection. The blood samples were analyzed for cortisol and ACTH hormone levels to investigate the changes in sleep and circadian rhythm. Result It was found that there was no statistically significant difference in skin conductance levels between the groups. Moreover, in the comparison of hormone values between the groups, the cortisol levels in night shift nurses were higher than in those working without a shift. Conclusion Night shift had no significant effect on the attention levels in the nurses. This situation is thought to be related to the fact that the nurses responsible for the night service raise their attention level to the highest point. The reason for higher level of cortisol in nurses working shifts may reflect that cortisol has no effect on the breadth of attention but reflects a high level of stress.

  5. Low levels of physical activity are associated with dysregulation of energy intake and fat mass gain over 1 year12

    PubMed Central

    Shook, Robin P; Hand, Gregory A; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hebert, James R; Paluch, Amanda E; Blundell, John E; Hill, James O; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that appetite may be dysregulated at low levels of activity, creating an energy imbalance that results in weight gain. Objective: The aim was to examine the relation between energy intake, physical activity, appetite, and weight gain during a 1-y follow-up period in a large sample of adults. Design: Participants included 421 individuals (mean ± SD age: 27.6 ± 3.8 y). Measurements included the following: energy intake with the use of interviewer-administered dietary recalls and calculated by using changes in body composition and energy expenditure, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with the use of an arm-based monitor, body composition with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and questionnaire-derived perceptions of dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and control of eating. Participants were grouped at baseline into quintiles of MVPA (min/d) by sex. Measurements were repeated every 3 mo for 1 y. Results: At baseline, an inverse relation existed between body weight and activity groups, with the least-active group (15.7 ± 9.9 min MVPA/d, 6062 ± 1778 steps/d) having the highest body weight (86.3 ± 13.2 kg) and the most-active group (174.5 ± 60.5 min MVPA/d, 10260 ± 3087 steps/d) having the lowest body weight (67.5 ± 11.0 kg). A positive relation was observed between calculated energy intake and activity group, except in the lowest quintile of activity. The lowest physical activity group reported higher levels of disinhibition (P = 0.07) and cravings for savory foods (P = 0.03) compared with the group with the highest level of physical activity. Over 1 y of follow-up, the lowest activity group gained the largest amount of fat mass (1.7 ± 0.3 kg) after adjustment for change in MVPA and baseline fat mass. The odds of gaining >3% of fat mass were between 1.8 and 3.8 times as high for individuals in the least-active group as for those in the middle activity group. Conclusions: These results suggest

  6. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with higher levels of objectively measured sedentary behaviour and lower levels of physical activity than matched healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Hallsworth, Kate; Thoma, Christian; Moore, Sarah; Ploetz, Thomas; Anstee, Quentin M; Taylor, Roy; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael I

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Physical activity is a key determinant of metabolic control and is recommended for people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), usually alongside weight loss and dietary change. To date, no studies have reported the relationship between objectively measured sedentary behaviour and physical activity, liver fat and metabolic control in people with NAFLD, limiting the potential to target sedentary behaviour in clinical practice. This study determined the level of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in people with NAFLD, and investigated links between physical activity, liver fat and glucose control. Methods Sedentary behaviour, physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed in 37 adults with NAFLD using a validated multisensor array over 7 days. Liver fat and glucose control were assessed, respectively, by 1H-MRS and fasting blood samples. Patterns of sedentary behaviour were assessed by power law analyses of the lengths of sedentary bouts fitted from raw sedentary data. An age and sex-matched healthy control group wore the activity monitor for the same time period. Results People with NAFLD spent approximately half an hour extra a day being sedentary (1318±68 vs1289±60 mins/day; p<0.05) and walked 18% fewer steps (8483±2926 vs 10377±3529 steps/day; p<0.01). As a consequence, active energy expenditure was reduced by 40% (432±258 vs 732±345 kcal/day; p<0.01) and total energy expenditure was lower in NAFLD (2690±440 vs 2901±511 kcal/day; p<0.01). Power law analyses of the lengths of sedentary bouts demonstrated that patients with NAFLD also have a lower number of transitions from being sedentary to active compared with controls (13±0.03 vs15±0.03%; p<0.05). Conclusions People with NAFLD spend more time sedentary and undertake less physical activity on a daily basis than healthy controls. High levels of sedentary behaviour and low levels of physical activity represent a therapeutic target that may prevent

  7. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  8. Match activities of elite women soccer players at different performance levels.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter; Andersson, Helena; Kirkendal, Donald; Bangsbo, Jens

    2008-03-01

    We sought to study the physical demands and match performance of women soccer players. Nineteen top-class and 15 high-level players were individually videotaped in competitive matches, and time-motion analysis were performed. The players changed locomotor activity >1,300 times in a game corresponding to every ~4 seconds and covered 9-11 km in total. The top-class players ran 28% longer (P < 0.05) at high intensities than high-level players (1.68 +/- 0.09 and 1.33 +/- 0.10 km, respectively) and sprinted 24% longer (P < 0.05). The top-class group had a decrease (P < 0.05) of 25-57% in high intensity running in the final 15 minutes compared with the first four 15-minutes intervals, whereas the high-level group performed less (P < 0.05) high-intensity running in the last 15 minutes of each half in comparison with the 2 previous 15-minute periods in the respective half. Peak distance covered by high intensity running in a 5-minute interval was 33% longer (P < 0.05) for the top-class players than the high-level players. In the following 5 minutes immediately after the peak interval top-class players covered 17% less (P < 0.05) high-intensity running than the game average. Defenders performed fewer (P < 0.05) intervals of high-intensity running than midfielders and attackers, as well as fewer (P < 0.05) sprints than the attackers. In conclusion, for women soccer players (1) top-class international players perform more intervals of high-intensity running than elite players at a lower level, (2) fatigue develops temporarily during and towards the end of a game, and (3) defenders have lower work rates than midfielders and attackers. The difference in high-intensity running between the 2 levels demonstrates the importance of intense intermittent exercise for match performance in women soccer. Thus, these aspects should be trained intensively in women soccer.

  9. Safety and environmental analyses and conclusions for TIBER-II

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Stasko, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The safety and environmental characteristics of the TIBER-II (Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor) design have been studied, focusing on innovative design features. Analyses included accident concerns, maintenance exposure, effluent control, and waste management. Unresolved problems include removal of decay heat from the high activation tungsten inboard shield, provision for rapid, passive, and benign plasma shutoff, compatibility between liquid-metal test modules and water-cooled blanket/shield, and elimination of high level wastes. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581), Psychological Domain (r = –0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  11. Levels and Characteristics of Physical Activity among a College Student Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kim; Staten, Ruth R.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Noland, Melody

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity levels and the relationships between activity and personal characteristics among a cohort of college students and to determine personal characteristics that predict activity. A sample of 1,700 undergraduates was mailed a survey that requested demographic information and assessed health…

  12. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  13. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  14. SU-E-T-534: Level of Residual Radioactivity of Activated Parts of a Decommissioned Cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, HHF; Leung, TM; Chiu, TL; Yang, B; Wu, PM; Cheung, KY; Yu, SK

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: CTI cyclotron RDS-111 was used at the Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital (HKSH) to produce radiopharmaceuticals and radioactive tracers for diagnostic scans between 1999 and 2007. During the operation, some machine components became radioactive by activation. For the safety of staff, decommissioning took place in 2009, two years after the cyclotron had stopped operation. This study investigates the residual radioactivity and radionuclides found in different cyclotron components in 2014 in compliance with the local regulations in Hong Kong for transfer of radioactive waste. Methods: A representative sample of each part was counted using a high-purity germanium detector (manufacturer: ORTECT) for at least four hours. GammaVision, a multichannel analyzer software, was used to identify the radionuclides found in the cyclotron components, as well as the associated activities. A standard library and a Mariscotti peak search algorithm were used to identify the present radionuclides. Only radionuclides with half-life greater than 180 days were considered. Results: Among the components, the Havar target foil has the highest specific activity ((4.6±0.6)×10{sup 2} Bq/g), with Co-60 being the most prominent ((3.8±0.5)×10{sup 2} Bq/g). The total activity of the target foil, however, is still low due to its small mass of 0.04 g. Radioisotopes Mn-54 (46±6 Bq/g), Na-22 (6.8±0.8 Bq/g), Co-57 (7.3±0.9 Bq/g), and Fe-59 (6.0±0.9 Bq/g) have also been detected in the target foil. The target window holder and the vacuum window register a specific activity of 88.3±0.6 Bq/g and 48.6±0.1 Bq/g, respectively. Other components, such as the collimator, the target tube, the valve body and the beamline, are also found with trace amounts of radionuclides. Conclusion: Even seven years after the cyclotron had stopped operation, some components still exhibited residual radioactivity from activation exceeding the IAEA clearance levels. Special consideration for radiological

  15. Are Parental Perceptions of Child Activity Levels and Overall Health More Important than Perceptions of Weight?

    PubMed Central

    Vangeepuram, Nita; Ramos, Michelle A.; Fei, Kezhen; Fox, Ashley M.; Horowitz, Carol R.; Kleinman, Lawrence C.; Galvez, Maida P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine relationships between parental perceptions of child weight and overall health, reported lifestyle behaviors and measured body mass index (BMI). Methods Using community-partnered methods, we surveyed families residing in a two census tract area identified for targeted interventions to decrease diabetes related disparities. The survey included demographics, child dietary and physical activity behaviors, and parental perception of child’s health and weight. We measured child BMI using a standardized protocol. Results We surveyed parents of 116 children with a mean age of 7 years (range 3–15) with 51 % boys, 74 % Hispanic, and 26 % Black. Over half of the children (55 %) were overweight or obese. Half (50 %) of the parents underestimated their children’s weight. Reported daily hours of walking and/or running trended higher (3.6 vs. 2.6 h, p = 0.08) for children perceived to be of normal weight. Parents who correctly estimated their child’s weight status reported more hours of daily walking/running than parents who underestimated child weight status, 4.5 versus 2.4 h, p = 0.0002. Parents of healthy weight children were more likely to report that children were in excellent or very good health compared to parents of overweight/obese children, 75 versus 56 % respectively (p = 0.04). We found significant racial/ethnic differences in reported diet and physical activity behaviors and perception of overall health. Conclusions for Practice Parental perceptions of child health and physical activity level may be related to perceptions of their child’s weight status. Study findings informed community-based initiatives for reducing diabetes risk among children. PMID:27010551

  16. The influence of active seating on car passengers' perceived comfort and activity levels.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being.

  17. Influence of physical fitness on antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde level in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Hammouda, Omar; Matran, Régis; Robin, Sophie; Fabre, Claudine

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how physical fitness level could affect antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level at rest and in response to exhaustive exercise in healthy older adults. Fifty older adults (average age: 66.1 ± 3.8 years) were divided according to their physical fitness level into an unfit group (UG) (n = 15), a low fitness level group (LFG) (n = 18), and a high fitness level group (HFG) (n = 17). Fitness status was classified based on answers to a questionnaire about physical activity in the previous 12 months. Before and after an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion, the following markers were assessed: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and MDA. At rest, SOD, GPX, and α-tocopherol activities were higher in the HFG (p < 0.05), whereas MDA level was lower in the LFG in comparison with the 2 other groups (p < 0.05). During the postexercise period, antioxidant activity increased only in the LFG and the HFG (GPX, SOD, and α-tocopherol). MDA level increased in all groups after the exercise (p < 0.05). In addition, MDA level was higher during the recovery period in the HFG as compared with the others groups. This study concluded that both low and high physical fitness levels help maintain better antioxidant defenses in older adults. However, a higher physical fitness level, rather than a lower physical fitness level, could increase lipid peroxidation.

  18. Total Glutamine Synthetase Activity during Soybean Nodule Development Is Controlled at the Level of Transcription and Holoprotein Turnover.

    PubMed Central

    Temple, S. J.; Kunjibettu, S.; Roche, D.; Sengupta-Gopalan, C.

    1996-01-01

    Gln synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of ammonia with glutamate to yield Gln. In higher plants GS is an octameric enzyme and the subunits are encoded by members of a small multigene family. In soybeans (Glycine max), following the onset of N2 fixation there is a dramatic increase in GS activity in the root nodules. GS activity staining of native polyacrylamide gels containing nodule and root extracts showed a common band of activity (GSrs). The nodules also contained a slower-migrating, broad band of enzyme activity (GSns). The GSns activity band is a complex of many isozymes made up of different proportions of two kinds of GS subunits: GSr and GSn. Root nodules formed following inoculation with an Nif- strain of Bradyrhizobium japonicum showed the presence of GS isoenzymes (GSns1) with low enzyme activity, which migrated more slowly than GSns. Gsns1 is most likely made up predominantly of GSn subunits. Our data suggest that, whereas the class I GS genes encoding the GSr subunits are regulated by the availability of NH3, the class II GS genes coding for the GSn subunits are developmentally regulated. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the GSns1 isozymes in the Nif- nodules are relatively more labile. Our overall conclusion is that GSns activity in soybean nodules is regulated by N2 fixation both at the level of transcription and at the level of holoprotein stability. PMID:12226474

  19. 17 CFR 10.82 - Proposed findings and conclusions; briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conclusions; briefs. 10.82 Section 10.82 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Hearings § 10.82 Proposed findings and conclusions; briefs. In any proceeding... and conclusions of law. Briefs may be filed in support of proposed findings and conclusions either...

  20. Increasing Endocannabinoid Levels in the Ventral Pallidum Restore Aberrant Dopamine Neuron Activity in the Subchronic PCP Rodent Model of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Lodge, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder that affects 1% of the US population. While the exogenous administration of cannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol is reported to exacerbate psychosis in schizophrenia patients, augmenting the levels of endogenous cannabinoids has gained attention as a possible alternative therapy to schizophrenia due to clinical and preclinical observations. Thus, patients with schizophrenia demonstrate an inverse relationship between psychotic symptoms and levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide. In addition, increasing endocannabinoid levels (by blockade of enzymatic degradation) has been reported to attenuate social withdrawal in a preclinical model of schizophrenia. Here we examine the effects of increasing endogenous cannabinoids on dopamine neuron activity in the sub-chronic phencyclidine (PCP) model. Aberrant dopamine system function is thought to underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Methods: Using in vivo extracellular recordings in chloral hydrate–anesthetized rats, we now demonstrate an increase in dopamine neuron population activity in PCP-treated rats. Results: Interestingly, endocannabinoid upregulation, induced by URB-597, was able to normalize this aberrant dopamine neuron activity. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the ventral pallidum is the site where URB-597 acts to restore ventral tegmental area activity. Conclusions: Taken together, we provide preclinical evidence that augmenting endogenous cannabinoids may be an effective therapy for schizophrenia, acting in part to restore ventral pallidal activity. PMID:25539511

  1. Physical activity parenting: A systematic review of questionnaires and their associations with child activity levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insufficient physical activity (PA) is considered a critical contributor to childhood overweight. Parents are a key in influencing their child's PA through various mechanisms of PA parenting, including support, restriction of PA, and facilitation of enrollment in PA classes or activities. However, s...

  2. Activity level classification algorithm using SHIMMER™ wearable sensors for individuals with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fortune, Emma; Tierney, Marie; Scanaill, Cliodhna Ni; Bourke, Ala; Kennedy, Norelee; Nelson, John

    2011-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) it is believed that symptoms associated with the progression of the disease result in a reduction in the physical activity level of the patient. One of the key flaws of the research surrounding this hypothesis to date is the use of non-validated physical activity outcomes measures. In this study, an algorithm to estimate physical activity levels in patients as they perform a simulated protocol of typical activities of daily living using SHIMMER kinematic sensors, incorporating tri-axial gyroscopes and accelerometers, is proposed. The results are validated against simultaneously recorded energy expenditure data and the defined activity protocol and demonstrate that SHIMMER can be used to accurately estimate physical activity levels in RA populations.

  3. Level of physical activity and screen time among Iranian children and adolescents at the national and provincial level: The CASPIAN-IV study

    PubMed Central

    Hovsepian, Silva; Kelishadi, Roya; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kasaeian, Amir; Shafiee, Gita; Arefirad, Tahereh; Najafi, Fereshteh; Khoramdad, Maliheh; Asayesh, Hamid; Heshmat, Ramin; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are few epidemiological reports on adherence to physical activity (PA) and screen-time (ST) recommendations among Iranian children and adolescents at the provincial level. We used nationally representative data to provide recent prevalence estimates of Iranian children who met the recommendations for PA and ST. Methods: This nationwide study was conducted among 14,880 students aged 6-18 years from 30 provinces of Iran. The frequency of the recommended level for PA (>1 hours/week) and ST (<2 hours/day) and different combinations of PA and ST was determined in the studied population. Results: In this study, 13,486 students (response rate: 90.6%) were studied. Overall, 18.62%, 34.11%, 50.66% and 9.63% of the students reported high ST, low level of PA, high TV watching and high computer working, respectively. The frequency of the recommended level of PA and ST was 53.92%. Of the studied population, 6.63% had low PA and high ST. Paradox combinations of low PA and low ST and moderate/high PA and high ST was prevalent among 27.47% and 6.26% of the children and adolescents. The lowest and highest frequency of recommended level of PA and ST was 38.9% and 65%, respectively. The lowest and highest frequency of low PA and high ST was 1.87% and 13.77%, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the frequency of low PA was high and that approximately 46% of the students did not meet the recommended level of PA and ST. The findings indicated that preparing facilities for improving PA level among children should be the main priority in our future interventions in this field. PMID:28210587

  4. National level promotion of physical activity: results from England's ACTIVE for LIFE campaign

    PubMed Central

    Hillsdon, M; Cavill, N; Nanchahal, K; Diamond, A; White, I

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To assess the impact of a national campaign on awareness of the campaign, change in knowledge of physical activity recommendations and self reported physical activity.
DESIGN—three year prospective longitudinal survey using a multi-stage, cluster random probability design to select participants.
SETTING—England.
PARTICIPANTS—A nationally representative sample of 3189 adults aged 16-74 years.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Awareness of the advertising element of the campaign, changes in knowledge of physical activity recommendations for health and self reported physical activity.
RESULTS—38% of participants were aware of the main advertising images, assessed six to eight months after the main television advertisement. The proportion of participants knowledgeable about moderate physical activity recommendations increased by 3.0% (95% CI: 1.4%, 4.5%) between waves 1 and 2 and 3.7% (95% CI: 2.1%, 5.3%) between waves 1 and 3. The change in proportion of active people between baseline and waves 1 and 2 was
−0.02 (95% CI: −2.0 to +1.7) and between waves 1 and 3 was −9.8 (−7.9 to −11.7).
CONCLUSION—The proportion of participants who were knowledgeable about the new recommendations, increased significantly after the campaign. There was however, no significant difference in knowledge by awareness of the main campaign advertisement. There is no evidence that ACTIVE for LIFE improved physical activity, either overall or in any subgroup.


Keywords: exercise; mass media; follow up studies; health promotion; physical activity PMID:11553661

  5. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  6. Measurements of activation induced by environmental neutrons using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martínez Canet, M J; Hult, M; Köhler, M; Johnston, P N

    2000-03-01

    The flux of environmental neutrons is being studied by activation of metal discs of selected elements. Near the earth's surface the total neutron flux is in the order of 10(-2) cm(-2)s(-1), which gives induced activities of a few mBq in the discs. Initial results from this technique, involving activation at ground level for several materials (W, Au, Ta, In, Re, Sm, Dy and Mn) and ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory located at 500 m.w.e., are presented. Diffusion of environmental neutrons in water is also measured by activation of gold at different depths.

  7. Measurement error of self-reported physical activity levels in New York City: assessment and correction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungwoo; Wyker, Brett; Bartley, Katherine; Eisenhower, Donna

    2015-05-01

    Because it is difficult to objectively measure population-level physical activity levels, self-reported measures have been used as a surveillance tool. However, little is known about their validity in populations living in dense urban areas. We aimed to assess the validity of self-reported physical activity data against accelerometer-based measurements among adults living in New York City and to apply a practical tool to adjust for measurement error in complex sample data using a regression calibration method. We used 2 components of data: 1) dual-frame random digit dialing telephone survey data from 3,806 adults in 2010-2011 and 2) accelerometer data from a subsample of 679 survey participants. Self-reported physical activity levels were measured using a version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, whereas data on weekly moderate-equivalent minutes of activity were collected using accelerometers. Two self-reported health measures (obesity and diabetes) were included as outcomes. Participants with higher accelerometer values were more likely to underreport the actual levels. (Accelerometer values were considered to be the reference values.) After correcting for measurement errors, we found that associations between outcomes and physical activity levels were substantially deattenuated. Despite difficulties in accurately monitoring physical activity levels in dense urban areas using self-reported data, our findings show the importance of performing a well-designed validation study because it allows for understanding and correcting measurement errors.

  8. Level of Physical Activity in Population Aged 16 to 65 Years in Rural Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Aslesh, O P; Mayamol, P; Suma, R K; Usha, K; Sheeba, G; Jayasree, A K

    2016-01-01

    Kerala is a state in India with a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In order to control these diseases, the prevalence of modifiable risk factors such as low physical activity need to be studied. For this a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of physical activity among 240 residents aged between 15 and 65 years in Kulappuram, a village in north Kerala. Low level of physical activity was seen in 65.8% of the study participants. The average duration of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per day in different domains such as work, travel, and recreation were 40.5, 10.1, and 12.7 minutes, respectively. The average duration of sedentary activities was 284.3 minutes per day. The level of physical activity was more among those engaged in unskilled work (adjusted odds ratio = 4.32; confidence interval = 1.38-13.51) and unmarried persons (adjusted odds ratio = 3.65; confidence interval = 1.25-10.65). No statistically significant difference in physical activity level was seen in different age, education, religious, and economic categories. The study concludes that the physical activity level was low in the study population.

  9. Juvenile subsistence effort, activity levels, and growth patterns. Middle childhood among Pumé foragers.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Karen L; Greaves, Russell D

    2011-09-01

    Attention has been given to cross-cultural differences in adolescent growth, but far less is known about developmental variability during juvenility (ages 3-10). Previous research among the Pumé, a group of South American foragers, found that girls achieve a greater proportion of their adult stature during juvenility compared with normative growth expectations. To explain rapid juvenile growth, in this paper we consider girls' activity levels and energy expended in subsistence effort. Results show that Pumé girls spend far less time in subsistence tasks in proportion to their body size compared with adults, and they have lower physical activity levels compared with many juveniles cross-culturally. Low activity levels help to explain where the extra energy comes from to support rapid growth in a challenging environment. We suggest that activity levels are important to account for the variation of resource and labor transfers in mediating energy availability.

  10. Factors influencing executive function by physical activity level among young adults: a near-infrared spectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Kensuke; Ikeda, Shou; Mitsutake, Tsubasa; Nakahara, Masami; Nagai, Yoshiharu; Ikeda, Takuro; Horikawa, Etsuo

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Prevention of dementia requires early intervention against it. To ensure that early interventions are effective it is crucial to study the cognitive functions related to dementia in young adulthood. Moreover, it is needed not only to verify the cognitive function test but also to elucidate the actual brain activity and the influence of related factors on the brain activity. To investigate the factors influencing cognitive function among young adults and examine the differences in executive function by physical activity level. [Subjects and Methods] Forty healthy university students (mean age, 20.4 years) were classified into two groups by cognitive function score (HIGH and LOW), determined according to Trail Making Test performance and Stroop task processing time. We then assessed what factors were related to cognitive function by logistic regression analysis. Executive function was determined by brain blood flow using near-infrared spectroscopy during the Stroop task, and was then compared by physical activity levels (determined according to number of steps per hour). [Results] Full-scale Intelligence Quotient according to the 3rd Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale and number of steps per hour influenced cognitive function score, with odds ratios of 1.104 and 1.012, respectively. Oxy-hemoglobin concentrations in areas related to executive function during the Stroop task were significantly higher among those in the high physical activity group than among those in the low physical activity group. [Conclusion] The study revealed that Full-scale Intelligence Quotient and a number of steps per hour are factors associated with the cognitive functions in young adulthood. In addition, activity in execution function related area was found to be significantly higher in the high physical activity group than in the low physical activity group, suggesting the importance of physical activity for enhancing young adulthood cognitive functions. PMID:28356633

  11. Factors influencing executive function by physical activity level among young adults: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Kensuke; Ikeda, Shou; Mitsutake, Tsubasa; Nakahara, Masami; Nagai, Yoshiharu; Ikeda, Takuro; Horikawa, Etsuo

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] Prevention of dementia requires early intervention against it. To ensure that early interventions are effective it is crucial to study the cognitive functions related to dementia in young adulthood. Moreover, it is needed not only to verify the cognitive function test but also to elucidate the actual brain activity and the influence of related factors on the brain activity. To investigate the factors influencing cognitive function among young adults and examine the differences in executive function by physical activity level. [Subjects and Methods] Forty healthy university students (mean age, 20.4 years) were classified into two groups by cognitive function score (HIGH and LOW), determined according to Trail Making Test performance and Stroop task processing time. We then assessed what factors were related to cognitive function by logistic regression analysis. Executive function was determined by brain blood flow using near-infrared spectroscopy during the Stroop task, and was then compared by physical activity levels (determined according to number of steps per hour). [Results] Full-scale Intelligence Quotient according to the 3rd Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale and number of steps per hour influenced cognitive function score, with odds ratios of 1.104 and 1.012, respectively. Oxy-hemoglobin concentrations in areas related to executive function during the Stroop task were significantly higher among those in the high physical activity group than among those in the low physical activity group. [Conclusion] The study revealed that Full-scale Intelligence Quotient and a number of steps per hour are factors associated with the cognitive functions in young adulthood. In addition, activity in execution function related area was found to be significantly higher in the high physical activity group than in the low physical activity group, suggesting the importance of physical activity for enhancing young adulthood cognitive functions.

