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Sample records for activity levels generally

  1. Risk factors associated with serum levels of the inflammatory biomarker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in a general population.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Thomas H; Kallemose, Thomas; Ladelund, Steen; Rasmussen, Line Jh; Thorball, Christian W; Andersen, Ove; Pisinger, Charlotta; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a biomarker of mortality risk in various patient populations. However, little is known about the implications of lifestyle for suPAR levels in the general population. Lifestyle, demographic, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor data were collected from 5,538 participants in the Danish population-based Inter99 study. Their suPAR levels were measured using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the final adjusted model, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher suPAR levels (P < 0.001). An unhealthy diet and alcohol abstinence in men were also associated with higher suPAR levels. Physical activity in leisure time had a modest impact on suPAR levels in univariate analysis, but not in the final adjusted model. In conclusion, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher serum suPAR levels in this general population. Diet and alcohol consumption also seemed to impact suPAR levels. Lifestyle changes are likely to affect suPAR since ex-smokers had suPAR levels comparable to those of never-smokers. PMID:25574132

  2. Risk Factors Associated with Serum Levels of the Inflammatory Biomarker Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Haupt, Thomas H; Kallemose, Thomas; Ladelund, Steen; Rasmussen, Line JH; Thorball, Christian W; Andersen, Ove; Pisinger, Charlotta; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a biomarker of mortality risk in various patient populations. However, little is known about the implications of lifestyle for suPAR levels in the general population. Lifestyle, demographic, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor data were collected from 5,538 participants in the Danish population-based Inter99 study. Their suPAR levels were measured using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the final adjusted model, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher suPAR levels (P < 0.001). An unhealthy diet and alcohol abstinence in men were also associated with higher suPAR levels. Physical activity in leisure time had a modest impact on suPAR levels in univariate analysis, but not in the final adjusted model. In conclusion, smoking and morbid obesity were strongly associated with higher serum suPAR levels in this general population. Diet and alcohol consumption also seemed to impact suPAR levels. Lifestyle changes are likely to affect suPAR since ex-smokers had suPAR levels comparable to those of never-smokers. PMID:25574132

  3. Correlation of disease activity and serum level of carcinoembryonic antigen in acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Honma, Masaru; Iinuma, Shin; Kanno, Kyoko; Komatsu, Shigetsuna; Minami-Hori, Masako; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi

    2015-09-01

    Hypohidrosis and anhidrosis are congenital or acquired conditions which are characterized by inadequate sweating. Acquired idiopathic generalized hypohidrosis/anhidrosis (AIGA) includes idiopathic pure sudomotor failure (IPSF), which has the following distinct features: sudden onset in youth, increased serum immunoglobulin E and responds favorably to systemic corticosteroid. No clinical markers reflecting the disease severity or activity have been established. Here, we report a case of AIGA in a Japanese patient successfully treated with repeated methylprednisolone pulse therapy. In this case, serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels increased up to 19.8 ng/mL along with aberrant CEA immunoreactivity of eccrine sweat glands. Interestingly, the serum CEA level normalized as sweating improved with repeated methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Therefore, serum CEA level may serve as a useful clinical marker of hypohidrosis or anhidrosis. PMID:25958966

  4. Achievement of physical activity recommendation and activity levels in students of human medicine compared with the general Austrian population aged between 20 and 29 years.

    PubMed

    Lackinger, Christian; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2015-03-01

    Weekly 150 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity and muscle-strengthening activities are a major public health goal. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form was applied in 467 students of the 4th year at the Medical University of Vienna and compared with subsamples of data from the Austrian Health Interview Survey, 795 subjects with and 1131 subjects without higher education aged 20-29 years. Median values for weekly total energy expenditure were 3083, 3048, and 3816 MET-minutes (P < 0.001) in medical students, higher and lower educated subjects of the general population. Energy expenditure with vigorous intensity was highest in medical students. A total of 39.4 % of medical students reached the minimum requirements of the national physical activity recommendations. Although medical students are taught those recommendation and are aware of their health benefits, only a minority reach them. If medical students engage in physical activity, they do it with higher intensity than the general population. PMID:25786602

  5. General administrative activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.B.

    1982-07-01

    Significant safety-related activities reported during March and April, which are not covered elsewhere in this issue, are summarized here. The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) issued several reports on a variety of topics of current concern to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A recent NRC draft report identifies preliminary ranking of safety issues. The NRC is establishing a new Office of Investigations. The NRC also released a list of plants now under construction which it suspects will be canceled or indefinitely deferred. Four speeches by NRC Commissioners are summarized, as is the only Research Information Letter issued during the report period. Last is a listing of a variety of safety-related topics.

  6. [General coordination of hospital activity].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Paz; Serra, José Antonio

    2005-03-01

    The present article describes the organizational and general coordination measures taken by the hospital management to attend the 325 victims who arrived at our hospital after the terrorist attack on the morning of 11 March. Firstly, we summarize the activity performed by the extra-hospital emergency services and the distribution of the victims in centers. Secondly, we describe in greater detail the interventions performed to initiate the External Emergency Action Plan in our hospital, the triage system and identification of patients who used it, as well as the resources in terms of beds, operating rooms and personnel that were used on that day. Lastly, by way of discussion, we provide a critical analysis of our interventions. PMID:15771833

  7. Teaching Middle Level Students to Generalize: From Implicit to Explicit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Meixia; Heaton, Ruth; Hartman, David

    2012-01-01

    This study took a broad view of generalization, exploring how classroom instruction within opportunities of implicit generalization may be related to students' abilities to generalize. From an integrated perspective of generalization and problem solving, we investigated twelve lessons of two middle level teachers based on three pattern-based…

  8. 46 CFR 154.1300 - Liquid level gauging system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level gauging system: General. 154.1300 Section... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1300 Liquid level gauging system: General. (a) If Table 4 lists a closed gauge for a cargo, the liquid level gauging system under § 154.1305 must be closed gauges that do...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1300 - Liquid level gauging system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level gauging system: General. 154.1300 Section... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1300 Liquid level gauging system: General. (a) If Table 4 lists a closed gauge for a cargo, the liquid level gauging system under § 154.1305 must be closed gauges that do...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1300 - Liquid level gauging system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid level gauging system: General. 154.1300 Section... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1300 Liquid level gauging system: General. (a) If Table 4 lists a closed gauge for a cargo, the liquid level gauging system under § 154.1305 must be closed gauges that do...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1300 - Liquid level gauging system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid level gauging system: General. 154.1300 Section... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1300 Liquid level gauging system: General. (a) If Table 4 lists a closed gauge for a cargo, the liquid level gauging system under § 154.1305 must be closed gauges that do...

  12. Visual Templates in Pattern Generalization Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, F. D.

    2010-01-01

    In this research article, I present evidence of the existence of visual templates in pattern generalization activity. Such templates initially emerged from a 3-week design-driven classroom teaching experiment on pattern generalization involving linear figural patterns and were assessed for existence in a clinical interview that was conducted four…

  13. 1. General view across bridge at traffic level; view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view across bridge at traffic level; view to west. - Fifth Street Bridge, Spanning MBTA Fitchburg Commuter Rail Line tracks, Conrail Fitchburg Secondary Line & North Nashua River, Fitchburg, Worcester County, MA

  14. 3. General view across bridge at traffic level; view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view across bridge at traffic level; view to east. - Fifth Street Bridge, Spanning MBTA Fitchburg Commuter Rail Line tracks, Conrail Fitchburg Secondary Line & North Nashua River, Fitchburg, Worcester County, MA

  15. 8. General view of movable span from water level, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. General view of movable span from water level, showing piers turntable, movable span, parts of west land span and east viaduct. VIEW NORTHEAST - Broadway Bridge, Spanning Foundry Street, MBTA Yard, Fort Point Channel, & Lehigh Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. 11. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF KILLING FLOOR ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF KILLING FLOOR ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD SPLITTERS' PLATFORMS - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  17. Appraisal of activating thoughts in generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Upatel, Tanja; Gerlach, Alexander L

    2008-09-01

    Worrying may be an avoidance behaviour preventing the discomfort of imagining future threats. To study the link between phasic physiological activation and thought contents, we recruited 32 generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients and 31 controls and asked them to report whatever was in their mind just prior to whenever they were prompted. Half of 20 prompts were triggered by non-specific skin conductance fluctuations (activating thoughts). Controls judged activating thoughts as being less pleasant. GAD participants judged activating thoughts as more anxiety provoking, less relaxing and less controllable. Not the level of activation but the appraisal of activating thoughts in a catastrophic fashion differentiates GAD patients from controls. PMID:17900526

  18. Cascade generalized predictive control strategy for boiler drum level.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Li, Shaoyuan; Cai, Wenjian

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a cascade model predictive control scheme for boiler drum level control. By employing generalized predictive control structures for both inner and outer loops, measured and unmeasured disturbances can be effectively rejected, and drum level at constant load is maintained. In addition, nonminimum phase characteristic and system constraints in both loops can be handled effectively by generalized predictive control algorithms. Simulation results are provided to show that cascade generalized predictive control results in better performance than that of well tuned cascade proportional integral differential controllers. The algorithm has also been implemented to control a 75-MW boiler plant, and the results show an improvement over conventional control schemes. PMID:16082788

  19. Nursing activity in general intensive care.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Lynne; Nixon, Gillian

    2002-03-01

    1. In this cost-conscious climate there is a need to make explicit and justify the rationale to support direct patient contact by Registered Nurses. The current shortage of qualified nursing staff means that it is essential that experience and expertise be utilized to the benefit of patients and the service as a whole. 2. This study used a descriptive approach to describe, categorize and quantify the activities of nurses working in a six-bed general intensive care unit. 3. Data were collected using a self-reporting diary log sheet that identified the focus of an individual's activity at 5-minute intervals. All Registered Nurses, on all shifts over a 7-day period, completed log sheets. 4. The results demonstrate that nurses working in this general intensive care unit spent 85% of their time in activities associated with providing direct patient care. However, up to 6% of time was spent undertaking non-nursing duties, and analysis of unit activity provided data to support an increase in the establishment and review of the shift patterns of health care assistants. 5. The findings of the study indicate that nurses in charge of shifts spend 24.1% of their time in managerial and administrative activity; this reduces the amount of time spent in direct patient contact. PMID:11903715

  20. The Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level General Paper Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Nurul Huda; Shih, Chih-Min

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and reviews the Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced Level General Paper (GP) examination. As a written test that is administered to preuniversity students, the GP examination is internationally recognised and accepted by universities and employers as proof of English competence. In this article, the…

  1. 8. GENERAL VIEW OF GUT SHANTY ON LEVEL 3; LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL VIEW OF GUT SHANTY ON LEVEL 3; LOOKING SOUTHWEST; REINFORCED CONCRETE CEILINGS ABOVE PROCESSING AREAS WERE SHEATHED WITH FIBERGLASS SHEETS TO IMPROVE SANITATION - Rath Packing Company, Hog Dressing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  2. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW A THE LOWER MANUFACTURING LEVEL LOOKING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW A THE LOWER MANUFACTURING LEVEL LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM COLUMN LINE F-11 SHOWING CONFIGURATION OF CONCRETE COLUMNS, FLUORESCENT LIGHT FIXTURES, AND WOOD BLOCK FLOORING. - Offutt Air Force Base, Glenn L. Martin-Nebraska Bomber Plant, Building D, Peacekeeper Drive, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. 7. GENERAL VIEW OF GUT SHANTY ON LEVEL 3; LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GENERAL VIEW OF GUT SHANTY ON LEVEL 3; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; HOG VISCERA WERE SORTED AND CLEANED WITH HOT WATER ON LONG STAINLESS STEEL TABLES - Rath Packing Company, Hog Dressing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  4. 2. GENERAL VIEW OF STAINLESS STEEL SMOKEHOUSES ON LEVEL 6, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW OF STAINLESS STEEL SMOKEHOUSES ON LEVEL 6, LOOKING EAST; SMOKEHOUSE UNITS WERE BUILT BY DRYING SYSTEMS COMPANY, DIVISION OF MICHIGAN OVEN COMPANY, MORTON GROVE, ILLINOIS - Rath Packing Company, Smokehouse-Hog Chilling Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  5. GENERAL VIEW OF SHARP FREEZE ROOM ON LEVEL 2; LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF SHARP FREEZE ROOM ON LEVEL 2; LOOKING WEST; PIPES ON CEILING CARRIED COMPRESSED AMMONIA; NOTE NONBEARING GLAZED TILE WALLS BETWEEN COLUMNS; FLOORS ARE BRICK - Rath Packing Company, Cooler Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  6. 46 CFR 154.1300 - Liquid level gauging system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid level gauging system: General. 154.1300 Section 154.1300 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1300...

  7. 6. General view of bridge from road level looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. General view of bridge from road level looking northeast to southwest. Shows southern approach and across bridge towards north. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  8. Generalized Enhanced Multivariance Product Representation for Data Partitioning: Constancy Level

    SciTech Connect

    Tunga, M. Alper; Demiralp, Metin

    2011-09-14

    Enhanced Multivariance Product Representation (EMPR) method is used to represent multivariate functions in terms of less-variate structures. The EMPR method extends the HDMR expansion by inserting some additional support functions to increase the quality of the approximants obtained for dominantly or purely multiplicative analytical structures. This work aims to develop the generalized form of the EMPR method to be used in multivariate data partitioning approaches. For this purpose, the Generalized HDMR philosophy is taken into consideration to construct the details of the Generalized EMPR at constancy level as the introductory steps and encouraging results are obtained in data partitioning problems by using our new method. In addition, to examine this performance, a number of numerical implementations with concluding remarks are given at the end of this paper.

  9. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  10. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG DRESSING AREA ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG DRESSING AREA ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING WEST; WORKERS STOOD ON RAISED PLATFORMS TO EVISCERATE AND WASH CARCASSES; EXPANDED STEEL GRATING PROVIDED NON-SLIP WORKING SURFACE; STAINLESS-STEEL BAFFLES BETWEEN PLATFORMS HELPED TO CONTAIN STEAM AND WATER SPRAY; METAL TROUGHS BELOW PLATFORMS AND CONCRETE GUTTERS IN FLOOR HELPED CHANNEL WASTE WATER TO DRAINS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Dressing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  11. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING NORTHWEST; A PORTION OF THE SCALDING TANK IS VISIBLE AT EXTREME RIGHT, CENTER; CONCRETE PYLONS AT LOWER RIGHT SUPPORTED BY SCRAPING MACHINE; FINAL SCRAPING WAS DONE BY WORKERS STANDING ON ELEVATED PLATFORMS AT LEFT; BATHTUB-SHAPED CART NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO WAS USED TO TRANSPORT OFFAL TO RENDERING AREAS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  12. Methylphenidate Actively Induces Emergence from General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Solt, Ken; Cotten, Joseph F.; Cimenser, Aylin; Wong, Kin F.K.; Chemali, Jessica J.; Brown, Emery N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although accumulating evidence suggests that arousal pathways in the brain play important roles in emergence from general anesthesia, the roles of monoaminergic arousal circuits are unclear. In this study we tested the hypothesis that methylphenidate (an inhibitor of dopamine and norepinephrine transporters) induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. Methods Using adult rats we tested the effect of methylphenidate IV on time to emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. We then performed experiments to test separately for methylphenidate-induced changes in arousal and changes in minute ventilation. A dose-response study was performed to test for methylphenidate–induced restoration of righting during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. Surface electroencephalogram recordings were performed to observe neurophysiological changes. Plethysmography recordings and arterial blood gas analysis were performed to assess methylphenidate-induced changes in respiratory function. Droperidol IV was administered to test for inhibition of methylphenidate's actions. Results Methylphenidate decreased median time to emergence from 280 to 91 s. The median difference in time to emergence without compared to with methylphenidate was 200 [155, 331] s (median, [95% confidence interval]). During continuous inhalation of isoflurane, methylphenidate induced return of righting in a dose-dependent manner, induced a shift in electroencephalogram power from delta to theta, and induced an increase in minute ventilation. Administration of droperidol (0.5 mg/kg IV) prior to methylphenidate (5 mg/kg IV) largely inhibited methylphenidate-induced emergence behavior, electroencephalogram changes, and changes in minute ventilation. Conclusions Methylphenidate actively induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia by increasing arousal and respiratory drive, possibly through activation of dopaminergic and adrenergic arousal circuits. Our findings suggest that methylphenidate may be clinically

  13. Engagement in Pleasant Activities and Depression Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    1975-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a low rate of engagement in pleasant activities to be a concomitant of depression. The crucial question addressed by the Hammen and Glass study (1975) is whether an increase in pleasant-activity level will produce a decrease in depression level. (Editor)

  14. Levels of Selenomonas species in generalized aggressive periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Lucas F. H.; Fermiano, Daiane; Feres, Magda; Figueiredo, Luciene C.; Teles, Flavia R. P.; Mayer, Marcia P. A.; Faveri, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Aim To compare the levels of Selenomonas sputigena and uncultivated/unrecognized Selenomonas species in subgingival biofilms from generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) and periodontaly healthy (PH) subjects. Material and Methods GAgP (n=15) and PH (n=15) subjects were recruited and their clinical periodontal parameters were evaluated. Subgingival plaque samples were collected (9 samples/subject) and analyzed for the levels of 10 bacterial taxa, including cultivated and uncultivated/unrecognized microorganisms using the RNA-oligonucleotide quantification technique (ROQT). Differences in the levels of the test taxa between groups were sought using the Mann-Whitney test. Results GAgP subjects showed significantly higher mean counts of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Selenomonas sputigena and Selenomonas oral clone CS002 (Human Oral Microbial Database (HOMD) Oral Taxon 131), while Actinomyces gerencseriae and Streptococcus sanguinis were found in higher mean counts in PH subjects (p<0.01). Selenomonas EW084 (HOMD OT 146) was only detected in the GAgP group. In the GAgP group, levels of P. gingivalis and S. sputigena were higher in sites with probing depth (PD) ≥5mm than in shallow sites (PD ≤3mm) (p<0.01). Furthermore, sites with PD≤3mm in GAgP subjects harbored higher levels of these two species than sites in PH subjects. There were positive correlations between PD and levels of P. gingivalis (r=0.77; p<0.01), S. sputigena (r=0.60; p<0.01) and Selenomonas sp. EW076 (OT 139) (r=042, p<0.05). Conclusion S. sputigena, Selenomonas sp. oral CS002 (OT 131) and Selenomonas sp. oral clone EW084 (OT 146) may be associated with the pathogenesis of GAgP, and their role in the onset and progression of this infection should be further investigated. PMID:22612405

  15. Landau levels and longitudinal magnetoresistance in generalized Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao; Roy, Bitan

    The notion of axial anomaly is a venerable concept in quantum field theory that has received ample attention in condensed matter physics due to the discovery of Weyl materials (WSMs). In such systems Kramers non-degenerate bands touch at isolated points in the Brillouin zone that act as (anti)monopoles of Berry flux, and the monopole number (m) defines the topological invariant of the system. Although so far only simple WSMs (with m = 1) has been found in various inversion and/or time-reversal asymmetric systems, generalized Weyl semimetals with m > 1 can also be found in nature, for example double-Weyl semimetals in HgCr2Se4 and SrSi2 and triple-Weyl semimetals. In this work, we demonstrate the Landau level spectrum in generalized Weyl systems and its ramification on longitudinal magnetotransport measurements. We show that in the quantum limit generalized Weyl semimetals display negative longitudinal magnetoresistance due to the chiral anomaly. Moreover, the magnetoresistance has nontrivial dependence on the relative orientation of the external fields with the crystallographic axis, stemming from underlying anisotropic quasiparticle dispersion in the pristine system. Our theory can thus provide diagnostic tools to pin the quasiparticle properties in Weyl systems.

  16. Factors Influencing Cypriot Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present selected findings from a larger study, which set out to examine the physical activity levels of Cypriot primary school children and determinants of their activity. Twenty parents of children who obtained high and low activity scores based on pedometer counts and self-reports scores were interviewed. By…

  17. Sex Differences in Brain Activity Related to General and Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2005-01-01

    The study investigated gender differences in resting EEG (in three individually determined narrow [alpha] frequency bands) related to the level of general and emotional intelligence. Brain activity of males decreased with the level of general intelligence, whereas an opposite pattern of brain activity was observed in females. This difference was…

  18. 10 CFR 810.7 - Generally authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Generally authorized activities. 810.7 Section 810.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.7 Generally authorized activities. In accordance with section 57b(2) of the Atomic Energy Act, the Secretary of Energy has determined that the following activities...

  19. 24 CFR 92.205 - Eligible activities: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligible activities: General. 92... Activities § 92.205 Eligible activities: General. (a) Eligible activities. (1) HOME funds may be used by a... a reasonable minimum balance. While loan funds guaranteed with HOME funds are subject to all...

  20. 24 CFR 92.205 - Eligible activities: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible activities: General. 92... Activities § 92.205 Eligible activities: General. (a) Eligible activities. (1) HOME funds may be used by a... a reasonable minimum balance. While loan funds guaranteed with HOME funds are subject to all...

  1. 10 CFR 810.7 - Generally authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Generally authorized activities. 810.7 Section 810.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.7 Generally authorized activities. In accordance with section 57b(2) of the Atomic Energy Act, the Secretary of Energy has determined that the following activities...

  2. The Upgrading of Basic Level Students to General Level Programs. A Preliminary Report, 1981-1982. Research Service No. 170.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsuji, G. K.; Wright, E. N.

    This is a preliminary report on a longitudinal study of upgrading of Basic-level students to General-level programs. Toronto, Ontario, secondary school courses are offered at six levels of difficulty. The issue of upgrading is significant in the job market as those with General-level diplomas have advantages over those with Basic-level diplomas.…

  3. Evaluating oral health promotion activity within a general dental practice.

    PubMed

    Richards, W

    2013-07-01

    The prevention of the common dental diseases is fundamental to modern day general dental practice. Oral health promotion (OHP) is therefore key to facilitating health outcomes within organisations. The literature surrounding OHP stresses the importance of evaluation in order to assess the effectiveness of OHP activities. This paper describes the evaluation of OHP within a general dental practice setting. Early attendance, the use of adult toothpastes during childhood and consequential fluorosis are investigated. A small service evaluation study of 100 consecutive patients was undertaken. The results support the ongoing promotion of early attendance and the use of toothpastes with adequate fluoride levels. There was no evidence of unsightly fluorosis in the sample studied. PMID:23887535

  4. Optical pumping of generalized laser active materials.

    PubMed

    Fry, F H

    1967-11-01

    Results are presented of a computer-based study on the rate of excitation in the active cores of two types of optically pumped lasers as a function of a number of parameters of the active core. The absorption bands of the active materials are generated by Lorentzian and Gaussian functions. The excitation rate of the active core is proportional to the width of the absorption band at all depths of penetration. The plots of excitation rate as a function of frequency show curves similar to line reversal spectra and emphasize the importance of excitation some distance from the center of the absorption band in the slab model. In the cylindrical model, this wing pumping is even more important due to focusing. The effect of refractive index on the excitation rate is also described. PMID:20062337

  5. 20 CFR 220.142 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Substantial Gainful Activity § 220.142 General information about work activity. (a) The nature of the claimant's work. If the claimant's duties require use of the claimant's... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General information about work activity....

  6. CURRICULUM GUIDES IN PHYSICS--GENERAL ADVANCED PLACEMENT, COLLEGE LEVEL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WESNER, GORDON E.

    THE GENERAL PHYSICS CURRICULUM IS PLANNED FOR THOSE WHOSE GENERAL ABILITY IS BETTER THAN AVERAGE AND IS OFFERED IN GRADES 11 OR 12. GENERAL OBJECTIVES ARE, TO DEVELOP CRITICAL THINKING THROUGH THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD, TO UNDERSTAND BASIC PHYSICAL LAWS AND MAN'S PLACE IN THE UNIVERSE, AND TO DEVELOP A SCIENTIFIC ABILITY AND INTEREST. ELEVEN UNITS OF…

  7. Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

  8. General aviation activity survey. Annual summary report for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of the annual General Aviation Activity Survey. The survey is conducted by the FAA to obtain information on the flight activity of the United States registered general aviation aircraft fleet. The report contains breakdowns of active aircraft, annual flight hours, average flight hours and other statistics by manufacturer/model group, aircraft type, state and region of based aircraft, and primary use. Also included are fuel consumption, lifetime airframe hours, engine hours, miles flown estimates, estimates of the number of landings, IFR hours flown, and grade of fuel consumed by the general aviation fleet. Aircraft, Aircraft activity, Aircraft use, Fuel consumption, General aviation, Hours flown, Miles flown.

  9. The satiety signaling neuropeptide perisulfakinin inhibits the activity of central neurons promoting general activity.

    PubMed

    Wicher, Dieter; Derst, Christian; Gautier, Hélène; Lapied, Bruno; Heinemann, Stefan H; Agricola, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    The metabolic state is one of the determinants of the general activity level. Satiety is related to resting or sleep whereas hunger correlates to wakefulness and activity. The counterpart to the mammalian satiety signal cholecystokinin (CCK) in insects are the sulfakinins. The aim of this study was to resolve the mechanism by which the antifeedant activity of perisulfakinin (PSK) in Periplaneta americana is mediated. We identified the sources of PSK which is used both as hormone and as paracrine messenger. PSK is found in the neurohemal organ of the brain and in nerve endings throughout the central nervous system. To correlate the distributions of PSK and its receptor (PSKR), we cloned the gene coding for PSKR and provide evidence for its expression within the nervous system. It occurs only in a few neurons, among them are the dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons which release octopamine thereby regulating the general level of activity. Application of PSK to DUM neurons attenuated the spiking frequency (EC(50)=11pM) due to reduction of a pacemaker Ca(2+) current through cAMP-inhibited pTRPgamma channels. PSK increased the intracellular cAMP level while decreasing the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in DUM neurons. Thus, the satiety signal conferred by PSK acts antagonistically to the hunger signal, provided by the adipokinetic hormone (AKH): PSK depresses the electrical activity of DUM neurons by inhibiting the pTRPgamma channel that is activated by AKH under conditions of food shortage. PMID:18946521

  10. The Satiety Signaling Neuropeptide Perisulfakinin Inhibits the Activity of Central Neurons Promoting General Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wicher, Dieter; Derst, Christian; Gautier, Hélène; Lapied, Bruno; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Agricola, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    The metabolic state is one of the determinants of the general activity level. Satiety is related to resting or sleep whereas hunger correlates to wakefulness and activity. The counterpart to the mammalian satiety signal cholecystokinin (CCK) in insects are the sulfakinins. The aim of this study was to resolve the mechanism by which the antifeedant activity of perisulfakinin (PSK) in Periplaneta americana is mediated. We identified the sources of PSK which is used both as hormone and as paracrine messenger. PSK is found in the neurohemal organ of the brain and in nerve endings throughout the central nervous system. To correlate the distributions of PSK and its receptor (PSKR), we cloned the gene coding for PSKR and provide evidence for its expression within the nervous system. It occurs only in a few neurons, among them are the dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons which release octopamine thereby regulating the general level of activity. Application of PSK to DUM neurons attenuated the spiking frequency (EC50=11pM) due to reduction of a pacemaker Ca2+ current through cAMP-inhibited pTRPγ channels. PSK increased the intracellular cAMP level while decreasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in DUM neurons. Thus, the satiety signal conferred by PSK acts antagonistically to the hunger signal, provided by the adipokinetic hormone (AKH): PSK depresses the electrical activity of DUM neurons by inhibiting the pTRPγ channel that is activated by AKH under conditions of food shortage. PMID:18946521

  11. 20 CFR 416.973 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General information about work activity. 416.973 Section 416.973 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME... § 416.973 General information about work activity. (a) The nature of your work. If your duties...

  12. 32 CFR 634.40 - General off installation traffic activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General off installation traffic activities. 634... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.40 General off installation traffic activities. In areas not under military control,...

  13. 32 CFR 634.40 - General off installation traffic activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General off installation traffic activities. 634... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.40 General off installation traffic activities. In areas not under military control,...

  14. 32 CFR 634.40 - General off installation traffic activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General off installation traffic activities. 634... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.40 General off installation traffic activities. In areas not under military control,...

  15. 32 CFR 634.40 - General off installation traffic activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true General off installation traffic activities. 634... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.40 General off installation traffic activities. In areas not under military control,...

  16. 32 CFR 634.40 - General off installation traffic activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true General off installation traffic activities. 634... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.40 General off installation traffic activities. In areas not under military control,...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1573 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General information about work activity. 404.1573 Section 404.1573 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... General information about work activity. (a) The nature of your work. If your duties require use of...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1573 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General information about work activity. 404.1573 Section 404.1573 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... General information about work activity. (a) The nature of your work. If your duties require use of...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1573 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General information about work activity. 404.1573 Section 404.1573 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... General information about work activity. (a) The nature of your work. If your duties require use of...

  20. 20 CFR 416.973 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General information about work activity. 416.973 Section 416.973 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME... § 416.973 General information about work activity. (a) The nature of your work. If your duties...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1573 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General information about work activity. 404.1573 Section 404.1573 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... General information about work activity. (a) The nature of your work. If your duties require use of...

  2. Firefighter noise exposure during training activities and general equipment use.

    PubMed

    Root, Kyle S; Schwennker, Catherine; Autenrieth, Daniel; Sandfort, Delvin R; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

    2013-01-01

    Multiple noise measurements were taken on 6 types of fire station equipment and 15 types of emergency response vehicle-related equipment used by firefighters during routine and emergency operations at 10 fire stations. Five of the six types of fire station equipment, when measured at a distance of one meter and ear level, emitted noise equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including lawn maintenance equipment, snow blowers, compressors, and emergency alarms. Thirteen of 15 types of equipment located on the fire engines emitted noise levels equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including fans, saws, alarms, and extrication equipment. In addition, noise measurements were taken during fire engine operations, including the idling vehicle, vehicle sirens, and water pumps. Results indicated that idling fire-engine noise levels were below 85 dBA; however, during water pump and siren use, noise levels exceeded 85 dBA, in some instances, at different locations around the trucks where firefighters would be stationed during emergency operations. To determine if the duration and use of fire fighting equipment was sufficient to result in overexposures to noise during routine training activities, 93 firefighter personal noise dosimetry samples were taken during 10 firefighter training activities. Two training activities per sampling day were monitored during each sampling event, for a mean exposure time of 70 min per day. The noise dosimetry samples were grouped based on job description to compare noise exposures between the different categories of job tasks commonly associated with fire fighting. The three job categories were interior, exterior, and engineering. Mean personal dosimetry results indicated that the average noise exposure was 78 dBA during the training activities that lasted 70 min on average. There was no significant difference in noise exposure between each of the three job categories. Although firefighters routinely use equipment and emergency response vehicles that

  3. Project Water Science. General Science High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Education Foundation, Sacramento, CA.

    This teacher's guide presents 12 hands-on laboratory activities for high school science classes that cover the environmental issue of water resources in California. The activities are separated into three sections. Five activities in the section on water quality address the topics of groundwater, water hardness, bottled water, water purity, and…

  4. Are Preschool Children Active Enough? Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Greet M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe accelerometer-based physical activity levels in 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 76) on 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days. The children were sedentary for 9.6 hr (85%) daily, while they engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for 34 min (5%). Only 7% of the children engaged in MVPA for 60 min per…

  5. Use of a General Level Framework to Facilitate Performance Improvement in Hospital Pharmacists in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Camilla; Coombes, Ian; Cardiff, Lynda; Duggan, Catherine; Yee, Mei-Ling; Wee Lim, Kiat; Bates, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the acceptability and validity of an adapted version of the General Level Framework (GLF) as a tool to facilitate and evaluate performance development in general pharmacist practitioners (those with less than 3 years of experience) in a Singapore hospital. Method. Observational evaluations during daily clinical activities were prospectively recorded for 35 pharmacists using the GLF at 2 time points over an average of 9 months. Feedback was provided to the pharmacists and then individualized learning plans were formulated. Results. Pharmacists’ mean competency cluster scores improved in all 3 clusters, and significant improvement was seen in all but 8 of the 63 behavioral descriptors (p ≤ 0.05). Nonsignificant improvements were attributed to the highest level of performance having been attained upon initial evaluation. Feedback indicated that the GLF process was a positive experience, prompting reflection on practice and culminating in needs-based learning and ultimately improved patient care. Conclusions. The General Level Framework was an acceptable tool for the facilitation and evaluation of performance development in general pharmacist practitioners in a Singapore hospital. PMID:22919083

  6. Generalizing Levels of Students' Understandings about Conductivity: A SOLO Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhan, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a developmental sequence for students' understandings about conductivity. From written responses, a number of levels of understanding were identified and holistic descriptions of the increasingly complex way students explain conductivity are presented. Identifying distinct differences in student work samples is consistent…

  7. Perceiving the General: The Multisemiotic Dimension of Students' Algebraic Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Luis; Bardino, Caroline; Sabena, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we deal with students' algebraic generalizations set in the context of elementary geometric-numeric patterns. Drawing from Vygotsky's psychology, Leont'ev's Activity Theory, and Husserl's phenomenology, we focus on the various semiotic resources mobilized by students in their passage from the particular to the general. Two small…

  8. 29 CFR 780.205 - Nursery activities generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nursery activities generally. 780.205 Section 780.205 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL...

  9. Magnetospheric impulse response for many levels of geomagnetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bargatze, L. F.; Baker, D. N.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Mcpherron, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The temporal relationship between the solar wind and magnetospheric activity has been studied using 34 intervals of high time resolution IMP 8 solar wind data and the corresponding AL auroral activity index. The median values of the AL index for each interval were utilized to rank the intervals according to geomagnetic activity level. The linear prediction filtering technique was then applied to model magnetospheric response as measured by the AL index to the solar wind input function VB(s). The linear prediction filtering routine produces a filter of time-lagged response coefficients which estimates the most general linear relationship between the chosen input and output parameters of the magnetospheric system. It is found that the filters are composed of two response pulses speaking at time lags of 20 and 60 min. The amplitude of the 60-min pulse is the larger for moderate activity levels, while the 20-min pulse is the larger for strong activity levels. A possible interpretation is that the 20-min pulse represents magnetospheric activity driven directly by solar wind coupling and that the 60-min pulse represents magnetospheric activity driven by the release of energy previously stored in the magnetotail. If this interpretation is correct, the linear filtering results suggest that both the driven and the unloading models of magnetospheric response are important facets of a more comprehensive response model.

  10. Generalized Freud's equation and level densities with polynomial potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boobna, Akshat; Ghosh, Saugata

    2013-08-01

    We study orthogonal polynomials with weight $\\exp[-NV(x)]$, where $V(x)=\\sum_{k=1}^{d}a_{2k}x^{2k}/2k$ is a polynomial of order 2d. We derive the generalised Freud's equations for $d=3$, 4 and 5 and using this obtain $R_{\\mu}=h_{\\mu}/h_{\\mu -1}$, where $h_{\\mu}$ is the normalization constant for the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. Moments of the density functions, expressed in terms of $R_{\\mu}$, are obtained using Freud's equation and using this, explicit results of level densities as $N\\rightarrow\\infty$ are derived.

  11. Recent and Past Musical Activity Predicts Cognitive Aging Variability: Direct Comparison with General Lifestyle Activities

    PubMed Central

    Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; Gajewski, Byron

    2012-01-01

    Studies evaluating the impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on cognition offer potential insights into sources of cognitive aging variability. Recently, we reported an association between extent of musical instrumental practice throughout the life span (greater than 10 years) on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age. These findings raise the question of whether there are training-induced brain changes in musicians that can transfer to non-musical cognitive abilities to allow for compensation of age-related cognitive declines. However, because of the relationship between engagement in general lifestyle activities and preserved cognition, it remains unclear whether these findings are specifically driven by musical training or the types of individuals likely to engage in greater activities in general. The current study controlled for general activity level in evaluating cognition between musicians and nomusicians. Also, the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent) was assessed in predictive models of successful cognitive aging. Seventy age and education matched older musicians (>10 years) and non-musicians (ages 59–80) were evaluated on neuropsychological tests and general lifestyle activities. Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal working memory, verbal immediate recall, visuospatial judgment, and motor dexterity, but did not differ in other general leisure activities. Partition analyses were conducted on significant cognitive measures to determine aspects of musical training predictive of enhanced cognition. The first partition analysis revealed education best predicted visuospatial functions in musicians, followed by recent musical engagement which offset low education. In the second partition analysis, early age of musical acquisition (<9 years) predicted enhanced verbal working memory in musicians, while analyses for other measures were not predictive. Recent and past musical activity, but not

  12. 10 CFR 810.7 - Generally authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.7 Generally authorized activities. In accordance with section 57b(2) of the Atomic Energy Act, the Secretary of Energy has... United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards...

  13. 10 CFR 810.7 - Generally authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.7 Generally authorized activities. In accordance with section 57b(2) of the Atomic Energy Act, the Secretary of Energy has... United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1573 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General information about work activity. 404.1573 Section 404.1573 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful Activity §...

  15. Psychological Well-Being (PWB) of School Adolescents Aged 12–18 yr, its Correlation with General Levels of Physical Activity (PA) and Socio-Demographic Factors In Gilgit, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    KHAN, Yasmin; TAGHDISI, Muhammad Hussain; NOURIJELYANI, Keramat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a critical developmental stage marked by complex transitions. The purpose of study was to assess school adolescents’ PWB, examine the relationship of PA and socio-demographic factors with PWB. Methods: A cross sectional study conducted in five randomly selected schools with 345 adolescents (aged 12–18) from grade 6th–10th. A self-administered Well-Being index was adapted to measure PWB and questionnaire for adolescents PA (PAQ-A). Socio-demographic variables determined: age, gender, household income and parental education. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses performed to examine the association between PWB, PA and covariates. Results: Findings indicated the mean age 14.64 (SD=1.275), 55.4% were female. Without gender difference the majority (43.4%) of adolescents showed moderate, while (23.2%) revealed low level of PWB. Participants with low level likely to have depression but scores were significantly not different between low, moderate and high PWB with PA. Socio-demographic trends of adolescents’ were observed significant (P <0.005) for PWB. In multivariable analysis the mean wellbeing in females adjusted for other covariates was significant (P =0.004) than males. PWB importantly (P <0.001) decreased by 3.36 units as its covariates increased and PA score in boys found 0.05 unit more than girls. Conclusion: The study results are invaluable in addressing low, moderate and high levels of PWB. Inadequate PA and PWB decreasing with some socio-demographic covariates is crucial health issue among female adolescents in Pakistan. Further studies need to find barrier, social indicators of PWB and implication of health among adolescents. PMID:26258093

  16. IL-33 circulating serum levels are increased in patients with non-segmental generalized vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Mario; Cicero, Francesca; Mannucci, Carmen; Calapai, Gioacchino; Spatari, Giovanna; Barbuzza, Olga; Cannavò, Serafinella P; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2016-09-01

    IL-33 is a recently identified cytokine, encoded by the IL-33 gene, which is a member of the IL-1 family that drives the production of T-helper-2 (Th-2)-associated cytokines. Serum levels of IL-33 have been reported to be up-regulated in various T-helper (Th)-1/Th-17-mediated diseases, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel. To investigate whether cytokine imbalance plays a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, we performed a case-control association study by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of IL-33 in our patients. IL-33 serum levels were measured by a quantitative enzyme immunoassay technique in patients with non-segmental generalized vitiligo and compared with those of healthy controls. IL-33 serum levels in patients with vitiligo were significantly increased than those in healthy controls. There was a positive correlation of IL-33 serum levels with extension of vitiligo and disease activity. This study suggests a possible systemic role of IL-33 in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Inhibiting IL-33 activity might be a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of autoimmune inflammatory disease, like vitiligo. PMID:27388717

  17. 20 CFR 220.142 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the claimant does his or her work satisfactorily, this may show that the claimant is working at the substantial gainful activity level. If the claimant is unable, because of his or her impairments, to do... level. (b) How well the claimant performs. The Board considers how well the claimant does his or...

  18. 20 CFR 220.142 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the claimant does his or her work satisfactorily, this may show that the claimant is working at the substantial gainful activity level. If the claimant is unable, because of his or her impairments, to do... level. (b) How well the claimant performs. The Board considers how well the claimant does his or...

  19. 20 CFR 220.142 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the claimant does his or her work satisfactorily, this may show that the claimant is working at the substantial gainful activity level. If the claimant is unable, because of his or her impairments, to do... level. (b) How well the claimant performs. The Board considers how well the claimant does his or...

  20. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  1. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood.

    PubMed

    McCowan, Luke S C; Griffith, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual's entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual's future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  2. 50 CFR 37.11 - General standards for exploratory activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General standards for exploratory activities. 37.11 Section 37.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL...

  3. 50 CFR 37.11 - General standards for exploratory activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General standards for exploratory activities. 37.11 Section 37.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL...

  4. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

  5. Variation in Strategy Use across Grade Level by Pattern Generalization Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Mouhayar, Rabih; Jurdak, Murad

    2015-01-01

    This paper explored variation of strategy use in pattern generalization across different generalization types and across grade level. A test was designed to assess students' strategy use in pattern generalization tasks. The test was given to a sample of 1232 students from grades 4 to 11 from five schools in Lebanon. The findings of this study…

  6. 46 CFR 565.6 - Level of rates and charges generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Level of rates and charges generally. 565.6 Section 565.6 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AND ACTIONS TO ADDRESS RESTRICTIVE FOREIGN MARITIME PRACTICES CONTROLLED CARRIERS § 565.6 Level of rates and charges generally. No controlled carrier may maintain or enforce rates or charges in...

  7. Physical activity in adolescents with psychiatric disorders and in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adults who suffer from psychiatric disorders report low levels of physical activity and the activity levels differ between disorders. Less is known regarding physical activity across psychiatric disorders in adolescence. We investigate the frequency and type of physical activity in adolescent psychiatric patients, compared with adolescents in the general population. Methods A total of 566 adolescent psychiatric patients aged 13–18 years who participated in the CAP survey, Norway, were compared to 8173 adolescents aged 13–19 years who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Young-HUNT 3, Norway. All adolescents completed a questionnaire, including questions about physical activity and participation in team and individual sports. Results Approximately 50% of adolescents with psychiatric disorders and 25% of the population sample reported low levels of physical activity. Within the clinical sample, those with mood disorders (62%) and autism spectrum disorders (56%) were the most inactive and those with eating disorders (36%) the most active. This pattern was the same in individual and team sports. After multivariable adjustment, adolescents with a psychiatric disorder had a three-fold increased risk of lower levels of physical activity, and a corresponding risk of not participating in team and individual sports compared with adolescents in the general population. Conclusions Levels of physical activity were low in adolescent psychiatric patients compared with the general population, yet activity levels differed considerably between various disorders. The findings underscore the importance of assessing physical activity in adolescents with psychiatric disorders and providing early intervention to promote mental as well as physical health in this early stage of life. PMID:24450542

  8. Job level risk assessment using task level ACGIH hand activity level TLV scores: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Drinkaus, Phillip; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Donald S; Mann, Clay; Bernard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Existing upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder analytical tools are primarily intended for single or mono-task jobs. However, many jobs contain more than 1 task and some include job rotation. This case/control study investigates methods of modifying an existing tool, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Hand Activity Level (HAL) Threshold Limit Value (TLV), to assess the upper extremity risk of multi-task jobs. Various methods of combining the task differences and ratios into a job level assessment were explored. Two methods returned significant odds ratios, (p < .05) of 18.0 (95% CI 1.8-172) and 12.0 (95% CI 1.2-120). These results indicate that a modified ACGIH HAL TLV may provide insight into the work-related risk of multi-task jobs. Further research is needed to optimize this process. PMID:16219155

  9. Activities affecting surface water resources: A general overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    In November 1987, P.E.I. signed a federal/provincial work-sharing arrangement on water resource management focusing on groundwater pollution, surface water degradation and estuarine eutrophication. The surface water program was designed to identify current surface water uses and users within 12 major watersheds across the Island containing 26 individual rivers, as well as problems arising due to practices that degrade the quality of surface water and restricts its value to other user groups. This report presents a general overview of the program, covering the general characteristics of the Island; operations in agriculture, fish and wildlife, forestry, recreation, fisheries, and industry; alterations of natural features of waterways; wetlands; additional watershed activities such as hydrometric stations and subdivision development; and activities affecting surface water resources such as sedimentation sources, pollution point sources and instream obstructions.

  10. Generalized event knowledge activation during online sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Metusalem, Ross; Kutas, Marta; Urbach, Thomas P.; Hare, Mary; McRae, Ken; Elman, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that knowledge of real-world eventsplays an important role inguiding online language comprehension. The present study addresses the scope of event knowledge activation during the course of comprehension, specifically investigating whether activation is limited to those knowledge elements that align with the local linguistic context.The present study addresses this issue by analyzing event-related brain potentials (ERPs) recorded as participants read brief scenariosdescribing typical real-world events. Experiment 1 demonstratesthat a contextually anomalous word elicits a reduced N400 if it is generally related to the described event, even when controlling for the degree of association of this word with individual words in the preceding context and with the expected continuation. Experiment 2 shows that this effect disappears when the discourse context is removed.These findings demonstrate that during the course of incremental comprehension, comprehenders activate general knowledge about the described event, even at points at which this knowledge would constitute an anomalous continuation of the linguistic stream. Generalized event knowledge activationcontributes to mental representations of described events, is immediately available to influence language processing, and likely drives linguistic expectancy generation. PMID:22711976

  11. Activity of extracellular enzymes on the marine beach differing in the level of antropopressure.

    PubMed

    Perliński, P; Mudryk, Z J

    2016-03-01

    The level of activity of extracellular enzymes was determined on two transects characterised by different anthropic pressure on a sandy beach in Ustka, the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Generally, the level of activity of the studied enzymes was higher on the transect characterised by high anthropic pressure. The ranking order of the mean enzyme activity rates in the sand was as follows: lipase > phosphatase > aminopeptidase > β-glucosidase > α-glucosidase > chitinase. Each enzyme had its characteristic horizontal profile of activity. The levels of activity of the studied enzymes were slightly higher in the surface than subsurface sand layer. Extracellular enzymatic activities were strongly influenced by the season. PMID:26911592

  12. An Analysis of Undergraduate General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions of the Submicroscopic Level of Precipitation Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Resa M.; Barrera, Juliet H.; Mohamed, Saheed C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how 21 college-level general chemistry students, who had received instruction that emphasized the symbolic level of ionic equations, explained their submicroscopic-level understanding of precipitation reactions. Students' explanations expressed through drawings and semistructured interviews revealed the nature of the…

  13. Effects of Active Learning on Enhancing Student Critical Thinking in an Undergraduate General Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyoungna; Sharma, Priya; Land, Susan M.; Furlong, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    To enhance students' critical thinking in an undergraduate general science course, we designed and implemented active learning modules by incorporating group-based learning with authentic tasks, scaffolding, and individual reports. This study examined the levels of critical thinking students exhibited in individual reports and the students'…

  14. Entry-Level Activities in System Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    System-level consultation or organizational development in schools is an area in great need of theoretical models and definitions. The three articles in this special issue provide a unique learning opportunity not only for consultation across borders but also for consultation within the same nation. In my commentary, I limit my remarks to a few…

  15. Hardee County Energy Activities - Middle School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Described are over 70 activities designed to help students develop writing skills by examining energy issues. Intended for middle school students, the lessons were developed by Hardee County, Florida teachers. Learning strategies employed include class discussions, analogies, word puzzles, letter writing, sentence completions, vocabulary building…

  16. Human Development Program: Level VI Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Geraldine

    The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for grade 6. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to aid teachers in instilling responsibility and self-confidence in children. The nucleus of the Human Development Program is a circle session…

  17. Human Development Program: Level III Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessell, Harold

    The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for the third grade. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to help teachers instill responsibility and self-confidence in children. Following a brief overview of the HDP and explanation of the Magic…

  18. Generalization of lowered EMG levels during musical performance following biofeedback training.

    PubMed

    Morasky, R L; Reynolds, C; Sowell, L E

    1983-06-01

    Electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback training offers a means by which musicians can control excess muscle tension during performance. Music instructors generally agree that unnecessary muscle tension not only leads to physical problems but also can interfere with performance quality. It is important, however, that the reduced EMG levels resulting from biofeedback training generalize to situations in which feedback is not available, and that the reduction in muscle tension not result in decreased performance quality. Eight intermediate to advanced clarinet players participated in four EMG biofeedback training sessions during which short-term and extended generalization of lowered EMG levels was assessed along with trill and scale speed scores. Significant reductions in EMG levels associated with biofeedback training generalized to short-term and extended situations, while trill and scale performances remained at or above pretest levels. PMID:6639976

  19. The Relationship between General Self-Efficacy Belief and Burnout Level among Turkish Academicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevindi, Tarik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relation between burnout level and general self-efficacy beliefs of academicians working in School of Physical Education and Sport. 178 Academicians working at various universities in Turkey participated in this study. The General Self-Efficacy Scale developed by Schwarzer and Jerusalem (1995), adapted to…

  20. 77 FR 33777 - General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a 2- day forum focused on safety issues related to general aviation on June 19-20, 2012 in Washington, DC. The event,...

