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Sample records for activity levels health

  1. Activity level and risk of overweight in male health professionals.

    PubMed Central

    Ching, P L; Willett, W C; Rimm, E B; Colditz, G A; Gortmaker, S L; Stampfer, M J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study undertook to examine relationships between nonsedentary activity level, time spent watching television (TV)/videocassette recorder (VCR), and risk of overweight among men. METHODS. Men participating in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study were mailed surveys. Cross-sectional analyses examined the prevalence and odds of being overweight, prospective analyses determined cumulative incidence rates and relative risks of becoming overweight over 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS. Cross-sectionally, odds of being overweight were 50% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 45%; 55%) lower for men in the highest quintile of nonsedentary activity level when compared with men in the lowest quintile. Among men watching 41 or more hours of TV/VCR per week, the odds of being overweight were 406 (95% CI = 2.67, 6.17) times greater than those for men watching no more than 1 hour per week. Prospectively, higher levels is of nonsedentary activity and lower levels of TV/VCR viewing were independently associated with lower relative risks for becoming overweight between survey years. CONCLUSIONS. Both a lack of nonsedentary activity and time spent watching TV/VCR contribute to the development of overweight in men. Sedentary and nonsedentary activities represent separate domains, each with independent risks for overweight. PMID:8561237

  2. Association between Municipal Health Promotion Volunteers’ Health Literacy and Their Level of Outreach Activities in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Atsuko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the association between health literacy and levels of three types of core activities among health promotion volunteers (developing a healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community members). Study Design A cross-sectional, anonymous, self-administered postal survey of registered health promotion volunteers in the Konan area in Shiga Prefecture in Japan, conducted in January 2010. The study sample was 575 registered health promotion volunteers. Methods The survey collected data on health literacy, gender, age, education, self-rated health, perceptions about the volunteer organization, and perceptions of recognition in the community. The level of engagement in health promotion activities was measured by the extent to which the participants engaged in seven healthy behaviors and promoted them to family members and the community. The authors compared the health literacy level and other characteristics of the participants by core health promotion activities, using a chi-squared test, to examine the associations between demographic and other variables and the three core activities (healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community).Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between the degree to which the volunteers engaged in core activities (“healthy lifestyle,” “outreach to family,” “outreach to community”) and the levels of health literacy (low, medium, high) among health promotion volunteers, controlling for the effects of age, gender, health condition, education which may also have an impact on volunteers’ outreach activities. Results Four hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were returned, a 79.0% response rate. Excluding 16 cases with missing values on health literacy or the degree of health promotion activities, 438 research subjects were included in the analysis (valid response rate: 76.2%). Health literacy and a few demographic and other characteristics of the

  3. Can exergaming contribute to improving physical activity levels and health outcomes in children?

    PubMed

    Daley, Amanda J

    2009-08-01

    Physical inactivity among children is a serious public health problem. It has been suggested that high levels of screen time are contributory factors that encourage sedentary lifestyles in young people. As physical inactivity and obesity levels continue to rise in young people, it has been proposed that new-generation active computer- and video-console games (otherwise known as "exergaming") may offer the opportunity to contribute to young people's energy expenditure during their free time. Although studies have produced some encouraging results regarding the energy costs involved in playing active video-console games, the energy costs of playing the authentic versions of activity-based video games are substantially larger, highlighting that active gaming is no substitute for real sports and activities. A small number of exergaming activities engage children in moderate-intensity activity, but most do not. Only 3 very small trials have considered the effects of exergaming on physical activity levels and/or other health outcomes in children. Evidence from these trials has been mixed; positive trends for improvements in some health outcomes in the intervention groups were noted in 2 trials. No adequately powered randomized, controlled trial has been published to date, and no trial has assessed the long-term impact of exergaming on children's health. We now need high-quality randomized, controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of exergaming, as well as its clinical relevance; until such studies take place, we should remain cautious about its ability to positively affect children's health.

  4. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  5. Community Health Workers promoting physical activity: Targeting multiple levels of the Social Ecological Model

    PubMed Central

    Haughton, Jessica; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Burke, Kari Herzog; Elder, John P.; Montañez, Jacqueline; Arredondo, Elva M.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of Community Health Workers (CHWs) as health educators and health promoters among Latino populations is widely recognized. The Affordable Care Act created important opportunities to increase the role of CHWs in preventive health. This article describes the implementation of CHW-led, culturally specific, faith-based program to increase physical activity (PA) among churchgoing Latinas. The current study augments previous research by describing the recruitment, selection, training, and evaluation of CHWs for a PA intervention targeting multiple levels of the Social Ecological Model. PMID:26280587

  6. Meeting Recommended Levels of Physical Activity in Relation to Preventive Health Behavior and Health Status Among Adults

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of meeting the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) with health status and preventive health behavior in adults. Methods A total of 5630 adults 18 years of age or older were included in this study. PA was assessed using a series of questions that categorized activities based on their metabolic equivalent values and then categorized individuals based on the reported frequency and duration of such activities. Participants reporting 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity PA per week were considered to have met the PA guidelines. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the relationships between meeting PA guidelines and health status and preventive health behavior, while controlling for confounding variables. Results Overall, 53.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.9 to 55.9%) of adults reported meeting the recommended levels of PA. Among adults with good general health, 56.9% (95% CI, 54.7 to 59.1%) reported meeting the recommended levels of PA versus 43.1% (95% CI, 40.9 to 45.3%) who did not. Adults who met the PA guidelines were significantly more likely not to report high cholesterol, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, asthma, depression, or overweight. Furthermore, adults meeting the PA guidelines were significantly more likely to report having health insurance, consuming fruits daily, consuming vegetables daily, and not being a current cigarette smoker. Conclusions In this study, we found meeting the current guidelines for PA to have a protective relationship with both health status and health behavior in adults. Health promotion programs should focus on strategies that help individuals meet the current guidelines of at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity PA. PMID:28173688

  7. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  8. Neighborhood level health risk assessment of lead paint removal activities from elevated steel bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, R.F.; Cohen, J.T.; Bowers, T.

    1999-07-01

    The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) has adopted strict containment and monitoring procedures during paint removal activities on its bridges because of the increasing awareness about lead poisoning in children in urban environments and the potential risk of lead-based paint releases during those activities. NYCDOT owns nearly 800 bridges scattered throughout New York City. Before undertaking paint removal activities as part of its ongoing preventive maintenance and rehabilitation program, NYCDOT recently conducted an analysis to determine the public health risk posed to children living near them. The analysis the first of its kind to assess the actual public health risk potential during both routine operations and upset conditions, or accidental releases evaluated the total and incremental blood lead levels from paint removal activities on more than 5,000 children from 6 months to 6 years old. Increases in baseline blood lead levels were estimated using several models, including EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model. This model estimates steady-state blood lead levels in children, reflecting exposure to lead in multiple media over an extended period of time. Increases in lead exposure from paint removal activities in the area surrounding the bridges was estimated using EPA's Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model to calculate ambient air and deposition levels. Potential releases from the containment and ancillary equipment used in the paint removal process were modeled based on different release scenarios ranging from routine operations to complete failure of containment. To estimate the paint removal activities' contribution to long-term exterior dust lead levels (and its related interior component), a stochastic simulation model was developed for each block in the study area.

  9. Physical Activity Level and Medial Temporal Health in Youth at Ultra High-Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Vijay A.; Gupta, Tina; Orr, Joseph M.; Pelletier, Andrea L.; Dean, Derek J.; Lunsford-Avery, Jessica R.; Smith, Ashley K.; Robustelli, Briana L.; Leopold, Daniel R.; Millman, Zachary B.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that moderate to vigorous activity levels can affect quality of life, cognition, and brain structure in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, physical activity has not been systematically studied during the period immediately preceding the onset of psychosis. Given reports of exercise-based neurogenesis in schizophrenia, understanding naturalistic physical activity levels in the prodrome may provide valuable information for early intervention efforts. The present study examined 29 ultra high-risk (UHR) and 27 matched controls to determine relationships between physical activity level, brain structure (hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus), and symptoms. Participants were assessed with actigraphy for a 5-day period, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and structured clinical interviews. UHR participants showed a greater percentage of time in sedentary behavior while healthy controls spent more time engaged in light to vigorous activity. There was a strong trend to suggest the UHR group showed less total physical activity. The UHR group exhibited smaller medial temporal volumes when compared to healthy controls. Total level of physical activity in the UHR group was moderately correlated with smaller parahippocampal gyri bilaterally (right: r=.44, left: r=.55) and with occupational functioning (r=−.36; of negative symptom domain), but not positive symptomatology. Results suggest that inactivity is associated with medial temporal lobe health. Future studies are needed to determine if symptoms are driving inactivity, which in turn may be affecting the health of the parahippocampal structure and progression of illness. Although causality cannot be determined from the present design, these findings hold important implications for etiological conceptions and suggest promise for an experimental trial. PMID:24364613

  10. Are Parental Perceptions of Child Activity Levels and Overall Health More Important than Perceptions of Weight?

    PubMed Central

    Vangeepuram, Nita; Ramos, Michelle A.; Fei, Kezhen; Fox, Ashley M.; Horowitz, Carol R.; Kleinman, Lawrence C.; Galvez, Maida P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine relationships between parental perceptions of child weight and overall health, reported lifestyle behaviors and measured body mass index (BMI). Methods Using community-partnered methods, we surveyed families residing in a two census tract area identified for targeted interventions to decrease diabetes related disparities. The survey included demographics, child dietary and physical activity behaviors, and parental perception of child’s health and weight. We measured child BMI using a standardized protocol. Results We surveyed parents of 116 children with a mean age of 7 years (range 3–15) with 51 % boys, 74 % Hispanic, and 26 % Black. Over half of the children (55 %) were overweight or obese. Half (50 %) of the parents underestimated their children’s weight. Reported daily hours of walking and/or running trended higher (3.6 vs. 2.6 h, p = 0.08) for children perceived to be of normal weight. Parents who correctly estimated their child’s weight status reported more hours of daily walking/running than parents who underestimated child weight status, 4.5 versus 2.4 h, p = 0.0002. Parents of healthy weight children were more likely to report that children were in excellent or very good health compared to parents of overweight/obese children, 75 versus 56 % respectively (p = 0.04). We found significant racial/ethnic differences in reported diet and physical activity behaviors and perception of overall health. Conclusions for Practice Parental perceptions of child health and physical activity level may be related to perceptions of their child’s weight status. Study findings informed community-based initiatives for reducing diabetes risk among children. PMID:27010551

  11. Report on policy and activities concerning public awareness of health effects of low-level radiation

    SciTech Connect

    1986-11-01

    In the summer of 1986, the Executive Committee authorized a study limited to determining policy and practices relevant to dissemination of information to the public on radiation health effects in three federal agencies. This report summarizes findings on two broad questions related to the communication issue: What, if any, are the policies under which federal agencies operate in disseminating information on health effects of radiation and what are the current programs and activities designed to provide the public information on health effects of radiation.

  12. The Relationship of Health Locus of Control, Perceived Health Status and Activity Levels of Non-Institutionalized Elderly Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speake, Dianne L.

    Individuals of all ages need to maintain an active lifestyle to promote health. The physiological changes associated with aging, however, make the elderly especially vulnerable to disuse atrophy associated with inactivity. Exercise programs for the elderly are being established in increasing numbers, but high dropout rates from these programs…

  13. Physical Activity, Energy Expenditure, Nutritional Habits, Quality of Sleep and Stress Levels in Shift-Working Health Care Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Lena Johanna; Gärtner, Simone; Hannich, Hans Joachim; Steveling, Antje; Lerch, Markus M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Among health care personnel working regular hours or rotating shifts can affect parameters of general health and nutrition. We have investigated physical activity, sleep quality, metabolic activity and stress levels in health care workers from both groups. Methods We prospectively recruited 46 volunteer participants from the workforce of a University Medical Department of which 23 worked in rotating shifts (all nursing) and 21 non-shift regular hours (10 nursing, 13 clerical staff). All were investigated over 7 days by multisensory accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia® armband) and kept a detailed food diary. Physical activity and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured in metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Quality of sleep was assessed as Pittsburgh Sleeping Quality Index and stress load using the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress questionnaire (TICS). Results No significant differences were found for overall physical activity, steps per minute, time of exceeding the 3 METs level or sleep quality. A significant difference for physical activity during working hours was found between shift-workers vs. non-shift-workers (p<0.01) and for shift-working nurses (median = 2.1 METs SE = 0.1) vs. non-shift-working clerical personnel (median = 1.5 METs SE = 0.07, p<0.05). Non-shift-working nurses had a significantly lower REE than the other groups (p<0.05). The proportion of fat in the diet was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the office worker group (median = 42% SE = 1.2) whereas shift-working nurses consumed significantly more carbohydrates (median = 46% SE = 1.4) than clerical staff (median = 41% SE = 1.7). Stress assessment by TICS confirmed a significantly higher level of social overload in the shift working group (p<0.05). Conclusion In this prospective cohort study shift-working had no influence on overall physical activity. Lower physical activity during working hours appears to be compensated for during off-hours. Differences in nutritional

  14. ‘We do not do any activity until there is an outbreak’: barriers to disease prevention and health promotion at the community level in Kongwa District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Nyamhanga, Tumaini; Frumence, Gasto; Mwangu, Mughwira; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the barriers to disease prevention and health promotion at the community level – within a decentralized health system. Objective This paper, therefore, presents and discusses findings on barriers (and opportunities) for instituting disease prevention and health promotion activities. Design The study was conducted in Kongwa District, Tanzania, using an explorative case study approach. Data were collected through document reviews and in-depth interviews with key informants at district, ward, and village levels. A thematic approach was used in the analysis of the data. Results This study has identified several barriers, namely decision-makers at the national and district levels lack the necessary political will in prioritizing prevention and health promotion; the gravity of prevention and health promotion stated in the national health policy is not reflected in the district health plans; gross underfunding of community-level disease prevention and health promotion activities; and limited community participation. Conclusion In this era, when Tanzania is burdened with both communicable and non-communicable diseases, prevention and health promotion should be at the top of the health care agenda. Despite operating in a neoliberal climate, a stronger role of the state is called for. Accordingly, the government should prioritize higher health-protecting physical, social, and economic environments. This will require a national health promotion policy that will clearly chart out how multisectoral collaboration can be put into practice. PMID:25084832

  15. A survey of faith leaders concerning health promotion and the level of healthy living activities occurring in faith communities in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Donna M; Kiger, Alice; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2010-12-01

    Faith groups constitute a growing health promotion partner in North America where they help increase community capacity. However, in the United Kingdom this collaboration is seemingly far less developed. This study sought to find evidence of health promotion in faith communities and examine perceptions and attitudes concerning health promotion among faith leaders. It also sought to establish the level to which health-promoting activities currently occur in, and are organized by, places of worship in one Scottish city, Dundee. The authors distributed a self-administered questionnaire to representatives of all faith communities in Dundee (response rate 71%, n = 50). The survey identified existing, well-formed community groups, some of whom already engaged in health-promoting activities, and shared similar interests with health promotion professionals. Generally, faith leaders were positive towards the concept of health promotion and many considered health promotion to be compatible with their mission. Not all denominations were equally involved in health promotion activities, for example, some conducted annual one-off activities, while others had well-established walking groups or exercise classes. The responses suggest a degree of readiness by faith communities to engage, if invited, in health promotion programmes. These results also indicate that faith groups may constitute untapped resources, poised to contribute to local health promotion efforts. The article concludes that as the National Health Service (NHS) invests in community-based health initiatives that can have long-term sustainability, it is reasonable to make links between what is happening in North America, the interest in health promotion reported by faith leaders in this study and the possibilities for their participation in voluntary sector community health partnerships.

  16. [Health status and physical activity levels among the elderly who are participants and non-participants in social welfare groups in Florianópolis].

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo; Mazo, Giovana Zarpellon; Borges, Lucélia Justino

    2012-08-01

    This study sought to verify the association between health status and physical activity levels among the elderly who are participants and non-participants in social welfare groups in Florianópolis in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The sample included 1,062 elderly people (625 women), mean age 71.9 (± 7.6). The variables analyzed were gender, age, schooling, marital status, physical activity levels (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) and physical health status information (Brazil Elderly Schedule Questionnaire). Data were analyzed by Chi-square test. The results revealed that 60.6% were classified as physically active (total physical activity level) and 74% of the elderly reported illness. Illness status was more prevalent among social welfare group participants than non-participants. However, a better positive perception of physical health status was observed among social groups participants. For women, participation in social welfare groups was associated with a positive perception of physical health status (p<0.001) and with illness (p=0.005). The conclusion was that participation in social welfare groups contributes to a better perception of physical health status, as well as for the maintenance of adequate physical activity levels.

  17. Sickle Cell Disease Pain: 2. Predicting Health Care Use and Activity Level at 9-Month Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Karen M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Studied adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) participating in longitudinal study of pain-coping strategies. Eighty-nine subjects completed baseline assessment of pain-coping strategies and structured pain interviews assessing health care use and activity reduction during painful episodes. Baseline Negative Thinking and Passive Adherence were…

  18. Environmental health program activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1969-01-01

    Activities reported include studies on toxic air contaminants, excessive noise, poor lighting, food sanitation, water pollution, and exposure to nonionizing radiation as health hazards. Formulations for a radiological health manual provide guidance to personnel in the procurement and safe handling of radiation producing equipment and Apollo mission planning. A literature search and development of a water analysis laboratory are outlined to obtain information regarding microbiological problems involving potable water, waste management, and personal hygiene.

  19. Associations between neighborhood-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary intake, physical activity, and support for obesity prevention polices among rural adults.

    PubMed

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas C; Johnston, Larry F; Smith, Tosha W; McGuirt, Jared T; Evenson, Kelly R; Rafferty, Ann P; Gizlice, Ziya; Garcia, Beverly A; Ammerman, Alice S

    2015-04-01

    We examined cross-sectional associations among neighborhood- and individual-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary intake, physical activity (PA), and support for obesity prevention polices in rural eastern North Carolina adults. We examined perceived neighborhood barriers to a healthful lifestyle, and associations between neighborhood barriers to healthy eating and PA, participants' support for seven obesity prevention policies, and dependent variables of self-reported dietary and PA behaviors, and measured body mass index (BMI) (n = 366 study participants). We then used participants' residential addresses and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software to assess neighborhood-level factors related to access to healthy food and PA opportunities. Correlational analyses and adjusted linear regression models were used to examine associations between neighborhood-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary and PA behaviors, BMI, and obesity prevention policy support. The most commonly reported neighborhood barriers (from a list of 18 potential barriers) perceived by participants included: not enough bicycle lanes and sidewalks, not enough affordable exercise places, too much crime, and no place to buy a quick, healthy meal to go. Higher diet quality was inversely related to perceived and GIS-assessed neighborhood nutrition barriers. There were no significant associations between neighborhood barriers and PA. More perceived neighborhood barriers were positively associated with BMI. Support for obesity prevention policy change was positively associated with perceptions of more neighborhood barriers. Neighborhood factors that promote a healthful lifestyle were associated with higher diet quality and lower BMI. Individuals who perceived more neighborhood-level barriers to healthy eating and PA usually supported policies to address those barriers. Future studies should examine mechanisms to garner such support for health

  20. Health-related factors correlate with behavior trends in physical activity level in old age: longitudinal results from a population in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity in leisure time is common among elderly in Brazil and this finding is particularly alarming considering that this population is greatly affected by chronic diseases. The identification of health factors that influence physical activity level (PAL) will help in the development of strategies for increasing PAL older adults. The current research aimed to identify variables that independently affect behavior trends in PAL over the course of two years among elderly. Methods A survey entitled the Epidoso Project ("Epidemiology of aging") studied 1,667 community-based older individuals in São Paulo city, Brazil over the course of two years. Physical activity level was determined through questions about frequency and duration of physical activities. Body Mass Index was calculated; functional capacity was assessed through the ADL (activities of daily living) scale; cognition was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination; and mental health was assessed through the Dysthymia Screening. Experiences of falls and fractures were also assessed. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their self-report of Physical Activity Level: a - Regularly Active; b - Insufficiently Active and c - Physically Inactive. Behavior trends in PAL were also measured after two years. Multivariate regression model methodology was used to test associations longitudinally. Results Results from the final model demonstrated that the risk of a not favorable behavior trend in PAL, which included the group who remained physically inactive and the group that displayed decreased PAL, in this cohort of older adults was significantly increased if the individual was female (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 1.60-3.89; P < 0.01), older (80 y vs. 65 y, OR = 6.29, 95% CI = 2.69-14.67; P < 0.01), dependent on help from others for activities in the ADL scale (moderate-severe = 4-7+ vs. 0 ADLs) (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.20-4.21; P < 0.011) or had experienced a history of falls with

  1. Views of People With High and Low Levels of Health Literacy About a Digital Intervention to Promote Physical Activity for Diabetes: A Qualitative Study in Five Countries

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Elizabeth; Little, Paul; Byrne, Christopher D; Ganahl, Kristin; Müller, Gabriele; Gibney, Sarah; Lyles, Courtney R; Lucas, Antonia; Nutbeam, Don; Yardley, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Background Low health literacy is associated with poor health-related knowledge, illness self-management, health service use, health, and survival, and thus addressing issues related to low health literacy has been highlighted as a pressing international priority. Objective To explore views of a digital health promotion intervention designed to be accessible to people with lower levels of health literacy, in particular examining reactions to the interactive and audiovisual elements of the intervention. Methods Qualitative think-aloud interviews were carried out with 65 adults with type 2 diabetes in the UK, Ireland, USA, Germany, and Austria, with purposive sampling to ensure representation of people with lower levels of health literacy. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify common themes. We then systematically compared views in subgroups based on country, health literacy level, age, gender, and time since diagnosis. Results Most participants from the chosen countries expressed positive views of most elements and features of the intervention. Some interactive and audiovisual elements required modification to increase their usability and perceived credibility and relevance. There were some differences in views based on age and gender, but very few differences relating to health literacy level or time since diagnosis. Conclusions In general, participants found the intervention content and format accessible, appropriate, engaging, and motivating. Digital interventions can and should be designed to be accessible and engaging for people with a wide range of health literacy levels. PMID:26459743

  2. Frequency of leisure-time physical activity and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in the US population: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Scragg, Robert; Camargo, Carlos A

    2008-09-15

    The decline in vitamin D status among older people is probably due to decreased synthesis of vitamin D by sun-exposed skin and/or decreased outdoor activity. The authors examined the association between outdoor leisure physical activity and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) (n = 15,148 aged >/=20 years). The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration declined with increasing age, with 79, 73, and 68 nmol/liter for persons aged 20-39, 40-59, and 60 or more years. The proportion that engaged in outdoor activity in the past month was 80% for persons aged 20-39 and 40-59 years but 71% for those aged 60 or more years. In contrast, the mean difference in 25-hydroxyvitamin D between those who participated in outdoor activities daily compared with those who did not participate in the past month was similar for the youngest and oldest age groups: 13 and 16 nmol/liter, respectively. Those persons aged 60 or more years who participated in daily outdoor activities had a mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration similar to that of persons aged 20-39 years: 77 versus 79 nmol/liter, respectively. These nationally representative data suggest that persons aged 60 or more years can synthesize enough vitamin D from daily outdoor activities to maintain vitamin D levels similar to those of young adults.

  3. Physical activity, hydration and health.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ascensión; Manonelles, Pedro; Palacios, Nieves; Wärnberg, Julia; Casajús, José A; Pérez, Margarita; Aznar, Susana; Benito, Pedro J; Martínez-Gomez, David; Ortega, Francisco B; Ortega, Eduardo; Urrialde, Rafael

    2014-06-01

    Since the beginning of mankind, man has sought ways to promote and preserve health as well as to prevent disease. Hydration, physical activity and exercise are key factors for enhancing human health. However, either a little dose of them or an excess can be harmful for health maintenance at any age. Water is an essential nutrient for human body and a major key to survival has been to prevent dehydration. However, there is still a general controversy regarding the necessary amount to drink water or other beverages to properly get an adequate level of hydration. In addition, up to now the tools used to measure hydration are controversial. To this end, there are several important groups of variables to take into account such as water balance, hydration biomarkers and total body water. A combination of methods will be the most preferred tool to find out any risk or situation of dehydration at any age range. On the other hand, physical activity and exercise are being demonstrated to promote health, avoiding or reducing health problems, vascular and inflammatory disea ses and helping weight management. Therefore, physical activity is also being used as a pill within a therapy to promote health and reduce risk diseases, but as in the case of drugs, dose, intensity, frequency, duration and precautions have to be evaluated and taken into account in order to get the maximum effectiveness and success of a treatment. On the other hand, sedentariness is the opposite concept to physical activity that has been recently recognized as an important factor of lifestyle involved in the obesogenic environment and consequently in the risk of the non-communicable diseases. In view of the literature consulted and taking into account the expertise of the authors, in this review a Decalogue of global recommendations is included to achieve an adequate hydration and physical activity status to avoid overweight/obesity consequences.

  4. Morningness-eveningness interferes with perceived health, physical activity, diet and stress levels in working women: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Haraszti, Réka Ágnes; Purebl, Gyorgy; Salavecz, Gyongyver; Poole, Lydia; Dockray, Samantha; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Sleep and health are closely interrelated and sleep quality is a well-known contributor to perceived health. However, effects of sleep-timing preference i.e. morningness-eveningness on health has yet to be revealed. In this study, we explored the relationship between morningness-eveningness and perceived health in a sample of female working professionals (N = 202). Sleep-timing preference was measured using the Composite Scale of Morningness. Perceived health was characterized by Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, WHO Well-Being Scale-5 and Patient Health Questionnaire-15 scores. We also investigated possible mechanisms, including stress and health-impairing behaviours. In accordance with previous data, we found more depressive mood, lower well-being and poorer perceived health among evening types. To assess health-impairing behaviours we collected data on smoking habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet. Among the possible mechanism variables, greater stress, less frequent physical activity and less healthy diet were associated with eveningness. Furthermore, stress diminished the strength of the association between morningness-eveningness and depressed mood. Physical activity attenuated the strength of the association between morningness-eveningness and well-being. No effects of alcohol consumption could be identified. Our data show that evening preference behaves as a health risk in terms of associating with poor perceived health. Our findings also suggest that this effect might be mediated by health behaviours and stress.

  5. VIP in construction: systematic development and evaluation of a multifaceted health programme aiming to improve physical activity levels and dietary patterns among construction workers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of both overweight and musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the construction industry is high. Many interventions in the occupational setting aim at the prevention and reduction of these health problems, but it is still unclear how these programmes should be designed. To determine the effectiveness of interventions on these health outcomes randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are needed. The aim of this study is to systematically develop a tailored intervention for prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD among construction workers and to describe the evaluation study regarding its (cost-)effectiveness. Methods/Design The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol was applied to develop and implement a tailored programme aimed at the prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD. The (cost-) effectiveness of the intervention programme will be evaluated using an RCT. Furthermore, a process evaluation will be conducted. The research population will consist of blue collar workers of a large construction company in the Netherlands. Intervention The intervention programme will be aimed at improving (vigorous) physical activity levels and healthy dietary behaviour and will consist of tailored information, face-to-face and telephone counselling, training instruction (a fitness "card" to be used for exercises), and materials designed for the intervention (overview of the company health promoting facilities, waist circumference measuring tape, pedometer, BMI card, calorie guide, recipes, and knowledge test). Main study parameters/endpoints The intervention effect on body weight and waist circumference (primary outcome measures), as well as on lifestyle behaviour, MSD, fitness, CVD risk indicators, and work-related outcomes (i.e. productivity, sick leave) (secondary outcome measures) will be assessed. Discussion The development of the VIP in construction intervention led to a health programme tailored to the needs of construction workers. This programme

  6. Travel to School and Physical Activity Levels in 9–10 Year-Old UK Children of Different Ethnic Origin; Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE)

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Christopher G.; Nightingale, Claire M.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Ekelund, Ulf; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Travel to school may offer a convenient way to increase physical activity levels in childhood. We examined the association between method of travel to school and physical activity levels in urban multi-ethnic children. Methods and Findings 2035 children (aged 9–10 years in 2006–7) provided data on their usual method of travel to school and wore an Actigraph-GT1M activity monitor during waking hours. Associations between method of travel and mean level of physical activity (counts per minute [CPM], steps, time spent in light, moderate or vigorous activity per day) were examined in models adjusted for confounding variables. 1393 children (69%) walked or cycled to school; 161 (8%) used public transport and 481 (24%) travelled by car. White European children were more likely to walk/cycle, black African Caribbeans to travel by public transport and South Asian children to travel by car. Children travelling by car spent less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity (−7 mins, 95%CI-9,-5), and had lower CPM (−32 CPM, 95%CI-44,-19) and steps per day (−813 steps, 95%CI,-1043,-582) than walkers/cyclists. Pupils travelling by public transport had similar activity levels to walkers/cyclists. Lower physical activity levels amongst car travellers' were especially marked at travelling times (school days between 8–9 am, 3–5 pm), but were also evident on weekdays at other times and at weekends; they did not differ by gender or ethnic group. Conclusion Active travel to school is associated with higher levels of objectively measured physical activity, particularly during periods of travel but also at other times. If children travelling by car were to achieve physical activity levels (steps) similar to children using active travel, they would increase their physical activity levels by 9%. However, the population increase would be a modest 2%, because of the low proportion of car travellers in this urban population. PMID:22319596

  7. Health Games, Simulations, and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, David E.; Sleet, David A.

    1980-01-01

    Health games and simulations which are inexpensive and require minimal preparation time are presented. Learning activities focus on drug knowledge, reproductive system knowledge, nutrition information, and alcohol abuse. (JN)

  8. The level of leisure time physical activity is associated with work ability-a cross sectional and prospective study of health care workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With increasing age, physical capacity decreases, while the need and time for recovery increases. At the same time, the demands of work usually do not change with age. In the near future, an aging and physically changing workforce risks reduced work ability. Therefore, the impact of different factors, such as physical activity, on work ability is of interest. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between physical activity and work ability using both cross sectional and prospective analyses. Methods This study was based on an extensive questionnaire survey. The number of participants included in the analysis at baseline in 2004 was 2.783, of whom 2.597 were also included in the follow-up in 2006. The primary outcome measure was the Work Ability Index (WAI), and the level of physical activity was measured using a single-item question. In the cross-sectional analysis we calculated the level of physical activity and the prevalence of poor or moderate work ability as reported by the participants. In the prospective analysis we calculated different levels of physical activity and the prevalence of positive changes in WAI-category from baseline to follow-up. In both the cross sectional and the prospective analyses the prevalence ratio was calculated using Generalized Linear Models. Results The cross-sectional analysis showed that with an increased level of physical activity, the reporting of poor or moderate work ability decreased. In the prospective analysis, participants reporting a higher level of physical activity were more likely to have made an improvement in WAI from 2004 to 2006. Conclusions The level of physical activity seems to be related to work ability. Assessment of physical activity may also be useful as a predictive tool, potentially making it possible to prevent poor work ability and improve future work ability. For employers, the main implications of this study are the importance of promoting and facilitating the

  9. European Commission activities in eHealth.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Silas; Lymberis, Andreas; Whitehouse, Diane

    2004-12-01

    Health-care is an information-intensive and knowledge-demanding sector, which is why eHealth solutions are so important in this field. The European Commission (EC) has been initiating and funding research and development activities regarding Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for health, or "eHealth", since 1988. These programmes covered priority topics like electronic health-care records, regional and national health networks, telemedicine in homecare and care-at-the-point-of-need to support continuity of care concepts, systems to support people to stay healthy, and systems and tools to support health professionals to work more efficiently and safely on patients. During the 15-year span of the programmes, the European Union (EU) has contributed about 500 million Euro to approximately 400 R&D projects, support activities, best practice and studies covering technical, clinical, ethical, legal, organisational and market issues. eHealth has shown proven benefits in application fields like improved access to care, care at the point-of-need, citizen-centred care, improved quality and cost containment. Such applications were on show at the EU High Level eHealth Conferences in Brussels, Belgium, in 2003, and in Cork, Ireland, in 2004. eHealth is now on the governmental agenda of EU Member States to be implemented on a broader scale. In line with this development, the Commission has taken a number of policy initiatives. A European Union Action Plan for a European eHealth Area was published by the Commission in April 2004 and endorsed by the EU health ministers in June 2004. This means that, for the first time, Europe has a coherent agenda for the implementation of eHealth. This report will concentrate on eHealth activities initiated by the Information Society Directorate-General of the European Commission.

  10. Mental Health Concerns: Veterans & Active Duty

    MedlinePlus

    ... through My Health e Vet , the VA’s online personal health record. This site for veterans, active duty ... their families provides access to health records, a personal health journal, online VA prescription refill information and ...

  11. [Physical activity and cardiovascular health].

    PubMed

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that regular moderate physical activity, in the context of a healthy lifestyle, significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. In addition, it is scientifically proven that exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer and colon cancer. Despite this strong evidence, sedentary lifestyle remains a widespread habit in the western world. Even in Italy the adult population has a poor attitude to regular physical activity. It is therefore necessary, as continuously recommended by the World Health Organization, to motivate people to "move" since the transition from inactivity to regular light to moderate physical activity has a huge impact on health, resulting in significant savings of resources. We do not need to be athletes to exercise - it should be part of all our daily routines.

  12. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10). Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2%) from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%), providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental sustainability, transport and urban

  13. The effect of a behaviour change intervention on the diets and physical activity levels of women attending Sure Start Children’s Centres: results from a complex public health intervention

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Janis; Jarman, Megan; Lawrence, Wendy; Black, Christina; Davies, Jenny; Tinati, Tannaze; Begum, Rufia; Mortimore, Andrew; Robinson, Sian; Margetts, Barrie; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary; Inskip, Hazel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The UK government's response to the obesity epidemic calls for action in communities to improve people's health behaviour. This study evaluated the effects of a community intervention on dietary quality and levels of physical activity of women from disadvantaged backgrounds. Design Non-randomised controlled evaluation of a complex public health intervention. Participants 527 women attending Sure Start Children's Centres (SSCC) in Southampton (intervention) and 495 women attending SSCCs in Gosport and Havant (control). Intervention Training SSCC staff in behaviour change skills that would empower women to change their health behaviours. Outcomes Main outcomes dietary quality and physical activity. Intermediate outcomes self-efficacy and sense of control. Results 1-year post-training, intervention staff used skills to support behaviour change significantly more than control staff. There were statistically significant reductions of 0.1 SD in the dietary quality of all women between baseline and follow-up and reductions in self-efficacy and sense of control. The decline in self-efficacy and control was significantly smaller in women in the intervention group than in women in the control group (adjusted differences in self-efficacy and control, respectively, 0.26 (95% CI 0.001 to 0.50) and 0.35 (0.05 to 0.65)). A lower decline in control was associated with higher levels of exposure in women in the intervention group. There was a statistically significant improvement in physical activity in the intervention group, with 22.9% of women reporting the highest level of physical activity compared with 12.4% at baseline, and a smaller improvement in the control group. The difference in change in physical activity level between the groups was not statistically significant (adjusted difference 1.02 (0.74 to 1.41)). Conclusions While the intervention did not improve women's diets and physical activity levels, it had a protective effect on intermediate factors

  14. Occupational Health and Safety. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed…

  15. Occupational Health and Safety. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with occupational safety and…

  16. Approaching semantic interoperability in Health Level Seven

    PubMed Central

    Alschuler, Liora

    2010-01-01

    ‘Semantic Interoperability’ is a driving objective behind many of Health Level Seven's standards. The objective in this paper is to take a step back, and consider what semantic interoperability means, assess whether or not it has been achieved, and, if not, determine what concrete next steps can be taken to get closer. A framework for measuring semantic interoperability is proposed, using a technique called the ‘Single Logical Information Model’ framework, which relies on an operational definition of semantic interoperability and an understanding that interoperability improves incrementally. Whether semantic interoperability tomorrow will enable one computer to talk to another, much as one person can talk to another person, is a matter for speculation. It is assumed, however, that what gets measured gets improved, and in that spirit this framework is offered as a means to improvement. PMID:21106995

  17. [Health levels in San Andres Cholula].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Martinez, A; Corro Fernandez, G; Balmaceda, M

    1991-12-01

    In matters of health and curing, the community of San Andres Cholula in Puebla, Mexico, demonstrates a syncretism similar to religious syncretism. Perspectives on illness and health consistent with the traditional medical practices of curanderos coexist with modern medical practices. Curanderos and physicians often treat the same patients. A curandero's powers are viewed as a special gift transmitted by God or the saints during a dream. The curandero effects a cure not only through knowledge of the medicinal plants, rites, and ceremonies, but by understanding the context of the patient. The Western medical concept of disease emphasizes a biological model and technological control, to the detriment of mental, behavioral, and social factors and determinants. The traditional medical concept stresses the relationship of the individual to the social and ecological environment. Improvements in life expectancy in the developing countries in recent years have been attributed to improved levels of living or to importation of vaccination programs, antibiotics, and similar technologies from the developed countries. The vital register of San Andres Cholula records many deaths whose cause cannot be easily interpreted according to the World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases. It is clear, however, that the root cause of many deaths is malnutrition. The proportion of deaths caused by infectious diseases has declined in Mexico since 1940, but Puebla is still included among the states with the highest incidence. There are great regional and rural-urban mortality differentials in Mexico. In the past 50 years, the infant mortality rate has declined from 250 to 40/1000 live births in San Andres Cholula, more as a result of vaccination campaigns than of improved levels of living. 89% of children have been vaccinated, but the population still lives in about the same state of material comfort as it has for generations except that most households have televisions

  18. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J.; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Bruha, Jan; Bruhova-Foltynova, Hana; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Praznoczy, Corinne; Ragettli, Martina S.; Tainio, Marko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16–64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen) produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76–163) annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29–104), Barcelona 37 (24–56), Paris 37 (18–64) and Basel 5 (3–9). An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris) resulted in 19 (3–42) deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3–21) in Prague, 6 (4–9) in Basel, 3 (2–6) in Copenhagen and 3 (2–4) in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation. PMID:26930213

  19. The Influence of Wireless Self-Monitoring Program on the Relationship Between Patient Activation and Health Behaviors, Medication Adherence, and Blood Pressure Levels in Hypertensive Patients: A Substudy of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju Young; Wineinger, Nathan. E

    2016-01-01

    Background Active engagement in the management of hypertension is important in improving self-management behaviors and clinical outcomes. Mobile phone technology using wireless monitoring tools are now widely available to help individuals monitor their blood pressure, but little is known about the conditions under which such technology can effect positive behavior changes or clinical outcomes. Objective To study the influence of wireless self-monitoring program and patient activation measures on health behaviors, medication adherence, and blood pressure levels as well as control of blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Methods We examined a subset of 95 hypertensive participants from a 6-month randomized controlled trial designed to determine the utility of a wireless self-monitoring program (n=52 monitoring program, n=43 control), which consisted of a blood pressure monitoring device connected with a mobile phone, reminders for self-monitoring, a Web-based disease management program, and a mobile app for monitoring and education, compared with the control group receiving a standard disease management program. Study participants provided measures of patient activation, health behaviors including smoking, drinking, and exercise, medication adherence, and blood pressure levels. We assessed the influence of wireless self-monitoring as a moderator of the relationship between patient activation and health behaviors, medication adherence, and control of blood pressure. Results Improvements in patient activation were associated with improvements in cigarette smoking (beta=−0.46, P<.001) and blood pressure control (beta=0.04, P=.02). This relationship was further strengthened in reducing cigarettes (beta=−0.60, P<.001), alcohol drinking (beta=−0.26, P=.01), and systolic (beta=−0.27, P=.02) and diastolic blood pressure (beta=−0.34, P=.007) at 6 months among individuals participating in the wireless self-monitoring program. No differences were observed with

  20. Lessons in Community Health Activism

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This study employed historical methodologies to explore the means through which the Maternity Care Coalition used grassroots activism to dismantle the power structures and other obstacles that contributed to high infant mortality rates in Philadelphia’s health districts 5 and 6 during the 1980s. Infant mortality within the black community has been a persistent phenomenon in the United States. Refusing to accept poverty as a major determinant of infant mortality within marginalized populations of women, activists during the 1980s harnessed momentum from a postcivil rights context and sought alternative methods toward change and improvement of infant mortality rates. PMID:24892861

  1. Brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion

    PubMed Central

    Sebastião, Emerson; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-01-01

    Public health actions endorsed by the federal government, for instance, health promotion initiatives, usually have greater impact at population level compared to other types of initiatives. This commentary aims to instigate debate on the importance and necessity of producing federally endorsed brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion. PMID:25210830

  2. Brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Sebastião, Emerson; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-08-01

    Public health actions endorsed by the federal government, for instance, health promotion initiatives, usually have greater impact at population level compared to other types of initiatives. This commentary aims to instigate debate on the importance and necessity of producing federally endorsed brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion.