  12. Physical activity is related to lower levels of pain, fatigue, and depression in individuals with spinal cord injury: A correlational study

    PubMed Central

    Tawashy, A; Eng, JJ; Lin, KH; Tang, PF; Hung, C

    2011-01-01

    Study Design This was a prospective cross-sectional study for people with chronic SCI. Objectives To (1) evaluate the intensity level and nature of physical activity in community-dwelling individuals living with SCI, and (2) explore the relation between descriptive individual variables (e.g. lesion level), secondary complications, and participation in physical activity. Setting Urban community setting Methods Forty-nine subjects with SCI who used a manual wheelchair for primary mode of mobility (mean years since injury, 11.8; mean age, 43.7 years; 67% paraplegia) completed the physical activity recall assessment for people with spinal cord injury (PARA-SCI). Results Approximately 50% of reported physical activity among individuals with SCI is due to activities of daily living. The amount of physical activity was not related to lesion level, age, BMI, or waistline size. Greater heavy intensity activity was related to lower levels of pain and fatigue and higher levels of self efficacy while higher amounts of mild intensity activity and total activity were related to less depressive symptoms. Conclusions Activities of daily living are a large component for physical activity among individuals with SCI. It appears that greater physical activity is associated with less secondary complications (pain, fatigue and depression) in individuals with SCI. PMID:18936771

  13. 31 CFR 8.67 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 8... conclusions. Except in cases when the respondent has failed to answer the complaint or when a party has failed... afford the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit proposed findings and conclusions and...

  14. 49 CFR 511.46 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. 511.46... Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. Within a reasonable time after the closing of the record and..., including proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law and a proposed order, together with...

  15. 49 CFR 511.46 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. 511.46... Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. Within a reasonable time after the closing of the record and..., including proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law and a proposed order, together with...

  16. 39 CFR 3001.35 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 3001.35 Section... General Applicability § 3001.35 Proposed findings and conclusions. The Commission or the presiding officer may direct the filing of proposed findings and conclusions with a brief statement of the...

  17. 29 CFR 417.12 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 417.12 Section 417.12... findings and conclusions. Within 10 days following the close of hearings, interested persons may submit proposed findings and conclusions to the Administrative Law Judge, together with supporting...

  18. 19 CFR 111.68 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 111.68 Section... Monetary Penalty in Lieu of Suspension or Revocation § 111.68 Proposed findings and conclusions. The... record in which to submit proposed findings and conclusions and supporting reasons for the findings...

  19. 39 CFR 957.20 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 957.20 Section... RELATIVE TO DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.20 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each... the Judicial Officer such is not appropriate, submit proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law...

  20. 16 CFR 1025.46 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order... PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 1025.46 Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. Within..., including proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law, as well as a proposed order. The...

  1. 39 CFR 952.23 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 952.23 Section... RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.23 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each..., conclusions of law, orders and supporting reasons either in oral or written form in the discretion of...

  2. 49 CFR 511.46 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. 511.46... Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. Within a reasonable time after the closing of the record and..., including proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law and a proposed order, together with...

  3. 47 CFR 1.263 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 1.263... Proceedings Hearing and Intermediate Decision § 1.263 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each party to the proceeding may file proposed findings of fact and conclusions, briefs, or memoranda of law: Provided,...

  4. 31 CFR 8.67 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 8... conclusions. Except in cases when the respondent has failed to answer the complaint or when a party has failed... afford the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit proposed findings and conclusions and...

  5. 29 CFR 417.12 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 417.12 Section 417.12... findings and conclusions. Within 10 days following the close of hearings, interested persons may submit proposed findings and conclusions to the Administrative Law Judge, together with supporting...

  6. 29 CFR 2700.65 - Proposed findings, conclusions and orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions and orders. 2700.65 Section... COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES Hearings § 2700.65 Proposed findings, conclusions and orders. The Judge may require the submission of proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, and orders, together...

  7. 31 CFR 15.737-24 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 15... conclusions. Except in cases where the respondent has failed to answer the complaint or where a party has... afford the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit proposed findings and conclusions and...

  8. 39 CFR 957.20 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 957.20 Section... RELATIVE TO DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.20 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each... the Judicial Officer such is not appropriate, submit proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law...

  9. 31 CFR 15.737-24 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 15... conclusions. Except in cases where the respondent has failed to answer the complaint or where a party has... afford the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit proposed findings and conclusions and...

  10. 17 CFR 10.82 - Proposed findings and conclusions; briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conclusions; briefs. 10.82 Section 10.82 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... conclusions; briefs. In any proceeding involving a hearing or an opportunity for hearing, the parties may file written proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law. Briefs may be filed in support of...

  11. 47 CFR 1.263 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 1.263... Proceedings Hearing and Intermediate Decision § 1.263 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each party to the proceeding may file proposed findings of fact and conclusions, briefs, or memoranda of law: Provided,...

  12. 40 CFR 22.26 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and.../TERMINATION OR SUSPENSION OF PERMITS Hearing Procedures § 22.26 Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. After the hearing, any party may file proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, and a...

  13. 40 CFR 209.29 - Proposed findings, conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions. 209.29..., conclusions. (a) Within 20 days of the filing of the record with the hearing clerk as provided in § 209.28, or... consideration of the administrative law judge proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, and a proposed...

  14. 45 CFR 672.19 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. 672.19... FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.19 Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. Unless otherwise ordered by the Presiding Officer, any party may submit proposed findings of fact, conclusions...

  15. 37 CFR 251.52 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conclusions. 251.52 Section 251.52 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.52 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Any party to the proceeding may file proposed findings of fact and conclusions, briefs, or...

  16. 16 CFR 1025.46 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order... PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 1025.46 Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. Within..., including proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law, as well as a proposed order. The...

  17. 31 CFR 15.737-24 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 15... conclusions. Except in cases where the respondent has failed to answer the complaint or where a party has... afford the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit proposed findings and conclusions and...

  18. 31 CFR 8.67 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 8... conclusions. Except in cases when the respondent has failed to answer the complaint or when a party has failed... afford the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit proposed findings and conclusions and...

  19. 16 CFR 1025.46 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order... PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 1025.46 Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. Within..., including proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law, as well as a proposed order. The...

  20. 29 CFR 2700.65 - Proposed findings, conclusions and orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions and orders. 2700.65 Section... COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES Hearings § 2700.65 Proposed findings, conclusions and orders. The Judge may require the submission of proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, and orders, together...

  1. 39 CFR 957.20 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 957.20 Section... RELATIVE TO DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.20 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each... the Judicial Officer such is not appropriate, submit proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law...

  2. 31 CFR 10.75 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 10... and conclusions. Except in cases where the respondent has failed to answer the complaint or where a... submit proposed findings and conclusions and their supporting reasons to the Administrative Law Judge....

  3. 20 CFR 901.48 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 901.48... Termination of Enrollment § 901.48 Proposed findings and conclusions. Except in cases where the respondent has... proposed findings and conclusions and supporting reasons therefor....

  4. 16 CFR 3.46 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. 3... PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 3.46 Proposed findings, conclusions, and... Secretary for consideration of the Administrative Law Judge proposed findings of fact, conclusions of...

  5. 39 CFR 3001.35 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 3001.35 Section... General Applicability § 3001.35 Proposed findings and conclusions. The Commission or the presiding officer may direct the filing of proposed findings and conclusions with a brief statement of the...

  6. 16 CFR 3.46 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. 3... PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 3.46 Proposed findings, conclusions, and... Secretary for consideration of the Administrative Law Judge proposed findings of fact, conclusions of...

  7. 29 CFR 2700.65 - Proposed findings, conclusions and orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions and orders. 2700.65 Section... COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES Hearings § 2700.65 Proposed findings, conclusions and orders. The Judge may require the submission of proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, and orders, together...

  8. 31 CFR 10.75 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 10... and conclusions. Except in cases where the respondent has failed to answer the complaint or where a... submit proposed findings and conclusions and their supporting reasons to the Administrative Law Judge....

  9. 16 CFR 1025.46 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order... PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 1025.46 Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. Within..., including proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law, as well as a proposed order. The...

  10. 31 CFR 8.67 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 8... conclusions. Except in cases when the respondent has failed to answer the complaint or when a party has failed... afford the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit proposed findings and conclusions and...

  11. 40 CFR 22.26 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and.../TERMINATION OR SUSPENSION OF PERMITS Hearing Procedures § 22.26 Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. After the hearing, any party may file proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, and a...

  12. 31 CFR 10.75 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 10... and conclusions. Except in cases where the respondent has failed to answer the complaint or where a... submit proposed findings and conclusions and their supporting reasons to the Administrative Law Judge....

  13. 40 CFR 209.29 - Proposed findings, conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions. 209.29..., conclusions. (a) Within 20 days of the filing of the record with the hearing clerk as provided in § 209.28, or... consideration of the administrative law judge proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, and a proposed...

  14. 39 CFR 952.23 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 952.23 Section... conclusions. (a) Each party to a proceeding, except one who fails to answer the complaint or, having answered... fact, conclusions of law, orders and supporting reasons either in oral or written form in...

  15. 29 CFR 458.87 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 458.87 Section 458.87... conclusions. Within fifteen (15) days following the close of the hearing, the parties may submit proposed findings and conclusions to the Administrative Law Judge, together with supporting reasons therefor,...

  16. 24 CFR 1720.520 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and... PRACTICE Adjudicatory Proceedings Hearings § 1720.520 Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. The... which any party may file with the administrative law judge proposed findings of fact, conclusions of...

  17. 31 CFR 10.75 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 10... and conclusions. Except in cases where the respondent has failed to answer the complaint or where a... submit proposed findings and conclusions and their supporting reasons to the Administrative Law Judge....

  18. 29 CFR 458.87 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 458.87 Section 458.87... conclusions. Within fifteen (15) days following the close of the hearing, the parties may submit proposed findings and conclusions to the Administrative Law Judge, together with supporting reasons therefor,...

  19. 29 CFR 417.12 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 417.12 Section 417.12... findings and conclusions. Within 10 days following the close of hearings, interested persons may submit proposed findings and conclusions to the Administrative Law Judge, together with supporting...

  20. 19 CFR 111.68 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 111.68 Section... Monetary Penalty in Lieu of Suspension or Revocation § 111.68 Proposed findings and conclusions. The... record in which to submit proposed findings and conclusions and supporting reasons for the findings...

  1. 20 CFR 901.48 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 901.48... Termination of Enrollment § 901.48 Proposed findings and conclusions. Except in cases where the respondent has... proposed findings and conclusions and supporting reasons therefor....

  2. 24 CFR 1720.520 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and... PRACTICE Adjudicatory Proceedings Hearings § 1720.520 Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. The... which any party may file with the administrative law judge proposed findings of fact, conclusions of...

  3. 39 CFR 959.22 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 959.22 Section... RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.22 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each party, except..., conclusions of law and supporting reasons either in oral or written form. The presiding officer may...

  4. 39 CFR 952.23 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 952.23 Section... RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.23 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each..., conclusions of law, orders and supporting reasons either in oral or written form in the discretion of...

  5. 47 CFR 1.263 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 1.263... Proceedings Hearing and Intermediate Decision § 1.263 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each party to the proceeding may file proposed findings of fact and conclusions, briefs, or memoranda of law: Provided,...

  6. 16 CFR 1025.46 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order... PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 1025.46 Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. Within..., including proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law, as well as a proposed order. The...

  7. 29 CFR 417.12 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 417.12 Section 417.12... findings and conclusions. Within 10 days following the close of hearings, interested persons may submit proposed findings and conclusions to the Administrative Law Judge, together with supporting...

  8. 24 CFR 1720.520 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and... PRACTICE Adjudicatory Proceedings Hearings § 1720.520 Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. The... which any party may file with the administrative law judge proposed findings of fact, conclusions of...

  9. 20 CFR 901.48 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 901.48... Termination of Enrollment § 901.48 Proposed findings and conclusions. Except in cases where the respondent has... proposed findings and conclusions and supporting reasons therefor....

  10. 40 CFR 22.26 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and.../TERMINATION OR SUSPENSION OF PERMITS Hearing Procedures § 22.26 Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. After the hearing, any party may file proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, and a...

  11. 29 CFR 417.12 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 417.12 Section 417.12... findings and conclusions. Within 10 days following the close of hearings, interested persons may submit proposed findings and conclusions to the Administrative Law Judge, together with supporting...

  12. 39 CFR 3001.35 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 3001.35 Section... General Applicability § 3001.35 Proposed findings and conclusions. The Commission or the presiding officer may direct the filing of proposed findings and conclusions with a brief statement of the...

  13. 31 CFR 15.737-24 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 15... conclusions. Except in cases where the respondent has failed to answer the complaint or where a party has... afford the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit proposed findings and conclusions and...

  14. 29 CFR 458.87 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 458.87 Section 458.87... conclusions. Within fifteen (15) days following the close of the hearing, the parties may submit proposed findings and conclusions to the Administrative Law Judge, together with supporting reasons therefor,...

  15. 39 CFR 952.23 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 952.23 Section... RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.23 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each... discretion of the presiding officer such is not appropriate, submit proposed findings of fact, conclusions...

  16. 47 CFR 1.263 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 1.263... Proceedings Hearing and Intermediate Decision § 1.263 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each party to the proceeding may file proposed findings of fact and conclusions, briefs, or memoranda of law: Provided,...

  17. 39 CFR 952.23 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 952.23 Section... RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.23 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each..., conclusions of law, orders and supporting reasons either in oral or written form in the discretion of...

  18. 10 CFR 2.712 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 2.712 Section 2.712... Adjudications § 2.712 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Any party to a proceeding may, or if directed by the presiding officer shall, file proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law, briefs and...

  19. 40 CFR 22.26 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and.../TERMINATION OR SUSPENSION OF PERMITS Hearing Procedures § 22.26 Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. After the hearing, any party may file proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, and a...

  20. 29 CFR 2700.65 - Proposed findings, conclusions and orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions and orders. 2700.65 Section... COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES Hearings § 2700.65 Proposed findings, conclusions and orders. The Judge may require the submission of proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, and orders, together...

  1. 19 CFR 111.68 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 111.68 Section... Monetary Penalty in Lieu of Suspension or Revocation § 111.68 Proposed findings and conclusions. The... record in which to submit proposed findings and conclusions and supporting reasons for the findings...

  2. 37 CFR 251.52 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conclusions. 251.52 Section 251.52 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.52 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Any party to the proceeding may file proposed findings of fact and conclusions, briefs, or...

  3. 24 CFR 1720.520 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and... PRACTICE Adjudicatory Proceedings Hearings § 1720.520 Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. The... which any party may file with the administrative law judge proposed findings of fact, conclusions of...

  4. 31 CFR 15.737-24 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 15... conclusions. Except in cases where the respondent has failed to answer the complaint or where a party has... afford the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit proposed findings and conclusions and...

  5. 29 CFR 458.87 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 458.87 Section 458.87... conclusions. Within fifteen (15) days following the close of the hearing, the parties may submit proposed findings and conclusions to the Administrative Law Judge, together with supporting reasons therefor,...

  6. 49 CFR 511.46 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. 511.46... Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. Within a reasonable time after the closing of the record and..., including proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law and a proposed order, together with...

  7. 47 CFR 1.263 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 1.263... Proceedings Hearing and Intermediate Decision § 1.263 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each party to the proceeding may file proposed findings of fact and conclusions, briefs, or memoranda of law: Provided,...

  8. 17 CFR 10.82 - Proposed findings and conclusions; briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... conclusions; briefs. 10.82 Section 10.82 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... conclusions; briefs. In any proceeding involving a hearing or an opportunity for hearing, the parties may file written proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law. Briefs may be filed in support of...

  9. 45 CFR 672.19 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. 672.19... FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.19 Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. Unless otherwise ordered by the Presiding Officer, any party may submit proposed findings of fact, conclusions...

  10. 16 CFR 3.46 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. 3... PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 3.46 Proposed findings, conclusions, and... Secretary for consideration of the Administrative Law Judge proposed findings of fact, conclusions of...

  11. 24 CFR 1720.520 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and... PRACTICE Adjudicatory Proceedings Hearings § 1720.520 Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. The... which any party may file with the administrative law judge proposed findings of fact, conclusions of...

  12. 29 CFR 2700.65 - Proposed findings, conclusions and orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions and orders. 2700.65 Section... COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES Hearings § 2700.65 Proposed findings, conclusions and orders. The Judge may require the submission of proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, and orders, together...

  13. 40 CFR 209.29 - Proposed findings, conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Proposed findings, conclusions. 209.29..., conclusions. (a) Within 20 days of the filing of the record with the hearing clerk as provided in § 209.28, or... consideration of the administrative law judge proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, and a proposed...

  14. 39 CFR 957.20 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 957.20 Section... RELATIVE TO DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.20 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each... the Judicial Officer such is not appropriate, submit proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law...

  15. 39 CFR 959.22 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 959.22 Section... RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.22 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each party, except..., conclusions of law and supporting reasons either in oral or written form. The presiding officer may...

  16. 29 CFR 458.87 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 458.87 Section 458.87... conclusions. Within fifteen (15) days following the close of the hearing, the parties may submit proposed findings and conclusions to the Administrative Law Judge, together with supporting reasons therefor,...

  17. 39 CFR 959.22 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 959.22 Section... RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.22 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each party, except..., conclusions of law and supporting reasons either in oral or written form. The presiding officer may...

  18. 10 CFR 2.712 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 2.712 Section 2.712... Adjudications § 2.712 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Any party to a proceeding may, or if directed by the presiding officer shall, file proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law, briefs and...

  19. 19 CFR 111.68 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 111.68 Section... Monetary Penalty in Lieu of Suspension or Revocation § 111.68 Proposed findings and conclusions. The... record in which to submit proposed findings and conclusions and supporting reasons for the findings...

  20. 31 CFR 10.75 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 10... and conclusions. Except in cases where the respondent has failed to answer the complaint or where a... submit proposed findings and conclusions and their supporting reasons to the Administrative Law Judge....

  1. 39 CFR 957.20 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 957.20 Section... RELATIVE TO DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.20 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each... the Judicial Officer such is not appropriate, submit proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law...

  2. 39 CFR 3001.35 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 3001.35 Section... General Applicability § 3001.35 Proposed findings and conclusions. The Commission or the presiding officer may direct the filing of proposed findings and conclusions with a brief statement of the...

  3. 39 CFR 3001.35 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 3001.35 Section... General Applicability § 3001.35 Proposed findings and conclusions. The Commission or the presiding officer may direct the filing of proposed findings and conclusions with a brief statement of the...

  4. 40 CFR 209.29 - Proposed findings, conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions. 209.29..., conclusions. (a) Within 20 days of the filing of the record with the hearing clerk as provided in § 209.28, or... consideration of the administrative law judge proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, and a proposed...

  5. 40 CFR 22.26 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and.../TERMINATION OR SUSPENSION OF PERMITS Hearing Procedures § 22.26 Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. After the hearing, any party may file proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, and a...

  6. 39 CFR 959.22 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 959.22 Section... RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.22 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each party, except..., conclusions of law and supporting reasons either in oral or written form. The presiding officer may...

  7. 31 CFR 8.67 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 8... conclusions. Except in cases when the respondent has failed to answer the complaint or when a party has failed... afford the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit proposed findings and conclusions and...

  8. 39 CFR 959.22 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 959.22 Section... RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.22 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each party, except..., conclusions of law and supporting reasons either in oral or written form. The presiding officer may...

  9. 17 CFR 10.82 - Proposed findings and conclusions; briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conclusions; briefs. 10.82 Section 10.82 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... conclusions; briefs. In any proceeding involving a hearing or an opportunity for hearing, the parties may file written proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law. Briefs may be filed in support of...

  10. 40 CFR 209.29 - Proposed findings, conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions. 209.29..., conclusions. (a) Within 20 days of the filing of the record with the hearing clerk as provided in § 209.28, or... consideration of the administrative law judge proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, and a proposed...

  11. 17 CFR 10.82 - Proposed findings and conclusions; briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conclusions; briefs. 10.82 Section 10.82 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... conclusions; briefs. In any proceeding involving a hearing or an opportunity for hearing, the parties may file written proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law. Briefs may be filed in support of...

  12. 20 CFR 901.48 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 901.48... Termination of Enrollment § 901.48 Proposed findings and conclusions. Except in cases where the respondent has... proposed findings and conclusions and supporting reasons therefor....

  13. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  14. Changes in levels of plasminogen activator activity in normal and germ-cell-depleted testes during development.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, M; Smith, F E; Fritz, I B

    1982-05-01

    Levels of plasminogen activator activity were determined in testes obtained from normal and irradiated rats in various ages. During normal development, plasminogen activator activity per g testis increased rapidly between 40 and 60 days of age, but a comparable rise did not occur in germ-cell depleted testes of irradiated rats. Levels of enzyme in various populations of testicular cells were highest in Sertoli (varying between 1800 and 6300 units/mg protein in cell maintained under different culture conditions), and lowest in peritubular myoid cells (about 1 unit/mg protein), with intermediate levels in germinal cells (ranging between 147 and 560 units/Mg protein in residual bodies, spermatocytes and spermatids). No protease inhibitor could be detected in germ-cell extracts. The addition to the medium in which Sertoli cells were in culture of particles which can be phagocytosed (autoclaved E. coli) resulted in an increased formation of plasminogen activator activity by Sertoli cells. A synergistic enhancement of enzyme production resulted following the addition of submaximal quantities of dibutyryl cyclic AMP and autoclaved bacteria to sertoli cells in culture. On the basis of these data, we suggest that the presence of advanced germinal cells during gonadal development may stimulate the synthesis of plasminogen activator by Sertoli cells, mediated in part by the phagocytosis of residual bodies by sertoli cells which occurs prior to spermiation.