  1. Bird activity levels related to weather

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Breeding Bird Survey data bank serves as a primary source for studying effects of sky cover, wind speed, and temperature on bird census results. Other standardized methods, such as spot-mapping (Breeding Bird Census), point counts, banding, and the Winter Bird Survey, provide additional, but limited, means of assessing effects of weather. Numbers of songbirds detected are generally inversely correlated with wind speed, but hawks often are seen in larger numbers on windy days. Rain greatly reduces the numbers of birds detected. Cloud cover has relatively little influence on early morning bird counts during the peak of the breeding season. Fog selectively favors auditory detections of some species. Counts of many species are correlated with temperature, but effects are minor unless temperatures are extreme. Under marginal weather conditions, total species observed may be nearly normal, whereas number of individuals observed is reduced, as is the opportunity to record simultaneous registrations

  2. Directly Observed Physical Activity Levels in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; McIver, Kerry; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.; Addy, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Background: Millions of young children attend preschools and other structured child development programs, but little is known about their physical activity levels while in those settings. The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels and demographic and school-related correlates of physical activity in children attending…

  3. Emergent patterns from probabilistic generalizations of lateral activation and inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kabla, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The combination of laterally activating and inhibiting feedbacks is well known to spontaneously generate spatial organization. It was introduced by Gierer and Meinhardt as an extension of Turing's great insight that two reacting and diffusing chemicals can spontaneously drive spatial morphogenesis per se. In this study, we develop an accessible nonlinear and discrete probabilistic model to study simple generalizations of lateral activation and inhibition. By doing so, we identify a range of modes of morphogenesis beyond the familiar Turing-type modes; notably, beyond stripes, hexagonal nets, pores and labyrinths, we identify labyrinthine highways, Kagome lattices, gyrating labyrinths and multi-colour travelling waves and spirals. The results are discussed within the context of Turing's original motivating interest: the mechanisms which underpin the morphogenesis of living organisms. PMID:27170648

  4. Mean Levels and Correlates of Perfectionism in International Baccalaureate and General Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Suldo, Shannon M.; Friedrich, Allison

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the mean levels of perfectionism among 178 general education students and 141 students enrolled in the International Baccalaureate (IB) program, a rigorous academic curriculum. The study also explored perfectionism in relation to grade level and student outcomes (psychological functioning, academic achievement).…

  5. A Resource File for Social Studies in Utah. Level 9: World Geography and General Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This resource file contains information for Utah secondary school teachers to help their level 9 students meet the state's instructional objectives in the social studies. This particular student level emphasizes world geography and general social studies. The following disciplines are covered in the resource file: psychology, anthropology,…

  6. A General Strategy to Enhance the Potency of Chimeric Transcriptional Activators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natesan, Sridaran; Molinari, Elizabeth; Rivera, Victor M.; Rickles, Richard J.; Gilman, Michael

    1999-11-01

    Efforts to increase the potency of transcriptional activators are generally unsuccessful because poor expression of activators in mammalian cells limits their delivery to target promoters. Here we report that the effectiveness of chimeric activators can be dramatically improved by expressing them as noncovalent tetrameric bundles. Bundled activation domains are much more effective at activating a reporter gene than simple monomeric activators, presumably because, at similar expression levels, up to 4 times as many the activation domains are delivered to the target promoter. These bundled activation domains are also more effective than proteins in which activation domains are tandemly reiterated in the same polypeptide chain, because such proteins are very poorly expressed and therefore not delivered effectively. These observations suggest that there is a threshold number of activation domains that must be bound to a promoter for activation, above which promoter activity is simply a function of the number of activators bound. We show that bundling can be exploited practically to enhance the sensitivity of mammalian two-hybrid assays, enabling detection of weak interactions or those between poorly expressed proteins. Bundling also dramatically improves the performance of a small-molecule-regulated gene expression system when the expression level of regulatory protein is limiting, a situation that may be encountered in gene therapy applications.

  7. Active Emergence from Propofol General Anesthesia is Induced by Methylphenidate

    PubMed Central

    Chemali, Jessica J.; Van Dort, Christa J.; Brown, Emery N.; Solt, Ken

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND A recent study showed that methylphenidate induces emergence from isoflurane general anesthesia. Isoflurane and propofol are general anesthetics that may have distinct molecular mechanisms of action. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that methylphenidate actively induces emergence from propofol general anesthesia. METHODS Using adult rats, the effect of methylphenidate on time to emergence after a single bolus of propofol was determined. The ability of methylphenidate to restore righting during a continuous target controlled infusion of propofol was also tested. In a separate group of rats, a target controlled infusion of propofol was established and spectral analysis was performed on electroencephalogram recordings taken before and after methylphenidate administration. RESULTS Methylphenidate decreased median time to emergence after a single dose of propofol from 735 seconds (95% CI: 598 to 897 seconds, n=6) to 448 seconds (95% CI: 371 to 495 seconds, n=6). The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0051). During continuous propofol anesthesia with a median final target plasma concentration of 4.0 μg/ml (95%CI: 3.2 to 4.6, n=6), none of the rats exhibited purposeful movements after injection of normal saline. After methylphenidate, however, all 6 rats promptly exhibited arousal and had restoration of righting with a median time of 82 seconds (95% CI: 30 to 166 seconds). Spectral analysis of electroencephalogram data demonstrated a shift in peak power from delta (<4 Hz) to theta (4–8 Hz) and beta (12–30 Hz) after administration of methylphenidate, indicating arousal in 4/4 rats. CONCLUSIONS Methylphenidate decreases time to emergence after a single dose of propofol, and induces emergence during continuous propofol anesthesia in rats. Further study is warranted to test the hypothesis that methylphenidate induces emergence from propofol general anesthesia in humans. PMID:22446983

  8. General circulation model simulations of winter and summer sea-level pressures over North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J., Jr.; Legates, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, observed sea-level pressures were used to evaluate winter and summer sea-level pressures over North America simulated by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) general circulation models. The objective of the study is to determine how similar the spatial and temporal distributions of GCM-simulated daily sea-level pressures over North America are to observed distributions. Overall, both models are better at reproducing observed within-season variance of winter and summer sea-level pressures than they are at simulating the magnitude of mean winter and summer sea-level pressures. -from Authors

  9. Changing remuneration systems: effects on activity in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Krasnik, A; Groenewegen, P P; Pedersen, P A; von Scholten, P; Mooney, G; Gottschau, A; Flierman, H A; Damsgaard, M T

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the effects on general practitioners' activities of a change in their remuneration from a capitation based system to a mixed fee per item and capitation based system. DESIGN--Follow up study with data collected from contact sheets completed by general practitioners in one period before (March 1987) a change in their remuneration system and two periods after (March 1988, November 1988), with a control group of general practitioners with a mixed fee per item and capitation based system throughout. SETTING--General practices in Copenhagen city (index group) and Copenhagen county (control group). SUBJECTS--265 General practitioners in Copenhagen city, of whom 100 were selected randomly from the 130 who agreed to participate (10 exclusions) and 326 general practitioners in Copenhagen county. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Number of consultations (face to face and by telephone) and renewals of prescriptions, diagnostic and curative services, and specialist and hospital referrals per 1000 enlisted patients in one week. RESULTS--Of the 75 general practitioners who completed all three sheets, four were excluded for incomplete data. Total contact rates per 1000 patients listed rose significantly compared with the rates before the change index in the city (100.0 before the change v 111.7 (95% confidence interval 106.4 to 117.4 after the change) and over the same time in the control group (100.0 v 106.0), but within a year these rates fell (to 104.2(99.1 to 109.6) and 104.0 respectively). There was an increase in consultations by telephone initially but not thereafter. Rates of examinations and treatments that attracted specific additional remuneration after the change rose significantly compared with those before (diagnostic services, 138.1 (118.7 to 160.5) and 159.5 (137.8 to 184.7) and curative services 194.6 (152.2 to 248.9) and 194.8(152.3 to 249.2) for second and third data collections respectively) and with the control group (diagnostic services 105

  10. Differential Neural Activity during Search of Specific and General Autobiographical Memories elicited by Musical Cues

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies that have examined autobiographical memory specificity have utilized retrieval cues associated with prior searches of the event, potentially changing the retrieval processes being investigated. In the current study, musical cues were used to naturally elicit memories from multiple levels of specificity (i.e., lifetime period, general event, and event-specific). Sixteen young adults participated in a neuroimaging study in which they retrieved autobiographical memories associated with musical cues. These musical cues led to the retrieval of highly emotional memories that had low levels of prior retrieval. Retrieval of all autobiographical memory levels was associated with activity in regions in the autobiographical memory network, specifically the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and right medial temporal lobe. Owing to the use of music, memories from varying levels of specificity were retrieved, allowing for comparison of event memory and abstract personal knowledge, as well as comparison of specific and general event memory. Dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal regions were engaged during event retrieval relative to personal knowledge retrieval, and retrieval of specific event memories was associated with increased activity in the bilateral medial temporal lobe and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex relative to retrieval of general event memories. These results suggest that the initial search processes for memories of different specificity levels preferentially engage different components of the autobiographical memory network. The potential underlying causes of these neural differences are discussed. PMID:21600227

  11. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... may be used for the administration of Part C of the Act, if the SEA is the lead agency for the...

  12. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704... Allotments, Grants, and Use of Funds § 300.704 State-level activities. (a) State administration. (1) For the... may be used for the administration of Part C of the Act, if the SEA is the lead agency for the...

  13. Middle Level Activities To Involve the Invisible Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, Sue; Arico, Jim

    Involvement in student activities has many advantages for the middle level student. Such activities promote achievement, citizenship, and service to the community while developing self-esteem, self-confidence, and social cooperation. This book is intended as a tool for middle level schools to motivate, develop, guide, involve, and provide middle…

  14. Physical Activity Levels during Adventure-Physical Education Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehris, Jeffrey; Myers, Elizabeth; Whitaker, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Adventure-physical education has been proposed to promote adolescents' physical development, but little is known about physical activity levels during such lessons. Using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time, we observed students' (ages 11-14 years) physical activity levels in co-educational classes during 43 adventure-physical…

  15. Inflammatory Cytokines in General and Central Obesity and Modulating Effects of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Christian; Minkwitz, Juliane; Thormann, Julia; Chittka, Tobias; Mergl, Roland; Kirkby, Kenneth C.; Faßhauer, Mathias; Stumvoll, Michael; Holdt, Lesca M.; Teupser, Daniel; Hegerl, Ulrich; Himmerich, Hubertus

    2015-01-01

    Context Chronic systemic inflammation in obesity originates from local immune responses in visceral adipose tissue. However, assessment of a broad range of inflammation-mediating cytokines and their relationship to physical activity and adipometrics has scarcely been reported to date. Objective To characterize the profile of a broad range of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and the impact of physical activity and energy expenditure in individuals with general obesity, central obesity, and non-obese subjects. Design, Setting, and Participants A cross-sectional study comprising 117 obese patients (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30) and 83 non-obese community-based volunteers. Main Outcomes Measures Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured. Physical activity and energy expenditure (MET) were assessed with actigraphy. Adipometrics comprised BMI, weight, abdominal-, waist- and hip-circumference, waist to hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR). Results General obesity was associated with significantly elevated levels of IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IFN-γ and TNF-α, central obesity with significantly elevated IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13 and IFN-γ-levels. In participants with general obesity, levels of IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 were significantly elevated in participants with low physical activity, even when controlled for BMI which was negatively associated with physical acitivity. Cytokines significantly correlated with adipometrics, particularly in obese participants. Conclusions Results confirm up-regulation of certain pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in obesity. In obese subjects, physical activity may lower levels and thus reduce pro-inflammatory effects of cytokines that may link obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. PMID:25781614

  16. Noise levels and data correction analysis for seven general aviation propeller aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, D. W.; Rickley, E. J.

    1980-09-01

    This document reports noise levels of a general aviation propeller aircraft noise test at the FAA National Aviation Facility Experimental Center located in Atlantic City, New Jersey. The test was performed to acquire noise data on general aviation type aircraft and examine how these noise levels are influenced by variables such as distance, aircraft speed, power settings, and propeller speeds. Aircraft were tested during takeoff, approach, and flyover modes and data are given in EPNL and in "A"-weighted decibels. All measurements were performed in accordance with FAR 36 Appendix C and Appendix F procedures.

  17. The generalized active space concept in multiconfigurational self-consistent field methods.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dongxia; Li Manni, Giovanni; Gagliardi, Laura

    2011-07-28

    A multiconfigurational self-consistent field method based on the concept of generalized active space (GAS) is presented. GAS wave functions are obtained by defining an arbitrary number of active spaces with arbitrary occupation constraints. By a suitable choice of the GAS spaces, numerous ineffective configurations present in a large complete active space (CAS) can be removed, while keeping the important ones in the CI space. As a consequence, the GAS self-consistent field approach retains the accuracy of the CAS self-consistent field (CASSCF) ansatz and, at the same time, can deal with larger active spaces, which would be unaffordable at the CASSCF level. Test calculations on the Gd atom, Gd(2) molecule, and oxoMn(salen) complex are presented. They show that GAS wave functions achieve the same accuracy as CAS wave functions on systems that would be prohibitive at the CAS level. PMID:21806111

  18. Activity Levels in Healthy Older Adults: Implications for Joint Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Thorp, Laura E.; Orozco, Diego; Block, Joel A.; Sumner, Dale R.; Wimmer, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluated activity levels in a group of healthy older adults to establish a target activity level for adults of similar age after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). With the decreasing age of TJA patients, it is essential to have a reference for activity level in younger patients as activity level affects quality of life and implant design. 54 asymptomatic, healthy older adults with no clinical evidence of lower extremity OA participated. The main outcome measure, average daily step count, was measured using an accelerometer-based activity monitor. On average the group took 8813 ± 3611 steps per day, approximately 4000 more steps per day than has been previously reported in patients following total joint arthroplasty. The present work provides a reference for activity after joint arthroplasty which is relevant given the projected number of people under the age of 65 who will undergo joint arthroplasty in the coming years. PMID:23577274

  19. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    PubMed

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. PMID:27029522

  20. Solar Activity, Different Geomagnetic Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar

    Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.

  1. The Impact of the University Students' Level of Alienation on Their Perception of General Satistaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaçire, Ilhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of university students' level of alienation on their general satisfaction. The study was carried out using rational screening model. The total participants of this study were 551 Dicle University students, studying at Medical, Technology, and Ziya Gökalp Education Faculty departments. The…

  2. A Validity Study of the General Examinations of the College Level Examination Program (CLEP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losak, John

    Two studies investigated the effects of earning college credits for freshman year courses--as a result of performance on the College Level Examination Program's (CLEP) General Examinations--on later academic success. These are multiple choice tests of English composition, social science, natural science, humanities, and mathematics. Both studies…

  3. Simulation of the Low-Level-Jet by general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Ghan, S.J.

    1996-04-01

    To what degree is the low-level jet climatology and it`s impact on clouds and precipitation being captured by current general circulation models? It is hypothesised that a need for a pramaterization exists. This paper describes this parameterization need.

  4. 50 CFR 216.45 - General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... harassment for scientific research. 216.45 Section 216.45 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES... Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. (a) General Authorization. (1) Persons are..., as defined in § 216.3, for purposes of bona fide scientific research Provided, That: (i) They...

  5. 50 CFR 216.45 - General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... harassment for scientific research. 216.45 Section 216.45 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES... Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. (a) General Authorization. (1) Persons are..., as defined in § 216.3, for purposes of bona fide scientific research Provided, That: (i) They...

  6. 50 CFR 216.45 - General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... harassment for scientific research. 216.45 Section 216.45 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES... Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. (a) General Authorization. (1) Persons are..., as defined in § 216.3, for purposes of bona fide scientific research Provided, That: (i) They...

  7. Levels and Growth of Specific and General Norms for Nonviolence among Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymnicki, Allison B.; Antonio, Tiago; Henry, David B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the levels and growth of specific and general normative beliefs about nonviolence (called norms for nonviolence). The sample consisted of 1254 middle school students from four metropolitan areas who participated in the control condition of the Multisite Violence Prevention Project. We predicted that the association and…

  8. Satisfaction in Stages of the Life Cycle, Levels of General Happiness and Frequency of Peak Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Robert A. C.

    1976-01-01

    This study focuses on reported (a) satisfaction in stages of the life cycle; (b) levels of general happiness; and (c) frequency of peak experiences. Subjects were 48 undergraduate students (17 males, 31 females) at Laurentian University, Canada. Results from all three areas in this study accord closely with other relevant published work. (Author)

  9. Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.

  10. Generalized internal model robust control for active front steering intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Zhao, Youqun; Ji, Xuewu; Liu, Yahui; Zhang, Lipeng

    2015-03-01

    Because of the tire nonlinearity and vehicle's parameters' uncertainties, robust control methods based on the worst cases, such as H ∞, µ synthesis, have been widely used in active front steering control, however, in order to guarantee the stability of active front steering system (AFS) controller, the robust control is at the cost of performance so that the robust controller is a little conservative and has low performance for AFS control. In this paper, a generalized internal model robust control (GIMC) that can overcome the contradiction between performance and stability is used in the AFS control. In GIMC, the Youla parameterization is used in an improved way. And GIMC controller includes two sections: a high performance controller designed for the nominal vehicle model and a robust controller compensating the vehicle parameters' uncertainties and some external disturbances. Simulations of double lane change (DLC) maneuver and that of braking on split- µ road are conducted to compare the performance and stability of the GIMC control, the nominal performance PID controller and the H ∞ controller. Simulation results show that the high nominal performance PID controller will be unstable under some extreme situations because of large vehicle's parameters variations, H ∞ controller is conservative so that the performance is a little low, and only the GIMC controller overcomes the contradiction between performance and robustness, which can both ensure the stability of the AFS controller and guarantee the high performance of the AFS controller. Therefore, the GIMC method proposed for AFS can overcome some disadvantages of control methods used by current AFS system, that is, can solve the instability of PID or LQP control methods and the low performance of the standard H ∞ controller.

  11. Generalized Grassmannian coherent states for pseudo-Hermitian n-level systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najarbashi, G.; Fasihi, M. A.; Fakhri, H.

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to generalize fermionic coherent states for two-level systems described by pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian (Cherbal et al 2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 1835) to n-level systems. Central to this task is the expression of the coherent states in terms of generalized Grassmann variables. These kinds of Grassmann coherent states satisfy the bi-overcompleteness condition instead of the overcompleteness one, as it is reasonably expected because of the biorthonormality of the system. Choosing an appropriate Grassmann weight function, the resolution of identity is examined. Moreover Grassmannian coherent and squeezed states of the deformed group SUq(2) for the three-level pseudo-Hermitian system are presented.

  12. Simulation of the great plains low-level jet and associated clouds by general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Ghan, S.J.; Bian, X.; Corsetti, L.

    1996-07-01

    The low-level jet frequently observed in the Great Plains of the United States forms preferentially at night and apparently influences the timing of the thunderstorms in the region. The authors have found that both the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts general circulation model and the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model simulate the low-level jet rather well, although the spatial distribution of the jet frequency simulated by the two GCM`s differ considerably. Sensitivity experiments have demonstrated that the simulated low-level jet is surprisingly robust, with similar simulations at much coarser horizontal and vertical resolutions. However, both GCM`s fail to simulate the observed relationship between clouds and the low-level jet. The pronounced nocturnal maximum in thunderstorm frequency associated with the low-level jet is not simulated well by either GCM, with only weak evidence of a nocturnal maximum in the Great Plains. 36 refs., 20 figs.

  13. Paired galaxies with different activity levels and their supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazaryan, T. A.; Petrosian, A. R.; Hakobyan, A. A.; Adibekyan, V. Z.; Kunth, D.; Mamon, G. A.; Turatto, M.; Aramyan, L. S.

    2013-10-01

    We investigate the influence of close neighbor galaxies on the properties of supernovae (SNe) and their host galaxies using 56 SNe located in pairs of galaxies with different levels of star formation (SF) and nuclear activity. The statistical study of SN hosts shows that there is no significant difference between morphologies of hosts in our sample and the larger general sample of SN hosts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). The mean distance of type II SNe from nuclei of hosts is greater by about a factor of 2 than that of type Ibc SNe. The distributions and mean distances of SNe are consistent with previous results compiled with the larger sample. For the first time it is shown that SNe Ibc are located in pairs with significantly smaller difference of radial velocities between components than pairs containing SNe Ia and II. We consider this as a result of higher star formation rate (SFR) of these closer systems of galaxies. SN types are not correlated with the luminosity ratio of host and neighbor galaxies in pairs. The orientation of SNe with respect to the preferred direction toward neighbor galaxy is found to be isotropic and independent of kinematical properties of the galaxy pair.

  14. Efficient analysis of Q-level nested hierarchical general linear models given ignorable missing data.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yongyun; Raudenbush, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    This article extends single-level missing data methods to efficient estimation of a Q-level nested hierarchical general linear model given ignorable missing data with a general missing pattern at any of the Q levels. The key idea is to reexpress a desired hierarchical model as the joint distribution of all variables including the outcome that are subject to missingness, conditional on all of the covariates that are completely observed and to estimate the joint model under normal theory. The unconstrained joint model, however, identifies extraneous parameters that are not of interest in subsequent analysis of the hierarchical model and that rapidly multiply as the number of levels, the number of variables subject to missingness, and the number of random coefficients grow. Therefore, the joint model may be extremely high dimensional and difficult to estimate well unless constraints are imposed to avoid the proliferation of extraneous covariance components at each level. Furthermore, the over-identified hierarchical model may produce considerably biased inferences. The challenge is to represent the constraints within the framework of the Q-level model in a way that is uniform without regard to Q; in a way that facilitates efficient computation for any number of Q levels; and also in a way that produces unbiased and efficient analysis of the hierarchical model. Our approach yields Q-step recursive estimation and imputation procedures whose qth-step computation involves only level-q data given higher-level computation components. We illustrate the approach with a study of the growth in body mass index analyzing a national sample of elementary school children. PMID:24077621

  15. 78 FR 73863 - Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2013 Federal Activities Inventory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2013 Federal Activities Inventory Reform (FAIR) Act Inventory AGENCY: General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of public availability of FY 2013 Federal Activities Inventory Reform (FAIR) Act Inventory. SUMMARY: In accordance...

  16. 77 FR 54917 - Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2012 Federal Activities Inventory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2012 Federal Activities Inventory Reform (FAIR) Act Inventory AGENCY: General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Federal Activities Inventory Reform (FAIR) Act Inventory. SUMMARY:...

  17. Movement Activity Levels on Traditional and Contemporary Playground Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl P.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth

    This study investigated playground activity levels of children in grades K-4 and compared levels of use of traditional and creative playground apparatus. The traditional playground area consisted of climbing bars, slides, ladders, chin bars, swings, see saws, and a merry-go-round. The creative playground contained tire hurdles, tire walk, tire…

  18. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  19. Participating in politics resembles physical activity: general action patterns in international archives, United States archives, and experiments.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Kenji; Handley, Ian M; Albarracín, Dolores

    2011-02-01

    A series of studies examined whether political participation can emerge from general patterns of indiscriminate activity. In the first two studies, general action tendencies were measured by combining national and state-level indicators of high activity (e.g., impulsiveness, pace of life, and physical activity) from international and U.S. data. This action-tendency index positively correlated with a measure of political participation that consisted of voting behaviors and participation in political demonstrations. The following two experimental studies indicated that participants exposed to action words (e.g., go, move) had stronger intentions to vote in an upcoming election and volunteered more time to make phone calls on behalf of a university policy than participants exposed to inaction words did (e.g., relax, stop). These studies suggest that political participation can be predicted from general tendencies toward activity present at the national and state levels, as well as from verbal prompts suggestive of activity. PMID:21177515

  20. Participating in Politics Resembles Physical Activity: General Action Patterns in International Archives, United States Archives, and Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Kenji; Handley, Ian M.; Albarracín, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    A series of studies examined whether political participation can emerge from general patterns of indiscriminate activity. In the first two studies, general action tendencies were measured by combining national and state-level indicators of high activity (e.g., impulsiveness, pace of life, and physical activity) from international and U.S. data. This action-tendency index positively correlated with a measure of political participation that consisted of voting behaviors and participation in political demonstrations. The following two experimental studies indicated that participants exposed to action words (e.g., go, move) had stronger intentions to vote in an upcoming election and volunteered more time to make phone calls on behalf of a university policy than participants exposed to inaction words did (e.g., relax, stop). These studies suggest that political participation can be predicted from general tendencies toward activity present at the national and state levels, as well as from verbal prompts suggestive of activity. PMID:21177515

  1. Unravelling the basis of variability in cobalamin levels in the general population.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Toby; Gill, Raj; Gillham-Nasenya, Irina; Ahmadi, Kourosh R

    2013-11-14

    Cobalamin (Cbl) is an essential B vitamin involved in the normal functioning of the nervous system, the formation of key components of blood, DNA synthesis and methylation, and energy production. Physiological levels of Cbl vary greatly within populations, although the basis for this variability remains largely unknown. We conducted a twin study to characterise the basis of variation in plasma Cbl levels and to test whether common genetic polymorphisms in genes known to cause defects in inborn errors of Cbl metabolism and transport are also associated with mean plasma Cbl levels in the general population. The present results showed that plasma levels of Cbl were heritable, with genetic and phenotypic variance increasing with age, and levels significantly correlated with age, BMI, exercise, alcohol consumption, smoking status, social class and folate levels, which collectively accounted for up to 15 % of Cbl variation. Of eight genes responsible for the defects of the Cbl metabolic pathway (cblA-G and mut), MMAA, MMACHC, MTRR and MUT harboured polymorphisms that showed evidence of association with Cbl levels. Characterisation of the heritable component of variation in Cbl levels can facilitate the early diagnosis and prognosis of Cbl insufficiency/deficiency in individuals at a higher risk of associated diseases. PMID:23628113

  2. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Md. Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand. PMID:27375903

  3. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  4. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  5. The Role of Various Curriculum Models on Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Dean O.; Tarr, Susan J.; Killion, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that physical education curricula can be highly effective in increasing physical activity levels at school (Sallis & Owen, 1999). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of various curriculum models on physical activity. Total steps were measured on 1,111 subjects and three curriculum models were studied…

  6. Generalized Klauder-Perelomov and Gazeau-Klauder coherent states for Landau levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhri, H.

    2003-07-01

    Based on a pair of representations obtained for Lie algebra h4, the Hilbert space corresponding to all quantum states of Landau levels is split into an infinite direct sum of infinite-dimensional Hilbert subspaces. For any one of the Hilbert subspaces, we get linear combinations of their bases as generalized coherent states-the so-called Klauder-Perelomov and Gazeau-Klauder.

  7. Proposed Guideline Revisions for Dental Sedation and General Anesthesia: Why Target the Safest Level of Sedation?

    PubMed

    Dionne, Raymond A

    2016-09-01

    Recently proposed revisions to the American Dental Association's Guidelines for the Use of Sedation and General Anesthesia by Dentists, aimed at improving safety in dental offices, differentiate between levels of sedation based on drug-induced changes in physiologic and behavioral states. However, the author of this op-ed is concerned the proposed revisions may have far-reaching and unintended consequences. PMID:27608198

  8. The Contribution of Former Work-Related Activity Levels to Predict Physical Activity and Sedentary Time during Early Retirement: Moderating Role of Educational Level and Physical Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Background The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined. Methods In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models. Results More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal. Conclusions Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during

  9. Technology Enabled Active Learning (TEAL) in Introductory Physics: Impact on Genders and Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Ruey S.; Chang, Wheijen; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the impact of "Technology Enabled Active Learning" (TEAL) on students learning general physics, focusing on differences between genders and among various achievement levels. A quasi-experimental investigation was conducted on two semesters of courses offered in 2008. Data sources consisted of pre-tests, post-tests, self-report…

  10. 25 CFR 20.205 - Can tribes change eligibility criteria or levels of payments for General Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can tribes change eligibility criteria or levels of... tribes change eligibility criteria or levels of payments for General Assistance? Yes, if you have a redesign plan, you can change eligibility criteria or levels of payment for general assistance. (a)...

  11. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  12. Generalized su(2) coherent states for the Landau levels and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, Alireza; Mojaveri, Bashir

    2013-12-01

    Following the lines of the recent papers [J. Phys. A 44, 495201 (2012); B. Mojaveri, A. Dehghani, Eur. Phys. J. D 67, 179 (2013)], we construct here a new class of generalized coherent states related to the Landau levels, which can be used as the finite Fock subspaces for the representation of the su(2) Lie algebra. We establish the relationship between them and the deformed truncated coherent states. We have, also, shown that they satisfy the resolution of the identity property through a positive definite measures on the complex plane. Their nonclassical and quantum statistical properties such as quadrature squeezing, higher order ` su(2)' squeezing, anti-bunching and anti-correlation effects are studied in details. Particularly, the influence of the generalization on the nonclassical properties of two modes is clarified.

  13. General and Localized Corrosion of Outer Barrier of High-Level Waste Container in Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.; McCright, D.; Gdowski, G.; Wang, F.; Summers, T.; Bedrossian, P.; Horn, J.; Lian, T.; Estill, J.; Lingenfelter, A.; Halsey, W.

    2000-05-02

    As described in the License Application Design Selection Report, the recommended waste, package design is Engineering Design Alternative II (CRWMS M&O 1999). This design includes a double-wall waste package (WP) underneath a protective drip shield (DS). purpose and scope of the process-level model described here is to account for both general and localized corrosion of the waste package outer barrier (WPOB), which assumed to be Alloy 22 (UNS N06022-21Cr-13Mo-4Fe-3W-2C-Ni) (ASTM 1997a). This model will include several sub-models, which will account for dry oxidation (DOX), humid air corrosion (HAC), general corrosion (GC) in the aqueous phase, and localized corrosion (LC) the aqueous phase. This model serves as a feed to the waste package degradation (WAPDEG) code for performance, assessment.

  14. Activity level and risk of overweight in male health professionals.

    PubMed Central

    Ching, P L; Willett, W C; Rimm, E B; Colditz, G A; Gortmaker, S L; Stampfer, M J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study undertook to examine relationships between nonsedentary activity level, time spent watching television (TV)/videocassette recorder (VCR), and risk of overweight among men. METHODS. Men participating in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study were mailed surveys. Cross-sectional analyses examined the prevalence and odds of being overweight, prospective analyses determined cumulative incidence rates and relative risks of becoming overweight over 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS. Cross-sectionally, odds of being overweight were 50% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 45%; 55%) lower for men in the highest quintile of nonsedentary activity level when compared with men in the lowest quintile. Among men watching 41 or more hours of TV/VCR per week, the odds of being overweight were 406 (95% CI = 2.67, 6.17) times greater than those for men watching no more than 1 hour per week. Prospectively, higher levels is of nonsedentary activity and lower levels of TV/VCR viewing were independently associated with lower relative risks for becoming overweight between survey years. CONCLUSIONS. Both a lack of nonsedentary activity and time spent watching TV/VCR contribute to the development of overweight in men. Sedentary and nonsedentary activities represent separate domains, each with independent risks for overweight. PMID:8561237

  15. Generalized Anxiety and C-Reactive Protein Levels: A Prospective, Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Angold, Adrian; Costello, E. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Background Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is highly comorbid with depression. Depression is associated with elevated levels of the inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP), cross-sectionally and over time. To date, no studies have looked at the association of CRP with GAD. Methods Ten waves of data from the prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (N = 1,420) were used, covering children in the community aged 9-16, 19, and 21 years old. Structured interviews were used at each assessment to assess GAD symptoms, diagnosis, and cumulative episodes. Bloodspots were collected and assayed for CRP levels. Results GAD was associated with increased levels of CRP in bivariate cross-sectional analyses. These bivariate associations, however, were attenuated after accounting for demographic, substance use, and health-related covariates. In longitudinal models, there was little evidence that CRP predicted later GAD. Associations from GAD to later CRP were attenuated in models adjusted for health-related coavariates and there was evidence that the GAD-CRP association was mediated by BMI and medication use. Conclusions Similar to depression, GAD was associated with elevated levels of CRP, but the effect of GAD on CRP levels was explained by the effect of GAD on health-related behaviors such as BMI and medication use. This study suggests differences in the association between inflammation and depression and GAD. PMID:22716910

  16. Generalized Event Knowledge Activation during Online Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metusalem, Ross; Kutas, Marta; Urbach, Thomas P.; Hare, Mary; McRae, Ken; Elman, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that knowledge of real-world events plays an important role in guiding online language comprehension. The present study addresses the scope of event knowledge activation during the course of comprehension, specifically investigating whether activation is limited to those knowledge elements that align with the local…

  17. IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Regional Activities. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on regional library activities which were presented at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Importance of Information Resources in National Development with Particular Reference to the Asian Scene" (Yogendra P. Dubey, India); (2) "Report of the Activities of the Regional Section for Asia…

  18. Technology, Active Learning, and Retention in General Education Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Inessa; Chahine, Iman; Garrett, Lauretta; Wang, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Difficulties in general education mathematics courses may be attributed to many factors, primarily low proficiency in symbol manipulation, a perception that mathematics is an area which eludes mastery, a lack of engagement and effective practice. Educational technology can be a powerful aid in overcoming these factors. This work describes the…

  19. A January angular momentum balance in the OSU two-level atmospheric general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J.-W.; Grady, W.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with an analysis of the atmospheric angular momentum balance, based on the simulation data of the Oregon State University two-level atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM). An attempt is also made to gain an understanding of the involved processes. Preliminary results on the angular momentum and mass balance in the AGCM are shown. The basic equations are examined, and questions of turbulent momentum transfer are investigated. The methods of analysis are discussed, taking into account time-averaged balance equations, time and longitude-averaged balance equations, mean meridional circulation, the mean meridional balance of relative angular momentum, and standing and transient components of motion.

  20. Fostering and Measuring General Scientific Reasoning Expertise at the Second Year Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, F. M.; Jellinek, M.; Bostock, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    Geoscience faculty members often debate about the definition and development of scientific expertise. Some will argue it emerges at the graduate level, others that novice students can develop relevant skills. The debate hinges on definitions of “expertise”, “scientific skills” and how these abilities are assessed. We present data from a second year geoscience course specifically designed to help research scientists foster generic skills associated with critical scientific thinking, presentation, and framing of scientific arguments and questions. To develop the course, key characteristics that professional scientists exhibit were identified from the literature and our experience. These are the abilities to: a) read critically; b) succinctly summarize and communicate; c) pose insightful questions; d) use and discuss models, data and their relationships; and e) work effectively as part of a team. To help with learning and assessment of these skills in students who do not yet have significant discipline-specific background, classroom practices were chosen so that students must think and act more like professional scientists. These include use of some team-based learning strategies, replacing exams with quizzes and projects, mixing team-teaching with solo-teaching, discursive rather than didactic instruction, and use of diverse topics representative of research in our Department. Specific strategies employed which enable “master geoscientists” to actively guide and assess novices as they practice desired skills are: homework involving reading, writing abstracts and posing questions for one or two articles each week, pre-post testing of model based reasoning abilities, interaction with guest scientists, and oral and poster presentations on topics chosen by students. Results of collecting data over two terms of using these general and specific strategies include: 1. Abstract writing skills improved during the first two thirds of the course, then leveled off in

  1. The January and July performance of the OSU two-level atmospheric general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, M. E.; Gates, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modified version of the two-level atmospheric general circulation model has been developed and employed in the simulation of January and July global climates. The overall physical and numerical formation of the Oregon State University model is the same as that described by Gates and Schlesinger (1977), but in the new version water vapor at the upper level has been made a prognostic variable, the parameterizations of cumulus convection, large-scale condensation and evaporation, clouds, and radiative transfer have been changed, the surface snow mass and ground temperature have been made prognostic variables, and the treatment of the surface boundary layer has been revised. It is found that the model simulates most features of the large-scale distributions of observed January and July climate more accurately than before.

  2. Analysis of generalized negative binomial distributions attached to hyperbolic Landau levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhaiba, Hassan; Demni, Nizar; Mouayn, Zouhair

    2016-07-01

    To each hyperbolic Landau level of the Poincaré disc is attached a generalized negative binomial distribution. In this paper, we compute the moment generating function of this distribution and supply its atomic decomposition as a perturbation of the negative binomial distribution by a finitely supported measure. Using the Mandel parameter, we also discuss the nonclassical nature of the associated coherent states. Next, we derive a Lévy-Khintchine-type representation of its characteristic function when the latter does not vanish and deduce that it is quasi-infinitely divisible except for the lowest hyperbolic Landau level corresponding to the negative binomial distribution. By considering the total variation of the obtained quasi-Lévy measure, we introduce a new infinitely divisible distribution for which we derive the characteristic function.

  3. Heat-activated cooling devices: A guidebook for general audiences

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltsee, G.

    1994-02-01

    Heat-activated cooling is refrigeration or air conditioning driven by heat instead of electricity. A mill or processing facility can us its waste fuel to air condition its offices or plant; using waste fuel in this way can save money. The four basic types of heat-activated cooling systems available today are absorption cycle, desiccant system, steam jet ejector, and steam turbine drive. Each is discussed, along with cool storage and biomass boilers. Steps in determining the feasibility of heat-activated cooling are discussed, as are biomass conversion, system cost and integration, permits, and contractor selection. Case studies are given.

  4. Cascading Activation across Levels of Representation in Children's Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yi Ting; Snedeker, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in adult psycholinguistics has demonstrated that activation of semantic representations begins long before phonological processing is complete. This incremental propagation of information across multiple levels of analysis is a hallmark of adult language processing but how does this ability develop? In two experiments, we elicit…

  5. Education Finance Legislative Activity and Trends at the State Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crampton, Faith E.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews 1997 school finance legislation, comparing legislative activity levels from 1994 to 1997. In 1997, 32 states passed legislation pertaining to capital-outlay funding, tax bases, and taxation for education funding. Half passed legislation for state aid, technology, special-purpose education, budgeting/fiscal management, and school personnel…

  6. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Authorization,...

  7. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other State-level activities. 300.814 Section 300.814 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  8. Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity Levels of Rural Appalachian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Rana, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to examine whether pedometer-assessed physical activity (PA) in Appalachian Ohio students differed by body mass index (BMI), school level (middle school vs. high school), and gender during school days and nonschool days and whether students met the recommended PA guidelines. Participants (N = 149) were…

  9. Cardiovascular effects of variations in habitual levels of physical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, C. G.; Mitchell, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in human cardiovascular adaption to stress, particularly adaption to different levels of physical activity are determined along with quantitative noninvasive methods for evaluation of cardiovascular function during stess in normal subjects and in individuals with latent or manifest cardiovascular disease. Results are summarized.

  10. N-acetyltransferase 2 activity and folate levels

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wen; Strnatka, Diana; McQueen, Charlene A.; Hunter, Robert J.; Erickson, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To determine whether increased N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity might have a toxic effect during development and an influence on folate levels since previous work has shown that only low levels of exogenous NAT can be achieved in constitutionally transgenic mice (Cao, et al, 2005) Main Methods A human NAT1 tet-inducible construct was used that would not be expressed until the inducer was delivered. Human NAT1 cDNA was cloned into pTRE2 and injected into mouse oocytes. Two transgenic lines were crossed to mouse line TgN(rtTahCMV)4Uh containing the CMV promoted “teton.”Measurements of red blood cell folate levels in inbred strains of mice were performed. Key findings Only low levels of human NAT1 could be achieved in kidney (highly responsive in other studies) whether the inducer, doxycycline, was given by gavage or in drinking water.An inverse correlation of folate levels with Nat2 enzyme activity was found. Significance Since increasing NAT1 activity decrease folate in at least one tissue, the detrimental effect of expression of human NAT1 in combination with endogenous mouse Nat2 may be a consequence of increased catabolism of folate. PMID:19932120

  11. Can nursing students' confidence levels increase with repeated simulation activities?

    PubMed

    Cummings, Cynthia L; Connelly, Linda K

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, nursing faculty conducted a study with undergraduate nursing students on their satisfaction, confidence, and educational practice levels, as it related to simulation activities throughout the curriculum. The study was a voluntary survey conducted on junior and senior year nursing students. It consisted of 30 items based on the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning and the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Jeffries, 2012). Mean averages were obtained for each of the 30 items from both groups and were compared using T scores for unpaired means. The results showed that 8 of the items had a 95% confidence level and when combined the items were significant for p <.001. The items identified were those related to self-confidence and active learning. Based on these findings, it can be assumed that repeated simulation experiences can lead to an increase in student confidence and active learning. PMID:26599594

  12. 78 FR 48660 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Student Assistance General Provisions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Student Assistance General Provisions--Subpart K--Cash Management AGENCY: Federal Student Aid (FSA), Department of Education (ED). ACTION: Notice... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Student Assistance General...

  13. 78 FR 63972 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Student Assistance General Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Student Assistance General Provisions AGENCY: Federal Student Aid (FSA), Department of Education (ED). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with the... considered public records. Title of Collection: Student Assistance General Provisions. OMB Control...

  14. Effects of Curricular Activity on Students' Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…

  15. Physical Activity Levels in American-Indian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Storti, Kristi L.; Arena, Vincent C.; Barmada, M. Michael; Bunker, Clareann H.; Hanson, Robert L.; Laston, Sandra L.; Yeh, Jeun-Liang; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Howard, Barbara V.; Kriska, Andrea M.

    2009-01-01

    Background A limited body of evidence, mostly based on self-report, is available regarding physical activity levels among American-Indian adults. Purpose This study aims to examine physical activity levels objectively by pedometer among a large cohort of American Indian adult participants in the Strong Heart Family Study. Methods Physical activity levels in 2604 American-Indian adults, aged 18–91 years, from 13 American-Indian communities were assessed using an Accusplit AE120 pedometer over a period of 7 days during 2001–2003. Anthropometric measurements were also assessed. All data analyses were conducted in 2008. Age-adjusted Pearson correlations were used to examine the relationship between average steps per day and age and anthropometric variables. Subjects were placed in age and BMI categories (according to NHLBI cutpoints) to examine trends in PA with increasing age and BMI. Results Daily pedometer steps ranged from 1001 to 38,755. Mean step counts by age group for men were: 5384 (18–29 years), 5120 (30–39 years), 5040 (40–49 years), 4561(50–59 years),4321 (60–69 years), and 3768 (≥70 years) and for women: 5038 (18–29 years), 5112 (30– 39 years), 5054 (40–49 years), 4582 (50–59 years), 3653 (60–69 years), and 3770 (>70 years). A significant linear trend in physical activity was noted with increasing age (P= 0.002 for men, P<0.0001 for women) and with increasing BMI (P = 0.05 for men, P = 0.04 for women). Conclusions Objectively measured data suggest that inactivity is a problem among American Indian adults and that a majority of American Indian adults in the SHFS may not be meeting the minimum physical activity public health recommendations. Efforts to increase physical activity levels in this population are warranted. PMID:19944912

  16. Tissue Plasminogen Activator and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Levels in Patients with Acute Paraquat Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Su-Jin; Kim, Su-Ji; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) plasma levels, and their possible implications on clinical outcome, we measured tPA and PAI-1 levels in 101 patients with acute paraquat (PQ) intoxication. The control group consisted of patients who ingested non-PQ pesticides during the same period. tPA and PAI-1 levels were higher in the PQ group than in the controls. PQ levels were significantly correlated with ingested amount, timelag to hospital, tPA level, and hospitalization duration. tPA levels were correlated with PAI-1, fibrin degradation product (FDP), and D-dimer. D-dimer levels were lower in the PQ group than in the controls. Univariate analysis indicated the following significant determinants of death: age, ingested amount, PQ level, timelag to hospital, serum creatinine, lipase, pH, pCO2, HCO3-, WBC, FDP, PAI-1, and tPA. However, multivariate analysis indicated that only PQ level was significant independent factor predicting death. In conclusion, tPA and PAI-1 levels were higher, while D-dimer levels were lower in the PQ group than in the controls, implying that ROS stimulate tPA and PAI-1, but PAI-1 activity overrides tPA activity in this setting. Decreased fibrinolytic activity appears to be one of the clinical characteristics of acute PQ intoxication. PMID:21468253

  17. IFLA General Conference, 1987. Division of Regional Activities. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Six of the seven papers in this collection focus on regional library activities in Africa, Asia and Oceania, and Latin America and the Caribbean: (1) "Libraries and Information Services in a Changing World: The Challenges African Information Services Face at the End of the 1980s" (Dejen Abate, Ethiopia); (2) "The Computer and Knowledge Information…

  18. 50 CFR 216.16 - Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. 216.16 Section 216.16 Wildlife and Fisheries... Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. It shall...

  19. 50 CFR 216.16 - Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. 216.16 Section 216.16 Wildlife and Fisheries... Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. It shall...

  20. 50 CFR 216.16 - Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. 216.16 Section 216.16 Wildlife and Fisheries... Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. It shall...

  1. 50 CFR 216.16 - Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. 216.16 Section 216.16 Wildlife and Fisheries... Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. It shall...

  2. Age-Related Declines in General Cognitive Abilities of Balb/C Mice and General Activity Are Associated with Disparities in Working Memory, Body Weight, and General Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matzel, Louis D.; Grossman, Henya; Light, Kenneth; Townsend, David; Kolata, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    A defining characteristic of age-related cognitive decline is a deficit in general cognitive performance. Here we use a testing and analysis regimen that allows us to characterize the general learning abilities of young (3-5 mo old) and aged (19-21 mo old) male and female Balb/C mice. Animals' performance was assessed on a battery of seven diverse…

  3. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  4. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  5. Low level laser therapy reduces inflammation in activated Achilles tendinitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.

  6. GENERAL A Hierarchy of Compatibility and Comeasurability Levels in Quantum Logics with Unique Conditional Probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerd, Niestegge

    2010-12-01

    In the quantum mechanical Hilbert space formalism, the probabilistic interpretation is a later ad-hoc add-on, more or less enforced by the experimental evidence, but not motivated by the mathematical model itself. A model involving a clear probabilistic interpretation from the very beginning is provided by the quantum logics with unique conditional probabilities. It includes the projection lattices in von Neumann algebras and here probability conditionalization becomes identical with the state transition of the Lüders-von Neumann measurement process. This motivates the definition of a hierarchy of five compatibility and comeasurability levels in the abstract setting of the quantum logics with unique conditional probabilities. Their meanings are: the absence of quantum interference or influence, the existence of a joint distribution, simultaneous measurability, and the independence of the final state after two successive measurements from the sequential order of these two measurements. A further level means that two elements of the quantum logic (events) belong to the same Boolean subalgebra. In the general case, the five compatibility and comeasurability levels appear to differ, but they all coincide in the common Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics, in von Neumann algebras, and in some other cases.