  3. Solutions That Stick: Activating Cross-Disciplinary Collaboration in a Graduate-Level Public Health Innovations Course at the University of California, Berkeley

    PubMed Central

    Hosang, Robert (Nap); Madsen, Kristine A.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2011 we have taught a public health innovations course at the University of California, Berkeley. Students gain skills in systematic innovation, or human-centered design, while working in small interdisciplinary teams on domestic and global health projects with client organizations. To support acquisition of meaningful problem-solving skills, we structured the course so that the majority of learning happens in scenarios that do not involve faculty. Taken by students representing 26 graduate programs (as diverse as epidemiology, city planning, and mechanical engineering), it is one of the 10 highest-rated courses offered by the School of Public Health. We present the blueprints for our course with the hope that other institutions whose students could benefit will borrow from our model. PMID:25706024

  4. Solutions that stick: activating cross-disciplinary collaboration in a graduate-level public health innovations course at the University of California, Berkeley.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Jaspal S; Hosang, Robert Nap; Madsen, Kristine A

    2015-03-01

    Since 2011 we have taught a public health innovations course at the University of California, Berkeley. Students gain skills in systematic innovation, or human-centered design, while working in small interdisciplinary teams on domestic and global health projects with client organizations. To support acquisition of meaningful problem-solving skills, we structured the course so that the majority of learning happens in scenarios that do not involve faculty. Taken by students representing 26 graduate programs (as diverse as epidemiology, city planning, and mechanical engineering), it is one of the 10 highest-rated courses offered by the School of Public Health. We present the blueprints for our course with the hope that other institutions whose students could benefit will borrow from our model.

  5. Level of optimism and health behavior in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Lipowski, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Persons with an optimistic attitude do not give up despite obstacles and failures. Optimistic athletes compete more out of hope for success than out of fear of defeat. The purpose of my research was to determine if optimism also promotes good health behavior in athletes. Material/Methods In order to measure the role of optimism in shaping the health behavior of athletes, I examined a group of women (N=147) and men (N=385) who were currently in training for athletic competition. The control group consisted of women (N=262) and men (N=435) who were not and had never been competitive athletes. The “O-P” Attitude Questionnaire was used to measure optimism, while health behavior was measured with the Juczynski Health Behavior Inventory, which measures proper nutrition habits, preventive behavior, positive attitude, and healthy practices. Results The level of pessimism in these athletes was average. The female athletes were less pessimistic than the female controls. A similar, highly significant difference occurred between the male athletes and non-athletes. Gender did not differentiate the level of optimism in either group. Among the women, optimism correlated with healthy practices, such as daily sleep and recreation habits, or physical activity. The greater the pessimism increased, positive attitudes declined in the female controls, the female athletes, and the male controls. Conclusions The athletes displayed greater optimism than the controls. Among the women, optimism correlated with good health practices. PMID:22207118

  6. Effectiveness of a school-community linked program on physical activity levels and health-related quality of life for adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the effectiveness of a school-community program on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL; the primary outcome), physical activity (PA), and potential mediators of PA among adolescent girls living in low-socioeconomic rural/regional settings. Method The study was a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Twelve communities with the requisite sports clubs and facilities were paired according to relevant criteria; one of each pair was randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. Eight schools per condition were randomly selected from these communities and the intervention was conducted over one school year (2011). Female students in grades 7–9 in intervention schools participated in two 6-session PA units – a sport unit (football or tennis) and a recreational unit (leisure centre-based). These were incorporated into physical education (PE) curriculum and linked to PA opportunities for participation outside school. Students were surveyed at baseline and endpoint, self-reporting impact on primary and secondary outcome measures (HRQoL, PA) and PA mediators (e.g. self-efficacy). Linear mixed models for two-group (intervention, control) and three-group (completers, non-completers, control) analyses were conducted with baseline value, age and BMI as covariates, group as a fixed effect and school as random cluster effect. Results Participants completing baseline and endpoint measures included: 358 intervention (baseline response rate 33.7%, retention rate 61.3%) and 256 control (14.1% and 84.0%). Adjustment for age and BMI made no substantive difference to outcomes, and there were no cluster effects. For HRQoL, after adjustment for baseline scores, the intervention group showed significantly higher scores on all three PedsQL scores (physical functioning: M ± SE = 83.9 ± 0.7, p = .005; psychosocial: 79.9 ± 0.8, p = .001; total score: 81.3 ± 0.7, p = .001) than the control group (80.9 ± 0

  7. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  8. Physical Activity and Public Health: Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effects of physical activity on depression and anxiety, discussing the scientific strength of studies on physical activity, depression, and anxiety against the standards of science accepted in epidemiology with a focus on the independence, consistency, dose-response gradient, and biological plausibility of the evidence. (Author/SM)

  9. [Metabolic fitness: physical activity and health].

    PubMed

    Saltin, Bengt; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2002-04-15

    Physical inactivity is strongly associated with an increased risk of premature disease and death, and the falling level of physical activity in Denmark (as in many other countries) makes physical inactivity a major life-style risk factor in many western countries today. Both aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen uptake) and metabolic capacity of the muscles are important in this matter. The present paper focuses on the role of the metabolic capacity/fitness of muscle, because this appears to be especially critical for the development of metabolic-related diseases and thus for the health of the individual. A definition of metabolic fitness is proposed as the ratio between mitochondrial capacity for substrate utilisation and maximum oxygen uptake of the muscle. Indirect means of determining this parameter are discussed. Skeletal muscle is an extraordinarily plastic tissue and metabolic capacity/fitness changes quickly when the level of physical activity is altered. High metabolic fitness includes an elevated use of fat at rest and during exercise. The capacity for glucose metabolism is also enhanced in trained muscle. Some of these adaptations to physical activity are explained. Exercise-induced activation of genes coding for proteins involved in metabolism is described as an underlying mechanism for some of these adaptations. The increased gene expression is of relatively short duration, which implies that a certain regularity of physical activity is required to maintain high metabolic fitness. Thus, metabolic fitness is directly related to how much the muscle is used, but even low levels of physical activity have a beneficial effect on metabolic fitness and the overall health of the individual.

  10. Prediction of health levels by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Vernon, S.

    1975-01-01

    Measures of the environment derived from remote sensing were compared to census population/housing measures in their ability to discriminate among health status areas in two urban communities. Three hypotheses were developed to explore the relationships between environmental and health data. Univariate and multiple step-wise linear regression analyses were performed on data from two sample areas in Houston and Galveston, Texas. Environmental data gathered by remote sensing were found to equal or surpass census data in predicting rates of health outcomes. Remote sensing offers the advantages of data collection for any chosen area or time interval, flexibilities not allowed by the decennial census.

  11. Health Activities Project (HAP), Trial Edition II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) trial edition (set II) are a teacher information folio and numerous student activity folios which center around the idea that students in grades 5-8 can control their own health and safety. Each student folio is organized into a Synopsis, Health Background, Materials, Setting Up, and Activities…

  12. Vitamin D Activities for Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Reports describing significant health risks due to inadequate vitamin D status continue to generate considerable interest amongst the medical and lay communities alike. Recent research on the various molecular activities of the vitamin D system, including the nuclear vitamin D receptor and other receptors for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and vitamin D metabolism, provides evidence that the vitamin D system carries out biological activities across a wide range of tissues similar to other nuclear receptor hormones. This knowledge provides physiological plausibility of the various health benefits claimed to be provided by vitamin D and supports the proposals for conducting clinical trials. The vitamin D system plays critical roles in the maintenance of plasma calcium and phosphate and bone mineral homeostasis. Recent evidence confirms that plasma calcium homeostasis is the critical factor modulating vitamin D activity. Vitamin D activities in the skeleton include stimulation or inhibition of bone resorption and inhibition or stimulation of bone formation. The three major bone cell types, which are osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts, can all respond to vitamin D via the classical nuclear vitamin D receptor and metabolize 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to activate the vitamin D receptor and modulate gene expression. Dietary calcium intake interacts with vitamin D metabolism at both the renal and bone tissue levels to direct either a catabolic action on the bone through the endocrine system when calcium intake is inadequate or an anabolic action through a bone autocrine or paracrine system when calcium intake is sufficient. PMID:24790904

  13. Health effects of low-level exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Stark, A D; Costas, K; Chang, H G; Vallet, H L

    1986-10-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) spill resulting from a transformer explosion in Syracuse, New York, with no subsequent fire, provided an opportunity for the examination of the effects of low-level PCB exposure without the confounding presence of furans and dioxins. The incident provided 52 individuals exposed to PCB among building personnel, police, firemen, and public utility employees. Sixty-eight nonexposed were matched to the exposed group by sex, age, employer, and job description. Data were collected on the exposed relative to their activities at the spill site, their location, possible routes of exposure, duration of exposure, and subsequent health effects. Exposed and nonexposed were interviewed for past medical history and relevant symptoms. Blood chemistries were studied inclusive of SGOT, SGPT, total protein, CBC, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, as well as a fasting blood PCB level measurement. Six weeks after the spill, exposed and nonexposed were reinterviewed and had their blood work repeated except for the CBC and PCB levels. Exposed and nonexposed laboratory results were unremarkable. Some transient skin irritation believed to be associated with PCBs was noted. There were significant PCBs in blood level trends for occupation, age, duration of exposure, and level of alcohol consumption. Triglyceride level was highly correlated with PCB level. This relationship held when age and alcohol consumption were controlled for.

  14. Factors Influencing Cypriot Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present selected findings from a larger study, which set out to examine the physical activity levels of Cypriot primary school children and determinants of their activity. Twenty parents of children who obtained high and low activity scores based on pedometer counts and self-reports scores were interviewed. By…

  15. Health Education and Activity - Lessening The Inequalities in mental health (HEA - LTI mental health).

    PubMed

    Richmond, Georgia; Kenny, Conor; Ahmed, Jabed; Stephenson, Lucy; Lindsay, Jamie; Earls, Patrick; Mullin, Donncha; Ryland, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Patients suffering from mental health illness have considerably more physical health disease burden than the rest of the population and are more likely to die 10 to 20 years younger compared with their peers. Diabetes, cardiovascular and respiratory disease have been recognised as contributing factors to premature death. Furthermore patients with severe mental illness undertake lower levels of physical activity. The aim of the project was therefore to address the inequalities in physical health that affect patients with mental health illness through designing and implementing a sustainable, transferable, patient-centred education and activity intervention. The objective of the project was to increase patient motivation to change behaviour as a result of physical health interventions by increasing patients' physical health understanding, motivation to change their physical health behaviour, motivation to do exercise and by reducing their anxiety. The method used was a prospective cohort study in four eighteen bed psychosis inpatient units. The units were across two large London hospitals in one Hospital Trust involving male and female inpatients with a range of mental health issues. The intervention was comprised of two components. The first component was a weekly 45 minute teaching group designed in collaboration with patients focusing on the key domains that affect the physical health of mental health patients. Four discussion domains (heart health, diabetes and weight, smoking and lung disease, cancer screening and substance misuse) were undertaken, with each cycle lasting four weeks. The second component was a weekly 45 minute exercise group ('normalisation activity') in collaboration with patients and the multidisciplinary team. The intervention was evaluated at the end of each cycle and four cycles in total took place. Weekly pre and post intervention measures were undertaken comprising of a self reported change in understanding, motivation to change physical

  16. Health Activism Targeting Corporations: A Critical Health Communication Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zoller, Heather M

    2017-02-01

    Health activists and health social movements have transformed medical treatment, promoted public health policies, and extended civil rights for people with illness and disability. This essay explores health activism that targets corporate-generated illness and risk in order to understand the unique communicative challenges involved in this area of contention. Arguing for greater critical engagement with policy, the article integrates policy research with social movements, subpolitics, and issue management literature. Drawing from activist discourse and multidisciplinary research, the article describes how a wide array of groups groups build visibility for corporate health effects, create the potential for networking and collaboration, and politicize health by attributing illness to corporate behaviors. The discussion articulates the implications of this activism for health communication theory, research, and practice.

  17. Physical activity levels of children during school playtime.

    PubMed

    Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2006-01-01

    School represents a suitable setting for intervention programmes aiming to promote physical activity to benefit health. During the school day, physical education and school playtime offer children regular opportunities to engage in physical activity. However, there is growing concern that, internationally, curricular time allocated to physical education is not meeting statutory guidelines. The effectiveness of the playground environment to promote physical activity has been considered as a complementary setting to physical education. Physical activity guidelines state that children should engage in at least 1 hour of moderate intensity physical activity a day. Currently no empirically tested guidelines exist for physical activity levels during playtime. However, studies cited in this article indicate that playtime can contribute between 5-40% of recommended daily physical activity levels when no interventions have been utilised. The limited school-based investigations that have been reported in the literature suggest that boys engage in more physical activity during playtime than girls. Studies that have implemented intervention strategies in order to promote physical activity levels indicate that playtime can substantially contribute towards daily optimal physical activity guidelines. Energy expenditure and physical activity levels have increased during playtime following the implementation of playtime-based interventions. In order to advance knowledge of children's physical activity during playtime, a number of key issues for consideration in future research are detailed. Research on children's use of playtime to be physically active and the extent of the contribution of playtime to daily physical activity guidelines is warranted.

  18. Antiracism and the Level of Health Services: A Sociomedical Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Schatzkin, Arthur; Cooper, Richard; Green, Linda

    1984-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the validity of the “reverse discrimination” position that antiracist initiatives in the health sector would be associated with reduced services for whites. This paper advances the sociomedical hypothesis that antiracism leads to an increase in the level of health services and opportunities available to both minority and white populations. Four types of US health care utilization and training data are explored: annual rates of discharge from short-stay hospitals, percent of population seeing a physician during the year, rates of hypertension treatment and control, and admissions to the first-year class of US medical schools. These data are examined according to race for years prior and subsequent to the upsurge of antiracist activity that characterized the Civil Rights Movement era. From the early or mid-1960s to the mid- or late 1970s, hospital discharges, physician visits, and hypertension treatment and control for minorities and whites increased substantially. Generally these increases were proportionally greater for minorities. Although the percentage of increase in minority medical school admissions was necessarily accompanied by a decline in percentage of admissions of whites, the absolute number of whites admitted rose substantially as overall class size grew. These data do not support the “reverse discrimination” notion of one racial group benefiting at the expense of another. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that antiracist efforts in the health sector lead to an expansion of services and opportunities for minority and majority populations. PMID:6737494

  19. Health Promotion Activity Book for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Health, Columbus.

    This book of activities is designed to supplement health lessons for students in grades 4-6. Some of the activities are quite simple and require very little instruction and direction, while others are more difficult and require careful explanation prior to completion. The level of difficulty of the activities is varied in order to create both…

  20. Health Education and Activity – Lessening The Inequalities in mental health (HEA – LTI mental health)

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Georgia; Kenny, Conor; Ahmed, Jabed; Stephenson, Lucy; lindsay, jamie; Earls, Patrick; Mullin, Donncha; Ryland, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Patients suffering from mental health illness have considerably more physical health disease burden than the rest of the population and are more likely to die 10 to 20 years younger compared with their peers. Diabetes, cardiovascular and respiratory disease have been recognised as contributing factors to premature death. Furthermore patients with severe mental illness undertake lower levels of physical activity. The aim of the project was therefore to address the inequalities in physical health that affect patients with mental health illness through designing and implementing a sustainable, transferable, patient-centred education and activity intervention. The objective of the project was to increase patient motivation to change behaviour as a result of physical health interventions by increasing patients' physical health understanding, motivation to change their physical health behaviour, motivation to do exercise and by reducing their anxiety. The method used was a prospective cohort study in four eighteen bed psychosis inpatient units. The units were across two large London hospitals in one Hospital Trust involving male and female inpatients with a range of mental health issues. The intervention was comprised of two components. The first component was a weekly 45 minute teaching group designed in collaboration with patients focusing on the key domains that affect the physical health of mental health patients. Four discussion domains (heart health, diabetes and weight, smoking and lung disease, cancer screening and substance misuse) were undertaken, with each cycle lasting four weeks. The second component was a weekly 45 minute exercise group (‘normalisation activity’) in collaboration with patients and the multidisciplinary team. The intervention was evaluated at the end of each cycle and four cycles in total took place. Weekly pre and post intervention measures were undertaken comprising of a self reported change in understanding, motivation to change

  1. Personalized Strategies to Activate and Empower Patients in Health Care and Reduce Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Mullins, C. Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Designing culturally-sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients’ involvement in their treatment, and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and self-determination for their own health and health care. We propose a patient-centered, multi-level activation and empowerment framework (individual-, health care professional-, community-, and health care delivery system-level) to inform the development of culturally informed personalized patient activation and empowerment (P-PAE) interventions to improve population health, and reduce racial and ethnic disparities. We discuss relevant Affordable Care Act payment and delivery policy reforms, and how they impact patient activation and empowerment. Such policies include Accountable Care Organizations and Value Based Purchasing, Patient Centered Medical Homes, and the Community Health Benefit. Challenges and possible solutions to implementing the P-PAE are discussed. Comprehensive and longitudinal data sets with consistent P-PAE measures are needed to conduct comparative effectiveness analyses to evaluate the optimal P-PAE model. We believe the P-PAE model is timely and sustainable, and will be critical to engaging patients in their treatment, developing patients’ abilities to manage their health, helping patients to express concerns and preferences regarding treatment, empowering patients to ask questions about treatment options, and building up strategic patient-provider partnerships through shared decision making. PMID:25845376

  2. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the active vitamin D metabolite (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D) and haemoglobin levels in older Australian men: the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project.

    PubMed

    Hirani, Vasant; Cumming, Robert G; Blyth, Fiona; Naganathan, Vasi; Le Couteur, David G; Waite, Louise M; Handelsman, David J; Seibel, Markus J

    2015-02-01

    Anaemia and low 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25D) and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) levels are common in older people and may adversely affect morbidity and mortality. While there is some evidence for an association between low serum 25D levels and anaemia, there are limited studies among community-dwelling older people. In addition, the relationship between anaemia and the active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25D, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between serum 25D and 1,25D with anaemia in community-living men aged ≥70 years. Population-based, cross-sectional analysis of the baseline phase and longitudinal analysis of the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP), a large epidemiological study conducted in Sydney among men aged 70 years and older, were performed; 1666 men were seen at baseline (2005-2007), 1314 men at a 2-year follow-up (2007-2009) and 917 at a 5-year follow-up (2012-2013). The main outcome measurement was haemoglobin levels as a continuous measure. Covariates included 25D and 1,25D, estimated glomerular filtration rate, demographic information, lifestyle measures, health conditions and medication information. The prevalence of anaemia (Hb < 13.0 g/dL, WHO definition) was 14.6 %. In cross-sectional analysis, serum 25D concentrations were positively associated with haemoglobin levels in unadjusted analysis (β value 0.004; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.0009, 0.007; p = 0.01), but the associations were no longer significant after multivariate adjustment. The association between 1,25D levels and haemoglobin levels was significant in unadjusted analysis (β value 0.003; 95 % CI 0.002, 0.004; p < 0.0001) and remained significant in adjusted analysis (β value 0.001; 95 % CI 0.004, 0.003; p = 0.01). Serum 1,25D (but not 25D) levels at baseline were significantly associated with changes in haemoglobin over 2 and 5 years in unadjusted (β value 0.002; 95 % CI 0.0009, 0.003; p < 0

  3. Physical activity level, waist circumference, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Reeder, Bruce A.; Elliott, Susan; Joffres, Michel R.; Pahwa, Punam; Kirkland, Susan A.; Paradis, Gilles; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    This study predicted all-cause mortality based on physical activity level (active or inactive) and waist circumference (WC) in 8208 Canadian adults in Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan, surveyed between 1986–1995 and followed through 2004. Physically inactive adults had higher mortality risk than active adults overall (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval = 1.20, 1.05–1.37) and within the low WC category (1.51, 1.19–1.92). Detrimental effects of physical inactivity and high WC demonstrate the need for physical activity promotion. PMID:22703160

  4. Health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for Homeland Security

    SciTech Connect

    Adeshina, Femi; Sonich-Mullin, Synthia; Wood, Carol S

    2009-01-01

    In compliance with Homeland Security Presidential Directive No.8, the US EPA National Homeland Security Research Center, in collaboration with the Department of Energy, is developing health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for priority toxic industrial chemicals, pesticides, and chemical warfare agents in air and drinking water. The PALs Program will provide exposure levels to assist emergency response decision-making, and to serve as criteria for determining re-use and re-entry into affected areas resulting from transport/storage accidents, natural disasters, and subversive activities. PALs are applicable at federal, state, and local levels, and are intended for use in homeland security efforts, public health, law enforcement, and emergency response, as well as decisions by water utilities, and national and regional EPA offices. PALS have not been promulgated nor have they been formally issued as regulatory guidance. They are intended to be used at the discretion of risk managers in emergency situations when site specific risk assessments are not available. Three levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations of potential drinking water and inhalation exposures for the general public. Draft PALs are evaluated both by an EPA working group, and an external multidisciplinary panel to ensure scientific credibility and wide acceptance. In this issue, we present background information on the PAL program, the methodology used in deriving PALs, and the technical support documents for the derivation of PALs for acrylonitrile, phosgene, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen sulfide.

  5. Effects of Individual Health Topic Familiarity on Activity Patterns During Health Information Searches

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Koichi; Fukui, Ken–ichi; Numao, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-medical professionals (consumers) are increasingly using the Internet to support their health information needs. However, the cognitive effort required to perform health information searches is affected by the consumer’s familiarity with health topics. Consumers may have different levels of familiarity with individual health topics. This variation in familiarity may cause misunderstandings because the information presented by search engines may not be understood correctly by the consumers. Objective As a first step toward the improvement of the health information search process, we aimed to examine the effects of health topic familiarity on health information search behaviors by identifying the common search activity patterns exhibited by groups of consumers with different levels of familiarity. Methods Each participant completed a health terminology familiarity questionnaire and health information search tasks. The responses to the familiarity questionnaire were used to grade the familiarity of participants with predefined health topics. The search task data were transcribed into a sequence of search activities using a coding scheme. A computational model was constructed from the sequence data using a Markov chain model to identify the common search patterns in each familiarity group. Results Forty participants were classified into L1 (not familiar), L2 (somewhat familiar), and L3 (familiar) groups based on their questionnaire responses. They had different levels of familiarity with four health topics. The video data obtained from all of the participants were transcribed into 4595 search activities (mean 28.7, SD 23.27 per session). The most frequent search activities and transitions in all the familiarity groups were related to evaluations of the relevancy of selected web pages in the retrieval results. However, the next most frequent transitions differed in each group and a chi-squared test confirmed this finding (P<.001). Next, according to the

  6. [Subliminal perception and the levels of activation].

    PubMed

    Borgeat, F; Chabot, R; Chaloult, L

    1981-06-01

    The influence of the auditory subliminal messages on the level of activation has been evaluated through a double-blind study. Twenty consenting subjects were alternately submitted to activating and deactivating subliminal messages. Activation changes were estimated through the variations in the scores at the Mood Adjective Check List. Five out of this test's six factors concerned by the content of the subliminal messages responded differently according to the nature of these messages; four factors did so to a statistically significant degree. These results tend to indicate that auditory subliminal perceptions can influence the level of activation. The authors raise several questions, especially stressing that the parameters regulating subliminal response and susceptibility remain largely undefined and in need of systematic investigation.

  7. Physical activity: health outcomes and importance for public health policy.

    PubMed

    Haskell, William L; Blair, Steven N; Hill, James O

    2009-10-01

    This manuscript presents a brief summary of the substantial data supporting an inverse relationship between the amount of habitual physical activity performed and a variety of negative health outcomes throughout the lifespan. It points out that despite these data a large segment of the US population remain insufficiently active resulting in a high population attributable risk for chronic disease due to inactivity. The accumulated data support the need for more comprehensive health promoting physical activity policies and programs, especially for the economically and socially disadvantaged and medically underserved.

  8. Potential Health Implications and Health Cost Reductions of Transit-Induced Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Sener, Ipek N; Lee, Richard J; Elgart, Zachary

    2016-06-01

    Transit has the potential to increase an individual's level of physical activity due to the need to walk or bike at the beginning and end of each trip. Consideration of these health benefits would allow transit proponents to better demonstrate its true costs and benefits. In light of transit's potential health-related impacts, this study contributes to the growing discussion in the emerging field of health and transportation by providing a review of the current level of understanding and evidence related to the physical activity implications of transit use and its associated health cost benefits. Findings from the review revealed that transit use is associated with increased levels of physical activity and improved health outcomes, but the magnitude of these effects is uncertain. There were few studies that estimated the health care cost savings of transit systems, and those that did tended to be imprecise and simplistic. Objective physical activity measures and frequency-based transit measures would allow for greater consistency across studies and help more directly attribute physical activity gains to transit ridership. Additionally, research in this area would benefit from disaggregate estimation techniques and more robust health datasets that can be better linked with existing transit data.

  9. Locomotor activity and tissue levels following acute ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pyrethroids produce neurotoxicity that depends, in part, on the chemical structure. Common behavioral effects include locomotor activity changes and specific toxic syndromes (types I and II). In general these neurobehavioral effects correlate well with peak internal dose metrics. Products of cyhalothrin, a type II pyrethroid, include mixtures of isomers (e.g., λ-cyhalothrin) as well as enriched active isomers (e.g., γ-cyhalothrin). We measured acute changes in locomotor activity in adult male rats and directly correlated these changes to peak brain and plasma concentrations of λ- and γ-cyhalothrin using a within-subject design. One-hour locomotor activity studies were conducted 1.5 h after oral gavage dosing, and immediately thereafter plasma and brains were collected for analyzing tissue levels using LC/MS/MS methods. Both isomers produced dose-related decreases in activity counts, and the effective dose range for γ-cyhalothrin was lower than for λ-cyhalothrin. Doses calculated to decrease activity by 50% were 2-fold lower for the γ-isomer (1.29 mg/kg) compared to λ-cyhalothrin (2.65 mg/kg). Salivation, typical of type II pyrethroids, was also observed at lower doses of γ-cyhalothrin. Administered dose correlated well with brain and plasma concentrations, which furthermore showed good correlations with activity changes. Brain and plasma levels were tightly correlated across doses. While γ-cyhalothrin was 2-fold more potent based on administ

  10. Neck Muscle Activation Levels During Frontal Impacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    right and left upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid . Amplitude and frequency components of the signals were evaluated to determine the amount of...Gx acceleration levels. The trapezius produced more force than the sternocleidomastoid . Activity of both muscle groups was synchronized, by their...dynamic environment. The role of upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) during long-duration head and neck loading situations has been

  11. Eliciting the Level of Health Inequality Aversion in England.

    PubMed

    Robson, Matthew; Asaria, Miqdad; Cookson, Richard; Tsuchiya, Aki; Ali, Shehzad

    2016-09-20

    Health inequality aversion parameters can be used to represent alternative value judgements about policy concern for reducing health inequality versus improving total health. In this study, we use data from an online survey of the general public in England (n = 244) to elicit health inequality aversion parameters for both Atkinson and Kolm social welfare functions. We find median inequality aversion parameters of 10.95 for Atkinson and 0.15 for Kolm. These values suggest substantial concern for health inequality among the English general public which, at current levels of quality adjusted life expectancy, implies weighting health gains to the poorest fifth of people in society six to seven times as highly as health gains to the richest fifth. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Health Care Provider Physical Activity Prescription Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josyula, Lakshmi; Lyle, Roseann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the feasibility and impact of a health care provider’s (HCP) physical activity (PA) prescription on the PA of patients on preventive care visits. Methods: Consenting adult patients completed health and PA questionnaires and were sequentially assigned to intervention groups. HCPs prescribed PA using a written prescription only…

  13. Activities for Engaging Schools in Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardi, Mohammad; Burbank, Andrea; Choi, Wayne; Chow, Lawrence; Jang, Wesley; Roccamatisi, Dawn; Timberley-Berg, Tonia; Sanghera, Mandeep; Zhang, Margaret; Macnab, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe activities used to initiate health promotion in the school setting. Design/Methodology/Approach: Description of successful pilot Health Promoting School (HPS) initiatives in Canada and Uganda and the validated measures central to each program. Evaluation methodologies: quantitative data from the…

  14. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  15. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Md. Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand. PMID:27375903

  16. Building public health law capacity at the local level.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Diane E; Rowthorn, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    Local health officials are called upon every day to implement the programs, enforce the regulations, and take the actions that protect the health of the citizens in their districts. These responsibilities and duties are created and regulated by a complex interplay of federal, state, and local law. Not only is an understanding of these laws necessary to carry out public health activities on a daily basis, but many public health scholars and practitioners also believe that the law can be used as a tool to take proactive steps to improve public health. Unfortunately, many local public health officials do not have access to the legal assistance they need to address the various legal questions that confront them. This deficit makes it harder for them to meet their day-to-day responsibilities and makes it much more difficult for them to use the law proactively as a method to improve public health in their communities. In addition, many of the attorneys who provide legal support to public health departments do not have the time or resources to develop a thorough and up-to-date understanding of public health law. This paper examines the experience of a number of local health offices in obtaining legal advice and of attorneys who provide legal advice and assistance to local health departments and assesses different models for organizing and financing the provision of legal services to local public health officials.

  17. Personalized Strategies to Activate and Empower Patients in Health Care and Reduce Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Mullins, C Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B

    2016-02-01

    Designing culturally sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients' involvement in their treatment and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and self-determination for their own health and health care. We propose a patient-centered, multilevel activation and empowerment framework (individual-, health care professional-, community-, and health care delivery system-level) to inform the development of culturally informed personalized patient activation and empowerment (P-PAE) interventions to improve population health and reduce racial and ethnic disparities. We discuss relevant Affordable Care Act payment and delivery policy reforms and how they affect patient activation and empowerment. Such policies include Accountable Care Organizations and value-based purchasing, patient-centered medical homes, and the community health benefit. Challenges and possible solutions to implementing the P-PAE are discussed. Comprehensive and longitudinal data sets with consistent P-PAE measures are needed to conduct comparative effectiveness analyses to evaluate the optimal P-PAE model. We believe the P-PAE model is timely and sustainable and will be critical to engaging patients in their treatment, developing patients' abilities to manage their health, helping patients express concerns and preferences regarding treatment, empowering patients to ask questions about treatment options, and building up strategic patient-provider partnerships through shared decision making.

  18. Knowledge level of Ayurveda practitioner on public health

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jaideep; Roy, Jayanti Dutta; Minhas, Amarjeet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Looking at the current scenario of shortage of public health professionals on one hand and intense demand of community health services on the other it is imperative that the contribution of Ayurveda practitioners is increased in the field of public health. However, the updating of the knowledge of public health issues and concepts will ultimately decide whether they can be successfully integrated into the community health arena or not. Aim: This study was conducted to assess the knowledge level of Ayurveda practitioners about public health Issues with the aim find out the competence of Ayurveda practitioners regarding knowledge of public health issues. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted in the union territory, Chandigarh and two districts each of the states of Haryana and Punjab. Public health knowledge assessment tool comprising a questionnaire was used to collect information from the respondents who were registered Ayurveda doctors and interns. The data was analyzed with the help of IBM SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solutions). Results: The respondents scored between 5 and 17 points out of a total of 19 points and majority (82%) of the respondents fell in the category of “having average knowledge”. The mean score was 8.42 ± 2. Conclusion: Curriculum and training of Ayurveda education need to have more public health related inputs and hence that the Ayurveda practitioners are well-versed with the public health concepts and could contribute in the public health field meaningfully. PMID:25364193

  19. Health and safety economics: limitations of economic appraisal of occupational health services activities in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2002-01-01

    Methods of economic appraisal developed for evaluating activities in health care system may as well be successfully used for evaluating occupational health service activities. This involves the problem of resources management and cost containment not only at the company level, but also at different managerial and institutional levels. The decision makers have to know what resources are spent on occupational health, what is the effectiveness and efficiency of investing in employees health. The key issue of good understanding of the theory and practice of economic appraisal is a precise definition of costs, effectiveness and benefits. Another important area is the identification of information sources and barriers of economic appraisal. The results of the project carried out by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine have provided evidence that defining costs, effectiveness and benefits of preventive activities need to be developed. It becomes even more clear after an analysis of existing limitations of economic appraisal in Polish enterprises.

  20. Promoting health equity: WHO health inequality monitoring at global and national levels

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Schlotheuber, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Health equity is a priority in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda and other major health initiatives. The World Health Organization (WHO) has a history of promoting actions to achieve equity in health, including efforts to encourage the practice of health inequality monitoring. Health inequality monitoring systems use disaggregated data to identify disadvantaged subgroups within populations and inform equity-oriented health policies, programs, and practices. Objective This paper provides an overview of a number of recent and current WHO initiatives related to health inequality monitoring at the global and/or national level. Design We outline the scope, content, and intended uses/application of the following: Health Equity Monitor database and theme page; State of inequality: reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health report; Handbook on health inequality monitoring: with a focus on low- and middle-income countries; Health inequality monitoring eLearning module; Monitoring health inequality: an essential step for achieving health equity advocacy booklet and accompanying video series; and capacity building workshops conducted in WHO Member States and Regions. Conclusions The paper concludes by considering how the work of the WHO can be expanded upon to promote the establishment of sustainable and robust inequality monitoring systems across a variety of health topics among Member States and at the global level. PMID:26387506

  1. Promoting health equity: WHO health inequality monitoring at global and national levels.

    PubMed

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Schlotheuber, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Health equity is a priority in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda and other major health initiatives. The World Health Organization (WHO) has a history of promoting actions to achieve equity in health, including efforts to encourage the practice of health inequality monitoring. Health inequality monitoring systems use disaggregated data to identify disadvantaged subgroups within populations and inform equity-oriented health policies, programs, and practices. Objective This paper provides an overview of a number of recent and current WHO initiatives related to health inequality monitoring at the global and/or national level. Design We outline the scope, content, and intended uses/application of the following: Health Equity Monitor database and theme page; State of inequality: reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health report; Handbook on health inequality monitoring: with a focus on low- and middle-income countries; Health inequality monitoring eLearning module; Monitoring health inequality: an essential step for achieving health equity advocacy booklet and accompanying video series; and capacity building workshops conducted in WHO Member States and Regions. Conclusions The paper concludes by considering how the work of the WHO can be expanded upon to promote the establishment of sustainable and robust inequality monitoring systems across a variety of health topics among Member States and at the global level.

  2. The SEISMED High Level Security Policy for Health Care.

    PubMed

    Katsikas, S K

    1996-01-01

    The proliferation of the use of automated Health Information Systems in the everyday practice of health professionals has brought a number of issues related to the security of health information to a critical point. The preservation of security of health-related information can only be achieved through a concerted approach, comprising legal, organisational, technical and educational actions. These classes of actions constitute a complete "security framework", a key aspect of which is the set of rules, laws and regulations that govern the usage of information within a Health Care Establishment. This set is commonly referred to as "Security Policy". In this paper, the SEISMED High Level Security Policy for Health Care Establishments is presented.

  3. NTP monograph on health effects of low-level lead.

    PubMed

    2012-06-01

    Although reductions in lead (Pb) exposure for the U.S. population have resulted in lower blood Pb levels over time, epidemiological studies continue to provide evidence of health effects at lower and lower blood Pb levels. Low-level Pb was selected for evaluation by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) because of (1) the availability of a large number of epidemiological studies of Pb, (2) a nomination by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health for an assessment of Pb at lower levels of exposure, and (3) public concern for effects of Pb in children and adults. This evaluation summarizes the evidence in humans and presents conclusions on health effects in children and adults associated with low-level Pb exposure as indicated by less than 10 micrograms of Pb per deciliter of blood (< 10 microg/dL). The assessment focuses on epidemiological evidence at blood Pb levels < 10 microg/dL and < 5 microg/dL because health effects at higher blood Pb levels are well established. The NTP evaluation was conducted through the Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT, formerly the Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction) and completed in April of 2012. The results of this evaluation are published in the NTP Monograph on Health Effects of Low-Level Lead. The document and appendices are available at http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/evals. This document provides background on Pb exposure and includes a review of the primary epidemiological literature for evidence that low-level Pb is associated with neurological, immunological, cardiovascular, renal, and/or reproductive and developmental effects. The NTP Monograph presents specific conclusions for each health effect area. Overall, the NTP concludes that there is sufficient evidence that blood Pb levels < 10 microg/dL and < 5 microg/dL are associated with adverse health effects in children and adults. This conclusion was based on a review of the primary epidemiological literature, scientific

  4. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  5. Broader health coverage is good for the nation's health: evidence from country level panel data.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Serra, Rodrigo; Smith, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    Progress towards universal health coverage involves providing people with access to needed health services without entailing financial hardship and is often advocated on the grounds that it improves population health. The paper offers econometric evidence on the effects of health coverage on mortality outcomes at the national level. We use a large panel data set of countries, examined by using instrumental variable specifications that explicitly allow for potential reverse causality and unobserved country-specific characteristics. We employ various proxies for the coverage level in a health system. Our results indicate that expanded health coverage, particularly through higher levels of publicly funded health spending, results in lower child and adult mortality, with the beneficial effect on child mortality being larger in poorer countries.

  6. Broader health coverage is good for the nation's health: evidence from country level panel data

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Serra, Rodrigo; Smith, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    Progress towards universal health coverage involves providing people with access to needed health services without entailing financial hardship and is often advocated on the grounds that it improves population health. The paper offers econometric evidence on the effects of health coverage on mortality outcomes at the national level. We use a large panel data set of countries, examined by using instrumental variable specifications that explicitly allow for potential reverse causality and unobserved country-specific characteristics. We employ various proxies for the coverage level in a health system. Our results indicate that expanded health coverage, particularly through higher levels of publicly funded health spending, results in lower child and adult mortality, with the beneficial effect on child mortality being larger in poorer countries. PMID:25598588

  7. Public Health Implications of Rubella Antibody Levels in California

    PubMed Central

    Dales, Loring G.; Chin, James

    1982-01-01

    Rubella hemaggluttination inhibition (HI) antibody determinations were performed in 1977 on a sample of California school children and in 1977-1979 on young women who were about to be married or who were pregnant. Among the pupils, 66 per cent reported prior rubella immunization; immunization history was more common in younger pupils. Seventy-seven per cent had detectable antibody, with little trend of greater seropositivity at older ages. Over 86 per cent of those with a written record of immunization had detectable antibody. There was no consistent indication of loss of seropositivity with increasing time since immunization. Children immunized at 12-14 months of age tended to have a lower seropositivity rate than those immunized at older ages. Among young women, the prevalence of detectable antibody was 80-83 per cent. Comparison with data obtained in 1968-1969 indicates that rubella immunization has had a marked impact on antibody levels in children but less impact on levels in teenagers and adults. The pool of rubella-susceptibles entering secondary schools will probably not decrease soon, so that rubella outbreaks may continue in high school and college-age populations. Ultimately, school entry immunization requirements should drastically curtail disease activity. In the interim, programs to immunize teenagers and young adult females must be strengthened. (Am J Public Health 1982; 72:167-172.) PMID:7055318

  8. Patient Activation: Public Libraries and Health Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malachowski, Margot

    2011-01-01

    Patient activation is a new term for a perennial problem. People know what they need to do for their health: exercise, eat right, and get enough rest--but how are they motivated to actually do these things? This is what patient activation is. From this author's vantage point as a medical librarian, public libraries are well-placed to be part of…

  9. Health Activities for Primary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This manual targets new and second-year Peace Corps volunteers, presenting health lessons and activities for primary school students in Thailand. Each section of the manual outlines basic technical information about the topic, contains several detailed lesson plans, and lists quick activities that can be carried out at schools. Songs and recipes…

  10. Sexual Activity and Psychological Health As Mediators of the Relationship Between Physical Health and Marital Quality

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The pathways linking spousal health to marital quality in later life have been little examined at the population level. We develop a conceptual model that links married older adults’ physical health and that of their spouse to positive and negative dimensions of marital quality via psychological well-being of both partners and their sexual activity. Methods. We use data from 1,464 older adults in 732 marital dyads in the 2010–2011 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. Results. We find that own fair or poor physical health is linked to lower positive and higher negative marital quality, spouse’s health to positive quality, and that own and spouse’s mental health and more frequent sex are associated with higher positive and lower negative marital quality. Further, we find that (a) sexual activity mediates the association between own and partner’s physical health and positive marital quality, (b) own mental health mediates the association between one’s own physical health and both positive and negative marital quality, and (c) partner’s mental health mediates the associations of spouse’s physical health with positive marital quality. These results are robust to alternative specifications of the model. Discussion. The results suggest ways to protect marital quality among older adults who are struggling with physical illness in themselves or their partners. PMID:24470175

  11. [Implementing health surveillance at the primary care level].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cátia Martins; Casanova, Angela Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibilities of re-orienting work processes at the primary care level in the light of the concepts and pre-suppositions of the health surveillance system. In addition, it presents some key concepts that could help putting into operation a health surveillance system at the local level. One of these concepts is the idea of the territory as a privileged space of primary care, helping to define and identify health needs. The study further emphasizes the heuristic value of integrating knowledge and practices in the various fields of health care so as to ensure a broader vision of problems and comprehensive health care. Finally, it analyzes the contributions from epidemiological, environmental, and health surveillance for consolidating health surveillance into a system not only limited to these three areas of action. Integrated actions of epidemiological, sanitary, and environmental surveillance can favor risk management and allow for innovative and more effective answers to the demands emerging from the health area. In addition, the local teams can acquire practical experience in internal and inter-sectorial actions which, though their importance is recognized in theory, were rarely put into practice.