  15. Joint positioning sense, perceived force level and two-point discrimination tests of young and active elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Priscila G.; Santos, Karini B.; Rodacki, André L. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in the proprioceptive system are associated with aging. Proprioception is important to maintaining and/or recovering balance and to reducing the risk of falls. Objective: To compare the performance of young and active elderly adults in three proprioceptive tests. Method: Twenty-one active elderly participants (66.9±5.5 years) and 21 healthy young participants (24.6±3.9 years) were evaluated in the following tests: perception of position of the ankle and hip joints, perceived force level of the ankle joint, and two-point discrimination of the sole of the foot. Results: No differences (p>0.05) were found between groups for the joint position and perceived force level. On the other hand, the elderly participants showed lower sensitivity in the two-point discrimination (higher threshold) when compared to the young participants (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Except for the cutaneous plantar sensitivity, the active elderly participants had maintained proprioception. Their physical activity status may explain similarities between groups for the joint position sense and perceived force level, however it may not be sufficient to prevent sensory degeneration with aging. PMID:26443978

  16. Physical Education Lesson Content and Teacher Style and Elementary Students' Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Stellino, Megan Babkes; Beets, Michael W.; Beighle, Aaron; Johnson, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity levels among American children are increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to a lack of regular physical activity (PA). Physical education (PE) is one way to facilitate student PA. The overarching PA goal for physical educators is 50% PA for students. Self-determination theory suggests that PA levels in PE and a variety of other…

  17. Presenting Theoretical Ideas Prior to Inquiry Activities Fosters Theory-Level Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wecker, Christof; Rachel, Alexander; Heran-Dörr, Eva; Waltner, Christine; Wiesner, Hartmut; Fischer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In the course of inquiry activities similar to those of real scientists, learners are supposed to develop knowledge both on the level of observable phenomena and on the level of explanatory theories. However, some theories involve theoretical entities (e.g., "Weiss domains") that cannot be observed directly and therefore may be hard to…

  18. Effectiveness of the Sport Education Fitness Model on Fitness Levels, Knowledge, and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hansen, Andrew; Scarboro, Shot; Melnic, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in fitness levels, content knowledge, physical activity levels, and participants' perceptions following the implementation of the sport education fitness model (SEFM) at a high school. Thirty-two high school students participated in 20 lessons using the SEFM. Aerobic capacity, muscular…

  19. Study of the effects of oral zinc supplementation on peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity in seminal plasma of Iraqi asthenospermic patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    normal values after treatment with zinc sulfate. Volume of semen, progressive sperm motility percentage and total normal sperm count were increased after zinc supplementation. Conclusions Treatment of asthenospermic patients with zinc supplementation leads to restored peroxynitrite levels, arginase activity and NO synthase activity to normal values and gives a statistically significant improvement of semen parameters compared with controls. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01684059 PMID:24383664

  20. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, John A; Jongbloed, Age W; Verstegen, Martin W A

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may prevent interprandial feelings of hunger and, consequently, increased activity. Catheterized sows (n = 10) were fed twice daily (0700 and 1900 h) 900 g of a diet with either a low (L-sows) or a high level of fermentable dietary fiber (H-sows; sugarbeet pulp). Blood samples, taken between feeding times, were analyzed for glucose and insulin levels (basal and area under the curve) and stability of levels (variance and sum of absolute differences between levels in consecutive samples). The main focus was on samples taken after the postprandial peak. Behavior was videotaped for analysis of postures and posture changes. Basal glucose and insulin levels did not differ between treatments. H-sows had more stable levels than L-sows. Interprandial levels of H-sows were higher than or equal to basal levels. L-sows showed a decline in glucose below basal levels at 1400 h (P < 0.05). Before 1400 h, no difference in the frequency of posture changes was observed between treatments. After 1400 h, the frequency of posture changes increased more in L-sows than in H-sows. We concluded that sugarbeet pulp as a source of fermentable dietary fiber stabilizes glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in limited-fed sows several hours after feeding. This may indicate a prolonged feeling of satiety.

  1. Individual and School-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Physical Activity in Australian School children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lucy; Maher, Carol; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Olds, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: We attempted to determine whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in 9- to 11-year-old Australian children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and whether school facilities or policies supporting physical activity were associated with school-level socioeconomic status (SES) and MVPA. Methods: Children (N = 528) from 26…

  2. The Effect of Gambling Activities on Happiness Levels of Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Waterman, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results…

  3. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in relation to four levels of daily geomagnetic and extreme yearly solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoupel, E.; Goldenfeld, M.; Shimshoni, M.; Siegel, R.

    1993-03-01

    The link between geomagnetic field activity (GMA), solar activity and intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy individuals was investigated. The IOP of 485 patients (970 eyes) was recorded over three nonconsecutive years (1979, 1986, 1989) which were characterized by maximal solar activity (1979, 1989) or minimal solar activity (1986). The measurements were also correlated with four categories of GMA activity: quiet (level I0), unsettled (II0), active (III0), and stormy (IV0). Participants were also differentiated by age and sex. We found that IOP was lowest on days of level IV0 (stormy) GMA. The drop in IOP concomitant with a decrease in GMA level was more significant during periods of low solar activity and in persons over 65 years of age. There was a trend towards higher IOP values on days of levels II0 and IV0 GMA in years of high solar activity. Differences between the sexes and among individuals younger than 65 years were not significant. Our results show an interesting aspect of environmental influence on the healthy population.

  4. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  5. Applying Active Learning at the Graduate Level: Merger Issues at Newco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Bruce K.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that active learning can benefit students in public relations and integrated communication courses at the graduate level. Describes how three active learning approaches--research and field work, student accountabilities for learning, and student reflection and reflexive exercises--were used in a graduate class project to help a Fortune 50…

  6. The Physical Activity Levels of Preschool-Aged Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This systematic review presents research on the physical activity levels of preschool-aged children (aged 2-6 years). Thirty-nine primary studies (published 1986-2007) representing a total of 10,316 participants (5236 male and 5080 female), from seven countries are described and the physical activity behaviors of this population are considered in…

  7. Activity Level, Organization, and Social-Emotional Behaviors in Post-Institutionalized Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadlec, Mary Beth; Cermak, Sharon A.

    2002-01-01

    Compared activity and behaviors of 36- to 82-month-olds adopted from Romanian orphanages and with varying lengths of institutionalization (more than 6 months or less than 2 months) with those of age- and gender-matched American-born control groups. Found that each Romanian group exhibited more problems in activity level, organization, and…

  8. Reinforcing Constructivist Teaching in Advanced Level Biochemistry through the Introduction of Case-Based Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartfield, Perry J.

    2010-01-01

    In the process of curriculum development, I have integrated a constructivist teaching strategy into an advanced-level biochemistry teaching unit. Specifically, I have introduced case-based learning activities into the teaching/learning framework. These case-based learning activities were designed to develop problem-solving skills, consolidate…

  9. Self-Rated Activity Levels and Longevity: Evidence from a 20 Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullee, Mark A.; Coleman, Peter G.; Briggs, Roger S. J.; Stevenson, James E.; Turnbull, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The study reports on factors predicting the longevity of 328 people over the age of 65 drawn from an English city and followed over 20 years. Both the reported activities score and the individual's comparative evaluation of their own level of activity independently reduced the risk of death, even when health and cognitive status were taken into…

  10. Children's Activity Levels and Lesson Context during Third-Grade Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In this study, researchers observed third graders' physical activity levels and associated variables in physical education classes in four Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health centers nationwide. Results found significant differences among centers for physical activity and lesson context variables. During free play, boys were more…

  11. Understanding dog owners' increased levels of physical activity: results from RESIDE.

    PubMed

    Cutt, Hayley; Giles-Corti, Billie; Knuiman, Matthew; Timperio, Anna; Bull, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    We examined the influence of dog ownership on physical activity, independent of demographic, intrapersonal, and perceived environmental factors, in a cross-sectional survey of 1813 adults. Although only 23% of the dog owners walked their dogs 5 or more times per week, the adjusted odds of achieving sufficient physical activity and walking were 57% to 77% higher among dog owners compared with those not owning dogs (P< .05). Dog ownership was independently associated with physical activity and walking. Actively encouraging more dog walking may increase community physical activity levels.

  12. Feasibility and Effects of Short Activity Breaks for Increasing Preschool-Age Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog; Puleo, Elaine; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We examined the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA) implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on preschoolers PA. Methods: Preschools were randomized to SBS-PA (centers, N = 5; participants, N = 141) or unstructured free playtime (UPA) (centers, N = 5; participants,…

  13. Copper (II) Adsorption by Activated Carbons from Pecan Shells: Effect of Oxygen Level During Activation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural by-products represent a considerable quantity of harvested commodity crops. The use of by-products as precursors for the production of widely used adsorbents, such as activated carbons, may impart a value-added component of the overall biomass harvested. Our objective in this paper is...

  14. Metal Ion Adsorption by Activated Carbons Made from Pecan Shells: Effect of Oxygen Level During Activation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural by-products represent a considerable quantity of harvested commodity crops. The use of by-products as precursors for the production of widely used adsorbents, such as activated carbons, may impart a value-added component of the overall biomass harvested. Our objective in this presenta...

  15. [On mechanism of functional changes in the organism of teenagers at different levels of locomotor activity].

    PubMed

    Mindubaeva, F A; Shukurov, F A; Salikhova, Y Y; Niyazova, Y I; Ramazanov, A K

    2015-02-01

    Comprehensive study of the cardiovascular system functional condition of 15-16 teenagers while in normal daily locomotor activity and in the mode of regular moderate physical activity was performed. The features of cerebral circulation and myocardium functional condition of teenagers are studied depending on initial tonus of the autonomic nervous system and locomotor activity level in the process of continuous step physical activity on tredmil. The condition of regulatory mechanisms, providing adaptation of teenagers in the conditions of modern school was studied. Research results showed, that elasticity of cerebrum arterial vessels, veins tone, venous outflow for teenagers not having regular physical activity, considerably mionectic. More adequate reaction of coronary blood flow in the process of physical activity is educed for the trained teenagers with the balanced autonomic regulation of cardiac rhythm. This group showed a higher level and regulation quality of organism reserve possibilities.

  16. Differences between evolution of Titan's and Earth's rivers - further conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiura, Katarzyna; Czechowski, Leszek

    2014-05-01

    Titan is the only celestial body, beside the Earth, where liquid is present on the surface. Liquid forms a number of lakes and rivers. In our research we use numerical model of the river to determine differences of evolution of rivers on the Earth and on Titan. We have found that transport of sediments on Titan is more effective than on Earth for the same river geometry and discharge. We have found also the theoretical explanations for this conclusion. 2.Introduction Titan is a very special body in the Solar System. It is the only moon that has dense atmosphere and flowing liquid on its surface. The Cassini-Huygens mission has found on Titan meandering rivers, and indicated processes of erosion, transport of solid material and its sedimentation. This paper is aimed to investigate the similarity and differences between these processes on Titan and the Earth. 3. Basic equations of our model The dynamical analysis of the considered rivers is performed using the package CCHE modified for the specific conditions on Titan. The package is based on the Navier-Stokes equations for depth-integrated two dimensional, turbulent flow and three dimensional convection-diffusion equation of sediment transport. 4. Parameters of the model We considered our model for a few kinds of liquid found on Titan. The liquid that falls as a rain (75% methane, 25% nitrogen) has different properties than the fluid forming lakes (74% ethane, 10% methane, 7% propane, 8.5% butane, 0.5% nitrogen). Other parameters of our model are: inflow discharge, outflow level, grain size of sediments etc. For every calculation performed for Titan's river similar calculations are performed for terrestrial ones. 5. Results and Conclusions The results of our simulation show the differences in behaviour of the flow and of sedimentation on Titan and on the Earth. Our preliminary results indicate that transport of material by Titan's rivers is more efficient than by terrestrial rivers of the same geometry parameters

  17. Commercial/Industrial Activities Program: The Effect of Program Implementation at the Command Level.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    R,177 468 COMMERCIAL /INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM THE EFFECT OF 1/1 PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION AT THE COMMAND LEVEL(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL...OLUTION 1ESI Chs,; o NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California rMl , MA. 0 3 1987 ,, THESIS V E COMMERCIAL /INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM: THE...block number) ED GROUP SUB-GROUP Commercial Activities; L Effective Implementation 9 ,BS’RAC’ (Continue on reverie if necessary ard ident, fy by block

  18. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  19. THE EFFECT OF GAMBLING ACTIVITIES ON HAPPINESS LEVELS OF NURSING HOME RESIDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Mark R; Nastally, Becky L; Waterman, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results indicated that all residents exhibited a higher percentage of happiness levels while engaged in simulated gambling activities compared with baseline. Follow-up assessment took place 10 min and 30 min following the intervention; no lasting effects were observed. PMID:21358915

  20. Relationship between serum leptin level and disease activity in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Budulgan, Mahmut; Dilek, Banu; Dağ, Şevin Buluttekin; Batmaz, Ibrahim; Yıldız, İsmail; Sarıyıldız, Mustafa Akif; Çevik, Remzi; Nas, Kemal

    2014-03-01

    To determine the relationship between serum leptin levels and disease activity in systemic sclerosis (SSc). A total of 60 subjects (30 controls and 30 patients) were included. The inflammatory markers and leptin levels were evaluated and body mass index (BMI) was measured for both groups. The assessment of the skin involvement was performed based on the modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS). Disease activity was evaluated according to the Valentini scleroderma disease activity index. There was a significant difference between the patient and control groups in terms of BMI (p < 0.05); however there was no difference with regards to age and gender (p > 0.05). Valentini scores and mRSS were determined to be significantly higher in active patients (n = 14) than in inactive patients (n = 16) (p < 0.05). No significant difference was determined between groups in terms of leptin levels (p > 0.05). However, leptin levels were significantly lower in active patients than in inactive patients (p < 0.05). We found a significant positive correlation between serum leptin and BMI (p < 0.05), and leptin and serum C3 levels (p < 0.05); no relationship was detected between leptin and other parameters. Leptin can be used as an activity marker in SSc. Further studies, including larger series, should be carried out to clarify this relationship.

  1. Circulating Level of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Is Not a Useful Biomarker for Assessing Disease Activity in Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Lu-Xia; Chen, Min; Zhao, Ming-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of life-threatening disorders, and frequently affects the kidneys. This study investigated whether the circulating neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) levels were associated with disease activity of AAV. We collected serum samples from 34 patients with AAV in active stage and 62 patients with AAV in remission. Cell free DNA in serum was quantified using the Quant-iT PicoGreen assay. NETs associated MPO-DNA complexes, citrullinated-histone H3-DNA (cit-H3-DNA) complexes and the concentration of deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) were quantified using ELISA. The activity of DNase I was quantified using radial enzyme-diffusion method. Associations between circulating levels of NETs with clinico-pathological parameters were analyzed. Serum levels of NETs in active AAV patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls, and the level of cell free DNA correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP). However, no correlation was found between MPO-DNA complexes or cit-H3-DNA complexes level and CRP. Also there was no significant correlation between NETs level and initial serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), crescents formation or Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS). Furthermore, there was no significant difference of serum levels of cell free DNA or MPO-DNA complexes between active stage and remission of AAV. In conclusion, circulating levels of NETs cannot be used as a biomarker to assess disease activity in AAV patients. PMID:26840412

  2. Instructions, feedback, and reinforcement in reducing activity levels in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Schulman, J L; Suran, B G; Stevens, T M; Kupst, M J

    1979-01-01

    The biomotometer, an electronic device which simultaneously measures motor activity and provides auditory feedback, was used in combination with material reinforcers in an experiment to reduce children's activity level in a classroom setting. Subjects were nine boys and two girls, aged 9--13, from a day hospital program for emotionally disturbed children. After five baseline trials, each child had five contingent reinforcement trials in which he/she received feedback "beeps" from the biomotometer and was given toy or candy rewards after each trial in which activity fell at least 20% below mean baseline level. Then five noncontingent reinforcement trials were run in which children received rewards for wearing the apparatus without the feedback attachment. Results indicated that the intervention "package," including instructions, feedback, and contingent reinforcement, was successful in all five trials for 8 of 11 children. Activity levels increased during the final noncontingent phase.

  3. Sources and magnitude of variability in pedometer-determined physical activity levels of youth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So-Yeun; Park, Hye-Sang

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sources of variability in habitual physical activity of children, and the minimum number of days required for estimating children’s habitual physical activity levels using pedometers. A total of 31 children wore two pedometers during five weekdays and four weekend days. A two random facet completely crossed design was conducted with two-way analysis of variances across weekdays, weekends, and weekdays and weekend days combined. Moderate/high generalizability coefficients were estimated across all days. Primary sources of variability were variance components of the person and person by day interaction. Minimum numbers of days required for estimating habitual physical activity levels using a pedometer were five during weekdays. However, estimating habitual physical activity levels during weekends, and weekdays and weekend days combined was impractical. PMID:26730388

  4. Outdoor temperature, precipitation, and wind speed affect physical activity levels in children: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Nicholas M.; Myer, Gregory D.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Woo, Jessica G.; Khoury, Philip R.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Daniels, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate effects of local weather conditions on physical activity in early childhood. Methods Longitudinal prospective cohort study of 372 children, 3 years old at enrollment, drawn from a major US metropolitan community. Accelerometer-measured (RT3) physical activity was collected every 4 months over 5 years and matched with daily weather measures: day length, heating/cooling degrees (degrees mean temperature < 65°F or ≥ 65°F, respectively), wind, and precipitation. Mixed regression analyses, adjusted for repeated measures, were used to test the relationship between weather and physical activity. Results Precipitation and wind speed were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity (P<0.0001). Heating and cooling degrees were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity and positively associated with inactivity (all P<0.0001), independent of age, sex, race, BMI, day length, wind, and precipitation. For every 10 additional heating degrees there was a five-minute daily reduction in moderate-vigorous physical activity. For every additional 10 cooling degrees there was a 17-minute reduction in moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Inclement weather (higher/lower temperature, greater wind speed, more rain/snow) is associated with less physical activity in young children. These deleterious effects should be considered when planning physical activity research, interventions, and policies. PMID:25423667

  5. Methionine and S-Adenosylmethionine levels are critical regulators of PP2A activity modulating lipophagy during steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Zubiete-Franco, Imanol; García-Rodríguez, Juan Luis; Martínez-Uña, Maite; Martínez-Lopez, Nuria; Woodhoo, Ashwin; Juan, Virginia Gutiérrez-De; Beraza, Naiara; Lage-Medina, Sergio; Andrade, Fernando; Fernandez, Marta Llarena; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis; Fernández-Ramos, David; Falcon-Perez, Juan Manuel; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Fernandez-Tussy, Pablo; Barbier-Torres, Lucía; Luka, Zigmund; Wagner, Conrad; García-Monzón, Carmelo; Lu, Shelly C.; Aspichueta, Patricia; Mato, José María; Martínez-Chantar, María Luz; Varela-Rey, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) expression is decreased in some patients with severe NAFLD. Gnmt deficiency in mice (Gnmt-KO) results in abnormally elevated serum levels of methionine and its metabolite S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), and this leads to rapid liver steatosis development. Autophagy plays a critical role in lipid catabolism (lipophagy), and defects in autophagy have been related to liver steatosis development. Since methionine and its metabolite SAMe are well known inactivators of autophagy, we aimed to examine whether high levels of both metabolites could block autophagy-mediated lipid catabolism. Methods We examined methionine levels in a cohort of 358 serum samples from steatotic patients. We used hepatocytes cultured with methionine and SAMe, and hepatocytes and livers from Gnmt-KO mice. Results We detected a significant increase in serum methionine levels in steatotic patients. We observed that autophagy and lipophagy were impaired in hepatocytes cultured with high methionine and SAMe, and that Gnmt-KO livers were characterized by an impairment in autophagy functionality, likely caused by defects at the lysosomal level. Elevated levels of methionine and SAMe activated PP2A by methylation, while blocking PP2A activity restored autophagy flux in Gnmt-KO hepatocytes, and in hepatocytes treated with SAMe and Methionine. Finally, normalization of methionine and SAMe levels in Gnmt-KO mice using a methionine deficient diet normalized the methylation capacity, PP2A methylation, autophagy, and ameloriated liver steatosis. Conclusions These data suggest that elevated levels of methionine and SAMe can inhibit autophagic catabolism of lipids contributing to liver steatosis. PMID:26394163

  6. Activity and circadian rhythm influence synaptic Shank3 protein levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Sarowar, Tasnuva; Chhabra, Resham; Vilella, Antonietta; Boeckers, Tobias M; Zoli, Michele; Grabrucker, Andreas M

    2016-09-01

    Various recent studies revealed that the proteins of the Shank family act as major scaffold organizing elements in the post-synaptic density of excitatory synapses and that their expression level is able to influence synapse formation, maturation and ultimately brain plasticity. An imbalance in Shank3 protein levels has been associated with a variety of neuropsychological and neurodegenerative disorders including autism spectrum disorders and Phelan-McDermid syndrome. Given that sleep disorders and low melatonin levels are frequently observed in autism spectrum disorders, and that circadian rhythms may be able to modulate Shank3 signaling and thereby synaptic function, here, we performed in vivo studies on CBA mice using protein biochemistry to investigate the synaptic expression levels of Shank3α during the day in different brain regions. Our results show that synaptic Shank3 protein concentrations exhibit minor oscillations during the day in hippocampal and striatal brain regions that correlate with changes in serum melatonin levels. Furthermore, as circadian rhythms are tightly connected to activity levels in mice, we increased physical activity using running wheels. The expression of Shank3α increases rapidly by induced activity in thalamus and cortex, but decreases in striatum, superimposing the circadian rhythms of different brain regions. We conclude that synaptic Shank3 proteins build highly dynamic platforms that are modulated by the light:dark cycles but even more so driven by activity. Using wild-type CBA mice, we show that Shank3 is a highly dynamic and activity-regulated protein at synapses. In the hippocampus, changes in synaptic Shank3 levels are influenced by circadian rhythm/melatonin concentration, while running activity increases and decreases levels of Shank3 in the cortex and striatum respectively.

  7. Travel to School and Physical Activity Levels in 9–10 Year-Old UK Children of Different Ethnic Origin; Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE)

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Christopher G.; Nightingale, Claire M.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Ekelund, Ulf; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Travel to school may offer a convenient way to increase physical activity levels in childhood. We examined the association between method of travel to school and physical activity levels in urban multi-ethnic children. Methods and Findings 2035 children (aged 9–10 years in 2006–7) provided data on their usual method of travel to school and wore an Actigraph-GT1M activity monitor during waking hours. Associations between method of travel and mean level of physical activity (counts per minute [CPM], steps, time spent in light, moderate or vigorous activity per day) were examined in models adjusted for confounding variables. 1393 children (69%) walked or cycled to school; 161 (8%) used public transport and 481 (24%) travelled by car. White European children were more likely to walk/cycle, black African Caribbeans to travel by public transport and South Asian children to travel by car. Children travelling by car spent less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity (−7 mins, 95%CI-9,-5), and had lower CPM (−32 CPM, 95%CI-44,-19) and steps per day (−813 steps, 95%CI,-1043,-582) than walkers/cyclists. Pupils travelling by public transport had similar activity levels to walkers/cyclists. Lower physical activity levels amongst car travellers' were especially marked at travelling times (school days between 8–9 am, 3–5 pm), but were also evident on weekdays at other times and at weekends; they did not differ by gender or ethnic group. Conclusion Active travel to school is associated with higher levels of objectively measured physical activity, particularly during periods of travel but also at other times. If children travelling by car were to achieve physical activity levels (steps) similar to children using active travel, they would increase their physical activity levels by 9%. However, the population increase would be a modest 2%, because of the low proportion of car travellers in this urban population. PMID:22319596

  8. Use of a consumer market activity monitoring and feedback device improves exercise capacity and activity levels in COPD.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Brian; Kaljo, Indira; Donnelly, Seamas

    2014-01-01

    COPD is associated with a gradual decline in physical activity, which itself contributes to a worsening of the underlying condition. Strategies that improve physical activity levels are critical to halt this cycle. Wearable sensor based activity monitoring and persuasive feedback might offer a potential solution. However it is not clear just how much intervention might be needed in this regard - i.e. whether programmes need to be tailored specifically for the target clinical population or whether more simple activity monitoring and feedback solutions, such as that offered in consumer market devices, might be sufficient. This research was carried out to investigate the impact of 4 weeks of using an off the shelf consumer market activity monitoring and feedback application on measures of physical activity, exercise capacity, and health related quality of life in a population of 10 Stage I and II COPD patients. Results demonstrate a significant and positive effect on exercise capacity (measured using a 6-minute walk test) and activity levels (measured in terms of average number of steps per hour) yet no impact on health related quality of life (St Georges Respiratory Disease Questionnaire).

  9. Carbonic anhydrase activity in the red blood cells of sea level and high altitude natives.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, J; Caceda, R; Gamboa, A; Monge-C, C

    2000-01-01

    Red blood cell carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity has not been studied in high altitude natives. Because CA is an intraerythocytic enzyme and high altitude natives are polycythemic, it is important to know if the activity of CA per red cell volume is different from that of their sea level counterparts. Blood was collected from healthy subjects living in Lima (150m) and from twelve subjects from Cerro de Pasco (4330m), and hematocrit and carbonic anhydrase activity were measured. As expected, the high altitude natives had significantly higher hematocrits than the sea level controls (p = 0.0002). No difference in the CA activity per milliliter of red cells was found between the two populations. There was no correlation between the hematocrit and CA activity.

  10. Syzygium cumini inhibits adenosine deaminase activity and reduces glucose levels in hyperglycemic patients.

    PubMed

    Bopp, A; De Bona, K S; Bellé, L P; Moresco, R N; Moretto, M B

    2009-08-01

    Syzigium cumini (L.) Skeels from the Myrtaceae family is among the most common medicinal plants used to treat diabetes in Brazil. Leaves, fruits, and barks of S. cumini have been used for their hypoglycemic activity. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an important enzyme that plays a relevant role in purine and DNA metabolism, immune responses, and peptidase activity. ADA is suggested to be an important enzyme for modulating the bioactivity of insulin, but its clinical significance in diabetes mellitus (DM) has not yet been proven. In this study, we examined the effect of aqueous leaf extracts of S. cumini (L.) (ASC) on ADA activity of hyperglycemic subjects and the activity of total ADA, and its isoenzymes in serum and erythrocytes. The present study indicates that: (i) the ADA activity in hyperglycemic serum was higher than normoglycemic serum and ADA activity was higher when the blood glucose level was more elevated; (ii) ASC (60-1000 microg/mL) in vitro caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of total ADA activity and a decrease in the blood glucose level in serum; (iii) ADA1 and 2 were reduced both in erythrocytes and in hyperglycemic serum. These results suggest that the decrease of ADA activity provoked by ASC may contribute to control adenosine levels and the antioxidant defense system of red cells and could be related to the complex ADA/DPP-IV-CD26 and the properties of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors which serve as important regulators of blood glucose.