  7. Effect of Learning Activity on Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels and Effort/Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Lee, Amelia M.; Xiang, Ping; Kosma, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The type of learning activity offered in physical education may influence students' motivational beliefs, physical activity participation and effort/persistence in class. However, most empirical studies have focused on the individual level rather than on the learner-content interactions. Accordingly, the potential effects of learning activities on…

  8. Tight Chk1 Levels Control Replication Cluster Activation in Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, Jennifer M.; Barbosa, Pedro; Libeau, Pierre; Priam, Pierre; Narassimprakash, Hemalatha; Grodzenski, Xenia; Marheineke, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication in higher eukaryotes initiates at thousands of origins according to a spatio-temporal program. The ATR/Chk1 dependent replication checkpoint inhibits the activation of later firing origins. In the Xenopus in vitro system initiations are not sequence dependent and 2-5 origins are grouped in clusters that fire at different times despite a very short S phase. We have shown that the temporal program is stochastic at the level of single origins and replication clusters. It is unclear how the replication checkpoint inhibits late origins but permits origin activation in early clusters. Here, we analyze the role of Chk1 in the replication program in sperm nuclei replicating in Xenopus egg extracts by a combination of experimental and modelling approaches. After Chk1 inhibition or immunodepletion, we observed an increase of the replication extent and fork density in the presence or absence of external stress. However, overexpression of Chk1 in the absence of external replication stress inhibited DNA replication by decreasing fork densities due to lower Cdk2 kinase activity. Thus, Chk1 levels need to be tightly controlled in order to properly regulate the replication program even during normal S phase. DNA combing experiments showed that Chk1 inhibits origins outside, but not inside, already active clusters. Numerical simulations of initiation frequencies in the absence and presence of Chk1 activity are consistent with a global inhibition of origins by Chk1 at the level of clusters but need to be combined with a local repression of Chk1 action close to activated origins to fit our data. PMID:26046346

  9. Microgravity: a Teacher's Guide with Activities, Secondary Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L. (Editor); Wargo, Michael J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Educational Publication is a teacher's guide that focuses on microgravity for the secondary level student. The introduction answers the question 'What is microgravity?', as well as describing gravity and creating microgravity. Following the introduction is a microgravity primer which covers such topics as the fluid state, combustion science, materials science, biotechnology, as well as microgravity and space flight. Seven different activities are described in the activities section and are written by authors prominent in the field. The concluding sections of the book include a glossary, microgravity references, and NASA educational resources.

  10. Periastron precession measurements in transiting extrasolar planetary systems at the level of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pál, András; Kocsis, Bence

    2008-09-01

    Transiting exoplanetary systems are surpassingly important among the planetary systems since they provide the widest spectrum of information for both the planet and the host star. If a transiting planet is on an eccentric orbit, the duration of transits TD is sensitive to the orientation of the orbital ellipse relative to the line of sight. The precession of the orbit results in a systematic variation in both the duration of individual transit events and the observed period between successive transits, Pobs. The periastron of the ellipse slowly precesses due to general relativity and possibly the presence of other planets in the system. This secular precession can be detected through the long-term change in Pobs (transit timing variations, TTV) or in TD (transit duration variations, TDV). We estimate the corresponding precession measurement precision for repeated future observations of the known eccentric transiting exoplanetary systems (XO-3b, HD 147506b, GJ 436b and HD 17156b) using existing or planned space-borne instruments. The TDV measurement improves the precession detection sensitivity by orders of magnitude over the TTV measurement. We find that TDV measurements over a approximately 4yr period can typically detect the precession rate to a precision well exceeding the level predicted by general relativity.

  11. Acetylcholinesterase modulates presenilin-1 levels and γ-secretase activity.

    PubMed

    Campanari, Maria-Letizia; García-Ayllón, María-Salud; Belbin, Olivia; Galcerán, Joan; Lleó, Alberto; Sáez-Valero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The cholinergic enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the catalytic component of the γ-secretase complex, presenilin-1 (PS1), are known to interact. In this study, we investigate the consequences of AChE-PS1 interactions, particularly the influence of AChE in PS1 levels and γ-secretase activity. PS1 is able to co-immunoprecipitate all AChE variants (AChE-R and AChE-T) and molecular forms (tetramers and light subunits) present in the human brain. Overexpression of AChE-R or AChE-T, or their respective inactive mutants, all trigger an increase in PS1 protein levels. The AChE species capable of triggering the biggest increase in PS1 levels is a complex of AChE with the membrane anchoring subunit proline-rich membrane anchor (PRiMA), which restricts the localization of the resulting AChE tetramer to the outer plasma membrane. Incubation of cultured cells with soluble AChE demonstrates that AChE is able to increase PS1 at both the protein and transcript levels. However, the increase of PS1 caused by soluble AChE is accompanied by a decrease in γ-secretase activity as shown by the reduction of the processing of the amyloid-β protein precursor. This inhibitory effect of AChE on γ-secretase activity was also demonstrated by directly assessing accumulation of CTF-AβPP in cell-free membrane preparations incubated with AChE. Our data suggest that AChE may function as an inhibitor of γ-secretase activity. PMID:24699279

  12. [Level of nitric oxide in the kidneys during apoptosis activation].

    PubMed

    Komarievtseva, I O; Orlova, O A; Blahodarenko, Ie A

    2002-01-01

    The content of nitric oxide stable metabolites in a tissue of kidneys of rats in conditions of activation of apoptosis was investigated. Research was carried out in two models: acute renal failure and a hypertrophy of a unique kidney after a unilateral nephrectomy. Detection of apoptosis was carried out by definition of DNA fragmentation. Substantial increase of the nitric oxide stable metabolites contents is revealed at activation of apoptosis in both models. Change of a ratio of the contents of nitrite--anions in relation to the general contents of NO2- + NO3- is revealed, indicating the role of peroxide processes in effect of nitric oxide and its metabolites on the cell. PMID:14964872

  13. Increasing Level of Leisure Physical Activity Could Reduce the Risk of Hip Fracture in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Ke; Liu, Xiao-yu; Wu, Xu-hua; Li, Xiao-liu; Xia, Qing-quan; Chen, Jiong; Yin, Xiao-fan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We carried out the study to investigate and quantitatively assess the potential association between current level of physical activity and the risk of osteoporosis hip fracture in older women. Relevant publications before October 2015 were identified using the PubMed and Ovid searching tools. A dose–response meta-analysis was carried out to combine and analysis results. Fourteen prospective studies were included in the meta-analysis. A general analysis of 9 studies showed a significant inverse relationship between increasing level of physical activity and risk of hip fracture in older women [relative risk (RR) = 0.93, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.91–0.96]. The result of a sensitivity analysis was consistent with the general analysis (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.93–0.96). The association between increasing level of physical activity and risk of wrist fracture was not statistically significant in a general analysis of three studies (RR = 1.004, 95% CI: 0.98–1.03). A potential direct association between increasing level of physical activity and risk of wrist fracture was observed after removing 1 study with the greatest weight (RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00–1.03). No significant publication bias was observed in our analysis. Our results show that increasing level of physical activity within an appropriate range may reduce the risk of hip fracture but not the risk of wrist fracture in older women. PMID:26986111

  14. Ramsey interferometry with a two-level generalized Tonks-Girardeau gas

    SciTech Connect

    Mousavi, S. V.; Campo, A. del; Lizuain, I.; Muga, J. G.

    2007-09-15

    We propose a solvable generalization of the Tonks-Girardeau model that describes a coherent one-dimensional (1D) gas of cold two-level bosons which interact with two external fields in a Ramsey interferometer. They also interact among themselves by idealized, infinitely strong contact potentials, with interchange of momentum and internal state. We study the corresponding Ramsey fringes and the quantum projection noise which, essentially unaffected by the interactions, remains that for ideal bosons. The dual system of this gas, an ideal gas of two-level fermions coupled by the interaction with the separated fields, produces the same fringes and noise fluctuations. The cases of time-separated and spatially separated fields are studied. For spatially separated fields the fringes may be broadened slightly by increasing the number of particles, but only for large particle numbers far from present experiments with Tonks-Girardeau gases. The uncertainty in the determination of the atomic transition frequency diminishes, essentially with the inverse root of the particle number. The difficulties to implement the model experimentally and possible shortcomings of strongly interacting 1D gases for frequency standards and atomic clocks are discussed.

  15. 78 FR 69118 - Information Collection Activities: General; Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ...; 134E1700D2 EEEE500000 ET1SF0000.DAQ000] Information Collection Activities: General; Proposed Collection... Subpart A, General. The new form is BSEE-0011 and entails no additional information collection burden to..., Subpart A, General. OMB Control Number: 1014-0022. Form(s): BSEE-0011. Abstract: The Outer...

  16. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis for national-level priority-setting in the health sector

    PubMed Central

    Hutubessy, Raymond; Chisholm, Dan; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres

    2003-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is potentially an important aid to public health decision-making but, with some notable exceptions, its use and impact at the level of individual countries is limited. A number of potential reasons may account for this, among them technical shortcomings associated with the generation of current economic evidence, political expediency, social preferences and systemic barriers to implementation. As a form of sectoral CEA, Generalized CEA sets out to overcome a number of these barriers to the appropriate use of cost-effectiveness information at the regional and country level. Its application via WHO-CHOICE provides a new economic evidence base, as well as underlying methodological developments, concerning the cost-effectiveness of a range of health interventions for leading causes of, and risk factors for, disease. The estimated sub-regional costs and effects of different interventions provided by WHO-CHOICE can readily be tailored to the specific context of individual countries, for example by adjustment to the quantity and unit prices of intervention inputs (costs) or the coverage, efficacy and adherence rates of interventions (effectiveness). The potential usefulness of this information for health policy and planning is in assessing if current intervention strategies represent an efficient use of scarce resources, and which of the potential additional interventions that are not yet implemented, or not implemented fully, should be given priority on the grounds of cost-effectiveness. Health policy-makers and programme managers can use results from WHO-CHOICE as a valuable input into the planning and prioritization of services at national level, as well as a starting point for additional analyses of the trade-off between the efficiency of interventions in producing health and their impact on other key outcomes such as reducing inequalities and improving the health of the poor. PMID:14687420

  17. 29 CFR 780.216 - Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production... Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production. (a) The employees of a nursery who are engaged... fruit, nut, shade, vegetable, and ornamental plants or trees, and shrubs, vines, and flowers;...

  18. 29 CFR 780.216 - Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production... Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production. (a) The employees of a nursery who are engaged... fruit, nut, shade, vegetable, and ornamental plants or trees, and shrubs, vines, and flowers;...

  19. 29 CFR 780.216 - Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production. 780.216 Section 780.216 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production. (a) The employees of a nursery who are...

  20. Seasonality in circadian locomotor activity and serum testosterone level in the subtropical tree sparrow (Passer montanus).

    PubMed

    Dixit, Anand S; Singh, Namram S

    2016-05-01

    Seasonality in daily locomotor activity pattern was investigated in the subtropical tree sparrow by exposing a group of birds to natural day lengths (NDL) for 30days and another group to 12L/12D for 14days followed by transfer to constant dim light (LLdim) for another 15days in four different seasons of the year. Serum testosterone levels were also measured during different seasons. Sparrows, under NDL, exhibited distinct circadian rhythmicity in their locomotor activity with almost similar general pattern in different seasons that restricted mainly to the light hours. However, they showed season-dependent differences in the characteristics of circadian locomotor activity rhythm. Birds, when exposed to 12L/12D, showed entrainment of their locomotor activity rhythm with the activity confined mainly during the light phase. Though, tau (τ) under free run conditions did not show any significant difference, the activity period varied significantly in different seasons. The highest level of testosterone was recorded in the spring season that corresponded with the maximum locomotor activity in spring months. The seasonality in daily locomotor activity correlates with the seasonal changes in testosterone levels suggesting the influence of gonadal steroids on endogenous circadian system which is indicative of adaptation of tree sparrow to local photoperiodic conditions. PMID:26945648

  1. Activity-dependent regulation of astrocyte GAT levels during synaptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Muthukumar, Allie K.; Stork, Tobias; Freeman, Marc R.

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytic uptake of GABA through GABA transporters (GATs) is an important mechanism regulating excitatory/inhibitory balance in the nervous system, however mechanisms by which astrocytes regulate GAT levels are undefined. Here we show at mid-pupal stages the Drosophila CNS neuropil is devoid of astrocyte membranes and synapses. Astrocyte membranes subsequently infiltrate the neuropil coordinate with synaptogenesis and a strocyte ablation reduces synapse numbers by half, indicating that Drosophila astrocytes are pro-synaptogenic. Shortly after synapses form in earnest, the GABA transporter, GAT, is up-regulated in astrocytes. Ablation or silencing of GABAergic neurons or disruption of metabotropic GABA receptor (GABABR1/2) signaling in astrocytes leads to decreased astrocytic GAT levels. Interestingly, developmental depletion of astrocytic GABABR1/2 signaling suppresses mechanosensory-induced seizure activity in mutants with hyperexcitable neurons. These data reveal astrocytes actively modulate GAT expression via metabotropic GABA receptor signaling, and highlight the importance of precise regulation of astrocytic GAT in modulation of seizure activity. PMID:25151265

  2. Physical activity levels of adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities during physical education and recess.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chien-Yu; Liu, Chin-Wen; Chung, I Chiao; Hsu, Po-Jen

    2014-11-16

    To compare physical activity levels in adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities during physical education and recess. Forty adolescents diagnosed with intellectual disabilities (inclusive classrooms, n=20; self-contained classrooms, n=20) and 40 age-matched typically developing peers (general classrooms) participated. All participants wore an Actigraph GT1M accelerometer for 5 consecutive weekdays during school hours. Three groups of adolescents were similarly active during physical education; however, adolescents with intellectual disabilities in self-contained classrooms were less active during recess than did the other two groups. In addition, they spent less percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during recess than did the typically developing adolescents. An inclusive, structured, and supportive environment promotes physical activity engagement in adolescents with intellectual disabilities. PMID:25462518

  3. A hardware-based computational platform for Generalized Laguerre-Volterra MIMO model for neural activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Will X Y; Chan, Rosa H M; Zhang, Wei; Cheung, Ray C C; Song, Dong; Berger, Theodore W

    2011-01-01

    A parallelized and pipelined architecture based on FPGA and a higher-level Self Reconfiguration Platform are proposed in this paper to model Generalized Laguerre-Volterra MIMO system essential in identifying the time-varying neural dynamics underlying spike activities. Our proposed design is based on the Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA platform and the processing core can produce data samples at a speed of 1.33 × 10(6)/s, which is 3.1 × 10(3) times faster than the corresponding C model running on an Intel i7-860 Quad Core Processor. The ongoing work of the construction of the advanced Self Reconfiguration Platform is presented and initial test results are provided. PMID:22256020

  4. Exploring human epileptic activity at the single-neuron level.

    PubMed

    Tankus, Ariel

    2016-05-01

    Today, localization of the seizure focus heavily relies on EEG monitoring (scalp or intracranial). However, current technology enables much finer resolutions. The activity of hundreds of single neurons in the human brain can now be simultaneously explored before, during, and after a seizure or in association with an interictal discharge. This technology opens up new horizons to understanding epilepsy at a completely new level. This review therefore begins with a brief description of the basis of the technology, the microelectrodes, and the setup for their implantation in patients with epilepsy. Using these electrodes, recent studies provide novel insights into both the time domain and firing patterns of epileptic activity of single neurons. In the time domain, seizure-related activity may occur even minutes before seizure onset (in its current, EEG-based definition). Seizure-related neuronal interactions exhibit complex heterogeneous dynamics. In the seizure-onset zone, changes in firing patterns correlate with cell loss; in the penumbra, neurons maintain their spike stereotypy during a seizure. Hence, investigation of the extracellular electrical activity is expected to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the disease; it may, in the future, serve for a more accurate localization of the seizure focus; and it may also be employed to predict the occurrence of seizures prior to their behavioral manifestation in order to administer automatic therapeutic interventions. PMID:26994366

  5. Relationship between immunoglobulin levels and extremes of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoupel, Elijahu G.; Abramson, Eugene; Gabbay, Uri; Pick, Albert I.

    1995-06-01

    The possible relationship between epidemics and extremes of solar activity has been discussed previously. The purpose of the present study was to verify whether differences in the levels of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM) could be noted at the highest (July 1989) and lowest (September 1986) points of the last (21st) and present (22nd) 11-year solar cycle. The work was divided into a 1-month study (covering the month of minimal or maximal solar activity), a 3-month study (1 month before and after the month of minimal or maximal solar activity) and a 5-month study (2 months before and after the month of minimal or maximal solar activity). A trend of a drop-off for all three immunoglobulins was seen on the far side of the maximal point of the solar cycle. Statistical significance was achieved in the 5-month study for IgM ( P=0.04), and a strong trend was shown for IgG ( P=0.07). Differences between the sexes were also noted.

  6. Airway Pepsin Levels in Otherwise Healthy Surgical Patients Receiving General Anesthesia With Endotracheal Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Bohman, J. Kyle; Kor, Daryl J.; Kashyap, Rahul; Gajic, Ognjen; Festic, Emir; He, Zhaoping

    2013-01-01

    Background: Airway pepsin has been increasingly used as a potentially sensitive and quantifiable biomarker for gastric-to-pulmonary aspiration, despite lack of validation in normal control subjects. This study attempts to define normal levels of airway pepsin in adults and distinguish between pepsin A (exclusive to stomach) and pepsin C (which can be expressed by pneumocytes). Methods: We performed a prospective study of 51 otherwise healthy adult patients undergoing elective extremity orthopedic surgery at a single tertiary-care academic medical center. Lower airway samples were obtained immediately following endotracheal intubation and just prior to extubation. Total pepsin and pepsin A concentrations were directly measured by an enzymatic activity assay, and pepsin C was subsequently derived. Pepsinogen/pepsin C was confirmed by Western blot analyses. Baseline characteristics were secondarily compared. Results: In all, 11 (22%; 95% CI = 9.9%-33%) had detectable airway pepsin concentrations. All 11 positive specimens had pepsin C, without any detectable pepsin A. Pepsinogen/pepsin C was confirmed by Western blot analyses. In a multivariate logistic regression, men were more likely to have airway pepsin (OR, 12.71, P = .029). Conclusions: Enzymatically active pepsin C, but not the gastric-specific pepsin A, is frequently detected in the lower airways of patients who otherwise have no risk for aspiration. This suggests that nonspecific pepsin assays should be used and interpreted with caution as a biomarker of gastropulmonary aspiration, as pepsinogen C potentially expressed from pneumocytes may be detected in airway samples. PMID:23117366

  7. A general approximate method for the groundwater response problem caused by water level variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qinghui; Tang, Yuehao

    2015-10-01

    The Boussinesq equation (BEQ) can be used to describe groundwater flow through an unconfined aquifer. Based on 1D BEQ, we present a general approximate method to predict the water table response in a semi-infinite aquifer system with a vertical or sloping boundary. A decomposition method is adopted by separating the original problem into a linear diffusion equation (DE) and two correction functions. The linear DE satisfies all the initial and boundary conditions, reflecting the basic characteristics of groundwater movement. The correction functions quantitatively measure the errors due to the degeneration from the original BEQ to a linear DE. As the correction functions must be linearized to obtain analytical solution forms, the proposed method is an approximate approach. In the case studies, we apply this method to four different situations of water level variation (i.e., constant, sudden, linear and periodic change) resting on vertical or sloping boundaries. The results are compared against numerical results, field data and other analytical solutions, which demonstrate that the proposed method has a good accuracy and versatility over a wide range of applications.

  8. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (≥5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ≥75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition. PMID:25264672

  9. Accounting for medical variation: the case of prescribing activity in a New Zealand general practice sample.

    PubMed

    Davis, P B; Yee, R L; Millar, J

    1994-08-01

    Medical practice variation is extensive and well documented, particularly for surgical interventions, and raises important questions for health policy. To date, however, little work has been carried out on interpractitioner variation in prescribing activity in the primary care setting. An analytical model of medical variation is derived from the literature and relevant indicators are identified from a study of New Zealand general practice. The data are based on nearly 9,500 completed patient encounter records drawn from over a hundred practitioners in the Waikato region of the North Island, New Zealand. The data set represents a 1% sample of all weekday general practice office encounters in the Hamilton Health District recorded over a 12-month period. Overall levels of prescribing, and the distribution of drug mentions across diagnostic groupings, are broadly comparable to results drawn from international benchmark data. A multivariate analysis is carried out on seven measures of activity in the areas of prescribing volume, script detail, and therapeutic choice. The analysis indicates that patient, practitioner and practice attributes exert little systematic influence on the prescribing task. The principal influences are diagnosis, followed by practitioner identity. The pattern of findings suggests also that the prescribing task cannot be viewed as an undifferentiated activity. It is more usefully considered as a process of decision-making in which 'core' judgements--such as the decision to prescribe and the choice of drug--are highly predictable and strongly influenced by diagnosis, while 'peripheral' features of the task--such as choosing a combination drug or prescribing generically--are less determinate and more subject to the exercise of clinical discretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7939853

  10. Physical Activity Levels in College Students With Chronic Ankle Instability

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard-Turner, Tricia; Turner, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Context Ankle sprains are the most common orthopaedic pathologic condition, and more concerning is the high percentage of persons who develop chronic ankle instability (CAI). Researchers have reported that patients with CAI are restricted occupationally, have more functional limitations, and have a poorer health-related quality of life. We do not know if these limitations decrease physical activity levels. Objective To assess total weekly steps taken between persons with CAI and persons with healthy ankles. Design Case-control study. Setting University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 20 participants with unilateral CAI (9 men, 11 women; age = 21.2 ± 1.9 years, height = 174.3 ± 6.9 cm, mass = 71.9 ± 11.7 kg) and 20 healthy participants (9 men, 11 women; age = 20.4 ± 2.1 years, height = 172.1 ± 5.5 cm, mass = 73.1 ± 13.4 kg) volunteered. Main Outcome Measure(s) We provided all participants with a pedometer and instructed them to wear it every day for 7 days and to complete a daily step log. They also completed the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), the FAAM Sport version, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A 2-way analysis of variance (group × sex) was used to determine if differences existed in the total number of weekly steps, ankle laxity, and answers on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire between groups and between sexes. Results We found no group × sex interaction for step count (F range = 0.439–2.108, P = .08). A main effect for group was observed (F1,38 = 10.45, P = .04). The CAI group took fewer steps than the healthy group (P = .04). The average daily step count was 6694.47 ± 1603.35 for the CAI group and 8831.01 ± 1290.01 for the healthy group. The CAI group also scored lower on the FAAM (P = .01) and the FAAM Sport version (P = .01). Conclusions The decreased step count that the participants with CAI demonstrated is concerning. This decreased physical activity may be secondary

  11. [Comparison of eating habits among students according to sex and level of physical activity].

    PubMed

    Łagowska, Karolina; Woźniewicz, Małgorzata; Jeszka, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate nutritional habits of high school students, depending on their sex and physical activity. The investigated population included 147 students in age of 17.5 +/- 1.5 y (girls DZ = 98, boys CH = 49) with different level of physical activity (athletes SPO, moderate physical activity UAF, low physical activity NAF). Nutritional data were obtained by FFQ and calculated for selected food-groups and generally as young healthy eating index YHEI. International IPAQ was used to determine the level of physical activity and anthropometric measured were conducted to estimated BMI and body fat status. It was indicated the YHEI in athletes was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to rest of students. Moreover, a significant difference (p < 0.05) in YHEI in DZ compared to CH was also found. The significant differences (p < 0.05) in the frequency of consumption of red meat, vegetable oil and sweetned drinks was revealed between DZ and CH adolescents. The frequency of consumption of vegetable oil, fast - foods, sweets, alcoholic drinks, energy drinks and isotonic drinks varied with the level of physical activity. Frequency of consumption of sweets negatively correlated with skinfold thickness in DZ, whereas positive correlation between consumption frequency of energy drinks, BMI and skinfold thickness was found in CH. The results show, that nutritional habits of the athletes was most approached to nutritional guidelines. CH, nutritional habits may predicted to overweight and obesity in CH group more distinctly than in DZ group. PMID:22171526

  12. The Effect of Gender and Level of Vision on the Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…

  13. Labour Market Flexibility. Report by a High-Level Group of Experts to the Secretary-General.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Sustainable growth has economic policies addressed to current imbalances as its necessary, though not its sufficient, condition. Labor markets are important for the growth process; as the level of economic activity increases, they function better, and as they function better, the level of economic activity increases further. Labor market…

  14. Idaho Senior Center Activities, Activity Participation Level, and Managers' Perceptions of Activity Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girvan, James T.; Harris, Frances

    A survey completed by managers of 77 senior centers in Idaho revealed that meals, blood pressure screening, and games and trips were the most successful activities offered. Alzheimer's support groups, library books for loan, and exercise classes were the least successful. Possible reasons for the success or failure of these activities were…

  15. Tadpole swimming performance and activity affected by acute exposure to sublethal levels of carbaryl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    General activity and swimming performance (i.e., sprint speed and distance) of plains leopard frog tadpoles (Rana blairi) were examined after acute exposure to three sublethal concentrations of carbaryl (3.5, 5.0, and 7.2 mg/L). Both swimming performance and spontaneous swimming activity are important for carrying out life history functions (e.g., growth and development) and for escaping from predators. Measured tadpole activity diminished by nearly 90% at 3.5 mg/L carbaryl and completely ceased at 7.2 mg/L. Sprint speed and sprint distance also decreased significantly following exposure. Carbaryl affected both swimming performance and activity after just 24 h, suggesting that 24 h may be an adequate length of exposure to determine behavioral effects on tadpoles. Slight recovery of activity levels was noted at 24 and 48 h post-exposure; no recovery of swimming performance was observed. Reduction in activity and swimming performance may result in increased predation rates and, because activity is closely associated with feeding, may result in slowed growth leading to a failure to emerge before pond drying or an indirect reduction in adult fitness. Acute exposure to sublethal toxicants such as carbaryl may not only affect immediate survival of tadpoles but also impact critical life history functions and generate changes at the local population level.

  16. Effect of Cooperative Learning on Achievement of Students in General Science at Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parveen, Qaisara; Batool, Sadia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of cooperative learning on General Science achievement among 9th class students. Based upon previous research literature it was hypothesized that significant difference existed between the mean posttest scores of General Science achievement of experimental group and control group. The pretest…

  17. 24 CFR 574.310 - General standards for eligible housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.310 General standards for eligible housing activities. All grantees using grant funds to provide housing must adhere to the following standards: (a)(1) General. The grantee shall... care expenses and are described in detail in 24 CFR 5.609). The calculation of the family's...

  18. 24 CFR 574.310 - General standards for eligible housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.310 General standards for eligible housing activities. All grantees using grant funds to provide housing must adhere to the following standards: (a)(1) General. The grantee shall... care expenses and are described in detail in 24 CFR 5.609). The calculation of the family's...

  19. 24 CFR 574.310 - General standards for eligible housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.310 General standards for eligible housing activities. All grantees using grant funds to provide housing must adhere to the following standards: (a)(1) General. The grantee shall... care expenses and are described in detail in 24 CFR 5.609). The calculation of the family's...

  20. 24 CFR 574.310 - General standards for eligible housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.310 General standards for eligible housing activities. All grantees using grant funds to provide housing must adhere to the following standards: (a)(1) General. The grantee shall... care expenses and are described in detail in 24 CFR 5.609). The calculation of the family's...

  1. Office of Inspector General audit report on the U.S. Department of Energy`s aircraft activities

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    On October 19, 1998, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) was asked to undertake a review of the Department of Energy`s aircraft activities. It was also requested that they report back within 90 days. The OIG has gathered information concerning the number of aircraft, the level of utilization, and the cost of the Department`s aircraft operations. They have also briefly summarized four issues that, in their judgment, may require management attention.

  2. The Positive Effect on Determinants of Physical Activity of a Tailored, General Practice-Based Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Sluijs, E. M. F.; Van Poppel, M. N. M.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Brug, J.; Van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    PACE (Physician-based Assessment and Counseling for Exercise) is an individualized theory-based minimal intervention strategy aimed at the enhancement of regular physical activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a PACE intervention applied by general practitioners (GPs) on potential determinants of physical activity. A…

  3. Promoters maintain their relative activity levels under different growth conditions

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Leeat; Zackay, Ora; Lotan-Pompan, Maya; Barenholz, Uri; Dekel, Erez; Sasson, Vered; Aidelberg, Guy; Bren, Anat; Zeevi, Danny; Weinberger, Adina; Alon, Uri; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran

    2013-01-01

    Most genes change expression levels across conditions, but it is unclear which of these changes represents specific regulation and what determines their quantitative degree. Here, we accurately measured activities of ∼900 S. cerevisiae and ∼1800 E. coli promoters using fluorescent reporters. We show that in both organisms 60–90% of promoters change their expression between conditions by a constant global scaling factor that depends only on the conditions and not on the promoter's identity. Quantifying such global effects allows precise characterization of specific regulation—promoters deviating from the global scale line. These are organized into few functionally related groups that also adhere to scale lines and preserve their relative activities across conditions. Thus, only several scaling factors suffice to accurately describe genome-wide expression profiles across conditions. We present a parameter-free passive resource allocation model that quantitatively accounts for the global scaling factors. It suggests that many changes in expression across conditions result from global effects and not specific regulation, and provides means for quantitative interpretation of expression profiles. PMID:24169404

  4. Promoters maintain their relative activity levels under different growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Keren, Leeat; Zackay, Ora; Lotan-Pompan, Maya; Barenholz, Uri; Dekel, Erez; Sasson, Vered; Aidelberg, Guy; Bren, Anat; Zeevi, Danny; Weinberger, Adina; Alon, Uri; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran

    2013-01-01

    Most genes change expression levels across conditions, but it is unclear which of these changes represents specific regulation and what determines their quantitative degree. Here, we accurately measured activities of ~900 S. cerevisiae and ~1800 E. coli promoters using fluorescent reporters. We show that in both organisms 60-90% of promoters change their expression between conditions by a constant global scaling factor that depends only on the conditions and not on the promoter's identity. Quantifying such global effects allows precise characterization of specific regulation-promoters deviating from the global scale line. These are organized into few functionally related groups that also adhere to scale lines and preserve their relative activities across conditions. Thus, only several scaling factors suffice to accurately describe genome-wide expression profiles across conditions. We present a parameter-free passive resource allocation model that quantitatively accounts for the global scaling factors. It suggests that many changes in expression across conditions result from global effects and not specific regulation, and provides means for quantitative interpretation of expression profiles. PMID:24169404

  5. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during and after closure

  6. Levels of physical activity and predictors of mortality in COPD*

    PubMed Central

    Nyssen, Samantha Maria; dos Santos, Júlia Gianjoppe; Barusso, Marina Sallum; de Oliveira, Antônio Delfino; Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires Di; Jamami, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE) index scores and its individual components between COPD patients with and without severe physical inactivity, as well as to correlate the number of steps/day with scores of physical activity questionnaires, age, and the BODE index (including its components). METHODS: We included 30 patients, who were evaluated for body composition, pulmonary function (FEV1), perception of dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council scale), and exercise capacity (six-minute walk distance [6MWD]). The patients also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), short version, and the modified Baecke questionnaire (mBQ). The level of physical activity was assessed by the number of steps/day (as determined by pedometer), using the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day to form two groups: no severe physical inactivity (SPI−) and severe physical inactivity (SPI+). We used the Mann-Whitney test or t-test, as well as Pearson's or Spearman's correlation tests, in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: In comparison with the SPI− group, the SPI+ group showed more advanced age, higher mBQ scores (leisure domain), lower 6MWD (in m and % of predicted), and lower IPAQ scores (metabolic equivalent-walk/week domain and total). The IPAQ scores showed weak correlations with steps/day (r = 0.399), age (r = −0.459), and 6MWD-in m (r = 0.446) and in % of predicted (r = 0.422). CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day was not sensitive enough to identify differences between the groups when compared with the predictors of mortality. The IPAQ, short version score correlated with steps/day. PMID:24473759

  7. 76 FR 20840 - Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of the Low Level Laser...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... Devices; Classification of the Low Level Laser System for Aesthetic Use AGENCY: Food and Drug... level laser system for aesthetic use into class II (special controls). The special control(s) that will apply to the device is entitled ``Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Low Level Laser...

  8. "Go4Life" exercise counseling, accelerometer feedback, and activity levels in older people.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Warren G; Kuhle, Carol L; Koepp, Gabriel A; McCrady-Spitzer, Shelly K; Levine, James A

    2014-01-01

    Older people are more sedentary than other age groups. We sought to determine if providing an accelerometer with feedback about activity and counseling older subjects using Go4Life educational material would increase activity levels. Participants were recruited from independent living areas within assisted living facilities and the general public in the Rochester, MN area. 49 persons aged 65-95 (79.5±7.0 years) who were ambulatory but sedentary and overweight participated in this randomized controlled crossover trial for one year. After a baseline period of 2 weeks, group 1 received an accelerometer and counseling using Go4Life educational material (www.Go4Life.nia.nih.gov) for 24 weeks and accelerometer alone for the next 24 weeks. Group 2 had no intervention for the first 24 weeks and then received an accelerometer and Go4Life based counseling for 24 weeks. There were no significant baseline differences between the two groups. The intervention was not associated with a significant change in activity, body weight, % body fat, or blood parameters (p>0.05). Older (80-93) subjects were less active than younger (65-79) subjects (p=0.003). Over the course of the 48 week study, an increase in activity level was associated with a decline in % body fat (p=0.008). Increasing activity levels benefits older patients. However, providing an accelerometer and a Go4Life based exercise counseling program did not result in a 15% improvement in activity levels in this elderly population. Alternate approaches to exercise counseling may be needed in elderly people of this age range. PMID:24485546

  9. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  10. Do economic equality and generalized trust inhibit academic dishonesty? Evidence from state-level search-engine queries.

    PubMed

    Neville, Lukas

    2012-04-01

    What effect does economic inequality have on academic integrity? Using data from search-engine queries made between 2003 and 2011 on Google and state-level measures of income inequality and generalized trust, I found that academically dishonest searches (queries seeking term-paper mills and help with cheating) were more likely to come from states with higher income inequality and lower levels of generalized trust. These relations persisted even when controlling for contextual variables, such as average income and the number of colleges per capita. The relation between income inequality and academic dishonesty was fully mediated by generalized trust. When there is higher economic inequality, people are less likely to view one another as trustworthy. This lower generalized trust, in turn, is associated with a greater prevalence of academic dishonesty. These results might explain previous findings on the effectiveness of honor codes. PMID:22421204

  11. Adolescent physical activity and perceived competence: does change in activity level impact self-perception?

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Cynthia J.; Fisher, Laurie; Berkey, Catherine; Colditz, Graham A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether change in physical activity level impacts adolescents' self-perceptions. Methods Using questionnaire responses from the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) in 1997 and 1999, we evaluated data from 5,260 girls and 3,410 boys. Physical activity changes were compared to changes in perceived competence in 3 domains (social, athletic, and scholastic) as well as in global self-worth. Analyses controlled for sibling clustering as well as for potential confounders, including body mass index, cigarette smoking, baseline activity levels, and baseline self-perception scores. Results For girls and boys, increase in physical activity was positively associated with change in social and athletic (p<0.0001), but not scholastic or global. self-perception. Compared to those with little or no change in activity, those who increased physical activity were more likely to have increased self-perception measures. Girls who increased physical activity by 5 or more hours/week were at least 33% more likely to have increased social self-perception, and at least 44% more likely to have increased athletic self-perception. In boys, those who increased activity by 10 or more hours/week were 45% more likely to have increased social self-perception. The reverse was also true; for both girls and boys, those with decreased physical activity were more likely to have decreased self-perception scores. Conclusions This research indicates that increased physical activity has a positive impact on athletic and social self-perception in girls and boys. PMID:17448405

  12. Aspects of activity behavior as a determinant of the physical activity level.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, A G; Plasqui, G; Goris, A H C; Westerterp, K R

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated which aspects of the individuals' activity behavior determine the physical activity level (PAL). Habitual physical activity of 20 Dutch adults (age: 26-60 years, body mass index: 24.5 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer. Accelerometer output was used to identify the engagement in different types of daily activities with a classification tree algorithm. Activity behavior was described by the daily duration of sleeping, sedentary behavior (lying, sitting, and standing), walking, running, bicycling, and generic standing activities. Simultaneously, the total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water. PAL was calculated as TEE divided by sleeping metabolic rate. PAL was significantly associated (P<0.05) with sedentary time (R=-0.72), and the duration of walking (R=0.49), bicycling (R=0.77), and active standing (R=0.62). A negative association was observed between sedentary time and the duration of active standing (R=-0.87; P<0.001). A multiple-linear regression analysis showed that 75% of the variance in PAL could be predicted by the duration of bicycling (Partial R(2) =59%; P<0.01), walking (Partial R(2) =9%; P<0.05) and being sedentary (Partial R(2) =7%; P<0.05). In conclusion, there is objective evidence that sedentary time and activities related to transportation and commuting, such as walking and bicycling, contribute significantly to the average PAL. PMID:20536909

  13. Factors associated with the rejection of active euthanasia: a survey among the general public in Austria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent decades, the general public has become increasingly receptive toward a legislation that allows active voluntary euthanasia (AVE). The purpose of this study was to survey the current attitude towards AVE within the Austrian population and to identify explanatory factors in the areas of socio-demographics, personal experiences with care, and ideological orientation. A further objective was to examine differences depending on the type of problem formulation (abstract vs. situational) for the purpose of measuring attitude. Methods A representative cross-sectional study was conducted across the Austrian population. Data were acquired from 1,000 individuals aged 16 years and over based on telephone interviews (CATI). For the purpose of measuring attitude toward AVE, two different problem formulations (abstract vs. situational) were juxtaposed. Results The abstract question about active voluntary euthanasia was answered negatively by 28.8%, while 71.2% opted in favour of AVE or were undecided. Regression analyses showed rejection of AVE was positively correlated with number of adults and children in the household, experience with care of seriously ill persons, a conservative worldview, and level of education. Mean or high family income was associated with lower levels of rejection. No independent correlations were found for variables such as sex, age, political orientation, self-rated health, and experiences with care of terminally ill patients. Correlation for the situational problem formulation was weaker and included fewer predictors than for the abstract question. Conclusions Our results suggest that factors relating to an individual’s interpersonal living situation and his/her cognitive convictions might be important determinants of the attitude toward AVE. If and to the extent that personal care experience plays a role, it is rather associated with rejection than with acceptance of AVE. PMID:23826902

  14. 29 CFR 784.120 - Application of exemption to “offshore” activities in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...(a)(5) Exemption § 784.120 Application of exemption to “offshore” activities in general. The expression “offshore activities” is used to describe the category of named operations pertaining to the... 13(a)(5) exempted not only employees employed in such “offshore” or “trip” activities but...

  15. A Minds-On Approach to Active Learning in General Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    Minds-on engagement in active learning is explored through the experiences of Margaret Sanders, a general music teacher. Minds-on learners think about their experiences. They are actively involved as questioners and problem solvers while they complete musical tasks and reflect on their work after it is completed. Minds-off learners focus on their…

  16. Activity of the anterior cingulate cortex and ventral hippocampus underlie increases in contextual fear generalization.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Patrick K; Gilman, T Lee; Winiecki, Patrick; Riccio, David C; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2015-10-01

    Memories for context become less specific with time resulting in animals generalizing fear from training contexts to novel contexts. Though much attention has been given to the neural structures that underlie the long-term consolidation of a context fear memory, very little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the increase in fear generalization that occurs as the memory ages. Here, we examine the neural pattern of activation underlying the expression of a generalized context fear memory in male C57BL/6J mice. Animals were context fear conditioned and tested for fear in either the training context or a novel context at recent and remote time points. Animals were sacrificed and fluorescent in situ hybridization was performed to assay neural activation. Our results demonstrate activity of the prelimbic, infralimbic, and anterior cingulate (ACC) cortices as well as the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) underlie expression of a generalized fear memory. To verify the involvement of the ACC and vHPC in the expression of a generalized fear memory, animals were context fear conditioned and infused with 4% lidocaine into the ACC, dHPC, or vHPC prior to retrieval to temporarily inactivate these structures. The results demonstrate that activity of the ACC and vHPC is required for the expression of a generalized fear memory, as inactivation of these regions returned the memory to a contextually precise form. Current theories of time-dependent generalization of contextual memories do not predict involvement of the vHPC. Our data suggest a novel role of this region in generalized memory, which should be incorporated into current theories of time-dependent memory generalization. We also show that the dorsal hippocampus plays a prolonged role in contextually precise memories. Our findings suggest a possible interaction between the ACC and vHPC controls the expression of fear generalization. PMID:26165137

  17. Variation of student numerical and figural reasoning approaches by pattern generalization type, strategy use and grade level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mouhayar, Rabih; Jurdak, Murad

    2016-02-01

    This paper explored variation of student numerical and figural reasoning approaches across different pattern generalization types and across grade level. An instrument was designed for this purpose. The instrument was given to a sample of 1232 students from grades 4 to 11 from five schools in Lebanon. Analysis of data showed that the numerical reasoning approach seems to be more dominant than the figural reasoning approach for the near and far pattern generalization types but not for the immediate generalization type. The findings showed that for the recursive strategy, the numerical reasoning approach seems to be more dominant than the figural reasoning approach for each of the three pattern generalization types. However, the figural reasoning approach seems to be more dominant than the numerical reasoning approach for the functional strategy, for each generalization type. The findings also showed that the numerical reasoning was more dominant than the figural reasoning in lower grade levels (grades 4 and 5) for each generalization type. In contrast, the figural reasoning became more dominant than the numerical reasoning in the upper grade levels (grades 10 and 11).

  18. Levels of dialkylphosphate metabolites in urine among general U.S. population.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-04-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for years 2003-2008 were used to study the factors that affect urinary levels of dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites in urine. Separate regression models were fitted for children aged 6-11 years, adolescents aged 12-19 years, and adults aged ≥20 years. Specifically, DAP metabolites that were analyzed were: dimethylphosphate (DMP), diethylphosphate (DEP), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), and diethylthiophosphate (DETP). Males had statistically significantly lower adjusted levels than females for DMP for adolescents, for DEP for adults, for DMTP for both adolescents and adults, and for DETP for both children and adults. Nonsmokers had statistically significantly higher adjusted levels than smokers for DMTP for adolescents and for DMP and DMTP for adults. Exposure to second hand smoke at home was associated with relatively higher levels of DMP among children (p=0.01) but the reverse was found to be true for DMTP (p<0.01) among adolescents as well as adults (p=0.02). Children had higher levels of DMTP than both adolescents and adults (p<0.01) and higher levels of DETP than adolescents (p=0.02). Age was found to be negatively associated with the levels of DMTP (p=0.01) among children and positively associated (p<0.01) with the levels of all four metabolites among adults. PMID:26970058

  19. Plasma lipid levels in active and sedentary premenopausal females.

    PubMed

    Perry, A C; Shaw, M H; Hsia, L; Nash, M S; Kaplan, T; Signorile, J F; Appleyate, B

    1992-04-01

    Cross-sectional data on 19 long-distance runners (LD), 17 aerobic dancers (AD), 19 recreational joggers (RJ), and 15 inactive controls (IC) were examined for cardiovascular endurance and determination of plasma lipoproteins. Subjects included premenopausal eumenorrheic females who were non-smokers and presently not using oral contraceptives. Results indicated that all groups were similar in age, height and weight. Only the AD group had a significantly lower percent body fat (p less than .001) than the other groups. The LD, AD and RJ groups had a significantly higher VO2max than the IC group (p less than .05), and the LD and AD groups had a significantly higher VO2max than the RJ group (p less than .05). Analysis of a one-day food log indicated that the only difference in diet among the groups was a significantly lower intake of total and monounsaturated fat in the AD group (p less than .05) and a significantly lower intake of carbohydrates in the IC group than the AD group (p less than .05). Analysis of plasma lipids revealed no significant differences in any lipid variables among the groups. These findings indicate that healthy premenopausal eumenorrheic females with similar physical characteristics also have similar plasma lipid profiles regardless of their physical activity level. PMID:1601555

  20. General aviation activity and avionics survey. Annual summary report, CY 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This report presents the results and a description of the 1985 General Aviation Activity and Avionics Survey. The survey was conducted during 1986 by the FAA to obtain information on the activity and avionics of the United States registered general aviation aircraft fleet, the dominant component of civil aviation in the U.S. The survey was based on a statistically selected sample of about 10.3 percent of the general aviation fleet. A responses rate of 63.7 percent was obtained. Survey results based upon response but are expanded upward to represent the total population. Survey results revealed that during 1985 an estimated 34.1 million hours of flying time were logged and 88.7 million operations were performed by the 210,654 active general aviation aircraft in the U.S. fleet. The mean annual flight time per aircraft was 158.2 hours. The active aircraft represented about 77.9 percent of the registered general aviation fleet. The report contains breakdowns of these and other statistics by manufacturer/model group, aircraft, state and region of based aircraft, and primary use. Also included are fuel consumption, lifetime airframe hours, avionics, engine hours, and miles flown estimates, as well as tables for detailed analysis of the avionics capabilities of the general aviation fleet. New to the report this year are estimates of the number of landings, IFR hours flown, and the cost and grade of fuel consumed by the GA fleet.

  1. Sign Language Users' Education and Employment Levels: Keeping Pace with Changes in the General Australian Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Louisa

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on data from the 2006 Australian census to explore the education and employment outcomes of sign languages users living in Victoria, Australia, and to compare them with outcomes reported in the general population. Census data have the advantage of sampling the entire population on the one night, avoiding problems of population…

  2. Conversations with Practitioners: Supporting State-Level Collaboration among General and Special Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Sarojani S.; Murray, Christy S.; Coleman, Meghan A.; Roberts, Greg; Grim, Catherine N.

    2011-01-01

    Many states have identified collaboration between general education and special education departments as crucial to the successful implementation of a Response to Intervention (RTI) framework. Equally, the joint ownership of the RTI framework by all involved contributes to successful implementation. Regional Comprehensive Centers (RCCs) are…

  3. Attitudes Regarding Inclusion among General Education Teachers at the Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Teshawna Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge facing general education teachers is instructing students with disabilities in mainstream classrooms. Many studies have shown the importance of teacher perceptions in determining the effectiveness of inclusion practices, for teachers are primarily responsible for implementing curriculum instructions. Nonetheless, little is known…

  4. A Task-Centered Approach to Freshman-Level General Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francom, Greg; Bybee, David; Wolfersberger, Mark; Mendenhall, Anne; Merrill, M. David

    2009-01-01

    Many new instructional theories advocate centering instruction around a set of authentic tasks to improve application and transfer of knowledge and help students take more responsibility for their own learning. At BYU-Hawaii, a general education biology course was redesigned to follow this task-centered approach and then taught to two groups of…

  5. Millimeter-Wave Measurements of High Level and Low Level Activity Glass Melts

    SciTech Connect

    Woskov, Paul P.; Sundaram, S.K.; Daniel, William E., Jr.