  12. Effectiveness of the Self-Regulation eHealth Intervention "MyPlan1.0." on Physical Activity Levels of Recently Retired Belgian Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Plaete, Jolien; Cardon, Greet; Crombez, Geert; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    The study purpose was to test the effectiveness of the self-regulation eHealth intervention "MyPlan1.0." to increase physical activity (PA) in recently retired Belgian adults. This study was a randomized controlled trial with three points of follow-up/modules (baseline to 1-week to 1-month follow-up). In total, 240 recently retired…

  13. Age, gender, and level of activity as moderators of personal incentives to physical activity in Israel.

    PubMed

    Raviv, Shulamith; Netz, Yael

    2007-05-01

    The authors conducted an exploratory study with Israeli adults examining their personal incentives for physical activity (e.g., appearance, weight management). The participants formed a sample of 379 physically active Israelis, aged 20-89 years, divided into 3 age groups and 3 levels of activity. The authors found a similar profile for men and women for most incentives, with men scoring more highly than did women on only competition and fitness. Participants in the highest level of activity attributed greater importance to all incentives than did those in the other levels, and older adults attributed less importance to all incentives except for health benefits. The findings are relevant for planning activities intended to encourage adults to engage in more physical activity.

  14. Is physical activity in natural environments better for mental health than physical activity in other environments?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that there may be synergy between the psychological benefits of physical activity, and the restorative effects of contact with a natural environment; physical activity in a natural environment might produce greater mental health benefits than physical activity elsewhere. However, such experiments are typically short-term and, by definition, artificially control the participant types, physical activity and contact with nature. This observational study asked whether such effects can be detected in everyday settings at a population level. It used data from the Scottish Health Survey 2008, describing all environments in which respondents were physically active. Associations were sought between use of each environment, and then use of environments grouped as natural or non-natural, and the risk of poor mental health (measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)) and level of wellbeing (measured by the Warwick Edinburgh Mental health and Wellbeing Score (WEMWBS). Results showed an independent association between regular use of natural environments and a lower risk of poor mental health, but not for activity in other types of environment. For example, the odds of poor mental health (GHQ ≥ 4) among those regularly using woods or forests for physical activity were 0.557 (95% CI 0.323-0.962), compared to non-users. However, regular use of natural environments was not clearly associated with greater wellbeing, whilst regular use of non-natural environments was. The study concludes that physical activity in natural environments is associated with a reduction in the risk of poor mental health to a greater extent than physical activity in other environments, but also that activity in different types of environment may promote different kinds of positive psychological response. Access to natural environments for physical activity should be protected and promoted as a contribution to protecting and improving population mental health.

  15. Global agenda, local health: including concepts of health security in preparedness programs at the jurisdictional level.

    PubMed

    Eby, Chas

    2014-01-01

    The Global Health Security Agenda's objectives contain components that could help health departments address emerging public health challenges that threaten the population. As part of the agenda, partner countries with advanced public health systems will support the development of infrastructure in stakeholder health departments. To facilitate this process and augment local programs, state and local health departments may want to include concepts of health security in their public health preparedness offices in order to simultaneously build capacity. Health security programs developed by public health departments should complete projects that are closely aligned with the objectives outlined in the global agenda and that facilitate the completion of current preparedness grant requirements. This article identifies objectives and proposes tactical local projects that run parallel to the 9 primary objectives of the Global Health Security Agenda. Executing concurrent projects at the international and local levels in preparedness offices will accelerate the completion of these objectives and help prevent disease epidemics, detect health threats, and respond to public health emergencies. Additionally, future funding tied or related to health security may become more accessible to state and local health departments that have achieved these objectives.

  16. School health guidelines to promote healthy eating and physical activity.

    PubMed

    2011-09-16

    During the last 3 decades, the prevalence of obesity has tripled among persons aged 6--19 years. Multiple chronic disease risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and high blood glucose levels are related to obesity. Schools have a responsibility to help prevent obesity and promote physical activity and healthy eating through policies, practices, and supportive environments. This report describes school health guidelines for promoting healthy eating and physical activity, including coordination of school policies and practices; supportive environments; school nutrition services; physical education and physical activity programs; health education; health, mental health, and social services; family and community involvement; school employee wellness; and professional development for school staff members. These guidelines, developed in collaboration with specialists from universities and from national, federal, state, local, and voluntary agencies and organizations, are based on an in-depth review of research, theory, and best practices in healthy eating and physical activity promotion in school health, public health, and education. Because every guideline might not be appropriate or feasible for every school to implement, individual schools should determine which guidelines have the highest priority based on the needs of the school and available resources.

  17. Music Listening Behavior, Health, Hearing and Otoacoustic Emission Levels

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson Marron, Kathleen; Sproat, Brittany; Ross, Danielle; Wagner, Sarah; Alessio, Helaine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between hearing levels, otoacoustic emission levels and listening habits related to the use of personal listening devices (PLDs) in adults with varying health-related fitness. Duration of PLD use was estimated and volume level was directly measured. Biomarkers of health-related fitness were co-factored into the analyses. 115 subjects ages 18–84 participated in this study. Subjects were divided into two sub-groups; PLD users and non-PLD users. Both groups completed audiological and health-related fitness tests. Due to the mismatch in the mean age of the PLD user versus the non-PLD user groups, age-adjusted statistics were performed to determine factors that contributed to hearing levels. Age was the most significant predictor of hearing levels across listening and health-related fitness variables. PLD user status did not impact hearing measures, yet PLD users who listened less than 8 hours per week with intensities of less than 80 dBA were found to have better hearing. Other variables found to be associated with hearing levels included: years listening to PLD, number of noise environments and use of ear protection. Finally, a healthy waist-to-hip ratio was a significant predictor of better hearing, while body mass index approached, but did not reach statistical significance. PMID:25068604

  18. Music listening behavior, health, hearing and otoacoustic emission levels.

    PubMed

    Marron, Kathleen Hutchinson; Sproat, Brittany; Ross, Danielle; Wagner, Sarah; Alessio, Helaine

    2014-07-25

    This study examined the relationship between hearing levels, otoacoustic emission levels and listening habits related to the use of personal listening devices (PLDs) in adults with varying health-related fitness. Duration of PLD use was estimated and volume level was directly measured. Biomarkers of health-related fitness were co-factored into the analyses. 115 subjects ages 18-84 participated in this study. Subjects were divided into two sub-groups; PLD users and non-PLD users. Both groups completed audiological and health-related fitness tests. Due to the mismatch in the mean age of the PLD user versus the non-PLD user groups, age-adjusted statistics were performed to determine factors that contributed to hearing levels. Age was the most significant predictor of hearing levels across listening and health-related fitness variables. PLD user status did not impact hearing measures, yet PLD users who listened less than 8 hours per week with intensities of less than 80 dBA were found to have better hearing. Other variables found to be associated with hearing levels included: years listening to PLD, number of noise environments and use of ear protection. Finally, a healthy waist-to-hip ratio was a significant predictor of better hearing, while body mass index approached, but did not reach statistical significance.

  19. Fostering expertise in occupational health nursing: levels of skill development.

    PubMed

    Rees, P G; Hays, B J

    1996-02-01

    1. Levels of nursing expertise described by Benner--novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert--hold potential for fostering improved practice among occupational health nurses. 2. Lacking a clear understanding of the full potential of the role of the occupational health nurse, employers may not reward the development of clinical expertise that incorporates employee advocacy within the context of written standards and guidelines. 3. Expertise in occupational health nursing can be fostered by job descriptions that incorporate a broader view of nursing (one that stresses judgment and advocacy), retention and longevity, innovative strategies for consultation and collegial interaction to foster mentoring, and distance learning strategies.

  20. Obesity, Health, and Physical Activity: Discourses from the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zieff, Susan G.; Veri, Maria J.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the obesity, health, and physical activity discourses of the past 35 years in the context of the United States with particular reference to five social sectors: the biomedical domain; the popular media; nonprofit foundations, centers and agencies; various national and multinational corporations; and government at all levels.…

  1. A Comparative Analysis of the Functional Disability Levels of Adult Day Care, Adult Day Health and ICF-Level Nursing Home Elderly in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashida, Cullen T.

    This study compared the functional disability levels of participants in adult day centers with patients in intermediate care facilities (ICFs). A three-page questionnaire measuring demographics, social resources, physical health, mental health, and activities of daily living as assessed by the Activities of Daily Living scale and the Instrumental…

  2. Health promotion activities of sports clubs and coaches, and health and health behaviours in youth participating in sports clubs: the Health Promoting Sports Club study

    PubMed Central

    Kokko, Sami; Selänne, Harri; Alanko, Lauri; Heinonen, Olli J; Korpelainen, Raija; Savonen, Kai; Vasankari, Tommi; Kannas, Lasse; Kujala, Urho M; Aira, Tuula; Villberg, Jari; Parkkari, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sports clubs form a potential setting for health promotion, but the research is limited. The aim of the Health Promoting Sports Club (HPSC) study was to elucidate the current health promotion activities of youth sports clubs and coaches, and to investigate the health behaviours and health status of youth participating in sports clubs compared to non-participants. Methods and analysis The study design employs cross-sectional multilevel and multimethod research with aspirations to a prospective cohort study in the next phase. The setting-based variables at sports clubs and coaching levels, and health behaviour variables at the individual level, are investigated using surveys; and total levels of physical activity are assessed using objective accelerometer measurements. Health status variables will be measured by preparticipation screening. The health promotion activity of sports clubs (n=154) is evaluated by club officials (n=313) and coaches (n=281). Coaches and young athletes aged 14–16 (n=759) years evaluate the coaches’ health promotion activity. The survey of the adolescents’ health behaviours consist of two data sets—the first is on their health behaviours and the second is on musculoskeletal complaints and injuries. Data are collected via sports clubs (759 participants) and schools 1650 (665 participants and 983 non-participants). 591 (418 athletes and 173 non-athletes) youth, have already participated in preparticipation screening. Screening consists of detailed personal medical history, electrocardiography, flow-volume spirometry, basic laboratory analyses and health status screening, including posture, muscle balance, and static and dynamic postural control tests, conducted by sports and exercise medicine specialists. Ethics and dissemination The HPSC study is carried out conforming with the declaration of Helsinki. Ethical approval was received from the Ethics Committee of Health Care District of Central Finland. The HPSC study is

  3. Physical Activity in People With Mental Illness in Hong Kong: Application of the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Mo P, K H; Chong, Eddie S; Mak, Winnie W; Wong, Samuel Y; Lau, Joseph T

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity is associated with various health benefits for people with mental illness (PMI). Very few studies to date have examined the factors associated with physical activity among PMI in the Chinese context. The present study examined the factors related to physical activity using the health belief model and the association between physical activity and perceived health among 443 PMI in Hong Kong using stratified sampling. Results from the structural equation modeling showed that among all the factors of the health belief model, self-efficacy was significantly related to higher levels of physical activity, and perceived barriers were significantly related to lower levels of physical activity. In addition, physical activity was significantly related to better perceived health and fewer health needs. Interventions to promote physical activity among PMI should aim to increase their self-efficacy in initiating and adhering to physical activity and to remove barriers to physical activity.

  4. [Health and quality of life vs. occupational activity].

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Małgorzata; Szemik, Szymon

    The level of quality of life and health status of the population largely depends on the determinants related to occupational activity. The results of reviewed bibliography indicate a significant and growing importance of employment conditions on the quality of life and population health status in most countries of the world, especially in those with market economy. Of the evaluated determinants the following factors should be listed in particular: sources and the amount of income, stability of the income and employment, the nature of work and the degree of job satisfaction, as well as autonomy and career prospects. Moreover, they proved that the situation of persisting and long-term unemployment and precarious employment leads to a significant deterioration in the quality of life and health, especially among young people. In conclusion, the study of quality of life and population health status should take into consideration factors related to occupational activity. Med Pr 2016;67(5):663-671.

  5. Health Promotion to Reduce Blood Pressure Level among Older Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    1986-01-01

    Low-income Black elders completed a 10-week health promotion program for the purpose of lowering or stabilizing blood pressure levels. Comparisons were made between classes that met weekly versus three times a week, and between yoga and aerobics formats. A peer-led program was developed that continued for 10 months after the professionally-led…

  6. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Tolea, Magdalena I; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Metter, E Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway.

  7. [Health care levels and minimum recommendations for neonatal care].

    PubMed

    Rite Gracia, S; Fernández Lorenzo, J R; Echániz Urcelay, I; Botet Mussons, F; Herranz Carrillo, G; Moreno Hernando, J; Salguero García, E; Sánchez Luna, M

    2013-07-01

    A policy statement on the levels of care and minimum recommendations for neonatal healthcare was first proposed by the Standards Committee and the Board of the Spanish Society of Neonatology in 2004. This allowed us to define the level of care of each center in our country, as well as the health and technical requirements by levels of care to be defined. This review takes into account changes in neonatal care in the last few years and to optimize the location of resources. Facilities that provide care for newborn infants should be organized within a regionalized system of perinatal care. The functional capabilities of each level of care should be defined clearly and uniformly, including requirements for equipment, facilities, personnel, ancillary services, training, and the organization of services (including transport) needed to cover each level of care.

  8. Modelling system level health information exchange: an ontological approach.

    PubMed

    McMurray, J; Zhu, L; McKillop, I; Chen, H

    2015-01-01

    Investment of resources to purposively improve the movement of information between health system providers is currently made with imperfect information. No inventories of system-level digital information flows currently exist, nor do measures of inter-organizational electronic information. exchange (HIE). Using Protégé 4, an open-source OWL Web ontology language editor and knowledge-based framework we formalized a model that decomposes inter-organizational electronic health information flow into derivative concepts such as diversity, breadth, volume, structure, standardization and connectivity. Self-reported data from a regional health system is used to measure HIE; the ontology identifies providers with low and high HIE, useful for planners, and using a related database is used to monitor data quality.

  9. Mental health activities of family physicians.

    PubMed

    Cassata, D M; Kirkman-Liff, B L

    1981-04-01

    A questionnaire survey of residency trained graduates and nonresidency trained family physicians showed both groups reporting relatively infrequent practice of behavioral medicine. Referrals and counseling sessions/visits produce a combined total of 20 activities per month, or two to four percent of all patient encounters, even though the physicians in the sample reported that 33 percent of their diagnoses were behavioral/psychological. More than 85 percent of the physicians reported access to more than one mental health provider. The six most common health problems encountered in the office were depression, anxiety, obesity, marital discord, alcohol abuse, and sexual problems. Physicians responding to this survey expressed an interest in continuing education programs that emphasize individual, marital, and parenting counseling, and psychopharmacology. There is a major need to improve the mental health component of residency training, which will enable physicians to better manage psychosocial problems in practice settings.

  10. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Knowledge of Personal and Target Levels of Cardiovascular Health Indicators.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mindy; Ma, Alyson

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to examine ethnic differences in knowledge of personal and target levels of cardiovascular health indicators between non-Hispanic whites and African Americans. A secondary objective was to evaluate the associations between knowledge of cardiovascular health indicators and health promotion behaviors. Participants (66.7% female) consisted of 265 whites and 428 African Americans, ages 18 and older recruited from primary care clinics and churches. Respondents completed a brief survey on blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, blood glucose, body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity. Whites were more likely than African Americans to report knowing their personal and target levels of cardiovascular health indicators. Knowledge of personal BP and/or BMI was positively associated with actual physical activity, and awareness of personal blood glucose was positively associated with healthy dietary practices for participants in both groups. Among whites, awareness of personal BP and knowledge of target levels for BP, total cholesterol, and BMI were also associated with healthy diet. Results suggest there are racial/ethnic disparities in knowledge of personal and ideal levels of cardiovascular health indicators, and that this knowledge is related to health promotion behaviors. Targeted educational efforts are warranted to enhance knowledge of personal risk indicators among African Americans.

  11. Health Departments’ Engagement in Emergency Preparedness Activities: The Influence of Health Informatics Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Gulzar H.; Newell, Bobbie; Whitworth, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Local health departments (LHDs) operate in a complex and dynamic public health landscape, with changing demands on their emergency response capacities. Informatics capacities might play an instrumental role in aiding LHDs emergency preparedness. This study aimed to explore the extent to which LHDs’ informatics capacities are associated with their activity level in emergency preparedness and to identify which health informatics capacities are associated with improved emergency preparedness. Methods: We used the 2013 National Profile of LHDs study to perform Poisson regression of emergency preparedness activities. Results: Only 38.3% of LHDs participated in full-scale exercises or drills for an emergency in the 12 months period prior to the survey, but a much larger proportion provided emergency preparedness training to staff (84.3%), and/or participated in tabletop exercises (76.4%). Our multivariable analysis showed that after adjusting for several resource-related LHD characteristics, LHDs with more of the 6 information systems still tend to have slightly more preparedness activities. In addition, having a designated emergency preparedness coordinator, and having one or more emergency preparedness staff were among the most significant factors associated with LHDs performing more emergency preparedness activities. Conclusion: LHDs might want to utilize better health information systems and information technology tools to improve their activity level in emergency preparedness, through improved information dissemination, and evidence collection. PMID:27694648

  12. Public health knowledge levels of different types of jordanian teachers.

    PubMed

    Khalili, K Y

    1986-01-01

    This study examines the level of health knowledge of specific categories of Jordanian teachers to see which category is competent enough to teach health as a separate school subject. The Health Awareness Test (HAT) was administered to 670 teachers of whom there were seventy-four science teachers at the compulsory stage, 139 Arabic language teachers at the upper elementary stage, 342 elementary grades teachers, thirty-four high school physics teachers, thirty-three high school chemistry teachers, and forty-eight high school biology teachers. The data analysis revealed that of the target groups, only female teachers of biology, chemistry, and physics and male teachers of biology, reached the acceptable level in knowledge about health as measured by HAT. Sex as well as specialization (the subject the teacher teaches) differences were found to be significant favoring female over male and biology teachers followed by chemistry teachers over the rest of the groups. The interaction between sex and specialization was not significant The implications of the above results for curriculum planning are discussed.

  13. Occupational Safety and Health Activities Conducted across Countries in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Keun; Khai, Ton T.

    2015-01-01

    Three occupational safety and health (OSH) activities, one international and two national workshops, were documented as part of OSH activities conducted under the International Labor Organization/Korea Partnership Program in the year 2011–2012. This study aimed to provide information on what the three OSH activities were implemented and how they contributed to the improvement of OSH in Asian countries. The international workshop was useful for the participants to understand a variety of information on OSH as well as participatory action-oriented training (PAOT) approaches at the regional and global levels. The two national workshops were practical for participants to strengthen their knowledge and skills on the PAOT at the enterprise and national levels. The study shows that the three OSH activities contributed to the understanding of the participants on OSH and PAOT, and that the activities promoted the improvement of OSH across countries in Asia. PMID:26106515

  14. Occupational Safety and Health Activities Conducted across Countries in Asia.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Keun; Khai, Ton T

    2015-06-01

    Three occupational safety and health (OSH) activities, one international and two national workshops, were documented as part of OSH activities conducted under the International Labor Organization/Korea Partnership Program in the year 2011-2012. This study aimed to provide information on what the three OSH activities were implemented and how they contributed to the improvement of OSH in Asian countries. The international workshop was useful for the participants to understand a variety of information on OSH as well as participatory action-oriented training (PAOT) approaches at the regional and global levels. The two national workshops were practical for participants to strengthen their knowledge and skills on the PAOT at the enterprise and national levels. The study shows that the three OSH activities contributed to the understanding of the participants on OSH and PAOT, and that the activities promoted the improvement of OSH across countries in Asia.

  15. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  16. Evaluation of literacy level of patient education pages in health-related journals.

    PubMed

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E; Carpenter-Haefele, Kara M

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reading level of patient education material from selected current health care journals. Ten patient education pages from a variety of health care journals were entered into a Microsoft Word program. Applying the Flesch-Kincaid readability formula available from Microsoft Word, a reading level for each page was established and compared to recommended standards. Only 2 of 10 patient education pages fell within the recommended reading levels for health-related materials, and 5 of 10 were above the estimated mean U.S. reading level of 8th grade. A 5th to 6th grade level is recommended for patient education materials. This study suggests that although it is known that low health literacy is a widespread problem, it is not always considered when patient-targeted materials are developed. Health care professionals need to become more active in addressing the literacy needs of the intended receiver of written health-related information.

  17. Networking health: multi-level marketing of health products in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Droney, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Multi-level marketing (MLM0), a business model in which product distributors are compensated for enrolling further distributors as well as for selling products, has experienced dramatic growth in recent decades, especially in the so-called global South. This paper argues that the global success of MLM is due to its involvement in local health markets. While MLM has been subject to a number of critiques, few have analyzed the explicit health claims of MLM distributors. The majority of the products distributed through MLM are health products, which are presented as offering transformative health benefits. Based on interviews with MLM distributors in Ghana, but focusing on the experiences of one woman, this paper shows that MLM companies become intimately entwined with Ghanaian quests for health by providing their distributors with the materials to become informal health experts, allowing their distributors to present their products as medicines, and presenting MLM as an avenue to middle class cosmopolitanism. Ghanaian distributors promote MLM products as medically powerful, and the distribution of these products as an avenue to status and profit. As a result, individuals seeking health become a part of ethically questionable forms of medical provision based on the exploitation of personal relationships. The success of MLM therefore suggests that the health industry is at the forefront of transnational corporations' extraction of value from informal economies, drawing on features of health markets to monetize personal relationships.

  18. Seasonal variations in physical activity and implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J; Aoyagi, Yukitoshi

    2009-10-01

    This review explores the implications of seasonal changes in physical activity for fitness and human health. Photosensitivity and nutrient shortages mediate animal hibernation via the hypothalamus and changes in leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Opportunities for hunting and crop cultivation determine seasonal activity in under-developed human societies, but in developed societies temperature and rainfall are dominant influences, usually over-riding innate rhythms. Both questionnaire data and objective measurements show that many groups from children to the elderly increase their physical activity from winter to spring or summer. Measurements of maximal oxygen intake and muscle strength commonly show parallel seasonal changes. However, potential effects upon body mass and body fat may be counteracted by changes of food intake; subsistence agriculturists sometimes maintain or increase physical activity at the expense of a decrease in body mass. In developed societies, body fat commonly increases during the winter, with parallel changes in blood lipids, blood pressure and blood coagulability; moreover, these changes are not always fully reversed the following summer. Most developed societies show increased all-cause and cardiac mortalities in the winter. Health consequences of seasonal variations in physical activity including an increased vulnerability to cardiac catastrophe and a year-by-year increase in total body fat seem most likely if the average level of physical activity for the year is low. Public health recommendations should underline the importance of maintaining physical activity during adverse environmental conditions by adapting clothing, modifying behaviour and exploiting any available air-conditioned indoor facilities.

  19. MEDICARE PAYMENTS AND SYSTEM-LEVEL HEALTH-CARE USE

    PubMed Central

    ROBBINS, JACOB A.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of Medicare managed care over the past decade has the potential to increase the efficiency of health-care delivery. Improvements in care management for some may improve efficiency system-wide, with implications for optimal payment policy in public insurance programs. These system-level effects may depend on local health-care market structure and vary based on patient characteristics. We use exogenous variation in the Medicare payment schedule to isolate the effects of market-level managed care enrollment on the quantity and quality of care delivered. We find that in areas with greater enrollment of Medicare beneficiaries in managed care, the non–managed care beneficiaries have fewer days in the hospital but more outpatient visits, consistent with a substitution of less expensive outpatient care for more expensive inpatient care, particularly at high levels of managed care. We find no evidence that care is of lower quality. Optimal payment policies for Medicare managed care enrollees that account for system-level spillovers may thus be higher than those that do not. PMID:27042687

  20. Is Online Health Activity Alive and Well or Flatlining? Findings From 10 Years of the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    PubMed

    Prestin, Abby; Vieux, Sana N; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    The Internet increasingly enables diverse health communication activities, from information seeking to social media interaction. Up-to-date reporting is needed to document the national prevalence, trends, and user profiles of online health activities so that these technologies can be best used in health communication efforts. This study identifies prevalence, trend, and factors associated with seeking health information, e-mailing health care providers, and using social media for health purposes. Four iterations of HINTS survey data, collected in 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2012, were analyzed to assess population-level trends over the last decade, and current prevalence of Internet-based health communication activities. Sociodemographic and health correlates were explored through weighted logistic regression modeling. Findings demonstrated that Internet use has steadily increased, with 78% of U.S. adults online in 2012; however several digital divide factors--among them education, age, and race/ethnicity--still predict access. Once online, 70% of adults use the Internet as their first source for health information, and while 19% have e-mailed health care providers, engagement in health communication on social media is still relatively low. Distinct user profiles characterize each type of communication, with age, population density, and gender emerging as important predictors across online health activities. These findings have important implications for health communication research and practice.

  1. Associations of Health Club Membership with Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Elizabeth C.; Welk, Gregory J.; Franke, Warren D.; Lee, Duck-chul

    2017-01-01

    Introduction This study evaluates whether a health club membership is associated with meeting the US physical activity (PA) guidelines and/or favorable cardiovascular health. Methods Using cross-sectional data of health club members (n = 204) and non-members (n = 201) from April to August 2013, this is the first study to our knowledge to examine a health club membership in relation to objectively measured cardiovascular health indicators including resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiorespiratory fitness based on a non-exercise test algorithm. To determine the total PA and sedentary time, this study used a comprehensive PA questionnaire about both aerobic and resistance activities at the health club, as well as lifestyle activities in other settings, which was developed based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of meeting either the aerobic, resistance, or both aerobic and resistance PA guidelines for members compared to non-members were 16.5 (9.8–27.6), 10.1 (6.2–16.3), and 13.8 (8.5–22.4), respectively. Significant associations of health club membership with more favorable cardiovascular health outcomes and sedentary behavior were observed for resting heart rate (B: -4.8 b/min, p<0.001), cardiorespiratory fitness (B: 2.1 ml/kg/min, p<0.001), and sedentary time (B: -1.4 hours, p<0.001). Participants with a health club membership of >1 year had more favorable health outcomes, with a smaller waist circumference (men, B: -4.0 cm, p = 0.04; women, B: -3.4 cm, p = 0.06), compared to non-members. Conclusions Health club membership is associated with significantly increased aerobic and resistance physical activity levels and more favorable cardiovascular health outcomes compared to non-members. However, longitudinal, randomized controlled trials would be clearly warranted as cross-sectional data prohibits causal inferences. PMID:28107459

  2. [Optimal fluoride level in drinking water and public health].

    PubMed

    Karsenty, E; Sgan-Cohen, H; Vered, Y; Leventhal, A

    2003-11-01

    Water fluoridation is a safe, efficient, and well-proven way of preventing dental decay in the community. In countries such as Israel, where dental care is not covered by the national insurance law, this has an important role in reducing social inequalities in health care. For toddlers and children, water fluoridation is the only way of promoting dental health without a need for regular visits to dental clinics, and without regard to parent awareness and motivation. The other methods of fluoride supplementation do not succeed in reaching the level of safety and cost-efficiency of water fluoridation, and their use is successful only among upper socio-economic classes. Water fluoridation has been defined by the US CDC as one of the main achievements in health care during the 20th century. In spite of the legal difficulties raised by various activist groups, the use of water fluoridation is growing steadily among developed as well as third world countries. The Israeli bylaw of national water fluoridation that is in effect will enable the safe improvement of the overall dental health status of the population at an extremely low cost.

  3. Essential levels of health information in Europe: an action plan for a coherent and sustainable infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Carinci, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    The European Union needs a common health information infrastructure to support policy and governance on a routine basis. A stream of initiatives conducted in Europe during the last decade resulted into several success stories, but did not specify a unified framework that could be broadly implemented on a continental level. The recent debate raised a potential controversy on the different roles and responsibilities of policy makers vs the public health community in the construction of such a pan-European health information system. While institutional bodies shall clarify the statutory conditions under which such an endeavour is to be carried out, researchers should define a common framework for optimal cross-border information exchange. This paper conceptualizes a general solution emerging from past experiences, introducing a governance structure and overarching framework that can be realized through four main action lines, underpinned by the key principle of "Essential Levels of Health Information" for Europe. The proposed information model is amenable to be applied in a consistent manner at both national and EU level. If realized, the four action lines outlined here will allow developing a EU health information infrastructure that would effectively integrate best practices emerging from EU public health initiatives, including projects and joint actions carried out during the last ten years. The proposed approach adds new content to the ongoing debate on the future activity of the European Commission in the area of health information.

  4. A multistate examination of partnership activity among local public health systems using the National Public Health Performance Standards.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Priscilla A; Curtis, Amy B; Hall-Downey, Laura; Moonesinghe, Ramal

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether partnership-related measures in the second version of the National Public Health Performance Standards (NPHPS) are useful in evaluating level of activity as well as identifying latent constructs that exist among local public health systems (LPHSs). In a sample of 110 LPHSs, descriptive analysis was conducted to determine frequency and percentage of 18 partnership-related NPHPS measures. Principal components factor analysis was conducted to identify unobserved characteristics that promote effective partnerships among LPHSs. Results revealed that 13 of the 18 measures were most frequently reported at the minimal-moderate level (conducted 1%-49% of the time). Coordination of personal health and social services to optimize access (74.6%) was the most frequently reported measure at minimal-moderate levels. Optimal levels (conducted >75% of the time) were reported most frequently in 2 activities: participation in emergency preparedness coalitions and local health departments ensuring service provision by working with state health departments (67% and 61% of respondents, respectively) and the least optimally reported activity was review partnership effectiveness (4% of respondents). Factor analysis revealed categories of partnership-related measures in 4 domains: resources and activities contributing to relationship building, evaluating community leadership activities, research, and state and local linkages to support public health activities. System-oriented public health assessments may have questions that serve as proxy measures to examine levels of interorganizational partnerships. Several measures from the NPHPS were useful in establishing a national baseline of minimal and optimal activity levels as well as identifying factors to enhance the delivery of the 10 essential public health services among organizations and individuals in public health systems.

  5. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  6. Public health and health promotion capacity at national and regional level: a review of conceptual frameworks.

    PubMed

    Aluttis, Christoph; den Broucke, Stephan Van; Chiotan, Cristina; Costongs, Caroline; Michelsen, Kai; Brand, Helmut

    2014-03-26

    The concept of capacity building for public health has gained much attention during the last decade. National as well as international organizations increasingly focus their efforts on capacity building to improve performance in the health sector. During the past two decades, a variety of conceptual frameworks have been developed which describe relevant dimensions for public health capacity. Notably, these frameworks differ in design and conceptualization. This paper therefore reviews the existing conceptual frameworks and integrates them into one framework, which contains the most relevant dimensions for public health capacity at the country- or regional level. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify frameworks addressing public health capacity building at the national or regional level. We content-analysed these frameworks to identify the core dimensions of public health capacity. The dimensions were subsequently synthesized into a set of thematic areas to construct a conceptual framework which describes the most relevant dimensions for capacities at the national- or regional level. The systematic review resulted in the identification of seven core domains for public health capacity: resources, organizational structures, workforce, partnerships, leadership and governance, knowledge development and country specific context. Accordingly, these dimensions were used to construct a framework, which describes these core domains more in detail. Our research shows that although there is no generally agreedupon model of public health capacity, a number of key domains for public health and health promotion capacity are consistently recurring in existing frameworks, regardless of their geographical location or thematic area. As only little work on the core concepts of public health capacities has yet taken place, this study adds value to the discourse by identifying these consistencies across existing frameworks and by synthesising them into a new

  7. Health and safety—the downward trend in lead levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M. G.; Wilson, D. N.

    Lead has been known and used by man for thousands of years and its toxic properties have been known for almost as long. In consequence, a wide body of legislation has built up and is designed to protect individuals in both the occupational and the general environments. At the occupational level, two types of controls are widely employed, namely, lead-in-air and lead-in-blood. Limits placed on the amount of lead-in-air are designed to ensure that individuals are not exposed to unsafe levels of lead via inhalation. Currently, the most common standard is 0.15 mg m -3 but there is a clear downward trend and levels as low as 0.05 mg m -3 are mandatory in some countries. Controls on the amount of lead-in-blood give a more direct indication of the exposure experienced by individuals. The most common level presently employed is 70 μg m -3 but, as knowledge of the health effects of lead improves, lower levels are being introduced and 50 μg m -3 is now fairly common. While women are no more sensitive to lead than men, some countries do employ lower blood-lead limits for women in the workplace in order to protect any developing foetus. This paper examines the levels currently in force in various countries and describes developments which are now taking place in the legislation that is being enacted in several parts of the world. As far as the general public is concerned, only a relatively small number of countries employ controls. Where controls do exist, however, they are set at much lower levels than for the occupational environment in order to protect the most sensitive members of the population. Several countries employ limits on lead in ambient air. Traditionally, these have been set at either 1.5 or 2.0 μg m -3, but several countries are currently considering sharp downward revisions to levels of the order of 0.5 μg m -3. A few countries offer guidance on acceptable blood levels for the general population, most commonly for children. Again downward revisions are

  8. Satisfaction with the level and type of resource use of a health insurance scheme in Nigeria: health management organizations' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Shafiu; Souares, Aurelia; Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Babale, Sufiyan Muawiyyah; Sauerborn, Rainer; Dong, Hengjin

    2014-01-01

    Some developing countries have incorporated managed care elements into their national health insurance schemes. In practice, hybrid health management organizations (Hmos) are insurers who, bearing some resemblance to managed care in the USA, are vertically integrated in the scheme's revenue collection and pool and purchase healthcare services within a competitive framework. To date, few studies have focused on these organizations and their level of satisfaction with the scheme's optimal-resource-use (ORU) implementation. In Nigeria, the study site, Hmos were categorized on the basis of their satisfaction with ORU activities. One hundred forty-seven Hmo staff were randomly interviewed. The types of ORU domain categories were provider payment mechanism, administrative efficiency, benefit package inclusions and active monitoring mechanism. Bivariate analysis was used to determine differences among the Hmos' satisfaction with the various ORU domains. The Hmos' satisfaction with the health insurance scheme's ORU activities was 59.2% generally, and the associated factors were identified. According to the Hmos' perspectives related to the type of ORU, the fee-for-service payment method and regular inspection performed weakly. Hmos' limited satisfaction with the scheme's ORU raises concerns regarding ineffectiveness that may hinder implementation. To offset high risks in the scheme, it appears necessary for the regulatory agency to adapt and reform strategies of provider payment and active monitoring mechanisms according to stakeholder needs. Our findings further reveal that having Hmos evaluate ORU is useful for providing evidence-based information for policy making and regulatory utilization related to implementation of the health insurance scheme.

  9. Effectiveness of the self-regulation eHealth intervention 'MyPlan1.0.' on physical activity levels of recently retired Belgian adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Plaete, Jolien; Cardon, Greet; Crombez, Geert; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-10-01

    The study purpose was to test the effectiveness of the self-regulation eHealth intervention 'MyPlan1.0.' to increase physical activity (PA) in recently retired Belgian adults. This study was a randomized controlled trial with three points of follow-up/modules (baseline to 1-week to 1-month follow-up). In total, 240 recently retired adults (intervention group [IG]: n = 89; control group [CG]: n = 151) completed all three modules. The IG filled in evaluation questionnaires and received 'MyPlan1.0.', an intervention focusing on both pre- and post-intentional processes for behavioural change. The CG only filled in evaluation questionnaires. Self-reported PA was assessed using the long International Physical Activity Questionnaire, usual week version. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variances were conducted in SPSS 22.0. On the short-term (baseline to 1 week), the intervention significantly increased walking for transport (IG: +11 min/week, CG: -6 min/week; P < 0.01). On the intermediate-term (baseline to 1 month), the intervention increased transport-related walking (IG: +14 min/week, CG: +6 min/week; P < 0.01), leisure-time walking (IG: +26 min/week, CG: -14 min/week; P < 0.10), leisure-time vigorous PA (IG: +16 min/week, CG: -4 min/week; P < 0.01), moderate-intensity gardening (IG: +4 min/week, CG: -34 min/week; P < 0.10) and voluntary work-related vigorous PA (IG: +28 min/week, CG: +13 min/week; P < 0.10). Results show that our eHealth intervention is effective in recently retired adults. Future studies should include long-term follow-up to examine whether the effects persist over a longer period.

  10. Human Development Program: Level V Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Geraldine

    The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for grade 5. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to help teachers instill responsibility and self-confidence in children. The activity guide presents topics and directions for 180 sequential Human…

  11. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief presents the results of the study in the area of physical activity, covering the following topics: (1) Health Education; (2) Physical…

  12. Active Agents of Health Promotion? The School's Role in Supporting the HPV Vaccination Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spratt, Jennifer; Shucksmith, Janet; Philip, Kate; McNaughton, Rebekah

    2013-01-01

    By providing a place in which children can be accessed, the school has long been a site for population-level health initiatives. Recent policy shifts towards health-promoting schools have however re-cast the school from passive host to active collaborator in public health. This paper examines secondary school teachers' views of their roles as…

  13. [Health economic evaluation in a local level government health care system].

    PubMed

    Sancho, Leyla Gomes; Vargens, José Muniz Costa

    2009-10-01

    This work aims to contribute to the discussion about the possibility of applying health economic evaluations at local level government healthcare system, and consequently use the results of this study into decision making. In order to subside this reflexion, it was analyzed the SAMU/192 Program costs evaluation in the city of Belo Horizonte, as well as data concerning effectiveness of the program and a review on electronic databases (SciELO and Medline) about the application of studies in decision making. The analysis showed that even for a simple evaluation on expenditure, there are still unsolved problems of data availability as well as of data effectiveness on information systems definition and association. It showed that decision makers do not use the result of studies for decision making either. So, we conclude that there is no possibility to apply a health economic evaluation research and have the results used in a local level government health care system.

  14. Physical Activity as a Function of Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Đukanović, Nina; Mašić, Zoran; Kostovski, Žarko; Širić, Vesna; Blažević, Stipe

    2015-07-01

    Physical activity means any form of body movement that is associated with certain metabolic demands. At the same time, physical activity is one of the most important steps in the maintenance, protection and improvement of health. There is strong evidence to suggest that higher levels of physical activity are associated with numerous preventive effects and therapeutic effects in the treatment of many diseases. Although they account for a larger portion of the population, physical inactivity is more often registered in women, which can be attributed to a variety of reasons--ranging from anatomical and physiological to the socio-psychological. The present paper discusses some of the most important benefits associated with physical activity in women, to encourage their greater participation in various forms of physical activity.

  15. Monthly variations of the Caspian sea level and solar activity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanchuk, P. R.; Pasechnik, M. N.

    The connection between 11-year cycle of solar activity and the Caspian sea level is investigated. Seasonal changes of the Caspian sea level and annual variations of the sea level with variations of solar activity are studied. The results of the verifications of the sea level forecasts obtained with application of the rules discovered by the authors are given.

  16. Relationship Between Physical Activity and Health-Related Utility Among Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Manheim, Larry M.; Dunlop, Dorothy; Song, Jing; Semanik, Pamela; Lee, Jungwha; Chang, Rowland W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the relationship between physical activity and health-related utility for people with knee OA and implications for designing cost effective interventions. Methods Use GEE regression analysis to estimate partial association of accelerometer-measured physical activity levels with health-related utility after controlling for demographics, health status, knee OA severity level, pain and functioning. Results Moving from lowest to middle tertile of physical activity levels is associated with .071 (p<.01) increase in health-related utility after controlling for demographics and .036 (p<.05) increase in utility after controlling for demographics, health status, knee OA severity level, weight, pain, and functional impairments. Conclusion Intervention programs that move individuals out of the lowest tertile of physical activity have the potential to be cost effective. PMID:22328141

  17. Volcanic activity: a review for health professionals.

    PubMed Central

    Newhall, C G; Fruchter, J S

    1986-01-01

    Volcanoes erupt magma (molten rock containing variable amounts of solid crystals, dissolved volatiles, and gas bubbles) along with pulverized pre-existing rock (ripped from the walls of the vent and conduit). The resulting volcanic rocks vary in their physical and chemical characteristics, e.g., degree of fragmentation, sizes and shapes of fragments, minerals present, ratio of crystals to glass, and major and trace elements composition. Variability in the properties of magma, and in the relative roles of magmatic volatiles and groundwater in driving an eruption, determine to a great extent the type of an eruption; variability in the type of an eruption in turn influences the physical characteristics and distribution of the eruption products. The principal volcanic hazards are: ash and larger fragments that rain down from an explosion cloud (airfall tephra and ballistic fragments); flows of hot ash, blocks, and gases down the slopes of a volcano (pyroclastic flows); "mudflows" (debris flows); lava flows; and concentrations of volcanic gases in topographic depressions. Progress in volcanology is bringing improved long- and short-range forecasts of volcanic activity, and thus more options for mitigation of hazards. Collaboration between health professionals and volcanologists helps to mitigate health hazards of volcanic activity. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 6a-6e FIGURE 6a-6e FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:3946726

  18. Volcanic activity: a review for health professionals.

    PubMed

    Newhall, C G; Fruchter, J S

    1986-03-01

    Volcanoes erupt magma (molten rock containing variable amounts of solid crystals, dissolved volatiles, and gas bubbles) along with pulverized pre-existing rock (ripped from the walls of the vent and conduit). The resulting volcanic rocks vary in their physical and chemical characteristics, e.g., degree of fragmentation, sizes and shapes of fragments, minerals present, ratio of crystals to glass, and major and trace elements composition. Variability in the properties of magma, and in the relative roles of magmatic volatiles and groundwater in driving an eruption, determine to a great extent the type of an eruption; variability in the type of an eruption in turn influences the physical characteristics and distribution of the eruption products. The principal volcanic hazards are: ash and larger fragments that rain down from an explosion cloud (airfall tephra and ballistic fragments); flows of hot ash, blocks, and gases down the slopes of a volcano (pyroclastic flows); "mudflows" (debris flows); lava flows; and concentrations of volcanic gases in topographic depressions. Progress in volcanology is bringing improved long- and short-range forecasts of volcanic activity, and thus more options for mitigation of hazards. Collaboration between health professionals and volcanologists helps to mitigate health hazards of volcanic activity.