  11. Can exergaming contribute to improving physical activity levels and health outcomes in children?

    PubMed

    Daley, Amanda J

    2009-08-01

    Physical inactivity among children is a serious public health problem. It has been suggested that high levels of screen time are contributory factors that encourage sedentary lifestyles in young people. As physical inactivity and obesity levels continue to rise in young people, it has been proposed that new-generation active computer- and video-console games (otherwise known as "exergaming") may offer the opportunity to contribute to young people's energy expenditure during their free time. Although studies have produced some encouraging results regarding the energy costs involved in playing active video-console games, the energy costs of playing the authentic versions of activity-based video games are substantially larger, highlighting that active gaming is no substitute for real sports and activities. A small number of exergaming activities engage children in moderate-intensity activity, but most do not. Only 3 very small trials have considered the effects of exergaming on physical activity levels and/or other health outcomes in children. Evidence from these trials has been mixed; positive trends for improvements in some health outcomes in the intervention groups were noted in 2 trials. No adequately powered randomized, controlled trial has been published to date, and no trial has assessed the long-term impact of exergaming on children's health. We now need high-quality randomized, controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of exergaming, as well as its clinical relevance; until such studies take place, we should remain cautious about its ability to positively affect children's health.

  12. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed.

  13. Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Differ According to Education Level in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009–2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays. PMID:27403958

  14. Moderate levels of activation lead to forgetting in the think/no-think paradigm.

    PubMed

    Detre, Greg J; Natarajan, Annamalai; Gershman, Samuel J; Norman, Kenneth A

    2013-10-01

    Using the think/no-think paradigm (Anderson & Green, 2001), researchers have found that suppressing retrieval of a memory (in the presence of a strong retrieval cue) can make it harder to retrieve that memory on a subsequent test. This effect has been replicated numerous times, but the size of the effect is highly variable. Also, it is unclear from a neural mechanistic standpoint why preventing recall of a memory now should impair your ability to recall that memory later. Here, we address both of these puzzles using the idea, derived from computational modeling and studies of synaptic plasticity, that the function relating memory activation to learning is U-shaped, such that moderate levels of memory activation lead to weakening of the memory and higher levels of activation lead to strengthening. According to this view, forgetting effects in the think/no-think paradigm occur when the suppressed item activates moderately during the suppression attempt, leading to weakening; the effect is variable because sometimes the suppressed item activates strongly (leading to strengthening) and sometimes it does not activate at all (in which case no learning takes place). To test this hypothesis, we ran a think/no-think experiment where participants learned word-picture pairs; we used pattern classifiers, applied to fMRI data, to measure how strongly the picture associates were activating when participants were trying not to retrieve these associates, and we used a novel Bayesian curve-fitting procedure to relate this covert neural measure of retrieval to performance on a later memory test. In keeping with our hypothesis, the curve-fitting procedure revealed a nonmonotonic relationship between memory activation (as measured by the classifier) and subsequent memory, whereby moderate levels of activation of the to-be-suppressed item led to diminished performance on the final memory test, and higher levels of activation led to enhanced performance on the final test.

  15. Moderate Levels of Activation Lead to Forgetting In the Think/No-Think Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Detre, Greg J.; Natarajan, Annamalai; Gershman, Samuel J.; Norman, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Using the think/no-think paradigm (Anderson & Green, 2001), researchers have found that suppressing retrieval of a memory (in the presence of a strong retrieval cue) can make it harder to retrieve that memory on a subsequent test. This effect has been replicated numerous times, but the size of the effect is highly variable. Also, it is unclear from a neural mechanistic standpoint why preventing recall of a memory now should impair your ability to recall that memory later. Here, we address both of these puzzles using the idea, derived from computational modeling and studies of synaptic plasticity, that the function relating memory activation to learning is U-shaped, such that moderate levels of memory activation lead to weakening of the memory and higher levels of activation lead to strengthening. According to this view, forgetting effects in the think/no-think paradigm occur when the suppressed item activates moderately during the suppression attempt, leading to weakening; the effect is variable because sometimes the suppressed item activates strongly (leading to strengthening) and sometimes it does not activate at all (in which case no learning takes place). To test this hypothesis, we ran a think/no-think experiment where participants learned word-picture pairs; we used pattern classifiers, applied to fMRI data, to measure how strongly the picture associates were activating when participants were trying not to retrieve these associates, and we used a novel Bayesian curve-fitting procedure to relate this covert neural measure of retrieval to performance on a later memory test. In keeping with our hypothesis, the curve-fitting procedure revealed a nonmonotonic relationship between memory activation (as measured by the classifier) and subsequent memory, whereby moderate levels of activation of the to-be-suppressed item led to diminished performance on the final memory test, and higher levels of activation led to enhanced performance on the final test. PMID:23499722

  16. 40 CFR 209.35 - Conclusion of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conclusion of hearing. 209.35 Section 209.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS... Hearings for Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.35 Conclusion of hearing....

  17. 40 CFR 209.35 - Conclusion of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conclusion of hearing. 209.35 Section 209.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS... Hearings for Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.35 Conclusion of hearing....

  18. 40 CFR 209.35 - Conclusion of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conclusion of hearing. 209.35 Section 209.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS... Hearings for Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.35 Conclusion of hearing....

  19. 10 CFR 2.712 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 2.712 Section 2.712... ORDERS Rules for Formal Adjudications § 2.712 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Any party to a proceeding may, or if directed by the presiding officer shall, file proposed findings of fact and...

  20. 40 CFR 209.35 - Conclusion of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conclusion of hearing. 209.35 Section 209.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS... Hearings for Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.35 Conclusion of hearing....

  1. 10 CFR 2.712 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 2.712 Section 2.712... ORDERS Rules for Formal Adjudications § 2.712 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Any party to a proceeding may, or if directed by the presiding officer shall, file proposed findings of fact and...

  2. 40 CFR 209.35 - Conclusion of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Conclusion of hearing. 209.35 Section 209.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS... Hearings for Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.35 Conclusion of hearing....

  3. Move Sequences in Graduate Research Paper Introductions and Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrunio, Marilu Rañosa

    2012-01-01

    Graduate students submit academic papers at the end of the term as part of their coursework. Such papers contain introduction moves which may be troublesome and conclusion moves which may contain sub-moves not really required. This paper is aimed at assessing what particular moves are employed in the introduction and conclusion sections of 21…

  4. 19 CFR 111.68 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 111.68 Section 111.68 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Monetary Penalty in Lieu of Suspension or Revocation § 111.68 Proposed findings and conclusions....

  5. Jumping to the Right Conclusions, Inferences, and Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannattasio, Jack; Bazler, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Writing meaningful conclusions, drawing accurate inferences, and making relevant predictions are essential skills that many adolescents lack. The differences among conclusions, inferences, and predictions, although subtle, must be recognized to accurately analyze and interpret lab data. During one of the authors' 14 years as a physics and…

  6. On symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logic of Proofs

    SciTech Connect

    Krupski, Vladimir N

    2011-05-31

    In this paper we define symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logics of Proofs. We prove the soundness and completeness of these logics with respect to the corresponding classes of symbolic models. We apply the semantic methods developed in this paper to justify the use of terms of single-conclusion logic of proofs as notation for derivations in this logic. Bibliography: 17 titles.

  7. The nonlinear dynamics and fluctuations of mRNA levels in cross-talking pathway activated transcription.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianshe; Sun, Qiwen; Tang, Moxun

    2014-12-21

    Gene transcription is a stochastic process, and is often activated by multiple signal transduction pathways. In this work, we study gene transcription activated randomly by two cross-talking pathways, with the messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules being produced in a simple birth and death process. We derive the analytical formulas for the mean and the second moment of mRNA copy numbers and characterize the nature of transcription noise. We find that the stationary noise strength Φ is close to its baseline limit 1 when the mRNA level is high due to strong activation or stable transcription, or the mRNA level is low due to unstable transcription or ineffective mRNA production. If Φ stays well above 1, then the gene is infrequently active but mRNAs are accumulated rapidly once it is active. In this case, the system generates a transcriptional bursting, and the mean mRNA level peaks at a finite time. By examining the nonlinear dependance of Φ on transcriptional efficiency, we show that the maximum noise strength is attained only when the gene is silent in the majority of cells as observed in recent experiments. By comparing the current findings with our previous results in sequential pathway model, we come up with a profound conclusion that parallel, cross-talking pathways tend to increase transcription noise, whereas sequential pathways tend to reduce transcription noise. A further study on gene transcription activated by entangling pathways may help us reveal the subtle connection between the characteristics of transcription noise and the topology of genetic network.

  8. Decreased glutathione levels and impaired antioxidant enzyme activities in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine glutathione levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in the drug-naive first-episode patients with schizophrenia in comparison with healthy control subjects. Methods It was a case-controlled study carried on twenty-three patients (20 men and 3 women, mean age = 29.3 ± 7.5 years) recruited in their first-episode of schizophrenia and 40 healthy control subjects (36 men and 9 women, mean age = 29.6 ± 6.2 years). In patients, the blood samples were obtained prior to the initiation of neuroleptic treatments. Glutathione levels: total glutathione (GSHt), reduced glutathione (GSHr) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and antioxidant enzyme activities: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) were determined by spectrophotometry. Results GSHt and reduced GSHr were significantly lower in patients than in controls, whereas GSSG was significantly higher in patients. GPx activity was significantly higher in patients compared to control subjects. CAT activity was significantly lower in patients, whereas the SOD activity was comparable to that of controls. Conclusion This is a report of decreased plasma levels of GSHt and GSHr, and impaired antioxidant enzyme activities in drug-naive first-episode patients with schizophrenia. The GSH deficit seems to be implicated in psychosis, and may be an important indirect biomarker of oxidative stress in schizophrenia early in the course of illness. Finally, our results provide support for further studies of the possible role of antioxidants as neuroprotective therapeutic strategies for schizophrenia from early stages. PMID:21810251

  9. Influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Varella, Larissa Ramalho Dantas; Torres, Vanessa Braga; Angelo, Priscylla Helouyse Melo; Eugênia de Oliveira, Maria Clara; Matias de Barros, Alef Cavalcanti; Viana, Elizabel de Souza Ramalho; Micussi, Maria Thereza de Albuquerque Barbosa Cabral

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women. [Subjects and Methods] This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study with a sample of 100 postmenopausal women, aged between 45 and 65 years, divided into three groups according to menopausal stage: hysterectomized and early and late postmenopause. Patients were assessed for sociodemographic and gyneco-obstetric factors and subjected to a muscle strength test and perineometry. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and multiple regression were applied. [Results] The results showed homogeneity in sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics. There was no difference in pelvic floor muscle function among the three groups. Type of delivery, parity and physical activity level showed no influence on muscle function. [Conclusion] The findings demonstrate that parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level had no influence on pelvic floor muscle pressure in postmenopausal women. One hypothesis to explain these results is the fact that the decline in muscle function in postmenopausal women is related to the female aging process. PMID:27134366

  10. Restrictive pattern on spirometry: association with cardiovascular risk and level of physical activity in asymptomatic adults

    PubMed Central

    Sperandio, Evandro Fornias; Arantes, Rodolfo Leite; Matheus, Agatha Caveda; da Silva, Rodrigo Pereira; Lauria, Vinícius Tonon; Romiti, Marcello; Gagliardi, Antônio Ricardo de Toledo; Dourado, Victor Zuniga

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To determine whether a restrictive pattern on spirometry is associated with the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL), as well as with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, in asymptomatic adults. Methods : A total of 374 participants (mean age, 41 ± 14 years) underwent spirometry, which included the determination of FVC and FEV1. A restrictive pattern on spirometry was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio > 0.7 and an FVC < 80% of the predicted value. After conducting demographic, anthropometric, and CVD risk assessments, we evaluated body composition, muscle function, and postural balance, as well as performing cardiopulmonary exercise testing and administering the six-minute walk test. The PADL was quantified with a triaxial accelerometer. Results : A restrictive pattern on spirometry was found in 10% of the subjects. After multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for confounders (PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness), the following variables retained significance (OR; 95% CI) as predictors of a restrictive pattern: systemic arterial hypertension (17.5; 1.65-184.8), smoking (11.6; 1.56-87.5), physical inactivity (8.1; 1.43-46.4), larger center-of-pressure area while standing on a force platform (1.34; 1.05-1.71); and dyslipidemia (1.89; 1.12-1.98). Conclusions : A restrictive pattern on spirometry appears to be common in asymptomatic adults. We found that CVD risk factors, especially systemic arterial hypertension, smoking, and physical inactivity, were directly associated with a restrictive pattern, even when the analysis was adjusted for PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness. Longitudinal studies are needed in order to improve understanding of the etiology of a restrictive pattern as well as to aid in the design of preventive strategies. PMID:26982037

  11. The Effect of Programed Physical Activity Measured with Levels of Body Balance Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Mańko, Grzegorz; Kruczkowski, Dariusz; Niźnikowski, Tomasz; Perliński, Jacek; Chantsoulis, Marzena; Pokorska, Joanna; Łukaszewska, Beata; Ziółkowski, Artur; Graczyk, Marek; Starczyńska, Małgorzata; Jaszczur-Nowicki, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the research was an evaluation of 2 training programs covering the same standard physical activity in the initial stage (warm-up) and the main (motor exercises) as well as a separate end part in Program A of stretching and in Programme B of vibration training designed to improve the level of body balance. Material/Methods We tested 40 randomly chosen students of the Academy of Physical Education and Sport in Gdansk, subsequently divided into two 20-person groups: C (average age 21.3±1.2), and E (average age 21.8±1.1). The training of body balance was conducted for 8 weeks: we used in Group C Program A and in group E Program B. The evaluation of body balance was done 3 times: at the beginning, at midway point, and at the end of the experiment. The stabilographic tests with posture-graphical method and the task of 1-leg balance standing with eyes closed was used. Results It was found that in the first examination both groups did not significantly differ in terms of the tested parameters of balance. During the training process we obtained increased time of maintaining balance on 1 leg. This difference was significant between tests 1 and 2 both for Group C (p=0.0002) and for E (p=0.0034), while between the tests 2 and 3 in Group E (p=0.0213) only. Conclusions The training Program B is more effective to maintain balance on 1 leg when compared to Program A. PMID:25284349

  12. Regulation of myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration: effects of oxygen levels on satellite cell activity.

    PubMed

    Chaillou, Thomas; Lanner, Johanna T

    2016-12-01

    Reduced oxygen (O2) levels (hypoxia) are present during embryogenesis and exposure to altitude and in pathologic conditions. During embryogenesis, myogenic progenitor cells reside in a hypoxic microenvironment, which may regulate their activity. Satellite cells are myogenic progenitor cells localized in a local environment, suggesting that the O2 level could affect their activity during muscle regeneration. In this review, we present the idea that O2 levels regulate myogenesis and muscle regeneration, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying myogenesis and muscle regeneration in hypoxia and depict therapeutic strategies using changes in O2 levels to promote muscle regeneration. Severe hypoxia (≤1% O2) appears detrimental for myogenic differentiation in vitro, whereas a 3-6% O2 level could promote myogenesis. Hypoxia impairs the regenerative capacity of injured muscles. Although it remains to be explored, hypoxia may contribute to the muscle damage observed in patients with pathologies associated with hypoxia (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and peripheral arterial disease). Hypoxia affects satellite cell activity and myogenesis through mechanisms dependent and independent of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Finally, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and transplantation of hypoxia-conditioned myoblasts are beneficial procedures to enhance muscle regeneration in animals. These therapies may be clinically relevant to treatment of patients with severe muscle damage.-Chaillou, T. Lanner, J. T. Regulation of myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration: effects of oxygen levels on satellite cell activity.

  13. Motility, ATP levels and metabolic enzyme activity of sperm from bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus).

    PubMed

    Burness, Gary; Moyes, Christopher D; Montgomerie, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Male bluegill displays one of two life history tactics. Some males (termed "parentals") delay reproduction until ca. 7 years of age, at which time they build nests and actively courts females. Others mature precociously (sneakers) and obtain fertilizations by cuckolding parental males. In the current study, we studied the relations among sperm motility, ATP levels, and metabolic enzyme activity in parental and sneaker bluegill. In both reproductive tactics, sperm swimming speed and ATP levels declined in parallel over the first 60 s of motility. Although sneaker sperm initially had higher ATP levels than parental sperm, by approximately 30 s postactivation, no differences existed between tactics. No differences were noted between tactics in swimming speed, percent motility, or the activities of key metabolic enzymes, although sperm from parentals had a higher ratio of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) to citrate synthase (CS). In both tactics, with increasing CPK and CS activity, sperm ATP levels increased at 20 s postactivation, suggesting that capacities for phosphocreatine hydrolysis and aerobic metabolism may influence interindividual variation in rates of ATP depletion. Nonetheless, there was no relation between sperm ATP levels and either swimming speed or percent of sperm that were motile. This suggests that interindividual variation in ATP levels may not be the primary determinant of variation in sperm swimming performance in bluegill.

  14. Predator and prey activity levels jointly influence the outcome of long-term foraging bouts.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Kayla; Cusack, Brian; Armagost, Fawn; O'Brien, Timothy; Keiser, Carl N; Pruitt, Jonathan N

    2013-09-01

    Consistent interindividual differences in behavior (i.e., "behavioral types") may be a key factor in determining the outcome of species interactions. Studies that simultaneously account for the behavioral types of individuals in multiple interacting species, such as predator-prey systems, may be particularly strong predictors of ecological outcomes. Here, we test the predator-prey locomotor crossover hypothesis, which predicts that active predators are more likely to encounter and consume prey with the opposing locomotor tendency. We test this hypothesis using intraspecific behavioral variation in both a predator and prey species as predictors of foraging outcomes. We use the old field jumping spider, Phidippus clarus (Araneae, Salticidae), and the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera, Gryllidae), as a model predator-prey system in laboratory mesocosm trials. Stable individual differences in locomotor tendencies were identified in both P. clarus and A. domesticus, and the outcome of foraging bouts depended neither on the average activity level of the predator nor on the average activity level of prey. Instead, an interaction between the activity level of spiders and crickets predicted spider foraging success and prey survivorship. Consistent with the locomotor crossover hypothesis, predators exhibiting higher activity levels consumed more prey when in an environment containing low-activity prey items and vice versa. This study highlights 1) the importance of intraspecific variation in determining the outcome of predator-prey interactions and 2) that acknowledging behavioral variation in only a single species may be insufficient to characterize the performance consequences of intraspecific trait variants.

  15. Effect of physical activity level on biomarkers of inflammation and insulin resistance over 5 years in outpatients with coronary heart disease (from the Heart and Soul Study).

    PubMed

    Jarvie, Jennifer L; Whooley, Mary A; Regan, Mathilda C; Sin, Nancy L; Cohen, Beth E

    2014-10-15

    Higher levels of physical activity are associated with lower rates of coronary heart disease (CHD). Previous studies have suggested that this is due partly to lower levels of inflammation and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine whether physical activity level was associated with inflammation or insulin resistance during a 5-year period in outpatients with known CHD. A total of 656 participants from the Heart and Soul Study, a prospective cohort study of outpatients with documented CHD, were evaluated. Self-reported physical activity frequency was assessed at baseline and after 5 years of follow-up. Participants were classified as low versus high activity at each visit, yielding 4 physical activity groups: stable low activity, decreasing activity (high at baseline to low at year 5), increasing activity (low at baseline to high at year 5), and stable high activity. Year 5 markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin-6, and fibrinogen) and insulin resistance (insulin, glucose, and glycated hemoglobin) were compared across the 4 activity groups. After 5 years of follow-up, higher activity was associated with lower mean levels of all biomarkers. In the fully adjusted regression models, CRP, interleukin-6, and glucose remained independently associated with physical activity frequency (log CRP, p for trend across activity groups = 0.03; log interleukin-6, p for trend = 0.01; log glucose, p for trend = 0.003). Subjects with stable high activity typically had the lowest levels of biomarkers. In conclusion, in this novel population of outpatients with known CHD followed for 5 years, higher physical activity frequency was independently associated with lower levels of CRP, interleukin-6, and glucose.

  16. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael J; Schmitt, Emily E; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r (2) = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r (2) = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year.

  17. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r2 = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r2 = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  18. Increased levels of adenosine and ecto 5'-nucleotidase (CD73) activity precede renal alterations in experimental diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Oyarzún, C; Salinas, C; Gómez, D; Jaramillo, K; Pérez, G; Alarcón, S; Podestá, L; Flores, C; Quezada, C; San Martín, R

    The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) has not been clearly established, making diagnosis and patient management difficult. Recent studies using experimental diabetic models have implicated adenosine signaling with renal cells dysfunction. Therefore, the study of the biochemical mechanisms that regulate extracellular adenosine availability during DN is of emerging interest. Using streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats we demonstrated that urinary levels of adenosine were early increased. Further analyses showed an increased expression of the ecto 5'-nucleotidase (CD73), which hydrolyzes AMP to adenosine, at the renal proximal tubules and a higher enzymatic activity in tubule extracts. These changes precede the signs of diabetic kidney injury recognized by significant proteinuria, morphological alterations and the presence of the renal fibrosis markers alpha smooth muscle actin and fibronectin, collagen deposits and thickening of the glomerular basement membrane. In the proximal tubule cell line HK2 we identified TGF-β as a key modulator of CD73 activity. Importantly, the increased activity of CD73 could be screened in urinary sediments from diabetic rats. In conclusion, the increase of CD73 activity is a key component in the production of high levels of adenosine and emerges as a new tool for the early diagnosis of tubular injury in diabetic kidney disease.

  19. Physical activity levels determine exercise-induced changes in brain excitability

    PubMed Central

    Fassett, Hunter J.; Nelson, Aimee J.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that regular physical activity can impact cortical function and facilitate plasticity. In the present study, we examined how physical activity levels influence corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuitry in motor cortex following a single session of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. We aimed to determine whether exercise-induced short-term plasticity differed between high versus low physically active individuals. Participants included twenty-eight young, healthy adults divided into two equal groups based on physical activity level determined by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: low-to-moderate (LOW) and high (HIGH) physical activity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess motor cortex excitability via motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curves for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle at rest (MEPREST) and during tonic contraction (MEPACTIVE), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (SICF), and intracortical facilitation (ICF). All dependent measures were obtained in the resting FDI muscle, with the exception of AMT and MEPACTIVE recruitment curves that were obtained during tonic FDI contraction. Dependent measures were acquired before and following moderate intensity aerobic exercise (20 mins, ~60% of the age-predicted maximal heart rate) performed on a recumbent cycle ergometer. Results indicate that MEPREST recruitment curve amplitudes and area under the recruitment curve (AURC) were increased following exercise in the HIGH group only (p = 0.002 and p = 0.044, respectively). SICI and ICF were reduced following exercise irrespective of physical activity level (p = 0.007 and p = 0.04, respectively). MEPACTIVE recruitment curves and SICF were unaltered by exercise. These findings indicate that the propensity for exercise-induced plasticity is different in high versus low physically active individuals. Additionally, these data highlight that a single session of

  20. A system for measuring thermal activation energy levels in silicon by thermally stimulated capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrum, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    One method being used to determine energy level(s) and electrical activity of impurities in silicon is described. The method is called capacitance transient spectroscopy (CTS). It can be classified into three basic categories: the thermally stimulated capacitance method, the voltage-stimulated capacitance method, and the light-stimulated capacitance method; the first two categories are discussed. From the total change in capacitance and the time constant of the capacitance response, emission rates, energy levels, and trap concentrations can be determined. A major advantage of using CTS is its ability to detect the presence of electrically active impurities that are invisible to other techniques, such as Zeeman effect atomic absorption, and the ability to detect more than one electrically active impurity in a sample. Examples of detection of majority and minority carrier traps from gold donor and acceptor centers in silicon using the capacitance transient spectrometer are given to illustrate the method and its sensitivity.