    2006-06-01

    The primary objectives of the current research is to develop on-line sensors for characterizing molten glass in high-level and low-activity waste glass melters using millimeter-wave (MMW) technology and to use this technology to do novel research of melt dynamics. Existing and planned waste glass melters lack sophisticated diagnostics due to the hot, corrosive, and radioactive melter environments. Without process control diagnostics, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at Hanford operate by a feed forward process control scheme that relies on predictive models with large uncertainties. This scheme severely limits production throughput and waste loading. Also operations at DWPF have shown susceptibility to anomalies such as pouring, foaming, and combustion gas build up, which can seriously disrupt operations. Future waste chemistries will be even more challenging. The scientific goals of this project are to develop new reliable on-line monitoring capability for important glass process parameters such as temperature profiles, emissivity, density, viscosity, and other characteristics using the unique advantages of millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation that can be eventually implemented in the operating melters. Once successfully developed and implemented, significant cost savings would be realized in melter operations by increasing production through put, reduced storage volumes (through higher waste loading), and reduced risks (prevention or mitigation of anomalies).

  6. A General Framework for Power Analysis to Detect the Moderator Effects in Two- and Three-Level Cluster Randomized Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Nianbo; Spybrook, Jessaca; Kelcey, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a general framework for power analyses to detect the moderator effects in two- and three-level cluster randomized trials (CRTs). The study specifically aims to: (1) develop the statistical formulations for calculating statistical power, minimum detectable effect size (MDES) and its confidence interval to…

  7. 25 CFR 20.205 - Can tribes change eligibility criteria or levels of payments for General Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can tribes change eligibility criteria or levels of payments for General Assistance? 20.205 Section 20.205 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Welfare Reform § 20.205 Can tribes change eligibility criteria or...

  8. Variation of Student Numerical and Figural Reasoning Approaches by Pattern Generalization Type, Strategy Use and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Mouhayar, Rabih; Jurdak, Murad

    2016-01-01

    This paper explored variation of student numerical and figural reasoning approaches across different pattern generalization types and across grade level. An instrument was designed for this purpose. The instrument was given to a sample of 1232 students from grades 4 to 11 from five schools in Lebanon. Analysis of data showed that the numerical…

  9. 50 CFR 216.16 - Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibitions under the General Authorization for Level B harassment for scientific research. 216.16 Section 216.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE...

  10. Heat. A Teacher's Manual for General Level Program Development, Grade 9. Science and Society Teaching Units. Informal Series 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Douglas A.; And Others

    This teacher's manual is one of a series designed to support "general level" program development for intermediate/junior high school science, emphasizing the relationship between science and society. The main body of the manual deals with teaching about heat in the context of home heating systems. In addition, a brief treatment of the particle…

  11. General roles of abscisic and jasmonic acids in gene activation as a result of mechanical wounding.

    PubMed Central

    Hildmann, T; Ebneth, M; Peña-Cortés, H; Sánchez-Serrano, J J; Willmitzer, L; Prat, S

    1992-01-01

    Exogenous application of abscisic acid (ABA) has been shown to induce a systemic pattern of proteinase inhibitor II (pin2) mRNA accumulation identical to that induced by mechanical wounding. Evidence is presented that the ABA-specific response is not restricted to pin2 genes but appears to be part of a general reaction to wound stress. Four other wound-induced, ABA-responsive genes that encode two additional proteinase inhibitors, the proteolytic enzyme leucine aminopeptidase, and the biosynthetic enzyme threonine deaminase were isolated from potato plants. Wounding or treatment with ABA resulted in a pattern of accumulation of these mRNAs very similar to that of pin2. ABA-deficient plants did not accumulate any of the mRNAs upon wounding, although they showed normal levels of expression upon ABA treatment. Also, application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) induced a strong accumulation of these transcripts, both in wild-type and in ABA-deficient plants, thus supporting a role for jasmonic acid as an intermediate in the signaling pathway that leads from ABA accumulation in response to wounding to the transcriptional activation of the genes. PMID:1392612

  12. A Relationship Between Microbial Activity in Soils and Phosphate Levels in Tributaries to Lake Champlain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larose, R.; Lee, S.; Lane, T.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Champlain is a large natural freshwater lake. It forms the western boundary of Vermont and drains over half of the state. It is bordered by the state of New York on its western side and drains to the north into Quebec, Canada. Lake Champlain is the source of fresh drinking water for over quarter of a million people and provides for the livelihoods and recreational opportunities of many well beyond its borders. The health of this lake is important. During the summer month's algae blooms plague the lake. These unsightly growths, which affect other aquatic organisms, are the result of excess phosphate flowing into the lake from many sources. Examining whether there is a relationship between microbial activity in the soils bordering tributaries to Lake Champlain and phosphate levels in those tributaries sheds insight into the origins and paths by which phosphate moves into Lake Champlain. Understanding the how phosphate moves into the water system may assist in mitigation efforts.Total Phosphate levels and Total Suspended Solids were measured in second and third order streams in the Lake Champlain Basin over a three-year period. In addition microbial activity was measured within the toe, bank and upland riparian zone areas of these streams during the summer months. In general in areas showing greater microbial activity in the soil(s) there were increased levels of phosphate in the streams.

  13. General aviation activity and avionics survey. 1978. Annual summary report cy 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Schwenk, J.C.

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the results and a description of the 1978 General Aviation Activity and Avionics Survey. The survey was conducted during early 1979 by the FAA to obtain information on the activity and avionics of the United States registered general aviation aircraft fleet, the dominant component of civil aviation in the U.S. The survey was based on a statistically selected sample of about 13.3 percent of the general aviation fleet and obtained a response rate of 74 percent. Survey results are based upon responses but are expanded upward to represent the total population. Survey results revealed that during 1978 an estimated 39.4 million hours of flying time were logged by the 198,778 active general aviation aircraft in the U.S. fleet, yielding a mean annual flight time per aircraft of 197.7 hours. The active aircraft represented 85 percent of the registered general aviation fleet. The report contains breakdowns of these and other statistics by manufacturer/model group, aircraft type, state and region of based aircraft, and primary use. Also included are fuel consumption, lifetime airframe hours, avionics, and engine hours estimates.

  14. General aviation activity and avionics survey. Annual report for CY81

    SciTech Connect

    Schwenk, J.C.; Carter, P.W.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents the results and a description of the 1981 General Aviation Activity and Avionics Survey. The survey was conducted during 1982 by the FAA to obtain information on the activity and avionics of the United States registered general aviation aircraft fleet, the dominant component of civil aviation in the U.S. The survey was based on a statistically selected sample of about 8.9 percent of the general aviation fleet and obtained a response rate of 61 percent. Survey results are based upon response but are expanded upward to represent the total population. Survey results revealed that during 1981 an estimated 40.7 million hours of flying time were logged by the 213,226 active general aviation aircraft in the U.S. fleet, yielding a mean annual flight time per aircraft of 188.1 hours. The active aircraft represented about 83 percent of the registered general aviation fleet. The report contains breakdowns of these and other statistics by manufacturer/model group, aircraft type, state and region of based aircraft, and primary use. Also included are fuel consumption, lifetime airframe hours, avionics, and engine hours estimates. In addition, tables are included for detailed analysis of the avionics capabilities of GA fleet.

  15. Enhanced multi-level block ILU preconditioning strategies for general sparse linear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Yousef; Zhang, Jun

    2001-05-01

    This paper introduces several strategies to deal with pivot blocks in multi-level block incomplete LU factorization (BILUM) preconditioning techniques. These techniques are aimed at increasing the robustness and controlling the amount of fill-ins of BILUM for solving large sparse linear systems when large-size blocks are used to form block-independent set. Techniques proposed in this paper include double-dropping strategies, approximate singular-value decomposition, variable size blocks and use of an arrowhead block submatrix. We point out the advantages and disadvantages of these strategies and discuss their efficient implementations. Numerical experiments are conducted to show the usefulness of the new techniques in dealing with hard-to-solve problems arising from computational fluid dynamics. In addition, we discuss the relation between multi-level ILU preconditioning methods and algebraic multi-level methods.

  16. Functional Specificity of the Visual Word Form Area: General Activation for Words and Symbols but Specific Network Activation for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Karen; Fernandes, Myra; Schwindt, Graeme; O'Craven, Kathleen; Grady, Cheryl L.

    2008-01-01

    The functional specificity of the brain region known as the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) was examined using fMRI. We explored whether this area serves a general role in processing symbolic stimuli, rather than being selective for the processing of words. Brain activity was measured during a visual 1-back task to English words, meaningful symbols…

  17. Novel activity-dependent approaches to therapeutic hypnosis and psychotherapy: the general waking trance.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Ernest; Erickson-Klein, Roxanna; Rossi, Kathryn

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a highly edited version of a videotape made in 1980 by Marion Moore, M.D., showing Milton H. Erickson and Moore demonstrating novel, activity-dependent approaches to hand-levitation and therapeutic hypnosis on their subject, Ernest Rossi. Erickson's naturalistic and utilization approach is described in his very direct and surprising induction in a trance challenged patient. These novel, and surprising inductions are examples of how Erickson was prescient in developing activity-dependent approaches to therapeutic hypnosis and psychotherapy several generations before modern neuroscience documented the activity-dependent molecular-genomic mechanisms of memory, learning, and behavior change. Erickson describes a case where he utilized what he called, "The General Waking Trance" when he "dared" not use an obvious hypnotic induction. It is proposed that the states of intense mental absorption and response attentiveness that are facilitated by the general waking trance are functionally related to the three conditions neuroscientists have identified as novelty, enrichment, and exercise (both mental and physical), which can turn on activity-dependent gene expression and activity-dependent brain plasticity, that are the molecular-genomic and neural basis ofmemory, learning, consciousness, and behavior change. We recommend that the next step in investigating the efficacy of therapeutic hypnosis will be in partnering with neuroscientists to explore the possibilities and limitations of utilizing the activity-dependent approaches to hypnotic induction and the general waking trance in facilitating activity-dependent gene expression and brain plasticity. PMID:18998388

  18. Investigating Macroscopic, Submicroscopic, and Symbolic Connections in a College-Level General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thadison, Felicia Culver

    2011-01-01

    Explanations of chemical phenomena rely on understanding the behavior of submicroscopic particles. Because this level is "invisible," it is described using symbols such as models, diagrams and equations. For this reason, students often view chemistry as a "difficult" subject. The laboratory offers a unique opportunity for the students to…

  19. Basic Factors that Affect General Academic Motivation Levels of Candidate Preschool Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikoz, Nadir

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate some personal and familial factors that affect overall academic motivation levels of candidate preschool teachers. The study group of this research consists of 285 students attending the child development and preschool education department at Selcuk University Faculty of Vocational Education in the…

  20. Leveled Literacy Intervention Success Rate in the Third Grade General Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Kerry A.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Leveled Literacy Intervention were examined using a group of ten third grade students at Crosswell Elementary School. The students were selected to participate by using their Fall 2014 MAP score. Students that had a Fall 2014 MAP score of =189 were placed into the research group. The focus of the research was to determine if Leveled…

  1. The use of a running wheel to measure activity in rodents: relationship to energy balance, general activity, and reward.

    PubMed

    Novak, Colleen M; Burghardt, Paul R; Levine, James A

    2012-03-01

    Running wheels are commonly employed to measure rodent physical activity in a variety of contexts, including studies of energy balance and obesity. There is no consensus on the nature of wheel-running activity or its underlying causes, however. Here, we will begin by systematically reviewing how running wheel availability affects physical activity and other aspects of energy balance in laboratory rodents. While wheel running and physical activity in the absence of a wheel commonly correlate in a general sense, in many specific aspects the two do not correspond. In fact, the presence of running wheels alters several aspects of energy balance, including body weight and composition, food intake, and energy expenditure of activity. We contend that wheel-running activity should be considered a behavior in and of itself, reflecting several underlying behavioral processes in addition to a rodent's general, spontaneous activity. These behavioral processes include defensive behavior, predatory aggression, and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. As it relates to energy balance, wheel running engages several brain systems-including those related to the stress response, mood, and reward, and those responsive to growth factors-that influence energy balance indirectly. We contend that wheel-running behavior represents factors in addition to rodents' tendency to be physically active, engaging additional neural and physiological mechanisms which can then independently alter energy balance and behavior. Given the impact of wheel-running behavior on numerous overlapping systems that influence behavior and physiology, this review outlines the need for careful design and interpretation of studies that utilize running wheels as a means for exercise or as a measurement of general physical activity. PMID:22230703

  2. Infant Temperament and Genetics: An Objective Twin Study of Motor Activity Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saudino, Kimberly J.; Eaton, Warren O.

    1991-01-01

    The activity level of 60 pairs of infant twins was measured for 2 days. Differences in activity level for monozygotic and dizygotic twins, as indicated by motion recorders and parent ratings, showed evidence of genetic influences. (BC)

  3. Postgraduation Activities: All Degree Levels in Pennsylvania, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehman, George E., Jr.

    The employment of 1981 graduates at all degree levels in Pennsylvania's colleges and universities was surveyed, based on data for 47,996 graduates of 147 institutions, or 65.9 percent of all graduates. It was found that the 1981 full-time employment rate for all graduates, regardless of degree level, decreased from the 1980 value of 72.3 percent…

  4. Stepping in Elton's footprints: a general scaling model for body masses and trophic levels across ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Riede, Jens O; Brose, Ulrich; Ebenman, Bo; Jacob, Ute; Thompson, Ross; Townsend, Colin R; Jonsson, Tomas

    2011-02-01

    Despite growing awareness of the significance of body-size and predator-prey body-mass ratios for the stability of ecological networks, our understanding of their distribution within ecosystems is incomplete. Here, we study the relationships between predator and prey size, body-mass ratios and predator trophic levels using body-mass estimates of 1313 predators (invertebrates, ectotherm and endotherm vertebrates) from 35 food-webs (marine, stream, lake and terrestrial). Across all ecosystem and predator types, except for streams (which appear to have a different size structure in their predator-prey interactions), we find that (1) geometric mean prey mass increases with predator mass with a power-law exponent greater than unity and (2) predator size increases with trophic level. Consistent with our theoretical derivations, we show that the quantitative nature of these relationships implies systematic decreases in predator-prey body-mass ratios with the trophic level of the predator. Thus, predators are, on an average, more similar in size to their prey at the top of food-webs than that closer to the base. These findings contradict the traditional Eltonian paradigm and have implications for our understanding of body-mass constraints on food-web topology, community dynamics and stability. PMID:21199248

  5. Slow Sleep Spindle Activity, Declarative Memory, and General Cognitive Abilities in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hoedlmoser, Kerstin; Heib, Dominik P.J.; Roell, Judith; Peigneux, Philippe; Sadeh, Avi; Gruber, Georg; Schabus, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Functional interactions between sleep spindle activity, declarative memory consolidation, and general cognitive abilities in school-aged children. Design: Healthy, prepubertal children (n = 63; mean age 9.56 ± 0.76 y); ambulatory all-night polysomnography (2 nights); investigating the effect of prior learning (word pair association task; experimental night) versus nonlearning (baseline night) on sleep spindle activity; general cognitive abilities assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). Measurements and Results: Analysis of spindle activity during nonrapid eye movement sleep (N2 and N3) evidenced predominant peaks in the slow (11-13 Hz) but not in the fast (13-15 Hz) sleep spindle frequency range (baseline and experimental night). Analyses were restricted to slow sleep spindles. Changes in spindle activity from the baseline to the experimental night were not associated with the overnight change in the number of recalled words reflecting declarative memory consolidation. Children with higher sleep spindle activity as measured at frontal, central, parietal, and occipital sites during both baseline and experimental nights exhibited higher general cognitive abilities (WISC-IV) and declarative learning efficiency (i.e., number of recalled words before and after sleep). Conclusions: Slow sleep spindles (11-13 Hz) in children age 8–11 y are associated with inter-individual differences in general cognitive abilities and learning efficiency. Citation: Hoedlmoser K, Heib DPJ, Roell J, Peigneux P, Sadeh A, Gruber G, Schabus M. Slow sleep spindle activity, declarative memory, and general cognitive abilities in children. SLEEP 2014;37(9):1501-1512. PMID:25142558

  6. Conserved Quantities in General Relativity: From the Quasi-Local Level to Spatial Infinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Ning; Wang, Mu-Tao; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2015-08-01

    We define quasi-local conserved quantities in general relativity by using the optimal isometric embedding in Wang and Yau (Commun Math Phys 288(3):919-942, 2009) to transplant Killing fields in the Minkowski spacetime back to the 2-surface of interest in a physical spacetime. To each optimal isometric embedding, a dual element of the Lie algebra of the Lorentz group is assigned. Quasi-local angular momentum and quasi-local center of mass correspond to pairing this element with rotation Killing fields and boost Killing fields, respectively. They obey classical transformation laws under the action of the Poincaré group. We further justify these definitions by considering their limits as the total angular momentum and the total center of mass of an isolated system. These expressions were derived from the Hamilton-Jacobi analysis of the gravitational action and thus satisfy conservation laws. As a result, we obtained an invariant total angular momentum theorem in the Kerr spacetime. For a vacuum asymptotically flat initial data set of order 1, it is shown that the limits are always finite without any extra assumptions. We also study these total conserved quantities on a family of asymptotically flat initial data sets evolving by the vacuum Einstein evolution equation. It is shown that the total angular momentum is conserved under the evolution. For the total center of mass, the classical dynamical formula relating the center of mass, energy, and linear momentum is recovered, in the nonlinear context of initial data sets evolving by the vacuum Einstein evolution equation. The definition of quasi-local angular momentum provides an answer to the second problem in classical general relativity on Penrose's list (Proc R Soc Lond Ser A 381(1780):53-63, 1982).

  7. Distant Interactions and Their Effects on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Background: It has been observed that physical activity patterns of health-related behavior are established in childhood and may continue into adulthood. Recent findings showing a relationship between the onset of chronic diseases and sedentary lifestyles support the importance of examining Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA). One…

  8. Human Development Program: Level IV Activity Guide, Revised 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessell, Harold; Ball, Geraldine

    The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for grade four. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to help teachers instill responsibility and self-confidence in children. The activity guide presents topics and directions for 180 sequential…

  9. Playground Designs to Increase Physical Activity Levels during School Recess: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escalante, Yolanda; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Backx, Karianne; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    School recess provides a major opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. Various studies have described strategies to increase levels of physical activity. The purpose of this systematic review is therefore to examine the interventions proposed as forms of increasing children's physical activity levels during recess. A…

  10. Using Computational Chemistry Activities to Promote Learning and Retention in a Secondary School General Chemistry Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochterski, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of using state-of-the-art, research-quality software as a learning tool in a general chemistry secondary school classroom setting. I present three activities designed to introduce fundamental chemical concepts regarding molecular shape and atomic orbitals to students with little background in chemistry, such as…

  11. 78 FR 48647 - Foreign-Trade Zone 225-Springfield, Missouri; Authorization of Production Activity; General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ...), including notice in the Federal Register inviting public comment (78 FR 22512, 4-16-2013). The FTZ Board has... Activity; General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems Munitions Services (Demilitarization of Munitions... Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems Munitions Services, within Site 3 of FTZ 225, in Carthage,...

  12. Generalization of the Activated Complex Theory of Reaction Rates. II. Classical Mechanical Treatment

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Marcus, R. A.

    1964-01-01

    In its usual classical form activated complex theory assumes a particular expression for the kinetic energy of the reacting system -- one associated with a rectilinear motion along the reaction coordinate. The derivation of the rate expression given in the present paper is based on the general kinetic energy expression.

  13. Physical Activity Promotion in General Practices of Barcelona: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puig Ribera, Anna; McKenna, Jim; Riddoch, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This case study aimed to generate explanations for the lack of integration of physical activity (PA) promotion in general practices of Barcelona, the capital of Catalonia. This explanatory study adopted a qualitative approach, based on three techniques; focus groups (n = 3), semi-structured (n = 25) and short individual interviews (n = 5). These…

  14. 24 CFR 574.310 - General standards for eligible housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General standards for eligible housing activities. 574.310 Section 574.310 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  15. Office Occupations--General Clerical. Kit No. 12. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Creola S.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on general clerical work are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of office occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  16. 77 FR 23322 - Proposed Information Collection (Report of General Information) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ...: Submit written comments on the collection of information through Federal Docket Management System (FDMS.... 3501-3521), Federal agencies must obtain approval from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Report of General Information) Activity: Comment Request...

  17. 29 CFR 784.148 - General scope of processing, freezing, and curing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General scope of processing, freezing, and curing activities. 784.148 Section 784.148 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT APPLICABLE TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC...

  18. Is the Association between General Cognitive Ability and Violent Crime Caused by Family-Level Confounders?

    PubMed Central

    Frisell, Thomas; Pawitan, Yudi; Långström, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Background Research has consistently found lower cognitive ability to be related to increased risk for violent and other antisocial behaviour. Since this association has remained when adjusting for childhood socioeconomic position, ethnicity, and parental characteristics, it is often assumed to be causal, potentially mediated through school adjustment problems and conduct disorder. Socioeconomic differences are notoriously difficult to quantify, however, and it is possible that the association between intelligence and delinquency suffer substantial residual confounding. Methods We linked longitudinal Swedish total population registers to study the association of general cognitive ability (intelligence) at age 18 (the Conscript Register, 1980–1993) with the incidence proportion of violent criminal convictions (the Crime Register, 1973–2009), among all men born in Sweden 1961–1975 (N = 700,514). Using probit regression, we controlled for measured childhood socioeconomic variables, and further employed sibling comparisons (family pedigree data from the Multi-Generation Register) to adjust for shared familial characteristics. Results Cognitive ability in early adulthood was inversely associated to having been convicted of a violent crime (β = −0.19, 95% CI: −0.19; −0.18), the association remained when adjusting for childhood socioeconomic factors (β = −0.18, 95% CI: −0.18; −0.17). The association was somewhat lower within half-brothers raised apart (β = −0.16, 95% CI: −0.18; −0.14), within half-brothers raised together (β = −0.13, 95% CI: (−0.15; −0.11), and lower still in full-brother pairs (β = −0.10, 95% CI: −0.11; −0.09). The attenuation among half-brothers raised together and full brothers was too strong to be attributed solely to attenuation from measurement error. Discussion Our results suggest that the association between general cognitive ability and violent criminality is confounded partly by

  19. Constraints and generalized gauge transformations on tree-level gluon and graviton amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaman, Diana; Yao, York-Peng

    2010-11-01

    Writing the fully color dressed and graviton amplitudes, respectively, as {A} = < {C} {C A}} } {A} > = {C} {C {M| N }} } {{M| N }} > and {{A}_{gr}} = < {{tilde{N}}} { {{tilde{N}} {M| N >.}}} >. } {{M| N >.}} >, where | A > is a set of Kleiss-Kuijf color ordered basis, | N > , | {tilde{N}} > and | C > are the similarly ordered numerators and color coefficients, we show that the propagator matrix M has ( n - 3)( n - 3)! independent eigenvectors | {λ_j^0} > with zero eigenvalue, for n-particle processes. The resulting equations | {λ_j^0} > = 0 are relations among the color ordered amplitudes. The freedom to shift | N > to | N > + sumnolimits_j {{f_j}| {λ_j^0} > } and similarly for | {tilde{N}} > where f j are ( n - 3)( n - 3)! arbitrary functions, encodes generalized gauge transformations. They yield both BCJ amplitude and KLT relations, when such freedom is accounted for. Furthermore, f j can be promoted to the role of effective Lagrangian vertices in the field operator space.

  20. Asking patients about their general level of functioning: Is IT worth IT for common mental disorders?

    PubMed

    Olariu, Elena; Forero, Carlos G; Álvarez, Pilar; Castro-Rodriguez, José-Ignacio; Blasco, M J; Alonso, Jordi

    2015-10-30

    Functional disability (FD) is a diagnostic criterion for the psychiatric diagnosis of many mental disorders (e.g. generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); major depressive episode (MDE)). We aimed to assess the contribution of measuring FD to diagnosing GAD and MDE using clinical (Global Assessment of Functioning, GAF) and self-reported methods (Analog scale of functioning, ASF and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule WHODAS 2.0). Patients seeking professional help for mood/anxiety symptoms (N=244) were evaluated. The MINI interview was used to determine the presence of common mental disorders. Symptoms were assessed with two short checklists. Logistic and hierarchical logistic models were used to determine the diagnostic accuracy and the added diagnostic value of FD assessment in detecting GAD and MDE. For GAD, FD alone had a diagnostic accuracy of 0.79 (GAF), 0.79 (ASF) and 0.78 (WHODAS) and for MDE of 0.83, 0.84 and 0.81, respectively. Self-reported measures of FD improved the diagnostic performance of the number of symptoms (4% AUC increase) for GAD, but not for MDE. If assessed before symptom evaluation, FD can discriminate well between patients with and without GAD/MDE. When assessed together with symptoms, self-reported methods improve GAD detection rates. PMID:26279129

  1. The Fading Affect Bias shows healthy coping at the general level, but not the specific level for religious variables across religious and non-religious events.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Jeffrey A; Hartzler, Jennifer K; Hartzler, Andrew W; Lee, Sherman A; Walker, W Richard

    2015-11-01

    The research on fading emotions has shown that unpleasant emotions fade more over time than pleasant emotions, which is a phenomenon referred to as the Fading Affect Bias (FAB). Based on the negative relation between the FAB and dysphoria (Walker, Skowronski, Gibbons, Vogl, & Thompson, 2003), some researchers have argued that the FAB is a healthy coping mechanism (Walker, Skowronski, & Thompson, 2003). As religious variables are related to positive emotions and emotional coping (e.g., Cohen, 2002; Pargament, Smith, Koenig, & Perez, 1998), we examined the FAB as a healthy coping mechanism at the general and specific levels of analysis in the context of religion. General healthy coping was supported by (1) FAB effects across both religious events (REs) and non-religious events (NREs) and (2) a positive relation for spirituality and the FAB. However, specific healthy coping was not supported by a small FAB for (1) REs at high levels of positive religious coping (PRC) for NREs, (2) NREs at low levels of PRC for NREs, and (3) purely REs relative to REs involving spirituality. Other implications are discussed. PMID:26196449

  2. General Anthropometric and Specific Physical Fitness Profile of High-Level Junior Water Polo Players

    PubMed Central

    Kondrič, Miran; Uljević, Ognjen; Gabrilo, Goran; Kontić, Dean; Sekulić, Damir

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the status and playing position differences in anthropometric measures and specific physical fitness in high-level junior water polo players. The sample of subjects comprised 110 water polo players (17 to 18 years of age), including one of the world’s best national junior teams for 2010. The subjects were divided according to their playing positions into: Centers (N = 16), Wings (N = 28), perimeter players (Drivers; N = 25), Points (N = 19), and Goalkeepers (N = 18). The variables included body height, body weight, body mass index, arm span, triceps- and subscapular-skinfold. Specific physical fitness tests comprised: four swimming tests, namely: 25m, 100m, 400m and a specific anaerobic 4x50m test (average result achieved in four 50m sprints with a 30 sec pause), vertical body jump (JUMP; maximal vertical jump from the water starting from a water polo defensive position) and a dynamometric power achieved in front crawl swimming (DYN). ANOVA with post-hoc comparison revealed significant differences between positions for most of the anthropometrics, noting that the Centers were the heaviest and had the highest BMI and subscapular skinfold. The Points achieved the best results in most of the swimming capacities and JUMP test. No significant group differences were found for the 100m and 4x50m tests. The Goalkeepers achieved the lowest results for DYN. Given the representativeness of the sample of subjects, the results of this study allow specific insights into the physical fitness and anthropometric features of high-level junior water polo players and allow coaches to design a specific training program aimed at achieving the physical fitness results presented for each playing position. PMID:23487152

  3. General tracking control of arbitrary N-level quantum systems using piecewise time-independent potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delben, G. J.; da Luz, M. G. E.

    2016-05-01

    Here we propose a tracking quantum control protocol for arbitrary N-level systems. The goal is to make the expected value of an observable O to follow a predetermined trajectory S( t). For so, we drive the quantum state |\\varPsi (t) rangle evolution through an external potential V which depends on M_V tunable parameters (e.g., the amplitude and phase (thus M_V = 2) of a laser field in the dipolar condition). At instants t_n, these parameters can be rapidly switched to specific values and then kept constant during time intervals Δ t. The method determines which sets of parameters values can result in < \\varPsi (t) | O |\\varPsi (t) rangle = S(t). It is numerically robust (no intrinsic divergences) and relatively fast since we need to solve only nonlinear algebraic (instead of a system of coupled nonlinear differential) equations to obtain the parameters at the successive Δ t's. For a given S( t), the required minimum M_V = M_min 'degrees of freedom' of V attaining the control is a good figure of merit of the problem difficulty. For instance, the control cannot be unconditionally realizable if M_{min } > 2 and V is due to a laser field (the usual context in real applications). As it is discussed and exemplified, in these cases a possible procedure is to relax the control in certain problematic (but short) time intervals. Finally, when existing the approach can systematically access distinct possible solutions, thereby allowing a relatively simple way to search for the best implementation conditions. Illustrations for 3-, 4-, and 5-level systems and some comparisons with calculations in the literature are presented.

  4. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a stronger indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors and risk prediction than self-reported physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Gray, Benjamin J; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Williams, Sally P; Davies, Christine A; Turner, Daniel; Bracken, Richard M

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the relationships of self-reported physical activity levels and cardiorespiratory fitness in 81 males to assess which measurement is the greatest indicator of cardiometabolic risk. Physical activity levels were determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed using the Chester Step Test. Cardiovascular disease risk was estimated using the QRISK2, Framingham Lipids, Framingham body mass index and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 equations, and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk calculated using QDiabetes, Leicester Risk Assessment, Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and Cambridge Risk Score models. Categorising employees by cardiorespiratory fitness categories ('Excellent/Good' vs 'Average/Below Average') identified more differences in cardiometabolic risk factor (body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, HbA(1c)) scores than physical activity (waist circumference only). Cardiorespiratory fitness levels also demonstrated differences in all four type 2 diabetes mellitus risk prediction models and both the QRISK2 and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 cardiovascular disease equations. Furthermore, significant negative correlations (p < 0.001) were observed between individual cardiorespiratory fitness values and estimated risk in all prediction models. In conclusion, from this preliminary observational study, cardiorespiratory fitness levels reveal a greater number of associations with markers of cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to physical activity determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool. PMID:26361778

  5. A Study on Developing a General Attitude Scale about Environmental Issues for Students in Different Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metin, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a general attitude scale about environmental issues (GASE) for students in different grade levels. The research was carried out with the total 1225 students; 409 (33.4%) were primary school students in grades 5, 6, 7 and 8; 408 (33.3%) of the students were in grades 9, 10, 11 and 12 at high schools and the…

  6. Predicting Child Physical Activity and Screen Time: Parental Support for Physical Activity and General Parenting Styles

    PubMed Central

    Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Conclusions: Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. PMID:24812256

  7. On the Relationship between Variational Level Set-Based and SOM-Based Active Contours

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsamea, Mohammed M.; Gnecco, Giorgio; Gaber, Mohamed Medhat; Elyan, Eyad

    2015-01-01

    Most Active Contour Models (ACMs) deal with the image segmentation problem as a functional optimization problem, as they work on dividing an image into several regions by optimizing a suitable functional. Among ACMs, variational level set methods have been used to build an active contour with the aim of modeling arbitrarily complex shapes. Moreover, they can handle also topological changes of the contours. Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) have attracted the attention of many computer vision scientists, particularly in modeling an active contour based on the idea of utilizing the prototypes (weights) of a SOM to control the evolution of the contour. SOM-based models have been proposed in general with the aim of exploiting the specific ability of SOMs to learn the edge-map information via their topology preservation property and overcoming some drawbacks of other ACMs, such as trapping into local minima of the image energy functional to be minimized in such models. In this survey, we illustrate the main concepts of variational level set-based ACMs, SOM-based ACMs, and their relationship and review in a comprehensive fashion the development of their state-of-the-art models from a machine learning perspective, with a focus on their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25960736

  8. On the Relationship between Variational Level Set-Based and SOM-Based Active Contours.

    PubMed

    Abdelsamea, Mohammed M; Gnecco, Giorgio; Gaber, Mohamed Medhat; Elyan, Eyad

    2015-01-01

    Most Active Contour Models (ACMs) deal with the image segmentation problem as a functional optimization problem, as they work on dividing an image into several regions by optimizing a suitable functional. Among ACMs, variational level set methods have been used to build an active contour with the aim of modeling arbitrarily complex shapes. Moreover, they can handle also topological changes of the contours. Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) have attracted the attention of many computer vision scientists, particularly in modeling an active contour based on the idea of utilizing the prototypes (weights) of a SOM to control the evolution of the contour. SOM-based models have been proposed in general with the aim of exploiting the specific ability of SOMs to learn the edge-map information via their topology preservation property and overcoming some drawbacks of other ACMs, such as trapping into local minima of the image energy functional to be minimized in such models. In this survey, we illustrate the main concepts of variational level set-based ACMs, SOM-based ACMs, and their relationship and review in a comprehensive fashion the development of their state-of-the-art models from a machine learning perspective, with a focus on their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25960736

  9. Do Cost Functions for Tracking Error Generalize across Tasks with Different Noise Levels?

    PubMed

    Sensinger, Jonathon; Aleman-Zapata, Adrian; Englehart, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Control of human-machine interfaces are well modeled by computational control models, which take into account the behavioral decisions people make in estimating task dynamics and state for a given control law. This control law is optimized according to a cost function, which for the sake of mathematical tractability is typically represented as a series of quadratic terms. Recent studies have found that people actually use cost functions for reaching tasks that are slightly different than a quadratic function, but it is unclear which of several cost functions best explain human behavior and if these cost functions generalize across tasks of similar nature but different scale. In this study, we used an inverse-decision-theory technique to reconstruct the cost function from empirical data collected on 24 able-bodied subjects controlling a myoelectric interface. Compared with previous studies, this experimental paradigm involved a different control source (myoelectric control, which has inherently large multiplicative noise), a different control interface (control signal was mapped to cursor velocity), and a different task (the tracking position dynamically moved on the screen throughout each trial). Several cost functions, including a linear-quadratic; an inverted Gaussian, and a power function, accurately described the behavior of subjects throughout this experiment better than a quadratic cost function or other explored candidate cost functions (p<0.05). Importantly, despite the differences in the experimental paradigm and a substantially larger scale of error, we found only one candidate cost function whose parameter was consistent with the previous studies: a power function (cost ∝ errorα) with a parameter value of α = 1.69 (1.53-1.78 interquartile range). This result suggests that a power-function is a representative function of user's error cost over a range of noise amplitudes for pointing and tracking tasks. PMID:26313560

  10. Risk assessment based on urinary bisphenol A levels in the general Korean population.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Hong; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Ko, Ahra; Jeong, Da-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Mi; Moon, Guiim; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Kho, Young-Ho; Shin, Min-Ki; Lee, Hee-Seok; Kang, Hui-Seung; Suh, Jin-Hyang; Hwang, In-Gyun

    2016-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume industrial chemical used in the global production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, which are used in food and drink containers, such as tableware (plates and mugs). Due to its broad applications, BPA has been detected in human blood, urine and breast milk as well as environmental substances, including water, indoor and outdoor air, and dust. Indeed, exposure to high concentrations of BPA can result in a variety of harmful effects, including reproductive toxicity, through a mechanism of endocrine disruption. Our comparison of reported BPA urinary concentrations among different countries revealed that exposures in Korea may be higher than those in other Asian countries and North America, but lower than or similar to those in European countries. The current study included a total of 2044 eligible subjects of all ages. The subjects were evenly divided between males and females (48.58% and 51.42%, respectively). The geometric mean (GM) of pre-adjusted (adjusted) urinary BPA concentrations was 1.83μg/L (2.01μg/g creatinine) for subjects of all ages, and there was no statistically difference in BPA concentrations between males (1.90μg/L, 1.87μg/g creatinine) and females (1.76μg/L, 2.16μg/g creatinine). Multiple regression analysis revealed only one positive association between creatinine pre-adjusted urinary BPA concentration and age (β=-0.0868, p<0.001). The 95th percentile levels of 24-hour recall (HR), food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) and estimated daily intake (EDI) through urinary BPA concentrations were 0.14, 0.13, and 0.22μg/kg bw/day, respectively. According to the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS), a tolerable daily intake (tDI) of 20μg/kg bw/day was established for BPA from the available toxicological data. Recently, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) established a temporary TDI of 4μg/kg bw/day based on current toxicological data. By comparing these TDIs with subjects' exposure, we conclude

  11. Electrophysiological characteristics according to activity level of myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seong Hun; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the differences in electrophysiological characteristics of normal muscles versus muscles with latent or active myofascial trigger points, and identified the neuromuscular physiological characteristics of muscles with active myofascial trigger points, thereby providing a quantitative evaluation of myofascial pain syndrome and clinical foundational data for its diagnosis. [Subjects] Ninety adults in their 20s participated in this study. Subjects were equally divided into three groups: the active myofascial trigger point group, the latent myofascial trigger point group, and the control group. [Methods] Maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), endurance, median frequency (MDF), and muscle fatigue index were measured in all subjects. [Results] No significant differences in MVIC or endurance were revealed among the three groups. However, the active trigger point group had significantly different MDF and muscle fatigue index compared with the control group. [Conclusion] Given that muscles with active myofascial trigger points had an increased MDF and suffered muscle fatigue more easily, increased recruitment of motor unit action potential of type II fibers was evident. Therefore, electrophysiological analysis of these myofascial trigger points can be applied to evaluate the effect of physical therapy and provide a quantitative diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome. PMID:26504306

  12. Electrophysiological characteristics according to activity level of myofascial trigger points

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Seong Hun; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the differences in electrophysiological characteristics of normal muscles versus muscles with latent or active myofascial trigger points, and identified the neuromuscular physiological characteristics of muscles with active myofascial trigger points, thereby providing a quantitative evaluation of myofascial pain syndrome and clinical foundational data for its diagnosis. [Subjects] Ninety adults in their 20s participated in this study. Subjects were equally divided into three groups: the active myofascial trigger point group, the latent myofascial trigger point group, and the control group. [Methods] Maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), endurance, median frequency (MDF), and muscle fatigue index were measured in all subjects. [Results] No significant differences in MVIC or endurance were revealed among the three groups. However, the active trigger point group had significantly different MDF and muscle fatigue index compared with the control group. [Conclusion] Given that muscles with active myofascial trigger points had an increased MDF and suffered muscle fatigue more easily, increased recruitment of motor unit action potential of type II fibers was evident. Therefore, electrophysiological analysis of these myofascial trigger points can be applied to evaluate the effect of physical therapy and provide a quantitative diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome. PMID:26504306

  13. Meta-analysis of Complex Diseases at Gene Level with Generalized Functional Linear Models.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Chiu, Chi-Yang; Chen, Wei; Ren, Haobo; Li, Yun; Boehnke, Michael; Amos, Christopher I; Moore, Jason H; Xiong, Momiao

    2016-02-01

    We developed generalized functional linear models (GFLMs) to perform a meta-analysis of multiple case-control studies to evaluate the relationship of genetic data to dichotomous traits adjusting for covariates. Unlike the previously developed meta-analysis for sequence kernel association tests (MetaSKATs), which are based on mixed-effect models to make the contributions of major gene loci random, GFLMs are fixed models; i.e., genetic effects of multiple genetic variants are fixed. Based on GFLMs, we developed chi-squared-distributed Rao's efficient score test and likelihood-ratio test (LRT) statistics to test for an association between a complex dichotomous trait and multiple genetic variants. We then performed extensive simulations to evaluate the empirical type I error rates and power performance of the proposed tests. The Rao's efficient score test statistics of GFLMs are very conservative and have higher power than MetaSKATs when some causal variants are rare and some are common. When the causal variants are all rare [i.e., minor allele frequencies (MAF) < 0.03], the Rao's efficient score test statistics have similar or slightly lower power than MetaSKATs. The LRT statistics generate accurate type I error rates for homogeneous genetic-effect models and may inflate type I error rates for heterogeneous genetic-effect models owing to the large numbers of degrees of freedom and have similar or slightly higher power than the Rao's efficient score test statistics. GFLMs were applied to analyze genetic data of 22 gene regions of type 2 diabetes data from a meta-analysis of eight European studies and detected significant association for 18 genes (P < 3.10 × 10(-6)), tentative association for 2 genes (HHEX and HMGA2; P ≈ 10(-5)), and no association for 2 genes, while MetaSKATs detected none. In addition, the traditional additive-effect model detects association at gene HHEX. GFLMs and related tests can analyze rare or common variants or a combination of the two and

  14. Activation Domain-Specific and General Transcription Stimulation by Native Histone Acetyltransferase Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Keiko; Steger, David J.; Eberharter, Anton; Workman, Jerry L.

    1999-01-01

    Recent progress in identifying the catalytic subunits of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes has implicated histone acetylation in the regulation of transcription. Here, we have analyzed the function of two native yeast HAT complexes, SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5 Acetyltransferase) and NuA4 (nucleosome acetyltransferase of H4), in activating transcription from preassembled nucleosomal array templates in vitro. Each complex was tested for the ability to enhance transcription driven by GAL4 derivatives containing either acidic, glutamine-rich, or proline-rich activation domains. On nucleosomal array templates, the SAGA complex selectively stimulates transcription driven by the VP16 acidic activation domain in an acetyl coenzyme A-dependent manner. In contrast, the NuA4 complex facilitates transcription mediated by any of the activation domains tested if allowed to preacetylate the nucleosomal template, indicating a general stimulatory effect of histone H4 acetylation. However, when the extent of acetylation by NuA4 is limited, the complex also preferentially stimulates VP16-driven transcription. SAGA and NuA4 interact directly with the VP16 activation domain but not with a glutamine-rich or proline-rich activation domain. These data suggest that recruitment of the SAGA and NuA4 HAT complexes by the VP16 activation domain contributes to HAT-dependent activation. In addition, extensive H4/H2B acetylation by NuA4 leads to a general activation of transcription, which is independent of activator-NuA4 interactions. PMID:9858608

  15. Online Activity Levels Are Related to Caffeine Dependency.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James G; Landhuis, C Erik; Shepherd, Daniel; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-05-01

    Online activity could serve in the future as behavioral markers of emotional states for computer systems (i.e., affective computing). Hence, this study considered relationships between self-reported stimulant use and online study patterns. Sixty-two undergraduate psychology students estimated their daily caffeine use, and this was related to study patterns as tracked by their use of a Learning Management System (Blackboard). Caffeine dependency was associated with less time spent online, lower rates of file access, and fewer online activities completed. Reduced breadth or depth of processing during work/study could be used as a behavioral marker of stimulant use. PMID:27096737

  16. Physical Activity Enjoyment and Self-Efficacy As Predictors of Cancer Patients' Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Nadine; Wiskemann, Joachim; Sieverding, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can support cancer patients during medical treatment by reducing side-effects and increasing quality of life. However, PA levels mostly decline after diagnosis. Which factors can explain if patients are able to remain or even increase their PA level? Self-efficacy is an important cognitive factor that has been linked to cancer patients' PA across many studies. In contrast, affective factors such as PA enjoyment have rarely been examined. We compare the influence of self-efficacy and PA enjoyment on cancer patients' PA levels after completion of an exercise or stress-management intervention. Methods: Outpatient cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34%, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION study, a 4-week intervention (1 h counseling followed by weekly phone calls), with pre-test (T1), post-test (T2), and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise intervention (emphasizing self-regulatory strategies for behavior change) or to a stress management intervention (coping and relaxation techniques). Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA, a measure of maintenance self-efficacy (7 items, Cronbach's α = 0.88) and PA enjoyment (2 items, Cronbach's α = 0.89). Regression analyses were calculated with PA level (at T2 and T3) as dependent variable and relative weight analyses were conducted. The study was registered at clinicalTrials.gov (unique identifier:NCT01576107; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01576107?term=motivaction&rank=1). Results: Baseline self-efficacy and change in PA enjoyment significantly predicted cancer patients' PA level at T2 adjusting for baseline PA and type of intervention. Relative weight (RW) analysis revealed that PA enjoyment (baseline and change together) explained 34.3% of the dependent variable, self-efficacy (baseline and change) explained 38.4%. At follow

  17. ["Analysis of fate" in psychiatry and psychotherapy. II. Correlations withe the level of general psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Grünner, O

    1976-07-01

    We demonstrated in a group of 166 psychiatric patients, with disorders of schizophrenic and cyclothymic circle and with neuroses too, significant relations between the results of the projection test of Szondi and between the greatness of total psychopathology, evaluated by means of the Minnesota Multiphasic Inquiry (M.M.P.I.). We could ascertain, that the patients with the higher level of total psychopathology (evaluated by means of M.M.P.I.) have also a greater number of abnormal results according to the projection test of Szondi. At these patients we saw significantly more "valve groups", which witness to the irresolution in the instinctive motivations of behaviour. At these patients we could ascertain further the greater number of those personalities, which according to the projection test of Szondi suffered from a lack of breaking and self-critical elements in their behaviour. Subjects with heightened values of M.M.P.I. have significantly more results with abnormal relations of masculinity and of feminity according to the sexual index of Szondi test. The choices and the selection from the set of 48 fixed photographies, which the patient realises at the Szondi test in teen repeated sessions, form so a significant relation not only to the psychiatric diagnoses, as was ascertained in the first part of this work, but also to the height of total psychopathology, evaluated by means of the M.M.P.I. The familial subconsciousness influences so significantly the consciousness of personality and can participate substantially in the development of psychopathologic symptoms. PMID:1015733

  18. Effect of Comprehensive Oncogenetics Training Interventions for General Practitioners, Evaluated at Multiple Performance Levels

    PubMed Central

    Houwink, Elisa J. F.; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; van Teeffelen, Sarah R.; Henneman, Lidewij; Rethans, Jan Joost; Jacobi, Florijn; van der Jagt, Liesbeth; Stirbu, Irina; van Luijk, Scheltus J.; Stumpel, Connie T. R. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.; van der Vleuten, Cees; Cornel, Martina C.; Dinant, Geert Jan

    2015-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are increasingly called upon to identify patients at risk for hereditary cancers, and their genetic competencies need to be enhanced. This article gives an overview of a research project on how to build effective educational modules on genetics, assessed by randomized controlled trials (RCTs), reflecting the prioritized educational needs of primary care physicians. It also reports on an ongoing study to investigate long-term increase in genetic consultation skills (1-year follow-up) and interest in and satisfaction with a supportive website on genetics among GPs. Three oncogenetics modules were developed: an online Continuing Professional Development (G-eCPD) module, a live genetic CPD module, and a “GP and genetics” website (huisartsengenetica.nl) providing further genetics information applicable in daily practice. Three assessments to evaluate the effectiveness (1-year follow-up) of the oncogenetic modules were designed: 1.An online questionnaire on self-reported genetic competencies and changes in referral behaviour, 2.Referral rates from GPs to clinical genetics centres and 3.Satisfaction questionnaire and visitor count analytics of supportive genetics website. The setting was Primary care in the Netherlands and three groups of study participants were included in the reported studies:. Assessment 1. 168 GPs responded to an email invitation and were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group, evaluating the G-eCPD module (n = 80) or the live module (n = 88). Assessment 2. Referral rates by GPs were requested from the clinical genetics centres, in the northern and southern parts of the Netherlands (Amsterdam and Maastricht), for the two years before (2010 [n = 2510] and 2011 [n = 2940]) and the year after (2012 [n = 2875]) launch of the oncogenetics CPD modules and the website. Assessment 3. Participants of the website evaluation were all recruited online. When they visited the website during the month of February 2013

  19. Motoneuron and sensory neuron plasticity to varying neuromuscular activity levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihara, Akihiko; Roy, Roland R.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2002-01-01

    The size and phenotypic properties of the neural and muscular elements of the neuromuscular unit are matched under normal conditions. When subjected to chronic decreases or increases in neuromuscular activity, however, the adaptations in these properties are much more limited in the neural compared with the muscular elements.