  19. Physical Activity, Health Benefits, and Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinos, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A plethora of epidemiologic evidence from large studies supports unequivocally an inverse, independent, and graded association between volume of physical activity, health, and cardiovascular and overall mortality. This association is evident in apparently healthy individuals, patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease, regardless of body weight. Moreover, the degree of risk associated with physical inactivity is similar to, and in some cases even stronger than, the more traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The exercise-induced health benefits are in part related to favorable modulations of cardiovascular risk factors observed by increased physical activity or structured exercise programs. Although the independent contribution of the exercise components, intensity, duration, and frequency to the reduction of mortality risk is not clear, it is well accepted that an exercise volume threshold defined at caloric expenditure of approximately 1,000 Kcal per week appears to be necessary for significant reduction in mortality risk. Further reductions in risk are observed with higher volumes of energy expenditure. Physical exertion is also associated with a relatively low and transient increase in risk for cardiac events. This risk is significantly higher for older and sedentary individuals. Therefore, such individuals should consult their physician prior to engaging in exercise. “Walking is man’s best medicine”Hippocrates PMID:23198160

  20. Standard Health Level Seven for Odontological Digital Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Abril-Gonzalez, Mauricio; Portilla, Fernando A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: A guide for the implementation of dental digital imaging reports was developed and validated through the International Standard of Health Informatics–Health Level Seven (HL7), achieving interoperability with an electronic system that keeps dental records. Introduction: Digital imaging benefits patients, who can view previous close-ups of dental examinations; providers, because of greater efficiency in managing information; and insurers, because of improved accessibility, patient monitoring, and more efficient cost management. Finally, imaging is beneficial for the dentist who can be more agile in the diagnosis and treatment of patients using this tool. Materials and Methods: The guide was developed under the parameters of an HL7 standard. It was necessary to create a group of dentists and three experts in information and communication technologies from different institutions. Discussion: Diagnostic images scanned with conventional radiology or from a radiovisiograph can be converted to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format, while also retaining patient information. The guide shows how the information of the health record of the patient and the information of the dental image could be standardized in a Clinical Dental Record document using international informatics standard like HL7-V3-CDA document (dental document Level 2). Since it is an informatics standardized document, it could be sent, stored, or displayed using different devices—personal computers or mobile devices—independent of the platform used. Conclusions: Interoperability using dental images and dental record systems reduces adverse events, increases security for the patient, and makes more efficient use of resources. This article makes a contribution to the field of telemedicine in dental informatics. In addition to that, the results could be a reference for projects of electronic medical records when the dental documents are part of them. PMID

  1. Relative Association of Multi-Level Supportive Environments on Poor Health among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mier, Nelda; Ory, Marcia G; Towne, Samuel D; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-04-06

    Background: The aging of the United States population poses significant challenges to American healthcare and informal caregiving systems. Additional research is needed to understand how health promotion programs and policies based on a socio-ecological perspective impact the health and well-being of older persons. The purpose of this study was to investigate personal characteristics and supportive environments associated with poor health among older individuals aged 65 and over. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design and was guided by a conceptual framework developed by the authors to depict the relationship between personal characteristics and environments associated with poor health status. Environment types included in this study were family, home, financial, neighborhood, and healthcare. The sample was comprised of 1319 adults aged 65 years and older residing in Central Texas. From a random selection of households, participants were administered a mail-based survey created by a community collaborative effort. Descriptive statistics and three binary logistic regression models were fitted to examine associations with poor health status (i.e., physical, mental, and combined physical/mental). Results: Two personal characteristics (number of chronic conditions and educational level) were consistently related (p < 0.05) to health outcomes. Supportive family, home, financial, neighborhood, and health care environmental factors were shown to be related (p < 0.05) to various aspects of physical or mental health outcomes. Conclusions: Multidimensional factors including personal characteristics and protective environments are related to health status among older individuals. The unique roles of each environment can help inform public health interventions to create and enhance support for older adults to engage in healthful activities and improve their physical and mental health.

  2. Entry-Level Activities in System Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    System-level consultation or organizational development in schools is an area in great need of theoretical models and definitions. The three articles in this special issue provide a unique learning opportunity not only for consultation across borders but also for consultation within the same nation. In my commentary, I limit my remarks to a few…

  3. Active learning by design: an undergraduate introductory public health course.

    PubMed

    Yeatts, Karin B

    2014-01-01

    Principles of active learning were used to design and implement an introductory public health course. Students were introduced to the breadth and practice of public health through team and individual-based activities. Team assignments covered topics in epidemiology, biostatistics, health behavior, nutrition, maternal and child health, environment, and health policy. Students developed an appreciation of the population perspective through an "experience" trip and related intervention project in a public health area of their choice. Students experienced several key critical component elements of a public health undergraduate major; they explored key public health domains, experience public health practice, and integrated concepts with their assignments. In this paper, course assignments, lessons learned, and student successes are described. Given the increased growth in the undergraduate public health major, these active learning assignments may be of interest to undergraduate public health programs at both liberal arts colleges and research universities.

  4. Active Learning by Design: An Undergraduate Introductory Public Health Course

    PubMed Central

    Yeatts, Karin B.

    2014-01-01

    Principles of active learning were used to design and implement an introductory public health course. Students were introduced to the breadth and practice of public health through team and individual-based activities. Team assignments covered topics in epidemiology, biostatistics, health behavior, nutrition, maternal and child health, environment, and health policy. Students developed an appreciation of the population perspective through an “experience” trip and related intervention project in a public health area of their choice. Students experienced several key critical component elements of a public health undergraduate major; they explored key public health domains, experience public health practice, and integrated concepts with their assignments. In this paper, course assignments, lessons learned, and student successes are described. Given the increased growth in the undergraduate public health major, these active learning assignments may be of interest to undergraduate public health programs at both liberal arts colleges and research universities. PMID:25566526

  5. Knowledge into action? understanding ideological barriers to addressing health inequalities at the local level.

    PubMed

    Collins, Patricia A; Abelson, Julia; Eyles, John D

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the presence of ideological barriers to addressing local health inequalities in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A survey of active citizens revealed low levels of awareness of the social determinants of health (SDOH) framework, and some incongruence between understanding and attitudes towards the SDOH. Support for addressing health inequalities was associated with awareness of the SDOH framework, liberal value-systems, and a cluster of socio-demographic characteristics. Liberal leaning participants were also more politically active than their conservative counterparts. Ideological barriers included lack of SDOH awareness, narrow understandings of the relative influences of the SDOH, resistance to de-prioritizing healthcare, and conservative values. Advancement of a SDOH policy agenda should incorporate wider dissemination efforts to citizens and local service providers to increase support for this framework, and utilization of existing support and political engagement from liberal-leaning demographics.

  6. Inadequate physical activity and health care expenditures in the United States.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Susan A; Fulton, Janet E; Pratt, Michael; Yang, Zhou; Adams, E Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    This study estimates the percentage of health care expenditures in the non-institutionalized United States (U.S.) adult population associated with levels of physical activity inadequate to meet current guidelines. Leisure-time physical activity data from the National Health Interview Survey (2004-2010) were merged with health care expenditure data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2006-2011). Health care expenditures for inactive (i.e., no physical activity) and insufficiently active adults (i.e., some physical activity but not enough to meet guidelines) were compared with active adults (i.e., ≥150minutes/week moderate-intensity equivalent activity) using an econometric model. Overall, 11.1% (95% CI: 7.3, 14.9) of aggregate health care expenditures were associated with inadequate physical activity (i.e., inactive and insufficiently active levels). When adults with any reported difficulty walking due to a health problem were excluded, 8.7% (95% CI: 5.2, 12.3) of aggregate health care expenditures were associated with inadequate physical activity. Increasing adults' physical activity to meet guidelines may reduce U.S. health care expenditures.

  7. High level security policies for health care establishments.

    PubMed

    Katsikas, Sokratis; Kokolakis, Spyros

    2004-01-01

    Health Care Establishments (HCE) are today highly dependent upon Information and Communications Technologies (ICT). This increasing reliance upon ICT has stressed the need to foster security in Healthcare Information Systems (HIS). Security policies may have a significant contribution to this effort, but they could become the cause of portability and interoperability problems. Moreover, policies that fail to take into account all the aspects of HIS security, the legal and regulatory requirements, and the existence of several stakeholders may lead to ineffective or inefficient security measures. Policies of a special category, named Generic Security Policies (GSP), should be developed to provide policy-level harmonisation and guidance to policy-makers within HCE. Six such policies are comparatively reviewed herein.

  8. Frequent Surfing on Social Health Networks is Associated With Increased Knowledge and Patient Health Activation

    PubMed Central

    Grosberg, Dafna; Grinvald, Haya; Reuveni, Haim

    2016-01-01

    Background The advent of the Internet has driven a technological revolution that has changed our lives. As part of this phenomenon, social networks have attained a prominent role in health care. A variety of medical services is provided over the Internet, including home monitoring, interactive communications between the patient and service providers, and social support, among others. This study emphasizes some of the practical implications of Web-based health social networks for patients and for health care systems. Objective The objective of this study was to assess how participation in a social network among individuals with a chronic condition contributed to patient activation, based on the Patient Activation Measure (PAM). Methods A prospective, cross-sectional survey with a retrospective component was conducted. Data were collected from Camoni, a Hebrew-language Web-based social health network, participants in the diabetes mellitus, pain, hypertension, and depression/anxiety forums, during November 2012 to 2013. Experienced users (enrolled at least 6 months) and newly enrolled received similar versions of the same questionnaire including sociodemographics and PAM. Results Among 686 participants, 154 of 337 experienced and 123 of 349 newly enrolled completed the questionnaire. Positive correlations (P<.05) were found between frequency and duration of site visits and patient activation, social relationships, and chronic disease knowledge. Men surfed longer than women (χ²3=10.104, P<.05). Experienced users with diabetes surfed more than those with other illnesses and had significantly higher PAM scores (mean, M=69.3, standard deviation, SD=19.1, PAM level 4; Z=−4.197, P<.001) than new users (M=62.8, SD=18.7, PAM level 3). Disease knowledge directly predicted PAM for all users (β=.26 and .21, respectively). Frequency and duration of social health network use were correlated with increased knowledge about a chronic disease. Experienced surfers had higher PAM

  9. Self-Rated Activity Levels and Longevity: Evidence from a 20 Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullee, Mark A.; Coleman, Peter G.; Briggs, Roger S. J.; Stevenson, James E.; Turnbull, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The study reports on factors predicting the longevity of 328 people over the age of 65 drawn from an English city and followed over 20 years. Both the reported activities score and the individual's comparative evaluation of their own level of activity independently reduced the risk of death, even when health and cognitive status were taken into…

  10. Children's Activity Levels and Lesson Context during Third-Grade Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In this study, researchers observed third graders' physical activity levels and associated variables in physical education classes in four Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health centers nationwide. Results found significant differences among centers for physical activity and lesson context variables. During free play, boys were more…

  11. Health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for homeland security.

    PubMed

    Adeshina, Femi; Sonich-Mullin, Cynthia; Ross, Robert H; Wood, Carol S

    2009-12-01

    The Homeland Security Presidential Directive #8 (HSPD-8) for National Emergency Preparedness was issued to " establish policies to strengthen the preparedness of the United States to prevent and respond to threatened or actual domestic terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies by requiring a national domestic all- hazards preparedness goal. "In response to HSPD-8 and HSPD-22 (classified) on Domestic Chemical Defense, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) is developing health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for priority chemicals (including chemical warfare agents, pesticides, and toxic industrial chemicals) in air and drinking water. PALs are temporary values that will neither be promulgated, nor be formally issued as regulatory guidance. They are intended to be used at the discretion of risk managers in emergency situations. The PAL Program provides advisory exposure levels for chemical agents to assist in emergency planning and response decision-making, and to aid in making informed risk management decisions for evacuation, temporary re-entry into affected areas, and resumed-use of infrastructure, such as water resources. These risk management decisions may be made at the federal, state, and local levels. Three exposure levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations for potential exposure to drinking water and ambient air by the general public. Developed PALs are evaluated both by a US EPA working group, and an external multidisciplinary panel to ensure scientific credibility and wide acceptance. In this Special Issue publication, we present background information on the PAL program, the methodology used in deriving PALs, and the technical support documents for the derivation of PALs for acrylonitrile, hydrogen sulfide, and phosgene.

  12. Physical activity levels in the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Sherry, David D

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is paramount in the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia, although some interventions use indirect methods to increase activity levels rather than address physical dysfunction head-on. New research explores the effects of a psychotherapeutic approach on levels of physical activity in adolescents with fibromyalgia.

  13. Level of Integration of Community Health Workers in Missouri Health Systems.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Darson; Visker, Joseph; Cox, Carol; Banez, J Christian; Wang, Anna

    2016-11-16

    The purpose of this study was to describe the level of integration of community health workers (CHWs) into Missouri public healthcare systems using a cross-sectional survey research design. Representatives of all Missouri Local Public Health Agencies, Rural Health Clinics, and Federally Qualified Health Centers were pre-contacted by telephone to provide the electronic mail of the most knowledgeable person in the facility/location to complete a brief electronic survey on their use of CHWs. 103 representatives of the 273 (37.7% response rate) contacted from the health systems completed the Profile of Community Health Workers in Missouri Health Systems to assess role, professional development, and information needs of CHWs used in the key informants' agencies. An Abridged Survey was created for participants who responded to the survey but indicated that CHWs were not currently working for their organization. Descriptive statistics and measures of central tendency were computed. Only 16% (16/103) of participants noted that CHWs were employed in their organizations; and most CHWs connected people with services, served low-income and rural populations, and addressed heart disease issues. Participants who did not currently employ CHWs indicated they did not anticipate needing them in the near future. Of those utilizing CHWs, most perceived CHWs have a vital role in healthcare (M = 4.27/5.0, SD = 0.64) but securing sustainable funding for CHWs was challenging (M = 4.18/5.0, SD = 0.87). Utilization of CHWs in Missouri healthcare systems is limited. If their role in Missouri healthcare systems is to expand, a campaign to educate on their role and value is needed.

  14. Combining Health Promotion Classroom Lessons with Health Fair Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Leslie; Eliason, Kathy; True, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the important role of the school nurse in promoting healthy lifestyle choices through networking, resource identification, and working with community partners. "Everyone Is Healthy at Northeast" was a health promotion program designed and presented in two ways: classroom lessons and a health fair. There were interactive…

  15. Levels, trends and health concerns of atmospheric PAHs in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, Adrián; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Ratola, Nuno

    2014-12-01

    Changes in climate can affect the concentration patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by altering the dispersion (wind speed, mixing layer height, convective fronts), deposition by precipitation, dry deposition, photochemistry, natural emissions and background concentrations. This means the evolution trends of these pollutants have to be studied under a multi-scale perspective, allowing the establishment of transport patterns and distribution of PAHs. In this sense, this work tries to unveil the atmospheric behaviour of these pollutants using temporal data series collected in different stations from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) air sampling network. These sites are thought to avoid the direct influence of emitting areas (background stations), allowing the study of long-range transport effects, intra- and trans-annual variability, relationships between concentrations patterns and meteorological variables and latitudinal gradients of PAH levels in Europe. Overall, a typical high concentration pattern was found for the colder months (and an opposite behaviour is found for summertime). Negative trends were detected over high latitudes, for instance, in Svalbard (Norway), whereas for the United Kingdom the pattern is the inverse. Also, negative latitudinal gradients were observed in 4 of the 15 PAHs studied. Finally, air quality parameters revealed concern over human health issues, given the recent increase of BaP levels in Europe.

  16. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  17. Mental health of Medical Students in Different Levels of Training

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Najmeh; Loghmani, Amir; Montazeri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Medical education and training can directly contribute to the development of psychological distress in medical students. This can lead to catastrophic consequences such as impaired academic performance, impaired competency, medical errors and attrition from medical school. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity among Iranian medical students. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Samples of medical students in different levels of training (basic science, clinical clerkship, internship, and residency stage) were entered into the study. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure psychological morbidity. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were used to report on findings. Results: In all, 220 medical students were invited to take part in the study. Of these, 192 students agreed to fill in the questionnaire. The mean age of respondents was 25.4 (SD = 5.2) and 53% were female. Overall 49.5% of the students scored above the threshold on the GHQ-12 (score > 3.5). The results obtained from logistic regression analysis indicated that female gender and level of training were the most significant contributing factors to increased psychological distress [OR for female gender = 2.99; OR for the basic science group = 6.73]. Conclusions: Psychological distress appears to be common in medical students and significantly varies by gender and level of training. The psychological well-being of medical students needs to be more carefully addressed, and closer attention to eliminating the risk factors is critical to prevent consequent adverse outcomes. PMID:22826751

  18. Nigella sativa and its active constituent thymoquinone in oral health

    PubMed Central

    AlAttas, Safia A.; Zahran, Fat’heya M.; Turkistany, Shereen A.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we summarized published reports that investigated the role of Nigella sativa (NS) and its active constituent, thymoquinone (TQ) in oral health and disease management. The literature studies were preliminary and scanty, but the results revealed that black seed plants have a potential therapeutic effect for oral and dental diseases. Such results are encouraging for the incorporation of these plants in dental therapeutics and hygiene products. However, further detailed preclinical and clinical studies at the cellular and molecular levels are required to investigate the mechanisms of action of NS and its constituents, particularly TQ. PMID:26905343

  19. World Trade Organization activity for health services.

    PubMed

    Gros, Clémence

    2012-01-01

    Since the establishment of a multilateral trading system and the increasing mobility of professionals and consumers of health services, it seems strongly necessary that the World Trade Organization (WTO) undertakes negotiations within the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), and that WTO's members attempt to reach commitments for health-related trade in services. How important is the GATS for health policy and how does the GATS refer to health services? What are the current negotiations and member's commitments?

  20. Distant Interactions and Their Effects on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Background: It has been observed that physical activity patterns of health-related behavior are established in childhood and may continue into adulthood. Recent findings showing a relationship between the onset of chronic diseases and sedentary lifestyles support the importance of examining Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA). One…

  1. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 3--Recommended Amounts of Physical Activity for Optimal Health)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    By promoting physical activities and incorporating them into their community-based programs, Extension professionals are improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the third in a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: (1) biological health benefits of…

  2. Pakistani Children's Participation in Health Promotion Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Shabnam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of a Child-to-Child (CtC) health education programme designed to assist children in Pakistan to greater participation and voice in both their own education and their families' health by empowering them as change agents. The study compares parental involvement in their children's participation in health promotion…

  3. Aligning public health and health informatics research strengths with national level research priorities in saudi arabia.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa; Alshammri, Riyad; Jradi, Huda; Da'ar, Omar B; Saddik, Basema; Alamry, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explore the process of aligning the College of Public Health and Health Informatics research strengths at KSAU-HS with Saudi National Science Technology and Innovation Plan (NSTIP). Nineteen participants responded to a survey and reported on their research strengths, research goals, and research barriers. All 19 participants had academic faculty appointments at the assistant professor level. Five of the 19 participants, also had administrative level positions. A thematic content analysis was performed on the data. The comments were grouped into themes in a manner that reflected the objective of the exercise. Results show that although there are a variety of research strengths within the college, funding, staffing, bureaucracy, data access, and linkages with other healthcare organizations were barriers hindering research progress. This process has led the college to focus on two NSTIP-KACST national priority areas of 1) Information technology; and 2) Medical and Health related research. Future research will assess the outcome of the plan on the research agenda of the college.

  4. Building Global Health Research Competencies at the Undergraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Jennifer M.; Hecker, Kent G.; Jensen, Ashley E.

    2009-01-01

    Faculty from the University of Calgary's bachelor of health sciences (BHSc) Global Health Program argue for the development of "global health research competencies" to prepare students for international placements in low- and middle-income countries. These competencies include the ability to define and describe (a) how to use the concept…

  5. Levels of Mental Health Continuum and Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshanloo, Mohsen; Nosratabadi, Masoud

    2009-01-01

    Empirically, mental health and mental illness are not opposite ends of a single measurement continuum. In view of this fact, Keyes ("J Health Soc Behav," 43:207-202, 2002) operationalizes mental health as a syndrome of symptoms of both positive feelings (emotional well-being) and positive functioning (psychological and social well-being)…

  6. Caregivers' Level of Trust in Their Children's Health Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Huey Jen; Boothroyd, Roger A.

    2006-01-01

    Trust in healthcare providers is associated with clinical outcomes among adult patients. Children with disabilities have complex health needs that place stress on caregivers. Consequently, they are increasingly likely to rely on their children's health care providers to ensure children's health care needs are met. However, no studies have explored…

  7. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.

  8. BEIR-III report and the health effects of low-level radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-01-01

    The present BEIR-III Committee has not highlighted any controversy over the health effects of low-level radiation. In its evaluation of the experimental data and epidemiological surveys, the Committee has carefully reviewed and assessed the value of all the available scientific evidence for estimating numerical risk coefficients for the health hazards to human populations exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Responsible public awareness of the possible health effects of ionizing radiations from medical and industrial radiation exposure, centers on three important matters of societal concern: (1) to place into perspective the extent of harm to the health of man and his descendants to be expected in the present and in the future from those societal activities involving ionizing radiation; (2) to develop quantitative indices of harm based on dose-effect relationships; such indices could then be used with prudent caution to introduce concepts of the regulation of population doses on the basis of somatic and genetic risks; and (3) to identify the magnitude and extent of radiation activities which could cause harm, to assess their relative significance, and to provide a framework for recommendations on how to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure to human populations. The main difference of the BEIR Committee Report is not so much from new data or new interpretations of existing data, but rather from a philosophical approach and appraisal of existing and future radiation protection resulting from an atmosphere of constantly changing societal conditions and public attitudes. (PCS)

  9. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 1--Biological Health Benefits)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been promoting and incorporating physical activities into their community-based programs and improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the first of a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: 1) biological health benefits of…

  10. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 2-Mental Health Benefits)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    By promoting physical activities and incorporating them into their community-based programs, Extension professionals are improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the second in a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: (1) biological health benefits of…

  11. The Afrocentric Paradigm in Health-Related Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Beverly D.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the potential role of culture in health-related physical activity participation, discussing kinesiology and reporting results from a health-related physical activity study of women, some of whom had taken a culturally designed aerobics class. Participants demonstrated the positive impact of culture on physical activity participation.…

  12. Health promotion in active-duty military women with children.

    PubMed

    Agazio, Janice G; Ephraim, Paula M; Flaherty, Norma B; Gurney, Cynthia A

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which selected demographic characteristics, definition of health, perceived health status, perceived self-efficacy, and resources are related to the health promoting behaviors of active-duty women with children and to describe qualitatively the experience of being an active-duty mother. Grounded in Pender's (1996) Health Promotion Model, this study used methodological triangulation to test a hypothesized model. A sample of 141 active-duty women with children using military health services participated. Resource availability and commitment were key components of being successful at balancing home and work demands.

  13. A Case Study Analyzing the Reading Levels of Print and Electronic Health Education Material for Health Consumers with Low Levels of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstle, Alan John

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to determine if two samples of health education literature (one in print media; the other in electronic media), and published by the same health education organization, provided the requisite reading level for their intended audiences: immigrants and native speakers with a fourth-grade level of literacy. A…

  14. Heavy metals in soils along unpaved roads in south west Cameroon: Contamination levels and health risks.

    PubMed

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica M

    2016-04-01

    Soils enriched with heavy metals from vehicular emission present a significant exposure route of heavy metals to individuals using unpaved roads. This study assessed the extent of Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contamination of soils along unpaved roads in Cameroon, and the health risks presented by incidental ingestion and dermal contact with the soils using metal contamination factor (CF) pollution load index, hazard quotients (HQ) and chronic hazard index (CHI). CF values obtained (0.9-12.2) indicate moderate to high contamination levels. HQ values for Cr, Cd and Pb exceeded the reference doses. Moderate health hazard exists for road users in the areas with intense anthropogenic activities and high average daily traffic (ADT) volume according to CHI values (1-4) obtained. The economy and quality of life in cities with unpaved roads could be threatened by health challenges resulting from long-term exposure to heavy metal derived from high ADT volumes.

  15. Is health workforce planning recognising the dynamic interplay between health literacy at an individual, organisation and system level?

    PubMed

    Naccarella, Lucio; Wraighe, Brenda; Gorman, Des

    2016-02-01

    The growing demands on the health system to adapt to constant change has led to investment in health workforce planning agencies and approaches. Health workforce planning approaches focusing on identifying, predicting and modelling workforce supply and demand are criticised as being simplistic and not contributing to system-level resiliency. Alternative evidence- and needs-based health workforce planning approaches are being suggested. However, to contribute to system-level resiliency, workforce planning approaches need to also adopt system-based approaches. The increased complexity and fragmentation of the healthcare system, especially for patients with complex and chronic conditions, has also led to a focus on health literacy not simply as an individual trait, but also as a dynamic product of the interaction between individual (patients, workforce)-, organisational- and system-level health literacy. Although it is absolutely essential that patients have a level of health literacy that enables them to navigate and make decisions, so too the health workforce, organisations and indeed the system also needs to be health literate. Herein we explore whether health workforce planning is recognising the dynamic interplay between health literacy at an individual, organisation and system level, and the potential for strengthening resiliency across all those levels.

  16. The intersection of gender and place in online health activities.

    PubMed

    Goldner, Melinda; Hale, Timothy M; Cotten, Shelia R; Stern, Michael J; Drentea, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how rurality and gender are related to online health activities. Rural women face greater health risks and yet have access to a weaker health system infrastructure, which has resulted in a health disadvantage. New health information technologies may ameliorate some of these disparities; thus, the authors examine the relevance of gender and place in going online to search for health information, buy medicines, participate in health-related support groups, communicate with physicians, or maintain a personal health record. Analyzing data from the National Cancer Institute's 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey, the authors found that the relations between rurality and gender vary, depending on the specific type of online health activity, and that gender may be a more salient factor than rurality in determining whether individuals engage in particular types of online health activities. This study contributes to the literature by examining how gender and place are related to online health activities, a combined area neglected in past research, and advancing research on gender and technology. This research highlights the importance of expanding high-speed access in rural locations, increasing technological and health literacy, and tailoring the Internet to specific populations.

  17. [Physical activities and sport; implications for health and society].

    PubMed

    Bazex, Jacques; Pène, Pierre; Rivière, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    The practice of physical and sporting activities (PSA) throughout life is now known to increase healthy life expectancy, to delay the onset of dependency, and to be an effective complementary treatment for many disorders, particularly obesity and disability. The notion of a "sedentary death syndrome " [SeDS] has been evoked on the other side of the Atlantic. Although the beneficial effects of PSA have long been known, statistical analyses have only recently confirmed at the group level what was often disputed at the individual level. Knowledge of the impacts of PSA on cellular, tissular and metabolic functions has improved considerably. PSA is no longer seen simply as a leisure activity but is now considered necessary for a healthy body and mind. PSA also has considerable social, educational and integrative implications. Can any society ignore these evident health benefits with impunity? The aims of this article are 1) to provide a quick overview of the advantages of regular, measured and reasonable PSA, as well as the potential risks of excess; 2) to discuss the quantity of PSA providing the optimal balance between benefits and risks, and the means of achieving this balance; 3) to highlight the lack of enthusiasm for PSA among the French population, and to analyze its causes, and 4) to propose a new organization designed to help more of our fellow citizens to adopt PSA, in the interests of their health and well-being.

  18. Leadership for Primary Health Care. Levels, Functions, and Requirements Based on Twelve Case Studies. Public Health Papers No. 82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flahault, Daniel; Roemer, Milton I.

    This book considers the role of and the need for primary health care leadership, drawing upon case studies and research from the World Health Organization (WHO) communities. The differing levels and functions of leadership in primary health care are delineated, with particular emphasis given to regarding the leadership concept as "effective…

  19. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    PubMed

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting.

  20. Solar Activity, Different Geomagnetic Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar

    Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.

  1. Association between educational level and health related quality of life in Spanish adults

    PubMed Central

    Regidor, E.; Barrio, G.; de la Fuente, L.; Domingo, A.; Rodriguez, C.; Alonso, J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse differences in health by educational level in Spanish adults by comparing the health dimensions of the SF-36 Heath Survey. DESIGN: Data were taken from the National Survey on Drug Use carried out in February 1996. The information was collected by home personal interview. In addition to measuring the use of legal and illegal drugs and their associated health risks, the health status of the Spanish population was analysed using the Spanish version of the SF- 36 Health Survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Absolute and standardised differences between mean score on each dimension of the SF-36 Health Survey in each educational group with respect to the group with the highest educational level. RESULTS: Perceived health status declines with decreasing educational level, except in women with second level education who have a higher mean rating than women with third level education on various health dimensions. The absolute differences in perceived health between the different categories of educational level and the reference category become larger with increasing age. The greatest differences by educational level in both men and women were found in mental health and general health among persons 25 to 44 years of age, and in physical function and general health among those 45 to 64 years. In persons aged 65 or older, the greatest differences are seen in physical function and vitality in men, and in bodily pain and emotional role in women. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of educational level on the different dimensions of perceived health may vary by sex.   PMID:10396467

  2. Public health genetic counselors: activities, skills, and sources of learning.

    PubMed

    McWalter, Kirsty M; Sdano, Mallory R; Dave, Gaurav; Powell, Karen P; Callanan, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    Specialization within genetic counseling is apparent, with 29 primary specialties listed in the National Society of Genetic Counselors' 2012 Professional Status Survey (PSS). PSS results show a steady proportion of genetic counselors primarily involved in public health, yet do not identify all those performing public health activities. Little is known about the skills needed to perform activities outside of "traditional" genetic counselor roles and the expertise needed to execute those skills. This study aimed to identify genetic counselors engaging in public health activities, the skills used, and the most influential sources of learning for those skills. Participants (N = 155) reported involvement in several public health categories: (a) Education of Public and/or Health Care Providers (n = 80, 52 %), (b) Population-Based Screening Programs (n = 70, 45 %), (c) Lobbying/Public Policy (n = 62, 40 %), (d) Public Health Related Research (n = 47, 30 %), and (e) State Chronic Disease Programs (n = 12, 8 %). Regardless of category, "on the job" was the most common primary source of learning. Genetic counseling training program was the most common secondary source of learning. Results indicate that the number of genetic counselors performing public health activities is likely higher than PSS reports, and that those who may not consider themselves "public health genetic counselors" do participate in public health activities. Genetic counselors learn a diverse skill set in their training programs; some skills are directly applicable to public health genetics, while other public health skills require additional training and/or knowledge.

  3. Health Literacy, Education Levels, and Patient Portal Usage During Hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sharon E.; Osborn, Chandra Y.; Kripalani, Sunil; Goggins, Kathryn M.; Jackson, Gretchen Purcell

    2015-01-01

    Patient portal adoption has rapidly increased, and portal usage has been associated with patients’ sociodemographics, health literacy, and education. Research on patient portals has primarily focused on the outpatient setting. We explored whether health literacy and education were associated with portal usage in an inpatient population. Among 60,159 admissions in 2012–2013, 23.3% of patients reported limited health literacy; 50.4% reported some post-secondary education; 34.4% were registered for the portal; and 23.4% of registered patients used the portal during hospitalization. Probability of registration and inpatient portal use increased with educational attainment. Health literacy was associated with registration but not inpatient use. Among admissions with inpatient use, educational attainment was associated with viewing health record data, and health literacy was associated use of appointment and health education tools. The inpatient setting may provide an opportunity to overcome barriers to patient portal adoption and reduce disparities in use of health information technologies. PMID:26958286

  4. Perceived health status and daily activity participation of older Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sor Tho; Tengku-Aizan, Hamid; Tey, Nai Peng

    2011-07-01

    This article investigates the influence of perceived health status on the daily activity participation of older Malaysians. Data from the Survey on Perceptions of Needs and Problems of the Elderly, which was conducted in 1999, were used. The negative binomial regression results show that older persons with good perceived health status reported more varieties of daily activity participation, especially among the uneducated and those with below-average self-esteem. The multinomial logistic regression model suggests that older persons with good perceived health status tended to engage daily in paid work only or with leisure activities, whereas those perceived to have poor health were more likely to engage in leisure activities only or leisure and family role activities. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle at a younger age encourages every person to monitor and take responsibility for their own health, which is a necessary strategy to ensure active participation at an older age, and thus improve their well-being.

  5. Enzymatic GST levels and overall health of mullets from contaminated Brazilian Lagoons.

    PubMed

    Bastos, F F; Hauser-Davis, R A; Tobar, S A L; Campos, R C; Ziolli, R L; Bastos, V L F Cunha; Bastos, J Cunha

    2013-01-15

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) assays in non-mammalian organisms are usually conducted inappropriately, since no previous standardization of the optimal concentrations of proteins and substrates and adequate pH is conducted. Standardization is a key task to adjust enzyme assays at their kinetically correct maximal initial velocities, if one wants these velocities to indicate the amount of enzyme in a sample. In this paper GST assays were standardized in liver cytosol to compare seasonal GST levels in liver of mullet from two contaminated lagoons in the Rio de Janeiro to those from a reference bay. GST potential as a biomarker of sublethal intoxication in this species was also evaluated. Mullet liver GST levels assayed with substrates that corresponded to three different GST isoenzymes varied throughout the year. The differences indicated that mullets are suffering from sublethal intoxication from contaminants in these lagoons. Seasonal variations of activity were relevant, since these could indicate differences in xenobiotic input into the areas. An analysis of overall mullet health condition using a morphological index (the Fulton Condition Factor) and macroscopic abnormalities corroborated the differences in GST levels, with fish from one of the sites in worse overall health condition showing lower and significantly different FCF when compared to the reference site. Therefore, GST standardized activity levels are useful biomarkers of environmental contamination for mullet.

  6. A journal-level analysis of Health Communication.

    PubMed

    Feeley, Thomas Hugh; Smith, Rachel A; Moon, Shin-Il; Anker, Ashley E

    2010-09-01

    Citation data from 2006 through 2008 were used to examine the journal citation network of Health Communication in comparison to 26 related journals indexed by Journal Citation Reports, a database published by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge. A recently advanced journal relatedness factor based on out-degree (i.e., cited journals) and in-degree (i.e., citing journals) citations was used to determine the network of peer journals. Results indicate Health Communication serves to link communication and health-related journals. Data were also reported on journal impact and 5-year journal impact factors. When compared to ISI-indexed communication journals, Health Communication is consistently ranked in the top 25% across impact factors and citations to the journal are consistent over the 7 years of analysis from 2002 through 2008. Methods of increasing the impact of Health Communication among journals in social sciences are discussed.

  7. Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.

  8. HEALTH LITERACY, MEDICATION ADHERENCE, AND BLOOD PRESSURE LEVEL AMONG HYPERTENSIVE OLDER ADULTS TREATED AT PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS.

    PubMed

    Wannasirikul, Phitchayaphat; Termsirikulchai, Lakkhana; Sujirarat, Dusit; Benjakul, Sarunya; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this study to explore the causal relationships between health literacy, individual characteristics, literacy, culture and society, cognitive ability, medication adherence, and the blood pressure levels of hypertensive older adults receiving health care services at Primary Health Care Centers in Sa Kaeo Province, Thailand. Six hundred hypertensive older adults had their blood pressure level recorded and were interviewed using questionnaires. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to determine the effect size, both direct and indirect, among factors. Almost half (48.7%) of studied subjects had inadequate health literacy, 98.3% had good medication adherence, and 80% had good blood pressure levels. The highest effect size on health literacy was literacy, followed by cognitive ability, and culture and society. Medication adherence was affected directly and indirectly by cognitive ability, literacy, and culture and society. Health literacy had not only a direct effect on medication adherence but was also the mediator. Finally, the highest effect size on blood pressure level was critical and communicative health literacy. These findings suggest that health literacy should be considered in the Health Literacy Program of the National Public Health Policy and Plan, Ministry of Public Health.

  9. Gender Differences in Rural and Urban Practice Location among Mid-Level Health Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Sally

    2007-01-01

    Context: Mid-level providers comprise an increasing proportion of the health care workforce and play a key role in providing health services in rural and underserved areas. Although women comprise the majority of mid-level providers, they are less likely to work in a rural area than men. Maldistribution of health providers between urban and rural…

  10. Development of the Patient Activation Measure for mental health.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Perrin, Nancy A; Polen, Michael R; Leo, Michael C; Hibbard, Judith H; Tusler, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Our objective was to adapt the physical health Patient Activation Measure (PAM) for use among people with mental health conditions (PAM-MH). Data came from three studies among people with chronic mental health conditions and were combined in Rasch analyses. The PAM-MH's psychometric properties equal those of the original 13-item PAM. Test-retest reliability and concurrent validity were good, and the PAM-MH showed sensitivity to change. The PAM-MH appears to be a reliable and valid measure of patient activation among individuals with mental health problems. It appears to have potential for use in assessing change in activation.

  11. Erythrocyte aldose reductase activity and sorbitol levels in diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, A.; Balakrishna, N.; Ayyagari, Radha; Padma, M.; Viswanath, K.; Petrash, J. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Activation of polyol pathway due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of diabetic complications including diabetic retinopathy (DR), a leading cause of blindness. However, the relationship between hyperglycemia-induced activation of polyol pathway in retina and DR is still uncertain. We investigated the relationship between ALR2 levels and human DR by measuring ALR2 activity and its product, sorbitol, in erythrocytes. Methods We enrolled 362 type 2 diabetic subjects (T2D) with and without DR and 66 normal subjects in this clinical case-control study. Clinical evaluation of DR in T2D patients was done by fundus examination. ALR2 activity and sorbitol levels along with glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels in erythrocytes were determined. Results T2D patients with DR showed significantly higher specific activity of ALR2 as compared to T2D patients without DR. Elevated levels of sorbitol in T2D patients with DR, as compared to T2D patients without DR, corroborated the increased ALR2 activity in erythrocytes of DR patients. However, the increased ALR2 activity was not significantly associated with diabetes duration, age, and HbA1C in both the DR group and total T2D subjects. Conclusions Levels of ALR2 activity as well as sorbitol in erythrocytes may have value as a quantitative trait to be included among other markers to establish a risk profile for development of DR. PMID:18385795

  12. The Validation of the Active Learning in Health Professions Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kammer, Rebecca; Schreiner, Laurie; Kim, Young K.; Denial, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for an assessment tool for evaluating the effectiveness of active learning strategies such as problem-based learning in promoting deep learning and clinical reasoning skills within the dual environments of didactic and clinical settings in health professions education. The Active Learning in Health Professions Scale (ALPHS)…

  13. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  14. Worksite Health Promotion Activities. 1992 National Survey. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.

    The survey reported in this document examined worksite health promotion and disease prevention activities in 1,507 private worksites in the United States. Specificlly, the survey assessed policies, practices, services, facilities, information, and activities sponsored by employers to improve the health of their employees, and assessed health…

  15. Organic foods contain higher levels of certain nutrients, lower levels of pesticides, and may provide health benefits for the consumer.

    PubMed

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2010-04-01

    The multi-billion dollar organic food industry is fueled by consumer perception that organic food is healthier (greater nutritional value and fewer toxic chemicals). Studies of the nutrient content in organic foods vary in results due to differences in the ground cover and maturity of the organic farming operation. Nutrient content also varies from farmer to farmer and year to year. However, reviews of multiple studies show that organic varieties do provide significantly greater levels of vitamin C, iron, magnesium, and phosphorus than non-organic varieties of the same foods. While being higher in these nutrients, they are also significantly lower in nitrates and pesticide residues. In addition, with the exception of wheat, oats, and wine, organic foods typically provide greater levels of a number of important antioxidant phytochemicals (anthocyanins, flavonoids, and carotenoids). Although in vitro studies of organic fruits and vegetables consistently demonstrate that organic foods have greater antioxidant activity, are more potent suppressors of the mutagenic action of toxic compounds, and inhibit the proliferation of certain cancer cell lines, in vivo studies of antioxidant activity in humans have failed to demonstrate additional benefit. Clear health benefits from consuming organic dairy products have been demonstrated in regard to allergic dermatitis.