  1. Mediating Effects of Self-Efficacy, Benefits and Barriers on the Association between Peer and Parental Factors and Physical Activity among Adolescent Girls with a Lower Educational Level

    PubMed Central

    Cardon, Greet; De Craemer, Marieke; D’Haese, Sara; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of physical activity among lower educated adolescent girls is low, suggesting it is important to have insights into the complex processes that may underlie their physical activity levels. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the mediating effects of self-efficacy, perceived benefits and barriers on the associations between peer and parental variables and physical activity among lower educated adolescent girls. Methods In total, 226 girls (mean age 16.0±1.0 years; 53% technical education; 47% vocational education) from a convenience sample of 6 secondary schools in Flanders, Belgium, completed a questionnaire on their total physical activity level and related peer and parental variables (i.e. modeling of physical activity, co-participation in physical activities and encouragement to be active) and personal variables (i.e. self-efficacy to be active, and specific perceived benefits of physical activity and specific barriers to be active). Mediating effects were tested using MacKinnon’s product-of-coefficients test based on multilevel linear regression analyses. Results Higher peer and parental modeling, co-participation and encouragement were significantly related to a higher physical activity level among adolescent girls (p<0.05). Self-efficacy, the perceived benefits of having fun, being around friends or meeting new people, and not being bored and the perceived barrier of not liking physical activity mediated several associations between peer and parental variables and girls’ physical activity, with some of the mediated proportions exceeding 60%. Conclusions This study contributed to a better understanding of the complexity of how parental and peer factors work together with personal factors to influence the physical activity levels of adolescent girls with a lower educational level. Interventions should involve both peers and parents, as they may influence girls’ physical activity both directly and indirectly through the

  2. LRE2, an active human L1 element, has low level transcriptional activity and extremely low reverse transcriptase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, S.E.; Dombroski, B.A.; Sassaman, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    Previously, we found a 2 kb insertion containing a rearranged L1 element plus a unique sequence component (USC) within exon 48 of the dystrophin gene of a patient with muscular dystrophy. We used the USC to clone the precursor of this insertion, the second known {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} human L1 element. The locus LRE2 (L1 Retrotransposable Element 2) has an allele derived from the patient which matches the insertion sequence exactly. LRE2 has a perfect 13-15 bp target site duplication, 2 open reading frames (ORFs), and an unusual 21 bp truncation of the 5{prime} end in a region known to be important for L1 transcription. The truncated LRE2 promoter has about 20% of the transcriptional activity of a previously studied L1 promoter after transfection into NTera2D1 cells of a construct in which the L1 promoter drives the expression of a lacZ gene. In addition, the reverse transcriptase (RT) encoded by LRE2 is active in an in vivo pseudogene assay in yeast and an in vitro assay. However, in both assays the RT of LRE2 is 1-5% as active as that of LRE1. These data demonstrate that multiple {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} L1 elements exist in the human genome, and that active elements can have highly variable rates of transcription and reverse transcriptase activity. That the RT of LRE2 has extremely low activity suggests the possibility that retrotransposition of an L1 element may in some cases involve an RT encoded by another L1 element.

  3. Increased von Willebrand factor levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus reflect inflammation rather than increased propensity for platelet activation

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Warren D; Eilertsen, Gro Østli

    2016-01-01

    Background von Willebrand factor (VWF) is involved in platelet plug formation and protein transport. Increased VWF levels in systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) are considered risk factors for vascular events. VWF protein levels, however, do not accurately reflect its platelet-aggregating function, which has not been examined in SLE. Methods Cross-sectional study with clinical and laboratory data obtained in patients with SLE (n=92) from a regional lupus registry. VWF function was determined by ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (VWF ristocetin cofactor, VWF:RCo) and VWF levels by turbidimetric assay (VWF antigen, VWF:Ag). The platelet-aggregating activity per VWF unit was estimated by the VWF RCo/Ag ratio. Healthy controls served as comparators and associations were evaluated by non-parametric methods. Results VWF:Ag (142% vs 107%, p=0.001) and VWF:RCo levels (123% vs 78%, p<0.041) were increased in patients with SLE, but VWF RCo/Ag ratio was similar as in controls (0.83 vs 0.82, p=0.8). VWF:Ag levels were higher in patients experiencing serositis but unrelated to other manifestations, thrombotic disease, Systemic Lupus Erythematous Disease Activity Index 2000 or Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics-Damage Index. VWF:Ag levels correlated significantly with VWF:RCo levels (Rs 0.8, p<0.001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (Rs 0.32, p<0.01), anti-dsDNA Ab (Rs 0.27, p<0.01), total IgG (Rs 0.33 p<0.01), fibrinogen (Rs 0.28, p<0.01) and ceruloplasmin (Rs 0.367, p<0.01) levels. VWF:RCo levels were not related to clinical findings but were correlated with ESR, anti-dsDNA and transferrin levels. No serological associations existed for VWF RCo/Ag ratio (all p>0.2). Conclusions In this SLE cohort, VWF:Ag behaved similarly to acute-phase reactants, but VWF:Ag increases were not matched by increases in functional activity per unit of VWF. Thus, more VWF did not increase the propensity for platelet aggregation in SLE. PMID:27651919

  4. Physical Activity Level and Sport Participation in Relation to Musculoskeletal Pain in a Population-Based Study of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Guddal, Maren Hjelle; Stensland, Synne Øien; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Johnsen, Marianne Bakke; Zwart, John-Anker; Storheim, Kjersti

    2017-01-01

    sports was associated with increased odds of low back pain, whereas team sports were associated with increased odds of lower extremity pain. Strength and extreme sports were related to pain in all regions. Conclusion: We found that a moderate physical activity level was associated with less neck and shoulder pain and low back pain, and that participation in endurance sports may be particularly beneficial. Our findings highlight the need for health care professionals to consider the types of sports adolescents participate in when evaluating their musculoskeletal pain. PMID:28203603

  5. Organism activity levels predict marine invertebrate survival during ancient global change extinctions.

    PubMed

    Clapham, Matthew E

    2017-04-01

    Multistressor global change, the combined influence of ocean warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, poses a serious threat to marine organisms. Experimental studies imply that organisms with higher levels of activity should be more resilient, but testing this prediction and understanding organism vulnerability at a global scale, over evolutionary timescales, and in natural ecosystems remain challenging. The fossil record, which contains multiple extinctions triggered by multistressor global change, is ideally suited for testing hypotheses at broad geographic, taxonomic, and temporal scales. Here, I assess the importance of activity level for survival of well-skeletonized benthic marine invertebrates over a 100-million-year-long interval (Permian to Jurassic periods) containing four global change extinctions, including the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions. More active organisms, based on a semiquantitative score incorporating feeding and motility, were significantly more likely to survive during three of the four extinction events (Guadalupian, end-Permian, and end-Triassic). In contrast, activity was not an important control on survival during nonextinction intervals. Both the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions also triggered abrupt shifts to increased dominance by more active organisms. Although mean activity gradually returned toward pre-extinction values, the net result was a permanent ratcheting of ecosystem-wide activity to higher levels. Selectivity patterns during ancient global change extinctions confirm the hypothesis that higher activity, a proxy for respiratory physiology, is a fundamental control on survival, although the roles of specific physiological traits (such as extracellular pCO2 or aerobic scope) cannot be distinguished. Modern marine ecosystems are dominated by more active organisms, in part because of selectivity ratcheting during these ancient extinctions, so on average may be less vulnerable to global change

  6. Main determinants of physical activity levels in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lana, Raquel de Carvalho; de Araujo, Lysandra Nogueira; Cardoso, Francisco; Rodrigues-de-Paula, Fátima

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between patient characteristics, factors associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), and physical activity level of individuals affected by the disease. Forty-six volunteers with mild-to-moderate idiopathic PD were assessed using sections II/III of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and their motor functions were classified according to the modified Hoehn and Yahr (HY) scale. Data such as age, disease duration, the Human Activity Profile (HAP), the Fatigue Severity Scale were collected. Lower limb bradykinesia and clinical subtypes of PD were defined. Two models that explained 76% of the variance of the HAP were used. The first comprised age, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), and the HY scale; the second comprised age, ability to perform ADL, and lower limb bradykinesia. Possible modifiable factors such as the ability to perform ADL and lower limb bradykinesia were identified as predictors of physical activity level of individuals with PD.

  7. [Restoration of secretory activity of digestive glands in conditions of acute hyperkinesis at persons with different levels of motor activity].

    PubMed

    Griaznykh, A V

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics' features of restoration reactions of the secretory function of gastric glands have been studied at patients with differences in the level and specificity of daily physical activity. The dependence between the level and characteristics of daily physical activity and reactivity of the secretory apparatus of the gastric glands in the recovery period after the muscle load has been established. The high reactivity of the secretory activity of digestive glands is typical for individuals with high level of daily physical activity. The differences of the functional stability of the secretion's mechanisms of various components of gastric juice under the influence of physical exercise and in recovery have been revealed. The greatest stability of the secretory mechanisms of digestive glands has been discovered at athletes practicing with the development of endurance--at skiers. Heterochronous reducing reactions of gastric and pancreatic secretion after physical stress have been defined. The reduction of secretion's mechanisms of gastric juice ingredients and the electrolyte and acid composition of digestive juices isn't simultaneous: the first order is for ferment's secretion. The inverse relationship between the content of digestive enzymes pepsinogen-1 and -2 in blood's serum and the concentration of proteolytic enzymes in the gastric content has been found at persons with various degrees of adaptation to the muscular tension.

  8. The plasmapause revisited. [Explorer 45 observation at various magnetic activity levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, N. C.; Grebowsky, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A statistical investigation is conducted concerning the plasmapause behavior observed from Explorer 45 during various levels of magnetic activity. Aspects of data handling are reported and the implications of a constant density level for a plasmapause definition are discussed. The average local time dependence of the gradient saturation events and the sharp saturation events detected on Explorer 45 is shown with the aid of graphs. Other graphs show the results of the statistical processing operations. The significance of the obtained data is discussed.

  9. The gut microbiome and degradation enzyme activity of wild freshwater fishes influenced by their trophic levels

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Han; Guo, Xianwu; Gooneratne, Ravi; Lai, Ruifang; Zeng, Cong; Zhan, Fanbin; Wang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate gut microbiome often underpins the metabolic capability and provides many beneficial effects on their hosts. However, little was known about how host trophic level influences fish gut microbiota and metabolic activity. In this study, more than 985,000 quality-filtered sequences from 24 16S rRNA libraries were obtained and the results revealed distinct compositions and diversities of gut microbiota in four trophic categories. PCoA test showed that gut bacterial communities of carnivorous and herbivorous fishes formed distinctly different clusters in PCoA space. Although fish in different trophic levels shared a large size of OTUs comprising a core microbiota community, at the genus level a strong distinction existed. Cellulose-degrading bacteria Clostridium, Citrobacter and Leptotrichia were dominant in the herbivorous, while Cetobacterium and protease-producing bacteria Halomonas were dominant in the carnivorous. PICRUSt predictions of metagenome function revealed that fishes in different trophic levels affected the metabolic capacity of their gut microbiota. Moreover, cellulase and amylase activities in herbivorous fishes were significantly higher than in the carnivorous, while trypsin activity in the carnivorous was much higher than in the herbivorous. These results indicated that host trophic level influenced the structure and composition of gut microbiota, metabolic capacity and gut content enzyme activity. PMID:27072196

  10. Soccer activity profile of altitude versus sea-level natives during acclimatisation to 3600 m (ISA3600)

    PubMed Central

    Aughey, Robert J; Hammond, Kristal; Varley, Matthew C; Schmidt, Walter F; Bourdon, Pitre C; Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Kley, Marlen; Soria, Rudy; Sargent, Charli; Roach, Gregory D; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the effect of high altitude on the match activity profile of elite youth high altitude and sea level residents. Methods Twenty Sea Level (Australian) and 19 Altitude-resident (Bolivian) soccer players played five games, two near sea level (430 m) and three in La Paz (3600 m). Match activity profile was quantified via global positioning system with the peak 5 min period for distance ((D5peak)) and high velocity running (>4.17 m/s, HIVR5peak); as well as the 5 min period immediately subsequent to the peak for both distance (D5sub) and high-velocity running (HIVR5sub) identified using a rolling 5 min epoch. The games at 3600 m were compared with the average of the two near sea-level games. Results The total distance per minute was reduced by a small magnitude in the first match at altitude in both teams, without any change in low-velocity running. There were variable changes in HiVR, D5peak and HiVR5peak from match to match for each team. There were within-team reductions in D5peak in each game at altitude compared with those at near sea level, and this reduction was greater by a small magnitude in Australians than Bolivians in game 4. The effect of altitude on HiVR5peak was moderately lower in Australians compared with Bolivians in game 3. There was no clear difference in the effect of altitude on maximal accelerations between teams. Conclusions High altitude reduces the distance covered by elite youth soccer players during matches. Neither 13 days of acclimatisation nor lifelong residence at high altitude protects against detrimental effects of altitude on match activity profile. PMID:24282196

  11. Comparison of doubly labeled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels

    SciTech Connect

    Westerterp, K.R.; Brouns, F.; Saris, W.H.; ten Hoor, F.

    1988-07-01

    In previous studies the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living humans has been validated against respirometry under sedentary conditions. In the present investigation, energy expenditure is measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water and respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. Over 6 days, five subjects were measured doing mainly sedentary activities like desk work; their average daily metabolic rate was 1.40 +/- 0.09 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. Four subjects were measured twice over 3.5 days, including 2 days with heavy bicycle ergometer work, resulting in an average daily metabolic rate of 2.61 +/- 0.25 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. At the low-activity level, energy expenditures from the doubly labeled water method were on the average 1.4 +/- 3.9% (SD) larger than those from respirometry. At the high-activity level, the doubly labeled water method yielded values that were 1.0 +/- 7.0% (SD) lower than those from respirometry. Results demonstrate the utility of the doubly labeled water method for the determination of energy expenditure in the range of activity levels in daily life.

  12. Digestive enzyme activity and mRNA level of trypsin in embryonic redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarnatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wen; Zhao, Yunlong; Zhou, Zhongliang; An, Chuanguang; Ma, Qiang

    2008-02-01

    The digestive enzyme activity and mRNA level of trypsin during the embryonic development of Cherax quadricarinatus were analyzed using biochemical and Fluorogenic Quantitative PCR (FQ—PCR) methods. The results show that the activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin had two different change patterns. Trypsin specific activity increased rapidly in the early stages of development and still remained high in preparation for the hatch stage. However, chymotrypsin activity peaked in stage 4 of embryonic development and decreased significantly in the last stage. The mRNA level of trypsin was elevated in all stages and two peak values were observed in stages 2 and 5 respectively. The results indicate that trypsin is very important for the utilization of the yolk during embryonic development and for the assimilation of dietary protein for larvae. The gene of trypsin is probably regulated at transcriptional level. The mRNA levels of trypsin can reflect not only trypsin activity, but also the regulatory mechanism for expression of trypsin gene to a certain degree.

  13. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormone levels and of motor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahabrach, Hanan; Piedrafita, Blanca; Ayad, Abdelmalik; El Mlili, Nisrin; Errami, Mohammed; Felipo, Vicente; Llansola, Marta

    2010-05-15

    Patients with liver cirrhosis may present hepatic encephalopathy with a wide range of neurological disturbances and alterations in sleep quality and in the sleep-wake circadian rhythm. Hyperammonemia is a main contributor to the neurological alterations in hepatic encephalopathy. We have assessed, in an animal model of chronic hyperammonemia without liver failure, the effects of hyperammonemia per se on the circadian rhythms of motor activity, temperature, and plasma levels of adrenal corticosteroid hormones. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and of cortisol and corticosterone levels in blood. Different types of motor activity are affected differentially. Hyperammonemia significantly alters the rhythm of spontaneous ambulatory activity, reducing strongly ambulatory counts and slightly average velocity during the night (the active phase) but not during the day, resulting in altered circadian rhythms. In contrast, hyperammonemia did not affect wheel running at all, indicating that it affects spontaneous but not voluntary activity. Vertical activity was affected only very slightly, indicating that hyperammonemia does not induce anxiety. Hyperammonemia abolished completely the circadian rhythm of corticosteroid hormones in plasma, completely eliminating the peaks of cortisol and corticosterone present in control rats at the start of the dark period. The data reported show that chronic hyperammonemia, similar to that present in patients with liver cirrhosis, alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormones and of motor activity. This suggests that hyperammonemia would be a relevant contributor to the alterations in corticosteroid hormones and in circadian rhythms in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  14. Increased Levels of Immune Activation in the Genital Tract of Healthy Young Women from sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    COHEN, Craig R; MOSCICKI, Anna-Barbara; SCOTT, Mark E; MA, Yifei; SHIBOSKI, Stephen; BUKUSI, Elizabeth; DAUD, Ibrahim; REBBAPRAGADA, Anu; BROWN, Joelle; KAUL, Rupert

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine if healthy, young women in sub-Saharan Africa have a more activated immune milieu in the genital tract (i.e. activated CD4+ T-cells) than a similar population in the US. Design Cross-sectional study nested in a phase 1 microbicide trial. Methods Cervical cytobrushes were collected from 18–24 year old women in San Francisco, CA (n=18) and Kisumu, Kenya (n=36) at enrollment into a phase 1 microbicide trial. All participants tested negative for HIV, HSV-2, gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomonas, and had abstained from sex for at least seven days prior to enrollment. Cryopreserved T-cell populations were assayed by flow cytometry in a central laboratory. SLPI levels were assayed in cervicovaginal lavage samples. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare immune parameters between sites. Results The total number of endocervical CD4+ T-cells was slightly higher in San Francisco, but participants from Kisumu had a substantially higher number and proportion of CD4+ T-cells expressing the early activation marker CD69, with and without the HIV-coreceptor CCR5, and a greater proportion of activated CD8+ T-cells. Median [interquartile] genital levels of SLPI were lower in participants from Kisumu compared to those from San Francisco (190 pg/mL [96, 519] vs. 474 pg/mL [206, 817]; p<0.03). Conclusions Activated mucosal T-cells were increased in the genital tract of young, STI/HIV-free Kenyan women, independent of common genital co-infections, and SLPI levels were reduced. The cause of these mucosal immune differences is not known, but could partly explain the high HIV incidence in young women from sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:20588163

  15. The validity of the Computer Science and Applications activity monitor for use in coronary artery disease patients during level walking.

    PubMed

    Ekelund, Ulf; Tingström, Pia; Kamwendo, Kitty; Krantz, Monica; Nylander, Eva; Sjöström, Michael; Bergdahl, Björn

    2002-07-01

    The principal aim of the present study was to examine the validity of the Computer Science and Applications (CSA) activity monitor during level walking in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. As a secondary aim, we evaluated the usefulness of two previously published energy expenditure (EE) prediction equations. Thirty-four subjects (29 men and five women), all with diagnosed CAD, volunteered to participate. Oxygen uptake (VO2) was measured by indirect calorimetry during walking on a motorized treadmill at three different speeds (3.2, 4.8 and 6.4 km h-1). Physical activity was measured simultaneously using the CSA activity monitor, secured directly to the skin on the lower back (i.e. lumbar vertebrae 4-5) with an elastic belt. The mean (+/- SD) activity counts were 1208 +/- 429, 3258 +/- 753 and 5351 +/- 876 counts min-1, at the three speeds, respectively (P < 0.001). Activity counts were significantly correlated to speed (r = 0.92; P < 0.001), VO2 (ml kg-1 min-1; r = 0.87; P < 0.001) and EE (kcal min-1; r = 0.85, P < 0.001). A stepwise linear regression analysis showed that activity counts and body weight together explained 75% of the variation in EE. Predicted EE from previously published equations differed significantly when used in this group of CAD patients. In conclusion, the CSA activity monitor is a valid instrument for assessing the intensity of physical activity during treadmill walking in CAD patients. Energy expenditure can be predicted from body weight and activity counts.

  16. The Effect of Exposure to High Noise Levels on the Performance and Rate of Error in Manual Activities

    PubMed Central

    Khajenasiri, Farahnaz; Zamanian, Alireza; Zamanian, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sound is among the significant environmental factors for people’s health, and it has an important role in both physical and psychological injuries, and it also affects individuals’ performance and productivity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to high noise levels on the performance and rate of error in manual activities. Methods This was an interventional study conducted on 50 students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (25 males and 25 females) in which each person was considered as its own control to assess the effect of noise on her or his performance at the sound levels of 70, 90, and 110 dB by using two factors of physical features and the creation of different conditions of sound source as well as applying the Two-Arm coordination Test. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Repeated measurements were used to compare the length of performance as well as the errors measured in the test. Results Based on the results, we found a direct and significant association between the levels of sound and the length of performance. Moreover, the participant’s performance was significantly different for different sound levels (at 110 dB as opposed to 70 and 90 dB, p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion This study found that a sound level of 110 dB had an important effect on the individuals’ performances, i.e., the performances were decreased. PMID:27123216

  17. Glucose regulates diacylglycerol intracellular levels and protein kinase C activity by modulating diacylglycerol kinase subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Miele, Claudia; Paturzo, Flora; Teperino, Raffaele; Sakane, Fumio; Fiory, Francesca; Oriente, Francesco; Ungaro, Paola; Valentino, Rossella; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2007-11-02

    Although chronic hyperglycemia reduces insulin sensitivity and leads to impaired glucose utilization, short term exposure to high glucose causes cellular responses positively regulating its own metabolism. We show that exposure of L6 myotubes overexpressing human insulin receptors to 25 mm glucose for 5 min decreased the intracellular levels of diacylglycerol (DAG). This was paralleled by transient activation of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) and of insulin receptor signaling. Following 30-min exposure, however, both DAG levels and DGK activity returned close to basal levels. Moreover, the acute effect of glucose on DAG removal was inhibited by >85% by the DGK inhibitor R59949. DGK inhibition was also accompanied by increased protein kinase C-alpha (PKCalpha) activity, reduced glucose-induced insulin receptor activation, and GLUT4 translocation. Glucose exposure transiently redistributed DGK isoforms alpha and delta, from the prevalent cytosolic localization to the plasma membrane fraction. However, antisense silencing of DGKdelta, but not of DGKalpha expression, was sufficient to prevent the effect of high glucose on PKCalpha activity, insulin receptor signaling, and glucose uptake. Thus, the short term exposure of skeletal muscle cells to glucose causes a rapid induction of DGK, followed by a reduction of PKCalpha activity and transactivation of the insulin receptor signaling. The latter may mediate, at least in part, glucose induction of its own metabolism.

  18. [Comparison of eating habits among students according to sex and level of physical activity].

    PubMed

    Łagowska, Karolina; Woźniewicz, Małgorzata; Jeszka, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate nutritional habits of high school students, depending on their sex and physical activity. The investigated population included 147 students in age of 17.5 +/- 1.5 y (girls DZ = 98, boys CH = 49) with different level of physical activity (athletes SPO, moderate physical activity UAF, low physical activity NAF). Nutritional data were obtained by FFQ and calculated for selected food-groups and generally as young healthy eating index YHEI. International IPAQ was used to determine the level of physical activity and anthropometric measured were conducted to estimated BMI and body fat status. It was indicated the YHEI in athletes was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to rest of students. Moreover, a significant difference (p < 0.05) in YHEI in DZ compared to CH was also found. The significant differences (p < 0.05) in the frequency of consumption of red meat, vegetable oil and sweetned drinks was revealed between DZ and CH adolescents. The frequency of consumption of vegetable oil, fast - foods, sweets, alcoholic drinks, energy drinks and isotonic drinks varied with the level of physical activity. Frequency of consumption of sweets negatively correlated with skinfold thickness in DZ, whereas positive correlation between consumption frequency of energy drinks, BMI and skinfold thickness was found in CH. The results show, that nutritional habits of the athletes was most approached to nutritional guidelines. CH, nutritional habits may predicted to overweight and obesity in CH group more distinctly than in DZ group.