  20. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  1. Teachers' Perception Levels of Activities Directed towards Professional Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayindir, Nida

    2009-01-01

    This research tries to bring up teachers' opinions about Professional progress. This research aims at revealing the problems about how the teachers perceive Professional progress activities corrected with the opinions of teachers who work at primary schools. This research is designed with the model of survey is realized on 108 teachers who Works…

  2. Okeechobee County Energy Education Activities--Middle School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Over 60 energy education activities related to mathematics, science, social studies, and English comprise this manual for middle school teachers. Included are issues for discussion, puzzles, science investigations, story writing exercises, and energy cost calculation problems. Among the topics covered in these lessons are energy consumption…

  3. Middle Level Activities Programs: Helping Achieve Academic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovland, Don

    1990-01-01

    The middle school athletic program should be based on the same philosophy governing academics and nonathletic activities. Essential criteria include total participation, no emphasis on winning, administrative and staff encouragement, short athletic sessions providing several choices, no tournaments or community "all-star" teams, appropriately…

  4. The Generalized Hill Model: A Kinematic Approach Towards Active Muscle Contraction.

    PubMed

    Göktepe, Serdar; Menzel, Andreas; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    Excitation-contraction coupling is the physiological process of converting an electrical stimulus into a mechanical response. In muscle, the electrical stimulus is an action potential and the mechanical response is active contraction. The classical Hill model characterizes muscle contraction though one contractile element, activated by electrical excitation, and two non-linear springs, one in series and one in parallel. This rheology translates into an additive decomposition of the total stress into a passive and an active part. Here we supplement this additive decomposition of the stress by a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a passive and an active part. We generalize the one-dimensional Hill model to the three-dimensional setting and constitutively define the passive stress as a function of the total deformation gradient and the active stress as a function of both the total deformation gradient and its active part. We show that this novel approach combines the features of both the classical stress-based Hill model and the recent active-strain models. While the notion of active stress is rather phenomenological in nature, active strain is micro-structurally motivated, physically measurable, and straightforward to calibrate. We demonstrate that our model is capable of simulating excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle with its characteristic features of wall thickening, apical lift, and ventricular torsion. PMID:25221354

  5. The Generalized Hill Model: A Kinematic Approach Towards Active Muscle Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Andreas; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Excitation-contraction coupling is the physiological process of converting an electrical stimulus into a mechanical response. In muscle, the electrical stimulus is an action potential and the mechanical response is active contraction. The classical Hill model characterizes muscle contraction though one contractile element, activated by electrical excitation, and two non-linear springs, one in series and one in parallel. This rheology translates into an additive decomposition of the total stress into a passive and an active part. Here we supplement this additive decomposition of the stress by a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a passive and an active part. We generalize the one-dimensional Hill model to the three-dimensional setting and constitutively define the passive stress as a function of the total deformation gradient and the active stress as a function of both the total deformation gradient and its active part. We show that this novel approach combines the features of both the classical stress-based Hill model and the recent active-strain models. While the notion of active stress is rather phenomenological in nature, active strain is micro-structurally motivated, physically measurable, and straightforward to calibrate. We demonstrate that our model is capable of simulating excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle with its characteristic features of wall thickening, apical lift, and ventricular torsion. PMID:25221354

  6. The generalized Hill model: A kinematic approach towards active muscle contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göktepe, Serdar; Menzel, Andreas; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    Excitation-contraction coupling is the physiological process of converting an electrical stimulus into a mechanical response. In muscle, the electrical stimulus is an action potential and the mechanical response is active contraction. The classical Hill model characterizes muscle contraction though one contractile element, activated by electrical excitation, and two non-linear springs, one in series and one in parallel. This rheology translates into an additive decomposition of the total stress into a passive and an active part. Here we supplement this additive decomposition of the stress by a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a passive and an active part. We generalize the one-dimensional Hill model to the three-dimensional setting and constitutively define the passive stress as a function of the total deformation gradient and the active stress as a function of both the total deformation gradient and its active part. We show that this novel approach combines the features of both the classical stress-based Hill model and the recent active-strain models. While the notion of active stress is rather phenomenological in nature, active strain is micro-structurally motivated, physically measurable, and straightforward to calibrate. We demonstrate that our model is capable of simulating excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle with its characteristic features of wall thickening, apical lift, and ventricular torsion.

  7. Ecological concerns following Superstorm Sandy: stressor level and recreational activity levels affect perceptions of ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy, including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, central Jersey), stressor level (power outages, high winds, flooding) and recreational rates. “Wildlife” and “fish” were the ecological concerns mentioned most often, while beaches and dunes were most often mentioned for environmental concerns. Television, radio, and web/internet were sources trusted for ecological information. The data indicate 1) stressor level was a better predictor of ratings of ecological services than geographical location, but days engaged in recreation contributed the most to variations in ratings, 2) ecological services were rated the highest by respondents with the highest stressor levels, and by those from the coast, compared to others, 3) Caucasians rated ecological services higher than all others, and 4) recreational rates were highest for coastal respondents, and ratings for ecological services increased with recreational rates. Only 20 % of respondents listed specific ecological services as one of their three most important environmental concerns. These data will be useful for increasing preparedness, enhancing educational strategies for shore protection, and providing managers and public policy makers with data essential to developing resiliency strategies. PMID:27011729

  8. Second-Order Perturbation Theory for Generalized Active Space Self-Consistent-Field Wave Functions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dongxia; Li Manni, Giovanni; Olsen, Jeppe; Gagliardi, Laura

    2016-07-12

    A multireference second-order perturbation theory approach based on the generalized active space self-consistent-field (GASSCF) wave function is presented. Compared with the complete active space (CAS) and restricted active space (RAS) wave functions, GAS wave functions are more flexible and can employ larger active spaces and/or different truncations of the configuration interaction expansion. With GASSCF, one can explore chemical systems that are not affordable with either CASSCF or RASSCF. Perturbation theory to second order on top of GAS wave functions (GASPT2) has been implemented to recover the remaining electron correlation. The method has been benchmarked by computing the chromium dimer ground-state potential energy curve. These calculations show that GASPT2 gives results similar to CASPT2 even with a configuration interaction expansion much smaller than the corresponding CAS expansion. PMID:27276688

  9. Two-Year Longitudinal Analysis of a Cluster Randomized Trial of Physical Activity Promotion by General Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Grandes, Gonzalo; Sanchez, Alvaro; Montoya, Imanol; Ortega Sanchez-Pinilla, Ricardo; Torcal, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Background We evaluate the effectiveness of a physical activity promotion programme carried out by general practitioners with inactive patients in routine care. Methods and Findings Pragmatic, cluster randomised clinical trial conducted in eleven public primary care centres in Spain. Fifty-six general practitioners (GPs) were randomly assigned to intervention (29) or standard care (27) groups. They assessed the physical activity level of a systematic sample of patients in routine practice and recruited 4317 individuals (2248 intervention and 2069 control) who did not meet minimum physical activity recommendations. Intervention GPs provided advice to all patients and a physical activity prescription to the subgroup attending an additional appointment (30%). A third of these prescriptions were opportunistically repeated. Control GPs provided standard care. Primary outcome measure was the change in self-reported physical activity from baseline to six, 12 and 24 months. Secondary outcomes included cardiorespiratory fitness and health-related quality of life. A total of 3691 patients (85%) were included in the longitudinal analysis and overall trends over the whole 24 month follow-up were significantly better in the intervention group (p<0.01). The greatest differences with the control group were observed at six months (adjusted difference 1.7 MET*hr/wk [95% CI, 0.8 to 2.6], 25 min/wk [95% CI, 11.3 to 38.4], and a 5.3% higher percentage of patients meeting minimum recommendations [95% CI: 2.1% to 8.8%] NNT = 19). These differences were not statistically significant at 12 and 24 months. No differences were found in secondary outcomes. A significant difference was maintained until 24 months in the proportion of patients achieving minimum recommendation in the subgroup that received a repeat prescription (adjusted difference 10.2%, 95% CI 1.5% to 19.4%). Conclusions General practitioners are effective at increasing the level of physical activity among their inactive

  10. A comparison of the activities and opinions of attached and employed nurses in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Reedy, B. L. E. C.; Metcalfe, A. V.; de Roumanie, M.; Newell, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    We compared the nursing and medical activities and the opinions of nurses employed by area health authorities and nurses employed by general practitioners by interviewing a random sample of 153 nurses in 113 practices, situated in four rural and five urban area health authorities in England. The availability of a treatment room profoundly affected the work of both kinds of nurse and there were differences between them in the balance between `caring' and `technical' activities which may be largely attributed to the circumstances of their employment. However, their occupational histories and choices of employer appear to reflect both differences in their training and differences in their values about career and marriage. PMID:7452582

  11. Systems analysis of the installation, mounting, and activation of emergency locator transmitters in general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    A development program was developed to design and improve the Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) transmitter and to improve the installation in the aircraft and its activation subsystem. There were 1135 general aviation fixed wing aircraft accident files reviewed. A detailed description of the damage to the aircraft was produced. The search aspects of these accidents were studied. As much information as possible about the ELT units in these cases was collected. The data should assist in establishing installation and mounting criteria, better design standards for activation subsystems, and requirements for the new ELT system design in the area of crashworthiness.

  12. Age and Gender Differences in Urinary Levels of Eleven Phthalate Metabolites in General Taiwanese Population after a DEHP Episode

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Po-Chin; Tsai, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Wei-Yen; Li, Sih-Syuan; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chiang, Hung-Che

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In 2011, the Taiwan FDA disclosed illegal di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate) (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) use in beverage and nutrition supplements. We aim to determine phthalate exposure and other relevant factors in a sample of the general Taiwanese population in order to evaluate actual phthalate exposure levels after this disclosure of DEHP use. Method We selected subjects aged 7 years old and older in 2013 from the general Taiwanese population. First morning urine samples from each participant were collected to analyze 11 phthalate metabolites representing 7 parent phthalates using on-line liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. An interview questionnaire was applied to obtain participant demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and other relevant factors. Results The median levels of metabolites of DEHP, including mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), DBP (DnBP and DiBP), including mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), and mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) in urine samples of 290 adults/ 97 minors (<18 years) were 7.9/ 6.1, 12.6/ 17.8, 22.0/ 25.8, 25.4/ 30.8, 18.1/ 23.6, 9.4/ 13.6 and 14.5/ 12.4 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Women (≧18 years) were exposed to significantly higher levels of MEHHP (P=0.011), MECPP (P=0.01), MnBP (P=0.001) and MEP (P<0.001) than men (≧18 years), whereas no gender difference was observed in minors. We found significant higher level of MEP (creatinine-unadjusted) in subject aged between 18 to 40 years old (P<0.001), especially for women. Exposure levels of MEOHP (P<0.001), MECPP (P=0.002) and MnBP (P=0.044) in minors were significantly higher than those of adults. High frequency usage of food preservation film and bags, and personal care products are potential sources of phthalates exposure in general Taiwanese. Conclusion Our findings indicated

  13. A General Method for Multimetallic Platinum Alloy Nanowires as Highly Active and Stable Oxygen Reduction Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Bu, Lingzheng; Ding, Jiabao; Guo, Shaojun; Zhang, Xu; Su, Dong; Zhu, Xing; Yao, Jianlin; Guo, Jun; Lu, Gang; Huang, Xiaoqing

    2015-11-25

    An unconventional class of high-performance Pt alloy multimetallic nanowires (NWs) is produced by a general method. The obtained PtNi NWs exhibit amazingly specific and mass oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities with improvement factors of 51.1 and 34.6 over commercial Pt/C catalysts, respectively, and are also stable in ORR conditions, making them among the most efficient electrocatalysts for ORR. PMID:26459261

  14. Objectively-Measured Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education among Homeschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Sarah; Pope, Zachary; Zeng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Despite a growing population of homeschool children in the United States, little is known regarding their physical activity (PA) levels. Without access to physical education, homeschool children may engage in inadequate PA levels. The purpose of this study was to objectively examine the activity levels of homeschool students participating in a…

  15. The impact of sport and active recreation injuries on physical activity levels at 12 months post-injury.

    PubMed

    Andrew, N; Wolfe, R; Cameron, P; Richardson, M; Page, R; Bucknill, A; Gabbe, B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of serious sport and active recreation injury on 12-month physical activity levels. Adults admitted to hospital with sport and active recreation-related injuries, and captured by the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry were recruited to the study. Changes between preinjury and 12 month post-injury physical activity was assessed using the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Independent demographic, injury, and hospital variables were assessed for associations with changes in physical activity levels, using multivariate linear regression. A total of 324 patients were recruited, of which 98% were followed up at 12 months. Mean short IPAQ scores decreased from 7650 METS (95% CI: 7180, 8120) preinjury to 3880 METS; (95% CI: 3530, 4250) post-injury, independent of functional recovery. Education level and occupation group were the only variables independently associated with changes in physical activity levels post-injury. These results highlighted that sport and active recreation injuries lead to significant reductions in physical activity levels. Hence, the prevention of sport and active recreation injuries is important when considering promotion of activity at a population level. PMID:22937749

  16. Interevent time distributions of human multi-level activity in a virtual world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mryglod, O.; Fuchs, B.; Szell, M.; Holovatch, Yu.; Thurner, S.

    2015-02-01

    Studying human behavior in virtual environments provides extraordinary opportunities for a quantitative analysis of social phenomena with levels of accuracy that approach those of the natural sciences. In this paper we use records of player activities in the massive multiplayer online game Pardus over 1238 consecutive days, and analyze dynamical features of sequences of actions of players. We build on previous work where temporal structures of human actions of the same type were quantified, and provide an empirical understanding of human actions of different types. This study of multi-level human activity can be seen as a dynamic counterpart of static multiplex network analysis. We show that the interevent time distributions of actions in the Pardus universe follow highly non-trivial distribution functions, from which we extract action-type specific characteristic 'decay constants'. We discuss characteristic features of interevent time distributions, including periodic patterns on different time scales, bursty dynamics, and various functional forms on different time scales. We comment on gender differences of players in emotional actions, and find that while males and females act similarly when performing some positive actions, females are slightly faster for negative actions. We also observe effects on the age of players: more experienced players are generally faster in making decisions about engaging in and terminating enmity and friendship, respectively.

  17. Physical Activity Level of Post-menopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Dallanezi, Glauber; Freire, Beatriz Funayama Alvarenga; Nahás, Eliana Aguiar Petri; Nahás-Neto, Jorge; Corrente, José Eduardo; Mazeto, Gláucia Maria Ferreira da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Proper physical activity is related to the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis. Purpose To assess the level of physical activity (PA) in post-menopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This cross-sectional clinical study included 123 post-menopausal women. The inclusion criteria were: age of ≥ 45 years with last menses at least 12 months prior to the initiation of the study, and bone density scan (BDS) values measured over the preceding 12 months. Women with severe osteoarthritis were excluded. Women were allocated into three groups, according to BMD measured by BDS [osteoporosis (OP; 54 women), osteopenia (35 women), and normal bone density (NBD; 35 women)], and compared for general, clinical, and anthropometric data, and for PA level. The latter was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), in metabolic equivalent of task (MET) units. Participants were classified as sedentary, active or very active. Quantitative variables were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Associations between qualitative variables were tested by Chi-square (χ2) or Fisher's exact test. In order to check for differences among groups and IPAQ domains, a generalized linear model with Gamma distribution was adjusted for values in METs. Results The OP group differed from the NBD group regarding age (61.8 ± 10.1 and 52.9 ± 5.4 years), percentage of participants with self-declared white ethnicity (43.9 and 28.0%), body mass index (BMI - 25.7 ± 5.4 and 30.9 ± 5.1 kg/m(2)), and time since menopause (15.5 ± 7.5 and 5.8 ± 4.5 years). Smoking rates were higher in the OP (55.6%) and NBD groups (33.3%) than in the osteopenia group (11.1%). Within the OP group, the rate of subjects with sedentary lifestyles was higher (42.6%), and time spent sitting was greater (344.3 ± 204.8 METs) than in the groups with osteopenia (20.0% and 300.9 ± 230.6 METs) and NBD (17.7% and 303

  18. Liquid-Phase Adsorption of Phenol onto Activated Carbons Prepared with Different Activation Levels.

    PubMed

    Hsieh; Teng

    2000-10-01

    The influence of the pore size distribution of activated carbon on the adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions was explored. Activated carbons with different porous structures were prepared by gasifying a bituminous coal char to different extents of burn-off. The results of adsorption experiments show that the phenol capacity of these carbons does not proportionally increase with their BET surface area. This reflects the heterogeneity of the carbon surface for adsorption. The pore size distributions of these carbons, determined according to the Dubinin-Stoeckli equation, were found to vary with the burn-off level. By incorporating the distribution with the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation using an inverse proportionality between the micropore size and the adsorption energy, the isotherms for the adsorption of phenol onto these carbons can be well predicted. The present study has demonstrated that the heterogeneity of carbon surface for the phenol adsorption can be attributed to the different energies required for adsorption in different-size micropores. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10998301

  19. Patterns of 12-Year Change in Physical Activity Levels in Community-Dwelling Older Women: Can Modest Levels of Physical Activity Help Older Women Live Longer?

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Qian-Li; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Mielenz, Thelma J.; Seplaki, Christopher L.; Szanton, Sarah L.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Kalyani, Rita R.; Chaves, Paulo H. M.; Dam, Thuy-Tien L.; Ornstein, Katherine; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Varadhan, Ravi; Yao, Wenliang; Fried, Linda P.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have addressed changes in physical activity participation over time among the elderly. The authors hypothesized that there were distinct trajectories of physical activity level over time and identifiable predictors of such trajectories, as well as that the maintenance of regular physical activity, even below recommended levels, was associated with lower mortality risk. Using longitudinal data (1994–2009) from 433 initially high-functioning older women aged 70–79 years at baseline, a joint latent class and survival mixture model identified 4 activity trajectory classes: always active (16.6%), fast declining (19.2%), stable moderate (32.3%), and always sedentary (31.9%). Obesity, coronary artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depressive symptoms, low self-efficacy, mobility disability, and low energy were associated with sedentary behavior and/or a fast decline in activity. Women in the fast declining and always sedentary classes had hazard ratios for death of 2.34 (95% confidence interval: 1.20, 4.59) and 3.34 (95% confidence interval: 1.72, 6.47), respectively, compared with the always active class; no mortality difference was found between the stable moderate and always active groups (hazard ratio = 1.24, 95% confidence interval: 0.63, 2.47). Our findings suggest that physical activity does not have to be vigorous to be beneficial and that the gain may be the greatest among women who reported the lowest levels of activity. PMID:22935515

  20. Does an activity based remuneration system attract young doctors to general practice?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of increasingly complex payment schemes in primary care may represent a barrier to recruiting general practitioners (GP). The existing Norwegian remuneration system is fully activity based - 2/3 fee-for-service and 1/3 capitation. Given that the system has been designed and revised in close collaborations with the medical association, it is likely to correspond - at least to some degree - with the preferences of current GPs (men in majority). The objective of this paper was to study which preferences that young doctors (women in majority), who are the potential entrants to general practice have for activity based vs. salary based payment systems. Methods In November-December 2010 all last year medical students and all interns in Norway (n = 1.562) were invited to participate in an online survey. The respondents were asked their opinion on systems of remuneration for GPs; inclination to work as a GP; risk attitude; income preferences; work pace tolerance. The data was analysed using one-way ANOVA and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 831 (53%) responded. Nearly half the sample (47%) did not consider the remuneration system to be important for their inclination to work as GP; 36% considered the current system to make general practice more attractive, while 17% considered it to make general practice less attractive. Those who are attracted by the existing system were men and those who think high income is important, while those who are deterred by the system are risk averse and less happy with a high work pace. On the question of preferred remuneration system, half the sample preferred a mix of salary and activity based remuneration (the median respondent would prefer a 50/50 mix). Only 20% preferred a fully activity based system like the existing one. A salary system was preferred by women, and those less concerned with high income, while a fully activity based system was preferred by men, and those happy with a high work

  1. Towards a generalized Landau-Zener formula for an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate in a two-level system

    SciTech Connect

    Witthaut, D.; Graefe, E. M.; Korsch, H. J.

    2006-06-15

    We consider the Landau-Zener problem for a Bose-Einstein condensate in a linearly varying two-level system, for the full many-particle system as well as in the mean-field approximation. Novel nonlinear eigenstates emerge in the mean-field description, which leads to a breakdown of adiabaticity: The Landau-Zener transition probability does not vanish even in the adiabatic limit. It is shown that the emergence of nonlinear eigenstates and thus the breakdown of adiabaticity corresponds to quasi-degenerate avoided crossings of the many-particle levels. The many-particle problem can be solved approximately within an independent crossings approximation, which yields an explicit generalized Landau-Zener formula. A comparison to numerical results for the many-particle system and the mean-field approximation shows an excellent agreement.

  2. Transketolase activity modulates glycerol-3-phosphate levels in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Vimala, A; Harinarayanan, R

    2016-04-01

    Transketolase activity provides an important link between the metabolic pathways of glycolysis and pentose phosphate shunt and catalyzes inter-conversions between pentose phosphates and glycolytic intermediates. It is widely conserved in life forms. A genetic screen for suppression of the growth defect of Escherichia coli tktA tktB mutant in LB medium revealed two mutations, one that rendered the glpK expression constitutive and another that inactivated deoB. Characterizing these mutations aided in uncovering the role of ribose-5-P (a transketolase substrate) as an inhibitor of glycerol assimilation and de novo glycerol-3-P synthesis. Using lacZ fusions, we show that ribose-5-P enhances GlpR-mediated repression of the glpFKX operon and inhibits glycerol assimilation. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) showed ribose-5-P made the DNA-GlpR complex less sensitive to the inducer glycerol-3-P. In addition to inhibition of glycerol assimilation, obstruction of ribose-5-P metabolism retards growth from glycerol-3-P limitation. Glucose helps to overcome this limitation through a mechanism involving catabolite repression. To our knowledge, this report is the first to show ribose-5-P can modulate glycerol-3-P concentration in the cell by regulation of glycerol assimilation as well as its de novo synthesis. This regulation could be prevalent in other organisms. PMID:26691989

  3. Effects of parental gender and level of education on the quality of life and general health of pediatric patients with epilepsy: An outpatient cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Meisam; Amirsalari, Susan; Radfar, Shokofeh; Haidari, Mohsen Reza

    2016-07-01

    The quality of life (QOL) of children with epilepsy has been widely studied, and several problems related to cognition, behavior, social lives, and physical activity among these children have been reported. Family life and parental care are important aspects of the lives of these patients. The impact of parental education on the QOL of pediatric patients with epilepsy is an understudied topic, especially in developing countries. In this study, we investigated the QOL and general health (GH) of patients with epilepsy presenting at the pediatric neurology clinic at Baqiyatallah Hospital and a private clinic. The Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) questionnaire, which is a 92-item epilepsy-specific questionnaire covering physical activity, well-being, cognition, behavior, social activity, overall QOL, and GH, was used for interviewing parents. A total of 106 patients (m=61, 57.5% and f=45, 42.5%) aged 5-17years (mean: 10.31±2.91) participated in the study. Overall, there was no significant difference between the QOL and GH results of male and female patients. However, the maternal education level had a significant impact on the overall QOL (high school: 3.02±0.85 vs. B.Sc.: 3.67±0.61, p<0.05) and GH (high school: 2.81±0.79 vs. B.Sc.: 3.8±0.94, p<0.05) of male patients, while paternal education had no significant effect. A multiple linear regression showed that the maternal education level had an independently significant association with the physical activity of the patients (p=0.02, CI: 1.4-6.25), and the paternal education level had an independently significant association with the well-being of the patients (p=0.02, CI: 0.43-5.36). In addition, the maternal education level (high school vs. B.Sc.) had a significant effect on physical activity, well-being, cognition, and behavior for all of the patients (p<0.05), while the paternal education level (high school vs. B.Sc.) had no significant impact. However, in a comparison of high school vs. higher

  4. Autophagy Defects Suggested by Low Levels of Autophagy Activator MAP1S and High Levels of Autophagy Inhibitor LRPPRC Predict Poor Prognosis of Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xianhan; Zhong, Weide; Huang, Hai; He, Huichan; Jiang, Funeng; Chen, Yanru; Yue, Fei; Zou, Jing; Li, Xun; He, Yongzhong; You, Pan; Yang, Weiqiang; Lai, Yiming; Wang, Fen; Liu, Leyuan

    2016-01-01

    MAP1S (originally named C19ORF5) is a widely distributed homolog of neuronal-specific MAP1A and MAP1B, and bridges autophagic components with microtubules and mitochondria to affect autophagosomal biogenesis and degradation. Mitochondrion-associated protein LRPPRC functions as an inhibitor for autophagy initiation to protect mitochondria from autophagy degradation. MAP1S and LRPPRC interact with each other and may collaboratively regulate autophagy although the underlying mechanism is yet unknown. Previously, we have reported that LRPPRC levels serve as a prognosis marker of patients with prostate adenocarcinomas (PCA), and that patients with high LRPPRC levels survive a shorter period after surgery than those with low levels of LRPPRC. MAP1S levels are elevated in diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocelular carcinomas in wildtype mice and the exposed MAP1S-deficient mice develop more malignant hepatocellular carcinomas. We performed immunochemical analysis to evaluate the co-relationship among the levels of MAP1S, LRPPRC, P62, and γ-H2AX. Samples were collected from wildtype and prostate-specific PTEN-deficient mice, 111 patients with PCA who had been followed up for 10 years and 38 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia enrolled in hospitals in Guangzhou, China. The levels of MAP1S were generally elevated so the MAP1S-mediated autophagy was activated in PCA developed in either PTEN-deficient mice or patients than their respective benign tumors. The MAP1S levels among patients with PCA vary dramatically, and patients with low MAP1S levels survive a shorter period than those with high MAP1S levels. Levels of MAP1S in collaboration with levels of LRPPRC can serve as markers for prognosis of prostate cancer patients. PMID:25043940

  5. Suboptimal Muscle Synergy Activation Patterns Generalize their Motor Function across Postures

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, M. Hongchul; Ting, Lena H.

    2016-01-01

    muscles associated with producing a specific synergy force vector was reduced by ~45% when generalizability requirements were imposed. Muscles recruited in the generalizable muscle activation patterns had less sensitive torque-producing characteristics to changes in postures. We conclude that generalization of function across postures does not arise from limb biomechanics or a single optimality criterion. Muscle synergies may reflect acquired motor solutions globally tuned for generalizability across biomechanical contexts, facilitating rapid motor adaptation. PMID:26869914

  6. Activation of Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 Is a General Phenomenon in Infections with Human Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Werth, Nadine; Beerlage, Christiane; Rosenberger, Christian; Yazdi, Amir S.; Edelmann, Markus; Amr, Amro; Bernhardt, Wanja; von Eiff, Christof; Becker, Karsten; Schäfer, Andrea; Peschel, Andreas; Kempf, Volkhard A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 is the key transcriptional factor involved in the adaptation process of cells and organisms to hypoxia. Recent findings suggest that HIF-1 plays also a crucial role in inflammatory and infectious diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings Using patient skin biopsies, cell culture and murine infection models, HIF-1 activation was determined by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and reporter gene assays and was linked to cellular oxygen consumption. The course of a S. aureus peritonitis was determined upon pharmacological HIF-1 inhibition. Activation of HIF-1 was detectable (i) in all ex vivo in biopsies of patients suffering from skin infections, (ii) in vitro using cell culture infection models and (iii) in vivo using murine intravenous and peritoneal S. aureus infection models. HIF-1 activation by human pathogens was induced by oxygen-dependent mechanisms. Small colony variants (SCVs) of S. aureus known to cause chronic infections did not result in cellular hypoxia nor in HIF-1 activation. Pharmaceutical inhibition of HIF-1 activation resulted in increased survival rates of mice suffering from a S. aureus peritonitis. Conclusions/Significance Activation of HIF-1 is a general phenomenon in infections with human pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. HIF-1-regulated pathways might be an attractive target to modulate the course of life-threatening infections. PMID:20644645

  7. Preoperative anxiety induces no clinically relevant effect on intraoperative nociceptive levels during breast surgery under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kazuma; Iwayama, Sachiko; Sano, Yuka; Tatara, Tsuneo; Hirose, Munetaka

    2015-12-01

    Anxiety can affect acute and chronic postoperative pain after breast surgery. Nociceptive response during surgery might also be affected by preoperative anxiety even under unconscious state during general anesthesia. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate nociceptive responses during breast surgery under general anesthesia in patients with or without preoperative anxiety. Patients (n = 45) were divided into a low-anxiety group (n = 25) and a high-anxiety group (n = 20) in accordance with preoperative scores for the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. We performed discriminant analysis to compare nociception during surgery using three intraoperative averaged values: heart rate; systolic blood pressure; and perfusion index. No significant differences in discriminant score were seen between groups (p = 0.10). Although we performed propensity score-matching to reduce the bias due to confounding variables in this retrospective study, there was also no significant difference in levels of nociceptive response between groups (p = 0.06). In conclusion, the level of nociception during breast surgery is not significantly affected by preoperative anxiety. PMID:25995061

  8. Compendium of Interdisciplinary Activities for an Introductory Course in Communication Systems at the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasko, David J.

    This compendium of interdisciplinary learning activities is designed to assist technology education instructors who are conducting an introductory secondary-level course in communication technology. The 12 activities, which are sequenced from introductory, low-cost activities to more advanced and more involved activities, deal with the following…

  9. Light-Intensity Physical Activities and Mortality in the United States General Population and CKD Subpopulation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Guo; Marcus, Robin L.; Chonchol, Michel; Greene, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Sedentary behavior is associated with increased mortality in the general population. Whether replacing sedentary behavior with low- or light-intensity activities confers a survival benefit in the general or CKD populations is unknown. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This observational analysis of the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey examined the associations of low- and light-intensity activities with mortality. On the basis of the number of counts/min recorded by an accelerometer, durations of sedentary (<100/min), low (100–499/min), light (500–2019/min), and moderate/vigorous (≥2020/min) activity were defined and normalized to 60 minutes. The mortality associations of 2 min/hr less sedentary duration in conjunction with 2 min/hr more (tradeoff) spent in one of the low, light, or moderate/vigorous activity durations while controlling for the other two activity durations were examined in multivariable Cox regression models in the entire cohort and in the CKD subgroup. Results Of the 3626 participants included, 383 had CKD. The mean sedentary duration was 34.4±7.9 min/hr in the entire cohort and 40.8±6.8 in the CKD subgroup. Tradeoff of sedentary duration with low activity duration was not associated with mortality in the entire cohort or the CKD subgroup. Tradeoff of sedentary duration with light activity duration was associated with a lower hazard of death in the entire cohort (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.48 to 0.93) and CKD subgroup (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.35 to 0.98). Tradeoff of sedentary duration with moderate/vigorous activity duration had a nonsignificant lower hazard in the entire cohort and CKD subgroup. Conclusions Patients with CKD are sedentary nearly two thirds of the time. Interventions that replace sedentary duration with an increase in light activity duration might confer a survival benefit. PMID:25931456

  10. Activation of D1 dopamine receptors induces emergence from isoflurane general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Norman E.; Chemali, Jessica J.; Brown, Emery N.; Solt, Ken

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND A recent study showed that methylphenidate induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. Methylphenidate inhibits dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake transporters. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that selective dopamine receptor activation induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. METHODS In adult rats, we tested the effects of chloro-APB (D1 agonist) and quinpirole (D2 agonist) on time to emergence from isoflurane general anesthesia. We then performed a dose–response study to test for chloro-APB-induced restoration of righting during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. SCH-23390 (D1 antagonist) was used to confirm that the effects induced by chloro-APB are specifically mediated by D1 receptors. In a separate group of animals, spectral analysis was performed on surface electroencephalogram recordings to assess neurophysiological changes induced by chloro-APB and quinpirole during isoflurane general anesthesia. RESULTS Chloro-APB decreased median time to emergence from 330s to 50s. The median difference in time to emergence between the saline control group (n=6) and the chloro-APB group (n = 6) was 222s (95% CI: 77–534s, Mann-Whitney test). This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0082). During continuous isoflurane anesthesia, chloro-APB dose-dependently restored righting (n = 6) and decreased electroencephalogram delta power (n = 4). These effects were inhibited by pretreatment with SCH-23390. Quinpirole did not restore righting (n = 6) and had no significant effect on the electroencephalogram (n = 4) during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS Activation of D1 receptors by chloro-APB decreases time to emergence from isoflurane anesthesia, and produces behavioral and neurophysiological evidence of arousal during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. These findings suggest that selective activation of a D1 receptor-mediated arousal mechanism is sufficient to induce emergence from isoflurane general

  11. Relationship of lipoprotein(a) levels to physical activity and family history of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Martín, S; Elosua, R; Covas, M I; Pavesi, M; Vila, J; Marrugat, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association of physical activity with serum lipoprotein(a) [La(a)] levels in individuals according to whether they had a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Lp(a) levels in 332 healthy Spanish men aged 20 to 60 years were measured. Physical activity and family history of CHD were assessed. RESULTS: For men with a family history of CHD, the odds ratio for Lp(a) levels above the median value was 0.13 (95% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.50) in very active men (energy expended in physical activity > 300 kcal/day) compared with active men (energy expended in physical activity < 300 kcal/day). CONCLUSIONS: Regular daily physical activity in individuals with a family history of CHD could be useful for controlling Lp(a) levels. PMID:10076490

  12. 78 FR 12676 - Timing Requirements for the Submission of a Site Assessment Plan (SAP) or General Activities Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... test.'' (71 FR 788 (2006)). OCSLA, however, uses the term ``Affected State'' to identify which States... Submission of a Site Assessment Plan (SAP) or General Activities Plan (GAP) for a Renewable Energy Project on... Assessment Plan (SAP) or General Activities Plan (GAP) pursuant to the regulations governing renewable...

  13. Action Memorandum for General Decommissioning Activities under the Idaho Cleanup Project

    SciTech Connect

    S. L. Reno

    2006-10-26

    This Action Memorandum documents the selected alternative to perform general decommissioning activities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under the Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP). Preparation of this Action Memorandum has been performed in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the "Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986", and in accordance with the "National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan". An engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) was prepared and released for public comment and evaluated alternatives to accomplish the decommissioning of excess buildings and structures whose missions havve been completed.

  14. Lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona: blood levels and related factors.

    PubMed

    Solé, E; Ballabriga, A; Dominguez, C

    1998-12-11

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 254 individuals not occupationally exposed to lead to determine the degree of lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Blood lead levels (BPb) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) by haemofluorimetry. Blood lead levels were analysed with respect to individuals' age, sex, area of residence, the season of the year the blood was drawn and ZPP. Mean blood lead in our series was 0.22 +/- 0.011 mumol/l (mean +/- S.E.); no significant differences were found with respect to area of residence, sex or season. A linear relationship was observed between BPb and individuals' age (BPb = 0.08 + 0.05 x age; r = 0.37). The prevalence of lead intoxication (BPb > 0.48 mumol/l) was 7.1%. No linear relationship was observed between BPb and ZPP. ZPP determination does not appear to be a good screening method for lead intoxication since it presents low specificity and sensitivity values with an area below the ROC curve similar to the null value line (area below the curve = 0.5052, IC 95% = 0.443-0.568). We conclude that lead exposure does not constitute a serious health problem in the area studied, since BPb levels found are far below the toxic limit and the prevalence of intoxication is similar to that reported in other studies conducted in other developed countries. PMID:9926425

  15. Classification of Normal and Apoptotic Cells from Fluorescence Microscopy Images Using Generalized Polynomial Chaos and Level Set Function.

    PubMed

    Du, Yuncheng; Budman, Hector M; Duever, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    Accurate automated quantitative analysis of living cells based on fluorescence microscopy images can be very useful for fast evaluation of experimental outcomes and cell culture protocols. In this work, an algorithm is developed for fast differentiation of normal and apoptotic viable Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. For effective segmentation of cell images, a stochastic segmentation algorithm is developed by combining a generalized polynomial chaos expansion with a level set function-based segmentation algorithm. This approach provides a probabilistic description of the segmented cellular regions along the boundary, from which it is possible to calculate morphological changes related to apoptosis, i.e., the curvature and length of a cell's boundary. These features are then used as inputs to a support vector machine (SVM) classifier that is trained to distinguish between normal and apoptotic viable states of CHO cell images. The use of morphological features obtained from the stochastic level set segmentation of cell images in combination with the trained SVM classifier is more efficient in terms of differentiation accuracy as compared with the original deterministic level set method. PMID:27142234

  16. Multiple steps in the regulation of transcription-factor level and activity.

    PubMed Central

    Calkhoven, C F; Ab, G

    1996-01-01

    This review focuses on the regulation of transcription factors, many of which are DNA-binding proteins that recognize cis-regulatory elements of target genes and are the most direct regulators of gene transcription. Transcription factors serve as integration centres of the different signal-transduction pathways affecting a given gene. It is obvious that the regulation of these regulators themselves is of crucial importance for differential gene expression during development and in terminally differentiated cells. Transcription factors can be regulated at two, principally different, levels, namely concentration and activity, each of which can be modulated in a variety of ways. The concentrations of transcription factors, as of intracellular proteins in general, may be regulated at any of the steps leading from DNA to protein, including transcription, RNA processing, mRNA degradation and translation. The activity of a transcription factor is often regulated by (de) phosphorylation, which may affect different functions, e.g. nuclear localization DNA binding and trans-activation. Ligand binding is another mode of transcription-factor activation. It is typical for the large super-family of nuclear hormone receptors. Heterodimerization between transcription factors adds another dimension to the regulatory diversity and signal integration. Finally, non-DNA-binding (accessory) factors may mediate a diverse range of functions, e.g. serving as a bridge between the transcription factor and the basal transcription machinery, stabilizing the DNA-binding complex or changing the specificity of the target sequence recognition. The present review presents an overview of different modes of transcription-factor regulation, each illustrated by typical examples. PMID:8713055

  17. Survey of plutonium and uranium atom ratios and activity levels in Mortandad Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaher, B.M.; Efurd, D.W.; Rokop, D.J.; Benjamin, T.M.; Stoker, A.K.

    1997-10-01

    For more than three decades, Mortandad Canyon has been the primary release area of treated liquid radioactive waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory). In this survey, six water samples and seven stream sediment samples collected in Mortandad Canyon were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry to determine the plutonium and uranium activity levels and atom ratios. By measuring the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, the Laboratory plutonium component was evaluated relative to that from global fallout. Measurements of the relative abundance of {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U were also used to identify non-natural components. The survey results indicate that the Laboratory plutonium and uranium concentrations in waters and sediments decrease relatively rapidly with distance downstream from the major industrial sources. Plutonium concentrations in shallow alluvial groundwater decrease by approximately 1,000-fold along a 3,000-ft distance. At the Laboratory downstream boundary, total plutonium and uranium concentrations were generally within regional background ranges previously reported. Laboratory-derived plutonium is readily distinguished from global fallout in on-site waters and sediments. The isotopic ratio data indicate off-site migration of trace levels of Laboratory plutonium in stream sediments to distances approximately two miles downstream of the Laboratory boundary.

  18. Survey of plutonium and uranium atom ratios and activity levels in Mortandad Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaher, B.M.; Benjamin, T.M.; Rokop, D.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1997-09-22

    For more than three decades Mortandad Canyon has been the primary release area of treated liquid radioactive waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory). In this survey, six water samples and seven stream sediment samples collected in Mortandad Canyon were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) to determine the plutonium and uranium activity levels and atom ratios. Be measuring the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, the Laboratory plutonium component was evaluated relative to that from global fallout. Measurements of the relative abundance of {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U were also used to identify non-natural components. The survey results indicate the Laboratory plutonium and uranium concentrations in waters and sediments decrease relatively rapidly with distance downstream from the major industrial sources. Plutonium concentrations in shallow alluvial groundwater decrease by approximately 1000 fold along a 3000 ft distance. At the Laboratory downstream boundary, total plutonium and uranium concentrations were generally within regional background ranges previously reported. Laboratory derived plutonium is readily distinguished from global fallout in on-site waters and sediments. The isotopic ratio data indicates off-site migration of trace levels of Laboratory plutonium in stream sediments to distances approximately two miles downstream of the Laboratory boundary.

  19. Levels of Engagement and Barriers to Physical Activity in a Population of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Andrew; Look, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This study examined levels of, and barriers to, physical activity in a population of 19 adults with learning disabilities living in community supported accommodation, using diary records and semi-structured interviews with staff. The levels of physical activity were higher in the sample population than previous figures for adults with learning…

  20. Correlation between the Physical Activity Level and Grade Point Averages of Faculty of Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imdat, Yarim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find the correlation that exists between physical activity level and grade point averages of faculty of education students. The subjects consist of 359 (172 females and 187 males) under graduate students To determine the physical activity levels of the students in this research, International Physical Activity…

  1. A Comparison between Children's Physical Activity Levels at School and Learning in an Outdoor Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mygind, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Physical activity levels were measured with an accelerometer in a case study including 19 children, from nine to ten years of age, in a Danish primary school. The teachers conducted their teaching in a forest every Thursday from 2000 to 2003. The purpose of this study was to measure the students' activity levels during outdoor learning days in the…

  2. Habitual hip joint activity level of the penned EMU (Dromaius novaehollandie).

    PubMed

    Troy, Karen L; Lundberg, Hannah J; Conzemius, Michael G; Brown, Thomas D

    2007-01-01

    Orthopaedic management of femoral head osteonecrosis remains problematic, partly because of inability to systematically compare treatments in an animal model whose natural history parallels the human in terms of progression to femoral head collapse. Recently, it was determined that collapse could be consistently achieved for cryogenically induced osteonecrosis in the emu. Toward delineating the comparative hip joint biomechanics of emus versus humans, for purposes of establishing the emu as a model for human femoral head osteonecrosis, habitual hip joint activity level was quantified for a group of seven healthy adult emus housed in an outdoor research pen typical of those used in emu farming operations. The daily number of steps taken, and the time spent with the hips loaded (standing, or squatting/sitting) versus unloaded (recumbent), were quantified from 24-hour videotape recordings, analyzed by four independent observers. The average number of steps taken per day was 9563, which extrapolates to 1.8 million hip loadings per year, a value that falls in the same general range as seen in normal adult humans. On average, the emus spent 4:05 hours per day idly standing, 2:12 hours squatting/sitting, and 10:44 hours recumbent; they underwent an average of 37 transitions per day between the respective posture/activity states. PMID:17907425

  3. A Trans-Theoretical Approach to Physical Activity Profile in General Population of Mashhad

    PubMed Central

    Shaye, Zahra Abbasi; Bazzaz, Mojtaba Mousavi; Vakili, Veda

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical-activity is necessity for a healthy lifestyle. Despite public health efforts, a minority of population are involved in healthy levels of physical-activity. This study provides evidence about exercise patterns and predictors of Mashhad-Iran population according to TTM change stages. In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed a total number of 564 participants from Mashhad in 2014 by using stages of change questionnaire. Analysis showed 23.4% of participants were in pre-contemplation stage, 18 in contemplation, 24.6% in preparation, 8.10% in action, 14.4% in maintenance and 11.5% were in termination phase. Age, gender, BMI, alcohol consumption, sleep duration, having compeer and encouragement were identified as predictors of pre-contemplation stage. Genders, having company and using bicycle for transportation were predictors of termination phase. Tailor interventions based on the predictors to enhance the physical activity among specific subgroups would be of interest. PMID:26153203

  4. Generalized acoustic energy density based active noise control in single frequency diffuse sound fields.

    PubMed

    Xu, Buye; Sommerfeldt, Scott D

    2014-09-01

    In a diffuse sound field, prior research has established that a secondary source can theoretically achieve perfect cancellation at an error microphone in the far field of the secondary source. However, the sound pressure level is generally only reduced in a small zone around the error sensor, and at a distance half of a wavelength away from the error sensor, the averaged sound pressure level will be increased by more than 10 dB. Recently an acoustic energy quantity, referred to as the generalized acoustic energy density (GED), has been introduced. The GED is obtained by using a weighting factor in the formulation of total acoustic energy density. Different values of the weighting factor can be chosen for different applications. When minimizing the GED at the error sensor, one can adjust the weighting factor to increase the spatial extent of the "quiet zone" and to achieve a desired balance between the degree of attenuation in the quiet zone and the total energy added into the sound field. PMID:25190386

  5. Evaluation and Application of the RD50 for Determining Acceptable Exposure Levels of Airborne Sensory Irritants for the General Public

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, Yu; Alexeeff, George V.; Broadwin, Rachel; Salmon, Andrew G.

    2007-01-01

    Background The RD50 (exposure concentration producing a 50% respiratory rate decrease) test evaluates airborne chemicals for sensory irritation and has become an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard method. Past studies reported good correlations (R2) between RD50s and the occupational exposure limits, particularly threshold limit values (TLVs). Objective The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between RD50s and human sensory irritation responses in a quantitative manner, particularly for chemicals that produce burning sensation of the eyes, nose, or throat, based on lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) reported for human subjects. Methods We compared RD50s with LOAELs and acute reference exposure levels (RELs). RELs, developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, represent a level at which no adverse effects are anticipated after exposure. We collected RD50s from the published literature and evaluated them for consistency with ASTM procedures. We identified LOAELs for human irritation and found 25 chemicals with a corresponding RD50 in mice. Discussion We found the relationship between RD50s and LOAELs as log RD50 = 1.16 (log LOAEL) + 0.77 with an R2 value of 0.80. This strong correlation supports the use of the RD50 in establishing exposure limits for the public. We further identified 16 chemical irritants with both RD50s and corresponding acute RELs, and calculated the relationship as log RD50 = 0.71 (log REL) + 2.55 with an R2 value of 0.71. This relationship could be used to identify health protective values for the public to prevent respiratory or sensory irritation. Conclusion Consequently, we believe that the RD50 has benefits for use in setting protective levels for the health of both workers and the general population. PMID:18007993

  6. Predicting homophobic behavior among heterosexual youth: domain general and sexual orientation-specific factors at the individual and contextual level.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; DiGiovanni, Craig D; Scheer, Jillian R

    2013-03-01

    As a form of bias-based harassment, homophobic behavior remains prominent in schools. Yet, little attention has been given to factors that underlie it, aside from bullying and sexual prejudice. Thus, we examined multiple domain general (empathy, perspective-taking, classroom respect norms) and sexual orientation-specific factors (sexual orientation identity importance, number of sexual minority friends, parents' sexual minority attitudes, media messages). We documented support for a model in which these sets of factors converged to predict homophobic behavior, mediated through bullying and prejudice, among 581 students in grades 9-12 (55 % female). The structural equation model indicated that, with the exception of media messages, these additional factors predicted levels of prejudice and bullying, which in turn predicted the likelihood of students to engage in homophobic behavior. These findings highlight the importance of addressing multiple interrelated factors in efforts to reduce bullying, prejudice, and discrimination among youth. PMID:22956337

  7. General active space commutator-based coupled cluster theory of general excitation rank for electronically excited states: Implementation and application to ScH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Mickaël; Olsen, Jeppe; Loras, Jessica; Fleig, Timo

    2013-11-01

    We present a new implementation of general excitation rank coupled cluster theory for electronically excited states based on the single-reference multi-reference formalism. The method may include active-space selected and/or general higher excitations by means of the general active space concept. It may employ molecular integrals over the four-component Lévy-Leblond Hamiltonian or the relativistic spin-orbit-free four-component Hamiltonian of Dyall. In an initial application to ground- and excited states of the scandium monohydride molecule we report spectroscopic constants using basis sets of up to quadruple-zeta quality and up to full iterative triple excitations in the cluster operators. Effects due to spin-orbit interaction are evaluated using two-component multi-reference configuration interaction for assessing the accuracy of the coupled cluster results.