  16. Civic Participation and Self-rated Health: A Cross-national Multi-level Analysis Using the World Value Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Saerom; Kim, Chang-yup; You, Myung Soon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Civic participation, that which directly influences important decisions in our personal lives, is considered necessary for developing a society. We hypothesized that civic participation might be related to self-rated health status. Methods: We constructed a multi-level analysis using data from the World Value Survey (44 countries, n=50 859). Results: People who participated in voting and voluntary social activities tended to report better subjective health than those who did not vote or participate in social activities, after controlling for socio-demographic factors at the individual level. A negative association with unconventional political activity and subjective health was found, but this effect disappeared in a subset analysis of only the 18 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Moreover, social participation and unconventional political participation had a statistically significant contextual association with subjective health status, but this relationship was not consistent throughout the analysis. In the analysis of the 44 countries, social participation was of borderline significance, while in the subset analysis of the OECD countries unconventional political participation was a stronger determinant of subjective health. The democratic index was a significant factor in determining self-rated health in both analyses, while public health expenditure was a significant factor in only the subset analysis. Conclusions: Despite the uncertainty of its mechanism, civic participation might be a significant determinant of the health status of a country. PMID:25652707

  17. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mental health services for children with disabilities; (iv) To improve the use of technology in the classroom by children with disabilities to enhance learning; (v) To support the use of technology, including... training; (ii) To support paperwork reduction activities, including expanding the use of technology in...

  18. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mental health services for children with disabilities; (iv) To improve the use of technology in the classroom by children with disabilities to enhance learning; (v) To support the use of technology, including... training; (ii) To support paperwork reduction activities, including expanding the use of technology in...

  19. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mental health services for children with disabilities; (iv) To improve the use of technology in the classroom by children with disabilities to enhance learning; (v) To support the use of technology, including... training; (ii) To support paperwork reduction activities, including expanding the use of technology in...

  20. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mental health services for children with disabilities; (iv) To improve the use of technology in the classroom by children with disabilities to enhance learning; (v) To support the use of technology, including... training; (ii) To support paperwork reduction activities, including expanding the use of technology in...

  1. Ethnic and Socioeconomic Comparisons of Fitness, Activity Levels, and Barriers to Exercise in High School Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; Hall, Heather L.; Lock, Robyn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if high school females differed in individual measures of health-related physical fitness, barriers to exercise, or activity level based on ethnicity or socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional sample consisting of African American (28%), Hispanic (23%), and white (49%) female high school students, 46%…

  2. Opportunities for Public Health to Increase Physical Activity Among Youths

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Joan M.; Fulton, Janet E.; Janz, Kathleen F.; Lee, Sarah M.; McKinnon, Robin A.; Pate, Russell R.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Young, Deborah Rohm; Troiano, Richard P.; Lavizzo-Mourey, Risa

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-known benefits of youths engaging in 60 or more minutes of daily physical activity, physical inactivity remains a significant public health concern. The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (PAG) provides recommendations on the amount of physical activity needed for overall health; the PAG Midcourse Report (2013) describes effective strategies to help youths meet these recommendations. Public health professionals can be dynamic change agents where youths live, learn, and play by changing environments and policies to empower youths to develop regular physical activity habits to maintain throughout life. We have summarized key findings from the PAG Midcourse Report and outlined actions that public health professionals can take to ensure that all youths regularly engage in health-enhancing physical activity. PMID:25602864

  3. The ACTIVATE study: results from a group-randomized controlled trial comparing a traditional worksite health promotion program with an activated consumer program.

    PubMed

    Terry, Paul E; Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Xi, Min; Harvey, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. This study compares a traditional worksite-based health promotion program with an activated consumer program and a control program DESIGN. Group randomized controlled trial with 18-month intervention. SETTING. Two large Midwestern companies. SUBJECTS. Three hundred and twenty employees (51% response). INTERVENTION. The traditional health promotion intervention offered population-level campaigns on physical activity, nutrition, and stress management. The activated consumer intervention included population-level campaigns for evaluating health information, choosing a health benefits plan, and understanding the risks of not taking medications as prescribed. The personal development intervention (control group) offered information on hobbies. The interventions also offered individual-level coaching for high risk individuals in both active intervention groups. MEASURES. Health risk status, general health status, consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to evaluate health information. ANALYSIS. Multivariate analyses controlled for baseline differences among the study groups. RESULTS. At the population level, compared with baseline performance, the traditional health promotion intervention improved health risk status, consumer activation, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. Compared with baseline performance, the activated consumer intervention improved consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. At the population level, however, only the activated consumer intervention improved any outcome more than the control group did; that outcome was consumer activation. At the individual level for high risk individuals, both traditional health coaching and activated consumer coaching positively affected health risk status and consumer activation. In addition, both coaching interventions improved participant ability to recognize a reliable health website. Consumer activation coaching also

  4. Health system and community level interventions for improving antenatal care coverage and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Medley, Nancy; Darzi, Andrea J; Richardson, Marty; Habiba Garga, Kesso; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    to adjust for cluster effects. Outcomes should be reported uniformly so that they are comparable to commonly-used population indicators. We recommend further cluster-RCTs of pregnant women and women in their reproductive years, using combinations of interventions and looking at outcomes that are important to pregnant women, such as maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, alongside the explanatory outcomes along the pathway of care: ANC coverage, the services provided during ANC and deliveries in health facilities. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Health system and community level interventions for improving antenatal care coverage and health outcomes What is the issue? The World Health Organization recommends at least four antenatal visits for all pregnant women. Almost half of pregnant women worldwide miss out on this level of care, and this is more problematic in low- and middle-income countries. Why is this important? Healthcare during pregnancy is a priority because poor antenatal attendance is associated with delivery of low birthweight babies and more newborn deaths. Antenatal care also provides opportunity for nutritional and health checks, such as whether a woman has a disease like malaria or has been exposed to infectious diseases such as HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) or syphilis. What evidence did we find? We reviewed randomised controlled trials that tested ways to improve the uptake of antenatal care during pregnancy. Some trials tested community-based interventions (media campaigns, education on self and infant care or financial incentives for pregnant women to attend antenatal care), while other trials looked at health systems interventions (home visits for pregnant women or provision of equipment for clinics). We included 34 trials with approximately 400,000 women. Most trials took place in low- and middle-income countries, and most trials were conducted in a way that made us feel confident about trusting the published reports. We assessed 30 of the

  5. Dog ownership and dog walking to promote physical activity and health in patients.

    PubMed

    Epping, Jacqueline N

    2011-07-01

    Lack of physical activity is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases and conditions and is associated with significant medical costs. Approximately half of adults and more than a third of adolescents and youth in the United States do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Effective population-level strategies are needed to promote activities that are practical, accessible, and sustainable and that can reach a large proportion of the population. Dog walking may be such a strategy. Walking is popular, easy, and sustainable and has a low risk of injury. Owning dogs confers many health benefits, and dog walking, in particular, can help promote physical activity and improve health. Physicians and other health care providers can play a unique and integral role in promoting physical activity among patients by recommending dog walking both to dog owners and to non-dog owners as a purposeful, enjoyable, and sustainable form of regular physical activity.

  6. Physical Activity, Health, and Well-Being: An International Scientific Consensus Conference. Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Claude; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents eight papers: "Physical Activity and Health"; "Exercise and Physical Health"; "Exercise and Physical Health: Cancer and Immune Function"; "Exercise and Psychosocial Health"; "Physical Activity, Health, and Wellbeing at Different Life Stages"; "Descriptive Epidemiology of…

  7. Impact of health system factors on changes in human resource and expenditures levels in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Narine, L

    2000-01-01

    In order to gain further insight into the system factors responsible for changes in the health workforce, this study undertook an empirical examination of the determinants of the size of the health workforce and overall health expenditures across fifteen OECD countries. Specifically, using the latest release of OECD data, the analysis estimated and evaluated the effects of variables such as the proportion of female physicians and the elderly, expenditures on ambulatory care, enrollment levels in training programs, level of public financing, and per capita income on the size of the health workforce and level of health spending between 1970-1991. The findings of this study help to place the problem of the changing health workforce within the context of the complexity of health systems. It confirms any understanding of what accounts for changes in the size of the health labor force and expenditures require disentangling the effects of variables which needs to be taken into account when considering health system reforms.

  8. Active Ways to Teach Health Concepts in the Elementary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This article provides three movement-based activities for teaching health concepts to elementary school students. Two activities focus on nutrition concepts and the other focuses on teaching body systems. Diagrams are provided to show the setup of activities, as well as links for accessing materials to help implement the activities.

  9. Is active commuting the answer to population health?

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J

    2008-01-01

    This brief review examines whether active commuting is an effective method of controlling the current obesity epidemic and enhancing the cardiovascular health of the population. Of the many potential methods of active commuting, walking and cycling are the usual choices. Children and adolescents prefer cycling, but for adults issues of safety, cycle storage and company dress codes make walking the preferred option, particularly in North American cities, where urban design and weather conditions often do not favour cycling. Active transportation is more frequent in some European countries with dedicated cycle and pedestrian paths, but in most developed societies, active transportation has declined in recent years.Attempts to increase walking behaviour in the sedentary population have had only limited success to date. A weekly gross energy expenditure of at least 4 MJ is recommended to reduce all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. This can be achieved by walking 1.9 km in 22 minutes twice per day, 5 days per week, or by cycling at 16 km/h for 11 minutes twice per day, 5 days per week. When engaged in level walking, the intensity of effort may be adequate for cardiovascular benefit in older adults, but in fit young workers, it is necessary to either increase the pace or choose a hilly route in order to induce cardio-respiratory benefit; in contrast, cycling is likely to provide an adequate cardiovascular stimulus even for young adults.Empirical data to date have yielded mixed results: a reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality has been observed more frequently in cyclists than in walkers, and more frequently in women and older men than in young active commuters. More information is needed concerning the typical weekly dose of activity provided by active commuting, and the impact of such commuting on overall attitudes towards physical activity. It is also necessary to find better methods of involving the sedentary population, through both counselling and changes

  10. Conceptualising health services in terms of level and location of care--a view from the academic health complex.

    PubMed

    Myers, J E; Pelteret, R

    1995-05-01

    The origin and characteristics of academic health complexes (AHCs) are briefly outlined, along with pressures for restructuring of health services towards primary levels of care within the primary health care (PHC) approach. Weaknesses and strengths of the AHCs together with imbalances in the overall health system of which they are part are discussed. The Cape Town AHC is used to exemplify a suggested framework for analysis and development of other AHCs in South Africa and their transformation in accordance with the PHC approach. A method of service mapping is employed to aid an appreciation of the complexity of AHC services. Planning for potential transformation may be facilitated by conceptualising services in two dimensions, viz. level and location of care. Two important additional dimensions of service component linkage are integration across levels of care along a vertical axis, and integration across different services at primary level along a horizontal axis (comprehensiveness). AHCs, however skewly developed in terms of level and location of care, are complex combinations of services. They encompass all levels of care provided both within and beyond the walls of multiple health care facilities which are located both centrally and peripherally. AHC services are managed by health professionals in specific academic disciplines. They include PHC functions at the interface between primary and specialist care provision, and community health functions which are principally located outside the health care facilities in the community.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Computing Health: Programing Problem 3, Computing Peak Blood Alcohol Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Robert S.

    1985-01-01

    The Alcohol Metabolism Program, a computer program used to compute peak blood alcohol levels, is expanded upon to include a cover page, brief introduction, and techniques for generalizing the program to calculate peak levels for any number of drinks. (DF)

  12. Impact of Physical Activity in Cardiovascular and Musculoskeletal Health: Can Motion Be Medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Gannon L.; Chughtai, Morad; Khlopas, Anton; Newman, Jared M.; Khan, Rafay; Shaffiy, Shervin; Nadhim, Ali; Bhave, Anil; Mont, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is a well-known therapeutic tool for various types of medical conditions, including vasculopathic diseases such as coronary artery disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. Additionally, increased physical activity has been proposed as a therapy to improve musculoskeletal health; however, there are conflicting reports about physical activity potentially leading to degenerative musculoskeletal disease, especially osteoarthritis (OA). Additionally, although physical activity is known to have its benefits, it is unclear as to what amount of physical activity is the most advantageous. Too much, as well as not enough exercise can have negative consequences. This could impact how physicians advise their patients about exercise intensity. Multiple studies have evaluated the effect of physical activity on various aspects of health. However, there is a paucity of systematic studies which review cardiovascular and musculoskeletal health as outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to assess how physical activity impacts these aspects of health. Specifically, we evaluated the effect of various levels of physical activity on: 1) cardiovascular and 2) musculoskeletal health. The review revealed that physical activity may decrease cardiovascular disease and improve OA symptoms, and therefore, motion can be considered a “medicine”. However, because heavy activity can potentially lead to increased OA risk, physicians should advise their patients that excessive activity can also potentially impact their health negatively, and should be done in moderation, until further study. PMID:28392856

  13. Identification and Utilization of Employer Requirements for Entry-Level Health Occupations Workers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zukowski, James J.

    The purpose of a research project was to identify employer expectations regarding entry-level competency requirements for selected assistance-level health occupations. Physicians, dentists, and other health professionals reviewed lists of competencies associated with the performance of assistance-level employees in nursing, medical laboratory, and…

  14. Estimating Impaired Waters on a County Level for Public Health Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the population-level impact of water quality on health can be difficult. Water quality data are measured at a watershed level and health data are organized at different levels of aggregation. To address this discrepancy and enable the consideration of water quality for ...

  15. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  16. Children's Physical Activity Levels during Indoor Recess Dance Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Koufoudakis, Ryann; Beighle, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children's physical activity (PA) levels remain low, and schools are being asked to assume a leadership role in PA promotion. Research suggests outdoor recess contributes to children's overall PA levels. However, similar research is not available for indoor recess, which occurs frequently due to a variety of factors. The purpose of…

  17. Movement Activity Levels on Traditional and Contemporary Playground Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl P.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth

    This study investigated playground activity levels of children in grades K-4 and compared levels of use of traditional and creative playground apparatus. The traditional playground area consisted of climbing bars, slides, ladders, chin bars, swings, see saws, and a merry-go-round. The creative playground contained tire hurdles, tire walk, tire…

  18. The Role of Various Curriculum Models on Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Dean O.; Tarr, Susan J.; Killion, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that physical education curricula can be highly effective in increasing physical activity levels at school (Sallis & Owen, 1999). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of various curriculum models on physical activity. Total steps were measured on 1,111 subjects and three curriculum models were studied…

  19. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  20. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  1. Personalized Strategies to Activate and Empower Patients in Health Care and Reduce Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie; Mullins, C. Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Designing culturally sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients' involvement in their treatment and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and…

  2. Prevalence and correlates of local health department activities to address mental health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Purtle, Jonathan; Klassen, Ann C; Kolker, Jennifer; Buehler, James W

    2016-01-01

    Mental health has been recognized as a public health priority for nearly a century. Little is known, however, about what local health departments (LHDs) do to address the mental health needs of the populations they serve. Using data from the 2013 National Profile of Local Health Departments - a nationally representative survey of LHDs in the United States (N=505) - we characterized LHDs' engagement in eight mental health activities, factors associated with engagement, and estimated the proportion of the U.S. population residing in jurisdictions where these activities were performed. We used Handler's framework of the measurement of public health systems to select variables and examined associations between LHD characteristics and engagement in mental health activities using bivariate analyses and multilevel, multivariate logistic regression. Assessing gaps in access to mental healthcare services (39.3%) and implementing strategies to improve access to mental healthcare services (32.8%) were the most common mental health activities performed. LHDs that provided mental healthcare services were significantly more likely to perform population-based mental illness prevention activities (adjusted odds ratio: 7.1; 95% CI: 5.1, 10.0) and engage in policy/advocacy activities to address mental health (AOR: 3.9; 95% CI: 2.7, 5.6). Our study suggests that many LHDs are engaged in activities to address mental health, ranging from healthcare services to population-based interventions, and that LHDs that provide healthcare services are more likely than others to perform mental health activities. These findings have implications as LHDs reconsider their roles in the era of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and LHD accreditation.

  3. Definitions: Health, Fitness, and Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.; Pangrazi, Robert P.; Franks, B. Don

    2000-01-01

    This paper defines a variety of fitness components, using a simple multidimensional hierarchical model that is consistent with recent definitions in the literature. It groups the definitions into two broad categories: product and process. Products refer to states of being such as physical fitness, health, and wellness. They are commonly referred…

  4. Reflections on Physical Activity and Health: What Should We Recommend?

    PubMed

    Warburton, Darren E R; Bredin, Shannon S D

    2016-04-01

    The health benefits of regular physical activity are irrefutable; virtually everyone can benefit from being active. The evidence is overwhelming with risk reductions of at least 20%-30% for more than 25 chronic medical conditions and premature mortality. Even higher risk reductions (ie, ≥ 50%) are observed when objective measures of physical fitness are taken. International physical activity guidelines generally recommend 150 minutes per week of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. A critical review of the literature indicates that half of this volume of physical activity might lead to marked health benefits. There is compelling evidence to support health promotion strategies that emphasize that health benefits can be accrued at a lower volume and/or intensity of physical activity. Public health policies are needed that reduce the barriers to physical activity participation such that everyone can reap the benefits of physical activity. It is also important to highlight that sedentary time (particularly sitting time) carries independent health risks. The simple message of "move more and sit less" likely is more understandable by contemporary society and is formed on the basis of a strong body of evidence. For practitioners who work directly with clients, it is recommended that an individualized prescription (dosage) that takes into consideration the unique characteristics and needs of the client is provided. Physical activity or exercise promotion should not be done in isolation; it should be part of an integrated approach to enhance healthy lifestyle behaviours.

  5. Human Health Relevance of Pharmaceutically Active Compounds in Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Khan, Usman; Nicell, Jim

    2015-05-01

    In Canada, as many as 20 pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been detected in samples of treated drinking water. The presence of these PhACs in drinking water raises important questions as to the human health risk posed by their potential appearance in drinking water supplies and the extent to which they indicate that other PhACs are present but have not been detected using current analytical methods. Therefore, the goal of the current investigation was to conduct a screening-level assessment of the human health risks posed by the aquatic release of an evaluation set of 335 selected PhACs. Predicted and measured concentrations were used to estimate the exposure of Canadians to each PhAC in the evaluation set. Risk evaluations based on measurements could only be performed for 17 PhACs and, of these, all were found to pose a negligible risk to human health when considered individually. The same approach to risk evaluation, but based on predicted rather than measured environmental concentrations, suggested that 322 PhACs of the evaluation set, when considered individually, are expected to pose a negligible risk to human health due to their potential presence in drinking waters. However, the following 14 PhACs should be prioritized for further study: triiodothyronine, thyroxine, ramipril and its metabolite ramiprilat, candesartan, lisinopril, atorvastatin, lorazepam, fentanyl, atenolol, metformin, enalaprilat, morphine, and irbesartan. Finally, the currently available monitoring data for PhACs in Canadian surface and drinking waters was found to be lacking, irrespective of whether their suitability was assessed based on risk posed, predicted exposure concentrations, or potency.

  6. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    van Weert, Julia CM; Haven, Carola J; Smit, Edith G

    2015-01-01

    Background Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective The aim of this paper is to investigate what features of spoken health animations improve information recall and attitudes and whether there are differences between health literacy groups. Methods We conducted an online experiment among 231 participants aged 55 years or older with either low or high health literacy. A 2 (spoken vs written text) x 2 (illustration vs animation) design was used. Participants were randomly exposed to one of the four experimental messages, all providing the same information on colorectal cancer screening. Results The results showed that, among people with low health literacy, spoken messages about colorectal cancer screening improved recall (P=.03) and attitudes (P=.02) compared to written messages. Animations alone did not improve recall, but when combined with spoken text, they significantly improved recall in this group (P=.02). When exposed to spoken animations, people with low health literacy recalled the same amount of information as their high health literate counterparts (P=.12), whereas in all other conditions people with high health literacy recalled more information compared to low health literate individuals. For people with low health literacy, positive attitudes mediated the relationship between spoken text and the intention to have a colorectal cancer screening (b=.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.25). Conclusions We conclude that spoken animation is the best way to communicate complex health information to people with low health literacy. This format can even bridge the information processing gap between audiences with low and high health literacy as the recall differences between the two groups are eliminated. As animations do not negatively influence high health

  7. Commercial activities and the promotion of health in schools.

    PubMed

    Raine, Gary

    2013-11-01

    Many companies nowadays consider schools to be an important setting for marketing to children. However, important concerns can be raised from a health promotion perspective about the potential negative impact of commercial activities on the health and well-being of pupils. As this discussion paper will demonstrate, some commercial activities raise concerns in relation to physical health and obesity, not only by potentially undermining formal curriculum messages, but also through the active promotion of specific products, particularly those high in fat, sugar or salt. Nonetheless, the issues raised by commercial activities are not solely limited to effects on physical health. By allowing commercial activities, schools risk instilling in pupils consumer-orientated values. This is significant as such values have been linked to the development of poor health and well-being. Furthermore, the presence in schools of commercial activities will also militate against informed decision-making and be disempowering. There is also evidence that business-sponsored teaching materials can contain biased and misleading information. The potential negative impacts of commercial activities are inconsistent with goals in relation to the promotion of health and the principles of health-promoting schools.

  8. Steps for Improving Physical Activity Orientation Among Health-care Providers of Older Cardiovascular Patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Attaining appropriate levels of physical activity can have many potential physiological and psychological benefits in older adults with cardiovascular disease. However, these individuals often report low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behavior. Older adults encounter many potential “barriers” to physical activity, but numerous studies have demonstrated the ability to positively influence this important health behavior using well-established behavior change theories and models. The information provided in this review is directed at health-care providers who have the potential to impact physical activity behaviors during regular, often brief, clinical interactions. In addition to providing the latest physical activity recommendations, this update will provide a brief summary of some of the more widely used behavioral skills and strategies for promoting physical activity in older adults with cardiovascular disease. PMID:25396112

  9. Teaching at the Secondary Level: Wisdom from Veteran Health Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransdell, Lynda B.; Grosshans, Onie; Trunnell, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study explored factors that helped veteran public school health educators sustain enthusiasm in the classroom throughout their careers. Twelve Caucasian participants, seven men and five women with 18 to 28 years of public school teaching experience (mean age = 49 years, mean experience = 24 years), were interviewed. Participants…

  10. Age-associated changes in the level of physical activity in elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Daisuke; Nishida, Yuusuke; Fujita, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify how light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity in older adults changes with age, subdividing physical activity according to intensity levels, by using an accelerometer. [Subjects] Older adults living independently in the community were included (n = 106, age: 65–85 years). [Methods] A triaxial accelerometer was used to measure the amount of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity (1–2.9, 3–5.9, and ≥6 metabolic equivalents, respectively) and inactive time over 7 days. Light- and moderate-intensity physical activity levels were further subdivided into 1–1.9, 2–2.9, 3–3.9, and 4–5.9 metabolic equivalents, respectively. [Results] The amount of moderate-intensity physical activity at both sub-levels showed significant inverse correlations with age (r = −0.34, −0.33, respectively), but this was not seen with other levels. Both levels of moderate-intensity physical activity were independently predicted by age using multiple regression analysis adjusted for gender and body mass index. [Conclusion] These results suggest that understanding the reduction in moderate-intensity physical activity with age in older adults, subdivided according to intensity level, could be a useful index to increase the amount of higher intensity physical activity in stages, considering individual health conditions. PMID:26834332

  11. The usefulness of circulating adipokine levels for the assessment of obesity-related health problems

    PubMed Central

    Inadera, Hidekuni

    2008-01-01

    Because the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent years, one of the key targets of public health is obesity and its associated pathological conditions. Obesity occurs as a result of white adipose tissue enlargement, caused by adipocyte hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy. Recently, endocrine aspects of adipose tissue have become an active research area and these adipose tissue-derived factors are referred to as adipokines. These adipokines interact with a range of processes in many different organ systems and influence a various systemic phenomena. Therefore, dysregulated production of adipokines has been found to participate in the development of metabolic and vascular diseases related to obesity. The obese state is also known to be associated with increased local and systemic inflammation. Adipokines influence not only systemic insulin resistance and have pathophysiological roles in the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, but also contribute toward an increase in local and systemic inflammation. Thus, circulating levels of adipokines can be used as high-throughput biomarkers to assess the obesity-related health problems, including low grade inflammation. This review focuses on the usefulness of measuring circulating adipokine levels for the assessment of obesity-related health problems. PMID:18773088

  12. Changes to the Design of the National Health Interview Survey to Support Enhanced Monitoring of Health Reform Impacts at the State Level

    PubMed Central

    Blewett, Lynn A.; Dahlen, Heather M.; Spencer, Donna; Rivera Drew, Julia A.; Lukanen, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Since 1957, the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)’s National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), has been the primary source of information for monitoring health and health care use of the U.S. population at the national level. The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 generated new needs for data to monitor its implementation and evaluate its effectiveness. In response, the NCHS has taken steps to enhance the content of the NHIS in several key areas and positioned the NHIS as a source of population health information at the national and state levels. This paper reviews recent changes to the NHIS that support enhanced health reform monitoring, including new questions and response categories, sampling design changes to improve state-level analysis, and enhanced dissemination activities. We conclude with a discussion about the importance of the NHIS, the continued need for state-level analysis, and suggestions for future consideration. PMID:27631739

  13. The new health-related top-level domains are coming: will cureforcancer.health go to the highest bidder?

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2014-03-05

    In 2012, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) opened a new round of applications for generic top-level domain (gTLD) names, receiving 1930 applications, of which at least 18 were related to health (eg, ".doctor", ".health", ".med"). The entry of new, commercial players applying to create health-related names reopens the debate on the role of international organizations, governments, non-governmental organizations, and other stakeholders regarding the safeguards and policies needed to protect consumers.

  14. Mapping heatwave health risk at the community level for public health action

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Climate change poses unprecedented challenges, ranging from global and local policy challenges to personal and social action. Heat-related deaths are largely preventable, but interventions for the most vulnerable populations need improvement. Therefore, the prior identification of high risk areas at the community level is required to better inform planning and prevention. We aimed to demonstrate a simple and flexible conceptual framework relying upon satellite thermal data and other digital data with the goal of easily reproducing this framework in a variety of urban configurations. Results The study area encompasses Rennes, a medium-sized French city. A Landsat ETM + image (60 m resolution) acquired during a localized heatwave (June 2001) was used to estimate land surface temperature (LST) and derive a hazard index. A land-use regression model was performed to predict the LST. Vulnerability was assessed through census data describing four dimensions (socio-economic status, extreme age, population density and building obsolescence). Then, hazard and vulnerability indices were combined to deliver a heatwave health risk index. The LST patterns were quite heterogeneous, reflecting the land cover mosaic inside the city boundary, with hotspots of elevated temperature mainly observed in the city center. A spatial error regression model was highly predictive of the spatial variation in the LST (R2 = 0.87) and was parsimonious. Three land cover descriptors (NDVI, vegetation and water fractions) were negatively linked with the LST. A sensitivity analysis (based on an image acquired on July 2000) yielded similar results. Southern areas exhibited the most vulnerability, although some pockets of higher vulnerability were observed northeast and west of the city. The heatwave health risk map showed evidence of infra-city spatial clustering, with the highest risks observed in a north–south central band. Another sensitivity analysis gave a very high

  15. Program Collaboration and Service Integration Activities Among HIV Programs in 59 U.S. Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Lauren; Dunbar, Erica; Aquino, Gustavo A.; Nesheim, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We identified the level and type of program collaboration and service integration (PCSI) among HIV prevention programs in 59 CDC-funded health department jurisdictions. Methods Annual progress reports (APRs) completed by all 59 health departments funded by CDC for HIV prevention activities were reviewed for collaborative and integrated activities reported by HIV programs for calendar year 2009. We identified associations between PCSI activities and funding, AIDS diagnosis rate, and organizational integration. Results HIV programs collaborated with other health department programs through data-related activities, provider training, and providing funding for sexually transmitted disease (STD) activities in 24 (41%), 31 (53%), and 16 (27%) jurisdictions, respectively. Of the 59 jurisdictions, 57 (97%) reported integrated HIV and STD testing at the same venue, 39 (66%) reported integrated HIV and tuberculosis testing, and 26 (44%) reported integrated HIV and viral hepatitis testing. Forty-five (76%) jurisdictions reported providing integrated education/outreach activities for HIV and at least one other disease. Twenty-six (44%) jurisdictions reported integrated partner services among HIV and STD programs. Overall, the level of PCSI activities was not associated with HIV funding, AIDS diagnoses, or organizational integration. Conclusions HIV programs in health departments collaborate primarily with STD programs. Key PCSI activities include integrated testing, integrated education/outreach, and training. Future assessments are needed to evaluate PCSI activities and to identify the level of collaboration and integration among prevention programs. PMID:24385647

  16. "Screw health": representations of sex as a health-promoting activity in medical and popular literature.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kristina

    2011-06-01

    Recently, scientific and popular press articles have begun to represent sex as a health-promoting activity. A number of scientific studies have identified possible health benefits of sexual activity, including increased lifespan and decreased risk of certain types of cancers. These scientific findings have been widely reported on in the popular press. This "sex for health" discourse claims that sexual activity leads to quantifiable physical and mental health benefits in areas not directly related to sexuality. Analyzing this discourse provides an opportunity to better understand both broader health promotion discourses and current norms and anxieties about sexuality. In this article, I place this "sex for health" discourse within the context of broader health promotion discourses and within the context of a number of historical and contemporary discourses connecting health and sexuality. I argue that although the "sex for health" discourse may serve to de-stigmatize sexual activity for some, it may also increase pressure on others to be sexually active and may further pathologize sexual "dysfunction." In addition, these representations often serve to further privilege a normative form of sexual behavior - coitus in the context of a monogamous heterosexual partnership - at the expense of non-normative sexual desires, identities, and practices.

  17. Generic versus specific competencies of entry-level public health graduates: employers' perceptions in Poland, the UK, and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Biesma, Regien G; Pavlova, Milena; Vaatstra, Rina; van Merode, Godefridus G; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Smith, Tony; Groot, Wim

    2008-08-01

    Constant changes in society and the public health domain force public health professionals into new roles and the development of new competencies. Public health professionals will need to be trained to respond to this challenge. The aim of this comparative study among Poland, the UK and the Netherlands is to identify competence needs for Master of Public Health graduates entering the labour market from a European perspective. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to employers in the three countries, rating the importance of competency in public health on a master's level. In all three countries, interpersonal competencies, like team working and communication skills, are rated as highly important. However, employers in the UK and Poland generally rate public health specific competencies as much more important than their Dutch colleagues. It is concluded that while public health specific knowledge is providing a useful starting point for entry-level public health professionals, employers increasingly recognise the value of generic competencies such as communication and team working skills. The results suggest a stronger emphasis on teaching methods that encourage active learning and the integration of skills, which is crucial for enhancing graduates' employability, and foster an open attitude to multidisciplinary working, which is essential in modern health care.

  18. A Survey of Health-Related Activities on Second Life

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Leslie; Wilson, Kumanan; Morra, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Background Increasingly, governments, health care agencies, companies, and private groups have chosen Second Life as part of their Web 2.0 communication strategies. Second Life offers unique design features for disseminating health information, training health professionals, and enabling patient education for both academic and commercial health behavior research. Objectives This study aimed to survey and categorize the range of health-related activities on Second Life; to examine the design attributes of the most innovative and popular sites; and to assess the potential utility of Second Life for the dissemination of health information and for health behavior change. Methods We used three separate search strategies to identify health-related sites on Second Life. The first used the application’s search engine, entering both generic and select illness-specific keywords, to seek out sites. The second identified sites through a comprehensive review of print, blog, and media sources discussing health activities on Second Life. We then visited each site and used a snowball method to identify other health sites until we reached saturation (no new health sites were identified). The content, user experience, and chief purpose of each site were tabulated as well as basic site information, including user traffic data and site size. Results We found a wide range of health-related activities on Second Life, and a diverse group of users, including organizations, groups, and individuals. For many users, Second Life activities are a part of their Web 2.0 communication strategy. The most common type of health-related site in our sample (n = 68) were those whose principle aim was patient education or to increase awareness about health issues. The second most common type of site were support sites, followed by training sites, and marketing sites. Finally, a few sites were purpose-built to conduct research in SL or to recruit participants for real-life research. Conclusions Studies

  19. Integrating federal health care resources at the local level.

    PubMed

    Simmons, J

    1989-01-01

    Hospitals throughout the country are increasingly sharing health services, jointly purchasing supplies, and merging. The Veterans Administration (VA)-Department of Defense (DoD) Health Resources Sharing Law of 1982 (PL 97-174) has encouraged much closer relationships between hospitals of these agencies than had existed previously. All VA hospitals within 50 miles of a military treatment facility now have multiservice agreements. Before passage of the law, only a handful of facilities were involved in limited sharing. Closer relationships have led to expanded care for federal beneficiaries at considerable cost savings. In Albuquerque, New Mexico, for example, the VA Medical Center houses the VA and Air Force hospital operations, obviating the need for a separate freestanding hospital. The lack of VA authority to receive reimbursement from the Civilian Health and Medical Program for the Uniformed Services and a lack of a reimbursement incentive for military hospitals to share are identified as factors preventing greater coordination. Even greater local integration of services is likely to occur in the future.

  20. School-Based Health Promotion Initiative Increases Children's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluss, Patricia; Lorigan, Devin; Kinsky, Suzanne; Nikolajski, Cara; McDermott, Anne; Bhat, Kiran B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity increases health risk, and modest physical activity can impact that risk. Schools have an opportunity to help children become more active. Purpose: This study implemented a program offering extra school-day activity opportunities in a rural school district where 37% of students were obese or overweight in 2005 and…

  1. Health Insurance Stability and Health Status: Do Family-Level Coverage Patterns Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Robert B.; Garasky, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Being uninsured affects one's ability to access medical services and maintain health. Using longitudinal data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, the authors investigated how individual and family insurance coverage affects adult health. They found that health insurance coverage often varies across family members and changes…

  2. Let’s move our health! The experience of 40 physical activity motivational workshops

    PubMed

    Bouté, Catherine; Cailliez, Elisabeth; D Hour, Alain; Goxe, Didier; Gusto, Gaëlle; Copin, Nane; Lantieri, Olivier

    2016-10-19

    Aims: To set up physical activity promotion workshops in health centres to help people with a sedentary lifestyle achieve an adequate level of physical activity. Methods: This health programme, called ‘Bougeons Notre Santé’ (Let’s move our health) has been implemented since 2006 by four health centres in the Pays de la Loire region, in France. This article describes implementation of the programme, its feasibility, how it can be integrated into a global preventive approach and its outcomes on promoting more physical activity. The “Let’s move our health!” programme comprises four group meetings with participants over a period of several months. At these meetings, participants discuss, exchange and monitor their qualitative and quantitative level of physical activity. Realistic and achievable goals are set in consultation with each participant in relation to their personal circumstances and are monitored with a pedometer and a follow-up diary. Support on healthy eating is also provided. This programme is an opportunity to promote health and refer participants to existing local resources. Results: Forty groups, comprising a total of 275 people, have participated in the programme since 2006. After the four meetings, participants had increased their physical activity level by an average of 723 steps per day and 85% reported that they had changed their eating habits. Conclusion: This health promotion programme is feasible and effective: an increase in the physical activity of participants was observed, together with a favourable impact on perceived health, well-being and social links. These workshops are integrated into a network of associations and institutional partners and could be implemented by similar social or health organisations.

  3. John Henryism Active Coping, Acculturation, and Psychological Health in Korean Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jeongok G; Barksdale, Debra J; James, Sherman A; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2015-11-23

    This study aimed to explore the levels of John Henryism (JH) active coping and its association with acculturation status and psychological health (specifically perceived stress, acculturative stress, anxiety, and depression) in Korean immigrants to the United States. In 102 Korean immigrants, JH active coping was measured by the JH Scale; acculturation by the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale; perceived stress by the Perceived Stress Scale; acculturative stress by the Social, Attitudinal, Familial, and Environmental Scale; anxiety by the State Anxiety Subscale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; and depression by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The levels of JH active coping in this sample of Korean immigrants appear to be lower than the levels reported in other racial groups. Independent of demographic factors, JH active coping was a significant predictor of higher acculturation status and better psychological health as indicated by lower levels of perceived stress, acculturative stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms.

  4. A Study of the Competencies Needed of Entry-Level Academic Health Sciences Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philbrick, Jodi Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the professional and personal competencies that entry-level academic health sciences librarians should possess from the perspectives of academic health sciences library directors, library and information sciences (LIS) educators who specialize in educating health sciences librarians, and individuals who…

  5. California Health Services/Educational Activities. Consortium Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles H.

    Profiles are presented of each of the 10 consortia that make up the California Health Services/Education Activities (HS/EA) network (new relationships between educational facilities where health care manpower is trained in the community settings where they practice). The first part of the booklet is a comparative analysis of (1) Area Health…

  6. Healthy and Active Ageing: Social Capital in Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…

  7. Evaluation of HIV Prevention and Comprehensive Health Education Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Gloria; And Others

    This study was undertaken to evaluate Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention and comprehensive health activities in public secondary schools in Mississippi. The Comprehensive School Health Curriculum (CSHC), for implementation in junior, middle, and senior high schools, was designed to promote improved knowledge and behaviors related to the…

  8. Activity Spaces and Urban Adolescent Substance Use and Emotional Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.; Korpela, Kalevi

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed routine locations (activity spaces) of urban adolescents enrolled in a substance abuse treatment program to understand the relationship between their spatial lives and health outcomes such as substance use and mental health. Sixty-eight adolescents were interviewed and produced a list of 199 locations identified as most…

  9. Measurement error of self-reported physical activity levels in New York City: assessment and correction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungwoo; Wyker, Brett; Bartley, Katherine; Eisenhower, Donna

    2015-05-01

    Because it is difficult to objectively measure population-level physical activity levels, self-reported measures have been used as a surveillance tool. However, little is known about their validity in populations living in dense urban areas. We aimed to assess the validity of self-reported physical activity data against accelerometer-based measurements among adults living in New York City and to apply a practical tool to adjust for measurement error in complex sample data using a regression calibration method. We used 2 components of data: 1) dual-frame random digit dialing telephone survey data from 3,806 adults in 2010-2011 and 2) accelerometer data from a subsample of 679 survey participants. Self-reported physical activity levels were measured using a version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, whereas data on weekly moderate-equivalent minutes of activity were collected using accelerometers. Two self-reported health measures (obesity and diabetes) were included as outcomes. Participants with higher accelerometer values were more likely to underreport the actual levels. (Accelerometer values were considered to be the reference values.) After correcting for measurement errors, we found that associations between outcomes and physical activity levels were substantially deattenuated. Despite difficulties in accurately monitoring physical activity levels in dense urban areas using self-reported data, our findings show the importance of performing a well-designed validation study because it allows for understanding and correcting measurement errors.

  10. Physical Activity Levels of Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Valderi Abreu; Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; Decimo, Juliana Pereira; de Souza, William Cordeiro; Monteiro, Anna Louise Stellfeld; Lahard, Ian; França, Suzana Nesi; Leite, Neiva

    2017-01-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in comparison with healthy scholar participants. Total of 154 teenagers (T1D=45 and CON=109). Height, weight, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), and the level of physical activity by the Bouchard's Physical Activity Record were measured, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in T1D. The VO2 max was lower in the T1D (38.38 ± 7.54) in comparison with the CON (42.44 ± 4.65; p<0.05). The VO2max had correlation with the amount of time of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (r = 0.63; p = 0.0001) and an inverse correlation with sedentary activities (r = -0.46; p = 0.006). In the T1D the levels of HbA1c had an inverse correlation with the amount of time of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (r = -0.34; p = 0.041) and correlation with the BMI z-score (r = 0.43; p = 0.017). Only 37,8% of the participants in the T1D reached the adequate amount of daily moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, in the CON 81,7% reached the WHO's recommendation.