  19. Investigation of the Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Mutlu; Ozkan, Ali; Kul, Murat; Bozkus, Taner

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship of physical activity (PA) level and healthy life-style behaviors in academic staff in Bartin University, Turkey. The short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was administered for the determination of physical activity level of academic staff. Their PA levels were…

  20. Efficacy of interventions to improve physical activity levels in individuals with stroke: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Martins, Júlia Caetano; Nadeau, Sylvie; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; Faria, Christina D C M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a leading health problem worldwide and an important cause of disability. Stroke survivors show low levels of physical activity, and increases in physical activity levels may improve function and health status. Therefore, the aims are to identify which interventions that have been employed to increase physical activity levels with stroke survivors, to verify their efficacy and to identify the gaps in the literature. Methods and analysis A systematic review of randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of interventions aiming at increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in the MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO) databases. Hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies or relevant reviews will also be employed. Two independent reviewers will screen all the retrieved titles, abstracts and full texts. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreements. The quality of the included studies will be assessed by the PEDro Rating Scale. This systematic review will also include a qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses will be performed, if the studies are sufficiently homogeneous. This review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The quality of the evidence regarding physical activity will be assessed, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Discussion This systematic review will provide information on which interventions are effective for increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors. This evidence may be important for clinical decision-making and will allow the identification of gaps in the literature that may be useful for the definition of future research

  1. High-resolution genetic mapping of mammalian motor activity levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Kas, M J H; de Mooij-van Malsen, J G; de Krom, M; van Gassen, K L I; van Lith, H A; Olivier, B; Oppelaar, H; Hendriks, J; de Wit, M; Groot Koerkamp, M J A; Holstege, F C P; van Oost, B A; de Graan, P N E

    2009-02-01

    The generation of motor activity levels is under tight neural control to execute essential behaviors, such as movement toward food or for social interaction. To identify novel neurobiological mechanisms underlying motor activity levels, we studied a panel of chromosome substitution (CS) strains derived from mice with high (C57BL/6J strain) or low motor activity levels (A/J strain) using automated home cage behavioral registration. In this study, we genetically mapped the expression of baseline motor activity levels (horizontal distance moved) to mouse chromosome 1. Further genetic mapping of this trait revealed an 8.3-Mb quantitative trait locus (QTL) interval. This locus is distinct from the QTL interval for open-field anxiety-related motor behavior on this chromosome. By data mining, an existing phenotypic and genotypic data set of 2445 genetically heterogeneous mice (http://gscan.well.ox.ac.uk/), we confirmed linkage to the peak marker at 79 970 253 bp and refined the QTL to a 312-kb interval containing a single gene (A830043J08Rik). Sequence analysis showed a nucleotide deletion in the 3' untranslated region of the Riken gene. Genome-wide microarray gene expression profiling in brains of discordant F(2) individuals from CS strain 1 showed a significant upregulation of Epha4 in low-active F(2) individuals. Inclusion of a genetic marker for Epha4 confirmed that this gene is located outside of the QTL interval. Both Epha4 and A830043J08Rik are expressed in brain motor circuits, and similar to Epha4 mutants, we found linkage between reduced motor neurons number and A/J chromosome 1. Our findings provide a novel QTL and a potential downstream target underlying motor circuitry development and the expression of physical activity levels.

  2. Neighborhood level health risk assessment of lead paint removal activities from elevated steel bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, R.F.; Cohen, J.T.; Bowers, T.

    1999-07-01

    The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) has adopted strict containment and monitoring procedures during paint removal activities on its bridges because of the increasing awareness about lead poisoning in children in urban environments and the potential risk of lead-based paint releases during those activities. NYCDOT owns nearly 800 bridges scattered throughout New York City. Before undertaking paint removal activities as part of its ongoing preventive maintenance and rehabilitation program, NYCDOT recently conducted an analysis to determine the public health risk posed to children living near them. The analysis the first of its kind to assess the actual public health risk potential during both routine operations and upset conditions, or accidental releases evaluated the total and incremental blood lead levels from paint removal activities on more than 5,000 children from 6 months to 6 years old. Increases in baseline blood lead levels were estimated using several models, including EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model. This model estimates steady-state blood lead levels in children, reflecting exposure to lead in multiple media over an extended period of time. Increases in lead exposure from paint removal activities in the area surrounding the bridges was estimated using EPA's Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model to calculate ambient air and deposition levels. Potential releases from the containment and ancillary equipment used in the paint removal process were modeled based on different release scenarios ranging from routine operations to complete failure of containment. To estimate the paint removal activities' contribution to long-term exterior dust lead levels (and its related interior component), a stochastic simulation model was developed for each block in the study area.

  3. Reduced Activity-Dependent Protein Levels in a Mouse Model of the Fragile X Premutation

    PubMed Central

    von Leden, Ramona E.; Curley, Lindsey C.; Greenberg, Gian D.; Hunsaker, Michael R.; Willemsen, Rob; Berman, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment results in increased levels of Fmrp in brain and increased dendritic complexity. The present experiment evaluated activity-dependent increases in Fmrp levels in the motor cortex in response to training on a skilled forelimb reaching task in the CGG KI mouse model of the fragile X premutation. Fmrp, Arc, and c-Fos protein levels were quantified by Western blot in the contralateral motor cortex of mice following training to reach for sucrose pellets with a non-preferred paw and compared to levels in the ipsilateral motor cortex. After training, all mice showed increases in Fmrp, Arc, and c-Fos protein levels in the contralateral compared to the ipsilateral hemisphere; however, the increase in CGG KI mice was less than wildtype mice. Increases in Fmrp and Arc proteins scaled with learning, whereas this relationship was not observed with the c-Fos levels. These data suggest the possibility that reduced levels of activity-dependent proteins associated with synaptic plasticity such as Fmrp and Arc may contribute to the neurocognitive phenotype reported in the CGG KI mice and the fragile X premutation. PMID:24462720

  4. Reduced activity-dependent protein levels in a mouse model of the fragile X premutation.

    PubMed

    von Leden, Ramona E; Curley, Lindsey C; Greenberg, Gian D; Hunsaker, Michael R; Willemsen, Rob; Berman, Robert F

    2014-03-01

    Environmental enrichment results in increased levels of Fmrp in brain and increased dendritic complexity. The present experiment evaluated activity-dependent increases in Fmrp levels in the motor cortex in response to training on a skilled forelimb reaching task in the CGG KI mouse model of the fragile X premutation. Fmrp, Arc, and c-Fos protein levels were quantified by Western blot in the contralateral motor cortex of mice following training to reach for sucrose pellets with a non-preferred paw and compared to levels in the ipsilateral motor cortex. After training, all mice showed increases in Fmrp, Arc, and c-Fos protein levels in the contralateral compared to the ipsilateral hemisphere; however, the increase in CGG KI mice was less than wildtype mice. Increases in Fmrp and Arc proteins scaled with learning, whereas this relationship was not observed with the c-Fos levels. These data suggest the possibility that reduced levels of activity-dependent proteins associated with synaptic plasticity such as Fmrp and Arc may contribute to the neurocognitive phenotype reported in the CGG KI mice and the fragile X premutation.

  5. Force-endurance capabilities of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressure levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    The human hand is a very useful multipurpose tool in all environments. However, performance capabilities are compromised considerably when gloves are donned. This is especially true to extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves. The primary intent was to answer the question of how long a person can perform tasks requiring certain levels of exertion. The objective was to develop grip force-endurance relations. Six subjects participated in a factorial experiment involving three hand conditions, three pressure differentials, and four levels of force exertion. The results indicate that, while the force that could be exerted depended on the glove, pressure differential, and the level of exertion, the endurance time at any exertion level depended just on the level of exertion expressed as a percentage of maximum exertion possible at that condition. The impact of these findings for practitioners as well as theoreticians is discussed.

  6. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina; Elias, Merrill; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Buckley, Jonathon

    2015-09-18

    Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972), and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX) (n = 1331) were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials.

  7. [Potential of pharmacological modulation of level and activity incretins on diabetes mellitus type 2].

    PubMed

    Spasov, A A; Chepljaeva, N I

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes data on the main approaches used for the search of biologically active compounds modulating the level and physiological activity of incretins. Currently two groups of drugs are used in clinical practice: they either replenish the deficit of incretins (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists) or inhibit the degradation processes (dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors). In addition, new groups of substances are actively searched. These include non-peptide agonists of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors, agonists/antagonists of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, the hybrid polypeptides based on glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon.

  8. Physical Activity Level and Medial Temporal Health in Youth at Ultra High-Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Vijay A.; Gupta, Tina; Orr, Joseph M.; Pelletier, Andrea L.; Dean, Derek J.; Lunsford-Avery, Jessica R.; Smith, Ashley K.; Robustelli, Briana L.; Leopold, Daniel R.; Millman, Zachary B.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that moderate to vigorous activity levels can affect quality of life, cognition, and brain structure in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, physical activity has not been systematically studied during the period immediately preceding the onset of psychosis. Given reports of exercise-based neurogenesis in schizophrenia, understanding naturalistic physical activity levels in the prodrome may provide valuable information for early intervention efforts. The present study examined 29 ultra high-risk (UHR) and 27 matched controls to determine relationships between physical activity level, brain structure (hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus), and symptoms. Participants were assessed with actigraphy for a 5-day period, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and structured clinical interviews. UHR participants showed a greater percentage of time in sedentary behavior while healthy controls spent more time engaged in light to vigorous activity. There was a strong trend to suggest the UHR group showed less total physical activity. The UHR group exhibited smaller medial temporal volumes when compared to healthy controls. Total level of physical activity in the UHR group was moderately correlated with smaller parahippocampal gyri bilaterally (right: r=.44, left: r=.55) and with occupational functioning (r=−.36; of negative symptom domain), but not positive symptomatology. Results suggest that inactivity is associated with medial temporal lobe health. Future studies are needed to determine if symptoms are driving inactivity, which in turn may be affecting the health of the parahippocampal structure and progression of illness. Although causality cannot be determined from the present design, these findings hold important implications for etiological conceptions and suggest promise for an experimental trial. PMID:24364613

  9. Effect of different levels of alcohol consumption on natural killer and lymphokine activated killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Klassen, L.W.; DeVasure, J.M.; Lemley-Gillespie, S.D.; Thiele, G.M. Omaha VA Hospital, NE )

    1991-03-11

    The effect of alcohol consumption on natural killer (NK) cell activity is controversial as both increased and decreased levels have been reported. It was the purpose of this study to determine the effects of feeding BDF1 mice different levels of alcohol on NK and lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell activity. After four-six weeks of chronic alcohol feeding, mice were sacrificed, spleen cells obtained and assayed for NK and IL-2 boosted NK activity against YAC-1 cells in a traditional {sup 51}chromium release assay. Cells were also cultured in the presence of IL-2 for five days and tested for cytolytic activity using P815 cells as targets. Cells from each group were passed over a nylon wool column and the adherent (AD) and nonadherent (NAD) populations collected and tested as above. Increased NK, 24 hour IL-2 boosted NK and 5 day LAK activity were observed only in the spleen cells obtained from mice on 20% alcohol. Also, NAD populations had a 2-4 fold higher lytic unit values (LU{sub 20}) at all levels of alcohol consumption and in all assays, as compared with the unseparated spleen cells. Analysis of cell surface markers on these three populations of cells show that there were differences in MAC-2, Asialo GM-1, Thy 1.2, B220 and NK 1.1 that may correlate with the differences observed in the cytolytic assays. These data suggest that different levels of alcohol affect the cytolytic activity of NK and LAK cells and may result from alterations in the cell subset populations.

  10. Higher and lower active circulating VWF levels: different facets of von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Casonato, Alessandra; Pontara, Elena; Morpurgo, Margherita; Sartorello, Francesca; De Groot, Philip G; Cattini, Maria G; Daidone, Viviana; De Marco, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Most circulating von Willebrand factor (VWF) is normally inactive and incapable of binding platelets, but numerous disorders may modify the proportion of active VWF. We explored active VWF levels in patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD) whose VWF had a higher affinity for platelet glycoprotein (GP)Ib, but different susceptibilities to ADAMTS13 and multimer patterns (9 patients lacking large multimers, 10 with a normal pattern); 12 patients with VWF C2362F and R1819_C1948delinsS mutations, which make VWF resistant to ADAMTS13 were also studied. Type 2B patients with abnormal or normal multimers had significantly more active VWF (3·33 ± 1·6 and 3·74 ± 0·74, respectively; normal 0·99 ± 0·23). The type of VWF mutation influenced VWF activation: V1316M was associated with the highest levels in patients with abnormal multimers, and R1341W in those with normal multimers. Pregnancy induced gradually rising active VWF levels and declining platelet counts in one type 2B VWD patient without large multimers. Active VWF levels dropped significantly in patients homozygous for the C2362F mutation or heterozygous for R1819_C1948delinsS mutations (0·2 ± 0·03 and 0·23 ± 0·1, respectively), and less in cases heterozygous for the VWF C2362F mutation (0·55 ± 0·17). We demonstrate that VWF may be more or less activated, with or without any direct involvement of the A1 domain, and regardless of ADAMTS13.

  11. Tadpole swimming performance and activity affected by acute exposure to sublethal levels of carbaryl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    General activity and swimming performance (i.e., sprint speed and distance) of plains leopard frog tadpoles (Rana blairi) were examined after acute exposure to three sublethal concentrations of carbaryl (3.5, 5.0, and 7.2 mg/L). Both swimming performance and spontaneous swimming activity are important for carrying out life history functions (e.g., growth and development) and for escaping from predators. Measured tadpole activity diminished by nearly 90% at 3.5 mg/L carbaryl and completely ceased at 7.2 mg/L. Sprint speed and sprint distance also decreased significantly following exposure. Carbaryl affected both swimming performance and activity after just 24 h, suggesting that 24 h may be an adequate length of exposure to determine behavioral effects on tadpoles. Slight recovery of activity levels was noted at 24 and 48 h post-exposure; no recovery of swimming performance was observed. Reduction in activity and swimming performance may result in increased predation rates and, because activity is closely associated with feeding, may result in slowed growth leading to a failure to emerge before pond drying or an indirect reduction in adult fitness. Acute exposure to sublethal toxicants such as carbaryl may not only affect immediate survival of tadpoles but also impact critical life history functions and generate changes at the local population level.

  12. The effects of dopamine on antioxidant enzymes activities and reactive oxygen species levels in soybean roots

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Bruno Ribeiro; Siqueira-Soares, Rita de Cássia; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Marchiosi, Rogério; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    In the current work, we investigated the effects of dopamine, an neurotransmitter found in several plant species on antioxidant enzyme activities and ROS in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) roots. The effects of dopamine on SOD, CAT and POD activities, as well as H2O2, O2•−, melanin contents and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (pH 6.0), without or with 0.1 to 1.0 mM dopamine, in a growth chamber (25°C, 12 h photoperiod, irradiance of 280 μmol m−2 s−1) for 24 h. Significant increases in melanin content were observed. The levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation decreased at all concentrations of dopamine tested. The SOD activity increased significantly under the action of dopamine, while CT activity was inhibited and POD activity was unaffected. The results suggest a close relationship between a possible antioxidant activity of dopamine and melanin and activation of SOD, reducing the levels of ROS and damage on membranes of soybean roots. PMID:25482756

  13. Conclusiveness of natural languages and recognition of images

    SciTech Connect

    Wojcik, Z.M.

    1983-01-01

    The conclusiveness is investigated using recognition processes and one-one correspondence between expressions of a natural language and graphs representing events. The graphs, as conceived in psycholinguistics, are obtained as a result of perception processes. It is possible to generate and process the graphs automatically, using computers and then to convert the resulting graphs into expressions of a natural language. Correctness and conclusiveness of the graphs and sentences are investigated using the fundamental condition for events representation processes. Some consequences of the conclusiveness are discussed, e.g. undecidability of arithmetic, human brain assymetry, correctness of statistical calculations and operations research. It is suggested that the group theory should be imposed on mathematical models of any real system. Proof of the fundamental condition is also presented. 14 references.

  14. Physical activity levels of adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities during physical education and recess.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chien-Yu; Liu, Chin-Wen; Chung, I Chiao; Hsu, Po-Jen

    2014-11-16

    To compare physical activity levels in adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities during physical education and recess. Forty adolescents diagnosed with intellectual disabilities (inclusive classrooms, n=20; self-contained classrooms, n=20) and 40 age-matched typically developing peers (general classrooms) participated. All participants wore an Actigraph GT1M accelerometer for 5 consecutive weekdays during school hours. Three groups of adolescents were similarly active during physical education; however, adolescents with intellectual disabilities in self-contained classrooms were less active during recess than did the other two groups. In addition, they spent less percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during recess than did the typically developing adolescents. An inclusive, structured, and supportive environment promotes physical activity engagement in adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

  15. Visual-Somatosensory Integration is Linked to Physical Activity Level in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Jeannette R; Dumas, Kristina; Holtzer, Roee

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining multisensory integration (MSI) in aging consistently demonstrate greater reaction time (RT) facilitation in old compared to young adults, but often fail to determine the utility of MSI. The aim of the current experiment was to further elucidate the utility of MSI in aging by determining its relationship to physical activity level. 147 non-demented older adults (mean age 77 years; 57% female) participated. Participants were instructed to make speeded responses to visual, somatosensory, and visual-somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Depending on the magnitude of the individuals' RT facilitation, participants were classified into a MSI or NO MSI group. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity scale. As predicted, RTs to VS stimuli were significantly shorter than those elicited to constituent unisensory conditions. Multisensory RT facilitation was a significant predictor of total number of physical activity days per month, with individuals in the NO MSI group reporting greater engagement in physical activities compared to those requiring greater RT facilitation.

  16. No Easy Answers: Helping Children with Attention and Activity Level Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jerry; Eddowes, E. Anne; Kuby, Patricia

    Recent developments have increased the need for both theoretical and practical dialogues concerning children's attention and activity levels. This book explores the complex issues and concerns in helping children with attention deficit disorder. The book is organized in three major sections. The first section describes current issues about…

  17. Physical Activity Levels of Non-Overweight, Overweight, and Obese Children during Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathare, Neeti; Piche, Kelly; Nicosia, Andrea; Haskvitz, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) levels of young children classified by body mass index (BMI) (non-overweight, overweight, and obese) during physical education classes. Method: Participants included 82 children (45 boys, 37 girls; 7.5 ± 1.2 years). PA was determined by the number of steps measured with…

  18. Determining Intensity Levels of Selected Wii Fit Activities in College Aged Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Joshua D.; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda; Simonson, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of Nintendo Wii Fit games using indirect calorimetry. Twenty-five college students completed Wii Fit activity sessions at two difficulty levels within aerobics, strength, and yoga categories. Resting metabolic rate and exercise oxygen uptake were measured, and metabolic equivalents were…

  19. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Resources and Environment and the Water Issues Work Group. (c) NRCS provides appropriate staff support when... (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN... activities at the national level. (a) Policy development in water and related land resources is...

  20. Environmental Influences on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels in Various Early-Learning Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderloo, Leigh M.; Tucker, Patricia; Johnson, Andrew M.; Burke, Shauna M.; Irwin, Jennifer D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to: (a) compare the physical activity (PA) levels (i.e., moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA] and total PA [TPA]) of preschoolers in 3 different early-learning environments (center-based childcare, home-based childcare, and full-day kindergarten [FDK]); and (b) assess which characteristics (e.g., play equipment, policies, etc.)…

  1. Associations between Adolescents' Situational Motivation and Objectively-Determined Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Weihong; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the predictive strength of adolescents' situational motivation to their physical activity levels in physical education. Method: A total of 259 middle school students ranging from 11 to 14 years old participated in the study. Participants completed the Situational Motivation Scale in one class. Their PA levels…

  2. Effects of Classroom-Based Energizers on Primary Grade Students' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Catherine Goffreda; DiPerna, James Clyde

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the effects of classroom-based exercise breaks (Energizers; Mahar, Kenny, Shields, Scales, & Collins, 2006) on students' physical activity levels during the school day. A multiple baseline design across first grade (N = 3) and second grade (N = 3) classrooms was used to examine the effects of the…

  3. Physical Activity Levels of Overweight and Nonoverweight High School Students during Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined physical activity (PA) levels of overweight and nonoverweight African American and Caucasian students (n = 198) during game play in physical education classes. Methods: Body fat percentages (%BFs) were determined using the skinfold technique and Slaughter et al prediction equations. Girls were classified as…

  4. Effects of an Aerobic Activity Program on the Cholesterol Levels of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Rimmer, James H.

    1997-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the effects of a 15-week aerobic activity program on high school students' cholesterol levels. Analysis of control and participating students indicated that there were significant reductions in total cholesterol in the training group. There were no significant differences between groups in high density lipoprotein…

  5. Ethnic and Socioeconomic Comparisons of Fitness, Activity Levels, and Barriers to Exercise in High School Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; Hall, Heather L.; Lock, Robyn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if high school females differed in individual measures of health-related physical fitness, barriers to exercise, or activity level based on ethnicity or socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional sample consisting of African American (28%), Hispanic (23%), and white (49%) female high school students, 46%…

  6. Living in a Global Age. A Simulation Activity for Upper Elementary and Secondary Level Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    Designed to introduce concepts in international trade and global economics to upper elementary and secondary level students, this simulation activity engages students in the group task of assembling flashlights. A variety of topics can be explored, such as energy shortages, international crises, relationships between rich and poor nations, foreign…

  7. Metabolic factors, adipose tissue, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in Type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) production by adipose tissue is increased in obesity, and its circulating levels are high in type 2 diabetes. PAI-1 increases cardiovascular risk by favoring clot stability, interfering with vascular remodeling, or both. We investigated in obese diabetic per...

  8. Sources of Continuity and Change in Activity Level in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2012-01-01

    Actigraphs and parent and observer ratings were used to explore genetic influences on continuity and change in activity level (AL) in early childhood. Over 300 pairs of twins wore actigraphs for a 48-hr period in the home and laboratory at ages 2 and 3. AL was genetically influenced at both ages with little evidence of differential heritability…

  9. Pyrazinoic acid decreases the proton motive force, respiratory ATP synthesis activity, and cellular ATP levels.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Haagsma, Anna C; Pham, Hoang; Maaskant, Janneke J; Mol, Selena; Lill, Holger; Bald, Dirk

    2011-11-01

    Pyrazinoic acid, the active form of the first-line antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide, decreased the proton motive force and respiratory ATP synthesis rates in subcellular mycobacterial membrane assays. Pyrazinoic acid also significantly lowered cellular ATP levels in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. These results indicate that the predominant mechanism of killing by this drug may operate by depletion of cellular ATP reserves.

  10. Genetic Influences on Activity Level in Early Childhood: Do Situations Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saudino, Kimberly J.; Zapfe, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Although genetic influences on individual differences in activity level (AL) are well documented, few studies have considered the etiology of AL from a contextual perspective. In the present study, cross-situational and context-specific genetic effects on individual differences in AL at age 2 were examined. The AL of 312 twin pairs (144…

  11. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and juvenile idiopathic arthritis: is there an association with disease activity?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the association between serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), to determine the prevalence of vitamin D (VD) deficiency [25(OH)D=19 ng/ml] and insufficiency [25(OH)D 20-29 ng/ml], and to determine factors associated with ...

  12. Muscular activity level during pedalling is not affected by crank inertial load.

    PubMed

    Duc, S; Villerius, V; Bertucci, W; Pernin, J N; Grappe, F

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of gear ratio (GR) and thus crank inertial load (CIL), on the activity levels of lower limb muscles. Twelve competitive cyclists performed three randomised trials with their own bicycle equipped with a SRM crankset and mounted on an Axiom ergometer. The power output ( approximately 80% of maximal aerobic power) and the pedalling cadence were kept constant for each subject across all trials but three different GR (low, medium and high) were indirectly obtained for each trial by altering the electromagnetic brake of the ergometer. The low, medium and high GR (mean +/- SD) resulted in CIL of 44 +/- 3.7, 84 +/- 6.5 and 152 +/- 17.9 kg.m(2), respectively. Muscular activity levels of the gluteus maximus (GM), the vastus medialis (VM), the vastus lateralis (VL), the rectus femoris (RF), the medial hamstrings (MHAM), the gastrocnemius (GAS) and the soleus (SOL) muscles were quantified and analysed by mean root mean square (RMS(mean)). The muscular activity levels of the measured lower limb muscles were not significantly affected when the CIL was increased approximately four fold. This suggests that muscular activity levels measured on different cycling ergometers (with different GR and flywheel inertia) can be compared among each other, as they are not influenced by CIL.

  13. Effects of Varying Team Sizes on Physical Activity Levels of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudreault, Karen Lux; Cluphf, David; Russell, Jared; Lecheminant, James

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine physical activity levels among various team sizes for basketball and soccer in a C/UIPAP setting. Twenty-eight university physical education majors participated in the study. Participants engaged in three-on-three and five-on-five basketball and five-on-five and 11-on-11 soccer games. All games…

  14. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Distance Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özkan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between physical activity levels and healthy life-style behaviors in distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University. In total, 526 distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University participated in this study voluntarily. The short form of International Physical…

  15. Physical Activity Levels in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Are Extremely Low

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Reis, Debora; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    This study measures physical activity levels in a representative population-based sample of older adults (aged [greater than or equal to]50 years) with intellectual disabilities. For this, the steps/day of all 1050 participants of the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disabilities study (HA-ID; a study conducted among three Dutch healthcare…

  16. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Resources and Environment and the Water Issues Work Group. (c) NRCS provides appropriate staff support when... (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN... activities at the national level. (a) Policy development in water and related land resources is...