  8. General active space commutator-based coupled cluster theory of general excitation rank for electronically excited states: Implementation and application to ScH

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, Mickaël; Loras, Jessica; Fleig, Timo; Olsen, Jeppe

    2013-11-21

    We present a new implementation of general excitation rank coupled cluster theory for electronically excited states based on the single-reference multi-reference formalism. The method may include active-space selected and/or general higher excitations by means of the general active space concept. It may employ molecular integrals over the four-component Lévy-Leblond Hamiltonian or the relativistic spin-orbit-free four-component Hamiltonian of Dyall. In an initial application to ground- and excited states of the scandium monohydride molecule we report spectroscopic constants using basis sets of up to quadruple-zeta quality and up to full iterative triple excitations in the cluster operators. Effects due to spin-orbit interaction are evaluated using two-component multi-reference configuration interaction for assessing the accuracy of the coupled cluster results.

  9. Current sources of lead exposure and their relative contributions to the blood lead levels in the general adult population of Northern France: The IMEPOGE Study, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Tagne-Fotso, Romuald; Leroyer, Ariane; Howsam, Mike; Dehon, Betty; Richeval, Camille; Nisse, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    There is justification for limiting lead (Pb) exposure as much as possible, given its impact on health at low concentrations. Consequently, the aim of this study was to measure blood lead levels (BLL) and examine exposure factors related to BLL variations in the general adult population of northern France, a current and past industrial area. Two thousand inhabitants of northern France, aged between 20 and 59 years, were recruited using the quota method with caution. Blood lead levels were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), and variation factors were studied separately in men and women using multivariate stepwise linear and logistic regression models. The geometric mean of the BLL was 18.8 μg/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.3-19.3). Occupational factors affected BLL only in men and represented 14% of total explained variance of BLL. External occupational factors significantly increasing mean levels of BLL were tobacco, consumption of some beverages (wine, coffee, tea, and/or tap water), raw vegetables, housing characteristics (built prior to 1948, Pb piping in the home) and do-it-yourself or leisure activities (paint stripping or rifle shooting). Consumption habits accounted together for 25% and 18% of the total explained variance, respectively, in men and women. Industrial environment did not significantly contribute to BLL variations. Blood lead levels observed in the general population of this industrial part of France did not appear to be excessively elevated compared to values found internationally. Nonetheless, these BLL remain a public health issue in regard to nonthreshold toxicity attributed to Pb. PMID:27074096

  10. Increased diagnostic activity in general practice during the year preceding colorectal cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Pernille Libach; Hjertholm, Peter; Vedsted, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Accurate diagnostic activity in general practice before colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis is crucial for an early detection of CRC. This study aimed to investigate the rates of daytime consultations, hemoglobin (Hb) measurements and medicine prescriptions for hemorrhoids in general practice in the year preceding CRC diagnosis. Using Danish registries, we conducted a population-based matched cohort study including CRC patients aged 40-80 years (n = 19,209) and matched references (n = 192,090). We calculated odds ratios (ORs) using a conditional logistical regression model and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) using a negative binomial regression model. The CRC patients had significantly more consultations from 9 months before diagnosis and significantly increased rates of Hb measurements from up to 17 months before diagnosis compared with references. Furthermore, up to 18 months before diagnosis, CRC patients had significantly higher rates of prescriptions for hemorrhoids; and 2 months before diagnosis, the IRR was 12.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.29-14.55) for men. The positive predictive value (PPV) of CRC for having a first-time prescription for hemorrhoids was highest among men aged 70-80 years [PPV = 3.2% (95% CI: 2.8-3.7)]. High prescription rates were predominantly seen among rectal cancer patients, whereas colon cancer patients had higher rates of consultations and Hb measurements. This study revealed a significant increase in healthcare seeking and diagnostic activity in general practice in the year prior to CRC diagnosis, which indicates the presence of a "diagnostic time window" and a potential for earlier diagnosis of CRC based on clinical signs and symptoms. PMID:25559926

  11. Misclassification of Physical Activity Level Due to Exclusion of Workplace Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boslaugh, Sarah E.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Weaver, Nancy L.; Naleid, Kimberly S.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effect of including workplace physical activity in calculating the proportion of adults meeting Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines for physical activity. Data on leisure-time and workplace activity were collected from 1,090 Black and White adults in St. Louis, MO. A series of assumptions were used to equate…

  12. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  13. The effectiveness of national strategic guidelines at a local level: a case study of the UK general aviation industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lober, Terence

    The thesis is concerned with the prospects for reducing strategic-local tensions in the British planning process. It examines the conflicts surrounding small general aviation aerodromes as a means of understanding these tensions, why they have evolved, and if they might be reconciled through planning reform. The only prior academic research to have touched upon this issue through general aviation has been an ESRC funded project undertaken by Gallent and colleagues (1999), who found aerodromes provided a microcosm of planning's issues. Building on this work, the thesis develops what is meant by strategic-local tensions, which in broad terms are described as differences between national and regional guidance/plans and what actually takes place locally. Moving from a basic research question it develops a wide planning perspective based on the literature by discussing the meaning of planning, its history and issues for example, how conflicts in planning might be influenced by the broader socio-political environment. The thesis then arrives at three hypotheses which question the effectiveness of the existing strategic guideline implementation process, develops a local planning authority framework and addresses issues of reflectivity and bias. Results from three national surveys of pilots, aerodromes and manufacturers, plus longitudinal analysis of government and other datasets, are then used to detail a comprehensive and unique description of general aviation, which includes a costing based account of the direct expenditure of flying activity. This provides a substantive foundation for a local planning authority survey which both extends previous boundaries and enables the process of implementing strategic objectives to be disaggregated and evaluated. Field visits to twenty six aerodromes and five local authorities are subsequently used to explore gaps within the strategic implementation process and to develop conclusions, within the wider landscape of planning, about

  14. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581), Psychological Domain (r = –0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  15. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age.

    PubMed

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Linek, Pawel; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = -0.581), Psychological Domain (r = -0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = -0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = -0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  16. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  17. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    PubMed Central

    Bitencourt, C.S.; Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production. PMID:22370704

  18. Correlation of diacylglycerol level and protein kinase C activity in rat retina to retinal circulation.

    PubMed

    Shiba, T; Inoguchi, T; Sportsman, J R; Heath, W F; Bursell, S; King, G L

    1993-11-01

    The increases in diacylglycerol (DAG) level and protein kinase C (PKC) activity have been characterized biochemically and functionally in the retina and the brain of diabetic rats as well as in cultured vascular cells. PKC specific activities were increased in the membraneous fraction of retina from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the genetically determined diabetic BB rats, respectively, after 1 or 2 wk of diabetes, compared with control. The ratio of total PKC activities from membraneous and cytosol fractions was also increased in the retina of diabetic rats. With diabetes, all the isoenzymes and the total DAG level were increased in the rat retina, whereas no changes were found in the rat brain. Insulin treatment normalized plasma glucose levels and partially prevented the increases in the membraneous PKC activity and all the isoenzymes in the retina. In the retinal endothelial cells, the total DAG level and PKC specific activities are increased by 36 and 22%, respectively, in the membraneous pool when the glucose levels are changed from 5.5 to 22 mM. Activation of PKC activity and isoform beta II by the vitreal injection of phorbol dibutyrate mimicked the abnormal retinal blood circulation observed in diabetic rats (2.22 +/- 0.24 vs. 1.83 +/- 0.40 s). Thus diabetes and elevated glucose levels will increase DAG level and PKC activities and its isoenzyme specifically in vascular cells and may affect retinal hemodynamics. PMID:8238505

  19. Levels and Characteristics of Physical Activity among a College Student Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kim; Staten, Ruth R.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Noland, Melody

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity levels and the relationships between activity and personal characteristics among a cohort of college students and to determine personal characteristics that predict activity. A sample of 1,700 undergraduates was mailed a survey that requested demographic information and assessed health…

  20. Motor Performance of Women as a Function of Age and Physical Activity Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikli, Roberta; Busch, Sharman

    Two studies compared motor skills of women in terms of the influence of age and activity level. In the first study, simple and choice reaction time, balance, flexibility, and grip strength of older active women were compared with that of older inactive women, and active and inactive younger women. Except for grip strength, scores of older active…

  1. Parent's Interests, Current Involvement and Level of Parental Involvement in School Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbadamosi, Tara; Lin, Huey-Ling

    This study examined what school activities parents were involved in and the relationship between parents' interests and level of participation. Parents completed self-report questionnaires examining activities they were currently involved in and activities they would like to do in their children's classrooms. Out of 208 surveys distributed, 114…

  2. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  3. Mediators Affecting Girls’ Levels of Physical Activity Outside of School: Findings from the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Murray, David M.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Moody, Jamie; Pratt, Charlotte A.; Metcalfe, Lauve; Parra-Medina, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Background Providing after school activities is a community level approach for reducing the decline in physical activity of girls as they reach early adolescence. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial, environmental, and behavioral factors as potential mediators of after school physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods We assessed objectively measured levels of physical activity occurring outside of school and potential predictors and mediators of activity in girls participating in the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls (TAAG). Results We found that the TAAG intervention had a statistically significant and positive effect on out of school activity in the 2006 cohort. Self-efficacy, friends’ social support, total social support, and difficulty getting to and from community activities mediated the level of moderate to vigorous physical activity in girls. Conclusions Parents, communities, and schools should provide and enhance opportunities outside of the school day for adolescents to be active. Reducing transportation barriers and enlisting social support appear to be key. PMID:20012810

  4. Viewing brain processes as Critical State Transitions across levels of organization: Neural events in Cognition and Consciousness, and general principles.

    PubMed

    Werner, Gerhard

    2009-04-01

    In this theoretical and speculative essay, I propose that insights into certain aspects of neural system functions can be gained from viewing brain function in terms of the branch of Statistical Mechanics currently referred to as "Modern Critical Theory" [Stanley, H.E., 1987. Introduction to Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena. Oxford University Press; Marro, J., Dickman, R., 1999. Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions in Lattice Models. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK]. The application of this framework is here explored in two stages: in the first place, its principles are applied to state transitions in global brain dynamics, with benchmarks of Cognitive Neuroscience providing the relevant empirical reference points. The second stage generalizes to suggest in more detail how the same principles could also apply to the relation between other levels of the structural-functional hierarchy of the nervous system and between neural assemblies. In this view, state transitions resulting from the processing at one level are the input to the next, in the image of a 'bucket brigade', with the content of each bucket being passed on along the chain, after having undergone a state transition. The unique features of a process of this kind will be discussed and illustrated. PMID:19124060

  5. Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Elevated Folate Levels: An Unusual Cause of Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Lubana, Sandeep Singh; Alfishawy, Mostafa; Singh, Navdeep; Atkinson, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 49 Final Diagnosis: Generalized tonic-clonic seizures in the setting of vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated folate levels Symptoms: Seizures Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Neurology Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency leads to abnormal myelination or demyelination, resulting in sub-acute combined degeneration, peripheral neuropathy, and psychiatric problems, including delusions, hallucinations, cognitive changes, depression, and dementia. Vitamin B12 deficiency also leads to brain shrinkage and neurodegenerative disorders. Case Report: We report the case of a 49-year-old man presenting with new-onset seizures one and a half years following subtotal gastrectomy due to stage IV gastric adenocarcinoma. The patient did not have any history of head injury. Laboratory tests were negative for any metabolic derangements. There were no signs of infection. MRI brain and EEG were normal and there were no changes in medications. Conclusions: In case of unexplained new-onset seizures, patients should be tested for vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and these should be done as part of the initial work-up. PMID:26101427

  6. The influence of active seating on car passengers' perceived comfort and activity levels.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being. PMID:25479990

  7. Levels of tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecanes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human milk from the general population in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhixiong; Jiao, Yang; Hu, Yue; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xianqing; Feng, Jinfang; Li, Jingguang; Wu, Yongning

    2013-05-01

    Three brominated flame retardants (BFRs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were measured in 103 human milk samples collected from Beijing in 2011. The donors' personal information, such as dietary habit and socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, was obtained by questionnaires. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis indicated that the levels of TBBPA ranged from levels of ΣHBCDs ranged from generally the most abundant of the three isomers. Eight PBDE congeners, BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209, were measured using gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The concentrations of ΣPBDEs ranged from 0.22 to 135.41 ng g(-1) lw, with a median value of 3.24 ng g(-1) lw. BDE-209 dominated the PBDE profile in the majority of the human milk samples. The mean estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of TBBPA, ΣHBCDs and ΣPBDEs by breast-fed infants were 2.34, 24.89 and 71.27 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. No significant correlation was found between the BFR levels in milk and the mother's diet, place of residence, smoking habit, nursing duration or computer use habit. In contrast, the mother's age, body mass index (BMI), education level and number of computers in the home were related to the levels of some types of BFRs. More research is needed to further investigate the major source(s) of exposure, the effect of each potential factor and the possible toxicological impact of high daily BFR intake on infants. PMID:23500394

  8. Attempting to be active: Self-efficacy and barrier limitation differentiate activity levels of working mothers.

    PubMed

    Gierc, Madelaine; Locke, Sean; Jung, Mary; Brawley, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Working mothers are less physically active than working women without children and mothers who do not work. The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and barriers to physical activity in a sample of working mothers. Women completed a mixed-methods survey which included measures of physical activity, concurrent self-regulatory efficacy, and barriers. Sufficiently active women experienced significantly greater concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and significantly less barrier limitation and frequency. No significant group differences were found for age, domestic duties performed, and children's extracurricular activities. Thematic analysis of barriers revealed six themes of common and unique factors, including limited time and family activities. PMID:27357921

  9. Distribution and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Gebhard, Christiane; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Miller, Ingrid; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and metastasis dissemination. We investigated whether the contrasting metastatic behavior of feline and canine osteosarcoma is related to levels and activities of MMP2 and MMP9. Zymography and immunohistochemistry were used to determine expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma. Using immunohistochemistry, increased MMP9 levels were identified in most canine osteosarcomas, whereas cat samples more often displayed moderate levels. High levels of pro-MMP9, pro-MMP2, and active MMP2 were detected by gelatin zymography in both species, with significantly higher values for active MMP2 in canine osteosarcoma. These findings indicate that MMP2 is probably involved in canine and feline osteosarcoma and their expression and activity could be associated with the different metastatic behavior of canine and feline osteosarcoma. PMID:26733734

  10. Distribution and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Gebhard, Christiane; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Miller, Ingrid; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and metastasis dissemination. We investigated whether the contrasting metastatic behavior of feline and canine osteosarcoma is related to levels and activities of MMP2 and MMP9. Zymography and immunohistochemistry were used to determine expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma. Using immunohistochemistry, increased MMP9 levels were identified in most canine osteosarcomas, whereas cat samples more often displayed moderate levels. High levels of pro-MMP9, pro-MMP2, and active MMP2 were detected by gelatin zymography in both species, with significantly higher values for active MMP2 in canine osteosarcoma. These findings indicate that MMP2 is probably involved in canine and feline osteosarcoma and their expression and activity could be associated with the different metastatic behavior of canine and feline osteosarcoma. PMID:26733734

  11. Combination therapy of orally administered glycyrrhizin and UVB improved active-stage generalized vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Mou, K.H.; Han, D.; Liu, W.L.; Li, P.

    2016-01-01

    Glycyrrhizin has been used clinically for several years due to its beneficial effect on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced allergic diseases, alopecia areata and psoriasis. In this study, glycyrrhizin, ultraviolet B light (UVB) or a combination of both were used to treat active-stage generalized vitiligo. One hundred and forty-four patients between the ages of 3 and 48 years were divided into three groups: group A received oral compound glycyrrhizin (OCG); group B received UVB applications twice weekly, and group C received OCG+UVB. Follow-ups were performed at 2, 4, and 6 months after the treatment was initiated. The Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (VASI) and the Vitiligo Disease Activity (VIDA) instrument were used to assess the affected body surface, at each follow-up. Results showed that 77.1, 75.0 and 87.5% in groups A, B and C, respectively, presented repigmentation of lesions. Responsiveness to therapy seemed to be associated with lesion location and patient compliance. Adverse events were limited and transient. This study showed that, although the three treatment protocols had positive results, OCG and UVB combination therapy was the most effective and led to improvement in disease stage from active to stable. PMID:27464024

  12. Combination therapy of orally administered glycyrrhizin and UVB improved active-stage generalized vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Mou, K H; Han, D; Liu, W L; Li, P

    2016-07-25

    Glycyrrhizin has been used clinically for several years due to its beneficial effect on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced allergic diseases, alopecia areata and psoriasis. In this study, glycyrrhizin, ultraviolet B light (UVB) or a combination of both were used to treat active-stage generalized vitiligo. One hundred and forty-four patients between the ages of 3 and 48 years were divided into three groups: group A received oral compound glycyrrhizin (OCG); group B received UVB applications twice weekly, and group C received OCG+UVB. Follow-ups were performed at 2, 4, and 6 months after the treatment was initiated. The Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (VASI) and the Vitiligo Disease Activity (VIDA) instrument were used to assess the affected body surface, at each follow-up. Results showed that 77.1, 75.0 and 87.5% in groups A, B and C, respectively, presented repigmentation of lesions. Responsiveness to therapy seemed to be associated with lesion location and patient compliance. Adverse events were limited and transient. This study showed that, although the three treatment protocols had positive results, OCG and UVB combination therapy was the most effective and led to improvement in disease stage from active to stable. PMID:27464024

  13. Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing in improving lipid level in patients with dyslipidemia assisted by general practitioners: Dislip-EM study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The non-pharmacological approach to cholesterol control in patients with hyperlipidemia is based on the promotion of a healthy diet and physical activity. Thus, to help patients change their habits, it is essential to identify the most effective approach. Many efforts have been devoted to explain changes in or adherence to specific health behaviors. Such efforts have resulted in the development of theories that have been applied in prevention campaigns, and that include brief advice and counseling services. Within this context, Motivational Interviewing has proven to be effective in changing health behaviors in specific cases. However, more robust evidence is needed on the effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing in treating chronic pathologies -such as dyslipidemia- in patients assisted by general practitioners. This article describes a protocol to assess the effectiveness of MI as compared with general practice (brief advice), with the aim of improving lipid level control in patients with dyslipidemia assisted by a general practitioner. Methods/Design An open, two-arm parallel, multicentre, cluster, controlled, randomized, clinical trial will be performed. A total of 48-50 general practitioners from 35 public primary care centers in Spain will be randomized and will recruit 436 patients with dyslipidemia. They will perform an intervention based either on Motivational Interviewing or on the usual brief advice. After an initial assessment, follow-ups will be performed at 2, 4, 8 and 12 months. Primary outcomes are lipid levels (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides) and cardiovascular risk. The study will assess the degree of dietary and physical activity improvement, weight loss in overweight patients, and adherence to treatment guidelines. Discussion Motivational interview skills constitute the primary strategies GPs use to treat their patients. Having economical, simple, effective and applicable techniques is essential

  14. Physical Activity in Deprived Communities in London: Examining Individual and Neighbourhood-Level Factors

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Paul; Phillips, Gemma; Petticrew, Mark; Hayes, Richard; Bottomley, Christian; Yu, Ge; Schmidt, Elena; Tobi, Patrick; Moore, Derek; Frostick, Caroline; Lock, Karen; Renton, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The objectives of this study were to examine relationships between neighbourhood-level and individual-level characteristics and physical activity in deprived London neighbourhoods. Methods In 40 of the most deprived neighbourhoods in London (ranked in top 11% in London by Index of Multiple Deprivation) a cross-sectional survey (n = 4107 adults aged > = 16 years), neighbourhood audit tool, GIS measures and routine data measured neighbourhood and individual-level characteristics. The binary outcome was meeting the minimum recommended (CMO, UK) 5×30 mins moderate physical activity per week. Multilevel modelling was used to examine associations between physical activity and individual and neighbourhood-level characteristics. Results Respondents living more than 300 m away from accessible greenspace had lower odds of achieving recommended physical activity levels than those who lived within 300 m; from 301–600 m (OR = 0.7; 95% CI 0.5–0.9) and from 601–900 m (OR = 0.6; 95% CI 0.4–0.8). There was substantial residual between-neighbourhood variance in physical activity (median odds ratio = 1.7). Other objectively measured neighbourhood-level characteristics were not associated with physical activity levels. Conclusions Distance to nearest greenspace is associated with meeting recommended physical activity levels in deprived London neighbourhoods. Despite residual variance in physical activity levels between neighbourhoods, we found little evidence for the influence of other measured neighbourhood-level characteristics. PMID:23922717

  15. GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor decreases α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo JV; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Noakes, David; Eslinger, Robert; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. The administration of GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) to cancer patients with elevated levels of nagalase has been associated with a decrease of serum nagalase activity and with significant clinical benefits. Here, we report the results of the administration of GcMAF to a heterogeneous cohort of patients with histologically diverse, advanced neoplasms, generally considered as “incurable” diseases. In most cases, GcMAF therapy was initiated at late stages of tumor progression. As this is an open-label, non-controlled, retrospective analysis, caution must be employed when establishing cause-effect relationships between the administration GcMAF and disease outcome. However, the response to GcMAF was generally robust and some trends emerged. All patients (n = 20) presented with elevated serum nagalase activity, well above normal values. All patients but one showed a significant decrease of serum nagalase activity upon weekly GcMAF injections. Decreased nagalase activity was associated with improved clinical conditions and no adverse side effects were reported. The observations reported here confirm and extend previous results and pave the way to further studies aimed at assessing the precise role and indications for GcMAF-based anticancer immunotherapy. PMID:24179708

  16. GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor decreases α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo Jv; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Noakes, David; Eslinger, Robert; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-08-01

    α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. The administration of GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) to cancer patients with elevated levels of nagalase has been associated with a decrease of serum nagalase activity and with significant clinical benefits. Here, we report the results of the administration of GcMAF to a heterogeneous cohort of patients with histologically diverse, advanced neoplasms, generally considered as "incurable" diseases. In most cases, GcMAF therapy was initiated at late stages of tumor progression. As this is an open-label, non-controlled, retrospective analysis, caution must be employed when establishing cause-effect relationships between the administration GcMAF and disease outcome. However, the response to GcMAF was generally robust and some trends emerged. All patients (n = 20) presented with elevated serum nagalase activity, well above normal values. All patients but one showed a significant decrease of serum nagalase activity upon weekly GcMAF injections. Decreased nagalase activity was associated with improved clinical conditions and no adverse side effects were reported. The observations reported here confirm and extend previous results and pave the way to further studies aimed at assessing the precise role and indications for GcMAF-based anticancer immunotherapy. PMID:24179708

  17. Physical activity parenting: A systematic review of questionnaires and their associations with child activity levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insufficient physical activity (PA) is considered a critical contributor to childhood overweight. Parents are a key in influencing their child's PA through various mechanisms of PA parenting, including support, restriction of PA, and facilitation of enrollment in PA classes or activities. However, s...

  18. Predictors of Activity Level Two years after ACL Reconstruction: MOON ACLR Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Warren R.; Spindler, Kurt P.; Amendola, Annunziato; Andrish, Jack T.; Bergfeld, John A.; Flanigan, David C.; Jones, Morgan H.; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Marx, Robert G.; Matava, Matthew J.; McCarty, Eric C.; Parker, Richard D.; Wolcott, Michelle; Vidal, Armando; Wolf, Brian R.; Wright, Rick W.; Harrell, Frank E.; Dittus, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective ACL deficient subjects are at risk of knee injury with cutting and pivoting activities; in accord, ACL reconstructions (ACLR) are performed to restore stability to allow for return to cutting and pivoting activities. The Marx activity level is a validated patient-reported measure to quantify the amount and frequency of running, cutting, decelerating, and pivoting performed. Our objective was to quantify activity level 2 yrs after ACLR and identify explanatory variables measured at baseline (demographics, concomitant meniscal/articular cartilage injuries and their treatment) associated with activity level at short-term follow-up (2 yrs). Methods In 2002, the multicenter consortium began enrolling subjects undergoing ACLR at six recruitment sites. This ongoing multicenter cohort study targets follow-up at 2, 6, and 10 years. The current study reports two-year follow-up of subjects enrolled in 2002. Participants in the multicenter ACLR cohort completed a series of validated, patient-oriented questionnaires that included activity level assessment. Follow-up questionnaires were collected by mail between 1/01/04 and 6/01/05 to assess changes. Measurement of intraarticular pathology, techniques of ACLR, and secondary procedures were recorded at baseline by participating surgeons. Multivariable proportional odds ordinal logistic regression was used to assess predictors of activity level after adjusting for baseline patient characteristics. Interquartile range (IQR) odds ratios (OR) are given for continuous variables, IQROR demonstrate the effect of increasing a baseline variable from its first quartile to its third quartile. The fitted model that used OR to specify predicted probabilities of exceeding any activity level was translated into predicted mean activity level and is presented in a nomogram for more interpretability. Results Of the 446 subjects that underwent unilateral ACLR, follow-up was obtained on 393 (88%). The cohort is 56% male, median age 23 yrs

  19. Do quality of life, participation and environment of older adults differ according to level of activity?

    PubMed Central

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Desrosiers, Johanne; St-Cyr Tribble, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Background Activity limitation is one of the most frequent geriatric clinical syndromes that have significant individual and societal impacts. People living with activity limitations might have fewer opportunities to be satisfied with life or experience happiness, which can have a negative effect on their quality of life. Participation and environment are also important modifiable variables that influence community living and are targeted by health interventions. However, little is known about how quality of life, participation and environment differ according to activity level. This study examines if quality of life, participation (level and satisfaction) and perceived quality of the environment (facilitators or obstacles in the physical or social environment) of community-dwelling older adults differ according to level of activity. Methods A cross-sectional design was used with a convenience sample of 156 older adults (mean age = 73.7; 76.9% women), living at home and having good cognitive functions, recruited according to three levels of activity limitations (none, slight to moderate and moderate to severe). Quality of life was estimated with the Quality of Life Index, participation with the Assessment of Life Habits and environment with the Measure of the Quality of the Environment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) or Welch F-ratio indicated if the main variables differed according to activity level. Results Quality of life and satisfaction with participation were greater with a higher activity level (p < 0.001). However, these differences were clinically significant only between participants without activity limitations and those with moderate to severe activity limitations. When activity level was more limited, participation level was further restricted (p < 0.001) and the physical environment was perceived as having more obstacles (p < 0.001). No differences were observed for facilitators in the physical and social environment or for obstacles in the social

  20. Triangular Relationship between Sleep Spindle Activity, General Cognitive Ability and the Efficiency of Declarative Learning

    PubMed Central

    Dürr, Roland; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto

    2012-01-01

    EEG sleep spindle activity (SpA) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep has been reported to be associated with measures of intelligence and overnight performance improvements. The reticular nucleus of the thalamus is generating sleep spindles in interaction with thalamocortical connections. The same system enables efficient encoding and processing during wakefulness. Thus, we examined if the triangular relationship between SpA, measures of intelligence and declarative learning reflect the efficiency of the thalamocortical system. As expected, SpA was associated with general cognitive ability, e.g. information processing speed. SpA was also associated with learning efficiency, however, not with overnight performance improvement in a declarative memory task. SpA might therefore reflect the efficiency of the thalamocortical network and can be seen as a marker for learning during encoding in wakefulness, i.e. learning efficiency. PMID:23185361

  1. Generalized Investigation of the Rotation-Activity Relation: Favoring Rotation Period instead of Rossby Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiners, A.; Schüssler, M.; Passegger, V. M.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic activity in Sun-like and low-mass stars causes X-ray coronal emission which is stronger for more rapidly rotating stars. This relation is often interpreted in terms of the Rossby number, i.e., the ratio of rotation period to convective overturn time. We reconsider this interpretation on the basis of the observed X-ray emission and rotation periods of 821 stars with masses below 1.4 M ⊙. A generalized analysis of the relation between X-ray luminosity normalized by bolometric luminosity, L X/L bol, and combinations of rotational period, P, and stellar radius, R, shows that the Rossby formulation does not provide the solution with minimal scatter. Instead, we find that the relation L X/L bolvpropP -2 R -4 optimally describes the non-saturated fraction of the stars. This relation is equivalent to L XvpropP -2, indicating that the rotation period alone determines the total X-ray emission. Since L X is directly related to the magnetic flux at the stellar surface, this means that the surface flux is determined solely by the star's rotation and is independent of other stellar parameters. While a formulation in terms of a Rossby number would be consistent with these results if the convective overturn time scales exactly as L_bol-1/2, our generalized approach emphasizes the need to test a broader range of mechanisms for dynamo action in cool stars.

  2. Generalized Hammersley Process and Phase Transition for Activated Random Walk Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolla, Leonardo T.

    2008-12-01

    * ACTIVATED RANDOM WALK MODEL * This is a conservative particle system on the lattice, with a Markovian continuous-time evolution. Active particles perform random walks without interaction, and they may as well change their state to passive, then stopping to jump. When particles of both types occupy the same site, they all become active. This model exhibits phase transition in the sense that for low initial densities the system locally fixates and for high densities it keeps active. Though extensively studied in the physics literature, the matter of giving a mathematical proof of such phase transition remained as an open problem for several years. In this work we identify some variables that are sufficient to characterize fixation and at the same time are stochastically monotone in the model's parameters. We employ an explicit graphical representation in order to obtain the monotonicity. With this method we prove that there is a unique phase transition for the one-dimensional finite-range random walk. Joint with V. Sidoravicius. * BROKEN LINE PROCESS * We introduce the broken line process and derive some of its properties. Its discrete version is presented first and a natural generalization to the continuum is then proposed and studied. The broken lines are related to the Young diagram and the Hammersley process and are useful for computing last passage percolation values and finding maximal oriented paths. For a class of passage time distributions there is a family of boundary conditions that make the process stationary and reversible. One application is a simple proof of the explicit law of large numbers for last passage percolation with exponential and geometric distributions. Joint with V. Sidoravicius, D. Surgailis, and M. E. Vares.

  3. A General Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Sequestration Activities and Carbon Credits

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, KT

    2002-12-23

    A general methodology was developed for evaluation of carbon sequestration technologies. In this document, we provide a method that is quantitative, but is structured to give qualitative comparisons despite changes in detailed method parameters, i.e., it does not matter what ''grade'' a sequestration technology gets but a ''better'' technology should receive a better grade. To meet these objectives, we developed and elaborate on the following concepts: (1) All resources used in a sequestration activity should be reviewed by estimating the amount of greenhouse gas emissions for which they historically are responsible. We have done this by introducing a quantifier we term Full-Cycle Carbon Emissions, which is tied to the resource. (2) The future fate of sequestered carbon should be included in technology evaluations. We have addressed this by introducing a variable called Time-adjusted Value of Carbon Sequestration to weigh potential future releases of carbon, escaping the sequestered form. (3) The Figure of Merit of a sequestration technology should address the entire life-cycle of an activity. The figures of merit we have developed relate the investment made (carbon release during the construction phase) to the life-time sequestration capacity of the activity. To account for carbon flows that occur during different times of an activity we incorporate the Time Value of Carbon Flows. The methodology we have developed can be expanded to include financial, social, and long-term environmental aspects of a sequestration technology implementation. It does not rely on global atmospheric modeling efforts but is consistent with these efforts and could be combined with them.

  4. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-06-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=-0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=-0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  5. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  6. Long-term transportation noise annoyance is associated with subsequent lower levels of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Foraster, Maria; Eze, Ikenna C; Vienneau, Danielle; Brink, Mark; Cajochen, Christian; Caviezel, Seraina; Héritier, Harris; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Schindler, Christian; Wanner, Miriam; Wunderli, Jean-Marc; Röösli, Martin; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2016-05-01

    Noise annoyance (NA) might lead to behavioral patterns not captured by noise levels, which could reduce physical activity (PA) either directly or through impaired sleep and constitute a noise pathway towards cardiometabolic diseases. We investigated the association of long-term transportation NA and its main sources (aircraft, road, and railway) at home with PA levels. We assessed 3842 participants (aged 37-81) that attended the three examinations (SAP 1, 2, and 3 in years 1991, 2001 and 2011, respectively) of the population-based Swiss cohort on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA). Participants reported general 24-h transportation NA (in all examinations) and source-specific NA at night (only SAP 3) on an ICBEN-type 11-point scale. We assessed moderate, vigorous, and total PA from a short-questionnaire (SAP 3). The main outcome was moderate PA (active/inactive: cut-off≥150min/week). We used logistic regression including random effects by area and adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and lifestyles (main model) and evaluated potential effect modifiers. We analyzed associations with PA at SAP 3 a) cross-sectionally: for source-specific and transportation NA in the last year (SAP 3), and b) longitudinally: for 10-y transportation NA (mean of SAP 1+2), adjusting for prior PA (SAP 2) and changes in NA (SAP 3-2). Reported NA (score≥5) was 16.4%, 7.5%, 3%, and 1.1% for 1-year transportation, road, aircraft, and railway at SAP 3, respectively. NA was greater in the past, reaching 28.5% for 10-y transportation NA (SAP 1+2). The 10-y transportation NA was associated with a 3.2% (95% CI: 6%-0.2%) decrease in moderate PA per 1-NA rating point and was related to road and aircraft NA at night in cross-sectional analyses. The longitudinal association was stronger for women, reported daytime sleepiness or chronic diseases and it was not explained by objectively modeled levels of road traffic noise at SAP 3. In conclusion, long-term NA

  7. High IL-23 level is a marker of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Abu Al Fadl, Esam M; Fattouh, Mona; Allam, Ahmed A

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune systemic disorder characterized by inflammatory responses mainly affecting the synovial joints. Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is a heterodimeric pro-inflammatory cytokine secreted by activated dendritic cells and activated macrophages. IL-23 is the key cytokine controlling inflammation in peripheral tissues leading to the development of autoimmune diseases. The objective of our study was to determine the relationship between the IL-23 level and disease activity in RA patients. Sixty RA patients were included in the study with mean age of 40 years; they included 44 (73.3 %) females and 16 males (26.7 %). The clinical parameters of disease activity were determined, including the 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28), serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), Anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA), rheumatoid factor (RF), and TNF-alpha and the degree of bony erosions based on X-rays. Patients were subdivided into active disease group (n = 30) with DAS28 score higher than 5.1 (Group I); and remission group (n = 30) with DAS28 score less than 2.6 (Group II). Thirty healthy individuals in the same age group of RA patients including 22 (73.3%) females and 8 males (26.7%) were randomly selected as the control group (Group III). The levels of IL-23 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the correlations between the serum levels of IL-23 and disease activity parameters of patients with RA were determined. Serum levels of IL-23 were significantly higher in RA patients during active stage of the disease in comparison to the patients in remission and the control group. There was a significant positive correlation between serum IL-23 levels in RA patients and individual disease activity parameters. It is concluded that elevated serum IL-23 level may be a useful marker to detect active RA and disease progression in patients with RA. PMID:24617049

  8. A frequency-duty cycle equation for the ACGIH hand activity level.

    PubMed

    Radwin, Robert G; Azari, David P; Lindstrom, Mary J; Ulin, Sheryl S; Armstrong, Thomas J; Rempel, David

    2015-01-01

    A new equation for predicting the hand activity level (HAL) used in the American Conference for Government Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value®(TLV®) was based on exertion frequency (F) and percentage duty cycle (D). The TLV® includes a table for estimating HAL from F and D originating from data in Latko et al. (Latko WA, Armstrong TJ, Foulke JA, Herrin GD, Rabourn RA, Ulin SS, Development and evaluation of an observational method for assessing repetition in hand tasks. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 58(4):278-285, 1997) and post hoc adjustments that include extrapolations outside of the data range. Multimedia video task analysis determined D for two additional jobs from Latko's study not in the original data-set, and a new nonlinear regression equation was developed to better fit the data and create a more accurate table. The equation, HAL = 6:56 ln D[F(1:31) /1+3:18 F(1:31), generally matches the TLV® HAL lookup table, and is a substantial improvement over the linear model, particularly for F>1.25 Hz and D>60% jobs. The equation more closely fits the data and applies the TLV® using a continuous function. PMID:25343340

  9. Relationships of Community and Individual Level Social Capital with Activities of Daily Living and Death by Gender.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Haruhiko; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Michikawa, Takehiro; Takeda-Imai, Fujimi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Takebayashi, Toru; Nishiwaki, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    This study determined whether there is an association between social capital and a composite outcome of decline in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and death by gender. A prospective 3.5 year cohort study was conducted in a rural town in Japan. The study participants were 984 individuals aged 65 years and older with not impaired on ADL at 2010 baseline survey. Social participation and generalized trust were measured as social capital. The individual level responses were dichotomized and aggregated into the community level (eight areas). Multilevel logistic regression adjusting for covariates revealed that social participation at the individual level was significantly associated with higher odds of composite outcome (OR of "not participate" = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.38-2.81). Regarding generalized trust, only in men, there was an inverse association at the community level (OR of "low" = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.32-0.96), and a positive association at the individual level (OR of "tend to be careful" = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.27-3.90). These results suggest that social capital were associated with a decline in ADL and death and that the association may differ by gender. PMID:27589773

  10. COMPARISON OF CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY, RESIDUE LEVELS, AND URINARY METABOLITE EXCRETION OF RATS EXPOSED TO ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blood cholinesterase activity, urinary levels of phenolic and organophosphorus metabolites, and residues of intact compounds in blood and fat were determined following exposure of rats to organophosphorus pesticides. The eight pesticides studied included representative halogenate...

  11. Pupillometric Signs of Brain Activation Vary with Level of Cognitive Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Jackson; Wagoner, Brennis L.

    1978-01-01

    Reports increased central nervous system vigilance and activation was observed as indicated by pupillary dilation during the decision interval of a letter matching task as higher levels of processing were performed. (SL)

  12. Exploratory Studies in Generalized Predictive Control for Active Aeroelastic Control of Tiltrotor Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Bennett, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    The Aeroelasticity Branch at NASA Langley Research Center has a long and substantive history of tiltrotor aeroelastic research. That research has included a broad range of experimental investigations in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) using a variety of scale models and the development of essential analyses. Since 1994, the tiltrotor research program has been using a 1/5-scale, semispan aeroelastic model of the V-22 designed and built by Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. (BHTI) in 1981. That model has been refurbished to form a tiltrotor research testbed called the Wing and Rotor Aeroelastic Test System (WRATS) for use in the TDT. In collaboration with BHTI, studies under the current tiltrotor research program are focused on aeroelastic technology areas having the potential for enhancing the commercial and military viability of tiltrotor aircraft. Among the areas being addressed, considerable emphasis is being directed to the evaluation of modern adaptive multi-input multi- output (MIMO) control techniques for active stability augmentation and vibration control of tiltrotor aircraft. As part of this investigation, a predictive control technique known as Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) is being studied to assess its potential for actively controlling the swashplate of tiltrotor aircraft to enhance aeroelastic stability in both helicopter and airplane modes of flight. This paper summarizes the exploratory numerical and experimental studies that were conducted as part of that investigation.

  13. Heavy metal levels (Pb, Cd, Cr and Hg) in the adult general population near an urban solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Zubero, Miren Begoña; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Ibarluzea, Jesús María; Arenaza, Maria Jesús; Rodríguez, Carlos; Sáenz, José Ramón

    2010-09-15

    In 2005 an urban solid waste incinerator (SWI) was commissioned in Bilbao (Basque Country, Spain). Serum and urine samples were collected from 95 and 107 volunteers in 2006 and 2008 respectively, of which 62 were repeats from the same individuals. Blood lead levels (BPb) were determined, as were the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg) in urine (UCd, UCr and UHg). The town of Alonsotegi and a borough of Bilbao (Altamira, Rekalde) were considered to be close, less than 2 km from the plant, and correspond to an urban environment with high traffic density. The areas of reference were a borough of Bilbao (Santutxu-Zurbaran), 5 km from the plant, also in an urban area with high traffic density, and a small town with little industrial activity and low traffic density (Balmaseda) 20 km from the plant; neither of these is downwind from the site with respect to prevailing winds. There was a significant correlation for BPb, r=0.63 (p<0.001), between the two surveys. However, there was no linear correlation for the other three metals (UCd, UCr and UHg), between the two sampling periods (p>0.05). Multiple linear regression models did not show increases over time of the levels of BPb, UCd, UCr and UHg in the areas close to the SWI compared to those of areas located further away, after adjusting for confounding variables. These results reinforce the hypothesis that populations near modern plants for solid waste incineration do not manifest increased levels of heavy metals. PMID:20659760

  14. Neotectonic activity in and around the southwestern Rhenish shield (West Germany): indications of a levelling comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoulin, A.; Pissart, A.; Zippelt, K.

    1995-09-01

    Precise levelling data are re-examined in the southwestern Rhenish shield and its foreland by comparing them analytically along levelling profiles. Instead of generalizing regional vertical movement trends, this method emphasizes the activity of individual structural elements, which can be located with a high accuracy. It is shown that present-day vertical motions concentrate on fractures which cut the massif into a number of tectonic blocks. These undergo more or less independent movements. Significant measured displacements range from 1 to 3.5 cm over an average 20-year period and correspond mostly to aseismic slip. High displacements are found near pre-existing faults, sometimes also zones of joint concentration which are favourably oriented with respect to the current regional stress field. In the Mosel area, SW-NE-trending faults are predominantly reactivated as reverse faults. The motion inferred for the Hunsrück border fault is also consistent with the compressive regime presently observed in that area, with σ1 oriented to the northwest. The direction of vertical motions along the western border fault of the upper Rhine graben changes from south to north in relation to the different azimuths of the central and northern segments of the graben, inducing a S-N-oriented transition from compressional to extensional shear. Within the graben itself, some N160°E-trending normal faults are identified, one of them having probably ruptured in a swarm of microearthquaks not long before the second survey was performed. The western Saar-Nahe trough is characterized by N-S-oriented fractures which cannot be related to mapped faults but show a close connection with photolineaments.

  15. Automatic optimal filament segmentation with sub-pixel accuracy using generalized linear models and B-spline level-sets.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xun; Geyer, Veikko F; Bowne-Anderson, Hugo; Howard, Jonathon; Sbalzarini, Ivo F

    2016-08-01

    Biological filaments, such as actin filaments, microtubules, and cilia, are often imaged using different light-microscopy techniques. Reconstructing the filament curve from the acquired images constitutes the filament segmentation problem. Since filaments have lower dimensionality than the image itself, there is an inherent trade-off between tracing the filament with sub-pixel accuracy and avoiding noise artifacts. Here, we present a globally optimal filament segmentation method based on B-spline vector level-sets and a generalized linear model for the pixel intensity statistics. We show that the resulting optimization problem is convex and can hence be solved with global optimality. We introduce a simple and efficient algorithm to compute such optimal filament segmentations, and provide an open-source implementation as an ImageJ/Fiji plugin. We further derive an information-theoretic lower bound on the filament segmentation error, quantifying how well an algorithm could possibly do given the information in the image. We show that our algorithm asymptotically reaches this bound in the spline coefficients. We validate our method in comprehensive benchmarks, compare with other methods, and show applications from fluorescence, phase-contrast, and dark-field microscopy. PMID:27104582

  16. Variables associated with children's physical activity levels during recess: the A-CLASS project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background School recess provides a daily opportunity for children to engage in physically active behaviours. However, few studies have investigated what factors may influence children's physical activity levels in this context. Such information may be important in the development and implementation of recess interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between a range of recess variables and children's sedentary, moderate and vigorous physical activity in this context. Methods One hundred and twenty-eight children (39% boys) aged 9-10 years old from 8 elementary schools had their physical activity levels observed during school recess using the System for Observing Children's Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP). Playground variables data were also collected at this time. Multilevel prediction models identified variables that were significantly associated with children's sedentary, moderate and vigorous physical activity during recess. Results Girls engaged in 13.8% more sedentary activity and 8.2% less vigorous activity than boys during recess. Children with no equipment provision during recess engaged in more sedentary activity and less moderate activity than children provided with equipment. In addition, as play space per child increased, sedentary activity decreased and vigorous activity increased. Temperature was a significant negatively associated with vigorous activity. Conclusions Modifiable and unmodifiable factors were associated with children's sedentary, moderate and vigorous physical activity during recess. Providing portable equipment and specifying areas for activities that dominate the elementary school playground during recess may be two approaches to increase recess physical activity levels, though further research is needed to evaluate the short and long-term impact of such strategies. PMID:20937142

  17. [Effects of automobile lead on the general growth and sexual activity of the rat].

    PubMed

    el Feki, A; Ghorbel, F; Smaoui, M; Makni-Ayadi, F; Kammoun, A

    2000-01-01

    To identify the active element of automotive exhaust gas responsible for masculine infertility, previously proved by our laboratory, we undertook these experiments. Four hundred young male and female rats were exposed during two months (30 min/d) to three types of automotive exhaust gases. The first type emanated from an engine running on gasoline with lead, the second from an unleaded gasoline engine, the third from a diesel engine. These three engines had the same power (5 horsepower vehicles < 3.5 tons). For the first type of emissions, some lead deposits were found in the lungs by histologic techniques. This gas also induced in male rats the atrophy of the testicle, seminal vesicle and epididym, certain pathological changes in spermatogenesis shown by the histologic study, and a decrease of the serum's testosterone level. In female rats, the relative weights of the ovary and uterus, as well as the percentage of the arrival of oestrus, were not affected by the gaseous treatment. Both the second and third types of gases seemed less active on the masculine sex as far as these parameters are concerned. Our study suggests that, for light vehicles, leaded gasoline pollutes more than unleaded gasoline or diesel fuels, and that the lead present only in the first type would be the active element responsible for the masculine infertility and body weight gain reduction in rats. PMID:10774118

  18. Investigation of the relationships between seismic activities and radon level in western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tarakçı, M; Harmanşah, C; Saç, M M; İçhedef, M

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of radon activity is determined from pre-earthquake data. Analysis using Normal, Gamma, Weibull and Rayleigh distributions indicates that the variation of radon levels in seismically active regions is best described by a normal distribution. It was observed that radon levels would change in compressive fault lines prior to earthquake. Besides that it tended to increase before the earthquake and then decrease towards the time of earthquake occurrences. PMID:24215813

  19. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  20. Association between physical activity level and consumption of fruit and vegetables among adolescents in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between low levels of physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 2,057 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. We analyzed the level of physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables by standardized and validated questionnaires. The control variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, maternal education, alcohol consumption and smoking. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of physical activity was 81.9%; the inadequate consumption of fruits ocurred in 79.1% and the inadequate consumption of vegetables in 90.6%. Adolescents who consumed few fruits daily had an increase in 40% of chance of being insufficiently active and, for those who consumed few vegetable's the likelihood of being insufficiently active was 50% higher, compared to those who had adequate intake of these foods. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of physical activity were associated with inadequate fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents in a city in northeastern Brazil. These findings suggest that insufficiently active adolescents have other unhealthy behaviors that may increase the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. PMID:25887930

  1. Presenting Theoretical Ideas Prior to Inquiry Activities Fosters Theory-Level Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wecker, Christof; Rachel, Alexander; Heran-Dörr, Eva; Waltner, Christine; Wiesner, Hartmut; Fischer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In the course of inquiry activities similar to those of real scientists, learners are supposed to develop knowledge both on the level of observable phenomena and on the level of explanatory theories. However, some theories involve theoretical entities (e.g., "Weiss domains") that cannot be observed directly and therefore may be hard to…

  2. Children's Physical Activity Levels during Indoor Recess Dance Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Koufoudakis, Ryann; Beighle, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children's physical activity (PA) levels remain low, and schools are being asked to assume a leadership role in PA promotion. Research suggests outdoor recess contributes to children's overall PA levels. However, similar research is not available for indoor recess, which occurs frequently due to a variety of factors. The…

  3. Effectiveness of the Sport Education Fitness Model on Fitness Levels, Knowledge, and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hansen, Andrew; Scarboro, Shot; Melnic, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in fitness levels, content knowledge, physical activity levels, and participants' perceptions following the implementation of the sport education fitness model (SEFM) at a high school. Thirty-two high school students participated in 20 lessons using the SEFM. Aerobic capacity, muscular…

  4. Is the serum cholesterol-coronary heart disease relationship modified by activity level in older persons?

    PubMed

    Harris, T B; Makuc, D M; Kleinman, J C; Gillum, R F; Curb, J D; Schatzkin, A; Feldman, J J

    1991-08-01

    Although coronary heart disease remains a leading cause of death and disability in old age, the relationship of serum cholesterol level to risk of coronary heart disease in old age is controversial. Data for 2,388 white persons aged 65-74 who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHEFS) were examined to determine the relationship of serum cholesterol level to coronary heart disease incidence and whether activity level would modify this relationship. While there was no overall relationship between serum cholesterol level and coronary heart disease risk in either men or women, the relationship between serum cholesterol level and coronary heart disease differed within activity groups. For persons who were more active, serum cholesterol level was associated with a graded increase in risk of coronary heart disease, from 1.3 (95% CI 0.7, 2.3) in those with serum cholesterol level of 4.7-5.1 to 1.7 in those with serum cholesterol level of 6.2 mmol/L or more (95% CI 1.0, 2.7), when compared with those with serum cholesterol level below 4.7. For the least active persons, all levels of cholesterol were associated with a significant inverse relative risk, including cholesterol of 6.2 mmol/L or more (Relative risk = 0.4 (95% CI 0.2, 0.7]. These data suggest that factors such as activity level may modify the serum cholesterol-coronary heart disease association in old age. The serum cholesterol-coronary heart disease association in more active older persons resembles that seen in younger populations, whereas the association in less active persons is that of serum cholesterol level and risk of cancer or death. The modification of the serum cholesterol-coronary heart disease association by activity level may have implications for appropriate clinical management as well as appropriate design of research studies of this association. PMID:2071804

  5. Reinforcing Constructivist Teaching in Advanced Level Biochemistry through the Introduction of Case-Based Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartfield, Perry J.