  11. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  12. Longer-term increased cortisol levels in young people with mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, Kareen; Lin, Ashleigh; Reniers, Renate L.E.P.; Wood, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance of hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis activity is commonly reported in a range of mental disorders in blood, saliva and urine samples. This study aimed to look at longer-term cortisol levels and their association with clinical symptoms. Hair strands of 30 young people (16–25 years) presenting with mental health problems (Mage±SD=21±2.4, 26 females) and 28 healthy controls (HC, Mage±SD=20±2.9, 26 females) were analyzed for cortisol concentrations, representing the past 6 months prior to hair sampling. Clinical participants completed an assessment on psychiatric symptoms, functioning and lifestyle factors. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Hair cortisol concentrations representing the past 3 (but not 3–6) months were significantly increased in clinical participants compared to HC. Perceived stress in the past month was significantly higher in clinical participants compared to HC, but not significantly correlated with hair cortisol. Hair cortisol levels were not significantly associated with any other measures. Hair segment analyses revealed longer-term increased levels of cortisol in the past 3 months in early mental health problems. Further insight into the role of cortisol on the pathogenesis of mental illnesses requires longitudinal studies relating cortisol to psychopathology and progression of illness. PMID:26749569

  13. Longer-term increased cortisol levels in young people with mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Kareen; Lin, Ashleigh; Reniers, Renate L E P; Wood, Stephen J

    2016-02-28

    Disturbance of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is commonly reported in a range of mental disorders in blood, saliva and urine samples. This study aimed to look at longer-term cortisol levels and their association with clinical symptoms. Hair strands of 30 young people (16-25 years) presenting with mental health problems (Mage±SD=21±2.4, 26 females) and 28 healthy controls (HC, Mage±SD=20±2.9, 26 females) were analyzed for cortisol concentrations, representing the past 6 months prior to hair sampling. Clinical participants completed an assessment on psychiatric symptoms, functioning and lifestyle factors. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Hair cortisol concentrations representing the past 3 (but not 3-6) months were significantly increased in clinical participants compared to HC. Perceived stress in the past month was significantly higher in clinical participants compared to HC, but not significantly correlated with hair cortisol. Hair cortisol levels were not significantly associated with any other measures. Hair segment analyses revealed longer-term increased levels of cortisol in the past 3 months in early mental health problems. Further insight into the role of cortisol on the pathogenesis of mental illnesses requires longitudinal studies relating cortisol to psychopathology and progression of illness.

  14. Use of a consumer market activity monitoring and feedback device improves exercise capacity and activity levels in COPD.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Brian; Kaljo, Indira; Donnelly, Seamas

    2014-01-01

    COPD is associated with a gradual decline in physical activity, which itself contributes to a worsening of the underlying condition. Strategies that improve physical activity levels are critical to halt this cycle. Wearable sensor based activity monitoring and persuasive feedback might offer a potential solution. However it is not clear just how much intervention might be needed in this regard - i.e. whether programmes need to be tailored specifically for the target clinical population or whether more simple activity monitoring and feedback solutions, such as that offered in consumer market devices, might be sufficient. This research was carried out to investigate the impact of 4 weeks of using an off the shelf consumer market activity monitoring and feedback application on measures of physical activity, exercise capacity, and health related quality of life in a population of 10 Stage I and II COPD patients. Results demonstrate a significant and positive effect on exercise capacity (measured using a 6-minute walk test) and activity levels (measured in terms of average number of steps per hour) yet no impact on health related quality of life (St Georges Respiratory Disease Questionnaire).

  15. The SDGs Will Require Integrated Agriculture, Nutrition, and Health at the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Canavan, Chelsey R; Graybill, Lauren; Fawzi, Wafaie; Kinabo, Joyce

    2016-03-01

    Child malnutrition is an urgent and complex issue and requires integrated approaches across agriculture, nutrition, and health. This issue has gained prominence at the global level. While national-level efforts are underway in many countries, there is little information on how to integrate at the community level. Here, we offer a community-based approach using cadres of agricultural and community health workers, drawing on qualitative work we have conducted in Tanzania. Agriculture is an important driver of nutritional and health outcomes, and improving child health will require practical solutions for integration that can add to the evidence base.

  16. [Physical activity: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Krug, S; Jordan, S; Mensink, G B M; Müters, S; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2013-05-01

    Regular physical activity can have a positive effect on health at any age. Today's lifestyles, however, can often be characterised as sedentary. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity and sports has become an integral part of public health measures. The representative data of adults aged 18 to 79 years in Germany obtained from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) provide an overview of self-estimated current physical activity behaviour. The results show that one third of the adult population claims to pay close attention to reaching a sufficient level of physical activity and one fourth participates in sports for at least 2 h/week on a regular basis. Thus, the percentage of adults regularly engaged in sports has increased compared to the previous "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998". Still, four out of five adults do not achieve at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-intensity physical activity as recommended by the World Health Organisation. Consequently, future individual-level and population-level interventions should focus on target group-specific measures while continuing to promote regular physical activity in all segments of the population. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  17. Comparison of two-level and three-level classifications of moisture-damaged dwellings in relation to health effects.

    PubMed

    Haverinen, U; Husman, T; Vahteristo, M; Koskinen, O; Moschandreas, D; Nevalainen, A; Pekkanen, J

    2001-09-01

    A total of 630 randomly selected dwellings were surveyed for visible signs of moisture damage by civil engineers, and questionnaire responses were collected from the occupants (a total of 1,017 adults) to analyse the association between moisture damage and occupant health. A three-level grading system was developed, which took into account the number of damage sites in buildings and estimated the severity of the damage. In the present study, this grading system was tested as an improved model of moisture damage-related exposure in comparison to a conventional two-category system: based on independent, technical criteria it also allowed dose-response to be estimated. The questionnaire probed 28 individual health symptoms, based on earlier reported associations with building moisture and mould-related exposure. Criteria in evaluating the goodness of the selected exposure model were (1) dose-responsiveness and (2) higher risk compared to a two-level classification. Dose-responsiveness was observed with the three-level classification in 7, higher risk in 10, and both criteria in 5 out of 28 health symptoms. Two-level classification had higher risk in 4 health symptoms. Dose-dependent risk increases for respiratory infections and lower respiratory symptoms, and recurrent irritative and skin symptoms were observed with the three-level classification using symptom score variables. Although the results did not unambiguously support the three-level model, they underline the importance of developing more accurate exposure models in assessing the severity of moisture damage.

  18. Knowledge of Maternal and Newborn Care Among Primary Level Health Workers in Kapilvastu District of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, D; Paudel, R; Gautam, K; Gautam, S; Upadhyaya, T

    2016-01-01

    Background: Higher maternal and neonatal deaths are common in low- and middle-income countries; due to less access to skilled help. Adequate knowledge and skills on maternal and newborn care (MNC) of community health workers can improve maternal and newborn health. Aims: To identify the knowledge of primary level health workers on some components of MNC. Subjects and Methods: Respondents were selected using simple random sampling method. For collecting the data, enumerators visited health institutions for 2 months from 1st October to 31st November 2012, and structured interview schedule was used to gather the information. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of one hundred and thirty-seven primary level health workers in Kapilvastu district, Nepal. The Chi-square test was employed to examine the association between the knowledge of health workers on MNC and designation and work experience. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: In a total of 137 primary level health workers, more than half 53.2% (73/137) were senior auxiliary health workers/health assistant. Health workers having correct knowledge on contents of MNC were-registration 32.1% (44/137), major components of antenatal care 57.7% (79/137), danger signs of pregnancy 39.4% (54/137), five cleans 59.1% (81/137), postnatal health problems 54.0% (74/137), majority to health action to newborn care, newborn bath and meaning of exclusive breastfeeding. There was a statistical association between designation of health workers and above-mentioned components of MNC (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The differentials in the knowledge of MNC among primary level health suggest improving knowledge of the grass root level health workers with appropriate training and development programs. PMID:27144073

  19. Play equipment, physical activity opportunities, and children's activity levels at childcare.

    PubMed

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Van Kann, Dave H H; Jansen, Maria W J

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between physical activity facilities at childcare (e.g., play equipment) and physical activity of 2- and 3-year olds. Observations of physical activity intensity were performed among 175 children at 9 childcare centers in The Netherlands, using the OSRAC-P. The physical activity facilities were assessed for indoors and outdoors separately, using the EPAO instrument. Regular (single-level) multivariate and multilevel linear regression analyses examined the association of the facilities and child characteristics (age and sex) with children's activity levels. Various physical activity facilities were available in all childcare centers (e.g., balls). Riding toys and a small playing area were associated with lower indoor physical activity levels. Outdoor physical activity levels were positively associated with the availability of portable jumping equipment and the presence of a structured track on the playground. Portable slides, fixed swinging equipment, and sandboxes were negatively associated with outdoor activity levels. In addition, the 3-year old children were more active outdoors than the 2-year olds. In conclusion, not all physical activity facilities at childcare were indeed positively associated with children's activity levels. The current findings provide concrete leads for childcare providers regarding which factors they can improve in the physical environment to facilitate children's physical activity.

  20. Respiratory health and dust levels in cottonseed mills.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R N; Carr, J; Glindmeyer, H; Diem, J; Weill, H

    1977-01-01

    Four cottonseed mills in the southern United States contained high levels of total and respirable dust. A survey of 172 workers showed low prevalences of byssinosis (2-3%) and chronic bronchitis (4%). Mean baseline (out of dust) lung function values were normal. Mean functional declines over the working shift were present on Monday and absent on Friday, indicating an acute bronchoconstrictor response. Despite limitations in translating measured dust levels into estimates of individual exposures, the overall dose-response relationship seems to differ from that found in the cotton textile industry. PMID:578018

  1. Contribution of science to farm-level aquatic animal health management.

    PubMed

    Corsin, F; Giorgetti, G; Mohan, C V

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of science to farm level disease management is a story of two worlds. The development of effective vaccines has allowed for the control of important salmonid diseases such as furunculosis, yersiniosis and vibriosis and has significantly reduced farmers' reliance on antibiotics. Control of diseases for which cost-effective vaccines have yet to be developed has been achieved through the development of increasingly targeted antibiotics and chemotherapeutants. Increasingly, accurate and rapid diagnostic and water quality tests have allowed farmers to improve farm-level aquatic animal health management. In developed countries, these achievements have been possible thanks to the strong link between science and farm management. This link has been assisted by the presence of strong farmer organizations capable of coordinating research projects and hosting meetings at which scientific information is discussed and disseminated. Although Asia is responsible for the production of about 90% of aquaculture products, it presents a rather different picture from the above. Science has indeed made significant progress in health management but the links with farm management are still weak. Management practices capable of preventing important health problems in shrimp and fish farming are still poorly adopted by farmers. This is largely due to constraints in the dissemination of information to the large number of producers involved, the limited resources of both producers and their countries and the lack of effective farmer organizations capable of liaising with the scientific world. Recently, the Asian region has witnessed some successful examples of aquatic animal health management through the adoption of simple Better Management Practices. Efforts so far have been largely focused on shrimp farming, although activities have been initiated to adopt a similar approach to other commodities. The need for both observational and experimental epidemiological studies to

  2. Monitoring Astronaut Health at the Nanoscale Cellular Level Through the Eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Singh, Bhim S.; Rovati, Luigi; Docchio, Franco; Sebag, Jerry

    2000-01-01

    A user friendly goggles-like head-mounted device equipped with a suite of instruments for several non-invasive and quantitative medical evaluation of the eye, skin, and brain is desired for monitoring the health of astronauts during space travel and exploration of neighboring and distant planets. Real-time non-invasive evaluation of the different structures within the above organs can provide indices of the health of not just these organs, but the entire body. The techniques such as dynamic light scattering (for the early detection of uveitis, cholesterol levels, cataract, changes in the vitreous and possibly Alzheimer's disease), corneal autofluorescence (to assess extracellular matrix biology e.g., in diabetes), optical activity measurements (of anterior ocular fluid to evaluate blood-glucose levels), laser Doppler velocimetry (to assess retinal, optic nerve, and choroidal blood flow), reflectometry/oximetry (for assessing ocular and central nervous system oxygen metabolism), optical coherence tomography (to determine retinal tissue microstructure) and possibly scanning laser technology (for intraocular tissue imaging and scanning) will he integrated into this compact device. Skin sensors will also be mounted on the portion of the device in contact with the periocular region. This will enable monitoring of body temperature, EEG, and electrolyte status. This device will monitor astronaut health during long-duration space travel by detecting aberrations from pre-established "nonns", enabling prompt diagnosis and possibly the initiation of early preventative/curative therapy. The non-invasive nature of the device technologies permits frequent repetition of tests, enabling real-time complete crew health monitoring. This device may ultimately be useful in tele-medicine to bring modern healthcare to under-served areas on Earth as well as in so-called "advanced" care settings (e.g. diabetes in the USA).

  3. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tallner, Alexander; Waschbisch, Anne; Hentschke, Christian; Pfeifer, Klaus; Mäurer, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients. PMID:26147422

  4. Daily ambulatory activity levels in idiopathic Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, Frank M; Mackman, Chad A; Pav, Breckon; Shulman, Lisa M; Garvan, Cyndi; Macko, Richard F; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2008-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) may have decreased physical activity due to motor deficits. We recently validated the reliability of step activity monitors (SAMs) to accurately count steps in PD, and we wished to use them to evaluate the impact of disease severity on home activity levels in PD. Twenty-six subjects with PD (Hoehn and Yahr disease stage 2-4) were recruited to participate in a study of activity levels over 48 hours. Ability to achieve 95% device accuracy was an entry requirement. A Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) evaluation was performed on all subjects, subjects were monitored for 48 hours, and total number of steps per day and maximum steps taken per hour were calculated. Out of 26 subjects, 25 met entry requirements. We calculated the number of steps taken per day, as well as maximal activity levels, and correlated these with UPDRS total score, the activity of daily living subscale, and the UPDRS motor function subscale off and on medication (all p < 0.01). Transition from Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 to stage 3 was associated with a decline in functional mobility (p < 0.005). A microprocessor-linked SAM accurately counted steps in subjects with PD. The number of steps taken correlated highly with disease severity. SAMs may be useful outcome measures in PD.

  5. Veterinary public health activities at FAO: echinococcosis/hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Eddi, C; de Balogh, K; Lubroth, J; Amanfu, W; Speedy, A; Battaglia, D

    2004-12-01

    Cystic hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease that remain as a significant cause of human morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. The disease has veterinary public health implications. FAO is involved with some activities in the control of echinococcosis/hydatid disease: within the Animal Production and Health Division the Veterinary Public Health (VHP) Programme is constituted by members of the different Services (Animal Health, Animal Production, and Livestock Policy) within the Division. FAO regular programme has also established a global network of professionals directly involved in VPH. Furthermore FAO's Technical Cooperation Projects (TCP) is a tool to assist member countries in responding to urgent and unforeseen demands.

  6. A Survey of Physical Activity Levels of Certified Athletic Trainers

    PubMed Central

    Cuppett, Marchell; Latin, Richard W.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the self-reported physical activities of certified athletic trainers (ATCs), both at work and at leisure. Design and Setting: We used the Baecke Questionnaire of Habitual Physical Activity and also asked for demographic information, including employment setting, years of experience, education level, and position. Subjects: The questionnaire was sent to 1200 randomly selected ATCs in the Mid-America Athletic Trainers' Association; the return rate was 53%. Measurements: We used means, standard deviations, and ranges to describe the age, total fitness index, work, and leisure and sport indexes of men and women subjects. Independent t tests were used to compare the mean total activity index between men and women within this study and with previous studies. We examined differences in activity indexes by employment setting, position, and age with one-way analysis of variance and Fisher pairwise comparison tests. Two-way χ2 analysis was used to determine the relationship between activity level and employment setting and position. Statistical significance was set at P = .05 for all analyses. Results: Certified athletic trainers who work in a clinical setting had the highest mean total activity score at 9.1 points. Clinic ATCs scored significantly higher than high school ATCs and college ATCs. When compared by position, there were no significant differences among the mean total activity indexes; however, the mean work index of program directors was significantly lower than all other positions and the mean work index of high school and clinic ATCs was significantly higher than all other employment settings. Conclusions: Female ATCs scored significantly higher in total activity levels on the Baecke Questionnaire than their male counterparts. This is in contrast to the general population, investigated by other authors, in which men scored significantly higher than women on the same scale. Additionally, we compared the total activity levels by age

  7. [Physical activities, psychiatric care and mental health].

    PubMed

    Davanture, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    At Ville-Evrard psychiatric hospital, sports activities are used as one of several therapeutic tools. The day-long multi-sport sessions, led notably by a nurse, form part of the care programme. Sport not only enables the patients to exert themselves, it is above all a form of therapeutic mediation which encourages verbal and non-verbal communication.

  8. Health care advocacy turns into political activism.

    PubMed Central

    Spears, T

    1995-01-01

    Some advocacy groups are becoming more willing to engage in political activism. One is the Ontario Lung Association, which has been calling attention to government inaction on air-pollution issues such as controlling smog and improving indoor air quality. These lobbying efforts are supported by some physicians, who believe that environmental factors are behind the increased incidence of respiratory illness. PMID:7743456

  9. Organizational Health and Student Achievement in Tennessee Middle Level Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Christopher L.; Buehler, Alison E.; Stein, William L.; Dalton, John E.; Robinson, Teresa R.; Anfara, Vincent A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Although the successful middle level school was designed to address both the affective and cognitive development of young adolescents (NMSA 2003), academic achievement is the outcome of paramount importance in the current political context of accountability, high-stakes testing, and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. In their efforts to reform,…

  10. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III).

    PubMed

    Asao, Keiko; Marekani, Amandine Sambira; VanCleave, Jessica; Rothberg, Amy E

    2016-02-25

    Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988-1994. We defined breakfast as any food or beverage consumed between 5:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. using a single 24-h recall. Skipped breakfast was seen in 13.1%. In the logistic regression models with and without adjusting for adiposity and sex, leptin levels were not associated with skipping breakfast. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and time of venipuncture, the association remained insignificant. After further adjusting for potential confounders: physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes and after further adjusting for: dietary factors, insulin and glucose levels, there was a 9% and 11%-12%, respectively, statistically significantly higher likelihood of skipping breakfast if the leptin level was more than 50% greater. Further investigation into the biological reasons for skipping breakfast may be useful for promoting healthy lifestyles.

  11. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III)

    PubMed Central

    Asao, Keiko; Marekani, Amandine Sambira; VanCleave, Jessica; Rothberg, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994. We defined breakfast as any food or beverage consumed between 5:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. using a single 24-h recall. Skipped breakfast was seen in 13.1%. In the logistic regression models with and without adjusting for adiposity and sex, leptin levels were not associated with skipping breakfast. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and time of venipuncture, the association remained insignificant. After further adjusting for potential confounders: physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes and after further adjusting for: dietary factors, insulin and glucose levels, there was a 9% and 11%–12%, respectively, statistically significantly higher likelihood of skipping breakfast if the leptin level was more than 50% greater. Further investigation into the biological reasons for skipping breakfast may be useful for promoting healthy lifestyles. PMID:26927164

  12. Nondiscrimination in Health Programs and Activities. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-18

    This final rule implements Section 1557 of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) (Section 1557). Section 1557 prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability in certain health programs and activities. The final rule clarifies and codifies existing nondiscrimination requirements and sets forth new standards to implement Section 1557, particularly with respect to the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sex in health programs other than those provided by educational institutions and the prohibition of various forms of discrimination in health programs administered by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS or the Department) and entities established under Title I of the ACA. In addition, the Secretary is authorized to prescribe the Department's governance, conduct, and performance of its business, including, here, how HHS will apply the standards of Section 1557 to HHS-administered health programs and activities.

  13. Prevalence of Children’s Mental Health Problems and the Effectiveness of Population-Level Family Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Noriko; Yanagawa, Toshihiko; Fujiwara, Takeo; Morawska, Alina

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents is of growing importance. Intervening in children’s mental health early in life has been shown to be more effective than trying to resolve these problems when children are older. With respect to prevention activities in community settings, the prevalence of problems should be estimated, and the required level of services should be delivered. The prevalence of children’s mental health disorders has been reported for many countries. Preventive intervention has emphasized optimizing the environment. Because parents are the primary influence on their children’s development, considerable attention has been placed on the development of parent training to strengthen parenting skills. However, a public-health approach is necessary to confirm that the benefits of parent-training interventions lead to an impact at the societal level. This literature review clarifies that the prevalence of mental health problems is measured at the national level in many countries and that population-level parenting interventions can lower the prevalence of mental health problems among children in the community. PMID:26250791

  14. Health Rocks! Beginning Level. 4-H Healthy Life Series. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Written for 8 to 12 year olds. The 21 activities use hands-on experience to facilitate youth learning, including concepts review and learning assessment at each chapter's end. A retrospective impact evaluation is included in the appendices along with additional resources, glossary, training outline and teaching tips. An accompanying cd-rom…

  15. Health Rocks! Intermediate Level. 4-H Healthy Life Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Written for 12 to 14 year olds. The 25 activities use hands-on experience to facilitate youth learning, including concepts review and learning assessment at each chapter's end. A retrospective impact evaluation is included in the appendices along with additional resources, glossary, training outline and teaching tips. An accompanying cd-rom…

  16. What level of domestic government health expenditure should we aspire to for universal health coverage?

    PubMed

    Mcintyre, Di; Meheus, Filip; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2017-04-01

    Global discussions on universal health coverage (UHC) have focussed attention on the need for increased government funding for health care in many low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this paper is to explore potential targets for government spending on health to progress towards UHC. An explicit target for government expenditure on health care relative to gross domestic product (GDP) is a potentially powerful tool for holding governments to account in progressing to UHC, particularly in the context of UHC's inclusion in the Sustainable Development Goals. It is likely to be more influential than the Abuja target, which requires decreases in budget allocations to other sectors and is opposed by finance ministries for undermining their autonomy in making sectoral budget allocation decisions. International Monetary Fund and World Health Organisation data sets were used to analyse the relationship between government health expenditure and proxy indicators for the UHC goals of financial protection and access to quality health care, and triangulated with available country case studies estimating the resource requirements for a universal health system. Our analyses point towards a target of government spending on health of at least 5% of GDP for progressing towards UHC. This can be supplemented by a per capita target of $86 to promote universal access to primary care services in low-income countries.

  17. Can Population Levels of Physical Activity be Increased? Global Evidence and Experience

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Michael; Perez, Lilian G.; Goenka, Shifalika; Brownson, Ross C.; Bauman, Adrian; Sarmiento, Olga Lucia; Hallal, Pedro C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important contributors to the global burden of disease and has become a global public health priority. We review the evidence on physical activity (PA) interventions, actions, and strategies that have the greatest potential to increase PA at the population level. Using the socio-ecological framework to conceptualize PA interventions, we show that PA can be targeted at multiple levels of influence and by multiple sectors outside the health system. Examples of promoting PA on a national scale are presented from Finland, Canada, Brazil, and Colombia. A strong policy framework, consistent investment in public health programs, multi-sectoral support and actions, and good surveillance characterize each of these success stories. Increasing PA globally will depend on successfully applying and adapting these lessons around the world taking into account country, culture, and context. PMID:25304047

  18. One Health training and research activities in Western Europe

    PubMed Central

    Sikkema, Reina; Koopmans, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The increase in emerging human infectious diseases that have a zoonotic origin and the increasing resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobial drugs have shown the need for collaborations between the human, animal and environmental health sectors. The One Health concept increasingly receives recognition from policy makers and researchers all over the world. This overview compiled research and education activities in the area of One Health in Western Europe (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Iceland, Ireland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, the Netherlands, Portugal, Scandinavia, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom (UK), with a focus on infectious diseases. It can serve as a starting point for future initiatives and collaborations. Material and methods A literature search for ‘One Health’ was performed using National Center for Biotechnology Information and Google. Moreover, information from global and European policy documents was collected and a questionnaire was designed to gather current One Health research and training activities in Western Europe. Results This overview shows that there is considerable recognition for One Health in Europe, although most educational initiatives are recent. In Europe, the One Health approach is currently mainly advocated in relation to antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Many countries have incorporated the One Health approach in their policy to fight AMR, and funding possibilities for AMR research increased significantly. The number of national and international multidisciplinary research networks in the area of zoonotic diseases and One Health is increasing. Discussion Although One Health has gained recognition in Europe, often a One Health approach to research and education in the area of zoonotic diseases and AMR is not implemented. In many countries, collaboration between sectors is still lacking, and One Health activities are predominantly initiated by the veterinary sector. To facilitate the

  19. Exaggerated Health Benefits of Physical Fitness and Activity dueto Self-selection.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-17

    Background: The predicted health benefits of becomingphysically active or fit will be exaggerated if health outcomes causefitness and activity rather than the converse in prospective andcross-sectional epidemiological studies. Objective: Assess whether therelationships of adiposity to fitness and activity are explained byadiposity prior to exercising. Design: Cross-sectional study of physicalfitness (running speed during 10km foot race) and physical activity(weekly running distance) to current BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at thestart of running (BMIstarting) in 44,370 male and 25,252 femaleparticipants of the National Runners' Health Study. Results: BMIstartingexplained all of the association between fitness and BMIcurrent in bothsexes, but less than a third of the association between physical activityand BMIcurrent in men. In women, BMIstarting accounted for 58 percent ofthe association between BMIcurrent and activity levels. The 95thpercentile of BMIcurrent showed substantially greater declines withfitness and activity levels than the 5th percentile of BMIcurrent in men(i.e., the negative slope for 95th percentile was 2.6-fold greater thanthe 5th percentile for fitness and 3-fold greater for activity) and women(6-fold and 3.4-fold greater, respectively). At all percentiles, theregression slopes relating BMIstarting to fitness were comparable orgreater (more negative) than the slopes relating BMIcurrent to fitness,whereas the converse was true for activity. Conclusion: Self-selectionbias accounts for all of the association between fitness and adiposityand probably a portion of other health outcomes, but has less affect onassociations involving physical activity

  20. Cascading Activation across Levels of Representation in Children's Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yi Ting; Snedeker, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in adult psycholinguistics has demonstrated that activation of semantic representations begins long before phonological processing is complete. This incremental propagation of information across multiple levels of analysis is a hallmark of adult language processing but how does this ability develop? In two experiments, we elicit…

  1. Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity Levels of Rural Appalachian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Rana, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to examine whether pedometer-assessed physical activity (PA) in Appalachian Ohio students differed by body mass index (BMI), school level (middle school vs. high school), and gender during school days and nonschool days and whether students met the recommended PA guidelines. Participants (N = 149) were…

  2. Cardiovascular effects of variations in habitual levels of physical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, C. G.; Mitchell, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in human cardiovascular adaption to stress, particularly adaption to different levels of physical activity are determined along with quantitative noninvasive methods for evaluation of cardiovascular function during stess in normal subjects and in individuals with latent or manifest cardiovascular disease. Results are summarized.

  3. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other State-level activities. 300.814 Section 300.814 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  4. Genetic Influences on Mechanically-Assessed Activity Level in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Alexis C.; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Rogers, Hannah; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2007-01-01

    Background: Activity level is an important component of children's temperament, as well as being part of the core symptom domain of hyperactivity-impulsivity within attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Yet it is poorly understood, due partly to limitations on parent and teacher ratings, which are typically used as measurements of these…

  5. Monitoring the levels and trends of HIV infection: the Public Health Service's HIV surveillance program.

    PubMed Central

    Dondero, T J; Pappaioanou, M; Curran, J W

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive, multifaceted approach to HIV surveillance is needed to provide the information necessary for public health management and policy. Because HIV infection is not readily or uniformly ascertained, survey methods and sentinel surveillance approaches must be used. At least some of the surveys must be blinded, that is, anonymous and unlinked to identifiable persons, to avoid the uninterpretable impact of self-selection bias that could lead to both significant underestimates and occasional overestimates of HIV prevalence. Other surveys must be nonblinded, with careful interviews of volunteer participants to evaluate risk factors for HIV infection. These various surveys must continue over time to evaluate trends in infection. A comprehensive family of complementary HIV surveys and studies and a national household-based HIV seroprevalence survey have been undertaken by the Public Health Service in collaboration with other Federal agencies, State and local health departments, blood collection agencies, and medical research institutions. These projects focus on accessible segments of the general population, childbearing women, persons at high risk for HIV, and persons in special settings such as prisons and colleges. This comprehensive surveillance approach will help monitor the levels and trends of HIV infection in the United States and help prioritize, target, and evaluate HIV prevention activities. PMID:3131809

  6. Anterior cingulate activity and level of cognitive conflict: explicit comparisons.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rachel L C

    2006-12-01

    The role of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in attention is a matter of debate. One hypothesis suggests that its role is to monitor response-level conflict, but explicit evidence is somewhat lacking. In this study, the activation of ACC was compared in (a) color and number standard Stroop tasks in which response preparation and interference shared modality (response-level conflict) and (b) color and number matching Stroop tasks in which response preparation and interference did not share modality (non-response-level conflict). In the congruent conditions, there was no effect of task type. In the interference conditions, anterior cingulate activity in the matching tasks was less than that in the standard tasks. These results support the hypothesis that ACC specifically mediates generalized modality-independent selection processes invoked by response competition.

  7. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  8. Health-Based Screening Levels and their Application to Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Zogorski, John S.; Norman, Julia E.

    2005-01-01

    To supplement existing Federal drinking-water standards and guidelines, thereby providing a basis for a more comprehensive evaluation of contaminant-occurrence data in a human-health context, USGS began a collaborative project in 1998 with USEPA, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, and the Oregon Health & Science University to calculate non-enforceable health-based screening levels. Screening levels were calculated for contaminants that do not have Maximum Contaminant Level values using a consensus approach that entailed (1) standard USEPA Office of Water methodologies (equations) for establishing Lifetime Health Advisory (LHA) and Risk-Specific Dose (RSD) values for the protection of human health, and (2) existing USEPA human-health toxicity information.

  9. Assessing Skills and Capacity for Informatics: Activities Most Commonly Performed by or for Local Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    McKeown, Lisa; Shah, Gulzar H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the informatics activities performed by and for local health departments. Design: Analysis of data from the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey of local health departments conducted by the Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health at Georgia Southern University in collaboration with the National Association of County & City Health Officials. Participants: 324 local health departments. Main Outcome Measure(s): Informatics activities performed at or for local health departments in use and analysis of data, system design, and routine use of information systems. Results: A majority of local health departments extract data from information systems (69.5%) and use and interpret quantitative (66.4%) and qualitative (55.1%) data. Almost half use geographic information systems (45.0%) or statistical or other analytical software (39.7%). Local health departments were less likely to perform project management (35.8%), business process analysis and redesign (24.0%), and developing requirements for informatics system development (19.7%). Local health departments were most likely to maintain or modify content of a Web site (72.1%). A third of local health departments (35.8%) reported acting as “super users” for their information systems. A significantly higher proportion of local health departments serving larger jurisdictions (500 000+) and those with shared governance reported conducting informatics activities. Conclusion: Most local health department informatics activities are completed by local health department staff within each department or a central department, but many state health departments also contribute to informatics at the local level. Larger local health departments and those with shared governance were more likely to perform informatics activities. Local health departments need effective leadership, a skilled workforce, strong partnerships, and policies that foster implementation of health information systems to

  10. Health effects of low level radiation: carcinogenesis, teratogenesis, and mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ritenour, E.R.

    1986-04-01

    The carcinogenic effects of radiation have been demonstrated at high dose levels. At low dose levels, such as those encountered in medical diagnosis, the magnitude of the effect is more difficult to quantify. Three reasons for this difficulty are (1) the effects in human populations are small compared with the natural incidence of cancer in the populations; (2) it is difficult to transfer results obtained in animal studies to the human experience; and (3) the effects of latency period and plateau increase the complexity of population studies. In spite of these difficulties, epidemiologic studies of human populations exposed to low levels of radiation still play a valuable role in the determination of radiation carcinogenecity. They serve to provide upper estimates of risk and to rule out the appearance of new effects that may be masked by the effects of high doses. While there is evidence for mutagenic effects of radiation in experimental animals, no conclusive human data exist at the present. It is not possible to rule out the presence of genetic effects of radiation in humans, however, because many problems exist with regard to the epidemiologic detection of small effects when the natural incidence is relatively large. In animals, subtle effects (eg, a decrease in the probability of survival from egg to adult) may occur with greater frequency than more dramatic disorders in irradiated populations. However, these types of genetic abnormalities are difficult to quantitate. Current risk estimates are based primarily upon data pertaining to dominant mutations in rodents. Some specific locus studies also permit identification of recessive mutation rates. The embryo and fetus are considered to be at greater risk for adverse effects of radiation than is the adult.

  11. Physical Activity and Health. A Report of the Surgeon General.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    The informatin in this report summarizes the existing literature on the role of physical activity in preventing disease and on the status of interventions to increase physical activity, focusing on endurance-type physical activity. School-based interventions have been shown to be successful in increasing physical activity levels. With evidence…

  12. Recreation and Health Agencies: Working Together to Promote Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipp, JoAnn; Dusenbury, Linda J.

    1994-01-01

    The Colorado Department of Health formed the Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Prevention Coalition to address Colorado's problem with CVD. The article describes the work of the Coalition's Physical Activity Subcommittee, the Subcommittee's Exer-Deck tool to promote increased physical activity, and the training of professionals to work collaboratively…

  13. Levels of Health Literacy in a Community-Dwelling Population of Chinese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Dong, XinQi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Lower levels of health literacy have been associated with adverse health outcomes, especially for older adults. However, limited research has been conducted to understand health literacy levels among Chinese American older adults. Methods. The PINE study is an epidemiological cohort of 3,159 community-dwelling Chinese older adults, 95% of whom do not speak or read English. Chinese older adults’ health literacy levels were examined using the Chinese version of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, Revised (REALM-R) test. Kruskal–Wallis test and chi-square statistics were used to identify significant differences by sociodemographic and self-reported health characteristics. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to examine correlations between personal characteristics and health literacy level. Results. The mean age among this sample of Chinese older adults was 72.8 years (SD = 8.3, range = 60–105) and the mean REALM-R test score was 6.9 [SD = 2.3, range (0–8)]. Health literacy was positively associated with education, marriage status, and number of people living with. Older age, being female, greater number of children, years in the United States, and preference for speaking Cantonese or Taishanese were negatively associated with health literacy. Health literary was not associated with self-reported health status or quality of life. Conclusions. In this Chicago Chinese population, older adults had reasonable levels of health literacy in Chinese. Future longitudinal research is needed to understand risk/protective factors associated with health literacy level in Chinese older adults. PMID:25378449

  14. Estimating population health risk from low-level environmental radon

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Although incidence of respiratory cancer is directly related to inhalation of radon and radon daughters, the magnitude of the actual risk is uncertain for members of the general population exposed for long periods to low-level concentrations. Currently, any such estimate of the risk must rely on data obtained through previous studies of underground-miner populations. Several methods of risk analysis have resulted from these studies. Since the breathing atmospheres, smoking patterns, and physiology are different between miners and the general public, overestimates of lung cancer risk to the latter may have resulted. Strong evidence exists to support the theory of synergistic action between alpha radiation and other agents, and therefore a modified relative risk model was developed to predict lung cancer risks to the general public. The model considers latent period, observation period, age dependency, and inherent risks from smoking or geographical location. A test of the model showed excellent agreement with results of the study of Czechoslovakian uranium miners, for which the necessary time factors were available. The risk model was also used to predict lung cancer incidence among residents of homes on reclaimed Florida phosphate lands, and results of this analysis indicate that over the space of many years, the increased incidence of lung cancer due to elevated radon levels may be indisgtinguishable from those due to other causes.

  15. Effects of Curricular Activity on Students' Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…

  16. Health worker posting and transfer at primary level in Tamil Nadu: Governance of a complex health system function

    PubMed Central

    Garimella, Surekha; Sheikh, Kabir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Posting and transfer (PT) of health personnel – placing the right health workers in the right place at the right time – is a core function of any large-scale health service. In the context of government health services, this may be seen as a simple process of bureaucratic governance and implementation of the rule of law. However the literature from India and comparable low and middle-income country health systems suggests that in reality PT is a contested domain, driven by varied expressions of private and public interest throughout the chain of implementation. Objective: To investigate policymaking for PT in the government health sector and implementation of policies as experienced by different health system actors and stakeholders at primary health care level. Methodology: We undertook an empirical case study of a PT reform policy at primary health care level in Tamil Nadu State, to understand how different groups of health systems actors experience PT. In-depth qualitative methods were undertaken to study processes of implementation of PT policies enacted through ‘counselling’ of health workers (individualized consultations to determine postings and transfers). Results: PT emerges as a complex phenomenon, shaped partially by the laws of the state and partially as a parallel system of norms and incentives requiring consideration and coordination of the interests of different groups. Micro-practices of governance represent homegrown coping mechanisms of health administrators that reconcile public and private interests and sustain basic health system functions. Beyond a functional perspective of PT, it also reflects justice and fairness as it plays out in the health system. It signifies how well a system treats its employees, and by inference, is an index of the overall health of the system. Conclusions: For a complex governance function such as PT, the roles of private actors and private interests are not easily separable from the public, but

  17. Effects of state-level public spending on health on the mortality probability in India.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Mansour; Subramanian, S V; Canning, David

    2010-11-01

    This study uses the second National Family Health Survey of India to estimate the effect of state-level public health spending on mortality across all age groups, controlling for individual, household, and state-level covariates. We use a state's gross fiscal deficit as an instrument for its health spending. Our study shows a 10% increase in public spending on health in India decreases the average probability of death by about 2%, with effects mainly on the young, the elderly, and women. Other major factors affecting mortality are rural residence, household poverty, and access to toilet facilities.

  18. The Relationship Between Sociodemographic Characteristics, Work Conditions, and Level of "Mobbing" of Health Workers in Primary Health Care.

    PubMed

    Picakciefe, Metin; Acar, Gulcihan; Colak, Zehra; Kilic, Ibrahim

    2015-06-19

    Mobbing is a type of violence which occurs in workplaces and is classified under the community violence subgroup of interpersonal violence. The aim of this study is to examine health care workers who work in primary health care in the city of Mugla and to determine whether there is a relationship between sociodemographic characteristics, work conditions, and their level of mobbing. A cross-sectional analysis has been conducted in which 130 primary health care workers were selected. Of the 130, 119 health workers participated, yielding a response rate of 91.5%; 83.2% of health workers are female, 42.9% are midwives, 27.7% are nurses, and 14.3% are doctors. In all, 31.1% of health workers have faced with "mobbing" in the last 1 year, and the frequency of experiencing "mobbing" of those 48.6% of them is 1 to 3 times per year. A total of 70.3% of those who apply "mobbing" are senior health workers, and 91.9% are female. The frequency of encountering with "mobbing" was found significantly in married health workers, in those 16 years and above according to examined total working time, in those who have psychosocial reactions, and in those who have counterproductive behaviors. It has been discovered that primary health care workers have high prevalence of "mobbing" exposure. To avoid "mobbing" at workplace, authorities and responsibilities of all employees have to be clearly determined.

  19. Relationship between observational learning and health belief with physical activity among adolescents girl in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rostamian, Marzieh; Kazemi, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activities among adolescents affects health during pubescence and adolescence and decrease in physical activities among adolescents has become a global challenge. The aim of the present study was to define the relation between the level of physical activity among adolescent girls and their health beliefs as personal factor and level of observational learning as environmental factor. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted on 400 students aged from 11 to 19 years in Isfahan, Iran. Information regarding the duration of physical activity with moderate/severe intensity was measured in four dimensions of leisure time (exercising and hiking), daily activities, and transportation-related activities using the International Physical Activity questionnaire. Health belief structures included perceived sensitivity, intensity of perceived threat, perceived benefits, and barriers and self-efficacy; observational learning was measured using a researcher-made questionnaire. Results: Results showed that perceived barriers, observational learning, and level of self-efficacy were related to the level of physical activity in all dimensions. In addition, the level of physical activity at leisure time, transportation, and total physical activity were dependent on the intensity of perceived threats (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study showed that the intensity of perceived threats, perceived barriers and self-efficacy structures, and observational learning are some of the factors related to physical activity among adolescent girls, and it is possible that by focusing on improving these variables through interventional programs physical activity among adolescent girls can be improved. PMID:28194200

  20. Cancer in Utah Mormon women by church activity level.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J W; Lyon, J L

    1982-08-01

    In light of low cancer rates by the Mormon Church, this study classifies female Mormon cancer patients in Utah according to measures of adherence to Church doctrines. The distribution by Church activity level is compared for each site to a group of other cancer sites felt to represent the overall activity level distribution of Utah Mormon women. Mormon women classified as having the strongest adherence to Church doctrines had lung cancer rates during 1966-1970 much lower than did women with the weakest adherence. The relationship was not as strong, however, as that seen in Mormon men when classified by lay priesthood office. Cancer of the uterine cervix also showed lower rates in the more active groups, but this finding was not statistically significant. Cancers of the breast and ovary did not show consistent associations with Church activity level, nor did most of the gastrointestinal cancers. These data suggest that some of the differences in cancer incidence between Mormons and non-Mormons may not be explained by adherence to specific Church doctrines.