  17. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Resources and Environment and the Water Issues Work Group. (c) NRCS provides appropriate staff support when... (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN... activities at the national level. (a) Policy development in water and related land resources is...

  18. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Resources and Environment and the Water Issues Work Group. (c) NRCS provides appropriate staff support when... (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN... activities at the national level. (a) Policy development in water and related land resources is...

  19. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Resources and Environment and the Water Issues Work Group. (c) NRCS provides appropriate staff support when... (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN... activities at the national level. (a) Policy development in water and related land resources is...

  20. EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF VITELLOGENIN EXPRESSION IN DIFFERENT AQUATIC MESOCOSM TROPIC LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic mesocosms were dosed with an environmentally relevant concentration of 17-a-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) to study the significance of trophic status (N, P levels) on the attenuation and bioavailability of synthetic estrogens in aquatic ecosystems. Estrogenic activity was asse...

  1. Measuring Students' Physical Activity Levels: Validating SOFIT for Use with High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Mars, Hans; Rowe, Paul J.; Schuldheisz, Joel M.; Fox, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to validate the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) for measuring physical activity levels of high-school students. Thirty-five students (21 girls and 14 boys from grades 9-12) completed a standardized protocol including lying, sitting, standing, walking, running, curl-ups, and push-ups. Heart rates and…

  2. META-ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL ( PAL ) DATA FOR U.S. YOUTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes analytical research undertaken by EMRB staff to obtain age- and gender-specific distributions of Physical Activity Level (PAL) values for children measured in studies published between 1990-2004 in the clinical nutrition and exercise physiology literatures. ...

  3. Selectivity of physiotherapist programs in the United States does not differ by institutional funding source or research activity level

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare selectivity characteristics among institution characteristics to determine differences by institutional funding source (public vs. private) or research activity level (research vs. non-research). Methods: This study included information provided by the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) and the Federation of State Boards of Physical Therapy. Data were extracted from all students who graduated in 2011 from accredited physical therapy programs in the United States. The public and private designations of the institutions were extracted directly from the classifications from the ‘CAPTE annual accreditation report,’ and high and low research activity was determined based on Carnegie classifications. The institutions were classified into four groups: public/research intensive, public/non-research intensive, private/research intensive, and private/non-research intensive. Descriptive and comparison analyses with post hoc testing were performed to determine whether there were statistically significant differences among the four groups. Results: Although there were statistically significant baseline grade point average differences among the four categorized groups, there were no significant differences in licensure pass rates or for any of the selectivity variables of interest. Conclusion: Selectivity characteristics did not differ by institutional funding source (public vs. private) or research activity level (research vs. non-research). This suggests that the concerns about reduced selectivity among physiotherapy programs, specifically the types that are experiencing the largest proliferation, appear less warranted. PMID:27079201

  4. [Effect of change in activity level of catecholaminergic systems on motor, respiratory, and cardiac activities in rat embryos].

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, O P; Vdovichenko, N D; Kuznetsov, S V

    2012-01-01

    Parameters of motor, respiratory and cardiac activities were studied in rat embryos (E17-20) after changes in activity level of catecholaminergic systems. To produce conditions for excessive level of catecholamines, the animal were administered individually with preparation of L-DOPA at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg. Also studied was action of L-DOPA after blockade of D1-(antagonist - SCH-23390, 0.1 mg/kg), D2-(antagonist - sulpiride, 50 mg/kg) dopaminic, and beta2-(antagonist - propranolol, 1 mg/kg) adrenergic receptors. It was found out in E17-18 that the DOPA administration regardless of dose, while in E19-20 dose-dependently produces continuous generalized activity. Between E18 and E19, ontogenetically new is the appearance in 92 % of embryos of stereotypical head movements (circular movements, lateral and dorso-ventral flexions) following in the nearsecond rhythm. Injection of DOPA to rat embryos increased 2-6 times the number of respiratory movements by the gasping type in E17-20 and decreased the amount of episodes of continuous rhythmical respiration in E19-20. No significant heart rate changes were observed after introduction of DOPA to E17-20. There was noted a tendency for a weak acceleration of the heart rate. The changes in activities of the motor and respiratory systems due to a rise of catecholamine level are not connected with activation of the dopamine system, as they are not reduced by blockade of dopamine receptors.

  5. [The psychophysiological condition of first year students with different levels of physical activity].

    PubMed

    Akhmedova, O O; Ovezgel'dyeva, G O; Grigor'ian, A G

    2011-01-01

    The psychophysiological condition of (male) first year students who participate in sport or don't participate in sport during studies was studied. R. M. Bayevsky's method was used to establish the level of stress on regulatory mechanisms. The functional level of the nervous system, stability of neural responses, and the level of functional abilities of the developed functional system were evaluated using the variation chronoreflexometric method. It was established that an improvement of mental capacity indicators (increase of memory capacity, reduction of the amount of mistakes made, growth of the level of functional abilities and reduction of the latency period of the visual-motor response) was accompanied by a growth of stress on the body's regulatory systems which was more pronounced with regard to those test participants whose level of physical activity was low. This fact is proof that physical activity reduces the body's "adaptation price" to the changing conditions of the environment. The optimal realisation of a person's adaptive systemic reactions is provided for by the dynamic interaction of the functional systems, which form a complex correlation in the body's somatovegetative, motor and psychoemotional spheres of activity.

  6. Calpain expression in lymphoid cells. Increased mRNA and protein levels after cell activation.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Chakrabarti, A K; Barbosa, E; Hogan, E L; Banik, N L

    1995-02-10

    Although calpain is ubiquitously present in human tissues and is thought to play a role in demyelination, its activity is very low in resting normal lymphocytes. To determine the nature of calpain expression at the mRNA and protein levels in human lymphoid cells, we studied human T lymphocytic, B lymphocytic, and monocytic lines as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Stimulation of cells with the phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate and the calcium ionophore A23187 resulted in increased calpain mRNA and protein expression. Calpain mRNA expression is also increased in human T cells stimulated with anti-CD3. A dissociation between the increases of RNA and protein suggested that calpain could be released from the cells; the subsequent experiments showed its presence in the extracellular environment. 5,6-Dichloro-1b-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, a reversible inhibitor of mRNA synthesis, reduced calpain mRNA levels by 50-67% and protein levels by 72-91%. Its removal resulted in resumption of both calpain mRNA and protein synthesis. Cycloheximide, a translational inhibitor, reduced calpain protein levels by 77-81% and calpain mRNA levels by 96% in activated THP-1 cells. Interferon-gamma induced calpain mRNA and protein in U-937 and THP-1 cells. Dexamethasone increased mRNA expression in THP-1 cells. Our results indicate that activation of lymphoid cells results in de novo synthesis and secretion of calpain.

  7. Environmental noise levels affect the activity budget of the Florida manatee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Donaghay, Percy L.; Miller, James H.; Tyack, Peter L.

    2005-09-01

    Manatees inhabit coastal bays, lagoons, and estuaries because they are dependent on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters. Food requirements force manatees to occupy the same areas in which human activities are the greatest. Noise produced from human activities has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. This study quantifies the behavioral responses of manatees to both changing levels of ambient noise and transient noise sources. Results indicate that elevated environmental noise levels do affect the overall activity budget of this species. The proportion of time manatees spend feeding, milling, and traveling in critical habitats changed as a function of noise level. More time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behaviors of feeding and traveling, while less time was spent milling when noise levels were highest. The animals also responded to the transient noise of approaching vessels with changes in behavioral state and movements out of the geographical area. This suggests that manatees detect and respond to changes in environmental noise levels. Whether these changes legally constitute harassment and produce biologically significant effects need to be addressed with hypothesis-driven experiments and long-term monitoring. [For Animal Bioacoustics Best Student Paper Award.

  8. Recommended Levels of Physical Activity Are Associated with Reduced Risk of the Metabolic Syndrome in Mexican-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shenghui; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.; Reininger, Belinda; McCormick, Joseph B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To measure the association between physical activity and the metabolic syndrome risk in Mexican-Americans. Methods Participants were drawn from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (n = 3,414), a randomly selected Mexican-American cohort in Texas on the US-Mexico border. Moderate and vigorous physical activity was assessed using reliable and validated instruments. The metabolic syndrome was defined as having 3 or more metabolic abnormalities. Results One thousand five hundred and twenty-four participants of the cohort (45.02%) were found to have the metabolic syndrome. Compared to participants who did not meet US physical activity guidelines, participants who met physical activity guidelines of 150 moderate and vigorous minutes per week (≥ 600 MET adjusted minutes) had 36% lower risk for the metabolic syndrome (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.42–0.98), and participants with total minutes per week of moderate and vigorous/strenuous activity greater than 743 MET adjusted minutes had 37% lower risk for the metabolic syndrome (OR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.42–0.94) compared with their counterparts, after adjusting for age, gender, annual household income, body mass index, smoking and alcohol drinking status, total portions of fruit and vegetable intake, census tracts and blocks, and survey version for physical activity. Conclusions Meeting or exceeding physical activity guidelines significantly was inversely associated with the risk for the metabolic syndrome in Mexican-Americans. Improving levels of physical activity appears to be an effective target for the metabolic syndrome prevention and control among Mexican-Americans independent of other factors. PMID:27054324

  9. Changes in breath trihalomethane levels resulting from household water-use activities.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Sydney M; Brinkman, Marielle C; Ashley, David L; Blount, Benjamin C; Lyu, Christopher; Masters, John; Singer, Philip C

    2006-04-01

    Common household water-use activities such as showering, bathing, drinking, and washing clothes or dishes are potentially important contributors to individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the major class of disinfection by-products of water treated with chlorine. Previous studies have focused on showering or bathing activities. In this study, we selected 12 common water-use activities and determined which may lead to the greatest THM exposures and result in the greatest increase in the internal dose. Seven subjects performed the various water-use activities in two residences served by water utilities with relatively high and moderate total THM levels. To maintain a consistent exposure environment, the activities, exposure times, air exchange rates, water flows, water temperatures, and extraneous THM emissions to the indoor air were carefully controlled. Water, indoor air, blood, and exhaled-breath samples were collected during each exposure session for each activity, in accordance with a strict, well-defined protocol. Although showering (for 10 min) and bathing (for 14 min), as well as machine washing of clothes and opening mechanical dishwashers at the end of the cycle, resulted in substantial increases in indoor air chloroform concentrations, only showering and bathing caused significant increases in the breath chloroform levels. In the case of bromodichloromethane (BDCM), only bathing yielded a significantly higher air level in relation to the preexposure concentration. For chloroform from showering, strong correlations were observed for indoor air and exhaled breath, blood and exhaled breath, indoor air and blood, and tap water and blood. Only water and breath, and blood and breath were significantly associated for chloroform from bathing. For BDCM, significant correlations were obtained for blood and air, and blood and water from showering. Neither dibromochloromethane nor bromoform gave measurable breath concentrations for any of the activities

  10. Parental Influences and the Relationship to their Children’s Physical Activity Levels

    PubMed Central

    CHIARLITTI, NATHAN A.; KOLEN, ANGELA M.

    2017-01-01

    Engaging in a physically active lifestyle relates positively to current health and reduces chances of chronic diseases in the future. Given escalating health care costs, it is paramount to reduce illnesses associated with a lack of physical activity and thus critical to identify factors that influence physical activity - especially in children, with the opportunity for a lifetime impact. One of these influencing factors may be parents/guardians. The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between children’s physical activity levels and parental factors including parental physical activity, support/encouragement, restrictiveness, and self-reported participation. Data was collected from 15 child-parent pairs with children ranging in age from 7 to 10 years. Daily physical activity levels were determined from pedometer data using a Piezo SC-Step Pedometer. Number of steps and moderate and vigorous physical activity were extracted from the pedometers and levels of support/encouragement, restrictiveness, and participation were quantified from parents’ self-reported responses to a questionnaire created for this study. Pearson Product correlation analyses were carried out between: the children’s and parent steps (r = −0.069; p = 0.597); children’s steps and parent’s self-reported encouragement/support (r = 0.045, p = 0.563); children’s steps and parents’ self-reported restrictiveness (r = −.0254, p = 0.820); and children’s steps and parents’ self-reported participation (r = −0.002, p = 0.503). The lack of significant relationships among these variables implies that more complex interactions occur between children and their parents regarding physical activity with children’s participation influenced by other factors. PMID:28344735

  11. Dietary selenium increases the antioxidant levels and ATPase activity in the arteries and veins of poultry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Changyu; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jinxin; Luan, Yilin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. It has been shown that oxidative levels and ATPase activity were involved in Se deficiency diseases in humans and mammals; however, the mechanism by how Se influences the oxidative levels and ATPase activity in the poultry vasculature is unclear. We assessed the effects of dietary Se deficiency on the oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyl radical) and ATPase (Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Ca(++)-ATPase, Mg(++)-ATPase, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase) activity in broiler poultry. A total of 40 broilers (1-day old) were randomly divided into a Se-deficient group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.08 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.20 mg/kg Se). Then, arteries and veins were collected following euthanasia when typical symptoms of Se deficiency appeared. Antioxidant indexes and ATPase activity were evaluated using standard assays in arteries and veins. The results indicated that superoxide dismutase activity in the artery according to dietary Se deficiency was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The catalase activity in the veins and hydroxyl radical inhibition in the arteries and veins by dietary Se deficiency were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The Se-deficient group showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) tendency in Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, Ca(++)-ATPase activity, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase activity. There were strong correlations between antioxidant indexes and Ca(++)-ATPase activity. Thus, these results indicate that antioxidant indexes and ATPases may have special roles in broiler artery and vein injuries under Se deficiency.

  12. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; p<0.001) whereas in red cabbage it was significantly reduced (34.6%; p<0.001). In the kale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity.

  13. Tissue plasminogen activator inhibits NMDA-receptor-mediated increases in calcium levels in cultured hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Samuel D.; Lee, Tet Woo; Christie, David L.; Birch, Nigel P.

    2015-01-01

    NMDA receptors (NMDARs) play a critical role in neurotransmission, acting as essential mediators of many forms of synaptic plasticity, and also modulating aspects of development, synaptic transmission and cell death. NMDAR-induced responses are dependent on a range of factors including subunit composition and receptor location. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease that has been reported to interact with NMDARs and modulate NMDAR activity. In this study we report that tPA inhibits NMDAR-mediated changes in intracellular calcium levels in cultures of primary hippocampal neurons stimulated by low (5 μM) but not high (50 μM) concentrations of NMDA. tPA also inhibited changes in calcium levels stimulated by presynaptic release of glutamate following treatment with bicucculine/4-aminopyridine (4-AP). Inhibition was dependent on the proteolytic activity of tPA but was unaffected by α2-antiplasmin, an inhibitor of the tPA substrate plasmin, and receptor-associated protein (RAP), a pan-ligand blocker of the low-density lipoprotein receptor, two proteins previously reported to modulate NMDAR activity. These findings suggest that tPA can modulate changes in intracellular calcium levels in a subset of NMDARs expressed in cultured embryonic hippocampal neurons through a mechanism that involves the proteolytic activity of tPA and synaptic NMDARs. PMID:26500501

  14. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.

  15. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    PubMed

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  16. Shifts in microbial community in response to dissolved oxygen levels in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Trilok Chandra; Khardenavis, Anshuman A; Kapley, Atya

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluates the degradative efficiency of activated biomass collected from a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) under three different dissolved oxygen (DO) levels, 1, 2 and 4mgl(-1). The change in bacterial diversity with reference to DO levels was also analyzed. Results demonstrate that degradative efficiency was the highest, when the reactor was maintained at 4mgl(-1) DO, but amplicon library analysis showed a greater diversity of bacteria in the reactor maintained at 2mgl(-1) DO. Bacteria belonging to the order Desulfuromonadales, Entomoplasmatales, Pasteurellales, Thermales and Chloroflexales have only been detected in this reactor. Ammonia and nitrate levels in all three reactors indicated efficient nitrification process. Results of this study offer new insights into understanding the performance of activated biomass vis-à-vis microbial diversity and degradative efficiency with reference to DO. This information would be useful in improving the efficiency of any wastewater treatment plant.

  17. Routine activities and sexual assault: an analysis of individual- and school-level factors.

    PubMed

    Cass, Amy I

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of routine activities theory is examined to explain sexual assault on the college campus. Although many research studies have utilized routine activities theory to predict sexual assault using individual-level factors, little is known about the effect of school-level factors on a student's risk of sexual assault. Based on interviews from 3,036 randomly selected students and surveys from 11 randomly selected colleges in the United States, a hierarchical linear model was created to predict student victimizations by school characteristics. For the individual, results reveal that being female, drug use, and marital status are statistically significant for predicting the probability of a sexual assault. At the institutional level, however, none of the variables are significant in predicting sexual assault among college coeds. Policy implications for prevention measures on college campuses are discussed.

  18. Increasing Level of Leisure Physical Activity Could Reduce the Risk of Hip Fracture in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Ke; Liu, Xiao-yu; Wu, Xu-hua; Li, Xiao-liu; Xia, Qing-quan; Chen, Jiong; Yin, Xiao-fan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We carried out the study to investigate and quantitatively assess the potential association between current level of physical activity and the risk of osteoporosis hip fracture in older women. Relevant publications before October 2015 were identified using the PubMed and Ovid searching tools. A dose–response meta-analysis was carried out to combine and analysis results. Fourteen prospective studies were included in the meta-analysis. A general analysis of 9 studies showed a significant inverse relationship between increasing level of physical activity and risk of hip fracture in older women [relative risk (RR) = 0.93, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.91–0.96]. The result of a sensitivity analysis was consistent with the general analysis (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.93–0.96). The association between increasing level of physical activity and risk of wrist fracture was not statistically significant in a general analysis of three studies (RR = 1.004, 95% CI: 0.98–1.03). A potential direct association between increasing level of physical activity and risk of wrist fracture was observed after removing 1 study with the greatest weight (RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00–1.03). No significant publication bias was observed in our analysis. Our results show that increasing level of physical activity within an appropriate range may reduce the risk of hip fracture but not the risk of wrist fracture in older women. PMID:26986111

  19. General conclusions regarding the planetary-solar-terrestrial interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mörner, N.-A.; Tattersall, R.; Solheim, J.-E.; Charvatova, I.; Scafetta, N.; Jelbring, H.; Wilson, I. R.; Salvador, R.; Willson, R. C.; Hejda, P.; Soon, W.; Velasco Herrera, V. M.; Humlum, O.; Archibald, D.; Yndestad, H.; Easterbrook, D.; Casey, J.; Gregori, G.; Henriksson, G.

    2013-12-01

    In a collection of research papers devoted to the problem of solar variability and its origin in planetary beat, it is demonstrated that the forcing function originates from gravitational and inertial effects on the Sun from the planets and their satellites. This conclusion is shared by nineteen co-authors.

  20. 40 CFR 35.6820 - Conclusion of the SSC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Requirements for Administering A Superfund State Contract (ssc) § 35.6820 Conclusion of the SSC... all future operation and maintenance as required by CERCLA section 104(c) and addressed in 40 CFR...

  1. 40 CFR 35.6820 - Conclusion of the SSC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Requirements for Administering A Superfund State Contract (ssc) § 35.6820 Conclusion of the SSC... all future operation and maintenance as required by CERCLA section 104(c) and addressed in 40 CFR...

  2. 40 CFR 35.6820 - Conclusion of the SSC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Requirements for Administering A Superfund State Contract (ssc) § 35.6820 Conclusion of the SSC... all future operation and maintenance as required by CERCLA section 104(c) and addressed in 40 CFR...

  3. 40 CFR 35.6820 - Conclusion of the SSC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Requirements for Administering A Superfund State Contract (ssc) § 35.6820 Conclusion of the SSC... all future operation and maintenance as required by CERCLA section 104(c) and addressed in 40 CFR...

  4. 40 CFR 35.6820 - Conclusion of the SSC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Requirements for Administering A Superfund State Contract (ssc) § 35.6820 Conclusion of the SSC... all future operation and maintenance as required by CERCLA section 104(c) and addressed in 40 CFR...

  5. Area V Vocational Education Planning Conclusions and Recommendations: Third Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Area 5 Vocational Planning Committee, Pleasant Hill, CA.

    Conclusions and recommendations regarding the development of an Area Master Plan to provide maximum coordination between vocational, technical, adult, and continuing education agencies within Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California, are presented. The Area Five Planning Committee, which developed the Master Plan, based its evaluation and…

  6. 22 CFR 18.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 18.18 Section 18.18 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL REGULATIONS CONCERNING POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 18.18 Proposed findings and...

  7. 22 CFR 18.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 18.18 Section 18.18 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL REGULATIONS CONCERNING POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 18.18 Proposed findings and...

  8. 22 CFR 18.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 18.18 Section 18.18 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL REGULATIONS CONCERNING POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 18.18 Proposed findings and...

  9. 22 CFR 18.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 18.18 Section 18.18 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL REGULATIONS CONCERNING POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 18.18 Proposed findings and...

  10. 22 CFR 18.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 18.18 Section 18.18 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL REGULATIONS CONCERNING POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 18.18 Proposed findings and...

  11. When Proofs Reflect More on Assumptions than Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Paul Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how questions of "provability" can help students engaged in reinvention of mathematical theory to understand the axiomatic game. While proof demonstrates how conclusions follow from assumptions, "provability" characterizes the dual relation that assumptions are "justified" when they afford…

  12. 49 CFR 511.46 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. 511.46 Section 511.46 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Hearings §...

  13. Overview of human health in the Arctic: conclusions and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Shawn; Adlard, Bryan; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    This article is intended to provide an overview of the key conclusions, knowledge gaps and key recommendations based on the recent 2015 Arctic human health assessment under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program. This assessment was based primarily on data from human health monitoring and research studies and peer-reviewed literature published since the last assessment in 2009. PMID:27974138

  14. 10 CFR 2.712 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 2.712 Section 2.712 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF... proceeding may, or if directed by the presiding officer shall, file proposed findings of fact and...

  15. 20 CFR 901.48 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 901.48 Section 901.48 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTUARIAL SERVICES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 Suspension...

  16. Hypothesis, Prediction, and Conclusion: Using Nature of Science Terminology Correctly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastwell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper defines the terms "hypothesis," "prediction," and "conclusion" and shows how to use the terms correctly in scientific investigations in both the school and science education research contexts. The scientific method, or hypothetico-deductive (HD) approach, is described and it is argued that an understanding of the scientific method,…

  17. 45 CFR 672.19 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. 672.19 Section 672.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE... law, and a proposed order, together with supporting briefs, within twenty (20) days after the...

  18. 45 CFR 672.19 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. 672.19 Section 672.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE... law, and a proposed order, together with supporting briefs, within twenty (20) days after the...

  19. 45 CFR 672.19 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. 672.19 Section 672.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE... law, and a proposed order, together with supporting briefs, within twenty (20) days after the...

  20. High Systemic Levels of the Cytokine-Inducing HMGB1 Isoform Secreted in Severe Macrophage Activation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Palmblad, Karin; Schierbeck, Hanna; Sundberg, Erik; Horne, Anna-Carin; Harris, Helena Erlandsson; Henter, Jan-Inge; Antoine, Daniel J; Andersson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a potentially fatal complication of systemic inflammation. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein extensively leaked extracellularly during necrotic cell death or actively secreted by natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages and additional cells during infection or sterile injury. Extracellular HMGB1 orchestrates key events in inflammation as a prototypic alarmin. The redox states of its three cysteines render the molecule mutually exclusive functions: fully reduced “all-thiol HMGB1” exerts chemotactic activity; “disulfide HMGB1” has cytokine-inducing, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated effects—while terminally oxidized “sulfonyl HMGB1” lacks inflammatory activity. This study examines the kinetic pattern of systemic HMGB1 isoform expression during therapy in four children with severe MAS. Three of the four patients with underlying systemic rheumatic diseases were treated with biologics and two suffered from triggering herpes virus infections at the onset of MAS. All patients required intensive care unit therapy due to life-threatening illness. Tandem mass-spectrometric analysis revealed dramatically increased systemic levels of the cytokine-inducing HMGB1 isoform during early MAS. Disease control coincided with supplementary etoposide therapy initiated to boost apoptotic cell death, when systemic HMGB1 levels drastically declined and the molecule emerged mainly in its oxidized, noninflammatory isoform. Systemic interferon (IFN)-γ and ferritin peaked concomitantly with HMGB1, whereas interleukin (IL)-18 and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 levels developed differently. In conclusion, this work provides new insights in HMGB1 biology, suggesting that the molecule is not merely a biomarker of inflammation, but most likely also contributes to the pathogenesis of MAS. These observations encourage further studies of disulfide HMGB1 antagonists to improve outcome of MAS. PMID:25247290

  1. Locally constrained active contour: a region-based level set for ovarian cancer metastasis segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianfei; Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Shijun; Linguraru, Marius George; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of ovarian cancer metastases is clinically useful to evaluate tumor growth and determine follow-up treatment. We present a region-based level set algorithm with localization constraints to segment ovarian cancer metastases. Our approach is established on a representative region-based level set, Chan-Vese model, in which an active contour is driven by region competition. To reduce over-segmentation, we constrain the level set propagation within a narrow image band by embedding a dynamic localization function. The metastasis intensity prior is also estimated from image regions within the level set initialization. The localization function and intensity prior force the level set to stop at the desired metastasis boundaries. Our approach was validated on 19 ovarian cancer metastases with radiologist-labeled ground-truth on contrast-enhanced CT scans from 15 patients. The comparison between our algorithm and geodesic active contour indicated that the volume overlap was 75+/-10% vs. 56+/-6%, the Dice coefficient was 83+/-8% vs. 63+/-8%, and the average surface distance was 2.2+/-0.6mm vs. 4.4+/-0.9mm. Experimental results demonstrated that our algorithm outperformed traditional level set algorithms.