    2010-01-01

    In the process of curriculum development, I have integrated a constructivist teaching strategy into an advanced-level biochemistry teaching unit. Specifically, I have introduced case-based learning activities into the teaching/learning framework. These case-based learning activities were designed to develop problem-solving skills, consolidate…

  6. Promoting Higher Level Thinking in Psychology: Is Active Learning the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Hagan, Lisa Kindelberger

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate which common instructional methods (active vs. direct) best promote higher level thinking in a psychology course. Over a 5-week period, 71 undergraduates were taught psychology using both active learning and direct instruction. Pre- and post-course assessments were coded as either higher or lower level…

  7. Taking a New Look at the Physical Activity Program on the College and University Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPoint, James D., Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Physical activity programs at the college level should aim toward: (1) maintenance of physical fitness; (2) refinement of skills; (3) introduction to new skills; and (4) development of healthy lifestyles. Innovative activity courses such as aerobic dance, weight lifting, and adventure programs are also being offered to reach these goals. (JN)

  8. The Physical Activity Levels of Preschool-Aged Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This systematic review presents research on the physical activity levels of preschool-aged children (aged 2-6 years). Thirty-nine primary studies (published 1986-2007) representing a total of 10,316 participants (5236 male and 5080 female), from seven countries are described and the physical activity behaviors of this population are considered in…

  9. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in relation to four levels of daily geomagnetic and extreme yearly solar activity.

    PubMed

    Stoupel, E; Goldenfeld, M; Shimshoni, M; Siegel, R

    1993-02-01

    The link between geomagnetic field activity (GMA), solar activity and intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy individuals was investigated. The IOP of 485 patients (970 eyes) was recorded over three nonconsecutive years (1979, 1986, 1989) which were characterized by maximal solar activity (1979, 1989) or minimal solar activity (1986). The measurements were also correlated with four categories of GMA activity: quiet (level I0), unsettled (II0), active (III0), and stormy (IV0). Participants were also differentiated by age and sex. We found that IOP was lowest on days of level IV0 (stromy) GMA. The drop in IOP concomitant with a decrease in GMA level was more significant during periods of low solar activity and in persons over 65 years of age. There was a trend towards higher IOP values on days of levels II0 and IV0 GMA in years of high solar activity. Differences between the sexes and among individuals younger than 65 years were not significant. Our results show an interesting aspect of environmental influence on the healthy population. PMID:8468099

  10. Be Your Own Hero: Activities for Middle-Level Social Studies Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benes, Clarance H.; Steinbrink, John E.

    1998-01-01

    Offers instructional activities (in the form of a three-day lesson plan and extension activities) for middle-level students that allow adolescents to recognize heroic people and actions, and then explore their own characters and behaviors for signs of courage, leadership, and sincerity. Lists resources about heroes. (SR)

  11. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  12. Activities Coordinator. A Competency-Based Curriculum Designed To Prepare Students for Entry-Level Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Curriculum Resource Center of Maine, Fairfield.

    This curriculum was developed to assist instructors in planning and implementing a comprehensive, competency-based activities program to teach students skills for entry-level jobs as activities coordinators in nursing homes or extended-care facilities for older persons. The guide contains instructional units for each task listed on the job…

  13. The Strength of Motivation and Physical Activity Level during Leisure Time among Youth in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Min-Haeng

    2004-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between the perceived strength of motivation and level of physical activity during their leisure time of youth. The randomly selected 1,097 (boys = 342, girls = 755) youth reported their duration, frequency, and intensity of physical activity and also indicated their strength of motivation in…

  14. Activity Level, Organization, and Social-Emotional Behaviors in Post-Institutionalized Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadlec, Mary Beth; Cermak, Sharon A.

    2002-01-01

    Compared activity and behaviors of 36- to 82-month-olds adopted from Romanian orphanages and with varying lengths of institutionalization (more than 6 months or less than 2 months) with those of age- and gender-matched American-born control groups. Found that each Romanian group exhibited more problems in activity level, organization, and…

  15. Individual and School-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Physical Activity in Australian School children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lucy; Maher, Carol; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Olds, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: We attempted to determine whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in 9- to 11-year-old Australian children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and whether school facilities or policies supporting physical activity were associated with school-level socioeconomic status (SES) and MVPA. Methods: Children (N = 528) from 26…

  16. Self-Rated Activity Levels and Longevity: Evidence from a 20 Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullee, Mark A.; Coleman, Peter G.; Briggs, Roger S. J.; Stevenson, James E.; Turnbull, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The study reports on factors predicting the longevity of 328 people over the age of 65 drawn from an English city and followed over 20 years. Both the reported activities score and the individual's comparative evaluation of their own level of activity independently reduced the risk of death, even when health and cognitive status were taken into…

  17. The Effect of Gambling Activities on Happiness Levels of Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Waterman, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results…

  18. Metal Ion Adsorption by Activated Carbons Made from Pecan Shells: Effect of Oxygen Level During Activation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural by-products represent a considerable quantity of harvested commodity crops. The use of by-products as precursors for the production of widely used adsorbents, such as activated carbons, may impart a value-added component of the overall biomass harvested. Our objective in this presenta...

  19. Feasibility and Effects of Short Activity Breaks for Increasing Preschool-Age Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog; Puleo, Elaine; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We examined the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA) implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on preschoolers PA. Methods: Preschools were randomized to SBS-PA (centers, N = 5; participants, N = 141) or unstructured free playtime (UPA) (centers, N = 5; participants,…

  20. Generalized investigation of the rotation-activity relation: favoring rotation period instead of Rossby number

    SciTech Connect

    Reiners, A.; Passegger, V. M.; Schüssler, M.

    2014-10-20

    Magnetic activity in Sun-like and low-mass stars causes X-ray coronal emission which is stronger for more rapidly rotating stars. This relation is often interpreted in terms of the Rossby number, i.e., the ratio of rotation period to convective overturn time. We reconsider this interpretation on the basis of the observed X-ray emission and rotation periods of 821 stars with masses below 1.4 M {sub ☉}. A generalized analysis of the relation between X-ray luminosity normalized by bolometric luminosity, L {sub X}/L {sub bol}, and combinations of rotational period, P, and stellar radius, R, shows that the Rossby formulation does not provide the solution with minimal scatter. Instead, we find that the relation L {sub X}/L {sub bol}∝P {sup –2} R {sup –4} optimally describes the non-saturated fraction of the stars. This relation is equivalent to L {sub X}∝P {sup –2}, indicating that the rotation period alone determines the total X-ray emission. Since L {sub X} is directly related to the magnetic flux at the stellar surface, this means that the surface flux is determined solely by the star's rotation and is independent of other stellar parameters. While a formulation in terms of a Rossby number would be consistent with these results if the convective overturn time scales exactly as L{sub bol}{sup −1/2}, our generalized approach emphasizes the need to test a broader range of mechanisms for dynamo action in cool stars.

  1. Elevated homocysteine levels in suction-induced blister fluid of active vitiligo lesions.

    PubMed

    Anbar, Tag; Zuel-Fakkar, Nehal Mohamed; Matta, Mary Fikry; Arbab, Mai Mohammed Ibrahim

    2016-02-01

    Vitiligo is the most prevalent acquired pigmentary disorder as a result of destruction of melanocytes. Several studies have reported increased serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) in vitiligo patients which may be the result of decreased Vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. In addition, homocystinuria is associated with pigmentary dilution. On the other hand, other studies reported normal serum homocysteine levels. Our aim was to study the Hcy level in active vitiligo patients both in serum and in suction blister fluid obtained from the lesional skin. A total of 30 patients with active vitiligo of both sexes and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Sera from the blood and from lesional induced bullae were obtained from the patients and controls and were assayed for Hcy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 17. There were no significant differences in the serum levels of Hcy between patients and healthy controls, however, the increase in Hcy level was highly statistically significant in the patients' lesional induced bulla compared to the healthy controls. There was no significant difference in Hcy levels between males and females and between patients with negative or positive family histories of vitiligo. The presence of a high homocysteine level in active vitiligo lesions points to a local event occurring in this lesion, which is not reflected as an increase in the patient's serum level. PMID:26678812

  2. Level and length of cyclic solar activity during the Maunder minimum as deduced from the active-day statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, J. M.; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Usoskin, I. G.; Carrasco, V. M. S.; Gallego, M. C.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: The Maunder minimum (MM) of greatly reduced solar activity took place in 1645-1715, but the exact level of sunspot activity is uncertain because it is based, to a large extent, on historical generic statements of the absence of spots on the Sun. Using a conservative approach, we aim to assess the level and length of solar cycle during the MM on the basis of direct historical records by astronomers of that time. Methods: A database of the active and inactive days (days with and without recorded sunspots on the solar disc) is constructed for three models of different levels of conservatism (loose, optimum, and strict models) regarding generic no-spot records. We used the active day fraction to estimate the group sunspot number during the MM. Results: A clear cyclic variability is found throughout the MM with peaks at around 1655-1657, 1675, 1684, 1705, and possibly 1666, with the active-day fraction not exceeding 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 during the core MM, for the three models. Estimated sunspot numbers are found to be very low in accordance with a grand minimum of solar activity. Conclusions: For the core MM (1650-1700), we have found that (1) A large portion of no-spot records, which correspond to the solar meridian observations, may be unreliable in the conventional database. (2) The active-day fraction remained low (below 0.3-0.4) throughout the MM, indicating the low level of sunspot activity. (3) The solar cycle appears clearly during the core MM. (4) The length of the solar cycle during the core MM appears for 9 ± 1 years, but this is uncertain. (5) The magnitude of the sunspot cycle during MM is assessed to be below 5-10 in sunspot numbers. A hypothesis of the high solar cycles during the MM is not confirmed.

  3. Physical Activity Level and Physical Functionality in Nonagenarians Compared to Individuals Aged 60–74 Years

    PubMed Central

    Frisard, Madlyn I.; Fabre, Jennifer M.; Russell, Ryan D.; King, Christina M.; DeLany, James P.; Wood, Robert H.; Ravussin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background Functional dependence and the risks of disability increase with age. The loss of independence is thought to be partially due to a decrease in physical activity. However, in populations, accurate measurement of physical activity is challenging and may not provide information on functional impairment. Methods This study therefore assessed physical functionality and physical activity level in a group of nonagenarians (11 men/11 women; 93 ± 1 years, 66.6 ± 2.4 kg, body mass index [BMI] = 24 ± 1 kg/m2) and a group of participants aged 60–74 years (17 men/15 women; 70 ± 1 years, 83.3 ± 3.0 kg, BMI = 29 ± 1 kg/m2) from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study. Physical activity level was calculated from total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR). Physical functionality was assessed using the Reduced Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance Test (CS-PFP10). Results Nonagenarians had lower absolute ( p < .001) and adjusted ( p < .007) TEE compared to participants aged 60–74 years which was attributed to a reduction in both RMR and physical activity level. Nonagenarians also had reduced functional performance ( p < .001) which was correlated with activity level (r = 0.68, p < .001). Conclusions When compared to individuals aged 60–74 years, 73% of the reduction in TEE in nonagenarians can be attributed to a reduction in physical activity level, the remaining being accounted for by a reduction in RMR. The reduced physical activity in nonagenarians is associated with less physical functionality. This study provides the first objective comparison of physical functionality and actual levels of physical activity in older individuals. PMID:17634327

  4. Daily activity level buffers stress-glycemia associations in older sedentary NIDDM patients.

    PubMed

    Aikens, K S; Aikens, J E; Wallander, J L; Hunt, S

    1997-08-01

    Examined glycemic associations with medical variables, activity, daily stress, and mood state in 72 older patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). On three occasions over a 2-week observation period, subjects provided measures of everyday life stress, negative mood state, and daily activities. At the end of this period, fructosamine was assayed to measure glycemic control throughout the assessment period. After controlling for medical variables (age, illness duration, body mass index, caloric intake, and activity) and the main effects of psychological factors (stress; anxious, angry, and depressed mood states), stress interacted with activity such that glycemic elevation was positively associated with stress for subjects below the activity median but not for those above the median. This was unattributable to any overall activity-related differences in fructosamine, stress, or mood. None of the mood states interacted with activity. The findings suggest that extremely low levels of activity may strengthen life stress-glycemia associations in NIDDM. PMID:9298436

  5. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  6. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

    PubMed Central

    Smart, D R; Ritchie, K; Stark, J M; Bugbee, B

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity. PMID:11536820

  7. Activity of Proteolytic Enzymes and Level of Cystatin C in the Peripartum Period.

    PubMed

    Cyganek, Anna; Wyczalkowska-Tomasik, Aleksandra; Jarmuzek, Patrycja; Grzechocinska, Barbara; Jabiry-Zieniewicz, Zoulikha; Paczek, Leszek; Wielgos, Miroslaw

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of cathepsin B, collagenases, trypsin, and plasmin and concentration of cystatin C in serum of healthy pregnant women in peripartum period. Study Design. The study group included 45 women in uncomplicated pregnancies. Blood samples were collected in four time points. Enzyme activity was measured by spectrofluorometric method. The level of cystatin C was measured using immunonephelometric method. Results. Mean activity of cathepsin B and the level of serum cystatin C were significantly higher in the study group. Collagenase activity was significantly lower in the study group than the control group. No differences in collagenase, plasmin, and trypsin activity on each day of the peripartum period were found. Conclusion. High activity of cathepsin B and increased level of cystatin C are typical for women in late pregnancy. Those levels significantly decrease after delivery which can be associated with potential role of those markers in placental separation. The insignificant changes of cystatin C level in the peripartum period seem to exclude the possibility of using cystatin C as a marker for renal insufficiency in the peripartum period but additional research is necessary to investigate the matter further. PMID:26904684

  8. Activity of Proteolytic Enzymes and Level of Cystatin C in the Peripartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Cyganek, Anna; Wyczalkowska-Tomasik, Aleksandra; Jarmuzek, Patrycja; Grzechocinska, Barbara; Jabiry-Zieniewicz, Zoulikha; Paczek, Leszek; Wielgos, Miroslaw

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of cathepsin B, collagenases, trypsin, and plasmin and concentration of cystatin C in serum of healthy pregnant women in peripartum period. Study Design. The study group included 45 women in uncomplicated pregnancies. Blood samples were collected in four time points. Enzyme activity was measured by spectrofluorometric method. The level of cystatin C was measured using immunonephelometric method. Results. Mean activity of cathepsin B and the level of serum cystatin C were significantly higher in the study group. Collagenase activity was significantly lower in the study group than the control group. No differences in collagenase, plasmin, and trypsin activity on each day of the peripartum period were found. Conclusion. High activity of cathepsin B and increased level of cystatin C are typical for women in late pregnancy. Those levels significantly decrease after delivery which can be associated with potential role of those markers in placental separation. The insignificant changes of cystatin C level in the peripartum period seem to exclude the possibility of using cystatin C as a marker for renal insufficiency in the peripartum period but additional research is necessary to investigate the matter further. PMID:26904684

  9. Minimum Detectable Activity in gamma spectrometry and its use in low level activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Done, L; Ioan, M-R

    2016-08-01

    In this paper there are described three different algorithms of Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) calculus, and its use in high resolution gamma spectrometry. In the first part, few introductive theoretical aspects related to the MDA are presented. Further, the theory was applied to real gamma rays spectrometry measurements and the results were compared with the activities reference values. Two different gamma spectrometry systems, both of them using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors, but having different efficiencies, were used. Samples having different geometries and radionuclides content were measured. The measured samples were made by dissolving of some acids containing anthropogenic radionuclides in water, obtaining a density of 1g/cm(3). Choosing this type of matrix was done because of its high homogeneity. PMID:27172893

  10. Vibrational optical activity of chiral carbon nanoclusters treated by a generalized π-electron method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Péter R.; Surján, Péter R.; Szabados, Ágnes

    2014-01-01

    Cross sections of inelastic light scattering accompanied by vibronic excitation in large conjugated carbon structures is assessed at the π-electron level. Intensities of Raman and vibrational Raman optical activity (VROA) spectra of fullerenes are computed, relying on a single electron per atom. When considering only first neighbor terms in the Hamiltonian (a tight-binding (TB) type or Hückel-model), Raman intensities are captured remarkably well, based on comparison with frequency-dependent linear response of the self-consistent field (SCF) method. Resorting to π-electron levels when computing spectral intensities brings a beneficial reduction in computational cost as compared to linear response SCF. At difference with total intensities, the first neighbor TB model is found inadequate for giving the left and right circularly polarized components of the scattered light, especially when the molecular surface is highly curved. To step beyond first neighbor approximation, an effective π-electron Hamiltonian, including interaction of all sites is derived from the all-electron Fockian, in the spirit of the Bloch-equation. Chiroptical cross-sections computed by this novel π-electron method improve upon first-neighbor TB considerably, with no increase in computational cost. Computed VROA spectra of chiral fullerenes, such as C76 and C28, are reported for the first time, both by conventional linear response SCF and effective π-electron models.

  11. Sources and magnitude of variability in pedometer-determined physical activity levels of youth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So-Yeun; Park, Hye-Sang

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sources of variability in habitual physical activity of children, and the minimum number of days required for estimating children’s habitual physical activity levels using pedometers. A total of 31 children wore two pedometers during five weekdays and four weekend days. A two random facet completely crossed design was conducted with two-way analysis of variances across weekdays, weekends, and weekdays and weekend days combined. Moderate/high generalizability coefficients were estimated across all days. Primary sources of variability were variance components of the person and person by day interaction. Minimum numbers of days required for estimating habitual physical activity levels using a pedometer were five during weekdays. However, estimating habitual physical activity levels during weekends, and weekdays and weekend days combined was impractical. PMID:26730388

  12. Optics and Light Activities for Teachers of all Grade Levels from Easily Obtainable Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Richard; Hendricks, Curtis; Lucatorto, Lynn; McNeilus, Thomas; Thornton, Stephen

    2010-02-01

    Several hands-on activities in light and optics covering selected topics will be discussed in the context of home labs and how such activities can be incorporated into a distance-learning or online web-based course utilizing the latest communication technologies and the Internet. The presentation will focus on activities that can be constructed from easy to obtain supplies as well as a commercially available kit that we are having made available. Activities for teachers at the elementary level will focus on understanding light rays, shadows, and reflection from plane surfaces; at the middle school level will focus on curved mirrors and lenses, dispersion, and drawing ray diagrams; at the high school level will focus on Snell's law, the lens equation, wave interference, polarization, Young's experiment, and diffraction. A distance-learning, web-based course based on these home labs will be described. )

  13. Assessing General and Specific Attitudes in Human Learning Behavior: An Activity Perspective and a Multilevel Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Jun; Willson, Victor L.

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes a multilevel modeling approach to study the general and specific attitudes formed in human learning behavior. Based on the premises of activity theory, it conceptualizes the unit of analysis for attitude measurement as a scalable and evolving activity system rather than a single action. Measurement issues related to this…

  14. Comparative Analyses of the Teaching Methods and Evaluation Practices in English Subject at Secondary School Certificate (SSC) and General Certificate of Education (GCE O-Level) in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behlol, Malik Ghulam; Anwar, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to compare the teaching methods and evaluation practices in English subject at secondary school certificate (SSC) and general certificate of education GCE-O-level in Pakistan. The population of the study was students, teachers and experts at SSC and 0-level in the Punjab province. Purposive and random sampling techniques…

  15. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women.

    PubMed

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  16. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    PubMed Central

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  17. Maintaining a High Physical Activity Level Over 20 Years and Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Hankinson, Arlene L.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Bouchard, Claude; Carnethon, Mercedes; Lewis, Cora E.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Context Data supporting physical activity guidelines to prevent long-term weight gain are sparse, particularly during the period when the highest risk of weight gain occurs. Objective To evaluate the relationship between habitual activity levels and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference over 20 years. Design, Setting, and Participants The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study is a prospective longitudinal study with 20 years of follow-up, 1985-86 to 2005-06. Habitual activity was defined as maintaining high, moderate, and low activity levels based on sex-specific tertiles of activity scores at baseline. Participants comprised a population-based multi-center cohort (Chicago, Illinois; Birmingham, Alabama; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Oakland, California) of 3554 men and women aged 18 to 30 years at baseline. Main Outcome Measures Average annual changes in BMI and waist circumference Results Over 20 years, maintaining high levels of activity was associated with smaller gains in BMI and waist circumference compared with low activity levels after adjustment for race, baseline BMI, age, education, cigarette smoking status, alcohol use, and energy intake. Men maintaining high activity gained 2.6 fewer kilograms (+ 0.15 BMI units per year; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.18 vs +0.20 in the lower activity group; 95% CI, 0.17-0.23) and women maintaining higher activity gained 6.1 fewer kilograms (+0.17 BMI units per year; 95 % CI, 0.12-0.21 vs. +0.30 in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.25-0.34). Men maintaining high activity gained 3.1 fewer centimeters in waist circumference (+0.52 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.43-0.61 cm vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75) and women maintaining higher activity gained 3.8 fewer centimeters (+0.49 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.39-0.58 vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75). Conclusion Maintaining high activity levels through young adulthood may lessen

  18. Exploratory Studies in Generalized Predictive Control for Active Gust Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.; Eure, Kenneth W.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    2006-01-01

    The results of numerical simulations aimed at assessing the efficacy of Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) for active gust load alleviation using trailing- and leading-edge control surfaces are presented. The equations underlying the method are presented and discussed, including system identification, calculation of control law matrices, and calculation of commands applied to the control effectors. Both embedded and explicit feedforward paths for inclusion of disturbance effects are addressed. Results from two types of simulations are shown. The first used a 3-DOF math model of a mass-spring-dashpot system subject to user-defined external disturbances. The second used open-loop data from a wind-tunnel test in which a wing model was excited by sinusoidal vertical gusts; closed-loop behavior was simulated in post-test calculations. Results obtained from these simulations have been decidedly positive. In particular, results of closed-loop simulations for the wing model showed reductions in root moments by factors as high as 1000, depending on whether the excitation is from a constant- or variable-frequency gust and on the direction of the response.

  19. Measurement of General and Specific Approaches to Physical Activity Parenting: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Samantha; Cohen, Alysia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Parents play a significant role in shaping youth physical activity (PA). However, interventions targeting PA parenting have been ineffective. Methodological inconsistencies related to the measurement of parental influences may be a contributing factor. The purpose of this article is to review the extant peer-reviewed literature related to the measurement of general and specific parental influences on youth PA. Methods A systematic review of studies measuring constructs of PA parenting was conducted. Computerized searches were completed using PubMed, MEDLINE, Academic Search Premier, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO. Reference lists of the identified articles were manually reviewed as well as the authors' personal collections. Articles were selected on the basis of strict inclusion criteria and details regarding the measurement protocols were extracted. A total of 117 articles met the inclusionary criteria. Methodological articles that evaluated the validity and reliability of PA parenting measures (n=10) were reviewed separately from parental influence articles (n=107). Results A significant percentage of studies used measures with indeterminate validity and reliability. A significant percentage of articles did not provide sample items, describe the response format, or report the possible range of scores. No studies were located that evaluated sensitivity to change. Conclusion The reporting of measurement properties and the use of valid and reliable measurement scales need to be improved considerably. PMID:23944923

  20. Generalized Laplacian for magnetograms of solar active region as possible predictor of strong flare.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volobuev, D. M.; Makarenko, N. G.; Knyazeva, I. S.

    2016-02-01

    Search for predictors of strong flare produced in solar active region (AR) is important application of solar physics. Here we consider the sequence of magnetogram (LOS SDO/HMI instrument) for AR 2034, 2035 and 2036 (April 2014). All three AR were observed on the Sun at about the same time, characterized by low probability of flare events according to official forecasts of NOAA, but 2036 still produced X1-flare near the center of solar disc (April 18). We propose that Generalized Laplacian is a descriptor which could help predict this and similar events. The Laplacian is associated with the flow of Ricci curvature and with topological invariants of the observed field - Betti numbers for compact manifolds. Using discrete version of Morse theory, we consider each pixel of energy flux (B2) image as a simplex and calculate its combinatorial Bochner Laplacian. It was found that maximum of Laplacian is located near AR polarity inversion line. Evolution of total spatial variation of the Laplacian has a number of maxima in time for each of examined AR. However, the maxima in AR 2035 and AR 2034 have relatively low amplitude, while the highest maximum prefaced X1 flare in AR 2036 by about 29 hours.

  1. Effects of a Classroom-Based Physical Activity Program on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Tan Leng; Hannon, James; Webster, Collin Andrew; Podlog, Leslie William; Brusseau, Timothy; Newton, Maria

    2014-01-01

    High levels of physical inactivity are evident among many American children. To address this problem, providing physical activity (PA) during the school day within the CSPAP framework, is one strategy to increase children's PA. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a classroom-based PA program on children's PA.…

  2. Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Differ According to Education Level in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009–2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays. PMID:27403958

  3. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed. PMID:26496170

  4. Does activity space size influence physical activity levels of adolescents?—A GPS study of an urban environment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nolan C.; Voss, Christine; Frazer, Amanda D.; Hirsch, Jana A.; McKay, Heather A.; Winters, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is closely linked with child and youth health, and active travel may be a solution to enhancing PA levels. Activity spaces depict the geographic coverage of one's travel. Little is known about activity spaces and PA in adolescents. Objective To explore the relation between adolescent travel (using a spatial measure of activity space size) and daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), with a focus on school days. Methods We used Global Positioning Systems to manually identify trips and generate activity spaces for each person-day; quantified by area for 39 students (13.8 ± 0.6 years, 38% female) attending high school in urban Downtown Vancouver, Canada. We assessed the association between activity space area and MVPA using multi-level regression. We calculated total, school-day and trip-based MVPA for each valid person-day (accelerometry; ≥ 600 min wear time). Results On school days, students accrued 68.2 min/day (95% CI 60.4–76.0) of MVPA. Daily activity spaces averaged 2.2 km2 (95% CI 1.3–3.0). There was no association between activity space size and school-day MVPA. Students accrued 21.8 min/day (95% CI 19.2–24.4) of MVPA during school hours, 19.4 min/day (95% CI 15.1–23.7) during travel, and 28.3 min/day (95% CI 22.3–34.3) elsewhere. Conclusion School and school travel are important sources of PA in Vancouver adolescents, irrespective of activity space area covered. PMID:26807349

  5. Physical Education and General Health Courses and Minority Community College Student Risk Levels for Poor Health and Leisure-Time Exercise Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Sally L.; Keating, Xiaofen Deng; Chen, Li; Guan, Jianmin; Delzeit-McIntyre, Linda; Bridges, Dwan

    2008-01-01

    College education is the last opportunity to educate a large segment of young adults to be physically active and develop a healthy lifestyle. This study examined minority community college student risks for cardiovascular disease, physical activity (PA) patterns, and effects of physical education and general health courses on promoting PA.…

  6. Moderate Levels of Activation Lead to Forgetting In the Think/No-Think Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Detre, Greg J.; Natarajan, Annamalai; Gershman, Samuel J.; Norman, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Using the think/no-think paradigm (Anderson & Green, 2001), researchers have found that suppressing retrieval of a memory (in the presence of a strong retrieval cue) can make it harder to retrieve that memory on a subsequent test. This effect has been replicated numerous times, but the size of the effect is highly variable. Also, it is unclear from a neural mechanistic standpoint why preventing recall of a memory now should impair your ability to recall that memory later. Here, we address both of these puzzles using the idea, derived from computational modeling and studies of synaptic plasticity, that the function relating memory activation to learning is U-shaped, such that moderate levels of memory activation lead to weakening of the memory and higher levels of activation lead to strengthening. According to this view, forgetting effects in the think/no-think paradigm occur when the suppressed item activates moderately during the suppression attempt, leading to weakening; the effect is variable because sometimes the suppressed item activates strongly (leading to strengthening) and sometimes it does not activate at all (in which case no learning takes place). To test this hypothesis, we ran a think/no-think experiment where participants learned word-picture pairs; we used pattern classifiers, applied to fMRI data, to measure how strongly the picture associates were activating when participants were trying not to retrieve these associates, and we used a novel Bayesian curve-fitting procedure to relate this covert neural measure of retrieval to performance on a later memory test. In keeping with our hypothesis, the curve-fitting procedure revealed a nonmonotonic relationship between memory activation (as measured by the classifier) and subsequent memory, whereby moderate levels of activation of the to-be-suppressed item led to diminished performance on the final memory test, and higher levels of activation led to enhanced performance on the final test. PMID:23499722

  7. Serum Amyloid A Circulating Levels and Disease Activity in Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Giani, Teresa; Fioravanti, Antonella; Iacoponi, Francesca; Simonini, Gabriele; Pagnini, Ilaria; Spreafico, Adriano; Chellini, Federico; Galeazzi, Mauro; Cimaz, Rolando

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between circulating levels of serum amyloid A protein (SAA) and disease activity in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Our study group included 41 JIA patients (9 male, 32 female), classified according to the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) criteria (5); 16 had polyarticular onset disease and 25 had oligoarticular onset disease. Among 25 patients with oligoarticular disease, three had extended oligoarthritis. Serum amyloid A (SAA), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in both patients and 26 healthy controls. SAA levels were higher in JIA patients versus healthy controls (p<0.001). Significant positive correlations were found between SAA and the presence of active joints (rho=0.363, p<0.05), the number of active joints (rho=0.418, p<0.05), ESR (R=0.702, p<0.05) and CRP (R=0.827, p<0.05). No significant correlations between ESR and the presence of active joints (rho=0.221, p=0.225) or between ESR and the number of active joints (rho=0.118, p=0.520) were demonstrated in JIA patients. No significant correlations were obtained between CRP and the presence of active joints (rho=0.034, p=0.855) or between CRP and the number of active joints (rho=0.033, p=0.859). We discovered a significant increase in SAA levels in JIA patients, compared to controls, and a strong positive correlation between SAA level and JIA disease activity. We also discerned SAA to be a more sensitive laboratory marker than ESR and CRP for evaluating the presence and number of active joints. We suggest that SAA can be used as an additional indicator of disease activity in JIA. PMID:22869491

  8. A pediatric correlational study of stride interval dynamics, energy expenditure and activity level.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Denine; Sejdic, Ervin; Zabjek, Karl; Chau, Tom

    2014-08-01

    The strength of time-dependent correlations known as stride interval (SI) dynamics has been proposed as an indicator of neurologically healthy gait. Most recently, it has been hypothesized that these dynamics may be necessary for gait efficiency although the supporting evidence to date is scant. The current study examines over-ground SI dynamics, and their relationship with the cost of walking and physical activity levels in neurologically healthy children aged nine to 15 years. Twenty participants completed a single experimental session consisting of three phases: 10 min resting, 15 min walking and 10 min recovery. The scaling exponent (α) was used to characterize SI dynamics while net energy cost was measured using a portable metabolic cart, and physical activity levels were determined based on a 7-day recall questionnaire. No significant linear relationships were found between a and the net energy cost measures (r < .07; p > .25) or between α and physical activity levels (r = .01, p = .62). However, there was a marked reduction in the variance of α as activity levels increased. Over-ground stride dynamics do not appear to directly reflect energy conservation of gait in neurologically healthy youth. However, the reduction in the variance of α with increasing physical activity suggests a potential exercise-moderated convergence toward a level of stride interval persistence for able-bodied youth reported in the literature. This latter finding warrants further investigation. PMID:24722770

  9. Endogenous testosterone levels are associated with neural activity in men with schizophrenia during facial emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ellen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Catts, Stanley V; Vercammen, Ans; White, Christopher; Gur, Raquel E; Weickert, Thomas W

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that testosterone may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia given that testosterone has been linked to cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Here, we determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels are related to neural activity in affective processing circuitry in men with schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes as 32 healthy controls and 26 people with schizophrenia performed a facial emotion identification task. Whole brain analyses were performed to determine regions of differential activity between groups during processing of angry versus non-threatening faces. A follow-up ROI analysis using a regression model in a subset of 16 healthy men and 16 men with schizophrenia was used to determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels were related to neural activity. Healthy controls displayed significantly greater activation than people with schizophrenia in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). There was no significant difference in circulating testosterone levels between healthy men and men with schizophrenia. Regression analyses between activation in the IFG and circulating testosterone levels revealed a significant positive correlation in men with schizophrenia (r=.63, p=.01) and no significant relationship in healthy men. This study provides the first evidence that circulating serum testosterone levels are related to IFG activation during emotion face processing in men with schizophrenia but not in healthy men, which suggests that testosterone levels modulate neural processes relevant to facial emotion processing that may interfere with social functioning in men with schizophrenia. PMID:25796490

  10. A computational method for the detection of activation/deactivation patterns in biological signals with three levels of electric intensity.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, J A; Macías-Díaz, J E

    2014-02-01

    In the present work, we develop a computational technique to approximate the changes of phase in temporal series associated to electric signals of muscles which perform activities at three different levels of intensity. We suppose that the temporal series are samples of independent, normally distributed random variables with mean equal to zero, and variance equal to one of three possible values, each of them associated to a certain degree of electric intensity. For example, these intensity levels may represent a leg muscle at rest, or active during a light activity (walking), or active during a highly demanding performance (jogging). The model is presented as a maximum likelihood problem involving discrete variables. In turn, this problem is transformed into a continuous one via the introduction of continuous variables with penalization parameters, and it is solved recursively through an iterative numerical method. An a posteriori treatment of the results is used in order to avoid the detection of relatively short periods of silence or activity. We perform simulations with synthetic data in order to assess the validity of our technique. Our computational results show that the method approximates well the occurrence of the change points in synthetic temporal series, even in the presence of autocorrelated sequences. In the way, we show that a generalization of a computational technique for the change-point detection of electric signals with two phases of activity (Esquivel-Frausto et al., 2010 [40]), may be inapplicable in cases of temporal series with three levels of intensity. In this sense, the method proposed in the present manuscript improves previous efforts of the authors. PMID:24418009

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase levels and gelatinolytic activity in clinically healthy and inflamed human dental pulps.

    PubMed

    Gusman, Heloisa; Santana, Ronaldo B; Zehnder, Matthias

    2002-10-01

    The role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the breakdown of pulp tissue of teeth with severe caries has not yet been directly elucidated. This study was to determine the levels of selected MMPs and the overall gelatinolytic activity in clinically healthy and inflamed human dental pulps of 29 healthy subjects, aged 10-19 yr. Seventeen pulps were collected from subjects diagnosed with symptomatic pulpitis, and 18 control pulps were obtained from 12 subjects following premolar extraction for orthodontic reasons. The levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3 and MMP-9 were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Densitometric analysis of gelatin zymograms was used to assay gelatinolytic activity in pulp supernatants. The MMP-1 levels were below the detection limit for both groups. Levels of MMP-2 and MMP-3 were significantly lower in symptomatic vs. clinically healthy pulps. In contrast, levels of MMP-9 in inflamed pulps were significantly higher than those recorded in clinically normal pulps. The overall gelatinolytic activity was elevated in inflamed pulps compared with healthy counterparts. Further, the gelatinolytic activity was positively correlated with MMP-9 levels. The data obtained suggest a key role of MMP-9 in the breakdown of inflamed human dental pulp tissue. PMID:12664465

  12. Baseline acetylcholinesterase activity and serotonin plasma levels are not associated with delirium in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Cristiane Damiani; Salluh, Jorge; Soares, Márcio; Vuolo, Francieli; Zanatta, Francieli; Constantino, Larissa de Souza; Zugno, Alexandra Ioppi; Ritter, Cristiane; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether plasma serotonin levels or acetylcholinesterase activities determined upon intensive care unit admission could predict the occurrence of acute brain dysfunction in intensive care unit patients. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted with a sample of 77 non-consecutive patients observed between May 2009 and September 2010. Delirium was determined using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit tool, and the acetylcholinesterase and serotonin measurements were determined from blood samples collected up to a maximum of 24 h after the admission of the patient to the intensive care unit. Results In the present study, 38 (49.6%) patients developed delirium during their intensive care unit stays. Neither serum acetylcholinesterase activity nor serotonin level was independently associated with delirium. No significant correlations of acetylcholinesterase activity or serotonin level with delirium/coma-free days were observed, but in the patients who developed delirium, there was a strong negative correlation between the acetylcholinesterase level and the number of delirium/coma-free days, indicating that higher acetylcholinesterase levels are associated with fewer days alive without delirium or coma. No associations were found between the biomarkers and mortality. Conclusions Neither serum acetylcholinesterase activity nor serotonin level was associated with delirium or acute brain dysfunction in critically ill patients. Sepsis did not modify these relationships. PMID:26340158

  13. Elevated serum interleukin-23 levels in ankylosing spondylitis patients and the relationship with disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Ugur, Mahir; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Melikoglu, Meltem Alkan; Baygutalp, Fatih; Altas, Elif Umay; Seferoglu, Buminhan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Twenty male patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the 1984 modified New York criteria for AS and twenty male healthy controls were included in this study.The demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Serum IL-23 levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in both the AS and control groups. The Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity ındex (BASDAI), the Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), and the Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) were evaluated as disease activity parameters. The AS patients were divided into two subgroups as active and inactive in respect of CRP, ESR levels and BASDAI scores. The mean serum IL-23 levels of the AS and control groups were 334.45±176.54 pg/ml and 166.49±177.50 pg/ml respectively, and there was a significant difference between the groups. Correlation analysis of serum IL-23 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters showed that there were positive correlations between serum IL-23 levels and the BASDAI, BASFI scores in total, active and inactive patients and the BASMI scores in total and inactive patients and negative correlations between serum IL-23 levels and ESR in inactive patients. It was shown that altered serum IL-23 levels were related to AS disease activity. Further studies in large patient series are necessary to investigate the role of IL-23 protein in etiopathogenesis of AS. PMID:26663940

  14. Playground designs to increase physical activity levels during school recess: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Yolanda; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Backx, Karianne; Saavedra, Jose M

    2014-04-01

    School recess provides a major opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. Various studies have described strategies to increase levels of physical activity. The purpose of this systematic review is therefore to examine the interventions proposed as forms of increasing children's physical activity levels during recess. A systematic search of seven databases was made from the July 1 to July 5, 2012, leading to a final set of eight studies (a total of 2,383 subjects-599 "preschoolers" and 1,784 "schoolchildren") meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were classified according to the intervention used: playground markings, game equipment, playground markings plus physical structures, and playground markings plus game equipment. The results of these studies indicate that the strategies analyzed do have the potential to increase physical activity levels during recess. The cumulative evidence was (a) that interventions based on playground markings, game equipment, or a combination of the two, do not seem to increase the physical activity of preschoolers and schoolchildren during recess and (ii) that interventions based on playground markings plus physical structures do increase the physical activity of schoolchildren during recess in the short to medium term. PMID:23836828

  15. Effect of Cognitive Activity Level on Duration of Post-Concussion Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Naomi J.; Mannix, Rebekah C.; O’Brien, Michael J.; Gostine, David; Collins, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of cognitive activity level on duration of post-concussion symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients who presented to a Sports Concussion Clinic within 3 weeks of injury between October 2009 and July 2011. At each visit, patients completed a scale that recorded their average level of cognitive activity since the previous visit. The product of cognitive activity level and days between visits (cognitive activity-days) was calculated and divided into quartiles. Kaplan-Meier Product Limit method was used to generate curves of symptom duration based on cognitive activity level. To adjust for other possible predictors of concussion recovery, we constructed a Cox proportional hazard model with cognitive activity-days as the main predictor. RESULTS: Of the 335 patients included in the study, 62% were male, 19% reported a loss of consciousness, and 37% reported experiencing amnesia at the time of injury. The mean age of participants was 15 years (range, 8–23) and the mean number of previous concussions was 0.76; 39% of athletes had sustained a previous concussion. The mean Post-Concussion Symptom Scale score at the initial visit was 30 (SD, 26). The overall mean duration of symptoms was 43 days (SD, 53). Of all variables assessed, only total symptom burden at initial visit and cognitive activity level were independently associated with duration of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Increased cognitive activity is associated with longer recovery from concussion. This study supports the use of cognitive rest and adds to the current consensus opinion. PMID:24394679

  16. Raised serum level of APRIL in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: correlations with disease activity indices.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, M; Darwish, H; Darweesh, H; El-Shehaby, A; Emad, Y

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess serum APRIL levels in SLE patients versus rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and normal control and to correlate serum APRIL levels in SLE patients with disease activity indices. Serum APRIL levels was measured in 40 SLE patients, 20 patients with RA and 20 healthy volunteers who served as control group. Disease activity in SLE patients was assessed by the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index and SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), and results were correlated with serum APRIL levels. Significantly higher serum APRIL levels was observed in SLE patients compared to RA patients and normal controls (p=0.003 and p < or = 0.001, respectively). Positive correlations were found between serum APRIL levels and total BILAG index (r=0.486 and p=0.001), BILAG musculoskeletal score (r=0.848 and p < or = 0.001) and BILAG cardiorespiratory score (r=0.326 and 0.04). Serum APRIL was higher in SLE patients compared to RA patients and normal control subjects and positively correlates with BILAG index and higher levels may be associated with musculoskeletal manifestations of the disease. APRIL antagonism could be a potential therapeutic target in SLE. PMID:20116334

  17. High-level resistance to class IIa bacteriocins is associated with one general mechanism in Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Gravesen, Anne; Ramnath, Manilduth; Rechinger, K Björn; Andersen, Natalie; Jänsch, Lothar; Héchard, Yann; Hastings, John W; Knøchel, Susanne

    2002-08-01

    Class IIa bacteriocins may be used as natural food preservatives, yet resistance development in the target organisms is still poorly understood. In this study, the understanding of class IIa resistance development in Listeria monocytogenes is extended, linking the seemingly diverging results previously reported. Eight resistant mutants having a high resistance level (at least a 10(3)-fold increase in MIC), originating from five wild-type listerial strains, were independently isolated following exposure to four different class IIa bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria (including pediocin PA-1 and leucocin A producers). Two of the mutants were isolated from food model systems (a saveloy-type sausage at 10 degrees C, and salmon juice at 5 degrees C). Northern blot analysis showed that the eight mutants all had increased expression of EII(Bgl) and a phospho-beta-glucosidase homologue, both originating from putative beta-glucoside-specific phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTSs). However, disruption of these genes in a resistant mutant did not confer pediocin sensitivity. Comparative two-dimensional gel analysis of proteins isolated from mutant and wild-type strains showed that one spot was consistently missing in the gels from mutant strains. This spot corresponded to the MptA subunit of the mannose-specific PTS, found only in the gels of wild-type strains. The mptACD operon was recently shown to be regulated by the sigma(54) transcription factor in conjunction with the activator ManR. Class IIa bacteriocin-resistant mutants having defined mutations in mpt or manR also exhibited the two diverging PTS expression changes. It is suggested here that high-level class IIa resistance in L. monocytogenes and at least some other Gram-positive bacteria is developed by one prevalent mechanism, irrespective of wild-type strain, class IIa bacteriocin, or the tested environmental conditions. The changes in expression of the beta-glucoside-specific and

  18. Sexual Activity and Impairment in Women with Systemic Sclerosis Compared to Women from a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Levis, Brooke; Burri, Andrea; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Reports of low sexual activity rates and high impairment rates among women with chronic diseases have not included comparisons to general population data. The objective of this study was to compare sexual activity and impairment rates of women with systemic sclerosis (SSc) to general population data and to identify domains of sexual function driving impairment in SSc. Methods Canadian women with SSc were compared to women from a UK population sample. Sexual activity and, among sexually active women, sexual impairment were evaluated with a 9-item version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results Among women with SSc (mean age = 57.0 years), 296 of 730 (41%) were sexually active, 181 (61%) of whom were sexually impaired, resulting in 115 of 730 (16%) who were sexually active without impairment. In the UK population sample (mean age = 55.4 years), 956 of 1,498 women (64%) were sexually active, 420 (44%) of whom were impaired, with 536 of 1,498 (36%) sexually active without impairment. Adjusting for age and marital status, women with SSc were significantly less likely to be sexually active (OR = 0.34, 95%CI = 0.28–0.42) and, among sexually active women, significantly more likely to be sexually impaired (OR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.42–2.49) than general population women. Controlling for total FSFI scores, women with SSc had significantly worse lubrication and pain scores than general population women. Conclusions Sexual functioning is a problem for many women with scleroderma and is associated with pain and poor lubrication. Evidence-based interventions to support sexual activity and function in women with SSc are needed. PMID:23251692

  19. Physical Activity Levels and Domains Assessed by Accelerometry in German Adolescents from GINIplus and LISAplus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maia P.; Berdel, Dietrich; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is a well-known and underused protective factor for numerous health outcomes, and interventions are hampered by lack of objective data. We combined accelerometers with diaries to estimate the contributions to total activity from different domains throughout the day and week in adolescents. Methods Accelerometric and diary data from 1403 adolescents (45% male, mean age 15.6 ± 0.5 years) were combined to evaluate daily levels and domains of sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) during a typical week. Freedson’s cutoff points were applied to determine levels of activity. Total activity was broken down into school physical education (PE), school outside PE, transportation to school, sport, and other time. Results About 2/3 of adolescents’ time was spent sedentary, 1/3 in light activity, and about 5% in MVPA. Boys and girls averaged 46 (SD 22) and 38 (23) minutes MVPA per day. Adolescents were most active during leisure sport, spending about 30% of it in MVPA, followed by PE (about 20%) transport to school (14%) and either school class time or other time (3%). PE provided 5% of total MVPA, while leisure sport provided 16% and transportation to school 8%. School was the most sedentary part of the day with over 75% of time outside PE spent sedentary. Conclusions These German adolescents were typical of Europeans in showing low levels of physical activity, with significant contributions from leisure sport, transportation and school PE. Leisure sport was the most active part of the day, and participation did not vary significantly by sex, study center (region of Germany) or BMI. Transportation to school was frequent and thus accounted for a significant fraction of total MVPA. This indicates that even in a population with good access to dedicated sporting activities, frequent active transportation can add significantly to total MVPA. PMID:27010227

  20. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r2 = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r2 = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  1. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael J; Schmitt, Emily E; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r (2) = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r (2) = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  2. Changes in cyclic GMP level and phosphodiesterase activity during follicular development in the rat ovary.