  1. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  2. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  3. Physical activity levels, duration pattern and adherence to WHO recommendations in German adults

    PubMed Central

    Luzak, Agnes; Heier, Margit; Thorand, Barbara; Laxy, Michael; Nowak, Dennis; Peters, Annette; Schulz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Background Intensity and duration of physical activity are associated with the achievement of health benefits. Our aim was to characterize physical activity behavior in terms of intensity, duration pattern, and adherence to the WHO physical activity recommendations in a population-based sample of adults from southern Germany. Further, we investigated associations between physical activity and sex, age, and body mass index (BMI), considering also common chronic diseases. Methods We analyzed 475 subjects (47% males, mean age 58 years, range 48–68 years) who wore ActiGraph accelerometers for up to seven days. Measured accelerations per minute obtained from the vertical axis (uniaxial) and the vector magnitude of all three axes (triaxial) were classified as sedentary, light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) according to predefined acceleration count cut-offs. The average minutes/day spent in each activity level per subject served as outcome. Associations of sex, age, BMI, and seven chronic diseases or health limitations, with the activity levels were analyzed by negative binomial regression. Results Most of the wear time was spent in sedentarism (median 61%/day), whereas the median time spent in MVPA was only 3%, with men achieving more MVPA than women (35 vs. 28 minutes/day, p<0.05). Almost two thirds of MVPA was achieved in short bouts of less than 5 minutes, and 35% of the subjects did not achieve a single 10-minute bout. Hence, only 14% adhered to the WHO recommendation of 2.5 hours of MVPA/week in at least 10-minute bouts. Females, older subjects and obese subjects spent less time in MVPA (p<0.05), but no clear association with hypertension, asthma, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety/depression, pain or walking difficulties was observed in regression analyses with MVPA as outcome. Conclusions Activity behavior among middle-aged German adults was highly insufficient, indicating a further need for physical activity promotion in

  4. Low level laser therapy reduces inflammation in activated Achilles tendinitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.

  5. Analysis of adequacy levels for human resources improvement within primary health care framework in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Parent, Florence; Fromageot, Audrey; Coppieters, Yves; Lejeune, Colette; Lemenu, Dominique; Garant, Michèle; Piette, Danielle; Levêque, Alain; De Ketele, Jean-Marie

    2005-01-01

    Human resources in health care system in sub-Saharan Africa are generally picturing a lack of adequacy between expected skills from the professionals and health care needs expressed by the populations. It is, however, possible to analyse these various lacks of adequacy related to human resource management and their determinants to enhance the effectiveness of the health care system. From two projects focused on nurse professionals within the health care system in Central Africa, we present an analytic grid for adequacy levels looking into the following aspects: - adequacy between skills-based profiles for health system professionals, quality of care and service delivery (health care system /medical standards), needs and expectations from the populations, - adequacy between allocation of health system professionals, quality of care and services delivered (health care system /medical standards), needs and expectations from the populations, - adequacy between human resource management within health care system and medical standards, - adequacy between human resource management within education/teaching/training and needs from health care system and education sectors, - adequacy between basic and on-going education and realities of tasks expected and implemented by different categories of professionals within the health care system body, - adequacy between intentions for initial and on-going trainings and teaching programs in health sciences for trainers (teachers/supervisors/health care system professionals/ directors (teaching managers) of schools...). This tool is necessary for decision-makers as well as for health care system professionals who share common objectives for changes at each level of intervention within the health system. Setting this adequacy implies interdisciplinary and participative approaches for concerned actors in order to provide an overall vision of a more broaden system than health district, small island with self-rationality, and in which

  6. A health in all policies approach to promote active, healthy lifestyle in Israel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In December 2011, Israel launched the National Program to Promote Active, Healthy Lifestyle, an inter-ministerial, intersectoral effort to address obesity and its contribution to the country’s burden of chronic disease. This paper explores the National Program according to the “Health in All Policies” (HiAP) strategy for health governance, designed to engage social determinants of health and curb health challenges at the causal level. Our objective is twofold: to identify where Israel’s National Program both echoes and falls short of Health in All Policies, and to assess how the National Program can be utilized to enrich the Health in All Policies research-base. We review Health in All Policies’ evolution, why it developed and how it is diverges from other approaches to intersectoriality in health. We describe why obesity and related chronic diseases necessitate an intersectoral response, cite obstacles and gaps to implementation and list examples of HiAP-type initiatives from around the world. We then analyze Israel’s National Program as it relates to Health in All Policies, and propose directions through which the initiative may constitute a useful case study. We contend that joint planning, implementation and to a limited extent, budgeting, between the Ministries of Health, Education and Culture and Sport reflect an HiAP-approach, as does integrating health into the policymaking of other ministries. To further incorporate health in all Israeli policies, we suggest leveraging the Health Ministry’s presence on governmental and non-governmental committees in areas like building, land-use and urban planning, institutional food policy and environmental health, and focusing on knowledge translation according to the policy needs, strengths and limitations of other sectors. Finally, we suggest studying the National Program’s financing, decision-making and evaluation mechanisms in order to complement existing research on the implementation of Health in

  7. Difference in Effectiveness of Medication Adherence Intervention by Health Literacy Level

    PubMed Central

    Owen-Smith, Ashli A; Smith, David H; Rand, Cynthia S; Tom, Jeffrey O; Laws, Reesa; Waterbury, Amy; Williams, Andrew; Vollmer, William M

    2016-01-01

    Context: There is little research investigating whether health information technologies, such as interactive voice recognition, are effective ways to deliver information to individuals with lower health literacy. Objective: Determine the extent to which the impact of an interactive voice recognition-based intervention to improve medication adherence appeared to vary by participants’ health literacy level. Design: Promoting Adherence to Improve Effectiveness of Cardiovascular Disease Therapies (PATIENT) was a randomized clinical trial designed to test the impact, compared with usual care, of 2 technology-based interventions that leveraged interactive voice recognition to promote medication adherence. A 14% subset of participants was sent a survey that included questions on health literacy. This exploratory analysis was limited to the 833 individuals who responded to the survey and provided data on health literacy. Main Outcome Measures: Adherence to statins and/or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin II receptor blockers. Results: Although intervention effects did not differ significantly by level of health literacy, the data were suggestive of differential intervention effects by health literacy level. Conclusions: The differences in intervention effects for high vs low health literacy in this exploratory analysis are consistent with the hypothesis that individuals with lower health literacy may derive greater benefit from this type of intervention compared with individuals with higher health literacy. Additional studies are needed to further explore this finding. PMID:27352409

  8. A critical discussion of the benefits of e-health in population-level dental research.

    PubMed

    Lam, Raymond; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Population-level research is an essential area of health with the potential to affect quality of life and the broader economy. There are excellent epidemiological studies that have improved health services, but traditional research requires a considerable investment. Although electronic technology has changed the practice of many industries with improved efficiency, its application to health is relatively new. Termed 'e-health', this emerging area has been defined by the World Health Organization as the use of information technology to support many aspects of health such as in administration and scientific information. However, not all professionals are convinced of its use. This paper presents a novel application of this emerging area to describe the benefit in data collation and research to support one of the most pressing issues in public health: oral health and policy. Using the Chronic Disease Dental Scheme as an example, a critical discussion of its benefit to population-level research is presented. The Chronic Disease Dental Scheme method of electronic administration has been shown to enhance research and to complement existing progress in health data linkage. e-Health is an invaluable tool for population-level dental research.

  9. Environmental justice and health practices: understanding how health inequities arise at the local level.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, Katherine L; Abel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    While empirical evidence continues to show that people living in low socio-economic status neighbourhoods are less likely to engage in health-enhancing behaviour, our understanding of why this is so remains less than clear. We suggest that two changes could take place to move from description to understanding in this field; (i) a move away from the established concept of individual health behaviour to a contextualised understanding of health practices; and (ii) a switch from focusing on health inequalities in outcomes to health inequities in conditions. We apply Pierre Bourdieu's theory on capital interaction but find it insufficient with regard to the role of agency for structural change. We therefore introduce Amartya Sen's capability approach as a useful link between capital interaction theory and action to reduce social inequities in health-related practices. Sen's capability theory also elucidates the importance of discussing unequal chances in terms of inequity, rather than inequality, in order to underscore the moral nature of inequalities. We draw on the discussion in social geography on environmental injustice, which also underscores the moral nature of the spatial distribution of opportunities. The article ends by applying this approach to the 'Interdisciplinary study of inequalities in smoking' framework.

  10. Personal Health Record Use in the United States: Forecasting Future Adoption Levels

    PubMed Central

    Huerta, Timothy R

    2016-01-01

    Background Personal health records (PHRs) offer a tremendous opportunity to generate consumer support in pursing the triple aim of reducing costs, increasing access, and improving care quality. Moreover, surveys in the United States indicate that consumers want Web-based access to their medical records. However, concerns that consumers’ low health information literacy levels and physicians’ resistance to sharing notes will limit PHRs’ utility to a relatively small portion of the population have reduced both the product innovation and policy imperatives. Objective The purpose of our study was 3-fold: first, to report on US consumers’ current level of PHR activity; second, to describe the roles of imitation and innovation influence factors in determining PHR adoption rates; and third, to forecast future PHR diffusion uptake among US consumers under 3 scenarios. Methods We used secondary data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) of US citizens for the survey years 2008, 2011, and 2013. Applying technology diffusion theory and Bass modeling, we evaluated 3 future PHR adoption scenarios by varying the introduction dates. Results All models displayed the characteristic diffusion S-curve indicating that the PHR technology is likely to achieve significant market penetration ahead of meaningful use goals. The best-performing model indicates that PHR adoption will exceed 75% by 2020. Therefore, the meaningful use program targets for PHR adoption are below the rates likely to occur without an intervention. Conclusions The promise of improved care quality and cost savings through better consumer engagement prompted the US Institute of Medicine to call for universal PHR adoption in 1999. The PHR products available as of 2014 are likely to meet and exceed meaningful use stage 3 targets before 2020 without any incentive. Therefore, more ambitious uptake and functionality availability should be incorporated into future goals. PMID:27030105

  11. Promoting health at the community level: thinking globally, acting locally.

    PubMed

    Economos, Christina D; Tovar, Alison

    2012-02-01

    Prevention of childhood obesity is a societal priority. Despite our knowledge about the scope of the problem and the determinants that lead to it, we have yet to produce meaningful declines in obesity rates. Recent attention has been given to interventions that employ multiple strategies across multiple settings involving whole communities given their promising results. The next era of science calls for interdisciplinary teams who will envision a whole system approach to advance the community-based obesity prevention model. This perspective describes some of the more recent discussions of community-based methodologies such as the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity) framework, best-practice principles, and a whole system intervention approach to obesity prevention. The proposed required elements to advance community-based research to address childhood obesity are: A systems perspective and approach, training of future leaders in community research methodology and social change, applying transdisciplinary strategies, funding to conduct rigorous trials to determine efficacy and effectiveness, enhanced design and analysis approaches, new and improved tools and methodologies to collect quantitative and qualitative data, enhanced community engagement models and sustainability frameworks, advancement of a bold public policy agenda, economic modeling, and acknowledgment of the approach as viable. To reverse childhood obesity, we need to embrace and integrate complex strategies at multiple levels within communities across the globe.

  12. Microgravity: a Teacher's Guide with Activities, Secondary Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L. (Editor); Wargo, Michael J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Educational Publication is a teacher's guide that focuses on microgravity for the secondary level student. The introduction answers the question 'What is microgravity?', as well as describing gravity and creating microgravity. Following the introduction is a microgravity primer which covers such topics as the fluid state, combustion science, materials science, biotechnology, as well as microgravity and space flight. Seven different activities are described in the activities section and are written by authors prominent in the field. The concluding sections of the book include a glossary, microgravity references, and NASA educational resources.

  13. Organizational scope of practice: assessing the primary care and public health activities of health centers and health departments in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Wright, Brad; Ugwi, Patience; Nice, Andrew J

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to understand how Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) and local health departments (LHDs) address their shared mission of improving population health by determining the scope of primary care and public health activities each provides in their community. A brief mail survey was designed and fielded among executive directors at all 14 FQHCs in Iowa, and 13 LHDs in Iowa representing counties with and without an FQHC. This survey contained a mixture of questions adapted from previously validated primary care and public health survey instruments. Using survey responses, each FQHC and LHD was given 2 scores (each ranging from 0-100) measuring the extent of their primary care and public health activities, respectively. The overall response rate was 85.2%; the response rate was 78.6% within FQHCs and 91.7% within LHDs. Overall, FQHCs had higher scores (73.8%) compared to LHDs (27.3%) on total primary care services, while both LHDs (79.3%) and FQHCs (70.9%) performed particularly well on public health services. FQHCs and LHDs in Iowa address a variety of public health and primary care issues, including but not limited to screening for chronic diseases, nutrition counseling, immunizations, and behavioral health. However, FQHCs provide a higher amount of primary care services and nearly as many public health services when compared to LHDs. In a value-based health care delivery system, integrating to improve population health is a wise strategy to maximize efficiency, but this will require maximizing coordination and minimizing duplication of services across different types of safety net providers.

  14. Effect of Learning Activity on Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels and Effort/Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Lee, Amelia M.; Xiang, Ping; Kosma, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The type of learning activity offered in physical education may influence students' motivational beliefs, physical activity participation and effort/persistence in class. However, most empirical studies have focused on the individual level rather than on the learner-content interactions. Accordingly, the potential effects of learning activities on…

  15. Making activity-based funding work for mental health.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Sebastian P; Hickie, Ian B

    2013-06-01

    The implementation of activity-based funding (ABF) in mental health from 1 July 2013 has significant risks and benefits. It is critical that the process of implementation is consistent with Australia's cherished goal of establishing a genuine and effective model of community-based mental health care. The infrastructure to support the application of ABF to mental health is currently weak and requires considerable development. States and territories are struggling to meet existing demand for largely hospital-based acute mental health care. There is a risk that valuable ABF-driven Commonwealth growth funds may be used to prop up these systems rather than drive the emergence of new models of community-based care. Some of these new models exist now and this article provides a short description. The aim is to help the Independent Hospital Pricing Authority better understand the landscape of mental health into which it now seeks to deploy ABF.

  16. Mobile Health Applications to Promote Active and Healthy Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Helbostad, Jorunn L.; Vereijken, Beatrix; Becker, Clemens; Todd, Chris; Taraldsen, Kristin; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Aminian, Kamiar; Mellone, Sabato

    2017-01-01

    The European population is ageing, and there is a need for health solutions that keep older adults independent longer. With increasing access to mobile technology, such as smartphones and smartwatches, the development and use of mobile health applications is rapidly growing. To meet the societal challenge of changing demography, mobile health solutions are warranted that support older adults to stay healthy and active and that can prevent or delay functional decline. This paper reviews the literature on mobile technology, in particular wearable technology, such as smartphones, smartwatches, and wristbands, presenting new ideas on how this technology can be used to encourage an active lifestyle, and discusses the way forward in order further to advance development and practice in the field of mobile technology for active, healthy ageing. PMID:28335475

  17. Mobile Health Applications to Promote Active and Healthy Ageing.

    PubMed

    Helbostad, Jorunn L; Vereijken, Beatrix; Becker, Clemens; Todd, Chris; Taraldsen, Kristin; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Aminian, Kamiar; Mellone, Sabato

    2017-03-18

    The European population is ageing, and there is a need for health solutions that keep older adults independent longer. With increasing access to mobile technology, such as smartphones and smartwatches, the development and use of mobile health applications is rapidly growing. To meet the societal challenge of changing demography, mobile health solutions are warranted that support older adults to stay healthy and active and that can prevent or delay functional decline. This paper reviews the literature on mobile technology, in particular wearable technology, such as smartphones, smartwatches, and wristbands, presenting new ideas on how this technology can be used to encourage an active lifestyle, and discusses the way forward in order further to advance development and practice in the field of mobile technology for active, healthy ageing.

  18. [Health promotion through physical activity: territorial models and experiences].

    PubMed

    Romano-Spica, V; Parlato, A; Palumbo, D; Lorenzo, E; Frangella, C; Montuori, E; Anastasi, D; Visciano, A; Liguori, G

    2008-01-01

    Scientific evidences support the preventive role of physical activity in relation to different multifactorial pathologies. Health's promotion through the spreading of lifestyles that encourage movement, does not represent just an action in contrast with "sedentary life" risk-factor, but also a priority for "quality" of life, with relevant economical and social benefits. WHO indicates physical activity as one of the priorities for an effective prevention. Besides, the EU supports the realization and the diffusion of some prevention-programs. Main pilot experiences developed in Italy and other countries are summarized. Attention is focused on the role of the competences and structures involved in an integrated approach based on availability of medical support, social services and local structures, considering recent developments in health prevention and promotion. In Italy and Europe, new opportunities to implement health promotion through physical activity are offered by the development of higher education in movement and sport sciences.

  19. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multi-Family Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore multiple family members’ perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthy eating and physical activity in the home. Design Ten multi-family focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting Community setting. Participants Primarily Black and White families. Family members (n = 103) were between the ages of 8–61 years. Analysis A grounded hermeneutic approach. Phenomenon of Interest Risk and protective factors for healthy eating and physical activity in the home environment. Results Ten major themes were identified by family members related to health behaviors in the home environment, including: (a) accessibility to healthy foods and activity, (b) time constraints, (c) stage of youth development, (d) individual investment in health behaviors, (e) family investment in health behaviors, (f) family meals and shared activities, (g) parent modeling, (h) making health behaviors fun, (i) making health behaviors part of the family lifestyle, and (j) community investment in family health behaviors. Conclusions and Implications This study identified the importance of the family system and the reciprocal influences within the home environment on health behaviors. In addition, individual and community-level suggestions were identified. Insights from the families provide leads for future research and ideas for the prevention of youth obesity. PMID:22192951

  20. Efficacy of interventions to improve physical activity levels in individuals with stroke: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Martins, Júlia Caetano; Nadeau, Sylvie; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; Faria, Christina D C M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a leading health problem worldwide and an important cause of disability. Stroke survivors show low levels of physical activity, and increases in physical activity levels may improve function and health status. Therefore, the aims are to identify which interventions that have been employed to increase physical activity levels with stroke survivors, to verify their efficacy and to identify the gaps in the literature. Methods and analysis A systematic review of randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of interventions aiming at increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in the MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO) databases. Hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies or relevant reviews will also be employed. Two independent reviewers will screen all the retrieved titles, abstracts and full texts. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreements. The quality of the included studies will be assessed by the PEDro Rating Scale. This systematic review will also include a qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses will be performed, if the studies are sufficiently homogeneous. This review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The quality of the evidence regarding physical activity will be assessed, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Discussion This systematic review will provide information on which interventions are effective for increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors. This evidence may be important for clinical decision-making and will allow the identification of gaps in the literature that may be useful for the definition of future research

  1. Green spaces and General Health: Roles of mental health status, social support, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Dadvand, Payam; Bartoll, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Cirach, Marta; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Gascon, Mireia; Borrell, Carme; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Green spaces are associated with improved health, but little is known about mechanisms underlying such association. We aimed to assess the association between greenness exposure and subjective general health (SGH) and to evaluate mental health status, social support, and physical activity as mediators of this association. This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based sample of 3461 adults residing in Barcelona, Spain (2011). We characterized outcome and mediators using the Health Survey of Barcelona. Objective and subjective residential proximity to green spaces and residential surrounding greenness were used to characterize greenness exposure. We followed Baron and Kenny's framework to establish the mediation roles and we further quantified the relative contribution of each mediator. Residential surrounding greenness and subjective residential proximity to green spaces were associated with better SGH. We found indications for mediation of these associations by mental health status, perceived social support, and to less extent, by physical activity. These mediators altogether could explain about half of the surrounding greenness association and one-third of the association for subjective proximity to green spaces. We observed indications that mental health and perceived social support might be more relevant for men and those younger than 65years. The results for objective residential proximity to green spaces were not conclusive. In conclusion, our observed association between SGH and greenness exposure was mediated, in part, by mental health status, enhanced social support, and physical activity. There might be age and sex variations in these mediation roles.

  2. Physical activity and cognitive-health content in top-circulating magazines, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Price, Anna E; Corwin, Sara J; Friedman, Daniela B; Laditka, Sarah B; Colabianchi, Natalie; Montgomery, Kara M

    2011-04-01

    Physical activity may promote cognitive health in older adults. Popular media play an important role in preventive health communication. This study examined articles discussing associations between physical activity and cognitive health in top-circulating magazines targeting older adults. 42,753 pages of magazines published from 2006 to 2008 were reviewed; 26 articles met inclusion criteria. Explanations regarding the link between physical activity and cognitive health were provided in 57.7% of articles. These explanations were generally consistent with empirical evidence; however, few articles included empirical evidence. Physical activity recommendations were presented in 80.8% of articles; a wide range was recommended (90-300 min of physical activity per wk). Socioeconomic status and education level were not mentioned in the text. Results suggest an opportunity for greater coverage regarding the role of physical activity in promoting cognitive health in popular media. Magazine content would benefit from including more empirical evidence, culturally sensitive content, and physical activity recommendations that are consistent with U.S. guidelines.

  3. Secular trends in storm-level geomagnetic activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis is made of K-index data from groups of ground-based geomagnetic observatories in Germany, Britain, and Australia, 1868.0-2009.0, solar cycles 11-23. Methods include nonparametric measures of trends and statistical significance used by the hydrological and climatological research communities. Among the three observatory groups, German K data systematically record the highest disturbance levels, followed by the British and, then, the Australian data. Signals consistently seen in K data from all three observatory groups can be reasonably interpreted as physically meaninginful: (1) geomagnetic activity has generally increased over the past 141 years. However, the detailed secular evolution of geomagnetic activity is not well characterized by either a linear trend nor, even, a monotonic trend. Therefore, simple, phenomenological extrapolations of past trends in solar and geomagnetic activity levels are unlikely to be useful for making quantitative predictions of future trends lasting longer than a solar cycle or so. (2) The well-known tendency for magnetic storms to occur during the declining phase of a sunspot-solar cycles is clearly seen for cycles 14-23; it is not, however, clearly seen for cycles 11-13. Therefore, in addition to an increase in geomagnetic activity, the nature of solar-terrestrial interaction has also apparently changed over the past 141 years. ?? Author(s) 2011.

  4. Care, Level 2. Health Care--Physiological Measurement, Level 3. National Vocational Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business and Technology Education Council, London (England).

    Britain's National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) are work qualifications that measure what an employee or potential employee can do as well as how much he or she knows and understands about a particular job. Used as written proof of usable workplace skills that can be put to profitable use by an employer, NVQs range from basic Level 1, for…

  5. Individual, Interpersonal, and Institutional Level Factors Associated with the Mental Health of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, DeAnnah R.; McKinney, Kristen J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the individual, interpersonal, and institutional level factors that are associated with overall mental health among college students. Participants: Data are from an online cross-sectional survey of 2,203 students currently enrolled at a large public university. Methods: Mental health was ascertained using a…

  6. Environmental Health Risk Communication: Assessing Levels of Fish-Consumption Literacy among Selected Southeast Asians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Getz, Thomas D.; Zarcadoolas, Christina; Panzara, Anthony D.; Esposito, Valerie; Wodika, Alicia B.; Caron, Colleen; Migliore, Beverly; Quilliam, Daniela N.

    2010-01-01

    Limited resources have led to a lack of comprehensive state outreach strategies that are geared for non-English speaking constituencies. The investigators worked with Southeast Asian communities in Rhode Island to determine perceptions and levels of trust with various health authorities providing health messaging about fish-consumption practices.…

  7. Trends in health inequalities by educational level in a Norwegian total population study

    PubMed Central

    Krokstad, S; Kunst, A; Westin, S

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe levels of inequality and trends in self reported morbidity by educational level in a total Norwegian county population in the mid-1980s and mid-1990s. Design: Two cross sectional health surveys at an interval of 10 years in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT I (1984–86) and HUNT II (1995–97). Setting: Primary health care, total county population study. Participants: Men and women, 25–69 years. Main results: There was a consistent pattern of increasing self reported health problems with decreasing educational level for three health variables: perceived health, any longstanding health problem, and having a chronic condition. A stable or slight decrease in inequalities over time was found. The prevalence odds ratio for perceived health less than good were 2.71 for men (95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.39 to 3.09) and 2.13 for women (95% CI: 1.85 to 2.46) in the first survey, 2.51 for men (95% CI: 2.27 to 2.78) and 2.06 for women (95% CI: 1.88 to 2.26) 10 years later. Conclusions: The magnitude of the socioeconomic gradients in health in this population seemed somewhat lower than in Norway as a whole and close to the average in studies from other European countries. There was a slight trend towards smaller differences despite rapid structural changes in working life, turbulence in economy, and more people experiencing unemployment. PMID:11964436

  8. Modeling Per Capita State Health Expenditure Variation: State-Level Characteristics Matter

    PubMed Central

    Cuckler, Gigi; Sisko, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Objective In this paper, we describe the methods underlying the econometric model developed by the Office of the Actuary in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, to explain differences in per capita total personal health care spending by state, as described in Cuckler, et al. (2011). Additionally, we discuss many alternative model specifications to provide additional insights for valid interpretation of the model. Data Source We study per capita personal health care spending as measured by the State Health Expenditures, by State of Residence for 1991–2009, produced by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Office of the Actuary. State-level demographic, health status, economic, and health economy characteristics were gathered from a variety of U.S. government sources, such as the Census Bureau, Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Centers for Disease Control, the American Hospital Association, and HealthLeaders-InterStudy. Principal Findings State-specific factors, such as income, health care capacity, and the share of elderly residents, are important factors in explaining the level of per capita personal health care spending variation among states over time. However, the slow-moving nature of health spending per capita and close relationships among state-level factors create inefficiencies in modeling this variation, likely resulting in incorrectly estimated standard errors. In addition, we find that both pooled and fixed effects models primarily capture cross-sectional variation rather than period-specific variation. PMID:24834363

  9. Source Similarity and Social Media Health Messages: Extending Construal Level Theory to Message Sources.

    PubMed

    Young, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    Social media users post messages about health goals and behaviors to online social networks. Compared with more traditional sources of health communication such as physicians or health journalists, peer sources are likely to be perceived as more socially close or similar, which influences how messages are processed. This experimental study uses construal level theory of psychological distance to predict how mediated health messages from peers influence health-related cognition and behavioral intention. Participants were exposed to source cues that identified peer sources as being either highly attitudinally and demographically similar to or different from participants. As predicted by construal level theory, participants who perceived sources of social media health messages as highly similar listed a greater proportion of beliefs about the feasibility of health behaviors and a greater proportion of negative beliefs, while participants who perceived sources as more dissimilar listed a greater proportion of positive beliefs about the health behaviors. Results of the study could be useful in determining how health messages from peers could encourage individuals to set realistic health goals.

  10. More than a checklist: a realist evaluation of supervision of mid-level health workers in rural Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mid-level health workers (MLHWs) form the front-line of service delivery in many low- and middle-income countries. Supervision is a critical institutional intervention linking their work to the health system, and it consists of activities intended to support health workers’ motivation and enable them to perform. However its impact depends not only on the frequency of these activities but also how they are carried out and received. This study aims to deepen understanding of the mechanisms through which supervision activities support the performance of auxiliary nurses, a cadre of MLHWs, in rural Guatemala. Methods A multiple case study was conducted to examine the operation of supervision of five health posts using a realist evaluation approach. A program theory was formulated describing local understanding of how supervision activities are intended to work. Data was collected through interviews and document review to test the theory. Analysis focused on comparison of activities, outcomes, mechanisms and the influence of context across cases, leading to revision of the program theory. Results The supervisor’s orientation was identified as the main mechanism contributing to variation observed in activities and their outcomes. Managerial control was the dominant orientation, reflecting the influence of standardized performance criteria and institutional culture. Humanized support was present in one case where the auxiliary nurse was motivated by the sense that the full scope of her work was valued. This orientation reflected the supervisor’s integration of her professional identity as a nurse. Conclusions The nature of the support health workers received was shaped by supervisors’ orientation, and in this study, nursing principles were central to humanized support. Efforts to strengthen the support that supervision provides to MLHWs should promote professional ethos as a means of developing shared performance goals and orient supervisors to a more

  11. Learning Standards for Health, Physical Education, and Home Economics at Three Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    These New York State performance standards focus on: (1) personal health and fitness (students will have the necessary knowledge and skills to establish and maintain physical fitness, participate in physical activity, and maintain personal health); (2) a safe and healthy environment (students will acquire the knowledge and ability necessary to…

  12. Parental Influences and the Relationship to their Children’s Physical Activity Levels

    PubMed Central

    CHIARLITTI, NATHAN A.; KOLEN, ANGELA M.

    2017-01-01

    Engaging in a physically active lifestyle relates positively to current health and reduces chances of chronic diseases in the future. Given escalating health care costs, it is paramount to reduce illnesses associated with a lack of physical activity and thus critical to identify factors that influence physical activity - especially in children, with the opportunity for a lifetime impact. One of these influencing factors may be parents/guardians. The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between children’s physical activity levels and parental factors including parental physical activity, support/encouragement, restrictiveness, and self-reported participation. Data was collected from 15 child-parent pairs with children ranging in age from 7 to 10 years. Daily physical activity levels were determined from pedometer data using a Piezo SC-Step Pedometer. Number of steps and moderate and vigorous physical activity were extracted from the pedometers and levels of support/encouragement, restrictiveness, and participation were quantified from parents’ self-reported responses to a questionnaire created for this study. Pearson Product correlation analyses were carried out between: the children’s and parent steps (r = −0.069; p = 0.597); children’s steps and parent’s self-reported encouragement/support (r = 0.045, p = 0.563); children’s steps and parents’ self-reported restrictiveness (r = −.0254, p = 0.820); and children’s steps and parents’ self-reported participation (r = −0.002, p = 0.503). The lack of significant relationships among these variables implies that more complex interactions occur between children and their parents regarding physical activity with children’s participation influenced by other factors. PMID:28344735

  13. Predicting later life health status and mortality using state-level socioeconomic characteristics in early life.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H; Kuan, Kai Y; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-12-01

    Studies extending across multiple life stages promote an understanding of factors influencing health across the life span. Existing work has largely focused on individual-level rather than area-level early life determinants of health. In this study, we linked multiple data sets to examine whether early life state-level characteristics were predictive of health and mortality decades later. The sample included 143,755 U.S. employees, for whom work life claims and administrative data were linked with early life state-of-residence and mortality. We first created a "state health risk score" (SHRS) and "state mortality risk score" (SMRS) by modeling state-level contextual characteristics with health status and mortality in a randomly selected 30% of the sample (the "training set"). We then examined the association of these scores with objective health status and mortality in later life in the remaining 70% of the sample (the "test set") using multivariate linear and Cox regressions, respectively. The association between the SHRS and adult health status was β=0.14 (95%CI: 0.084, 0.20), while the hazard ratio for the SMRS was 0.96 (95%CI: 0.93, 1.00). The association between the SHRS and health was not statistically significant in older age groups at a p-level of 0.05, and there was a statistically significantly different association for health status among movers compared to stayers. This study uses a life course perspective and supports the idea of "sensitive periods" in early life that have enduring impacts on health. It adds to the literature examining populations in the U.S. where large linked data sets are infrequently available.

  14. Using Health Information Technology to Foster Engagement: Patients' Experiences with an Active Patient Health Record.

    PubMed

    Rief, John J; Hamm, Megan E; Zickmund, Susan L; Nikolajski, Cara; Lesky, Dan; Hess, Rachel; Fischer, Gary S; Weimer, Melissa; Clark, Sunday; Zieth, Caroline; Roberts, Mark S

    2017-03-01

    Personal health records (PHRs) typically employ "passive" communication strategies, such as non-personalized medical text, rather than direct patient engagement in care. Currently there is a call for more active PHRs that directly engage patients in an effort to improve their health by offering elements such as personalized medical information, health coaches, and secure messaging with primary care providers. As part of a randomized clinical trial comparing "passive" with "active" PHRs, we explore patients' experiences with using an "active" PHR known as HealthTrak. The "passive" elements of this PHR included problem lists, medication lists, information about patient allergies and immunizations, medical and surgical histories, lab test results, health reminders, and secure messaging. The active arm included all of these elements and added personalized alerts delivered through the secure messaging platform to patients for services coming due based on various demographic features (including age and sex) and chronic medical conditions. Our participants were part of the larger clinical trial and were eligible if they had been randomized to the active PHR arm, one that included regular personalized alerts. We conducted focus group discussions on the benefits of this active PHR for patients who are at risk for cardiovascular disease. Forty-one patients agreed to participate and were organized into five separate focus group sessions. Three main themes emerged from the qualitatively analyzed focus groups: participants reported that the active PHR promoted better communication with providers; enabled them to more effectively partner with their providers; and helped them become more proactive about tracking their health information. In conclusion, patients reported improved communication, partnership with their providers, and a sense of self-management, thus adding insights for PHR designers hoping to address low adoption rates and other patient barriers to the development

  15. Effects of Minority Stress, Group-Level Coping, and Social Support on Mental Health of German Gay Men

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Frank A.; Wagner, Ulrich; Christiansen, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Objective According to epidemiological studies, gay men are at a higher risk of mental disorders than heterosexual men. In the current study, the minority stress theory was investigated in German gay men: 1) it was hypothesized that minority stressors would positively predict mental health problems and that 2) group-level coping and social support variables would moderate these predictions negatively. Methods Data from 1,188 German self-identified gay men were collected online. The questionnaire included items about socio-demographics, minority stress (victimization, rejection sensitivity, and internalized homonegativity), group-level coping (disclosure of sexual orientation, homopositivity, gay affirmation, gay rights support, and gay rights activism), and social support (gay social support and non-gay social support). A moderated multiple regression was conducted. Results Minority stressors positively predicted mental health problems. Group-level coping did not interact with minority stressors, with the exception of disclosure and homopositivity interacting marginally with some minority stressors. Further, only two interactions were found for social support variables and minority stress, one of them marginal. Gay and non-gay social support inversely predicted mental health problems. In addition, disclosure and homopositivity marginally predicted mental health problems. Conclusions The findings imply that the minority stress theory should be modified. Disclosure does not have a relevant effect on mental health, while social support variables directly influence mental health of gay men. Group-level coping does not interact with minority stressors relevantly, and only one relevant interaction between social support and minority stress was found. Further longitudinal or experimental replication is needed before transferring the results to mental health interventions and prevention strategies for gay men. PMID:26943785

  16. Effects of a Community-Based, Professionally Supervised Intervention on Physical Activity Levels Among Residents of Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hallal, Pedro; Pratt, Michael; Ramos, Luiz; Munk, Marcia; Damascena, Wilson; Parra Perez, Diana; Hoehner, Christine M.; Gilbertz, David; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Brownson, Ross C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effects of a community-based intervention, the Academia da Cidade program (ACP), on increasing leisure-time physical activity among residents of Recife, Brazil. Methods. We used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess leisure-time physical activity and transport physical activity (i.e., activities involved in traveling from place to place) levels in a random sample of 2047 Recife residents surveyed in 2007. We also examined factors related to exposure to ACP (participation in the intervention, residing near an intervention site, hearing about or seeing intervention activities). We estimated prevalence odds ratios (ORs) of moderate to high leisure-time and transport physical activity levels via intervention exposures adjusted for sociodemographic, health, and environmental variables. Results. Prevalence ORs for moderate to high levels of leisure-time physical activity were higher among former (prevalence OR = 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 3.9) and current (prevalence OR = 11.3; 95% CI = 3.5, 35.9) intervention participants and those who had heard about or seen an intervention activity (prevalence OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.5). Transport physical activity levels were inversely associated with residing near an ACP site. Conclusions. The ACP program appears to be an effective public health strategy to increase population-level physical activity in urban developing settings. PMID:19008499

  17. Linking online sexual activities to health outcomes among teens.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Lucia F

    2014-01-01

    New digital technologies are highly responsive to many of the developmental needs of adolescents, including their need for intimate connection and social identity. This chapter explores adolescents' use of web-based sexual information, texting and "sexting," online dating sites, role-playing games, and sexually explicit media, and presents new data comparing the interpersonal and intrapersonal health outcomes among youth who engage in online sexual activities to those who do not. Despite the media-stoked concerns surrounding adolescents' participation in online sexual activities, the ubiquity of online activities and close overlap between online and offline activities indicate that this type of behavior should not be pathologized or used as a metric of problem behavior. The chapter concludes with implications for parents, educators, researchers, counselors, and health care providers, a call to challenge our deep discomfort around adolescent sexuality and to harness these technologies in ways that help promote growth and positive development.

  18. Electrocortical activity distinguishes between uphill and level walking in humans.

    PubMed

    Bradford, J Cortney; Lukos, Jamie R; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if electrocortical activity is different between walking on an incline compared with level surface. Subjects walked on a treadmill at 0% and 15% grades for 30 min while we recorded electroencephalography (EEG). We used independent component (IC) analysis to parse EEG signals into maximally independent sources and then computed dipole estimations for each IC. We clustered cortical source ICs and analyzed event-related spectral perturbations synchronized to gait events. Theta power fluctuated across the gait cycle for both conditions, but was greater during incline walking in the anterior cingulate, sensorimotor and posterior parietal clusters. We found greater gamma power during level walking in the left sensorimotor and anterior cingulate clusters. We also found distinct alpha and beta fluctuations, depending on the phase of the gait cycle for the left and right sensorimotor cortices, indicating cortical lateralization for both walking conditions. We validated the results by isolating movement artifact. We found that the frequency activation patterns of the artifact were different than the actual EEG data, providing evidence that the differences between walking conditions were cortically driven rather than a residual artifact of the experiment. These findings suggest that the locomotor pattern adjustments necessary to walk on an incline compared with level surface may require supraspinal input, especially from the left sensorimotor cortex, anterior cingulate, and posterior parietal areas. These results are a promising step toward the use of EEG as a feed-forward control signal for ambulatory brain-computer interface technologies.

  19. HELLE: Health Effects of Low Level Exposures/ Gezondheidseffecten van lage blootstellingniveaus [International workshop: Influence of low level exposures to chemicals and radiation on human and ecological health

    SciTech Connect

    Schoten, Eert

    1998-11-26

    The Health Council is closely involved in establishing the scientific foundation of exposure limits for substances and radiation in order to protect public health. Through the years, the Council has contributed to the formulation of principles and procedures, both for carcinogenic and for noncarcinogenic agents. As a rule, the discussion with regard to the derivation of health-based recommended exposure limits centers around the appropriateness of extrapolation methods (What can be inferred from data on high exposure levels and on experimental animals?). Generally speaking, there is a lack of direct information on the health effects of low levels of exposure. Effects at these levels cannot usually be detected by means of traditional animal experiments or epidemiological research. The capacity of these analytical instruments to distinguish between ''signal'' and ''noise'' is inadequate in most cases. Annex B of this report contains a brief outline of the difficulties and the established methods for tackling this problem. In spite of this, the hope exists that the posited weak signals, if they are indeed present, can be detected by other means. The search will have to take place on a deeper level. In other words, effort must be made to discover what occurs at underlying levels of biological organization when organisms are exposed to low doses of radiation or substances. Molecular and cell biology provide various methods and techniques which give an insight into the processes within the cell. This results in an increase in the knowledge about the molecular and cellular effects of exposure to agents, or stated differently, the working mechanisms which form the basis of the health effects. Last year, the Health Council considered that the time was ripe to take stock of the state of knowledge in this field. To this end, an international working conference was held from 19 to 21 October 1997, entitled ''Health Effects of Low Level Exposures: Scientific Developments and

  20. The level of consumer information about health insurance in Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weiwei; Van de Ven, Wynand P M M

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese government is considering a (regulated) competitive healthcare system. Sufficient consumer information is a crucial pre-condition to benefit from such a change. We conducted a survey on the level of consumer information regarding health insurance among the insured population in Nanjing, China in 2009. The results from descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression demonstrate that the current level of consumer information about health insurance is low. The level of consumer information is positively correlated with the subscribers' motivation to obtain the information and its availability. The level of searching for health insurance information is also low; moreover, even upon searching, the chance of finding relevant information is less than 25%. We conclude that the level of consumer information is currently insufficient in China. If the Chinese government is determined to adopt market mechanisms in the healthcare sector, it should take the lead in making valid and reliable information publicly available and easily accessible.

  1. Reporting Heterogeneity and Health Disparities Across Gender and Education Levels: Evidence From Four Countries.

    PubMed

    Molina, Teresa

    2016-04-01

    I use anchoring vignettes from Indonesia, the United States, England, and China to study the extent to which differences in self-reported health across gender and education levels can be explained by the use of different response thresholds. To determine whether statistically significant differences between groups remain after adjusting thresholds, I calculate standard errors for the simulated probabilities, largely ignored in previous literature. Accounting for reporting heterogeneity reduces the gender gap in many health domains across the four countries, but to varying degrees. Health disparities across education levels persist and even widen after equalizing thresholds across the two groups.

  2. Stress, mental health, and job performance among active duty military personnel: findings from the 2002 Department of Defense Health-Related Behaviors Survey.

    PubMed

    Hourani, Laurel L; Williams, Thomas V; Kress, Amii M

    2006-09-01

    This study examined the extent to which high levels of occupational and family stress were associated with mental health problems and productivity loss among active duty military personnel. We analyzed data from the 2002 Department of Defense Survey of Health-Related Behaviors among Military Personnel, which provided extensive population-based information on 12,756 active duty personnel in all branches of the military worldwide. Military personnel reported higher levels of stress at work than in their family life. The personnel reporting the highest levels of occupational stress were those 25 or younger, those who were married with spouses not present, and women. Personnel with high levels of stress had significantly higher rates of mental health problems and productivity loss than those with less stress. We recommend that prevention and intervention efforts geared toward personnel reporting the highest levels of stress be given priority for resources in this population.