  2. Effects of Chronic Active Cannabis Use on Visuomotor Integration, in Relation to Brain Activation and Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    King, G.R.; Ernst, T.; Deng, W.; Stenger, A.; Gonzales, R.M.K; Nakama, H.; Chang, L.

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis is the most abused illegal substance in the United States. Alterations in brain function and motor behavior have been reported in chronic cannabis users, but the results have been variable. The current study aimed to determine whether chronic active cannabis use in humans may alter psychomotor function, brain activation, and hypothalamic-pituitary-axis (HPA) function in men and women. 30 cannabis users (16 men and 14 women, 18 to 45 years old) and 30 non-drug user controls (16 men and 14 women, 19 to 44 years old) were evaluated with neuropsychological tests designed to assess motor behavior and functional MRI (fMRI), using a 3 Tesla scanner, during a visually paced finger-sequencing task, cued by a flashing checkerboard (at 2 or 4 Hz). Salivary cortisol was measured to assess HPA function. Male, but not female, cannabis users had significantly slower performance on psychomotor speed tests. As a group, cannabis users had greater activation in BA 6 than controls, while controls had greater activation in the visual area BA 17 than cannabis users. Cannabis users also had higher salivary cortisol levels than controls (p = 0.002). Chronic active cannabis use is associated with slower and less efficient psychomotor function, especially in the male users, as indicated by a shift from regions involved with automated visually guided responses to more executive or attentional control areas. These brain activities may be attenuated by the higher cortisol levels in the cannabis users which in turn may lead to less efficient visual-motor function. PMID:22159107

  3. Seasonal Variation in Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Young Norwegian Talented Soccer Players: A Description of Daily Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Sæther, Stig A.; Aspvik, Nils P.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Practise makes perfect’ is a well-known expression in most sports, including top-level soccer. However, a high training and match load increases the risk for injury, overtraining and burnout. With the use of accelerometers and a self-report questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players’ physical activity (PA) level. Data were collected three times during the 2011 Norwegian Football season (March, June and October). The accelerometer output, counts·min–1 (counts per unit time registered), reports the daily PA-level for young talented soccer players. Results showed a stable PA-level across the season (March: 901.2 counts·min–1, June: 854.9 counts·min–1, October: 861.5 counts·min–1). Furthermore, comparison of five different training sessions across the season showed that the PA-level ranged from 2435.8 to 3745.4 counts·min–1. A one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the three measured weeks during the soccer season (p≤0.814). However, the training sessions in January had a significantly higher PA-level than those in June and October (p≤0.001). Based on these results, we discuss how potential implications of PA-level affect factors such as risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. We argue that player development must be seen as part of an overall picture in which club training and match load should be regarded as one of many variables influencing players’ PA-level. Key points It is well established that to achieve a high performance level in sport, one must implement a high training and match load in childhood and youth. With the use of accelerometers and a self-reported questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players’ total physical activity (PA) load. These results indicate that young talented soccer players must overcome large doses of PA on a weekly basis, exposing them to a high risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. PMID:25435792

  4. Upper Limb Muscle and Brain Activity in Light Assembly Task on Different Load Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadry, Hilma Raimona; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md.; Taha, Zahari

    2010-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of load on upper limb muscles and brain activities in light assembly task. The task was conducted at two levels of load (Low and high). Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure upper limb muscle activities of twenty subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) was simultaneously recorded with EMG to record brain activities from Fz, Pz, O1 and O2 channels. The EMG Mean Power Frequency (MPF) of the right brachioradialis and the left upper trapezius activities were higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task. The EMG MPF values also decrease as time increases, that reflects muscle fatigue. Mean power of the EEG alpha bands for the Fz-Pz channels were found to be higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task, while for the O1-O2 channels, they were higher on the low-load task than on the high-load task. These results indicated that the load levels effect the upper limb muscle and brain activities. The high-load task will increase muscle activities on the right brachioradialis and the left upper tapezius muscles, and will increase the awareness and motivation of the subjects. Whilst the low-load task can generate drowsiness earlier. It signified that the longer the time and the more heavy of the task, the subjects will be more fatigue physically and mentally.

  5. Circulating ADAM17 Level Reflects Disease Activity in Proteinase-3 ANCA-Associated Vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Anna; Lovric, Svjetlana; Engel, Alissa; Beese, Michaela; Wyss, Kristin; Hertel, Barbara; Park, Joon-Keun; Becker, Jan U; Kegel, Johanna; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Kirsch, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    ANCA-associated vasculitides are characterized by inflammatory destruction of small vessels accompanied by enhanced cleavage of membrane-bound proteins. One of the main proteases responsible for ectodomain shedding is disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17). Given its potential role in aggravating vascular dysfunction, we examined the role of ADAM17 in active proteinase-3 (PR3)-positive ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). ADAM17 concentration was significantly increased in plasma samples from patients with active PR3-AAV compared with samples from patients in remission or from other controls with renal nonvascular diseases. Comparably, plasma levels of the ADAM17 substrate syndecan-1 were significantly enhanced in active AAV. We also observed that plasma-derived ADAM17 retained its specific proteolytic activity and was partly located on extracellular microparticles. Transcript levels of ADAM17 were increased in blood samples of patients with active AAV, but those of ADAM10 or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3, which inhibits ADAMs, were not. We also performed a microRNA (miR) screen and identified miR-634 as significantly upregulated in blood samples from patients with active AAV. In vitro, miR-634 mimics induced a proinflammatory phenotype in monocyte-derived macrophages, with enhanced expression and release of ADAM17 and IL-6. These data suggest that ADAM17 has a prominent role in AAV and might account for the vascular complications associated with this disease.

  6. Circulating ADAM17 Level Reflects Disease Activity in Proteinase-3 ANCA-Associated Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, Anna; Lovric, Svjetlana; Engel, Alissa; Beese, Michaela; Wyss, Kristin; Hertel, Barbara; Park, Joon-Keun; Becker, Jan U.; Kegel, Johanna; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion

    2015-01-01

    ANCA-associated vasculitides are characterized by inflammatory destruction of small vessels accompanied by enhanced cleavage of membrane-bound proteins. One of the main proteases responsible for ectodomain shedding is disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17). Given its potential role in aggravating vascular dysfunction, we examined the role of ADAM17 in active proteinase-3 (PR3)-positive ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). ADAM17 concentration was significantly increased in plasma samples from patients with active PR3-AAV compared with samples from patients in remission or from other controls with renal nonvascular diseases. Comparably, plasma levels of the ADAM17 substrate syndecan-1 were significantly enhanced in active AAV. We also observed that plasma-derived ADAM17 retained its specific proteolytic activity and was partly located on extracellular microparticles. Transcript levels of ADAM17 were increased in blood samples of patients with active AAV, but those of ADAM10 or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3, which inhibits ADAMs, were not. We also performed a microRNA (miR) screen and identified miR-634 as significantly upregulated in blood samples from patients with active AAV. In vitro, miR-634 mimics induced a proinflammatory phenotype in monocyte-derived macrophages, with enhanced expression and release of ADAM17 and IL-6. These data suggest that ADAM17 has a prominent role in AAV and might account for the vascular complications associated with this disease. PMID:25788529

  7. Factors influencing physical activity level among secondary school adolescents in Petaling District, Selangor.

    PubMed

    Aniza, I; Fairuz, M R

    2009-09-01

    Physical activity is the first line approach and one of the main factors in preventing chronic diseases. Currently there is the increasing percentage of sedentary life style or lack of exercise among adolescents. The main objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of inactivity and the factors influencing physical activity in adolescents. A cross sectional study was carried out among secondary school students aged 14 and 16 in Petaling District, Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 519 respondents participated in this study. Their physical activity level was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The active group was classified as those having levels of equal or more than 600 met-min per week while less than 600 met-min per week was considered inactive. Response rate in this study was 95.4%. The prevalence of inactive in adolescents was 20.8%. Female adolescents, non-working mother, time constraint, exercise only when having ample time and stretching before exercise are predictor factors for being inactive among adolescents. Steps need to be taken to persistently ensure that the physical activity among adolescents be increased continuously.

  8. Neuroblastoma patient outcomes, tumor differentiation, and ERK activation are correlated with expression levels of the ubiquitin ligase UBE4B

    PubMed Central

    Woodfield, Sarah E.; Guo, Rong Jun; Liu, Yin; Major, Angela M.; Hollingsworth, Emporia Faith; Indiviglio, Sandra; Whittle, Sarah B.; Mo, Qianxing; Bean, Andrew J.; Ittmann, Michael; Lopez-Terrada, Dolores; Zage, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    Background UBE4B is an E3/E4 ubiquitin ligase whose gene is located in chromosome 1p36.22. We analyzed the associations of UBE4B gene and protein expression with neuroblastoma patient outcomes and with tumor prognostic features and histology. Methods We evaluated the association of UBE4B gene expression with neuroblastoma patient outcomes using the R2 Platform. We screened neuroblastoma tumor samples for UBE4B protein expression using immunohistochemistry. FISH for UBE4B and 1p36 deletion was performed on tumor samples. We then evaluated UBE4B expression for associations with prognostic factors and with levels of phosphorylated ERK in neuroblastoma tumors and cell lines. Results Low UBE4B gene expression is associated with poor outcomes in patients with neuroblastoma and with worse outcomes in all patient subgroups. UBE4B protein expression was associated with neuroblastoma tumor differentiation, and decreased UBE4B protein levels were associated with high-risk features. UBE4B protein levels were also associated with levels of phosphorylated ERK. Conclusions We have demonstrated associations between UBE4B gene expression and neuroblastoma patient outcomes and prognostic features. Reduced UBE4B protein expression in neuroblastoma tumors was associated with high-risk features, a lack of differentiation, and with ERK activation. These results suggest UBE4B may contribute to the poor prognosis of neuroblastoma tumors with 1p36 deletions and that UBE4B expression may mediate neuroblastoma differentiation. PMID:27014418

  9. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels reflect organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Enocsson, Helena; Wetterö, Jonas; Skogh, Thomas; Sjöwall, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    Assessments of disease activity and organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remain challenging because of the lack of reliable biomarkers and disease heterogeneity. Ongoing inflammation can be difficult to distinguish from permanent organ damage caused by previous flare-ups or medication side effects. Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has emerged as a potential marker of inflammation and disease severity, and an outcome predictor in several disparate conditions. This study was done to evaluate suPAR as a marker of disease activity and organ damage in SLE. Sera from 100 healthy donors and 198 patients with SLE fulfilling the 1982 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria and/or the Fries criteria were analyzed for suPAR by enzyme immunoassay. Eighteen patients with varying degree of disease activity were monitored longitudinally. Disease activity was assessed by the SLE disease activity index 2000 and the physician's global assessment. Organ damage was evaluated by the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index (SDI). Compared with healthy control subjects, serum suPAR levels were elevated significantly in patients with SLE. No association was recorded regarding suPAR levels and SLE disease activity in cross-sectional or consecutive samples. However, a strong association was observed between suPAR and SDI (P < 0.0005). Considering distinct SDI domains, renal, neuropsychiatric, ocular, skin, and peripheral vascular damage had a significant effect on suPAR levels. This study is the first to demonstrate an association between serum suPAR and irreversible organ damage in SLE. Further studies are warranted to evaluate suPAR and other biomarkers as predictors of evolving organ damage.

  10. Decadal variability of European sea level extremes in relation to the solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Asensio, Adrián.; Tsimplis, Michael N.; Calafat, Francisco Mir

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates the relationship between decadal changes in solar activity and sea level extremes along the European coasts and derived from tide gauge data. Autumn sea level extremes vary with the 11 year solar cycle at Venice as suggested by previous studies, but a similar link is also found at Trieste. In addition, a solar signal in winter sea level extremes is also found at Venice, Trieste, Marseille, Ceuta, Brest, and Newlyn. The influence of the solar cycle is also evident in the sea level extremes derived from a barotropic model with spatial patterns that are consistent with the correlations obtained at the tide gauges. This agreement indicates that the link to the solar cycle is through modulation of the atmospheric forcing. The only atmospheric regional pattern that showed variability at the 11 year period was the East Atlantic pattern.

  11. Jumping to conclusions in untreated patients with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    de Rezende Costa, Flavio Henrique; Averbeck, Bruno; O'Sullivan, Sean S.; Vincent, Maurice Borges; Rosso, Ana Lucia; Lees, Andrew J.; Djamshidian, Atbin

    2016-01-01

    Background Jumping to conclusions due to impulsivity has been shown to be a sensitive marker for dopamine dysregulation and addictive behaviour patterns in treated patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). It is unknown whether drug naïve PD patients, who have never received dopaminergic therapy also have deficits in information sampling. Methods Twenty five de novo PD patients and twenty matched healthy controls were recruited and tested on the beads task, which is a validated information sampling task to assess reflection impulsivity and a temporal discounting questionnaire. Results Patients gathered significantly less information and made more irrational choices than matched controls. There was, however, no group difference on the temporal discounting questionnaire. Conclusions Poor information sampling and irrational decision making may be an inherent component of the neuropsychological deficit in Parkinson's disease. These findings suggest that underlying impulsivity detected by a metric task is common in de novo PD. PMID:26956927

  12. [Problems of occupational fitness conclusion on periodic medical examination].

    PubMed

    Alekseev, V B; Vlasova, E M; Nosov, A E; Ponomareva, T A; Kostarev, V G

    2014-01-01

    Additional examination in Occupational Pathology Center are economic loss both for employer and employee, as the employee receives payment for those days when in the examination. Analysis of over 600 cases of occupational fitness examination in Occupational Pathology Center according to referrals given by medical institutions providing periodic medical examination shows that in most cases the conclusion was possible during periodic medical examination. Difficulties in conclusion on workers' fitness for occupation during periodic medical examination, according to our viewpoint, result not from limited diagnostic facilities for adequate examination and unfitness disclosure, but from lack of information in primary medical documentation and inadequacy of occupational factor and work characteristics presented by employer to actual working conditions.

  13. Meeting U.S. Healthy People 2010 Levels of Physical Activity: Agreement of 2 Measures across 2 years

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, Rod K.; Rooks, Cherie R.; Thom, Nathaniel J.; Motl, Robert W.; Nigg, Claudio R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Measuring the way people vary across time in meeting recommended levels of physical activity should be a fundamental component of public health surveillance. However, we were unaware of prospective cohort studies that had examined this in a population base using convergent measures. Purpose We examined agreement between two validated measures used to estimate periodic change in the rate of meeting U.S. Healthy People 2010 guidelines for participation in moderate or vigorous physical activity. Methods A cohort (N=497) from a random, multi-ethnic sample of adults living in Hawaii was assessed every 6-months for 2 years starting spring 2004. Latent transition analysis classified people as meeting or not meeting the guidelines. Intra-class kappa statistics and multinomial logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate agreement. Results Agreement for classifying stable classes of people who met or did not meet the guideline each time was substantial for vigorous activity (kappa ∼ .65 - .70) but fair-to-moderate for moderate activity (kappa ∼ .38 - .48). Agreement was poorer for classifying people who transitioned between meeting and not meeting the vigorous guideline (kappa ∼ .45) or the moderate guideline (kappa ∼ .21 - .29). Conclusion Rates of meeting the guidelines varied across time and were estimated differently by the two measures, especially for moderate activity. This illustrates an understudied problem for public health promotion. Accurate classification of change within people is necessary for determining exposure in outcome studies, personal determinants of sufficient activity, and for evaluating whether interventions are successful in sustaining increases in rates of meeting physical activity guidelines. PMID:20538194

  14. High Levels of Serum DPP-4 Activity Are Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Dipeptidyl peptidase 4/CD26 (DPP-4) is a widely expressed cell surface serine protease. DPP-4 inhibitors, one of common anti-diabetic agents play a protective role in bone metabolism in recent studies. A soluble form of DPP-4 is found in serum, and exhibits DPP-4 enzymatic activity. However, the physiological role of serum or soluble DPP-4 and its relationship with DPP-4 enzymatic function remain poorly understood. The aims of current study were to determine the association between serum DPP-4 activity and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. Methods We recruited data and serum samples from 124 consecutive healthy postmenopausal women aged >50 years. We divided study subjects into obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI <25 kg/m2) postmenopausal women and examined the correlation between serum DPP-4 activity and clinical variables in each groups. Results A total of 124 postmenopausal women was enrolled, with a mean age of 59.9±7.1 years. The mean BMI of the study patients was 24.4±2.8 kg/m2. Regarding bone turnover markers, serum DPP-4 activity was positively correlated with serum calcium concentrations, intact parathyroid hormone, and serum C-telopeptide levels in all of the study subjects. However, there was no association between serum DPP-4 activity and BMD in the spine or femoral neck in all of the study subjects. Serum DPP-4 activity was negatively correlated (R=−0.288, P=0.038) with BMD of the spine in obese postmenopausal women. Conclusion This study demonstrated for the first time that serum soluble DPP-4 activity was negatively correlated with BMD in obese postmenopausal women. PMID:26676330

  15. Superoxide dismutase activity and gene expression levels in Saudi women with recurrent miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    GHNEIM, HAZEM K.; AL-SHEIKH, YAZEED A.; ALSHEBLY, MASHAEL M.; ABOUL-SOUD, MOURAD A. M.

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and SOD2, as well as the levels of the oxidant superoxide anion (SOA) and the micronutrients zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn), were assayed in plasma, whole blood and placental tissue of non-pregnant (NP), healthy pregnant (HP) women and recurrent miscarriage (RM) patients. The results showed that SOD1 and SOD2 activities and the levels of Zn, Cu and Mn in plasma and whole blood of HP women were slightly, but significantly lower, and even more significantly decreased in RM patients compared to those observed in NP women (P<0.05 and P<0.0001, respectively). Additionally, whereas plasma SOD1 and SOD2 activities and Zn, Cu and Mn levels were significantly lower in RM patients, those of whole blood and placental tissue were significantly lower when compared to HP women (P<0.001 and P<0.0001, respectively). Concurrently, there were consistent increases of equal magnitude and statistical significance in SOA levels in all the assayed samples as identified by a comparison between the subjects. The findings thus supported oxidative metabolism and excessive reactive oxygen species generation. The resultant oxidative stress, identified in whole blood and placental tissues of RM patients, may have been a primary cause of RM. Dietary supplementation of Zn, Cu and Mn may be beneficial to these patients pre- and post-conception. PMID:26821085

  16. Chronic lamotrigine treatment increases rat hippocampal GABA shunt activity and elevates cerebral taurine levels.

    PubMed

    Hassel, B; Taubøll, E; Gjerstad, L

    2001-02-01

    The mechanism of action of the antiepileptic drug lamotrigine has previously been investigated only in acute experiments and is thought to involve inhibition of voltage-dependent sodium channels. However, lamotrigine is effective against more forms of epilepsies than other antiepileptic drugs that also inhibit sodium channels. We investigated whether chronic lamotrigine treatment may affect cerebral amino acid levels. Rats received lamotrigine, 10 mg/kg/day, for 90 days. The hippocampal level of GABA increased 25%, and the activities of glutamate decarboxylase and succinic semialdehyde/GABA transaminase increased 12 and 21% (p< 0.05), respectively, indicating increased GABA turnover. The uptake of GABA and glutamate into proteoliposomes remained unaltered. The level of taurine increased 27% in the hippocampus and 16% in the frontal and parietal cortices. The activities of hexokinase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, remained at control values. Serum lamotrigine was 41.7+/-1.5 microM (mean+/-S.E.M.), which is within the range seen in epileptic patients. Acute experiments with 5, 20 or 100 mg lamotrigine/kg, caused no changes in brain amino acid levels. The results suggest that chronic lamotrigine treatment increases GABAergic activity in the hippocampus. The cerebral increase in taurine, which has neuromodulatory properties, may contribute to the antiepileptic effect of lamotrigine.

  17. Self-reported exertion levels on time/activity diaries: application to exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, M.; Terblanche, A.P.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1991-07-01

    Recent developments in air pollution analysis have focused on methods for collecting data on contaminant levels in the locations actually frequented by people, especially personal monitoring. While there is still much to understand about human exposures, the next advancements will be in the area of dose assessment. This paper discusses the results of a study designed to provide data for linking exposure to dose. Specifically, we used time/activity diaries to collect information on the exertion levels associated with the reported activities. As part of a community health study, 91 children between the ages of 9 and 11 kept diaries over a two-week summer-time period (July 1989) and during a two-week school-time period (September 1989). The diary was also administered for two days to 42 teenagers between the ages of 15 and 17. This paper describes our concerns about interpreting self-reported exertion levels, particularly with respect to the disparity between participant and researcher perception and coding. We then present the distribution of exertion levels associated with children's activities, highlighting seasonal, day-of-week, and age-group differences.

  18. [The influence of proficiency level of foreign language on the activation patterns of language areas].

    PubMed

    Bryll, Amira; Binder, Marek; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The of aim of the present study was the estimation of the influence of proficiency level of the second language on activation patterns of language areas. 30 volunteers participated in the experiment (15 females and 15 males) from 18 to 40 years of age. Mean age was 28 years. All participants were divided by linguist into two groups according to their proficiency level of the foreign language: high proficiency group (HP) and low proficiency group (LP). Block design method was used in the performed experiment. The experimental task was speech production in the form of sentences, the control tusk was silence. The experiment was performed using 1,5 T MR system. Functional data analysis was performed using SPM2 software (Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Great Britain). In low proficiency group (LP) stronger activation was found in right inferior frontal gyrus (pars tiangulris) incuding insula and in the left hemisphere on the border of supramarginal and superior temporal gyrus. In high proficiency group (HP) more activated in second language (L2) was the left inferior frontal gyrus (pars tiangulris), and a small part of left middle frontal gyrus. Proficiency level of the second language influences the pattern of activation of language areas.

  19. Effects of dietary protein and energy levels on digestive enzyme activities and electrolyte composition in the small intestinal fluid of geese.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Yang, Lin; Wang, Yongchang; Zhai, Shuangshuang; Wang, Shenshen; Yang, Zhipeng; Wang, Wence

    2017-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein and energy levels on digestive enzymes and electrolyte composition in jejunum of geese. A 3×3 factorial and completely randomized design was adopted with three protein levels and three energy levels. The experiment included four replicates for each treatment, and three geese for each replicate. Isovolumetric supernate from centrifugal jejuna fluid were mixed in each replicate. Activities of digestive enzymes and ions were analyzed. The results showed trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were significantly increased with increasing of dietary protein and energy levels (P<0.05). The concentrations of Ca(2+) and pH value were significantly decreased by increased dietary protein and energy levels. However, no significant differences were found for the activities of amylase and cellulase, as well as the concentration of Na(+) among groups with different protein and energy levels. In conclusion, digesta enzymes and electrolytes in the small intestine adapted to the protein and energy levels. The activities of protease, rather than amylase and cellulase were induced with increasing of protein and energy levels. The imbalance of positive and negative ions was possibly adjusted by the fluctuant concentrations of K(+) , Cl(-) and Ca(2+) for maintaining normal physiological function.

  20. SMART wind turbine rotor. Data analysis and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Jonathan Charles; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Yoder, Nathanael C.

    2014-01-01

    The Wind Energy Technologies department at Sandia National Laboratories has developed and field tested a wind turbine rotor with integrated trailing-edge flaps designed for active control of the rotor aerodynamics. The SMART Rotor project was funded by the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was conducted to demonstrate active rotor control and evaluate simulation tools available for active control research. This report documents the data post-processing and analysis performed to date on the field test data. Results include the control capability of the trailing edge flaps, the combined structural and aerodynamic damping observed through application of step actuation with ensemble averaging, direct observation of time delays associated with aerodynamic response, and techniques for characterizing an operating turbine with active rotor control.