    PubMed

    Fu, C Q; Shi, F X; Zhang, Z H; Li, J R; Huang, X H; Wang, Z C

    2014-01-01

    Guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), as a second messenger, plays potential roles in ovarian functions. To elucidate the role of phosphodiesterase (PDE) in cGMP signaling during ovarian follicular development, the present study was conducted to investigate ovarian cGMP level and cGMP-PDE activity by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in postnatal rats, immature rats during gonadotropin-primed follicular development, ovulation and luteinization, adult rats during normal estrous cycle, and aged rats that spontaneously developed persistent estrus (PE). All four rat models were confirmed by histological examination of one ovary, and the other ovary was used for RIA. In postnatal rats, cGMP level was high at birth and decreased dramatically by Day 5, and then, it increased maximally at Day 10 and declined at Day 21. However, cGMP-PDE activity did not significantly change during Days 1 to 10, but increased significantly on Day 21. In immature female rats, cGMP level markedly decreased upon treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), while cGMP-PDE activity did not show any significant changes; however, ovarian cGMP level and cGMP-PDE activity increased after injection of an ovulatory dose of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for induction of ovulation and luteinization. In adult rats during normal estrous cycle, cGMP level was high on proestrus and metestrus days, while cGMP-PDE activity was high on estrus day. In PE rats, ovarian cGMP level was similar to that in adult rats on estrus and diestrus days but lower than that on proestrus and metestrus days; ovarian cGMP-PDE activity was lower than that on estrus days but similar as the other estrous cycle days. In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between ovarian cGMP level and cGMP-PDE activity during normal estrous cycles in the adult rat (r = -0.7715, N = 16, P < 0.05), but not in the postnatal rat (r = -0.1055, N = 20, P > 0.05). Together, the results of our present study indicated that ovarian

  3. A system for measuring thermal activation energy levels in silicon by thermally stimulated capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrum, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    One method being used to determine energy level(s) and electrical activity of impurities in silicon is described. The method is called capacitance transient spectroscopy (CTS). It can be classified into three basic categories: the thermally stimulated capacitance method, the voltage-stimulated capacitance method, and the light-stimulated capacitance method; the first two categories are discussed. From the total change in capacitance and the time constant of the capacitance response, emission rates, energy levels, and trap concentrations can be determined. A major advantage of using CTS is its ability to detect the presence of electrically active impurities that are invisible to other techniques, such as Zeeman effect atomic absorption, and the ability to detect more than one electrically active impurity in a sample. Examples of detection of majority and minority carrier traps from gold donor and acceptor centers in silicon using the capacitance transient spectrometer are given to illustrate the method and its sensitivity.

  4. LRE2, an active human L1 element, has low level transcriptional activity and extremely low reverse transcriptase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, S.E.; Dombroski, B.A.; Sassaman, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    Previously, we found a 2 kb insertion containing a rearranged L1 element plus a unique sequence component (USC) within exon 48 of the dystrophin gene of a patient with muscular dystrophy. We used the USC to clone the precursor of this insertion, the second known {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} human L1 element. The locus LRE2 (L1 Retrotransposable Element 2) has an allele derived from the patient which matches the insertion sequence exactly. LRE2 has a perfect 13-15 bp target site duplication, 2 open reading frames (ORFs), and an unusual 21 bp truncation of the 5{prime} end in a region known to be important for L1 transcription. The truncated LRE2 promoter has about 20% of the transcriptional activity of a previously studied L1 promoter after transfection into NTera2D1 cells of a construct in which the L1 promoter drives the expression of a lacZ gene. In addition, the reverse transcriptase (RT) encoded by LRE2 is active in an in vivo pseudogene assay in yeast and an in vitro assay. However, in both assays the RT of LRE2 is 1-5% as active as that of LRE1. These data demonstrate that multiple {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} L1 elements exist in the human genome, and that active elements can have highly variable rates of transcription and reverse transcriptase activity. That the RT of LRE2 has extremely low activity suggests the possibility that retrotransposition of an L1 element may in some cases involve an RT encoded by another L1 element.

  5. Towards Observational Astronomy of Jets in Active Galaxies from General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anantua, Richard; Roger Blandford, Jonathan McKinney and Alexander Tchekhovskoy

    2016-01-01

    We carry out the process of "observing" simulations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) with relativistic jets (hereafter called jet/accretion disk/black hole (JAB) systems) from ray tracing between image plane and source to convolving the resulting images with a point spread function. Images are generated at arbitrary observer angle relative to the black hole spin axis by implementing spatial and temporal interpolation of conserved magnetohydrodynamic flow quantities from a time series of output datablocks from fully general relativistic 3D simulations. We also describe the evolution of simulations of JAB systems' dynamical and kinematic variables, e.g., velocity shear and momentum density, respectively, and the variation of these variables with respect to observer polar and azimuthal angles. We produce, at frequencies from radio to optical, fixed observer time intensity and polarization maps using various plasma physics motivated prescriptions for the emissivity function of physical quantities from the simulation output, and analyze the corresponding light curves. Our hypothesis is that this approach reproduces observed features of JAB systems such as superluminal bulk flow projections and quasi-periodic oscillations in the light curves more closely than extant stylized analytical models, e.g., cannonball bulk flows. Moreover, our development of user-friendly, versatile C++ routines for processing images of state-of-the-art simulations of JAB systems may afford greater flexibility for observing a wide range of sources from high power BL-Lacs to low power quasars (possibly with the same simulation) without requiring years of observation using multiple telescopes. Advantages of observing simulations instead of observing astrophysical sources directly include: the absence of a diffraction limit, panoramic views of the same object and the ability to freely track features. Light travel time effects become significant for high Lorentz factor and small angles between

  6. Trainability of muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction: comparison between bodybuilders and nonathletes.

    PubMed

    Maeo, Sumiaki; Takahashi, Takumi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Antagonistic muscle pairs cannot be fully activated simultaneously, even with maximal effort, under conditions of voluntary co-contraction, and their muscular activity levels are always below those during agonist contraction with maximal voluntary effort (MVE). Whether the muscular activity level during the task has trainability remains unclear. The present study examined this issue by comparing the muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction for highly experienced bodybuilders, who frequently perform voluntary co-contraction in their training programs, with that for untrained individuals (nonathletes). The electromyograms (EMGs) of biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles during maximal voluntary co-contraction of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded in 11 male bodybuilders and 10 nonathletes, and normalized to the values obtained during the MVE of agonist contraction for each of the corresponding muscles (% EMGMVE). The involuntary coactivation level in antagonist muscle during the MVE of agonist contraction was also calculated. In both muscles, % EMGMVE values during the co-contraction task for bodybuilders were significantly higher (P<0.01) than those for nonathletes (biceps brachii: 66±14% in bodybuilders vs. 46±13% in nonathletes, triceps brachii: 74±16% vs. 57±9%). There was a significant positive correlation between a length of bodybuilding experience and muscular activity level during the co-contraction task (r = 0.653, P = 0.03). Involuntary antagonist coactivation level during MVE of agonist contraction was not different between the two groups. The current result indicates that long-term participation in voluntary co-contraction training progressively enhances muscular activity during maximal voluntary co-contraction. PMID:24260233

  7. Arginase activity and nitric oxide levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yüksel, Meral; Okur, Hacer Kuzu; Pelin, Zerrin; Öğünç, Ayliz Velioğlu; Öztürk, Levent

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repetitive obstruction of the upper airways, and it is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. There have been several studies demonstrating low levels of nitric oxide in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome compared with healthy controls. In this study, we hypothesized that reduced nitric oxide levels would result in high arginase activity. Arginase reacts with L-arginine and produces urea and L-ornithine, whereas L-arginine is a substrate for nitric oxide synthase, which produces nitric oxide. METHODS: The study group consisted of 51 obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients (M/F: 43/8; mean age 49±10 years of age) and 15 healthy control subjects (M/F: 13/3; mean age 46±14 years of age). Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients were divided into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide levels and arginase activity were measured via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of serum samples. RESULTS: Serum nitric oxide levels in the control subjects were higher than in the obstructive sleep apnea patients with and without cardiovascular diseases (p<0.05). Arginase activity was significantly higher (p<0.01) in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients without cardiovascular diseases compared with the control group. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients with cardiovascular diseases had higher arginase activity than the controls (p<0.001) and the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients without cardiovascular diseases (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Low nitric oxide levels are associated with high arginase activity. The mechanism of nitric oxide depletion in sleep apnea patients suggests that increased arginase activity might reduce the substrate availability of nitric oxide synthase and thus could reduce nitric oxide levels. PMID:24714832

  8. The influence of gemfibrozil on malondialdehyde level and paraoxonase 1 activity in wistar and fisher rats.

    PubMed

    Macan, Marija; Marija, Macan; Konjevoda, Paško; Paško, Konjevoda; Lovric, Jasna; Jasna, Lovrić; Koprivanac, Marijan; Marijan, Koprivanac; Kelava, Marta; Marta, Kelava; Vrkic, Nada; Nada, Vrkić; Bradamante, Vlasta; Vlasta, Bradamante

    2011-06-01

    There are diverse experimental data about the influence of gemfibrozil (GEM) on the production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and antioxidant enzymes. We investigated the influence of GEM treatment on the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) level in tissues of normolipidaemic Wistar and Fisher rats which is an index of lipid peroxidation. Because serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an important enzyme with specific protective function on metabolism of lipid peroxides, we examined the influence of GEM on PON1 activity in liver and serum. MDA level and enzyme activities were also determined 10 days after withdrawal of GEM treatment. The significantly increased levels of MDA in liver, kidney and heart of both rat strains were obtained after 3 weeks of GEM treatment. We propose two possibilities for the increase of MDA levels caused by GEM, induction of peroxisome proliferation and activities of enzymes that participated in occurrence of H(2)O(2) and possible reduction of enzyme activities including in H(2)O(2) metabolism. Ten days after withdrawal of GEM treatment, MDA levels in all tissue levels of both rat strains were less in comparison with GEM treatment. GEM caused a significant drop of PON1 activity in serum and liver of Fisher rats, and in liver of Wistar rats. We suggest that GEM, through induction of lipid peroxidation, caused the damage of hepatocytes with consequent reduction of PON1 synthesis. The increase in PON1 activity in serum and tissues of both rat strains 10 days after withdrawal of GEM treatment shows the fast recovery of enzyme synthesis. PMID:21223511

  9. Studies of generalized elemental imbalances in neurological disease patients using INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis)

    SciTech Connect

    Ehmann, W.D.; Vance, D.E.; Khare, S.S.; Kasarskis, E.J.; Markesbery, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    Evidence has been presented in the literature to implicate trace elements in the etiology of several age-related neurological diseases. Most of these studies are based on brain analyses. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), we have observed trace element imbalances in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Picks's disease. The most prevalent elemental imbalances found in the brain were for bromine, mercury, and the alkali metals. In this study the authors report INAA studies of trace elements in nonneural tissues from Alzheimer's disease and ALS patients. Samples from household relatives were collected for use as controls wherever possible. Hair samples were washed according to the International Atomic Energy Agency recommended procedure. Fingernail samples were scraped with a quartz knife prior to washing by the same procedure. For ALS patients, blood samples were also collected. These data indicate that elemental imbalances in Alzheimer's disease and ALS are not restricted to the brain. Many elements perturbed in the brain are also altered in the several nonneural tissues examined to date. The imbalances in different tissues, however, are not always in the same direction. The changes observed may represent causes, effects, or simply epiphenomena. Longitudinal studies of nonneural tissues and blood, as well as tissue microprobe analyses at the cellular and subcellular level, will be required in order to better assess the role of trace elements in the etiology of these diseases.

  10. The plasmapause revisited. [Explorer 45 observation at various magnetic activity levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, N. C.; Grebowsky, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A statistical investigation is conducted concerning the plasmapause behavior observed from Explorer 45 during various levels of magnetic activity. Aspects of data handling are reported and the implications of a constant density level for a plasmapause definition are discussed. The average local time dependence of the gradient saturation events and the sharp saturation events detected on Explorer 45 is shown with the aid of graphs. Other graphs show the results of the statistical processing operations. The significance of the obtained data is discussed.

  11. The gut microbiome and degradation enzyme activity of wild freshwater fishes influenced by their trophic levels

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Han; Guo, Xianwu; Gooneratne, Ravi; Lai, Ruifang; Zeng, Cong; Zhan, Fanbin; Wang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate gut microbiome often underpins the metabolic capability and provides many beneficial effects on their hosts. However, little was known about how host trophic level influences fish gut microbiota and metabolic activity. In this study, more than 985,000 quality-filtered sequences from 24 16S rRNA libraries were obtained and the results revealed distinct compositions and diversities of gut microbiota in four trophic categories. PCoA test showed that gut bacterial communities of carnivorous and herbivorous fishes formed distinctly different clusters in PCoA space. Although fish in different trophic levels shared a large size of OTUs comprising a core microbiota community, at the genus level a strong distinction existed. Cellulose-degrading bacteria Clostridium, Citrobacter and Leptotrichia were dominant in the herbivorous, while Cetobacterium and protease-producing bacteria Halomonas were dominant in the carnivorous. PICRUSt predictions of metagenome function revealed that fishes in different trophic levels affected the metabolic capacity of their gut microbiota. Moreover, cellulase and amylase activities in herbivorous fishes were significantly higher than in the carnivorous, while trypsin activity in the carnivorous was much higher than in the herbivorous. These results indicated that host trophic level influenced the structure and composition of gut microbiota, metabolic capacity and gut content enzyme activity. PMID:27072196

  12. The gut microbiome and degradation enzyme activity of wild freshwater fishes influenced by their trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Guo, Xianwu; Gooneratne, Ravi; Lai, Ruifang; Zeng, Cong; Zhan, Fanbin; Wang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate gut microbiome often underpins the metabolic capability and provides many beneficial effects on their hosts. However, little was known about how host trophic level influences fish gut microbiota and metabolic activity. In this study, more than 985,000 quality-filtered sequences from 24 16S rRNA libraries were obtained and the results revealed distinct compositions and diversities of gut microbiota in four trophic categories. PCoA test showed that gut bacterial communities of carnivorous and herbivorous fishes formed distinctly different clusters in PCoA space. Although fish in different trophic levels shared a large size of OTUs comprising a core microbiota community, at the genus level a strong distinction existed. Cellulose-degrading bacteria Clostridium, Citrobacter and Leptotrichia were dominant in the herbivorous, while Cetobacterium and protease-producing bacteria Halomonas were dominant in the carnivorous. PICRUSt predictions of metagenome function revealed that fishes in different trophic levels affected the metabolic capacity of their gut microbiota. Moreover, cellulase and amylase activities in herbivorous fishes were significantly higher than in the carnivorous, while trypsin activity in the carnivorous was much higher than in the herbivorous. These results indicated that host trophic level influenced the structure and composition of gut microbiota, metabolic capacity and gut content enzyme activity. PMID:27072196

  13. mef2 activity levels differentially affect gene expression during Drosophila muscle development

    PubMed Central

    Elgar, Stuart J.; Han, Jun; Taylor, Michael V.

    2008-01-01

    Cell differentiation is controlled by key transcription factors, and a major question is how they orchestrate cell-type-specific genetic programs. Muscle differentiation is a well studied paradigm in which the conserved Mef2 transcription factor plays a pivotal role. Recent genomic studies have identified a large number of mef2-regulated target genes with distinct temporal expression profiles during Drosophila myogenesis. However, the question remains as to how a single transcription factor can control such diverse patterns of gene expression. In this study we used a strategy combining genomics and developmental genetics to address this issue in vivo during Drosophila muscle development. We found that groups of mef2-regulated genes respond differently to changes in mef2 activity levels: some require higher levels for their expression than others. Furthermore, this differential requirement correlates with when the gene is first expressed during the muscle differentiation program. Genes that require higher levels are activated later. These results implicate mef2 in the temporal regulation of muscle gene expression, and, consistent with this, we show that changes in mef2 activity levels can alter the start of gene expression in a predictable manner. Together these results indicate that Mef2 is not an all-or-none regulator; rather, its action is more subtle, and levels of its activity are important in the differential expression of muscle genes. This suggests a route by which mef2 can orchestrate the muscle differentiation program and contribute to the stringent regulation of gene expression during myogenesis. PMID:18198273

  14. Digestive enzyme activity and mRNA level of trypsin in embryonic redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarnatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wen; Zhao, Yunlong; Zhou, Zhongliang; An, Chuanguang; Ma, Qiang

    2008-02-01

    The digestive enzyme activity and mRNA level of trypsin during the embryonic development of Cherax quadricarinatus were analyzed using biochemical and Fluorogenic Quantitative PCR (FQ—PCR) methods. The results show that the activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin had two different change patterns. Trypsin specific activity increased rapidly in the early stages of development and still remained high in preparation for the hatch stage. However, chymotrypsin activity peaked in stage 4 of embryonic development and decreased significantly in the last stage. The mRNA level of trypsin was elevated in all stages and two peak values were observed in stages 2 and 5 respectively. The results indicate that trypsin is very important for the utilization of the yolk during embryonic development and for the assimilation of dietary protein for larvae. The gene of trypsin is probably regulated at transcriptional level. The mRNA levels of trypsin can reflect not only trypsin activity, but also the regulatory mechanism for expression of trypsin gene to a certain degree.

  15. Comparison of doubly labeled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels

    SciTech Connect

    Westerterp, K.R.; Brouns, F.; Saris, W.H.; ten Hoor, F.

    1988-07-01

    In previous studies the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living humans has been validated against respirometry under sedentary conditions. In the present investigation, energy expenditure is measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water and respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. Over 6 days, five subjects were measured doing mainly sedentary activities like desk work; their average daily metabolic rate was 1.40 +/- 0.09 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. Four subjects were measured twice over 3.5 days, including 2 days with heavy bicycle ergometer work, resulting in an average daily metabolic rate of 2.61 +/- 0.25 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. At the low-activity level, energy expenditures from the doubly labeled water method were on the average 1.4 +/- 3.9% (SD) larger than those from respirometry. At the high-activity level, the doubly labeled water method yielded values that were 1.0 +/- 7.0% (SD) lower than those from respirometry. Results demonstrate the utility of the doubly labeled water method for the determination of energy expenditure in the range of activity levels in daily life.

  16. The time-dependent generalized active space configuration interaction approach to correlated ionization dynamics of diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, S.; Larsson, H. R.; Hinz, C.; Bonitz, M.

    2016-03-01

    In this contribution, we review the time-dependent generalized-active-space configuration interaction (TD-GAS-CI) approach to the photoionization dynamics of atoms and molecules including electron correlation effects. It is based on the configuration interaction (CI) expansion of the many-body wave function and the restriction of the determinantal space to a reduced subspace. For its numerically efficient application to photoionization, a partially-rotated basis set is used which adopts features of a localized basis with a good reference description and a grid representation for escaping wave packets. After reviewing earlier applications of the theory, we address the strong-field ionization of a one-dimensional model of the four-electron LiH molecule using TD-GAS-CI and demonstrate the importance of electron-electron correlations in the ionization yield for different orientations of the molecule w.r.t the peak of the linearly polarized laser field. A pronounced orientation-dependent variation of the yield with the pulse duration and the level of considered electron-electron correlations is observed.

  17. Elastically Cooperative Activated Hopping Theory of Relaxation in Viscous Liquids. I. General Formulation and Application to Hard Sphere Fluids.

    SciTech Connect

    Mirigian, Stephen; Schweizer, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    We generalize the force-level nonlinear Langevin equation theory of single particle hopping to include collective effects associated with long range elastic distortion of the liquid. The activated alpha relaxation event is of a mixed spatial character, involving two distinct, but inter-related, local and collective barriers. There are no divergences at volume fractions below jamming or temperatures above zero Kelvin. The ideas are first developed and implemented analytically and numerically in the context of hard sphere fluids. In an intermediate volume fraction crossover regime, the local cage process is dominant in a manner consistent with an apparent Arrhenius behavior. The super-Arrhenius collective barrier is more strongly dependent on volume fraction, dominates the highly viscous regime, and is well described by a nonsingular law below jamming. The increase of the collective barrier is determined by the amplitude of thermal density fluctuations, dynamic shear modulus or transient localization length, and a growing microscopic jump length. Alpha relaxation time calculations are in good agreement with recent experiments and simulations on dense fluids and suspensions of hard spheres. Comparisons of the theory with elastic models and entropy crisis ideas are explored. The present work provides a foundation for constructing a quasi-universal, fit-parameter-free theory for relaxation in thermal molecular liquids over 14 orders of magnitude in time.

  18. Elastically cooperative activated barrier hopping theory of relaxation in viscous fluids. I. General formulation and application to hard sphere fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirigian, Stephen; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2014-05-01

    We generalize the force-level nonlinear Langevin equation theory of single particle hopping to include collective effects associated with long range elastic distortion of the liquid. The activated alpha relaxation event is of a mixed spatial character, involving two distinct, but inter-related, local and collective barriers. There are no divergences at volume fractions below jamming or temperatures above zero Kelvin. The ideas are first developed and implemented analytically and numerically in the context of hard sphere fluids. In an intermediate volume fraction crossover regime, the local cage process is dominant in a manner consistent with an apparent Arrhenius behavior. The super-Arrhenius collective barrier is more strongly dependent on volume fraction, dominates the highly viscous regime, and is well described by a nonsingular law below jamming. The increase of the collective barrier is determined by the amplitude of thermal density fluctuations, dynamic shear modulus or transient localization length, and a growing microscopic jump length. Alpha relaxation time calculations are in good agreement with recent experiments and simulations on dense fluids and suspensions of hard spheres. Comparisons of the theory with elastic models and entropy crisis ideas are explored. The present work provides a foundation for constructing a quasi-universal, fit-parameter-free theory for relaxation in thermal molecular liquids over 14 orders of magnitude in time.

  19. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormone levels and of motor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahabrach, Hanan; Piedrafita, Blanca; Ayad, Abdelmalik; El Mlili, Nisrin; Errami, Mohammed; Felipo, Vicente; Llansola, Marta

    2010-05-15

    Patients with liver cirrhosis may present hepatic encephalopathy with a wide range of neurological disturbances and alterations in sleep quality and in the sleep-wake circadian rhythm. Hyperammonemia is a main contributor to the neurological alterations in hepatic encephalopathy. We have assessed, in an animal model of chronic hyperammonemia without liver failure, the effects of hyperammonemia per se on the circadian rhythms of motor activity, temperature, and plasma levels of adrenal corticosteroid hormones. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and of cortisol and corticosterone levels in blood. Different types of motor activity are affected differentially. Hyperammonemia significantly alters the rhythm of spontaneous ambulatory activity, reducing strongly ambulatory counts and slightly average velocity during the night (the active phase) but not during the day, resulting in altered circadian rhythms. In contrast, hyperammonemia did not affect wheel running at all, indicating that it affects spontaneous but not voluntary activity. Vertical activity was affected only very slightly, indicating that hyperammonemia does not induce anxiety. Hyperammonemia abolished completely the circadian rhythm of corticosteroid hormones in plasma, completely eliminating the peaks of cortisol and corticosterone present in control rats at the start of the dark period. The data reported show that chronic hyperammonemia, similar to that present in patients with liver cirrhosis, alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormones and of motor activity. This suggests that hyperammonemia would be a relevant contributor to the alterations in corticosteroid hormones and in circadian rhythms in patients with liver cirrhosis. PMID:19998493

  20. Effects of zinc levels on activities of gastrointestinal enzymes in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Jing, M Y; Sun, J Y; Weng, X Y; Wang, J F

    2009-10-01

    The present study investigated the effect of different zinc (Zn) levels on activities of gastrointestinal digestive enzymes of growing rats. Four diets including Zn-adequate (ZA; 46 mg/kg, control), Zn-deficient (ZD; 3 mg/kg), high Zn supply (ZH; 234 mg/kg) and pair-fed in which animals received the ZA diet at restricted amounts reflecting feed intake of the ZD group were fed to rats for 5 weeks. Dietary Zn was supplemented with ZnO. The results showed that Zn deficiency resulted in decreases in body weight, while ZH supply stimulated growth. The activities of sucrase, lactase and lipase were unaffected by dietary Zn levels. Maltase activity, however, was reduced in ZD group and elevated in ZH group. Amylase and protease activities were depressed by zinc deficiency. However, rats fed the Zn-repletion diet displayed higher activity of pepsin, pancreatic amylase and protease. In particular, ZH supply did have no effect on intestinal hydrolases activities. The present study suggested that zinc deficiency impaired the activities of digestive enzymes and growth of animals. However, ZH supply might improve the digestion of nutrients via increasing activities of gastrointestinal hydrolase and probably enhanced animal health. PMID:19178608

  1. Interleukin 35 Synovial Fluid Levels Are Associated with Disease Activity of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Šenolt, Ladislav; Šumová, Barbora; Jandová, Romana; Hulejová, Hana; Mann, Heřman; Pavelka, Karel; Vencovský, Jiří; Filková, Mária

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study the association of systemic and local interleukin-35 (IL-35) levels in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods 37 patients with treatment naïve early RA, 49 with established RA and 29 control patients with osteoarthritis (OA) were studied. Serum and paired synovial fluid samples were analysed for IL-35. Disease activity of RA patients was assessed according to the 28-Joint Count Disease Activity Score (DAS28). Results The levels of serum IL-35 were significantly higher in patients with treatment naïve early RA compared to those with established disease and control OA subjects. In addition, serum levels of IL-35 significantly decreased 12 weeks after initiation of glucocorticoids and conventional synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs in patients with treatment naïve early RA. Synovial fluid IL-35 levels were significantly higher in RA compared to OA patients, were significantly elevated compared to serum counterparts and correlated with synovial fluid leukocyte count (r=0.412; p<0.01), serum CRP levels (r=0.362; p<0.05) and DAS28 (r=0.430, p<0.01). Conclusion This is the first study showing elevated circulating levels of IL-35 in treatment naïve early RA, its significant decrease after treatment initiation and positive association between increased synovial fluid IL-35 and disease activity in patients with long-lasting RA. PMID:26204444

  2. Some Like It Hot: Camera Traps Unravel the Effects of Weather Conditions and Predator Presence on the Activity Levels of Two Lizards

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    It is generally assumed that favourable weather conditions determine the activity levels of lizards, because of their temperature-dependent behavioural performance. Inactivity, however, might have a selective advantage over activity, as it could increase survival by reducing exposure to predators. Consequently, the effects of weather conditions on the activity patterns of lizards should be strongly influenced by the presence of predators. Using remote camera traps, we test the hypothesis that predator presence and weather conditions interact to modulate daily activity levels in two sedentary cordylid lizards, Karusasaurus polyzonus and Ouroborus cataphractus. While both species are closely related and have a fully overlapping distribution, the former is a fast-moving lightly armoured lizard, whereas the latter is a slow-moving heavily armoured lizard. The significant interspecific difference in antipredator morphology and consequently differential vulnerability to aerial and terrestrial predators, allowed us to unravel the effects of predation risk and weather conditions on activity levels. Our results demonstrate that K. polyzonus is predominantly active during summer, when ambient temperatures are favourable enough to permit activity. In contrast, a peak in activity during spring was observed in O. cataphractus, with individuals being inactive during most of summer. While favourable weather conditions had a strong effect on the activity levels of K. polyzonus, no such relationship was present in O. cataphractus. Contrary to our hypothesis, the presence of terrestrial predators does not seem to affect daily activity levels or alter the influence of weather conditions on activity levels. We conclude that inactivity in O. cataphractus appears to be related to seasonal differences in vulnerability to predators, rather than the presence of predators, and highlight the importance of additional selective pressures, such as food abundance, in determining the species

  3. Some Like It Hot: Camera Traps Unravel the Effects of Weather Conditions and Predator Presence on the Activity Levels of Two Lizards.

    PubMed

    Broeckhoven, Chris; le Fras Nortier Mouton, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    It is generally assumed that favourable weather conditions determine the activity levels of lizards, because of their temperature-dependent behavioural performance. Inactivity, however, might have a selective advantage over activity, as it could increase survival by reducing exposure to predators. Consequently, the effects of weather conditions on the activity patterns of lizards should be strongly influenced by the presence of predators. Using remote camera traps, we test the hypothesis that predator presence and weather conditions interact to modulate daily activity levels in two sedentary cordylid lizards, Karusasaurus polyzonus and Ouroborus cataphractus. While both species are closely related and have a fully overlapping distribution, the former is a fast-moving lightly armoured lizard, whereas the latter is a slow-moving heavily armoured lizard. The significant interspecific difference in antipredator morphology and consequently differential vulnerability to aerial and terrestrial predators, allowed us to unravel the effects of predation risk and weather conditions on activity levels. Our results demonstrate that K. polyzonus is predominantly active during summer, when ambient temperatures are favourable enough to permit activity. In contrast, a peak in activity during spring was observed in O. cataphractus, with individuals being inactive during most of summer. While favourable weather conditions had a strong effect on the activity levels of K. polyzonus, no such relationship was present in O. cataphractus. Contrary to our hypothesis, the presence of terrestrial predators does not seem to affect daily activity levels or alter the influence of weather conditions on activity levels. We conclude that inactivity in O. cataphractus appears to be related to seasonal differences in vulnerability to predators, rather than the presence of predators, and highlight the importance of additional selective pressures, such as food abundance, in determining the species

  4. Enhancement of the basal-level activity of HIV-1 long terminal repeat by HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J L; Sharma, P L; Crumpacker, C S

    2000-03-15

    Two HIV-1 proteins, Tat and NCp7 (NC), have zinc finger-like structures. NC is a virion protein and has been shown to accumulate in the nucleus 8 h postinfection. Since transcription factors with zinc fingers assist the transcriptional activity of both RNA polymerases II and III, we examined the effect of NC on HIV-1 LTR-directed gene expression. The HIV-1 NC binds to the HIV-1 LTR and results in a mobility shift in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Competition assays with cold probes revealed that the binding of NC and formation of a DNA-protein complex could be prevented by the addition of excess unlabeled LTR self-probe, but not the HIV-1 V3 envelope gene. The DNase I footprint analysis showed that NC binds to six regions within HIV-1 LTR, four of which are near the transcription start site. The NC alone enhances LTR basal-level activity in RNA runoff experiments. When the general transcription factors (GTFs) were added in the assay, NC enhances NF-kappaB, Sp1, and TFIIB-induced HIV-1 LTR-directed RNA transcription. RNA transcription directed by the adenovirus major late promoter, however, is not significantly affected by NC in the cell-free system. Transient transfection of human T lymphocytes with the plasmids containing HIV-1 nc or gag showed enhancement of LTR-CAT activity. Moreover, transfection of HIV-1 provirus containing mutations in NC zinc-finger domains dramatically decreases the enhancement activity in human T cells, in which HIV-1 LTR is stably integrated into the cellular genome. These observations show that NC binds to HIV-1 LTR and cooperatively enhances GTFs and NF-kappaB induced HIV-1 LTR basal-level activity. NC may play the role of a nucleation protein, which binds to LTR and enhances basal-level transcription by recruiting cellular transcription factors to the HIV-1 promoter in competition with cellular promoters. PMID:10704334

  5. IT and Activity Displacement: Behavioral Evidence from the U.S. General Social Survey (GSS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, John P.; Martin, Steven

    2009-01-01

    In order to track social change during a period of the rapid advances brought about by new information technologies (IT), a targeted module of IT-relevant and Internet questions was added to the 2000, 2002 and 2004 samples of the General Social Survey (GSS). The general issue inherent in and guiding the questions asked (as well as the analyses…

  6. 77 FR 34409 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Federal Register on February 27, 2012 (77 FR 11593). Interested parties are encouraged to send comments to...; General Inquiries to State Agency Contacts ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is..., ``General Inquiries to State Agency Contacts,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review...

  7. 77 FR 8880 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; General Licensing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Collection; Comment Request; General Licensing Provisions; Section 351(k) Biosimilar Applications AGENCY... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. General Licensing Provisions; Section 351(K... sections 7001 through 7003 of the Affordable Care Act.) Section 351(k) of the PHS Act (42 U.S.C....

  8. Flexibility and Coordination among Acts of Visualization and Analysis in a Pattern Generalization Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Per; Juter, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at exploring processes of flexibility and coordination among acts of visualization and analysis in students' attempt to reach a general formula for a three-dimensional pattern generalizing task. The investigation draws on a case-study analysis of two 15-year-old girls working together on a task in which they are asked to calculate…

  9. Investigation of the Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Mutlu; Ozkan, Ali; Kul, Murat; Bozkus, Taner

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship of physical activity (PA) level and healthy life-style behaviors in academic staff in Bartin University, Turkey. The short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was administered for the determination of physical activity level of academic staff. Their PA levels were…

  10. Serum Dioxin-like Activity Is Associated with Reproductive Parameters in Young Men from the General Flemish Population

    PubMed Central

    Dhooge, Willem; van Larebeke, Nicolas; Koppen, Gudrun; Nelen, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Vlietinck, Robert; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Comhaire, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Background 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and some related environmental contaminants are aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands that exert reproductive and developmental toxicity in laboratory animals. In humans, fertility-related effects are less documented. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dioxin-like biological activity in serum and parameters of reproductive status in men from the general population 5 months after a polychlorinated biphenyl and dioxin food-contamination episode in Belgium. Design In the framework of the cross-sectional Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS), we recruited 101 men 20–40 years of age and evaluated sperm parameters, measured sex hormones, and gathered information on a number of lifestyle factors. In addition, we determined the AhR-mediated enzymatic response elicited by individual serum samples and expressed it as TCDD equivalent concentrations (CALUX-TEQs) using an established transactivation assay. Results Age (p = 0.04) and the frequency of fish (p = 0.02) and egg (p = 0.001) consumption were independent positive determinants of serum dioxin-like activity. After correcting for possible confounders, we found that a 2-fold increase in CALUX-TEQ > 16 pg/L was associated with a 7.1% and 6.8% (both p = 0.04) decrease in total and free testosterone, respectively. We also observed a more pronounced drop in semen volume of 16.0% (p = 0.03), whereas sperm concentration rose by 25.2% (p = 0.07). No relationship was found with total sperm count or sperm morphology. Conclusions These data suggest an interaction of dioxin-like compounds with the secretory function of the seminal vesicles or prostate, possibly indirectly through an effect on testosterone secretion, at levels not affecting spermatogenesis as such. PMID:17107851

  11. Endogenous cortisol level interacts with noradrenergic activation in the human amygdala.

    PubMed

    van Stegeren, Anda H; Wolf, Oliver T; Everaerd, Walter; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Rombouts, Serge A R B

    2007-01-01

    Animal studies show that high cortisol levels exert their effect on stressful task performance via modulation of the amygdala. Availability of noradrenaline in this brain region appears to be a critical prerequisite for this effect. This relationship between noradrenaline and cortisol is explained by an animal model where the amygdala constitutes a crucial region for this interaction. In humans this model has not been extensively tested so far. In a previously reported study human subjects (aged 20.93+/-2.38) were scanned using fMRI when watching sets of emotional and neutral pictures after taking the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol or placebo. Stimulus sets consisted of 92 pictures, divided in four emotional categories that ranged from neutral scenes of domestic objects (CAT1) to extremely negative scenes of mutilation or accidents (CAT4). Confrontation with arousing emotional pictures, accompanied by increased noradrenaline levels, evoked increased amygdala activation under placebo but not under betablocker condition. This new and additional analysis of this data set was carried out to determine the effect of differential endogenous cortisol levels on amygdala activation. Cortisol levels during scanning were determined using salivary samples and subjects were post hoc divided in a High (n=14) and Low cortisol group (n=14). When subjects were watching emotional stimuli, presumably associated with enhanced noradrenaline (NA) levels, amygdala activation was contrasted between the two cortisol groups. We hypothesized that emotional stimuli would elicit more amygdala activation in the High than in the Low cortisol group. Here we demonstrate indeed a significant interaction effect of the endogenous cortisol level with increasing activation in the amygdala under placebo but not under betablocker condition, thereby extending the rodent based model of a synergistic effect of the two stress hormones to the human. PMID:16884932

  12. Genistein upregulates LDLR levels via JNK-mediated activation of SREBP-2

    PubMed Central

    Kartawijaya, Medicia; Han, Hye Won; Kim, Yunhye; Lee, Seung-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Genistein has been proved in vitro and in vivo to lower LDLR level. It is also widely consumed and implicated for its anti-atherogenic effects. However, the molecular mechanism by which genistein lowers the LDL level is still unknown. Objective To understand the anti-atherogenic molecular mechanism of action, genistein was investigated for its impact on the expression of LDLR, the receptor for LDL cholesterol, and related signaling pathways in a human hepatoma cell line. Design HepG2 cell was used for the experiments. Genistein with different concentrations was diluted in media and was incubated for 24 h or more as indicated. Protein levels were measured by western blotting, and mRNA expression was detected by RT-qPCR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (CHIP) assay was used to determine protein binding levels, and luciferase assay was used to measure promoter activity. Result Genistein increased the mRNA and protein levels of LDLR in a time-dependent manner. Genistein increased the transcriptional activity of the LDLR promoter containing the reporter gene (pLDLR-luc, −805 to +50). But the sterol regulatory element deletion mutant construct failed to be activated by genistein. Genistein increased the nuclear fraction of SREBP-2 and the DNA-binding activity of SREBP-2 to LDLR promoter, as assessed by CHIP. The genistein-phosphorylated JNK inhibitor (SP600126) abolished the genistein-stimulated levels of LDLR and the nuclear SREBP-2. The addition of cholesterol up to 5 µg/mL for 24 h did not affect the effect of genistein on LDLR protein expression. Even the addition of 40 µM genistein increased the cholesterol uptake by more than 10% in the human hepatoma cell line. Conclusion Our data support the idea that genistein may have anti-atherogenic effects by activating JNK signals and SREBP-2 processing, which is followed by the upregulation of LDLR. PMID:27211318

  13. Reduced activity-dependent protein levels in a mouse model of the fragile X premutation.

    PubMed

    von Leden, Ramona E; Curley, Lindsey C; Greenberg, Gian D; Hunsaker, Michael R; Willemsen, Rob; Berman, Robert F

    2014-03-01

    Environmental enrichment results in increased levels of Fmrp in brain and increased dendritic complexity. The present experiment evaluated activity-dependent increases in Fmrp levels in the motor cortex in response to training on a skilled forelimb reaching task in the CGG KI mouse model of the fragile X premutation. Fmrp, Arc, and c-Fos protein levels were quantified by Western blot in the contralateral motor cortex of mice following training to reach for sucrose pellets with a non-preferred paw and compared to levels in the ipsilateral motor cortex. After training, all mice showed increases in Fmrp, Arc, and c-Fos protein levels in the contralateral compared to the ipsilateral hemisphere; however, the increase in CGG KI mice was less than wildtype mice. Increases in Fmrp and Arc proteins scaled with learning, whereas this relationship was not observed with the c-Fos levels. These data suggest the possibility that reduced levels of activity-dependent proteins associated with synaptic plasticity such as Fmrp and Arc may contribute to the neurocognitive phenotype reported in the CGG KI mice and the fragile X premutation. PMID:24462720

  14. Neighborhood level health risk assessment of lead paint removal activities from elevated steel bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, R.F.; Cohen, J.T.; Bowers, T.

    1999-07-01

    The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) has adopted strict containment and monitoring procedures during paint removal activities on its bridges because of the increasing awareness about lead poisoning in children in urban environments and the potential risk of lead-based paint releases during those activities. NYCDOT owns nearly 800 bridges scattered throughout New York City. Before undertaking paint removal activities as part of its ongoing preventive maintenance and rehabilitation program, NYCDOT recently conducted an analysis to determine the public health risk posed to children living near them. The analysis the first of its kind to assess the actual public health risk potential during both routine operations and upset conditions, or accidental releases evaluated the total and incremental blood lead levels from paint removal activities on more than 5,000 children from 6 months to 6 years old. Increases in baseline blood lead levels were estimated using several models, including EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model. This model estimates steady-state blood lead levels in children, reflecting exposure to lead in multiple media over an extended period of time. Increases in lead exposure from paint removal activities in the area surrounding the bridges was estimated using EPA's Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model to calculate ambient air and deposition levels. Potential releases from the containment and ancillary equipment used in the paint removal process were modeled based on different release scenarios ranging from routine operations to complete failure of containment. To estimate the paint removal activities' contribution to long-term exterior dust lead levels (and its related interior component), a stochastic simulation model was developed for each block in the study area.

  15. Activity engagement is related to level, but not change in cognitive ability across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bielak, Allison A M; Anstey, Kaarin J; Christensen, Helen; Windsor, Tim D

    2012-03-01

    It is unclear whether the longitudinal relation between activity participation and cognitive ability is due to preserved differentiation (active individuals have higher initial levels of cognitive ability), or differential preservation (active individuals show less negative change across time). This distinction has never been evaluated after dividing time-varying activity into its two sources of variation: between-person and within-person variability. Further, few studies have investigated how the association between activity participation and cognitive ability may differ from early to older adulthood. Using the PATH Through Life Project, we evaluated whether between- and within-person variation in activity participation was associated with cognitive ability and change within cohorts aged 20-24 years, 40-44 years, and 60-64 years at baseline (n = 7,152) assessed on three occasions over an 8-year interval. Multilevel models indicated that between-person differences in activity significantly predicted baseline cognitive ability for all age cohorts and for each assessed cognitive domain (perceptual speed, short-term memory, working memory, episodic memory, and vocabulary), even after accounting for sex, education, occupational status, and physical and mental health. In each case, greater average participation was associated with higher baseline cognitive ability. However, the size of the relationship involving average activity participation and baseline cognitive ability did not differ across adulthood. Between-person activity and within-person variation in activity level were both not significantly associated with change in cognitive test performance. Results suggest that activity participation is indeed related to cognitive ability across adulthood, but only in relation to the starting value of cognitive ability, and not change over time. PMID:21806303

  16. Force-endurance capabilities of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressure levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    The human hand is a very useful multipurpose tool in all environments. However, performance capabilities are compromised considerably when gloves are donned. This is especially true to extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves. The primary intent was to answer the question of how long a person can perform tasks requiring certain levels of exertion. The objective was to develop grip force-endurance relations. Six subjects participated in a factorial experiment involving three hand conditions, three pressure differentials, and four levels of force exertion. The results indicate that, while the force that could be exerted depended on the glove, pressure differential, and the level of exertion, the endurance time at any exertion level depended just on the level of exertion expressed as a percentage of maximum exertion possible at that condition. The impact of these findings for practitioners as well as theoreticians is discussed.

  17. [Potential of pharmacological modulation of level and activity incretins on diabetes mellitus type 2].

    PubMed

    Spasov, A A; Chepljaeva, N I

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes data on the main approaches used for the search of biologically active compounds modulating the level and physiological activity of incretins. Currently two groups of drugs are used in clinical practice: they either replenish the deficit of incretins (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists) or inhibit the degradation processes (dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors). In addition, new groups of substances are actively searched. These include non-peptide agonists of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors, agonists/antagonists of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, the hybrid polypeptides based on glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon. PMID:26350740

  18. Effect of different levels of alcohol consumption on natural killer and lymphokine activated killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Klassen, L.W.; DeVasure, J.M.; Lemley-Gillespie, S.D.; Thiele, G.M. Omaha VA Hospital, NE )

    1991-03-11

    The effect of alcohol consumption on natural killer (NK) cell activity is controversial as both increased and decreased levels have been reported. It was the purpose of this study to determine the effects of feeding BDF1 mice different levels of alcohol on NK and lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell activity. After four-six weeks of chronic alcohol feeding, mice were sacrificed, spleen cells obtained and assayed for NK and IL-2 boosted NK activity against YAC-1 cells in a traditional {sup 51}chromium release assay. Cells were also cultured in the presence of IL-2 for five days and tested for cytolytic activity using P815 cells as targets. Cells from each group were passed over a nylon wool column and the adherent (AD) and nonadherent (NAD) populations collected and tested as above. Increased NK, 24 hour IL-2 boosted NK and 5 day LAK activity were observed only in the spleen cells obtained from mice on 20% alcohol. Also, NAD populations had a 2-4 fold higher lytic unit values (LU{sub 20}) at all levels of alcohol consumption and in all assays, as compared with the unseparated spleen cells. Analysis of cell surface markers on these three populations of cells show that there were differences in MAC-2, Asialo GM-1, Thy 1.2, B220 and NK 1.1 that may correlate with the differences observed in the cytolytic assays. These data suggest that different levels of alcohol affect the cytolytic activity of NK and LAK cells and may result from alterations in the cell subset populations.

  19. The contribution of walking to work to adult physical activity levels: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To objectively examine the contribution to adult physical activity levels of walking to work. Methods Employees (n = 103; 36.3 ± 11.7 years) at 17 workplaces in south-west England, who lived within 2 miles (3.2 km) of their workplace, wore Actigraph accelerometers for seven days during waking hours and carried GPS receivers during the commute to and from work. Physical activity volume (accelerometer counts per minute (cpm)) and intensity (minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) were computed overall and during the walk to work. Results Total weekday physical activity was 45% higher in participants who walked to work compared to those travelling by car (524.6. ± 170.4 vs 364.6 ± 138.4 cpm) and MVPA almost 60% higher (78.1 ± 24.9 vs 49.8 ± 25.2 minutes per day). No differences were seen in weekend physical activity, and sedentary time did not differ between the groups. Combined accelerometer and GPS data showed that walking to work contributed 47.3% of total weekday MVPA. Conclusions Walking to work was associated with overall higher levels of physical activity in young and middle-aged adults. These data provide preliminary evidence to underpin the need for interventions to increase active commuting, specifically walking, in adults. PMID:24618001

  20. Level of habitual physical activity in children and adolescents from the Region of Murcia (Spain).

    PubMed

    López Sánchez, Guillermo Felipe; González Víllora, Sixto; Díaz Suárez, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The level of physical activity of people is a very important issue internationally. The aim of this study was to analyze the level of habitual physical activity in children and adolescents from the Region of Murcia (Spain). With this purpose, the questionnaire Physician-based Assessment and Counseling for Exercise (PACE) was administered to 1055 children and adolescents (532 males and 523 females), aged between 3 and 18 years. The results showed that the sample studied does not do enough physical activity, according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization, as they do at least 60 min of physical activity only an average of 3.29 days/week (SD = 1.84). Besides, 77 % of the schoolchildren studied is inactive according to the classification of PACE questionnaire. According to sex, there are more active boys (31.2 %) than active girls (14.9 %) and, on average, boys do more physical activity than girls, almost a day more per week. PMID:27047712