  3. The voluntary sector and health policy: the role of national level health consumer and patients' organisations in the UK.

    PubMed

    Baggott, Rob; Jones, Kathryn

    2014-12-01

    This article explores the policy role of health consumer and patients' organisations (HCPOs), an important subset of the UK voluntary health sector. Based on research findings from two surveys, the article examines the activities, resources and contacts of HCPOs. It also assesses their impact on health policy and reform. There is some evidence that HCPOs can influence policy and reform. However, much depends on the alliances they build with other policy actors (including other HCPOs), their resources and leadership. HCPOs seem to have more impact on the detail of policy than on the direction of travel. In addition, there are potentially adverse consequences for HCPOs that do engage with the policy process, which may partly explain why some are wary of such involvement. For example, it is possible that HCPOs can be manipulated by government and other powerful policy actors such as health professionals and the drugs industry.

  4. A systematic method to document population-level nursing interventions in an electronic health system.

    PubMed

    Baisch, Mary Jo

    2012-01-01

    Many public health electronic health systems lack the specificity to distinguish between individual- and population-based levels of care provided by public health nurses. Data that describe the broad scope of the everyday practice of public health nurses are critical to providing evidence of their effectiveness in promoting community health, which may not be fully appreciated in an arena of scarce resources. This article describes a method to document population-based nursing practice by adding population-based interventions to the nursing taxonomy underlying an electronic health information system. These interventions, derived from the Intervention Wheel, were incorporated into the Omaha System taxonomy, the conceptual framework for the Automated Community Health Information System (ACHIS), which is a longstanding data system used to capture nursing practice in community nursing centers. This article includes a description of the development and testing of the system's ability to capture the practice of the district public health nurse model. This method of adapting an existing data system to capture population-based interventions could be replicated by public health administrators interested in better evaluating the processes and outcomes of public health nursing and other public health professionals.

  5. Improving adolescent health policy: incorporating a framework for assessing state-level policies.

    PubMed

    Brindis, Claire D; Moore, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Many US policies that affect health are made at the state, not the federal, level. Identifying state-level policies and data to analyze how different policies affect outcomes may help policy makers ascertain the usefulness of their public policies and funding decisions in improving the health of adolescent populations. A framework for describing and assessing the role of federal and state policies on adolescent health and well-being is proposed; an example of how the framework might be applied to the issue of teen childbearing is included. Such a framework can also help inform analyses of whether and how state and federal policies contribute to the variation across states in meeting adolescent health needs. A database on state policies, contextual variables, and health outcomes data can further enable researchers and policy makers to examine how these factors are associated with behaviors they aim to impact.

  6. Health and Physical Activity Content Knowledge of Pima Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusseau, Timothy; Kulinna, Pamela H.; Cothran, Donetta J.

    2011-01-01

    This study grounded in constructivist theory and the public health literature investigated Native American children's knowledge related to physical activity and healthy behavior concepts. Learning tends to be more meaningful and relevant when teachers take into consideration the students' knowledge and experiences. Therefore it is important to…

  7. Health Promotion Guidance Activity of Youth Sports Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokko, Sami; Kannas, Lasse; Villberg, Jari; Ormshaw, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to clarify the extent to which youth sports clubs guide their coaches to recognise health promotion as a part of the coaching practice. The guidance activity of clubs is seen parallel to internal organisational communication. Design/methodology/approach: A survey of 93 (from 120, 78 per cent) youth sports clubs in Finland…

  8. Defining Health Activism: From MADD to Mad Activists

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Health Activism in the 20th Century: A History of Medicine Symposium at Yale University School of Medicine in October 2010 highlighted a variety of issues concerning the social history of medicine, including race, gender, sexual orientation, and disability. A watershed moment in a burgeoning interdisciplinary field, this symposium could pave the way for extensive future discourse. PMID:21451786

  9. Information-Seeking Activity of Rural Health Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Sandra; Donaldson, Joe F.

    The information-seeking activity (ISA) of 16 rural health practitioners (occupational, physical, and respiratory therapists; radiological technologists; speech/language pathologists; and nurses) was explored using qualitative methods of participant observation, document collection, and in-depth interviews. Field notes and documents were collected…

  10. Predicting Physical Activity Promotion in Health Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Guy; Biddle, Stuart

    2001-01-01

    Tested the theory of planned behavior's (TPB) ability to predict stage of change for physical activity promotion among health professionals. Researchers measured attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, perceived behavioral control, and stage of change, then later reassessed stage of change. TPB variables of attitude, subjective norms, perceived…

  11. An Aging Game Simulation Activity for Allied Health Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Carolinda; Henry, Beverly W.; Kostiwa, Irene M.

    2008-01-01

    The Aging Game, a simulation activity, has been used successfully with medical students in the development of empathetic attitudes toward older adults. To date, the Aging Game has not been used extensively with allied health students. It has been viewed as too costly, time-consuming and labor-intensive. The purpose of this study was to examine the…

  12. Health and Physical Activity Research as Represented in RQES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2005-01-01

    In the past 75 years, articles in Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (RQES) have contributed to the understanding of the role physical activity plays in the health of individuals and populations. Articles have described laboratory and community research studies in humans and animals, presented reviews of topics and conference proceedings,…

  13. Health Occupations. Technology Learning Activity. Teacher Edition. Technology Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This packet of technology learning activity (TLA) materials on health occupations for students in grades 6-10 consists of a technology education overview, information on use, and instructor's and student's sections. The overview discusses the technology education program and materials. Components of the instructor's and student's sections are…

  14. Expanded school mental health services: assessing needs related to school level and geography.

    PubMed

    Weist, M D; Myers, C P; Danforth, J; McNeil, D W; Ollendick, T H; Hawkins, R

    2000-06-01

    We surveyed 62 school administrators from three midatlantic (MD, VA, WV) and one northeastern (CT) state on factors relevant to developing school-based mental health programs. Administrators were from schools that varied on education level (elementary, middle, and high) and geographic location (urban, suburban, and rural), with equivalent numbers in each subgroup. Administrators provided ratings to questions grouped in five categories: (a) Stressful Conditions, (b) Internalizing Behavioral Problems, (c) Externalizing Behavioral Problems, (d) Substance Abuse, and (e) Barriers to Mental Health Care, and provided open-ended comments on needs of youth and mental health programs for them. They rated behavioral and substance abuse problems as progressively more serious as students advanced in school level. Urban youth were reported to encounter higher stress and present more severe internalizing problems than suburban or rural youth. Suburban and rural schools provided more health and mental health services than urban schools. Across geographic locales, physical health services far outnumbered mental health services. Findings related to barriers to mental health care, and the viability of schools as delivery sites for comprehensive mental health services, are discussed.

  15. Universal health coverage at the macro level: Synthetic control evidence from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Matthias; Wagner, Natascha; Bedi, Arjun S

    2017-01-01

    As more and more countries are moving towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC), it is important to understand the macro level or aggregate impacts of such a policy. We use synthetic control methods to study the impact of UHC, introduced in Thailand in 2001, on various macroeconomic and health outcomes. Thailand is compared to a weighted average of control countries in terms of aggregate health financing indicators, aggregate health outcomes and economic performance, over the period 1995 to 2012. Our results suggest that UHC helps alleviate the financial consequences of illnesses. The estimated treatment effect of UHC on out-of-pocket payments as a percentage of overall health expenditures is negative 13 percentage points and its effect on annual government per capita health spending is US$ 79. We detect a smaller effect of US$ 60.8 on total health spending per capita which appears with a lag. We document positive health effects as captured by reductions in infant and child mortality. We do not find any effect on GDP and the share of the government budget devoted to health. Overall, our results complement micro evidence based on within country variation. The counterfactual design implemented here may be used to inform other countries on the macro level repercussions of UHC.

  16. Physical Activity Levels and Domains Assessed by Accelerometry in German Adolescents from GINIplus and LISAplus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maia P.; Berdel, Dietrich; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is a well-known and underused protective factor for numerous health outcomes, and interventions are hampered by lack of objective data. We combined accelerometers with diaries to estimate the contributions to total activity from different domains throughout the day and week in adolescents. Methods Accelerometric and diary data from 1403 adolescents (45% male, mean age 15.6 ± 0.5 years) were combined to evaluate daily levels and domains of sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) during a typical week. Freedson’s cutoff points were applied to determine levels of activity. Total activity was broken down into school physical education (PE), school outside PE, transportation to school, sport, and other time. Results About 2/3 of adolescents’ time was spent sedentary, 1/3 in light activity, and about 5% in MVPA. Boys and girls averaged 46 (SD 22) and 38 (23) minutes MVPA per day. Adolescents were most active during leisure sport, spending about 30% of it in MVPA, followed by PE (about 20%) transport to school (14%) and either school class time or other time (3%). PE provided 5% of total MVPA, while leisure sport provided 16% and transportation to school 8%. School was the most sedentary part of the day with over 75% of time outside PE spent sedentary. Conclusions These German adolescents were typical of Europeans in showing low levels of physical activity, with significant contributions from leisure sport, transportation and school PE. Leisure sport was the most active part of the day, and participation did not vary significantly by sex, study center (region of Germany) or BMI. Transportation to school was frequent and thus accounted for a significant fraction of total MVPA. This indicates that even in a population with good access to dedicated sporting activities, frequent active transportation can add significantly to total MVPA. PMID:27010227

  17. Clinical application of asparaginase activity levels following treatment with pegaspargase.

    PubMed

    Bleyer, Archie; Asselin, Barbara L; Koontz, Susannah E; Hunger, Stephen P

    2015-06-01

    Asparaginase, an enzyme used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia and related forms of nonHodgkin lymphoma, depletes asparagine, which leads to lymphoblast cell death. Unlike most chemotherapeutic agents, asparaginase is a foreign protein that can result in clinical allergy and/or silent hypersensitivity with production of neutralizing antibodies that inactivate asparaginase. In North America, asparaginase activity levels can now be obtained via a commercially available assay, for therapeutic drug monitoring and investigation of potential allergic reactions. Herein, we provide recommendations and a corresponding algorithm for the clinical application of this assay after treatment with pegaspargase to evaluate suspected hypersensitivity reactions and/or silent inactivation.

  18. [Activities of voivodeship occupational medicine centers in workplace health promotion in 2008].

    PubMed

    Goszczyńska, Eliza

    2010-01-01

    The paper aims to present the activities of the largest Voivodeship Occupational Medicine Centers (VOMCs) in Poland in the area of workplace health promotion in 2008. It was compiled on the basis of written reports concerning these activities sent by the Centers to the Polish National Center for Workplace Health Promotion, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź. Their analysis shows a greatly varied level of engagement in and understanding of health promotion--from simple single actions (in the field of health education and screening) to long-running programs, including various ways of influencing people the programs are addressed to. In 2008, there were 78 such programs in the country, the most popular of them were those focused on occupational voice disorders and tobacco smoke). VOMCs perceive external factors, unfavorable or indifferent attitudes towards promoting health of their employees on the part of employers as well as financial constraints, as the most common obstacles in undertaking activities in the field of workplace health promotion. At the same time, they link achievements in this field mostly with their own activities, including effective cooperation with various partners and their well qualified and experienced employees.

  19. Are Community-Level Financial Data Adequate to Assess Population Health Investments?

    PubMed Central

    Casper, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The variation in health outcomes among communities results largely from different levels of financial and nonfinancial policy investments over time; these natural experiments should offer investment and policy guidance for a business model on population health. However, little such guidance exists. We examined the availability of data in a sample of Wisconsin counties for expenditures in selected categories of health care, public health, human services, income support, job development, and education. We found, as predicted by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics in 2002, that availability is often limited by the challenges of difficulty in locating useable data, a lack of resources among public agencies to upgrade information technology systems for making data more usable and accessible to the public, and a lack of enterprise-wide coordination and geographic detail in data collection efforts. These challenges must be overcome to provide policy-relevant information for optimal population health resource allocation. PMID:22877572

  20. Are community-level financial data adequate to assess population health investments?

    PubMed

    Casper, Tim; Kindig, David A

    2012-01-01

    The variation in health outcomes among communities results largely from different levels of financial and nonfinancial policy investments over time; these natural experiments should offer investment and policy guidance for a business model on population health. However, little such guidance exists. We examined the availability of data in a sample of Wisconsin counties for expenditures in selected categories of health care, public health, human services, income support, job development, and education. We found, as predicted by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics in 2002, that availability is often limited by the challenges of difficulty in locating useable data, a lack of resources among public agencies to upgrade information technology systems for making data more usable and accessible to the public, and a lack of enterprise-wide coordination and geographic detail in data collection efforts. These challenges must be overcome to provide policy-relevant information for optimal population health resource allocation.

  1. The relative effect of health literacy and patient activation on provider choice in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rademakers, Jany; Nijman, Jessica; Brabers, Anne E M; de Jong, Judith D; Hendriks, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    Active provider choice by patients has become an important policy theme in western, countries over the last decades. However, not many patients and consumers exercise their right to, choose. Both health literacy and patient activation are likely to have an impact on the choice process. In, this article the relative effect of health literacy and patient activation on provider choice in the, Netherlands is studied. A questionnaire was sent to a representative sample of 2000 Dutch citizens. The questionnaire, included a measure of functional health literacy, the Dutch version of the Patient Activation Measure, and questions assessing active provider choice, reasons not to engage in it and other ways of provider, selection. The majority of respondents (59.6%) would not search for information on the basis of which they, could select the best provider or hospital. Most people rely on their general practitioner's advice. Both, low literacy and lower patient activation levels were negatively associated with active provider choice. In a regression analysis gender, education and patient activation proved the most important, predictors. The policy focus on active provider choice might result in inequity, with men, less educated, and less activated people being at a disadvantage.

  2. Local Health Departments’ Activities to Address Health Disparities and Inequities: Are We Moving in the Right Direction?

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Gulzar H.; Sheahan, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Health disparities are among the critical public health challenges. Objectives: To analyze the extent to which local health departments (LHDs) perform activities for addressing health disparities, changes in proportion of LHDs’ performing those activities since 2005, and factors associated with variation in such engagement. Methods: We used the 2013 National Profile of LHDs Survey to perform Logistic Regression of activities LHDs performed to address health disparities. Results: About 20 percent of LHDs did not perform any activity to address health disparities. Significant decreases occurred since 2005 in the proportion of LHDs that performed health disparity reduction/elimination activities for four activities. LHD characteristics significantly associated (p≤0.05) with the increased likelihood of performing activities to address health disparities were: recent completion of community health assessment, community health improvement plan and agency wide strategic plan. Other significant positive impacts on such activities included per capita expenditures, local governance, having one or more local boards of health, larger population size and metropolitan status of the LHD jurisdiction. Conclusions: Reduced infrastructural capacity of LHDs has resulted in fewer LHDs addressing health disparities in their jurisdictions. LHD characteristics associated with higher performance of activities for health disparity reduction identified by this research have important policy implications. PMID:26703693

  3. Retention and sustainability of community-based health volunteers' activities: A qualitative study in rural Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Chatio, Samuel; Akweongo, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Background The shortage of formal health workers has led to the utilization of Community-Based Health Volunteers (CBHV) to provide health care services to people especially in rural and neglected communities. Community-based health volunteers have been effective partners in health care delivery at the community level for many years. The challenge is how to retain these volunteers and also sustain their activities. This study explored factors affecting retention and sustainability of community-based health volunteers’ activities in a rural setting in Northern Ghana. Methods This was a qualitative study comprising thirty-two in-depth interviews (IDIs) with health volunteers and health workers in-charge of health volunteers’ activities. Purposive sampling technique was used to select study participants for the interviews. The interviews were transcribed and coded into themes using Nvivo 10 software. The thematic analysis framework was used to analyze the data. Results Study participants reported that the desire to help community members, prestige and recognition as doctors in community mainly motivated them to work as health volunteers. Lack of incentives and logistical supplies such as raincoats, torch lights, wellington boots and transportation in the form of bicycles to facilitate the movement of health volunteers affected the work. They suggested that lack of these things discouraged them from working as health volunteers. Most of the dropout volunteers said lack of support and respect from community members made them to stop working as health volunteers. They recommended that community support, incentives and logistical supplies such as raincoats, torch light, wellington boots, bicycles, awards to hard working volunteers are mechanisms that can help retain community-based health volunteers and also sustain their activities. Conclusion Providing means of transport and non-monetary incentives would help to retain community-based health volunteers and also

  4. Staff- and School-Level Predictors of School Organizational Health: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevans, Katherine; Bradshaw, Catherine; Miech, Richard; Leaf, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Background: An organizationally healthy school environment is associated with favorable student and staff outcomes and thus is often targeted by school improvement initiatives. However, few studies have differentiated staff-level from school-level predictors of organizational health. Social disorganization theory suggests that school-level…

  5. The Relationship of Daily Stress and Health-Related Behaviors to Adolescents' Cholesterol Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Chris A.; Friedman, Alice G.; Burright, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between daily life events and total cholesterol levels among high school students (N=104) and examines contributions of health-related behaviors. Analyses showed that scores on a scale of daily life events explained a significant portion of variance in cholesterol levels. Females reported a greater degree of negative…

  6. The effect of widowhood on husbands' and wives' physical activity: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Sarah T; Schulz, Richard

    2014-08-01

    This prospective study examined the effect of widowhood on physical activity by comparing widowed elders to health status-, age-, and sex-matched married controls. Participants included 396 married controls and 396 widows/widowers age 64-91 (M age = 72.7 years) who experienced the death of their spouse while participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Compared to married controls, widowed men, but not women, were more likely to increase their physical activity following the death of their spouse. However, this increased level of activity was not sustained and declines as time since spousal death passes. Moreover, during the year before spousal death, soon-to-be widowed men, but not women, increase their physical activity. Our results suggest that widowed men experience significant changes in physical activity and that the transition to widowhood contribute to these changes.

  7. Does activity space size influence physical activity levels of adolescents?—A GPS study of an urban environment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nolan C.; Voss, Christine; Frazer, Amanda D.; Hirsch, Jana A.; McKay, Heather A.; Winters, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is closely linked with child and youth health, and active travel may be a solution to enhancing PA levels. Activity spaces depict the geographic coverage of one's travel. Little is known about activity spaces and PA in adolescents. Objective To explore the relation between adolescent travel (using a spatial measure of activity space size) and daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), with a focus on school days. Methods We used Global Positioning Systems to manually identify trips and generate activity spaces for each person-day; quantified by area for 39 students (13.8 ± 0.6 years, 38% female) attending high school in urban Downtown Vancouver, Canada. We assessed the association between activity space area and MVPA using multi-level regression. We calculated total, school-day and trip-based MVPA for each valid person-day (accelerometry; ≥ 600 min wear time). Results On school days, students accrued 68.2 min/day (95% CI 60.4–76.0) of MVPA. Daily activity spaces averaged 2.2 km2 (95% CI 1.3–3.0). There was no association between activity space size and school-day MVPA. Students accrued 21.8 min/day (95% CI 19.2–24.4) of MVPA during school hours, 19.4 min/day (95% CI 15.1–23.7) during travel, and 28.3 min/day (95% CI 22.3–34.3) elsewhere. Conclusion School and school travel are important sources of PA in Vancouver adolescents, irrespective of activity space area covered. PMID:26807349

  8. Description of the MHS Health Level 7 Radiology for Public Health Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    active tuberculosis infection, pneumonia , hyperemia, emphysema and aspiration . Coupled with laboratory and encounter data, disease management...ii Table of Contents ........................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined ...7 Defining Duplicates..................................................................................................................... 7

  9. A Community-Level Assessment of Barriers to Preventive Health Behaviors Among Culturally Diverse Men.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jenna L; Rivers, Brian M; Rivers, Desiree; Tucker, Carolyn M; Desmond, Frederic F; Arthur, Tya M; Wippold, Guillermo M; Green, B Lee

    2016-11-01

    There are significant gender disparities in health outcomes and health care utilization in the United States, with men experiencing more of these disparities. It is critical to ascertain the interplay between societal conditions, health behaviors, and access to services and the impact of these factors on health outcomes and utilization of health care. The present study is part of a larger initiative titled, The Men's Health Study: Addressing Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors, which has two purposes-to annually assess the motivators of and barriers to health-promoting behaviors among culturally diverse men attending the Men's Health Forum (MHF) and to use this information to develop an intervention program that facilitates healthy lifestyle behaviors among men. The MHF is a community-driven initiative for medically underserved men in Tampa, Florida that offers free health screenings and wellness exhibitors in order to empower men to lead a healthy lifestyle. The purpose of this article is to identify barriers to engaging in health-smart behaviors (e.g., cancer screenings, physical activity) among culturally diverse men who participated in the MHF and to detect any demographic differences among these barriers. A total of 254 men participated in the study. Findings identify that age was the only demographic variable that had a statistically significant association with any of the cancer-screening barriers. Some cancer-screening barriers appear to exist among all demographic groups since no statistical demographic differences were discovered. Income and education were significantly associated with barriers to engaging in health-smart behaviors. This may give researchers, health educators, and providers information needed to customize interventions to promote health and preventive health care among culturally diverse men.

  10. [Physical education, health and physical activities: difficult relationships].

    PubMed

    Cogérino, Geneviève

    2016-06-08

    Physical education (PE) is an appropriate subject to investigate the links between physical activity (PA) and health. The current training of PE teachers tends to emphasize the link between PA and physical fitness, to the detriment of other health components. The occupational, environmental, cultural dimensions of PA are frequently overlooked. This article lists four topics related to PA-health links, which could be more extensively included in initial PE teacher training, on the basis of abundant scientific literature: 1. the diversity of exercise motives, according to the subject’s age, gender, ability, competence, living conditions, etc.; 2. the role of body image on the desire or reluctance of teenagers to perform PA or certain physical activities; 3. the evolution of motivations towards PA throughout life; 4. the impact of the PE teachers’ masculinist conceptions, consubstantial of PE, due to its link with sport. These topics could contribute to a better analysis of what individuals seek through PA and the PA-health links they value. They could help teachers to adjust their teaching to contribute to the pupils’ health and not solely their physical fitness..

  11. Multi-level stressor analysis from the DNA/biochemical level to community levels in an urban stream and integrative health response (IHR) assessments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Joon Ha; Oh, Hee-Mock; An, Kwang-Guk

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify multi-level stressors at the DNA/biochemical level to the community level in fish in an urban stream and to develop an integrative health response (IHR) model for ecological health diagnosis. A pristine control site (S (c) ) and an impacted site (S (i) ) were selected from among seven pre-screened sites studied over seven years. Various chemical analyses indicated that nutrient enrichment (Nitrogen, Phosphorus) and organic pollution were significantly greater (t > 8.783, p < 0.01) at the S (i) site compared to the S (c) site. Single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assays) of DNA-level impairment indicated significantly (t = 5.678, p < 0.01) greater tail intensity, expressed as % tail-DNA, at the S (i) site and genotoxic responses were detected in the downstream reach. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assays, as a physiological bioindicator, were 2.8-fold higher (p < 0.05, NK-test after ANOVA) at the S (i) site. Tissue analysis using a necropsy-based health assessment index (NHAI) showed distinct internal organ disorders in three tissues, i.e., liver, kidney, and gill, at the S (i) site. Population-level analysis using the sentinel species Zacco platypus showed that the regression coefficient (b) was 3.012 for the S (i) site and 2.915 for the S (c) site, indicating population skewness in the downstream reach. Community-level health was impaired at the S (i) site based on an index of biological integrity (IBI), and physical habitat modifications were identified by a qualitative habitat evaluation index (QHEI). Overall, the model values for the integrative health response (IHR), developed using the star plot approach, were 3.22 (80.5%) at the S (c) site and 0.74 (18.5%) at the S (i) site, indicating that, overall, ecological health impairments were evident in the urban reach. Our study was based on multi-level approaches using biological organization and the results suggest that there is a pivotal point of linkage

  12. The New Health-Related Top-Level Domains Are Coming: Will Cureforcancer.health Go to the Highest Bidder?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) opened a new round of applications for generic top-level domain (gTLD) names, receiving 1930 applications, of which at least 18 were related to health (eg, “.doctor”, “.health”, “.med”). The entry of new, commercial players applying to create health-related names reopens the debate on the role of international organizations, governments, non-governmental organizations, and other stakeholders regarding the safeguards and policies needed to protect consumers. PMID:24598704

  13. Mitohormesis: Promoting Health and Lifespan by Increased Levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)

    PubMed Central

    Ristow, Michael; Schmeisser, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS), consisting of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and multiple others, do not only cause oxidative stress, but rather may function as signaling molecules that promote health by preventing or delaying a number of chronic diseases, and ultimately extend lifespan. While high levels of ROS are generally accepted to cause cellular damage and to promote aging, low levels of these may rather improve systemic defense mechanisms by inducing an adaptive response. This concept has been named mitochondrial hormesis or mitohormesis. We here evaluate and summarize more than 500 publications from current literature regarding such ROS-mediated low-dose signaling events, including calorie restriction, hypoxia, temperature stress, and physical activity, as well as signaling events downstream of insulin/IGF-1 receptors, AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK), target-of-rapamycin (TOR), and lastly sirtuins to culminate in control of proteostasis, unfolded protein response (UPR), stem cell maintenance and stress resistance. Additionally, consequences of interfering with such ROS signals by pharmacological or natural compounds are being discussed, concluding that particularly antioxidants are useless or even harmful. PMID:24910588

  14. The influence of active seating on car passengers' perceived comfort and activity levels.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being.

  15. Evaluation of community level interventions to address social and structural determinants of health: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Martin; Hayes, Richard; Moore, Derek; Petticrew, Mark; Clow, Angela; Schmidt, Elena; Draper, Alizon; Lock, Karen; Lynch, Rebecca; Renton, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background In London and the rest of the UK, diseases associated with poor diet, inadequate physical activity and mental illness account for a large proportion of area based health inequality. There is a lack of evidence on interventions promoting healthier behaviours especially in marginalised populations, at a structural or ecological level and utilising a community development approach. The Well London project financed by the Big Lottery 'Wellbeing' Fund and implemented by a consortium of London based agencies led by the Greater London Authority and the London Health Commission is implementing a set of complex interventions across 20 deprived areas of London. The interventions focus on healthy eating, healthy physical activity and mental health and wellbeing and are designed and executed with community participation complementing existing facilities and services. Methods/Design The programme will be evaluated through a cluster randomised controlled trial. Forty areas across London were chosen based on deprivation scores. Areas were characterised by high proportion of Black and Minority Ethnic residents, worklessness, ill-health and poor physical environments. Twenty areas were randomly assigned to the intervention arm of Well London project and twenty 'matched' areas assigned as controls. Measures of physical activity, diet and mental health are collected at start and end of the project and compared to assess impact. The quantitative element will be complemented by a longitudinal qualitative study elucidating pathways of influence between intervention activities and health outcomes. A related element of the study investigates the health-related aspects of the structural and ecological characteristics of the project areas. The project 'process' will also be evaluated. Discussion The size of the project and the fact that the interventions are 'complex' in the sense that firstly, there are a number of interacting components with a wide range of groups and

  16. Mediating role of activity level in the depressive realism effect.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; A Vadillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Several classic studies have concluded that the accuracy of identifying uncontrollable situations depends heavily on depressive mood. Nondepressed participants tend to exhibit an optimistic illusion of control, whereas depressed participants tend to better detect a lack of control. Recently, we suggested that the different activity levels (measured as the probability of responding during a contingency learning task) exhibited by depressed and nondepressed individuals is partly responsible for this effect. The two studies presented in this paper provide further support for this mediational hypothesis, in which mood is the distal cause of the illusion of control operating through activity level, the proximal cause. In Study 1, the probability of responding, P(R), was found to be a mediator variable between the depressive symptoms and the judgments of control. In Study 2, we intervened directly on the mediator variable: The P(R) for both depressed and nondepressed participants was manipulated through instructions. Our results confirm that P(R) manipulation produced differences in the participants' perceptions of uncontrollability. Importantly, the intervention on the mediator variable cancelled the effect of the distal cause; the participants' judgments of control were no longer mood dependent when the P(R) was manipulated. This result supports the hypothesis that the so-called depressive realism effect is actually mediated by the probability of responding.

  17. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (≥5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ≥75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition.

  18. Teaching Occupational Safety and Health at the Secondary and College Level. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter

    The activities in this guide are designed to provide a framework for instruction on safety and health on the job. The guide consists of three chapters. Chapter one introduces the guide, discusses how to use it, and explains the goals and objectives of the course. The second chapter contains detailed learning activities. Chapter three provides an…

  19. [Active teaching-learning methodologies in health education: current debates].

    PubMed

    Mitre, Sandra Minardi; Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Girardi-de-Mendonça, José Márcio; de Morais-Pinto, Neila Maria; Meirelles, Cynthia de Almeida Brandão; Pinto-Porto, Cláudia; Moreira, Tânia; Hoffmann, Leandro Marcial Amaral

    2008-12-01

    The vertiginous transformations of the contemporary societies have been raising questions concerning aspects of professional education. Such questions have been raised in a more and more incisive way. This debate gains a new shape when applied to health work, where theory and practice cannot be dissociated, and where the development of an integral vision of the human being and the amplification of the concept care are essential for a proper performance. Based on these considerations, this article aims to discuss the main methodological transformations in the education process of health professionals, with emphasis to active teaching-learning methodologies.

  20. Parasite zoonoses and wildlife: One Health, spillover and human activity.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R C Andrew

    2013-11-01

    This review examines parasite zoonoses and wildlife in the context of the One Health triad that encompasses humans, domestic animals, wildlife and the changing ecosystems in which they live. Human (anthropogenic) activities influence the flow of all parasite infections within the One Health triad and the nature and impact of resulting spillover events are examined. Examples of spillover from wildlife to humans and/or domestic animals, and vice versa, are discussed, as well as emerging issues, particularly the need for parasite surveillance of wildlife populations. Emphasis is given to Trypanosoma cruzi and related species in Australian wildlife, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Giardia, Baylisascaris, Toxoplasma and Leishmania.

  1. Active and retired public employees' health insurance: potential data sources.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Melinda Sandler

    2014-12-01

    Employer-provided health insurance for public sector workers is a significant public policy issue. Underfunding and the growing costs of benefits may hinder the fiscal solvency of state and local governments. Findings from the private sector may not be applicable because many public sector workers are covered by union contracts or salary schedules and often benefit modifications require changes in legislation. Research has been limited by the difficulty in obtaining sufficiently large and representative data on public sector employees. This article highlights data sources researchers might utilize to investigate topics concerning health insurance for active and retired public sector employees.

  2. Determination of Factors Affecting Physical Activity Status of University Students on a Health Sciences Campus

    PubMed Central

    Dayi, Ayfer; Acikgoz, Ayla; Guvendi, Guven; Bayrak, Levent; Ersoy, Burcu; Gur, Cagri; Ozmen, Omer

    2017-01-01

    Background Upon graduation, students studying in departments related to health will work in the health sector and will guide and enlighten people with their knowledge and behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting the physical activity (PA) conditions of university students on a health sciences campus. Material/Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on 706 students in a Turkish university. The data was obtained from a survey prepared by the researchers. The 26-question survey aimed to discover the students’ socio-demographic characteristics and their awareness and practices concerning PA. Results We found that 30% of the students engage in some type of PA during their university education. A relationship was observed concerning their current PA and their family inactivity levels, as well as between inactivity before entering the university and inactivity during their education. The presence of a chronic disease in family members does not affect student PA. A majority of the students believe PA is beneficial (98.7%), 93.9% believe it relieves stress, and 94.5% believe it helps control body weight. Conclusions Although students of medicine and related disciplines are aware of the importance of proper diet and adequate levels of PA in health, they did not implement theory into practice. Thus, it is questionable how young health professionals will promote the positive effects and necessity of regular physical activity if they do not apply these activities to their own lifestyle. PMID:28103207

  3. Plantar pressures during level walking compared with other ambulatory activities.

    PubMed

    Lundeen, S; Lundquist, K; Cornwall, M W; McPoil, T G

    1994-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the magnitude of plantar pressures during level walking in comparison to other activities. These activities included climbing up stairs, going down stairs, a simple pivot while walking, and a crossover pivot while walking in normal individuals. Twelve volunteers, six men and six women, mean age 28 years, served as subjects. Data were collected on the dominant foot with an EMED-SF pressure sensor platform as each subject walked barefoot and did each of the five activities. Maximum plantar pressure (MPP) and pressure-time integral (PTI) was found in the metatarsal and heel regions. The results of repeated-measures analysis of variance tests showed that the five experimental conditions were statistically different for both MPP and PTI in the metatarsal and heel regions. Post hoc analysis indicated that MPP and PTI were decreased during the going down stairs condition in the heel and increased during the crossover pivot while walking and pivot while walking conditions for the metatarsal region.

  4. National level promotion of physical activity: results from England's ACTIVE for LIFE campaign

    PubMed Central

    Hillsdon, M; Cavill, N; Nanchahal, K; Diamond, A; White, I

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To assess the impact of a national campaign on awareness of the campaign, change in knowledge of physical activity recommendations and self reported physical activity.
DESIGN—three year prospective longitudinal survey using a multi-stage, cluster random probability design to select participants.
SETTING—England.
PARTICIPANTS—A nationally representative sample of 3189 adults aged 16-74 years.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Awareness of the advertising element of the campaign, changes in knowledge of physical activity recommendations for health and self reported physical activity.
RESULTS—38% of participants were aware of the main advertising images, assessed six to eight months after the main television advertisement. The proportion of participants knowledgeable about moderate physical activity recommendations increased by 3.0% (95% CI: 1.4%, 4.5%) between waves 1 and 2 and 3.7% (95% CI: 2.1%, 5.3%) between waves 1 and 3. The change in proportion of active people between baseline and waves 1 and 2 was
−0.02 (95% CI: −2.0 to +1.7) and between waves 1 and 3 was −9.8 (−7.9 to −11.7).
CONCLUSION—The proportion of participants who were knowledgeable about the new recommendations, increased significantly after the campaign. There was however, no significant difference in knowledge by awareness of the main campaign advertisement. There is no evidence that ACTIVE for LIFE improved physical activity, either overall or in any subgroup.


Keywords: exercise; mass media; follow up studies; health promotion; physical activity PMID:11553661

  5. The Effect of Gender and Level of Vision on the Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…

  6. Mental health status can reflect disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sokolovic, Sekib; Dervisevic, Vedina; Fisekovic, Saida

    2014-01-01

    Objective A significant number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) link the start of illness with psychological trauma or severe stress. Impaired mental health (IMH), defined as depression and anxiety with psychoneuroimmunological factors, can play a significant role in RA. The main objective of this research was to investigate the mutual correlation of IMH and RA activity, estimated by the laboratory and clinical parameters in RA patients. Material and Methods An open clinical prospective study that lasted for 6 months was designed. There were 72 patients included, 58 women and 14 men, aged 34 to 80 years and screened for mental health status. The study population was randomized following the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI) scale, comprised of 53 questions with a range from 0 (no symptoms) to 4 (severe). This mental test was done only once during the study. Following the results from the BSI scale, RA patients were divided into mentally stable and mentally unstable patients to investigate the influence of RA activity on mental health. The following laboratory and clinical parameters were analyzed: sex, age, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), rheumatoid factor (RF), C-reactive protein (CRP), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody, and disease activity score (DAS28). All RA patients did not express extra-articular manifestations or Sjögren’s syndrome. The chi-square test, ANOVA, Pearson’s coefficient, and IBM Statistics - SPSS v19 were used. Results From a total of 72 RA patients, there were 44 mentally stable and 28 mentally unstable patients. All patients had either moderate or severe active disease. The only significant correlation of IMH and activity of RA was found in CRP and DAS28, but no significance was observed in ESR, RF, and anti-CCP. The DAS28 showed high disease activity with an average of 5.3 and CRP of 20.9 mg/L in patients with unstable mental health compared to stable mental health patients, where RA was associated with

  7. Serum selenium and lipid levels: Associations observed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Krista; Werner, Mark; Malecki, Kristen

    2015-07-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient, and due to its antioxidant activity, is hypothesized to be beneficial to cardiovascular health. However, the evidence for an association between selenium and health markers such as lipid levels has been mixed. This may be due to substantial variability in the level of selenium intake between populations and potential non-linearity of selenium-health outcome associations. We used the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the relationship between serum selenium and lipid levels among participants aged 12 years and older. Associations were evaluated using both linear regression models, as well as ordinal logistic regression and quantile regression models to allow for potential non-linear relationships. In all models, potential confounders of sex, age group, race/ethnicity, educational attainment and cotinine were included. Overall, 40% of participants had total cholesterol levels classified as borderline or elevated, and total cholesterol increased with increasing selenium (p=0.01). A similar pattern was seen for triglycerides (p=0.02). LDL cholesterol was also associated with selenium but not in a linear fashion; HDL cholesterol did not vary with selenium. Multivariate quantile regression showed significant associations between selenium and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. The effect of selenium was stronger with increasing quantile for total cholesterol and for triglycerides. In contrast, for LDL cholesterol the association was positive in the 10th and 50th percentiles, but (non-significant and) negative in the 90th percentile. These results show that while selenium may impact cardiovascular health via effects on lipid levels, the associations may not be linear.

  8. Mapping of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure levels in outdoor environment and comparing with reference levels for general public health.

    PubMed

    Cansiz, Mustafa; Abbasov, Teymuraz; Kurt, M Bahattin; Celik, A Recai

    2016-11-02

    In this study, radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure levels were measured on the main streets in the city center of Diyarbakır, Turkey. Measured electric field levels were plotted on satellite imagery of Diyarbakır and were compared with exposure guidelines published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Exposure measurements were performed in dense urban, urban and suburban areas each day for 7 consecutive days. The measurement system consisted of high precision and portable spectrum analyzer, three-axis electric field antenna, connection cable and a laptop which was used to record the measurement samples as a data logger. The highest exposure levels were detected for two places, which are called Diclekent and Batıkent. It was observed that the highest instantaneous electric field strength value for Batıkent was 7.18 V/m and for Diclekent was 5.81 V/m. It was statistically determined that the main contributor band to the total exposure levels was Universal Mobile Telecommunications System band. Finally, it was concluded that all measured exposure levels were lower than the reference levels recommended by ICNIRP for general public health.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 2 November 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.64.

  9. Can leisure-time physical activity improve health checkup results? Evidence from Japanese occupational panel data

    PubMed Central

    Oshio, Takashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We examined the extent to which changes in worker health, as measured by health checkup items, were associated with increased intensity of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) after controlling for individual time-invariant attributes. Methods: We used panel data from two to four waves of a Japanese occupational cohort survey, focusing on 30,206 observations of 10,106 individuals (7,669 men and 2,437 women) aged 18-76 years. We estimated first-difference and mean-centered fixed effects models to examine how changes in 10 health checkup items were associated with changes in LTPA intensity. We considered four LTPA intensity levels (none, low, moderate, and vigorous), based on self-reported assessments. Results: For men, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, glycated hemoglobin levels, body mass index, and waist circumference improved when LTPA intensity was increased even at a low level, whereas triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose levels improved when LTPA intensity was increased to moderate or vigorous levels. Blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) and total cholesterol levels were only modestly responsive to changes in LTPA intensity. For women, blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) and waist circumference were negatively associated with LTPA intensity, whereas the other variables showed more modest effects. Conclusions: The results suggest that even low- to moderate-intensity LTPA can improve health checkup results; however, the lowest LTPA intensity associated with improvement in health depends on health-risk factors as well as gender. PMID:27265532

  10. Monitoring progress towards universal health coverage at country and global levels.

    PubMed

    Boerma, Ties; Eozenou, Patrick; Evans, David; Evans, Tim; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Wagstaff, Adam

    2014-09-01

    Universal health coverage (UHC) has been defined as the desired outcome of health system performance whereby all people who need health services (promotion, prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation) receive them, without undue financial hardship. UHC has two interrelated components: the full spectrum of good-quality, essential health services according to need, and protection from financial hardship, including possible impoverishment, due to out-of-pocket payments for health services. Both components should benefit the entire population. This paper summarizes the findings from 13 country case studies and five technical reviews, which were conducted as part of the development of a global framework for monitoring progress towards UHC. The case studies show the relevance and feasibility of focusing UHC monitoring on two discrete components of health system performance: levels of coverage with health services and financial protection, with a focus on equity. These components link directly to the definition of UHC and measure the direct results of strategies and policies for UHC. The studies also show how UHC monitoring can be fully embedded in often existing, regular overall monitoring of health sector progress and performance. Several methodological and practical issues related to the monitoring of coverage of essential health services, financial protection, and equity, are highlighted. Addressing the gaps in the availability and quality of data required for monitoring progress towards UHC is critical in most countries.

  11. Survey of research activity among multidisciplinary health professionals.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Andrea P; Roberts, Shelley; Baker, Mark J; Keijzers, Gerben; Young, Jessica; Stapelberg, N J Chris; Crilly, Julia

    2016-02-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to describe the research activities being undertaken by health service employees within one Australian health service and explore their experiences with undertaking research.Methods The present mixed-methods study was conducted across one health service in Queensland, Australia, and included a cross-sectional online survey and interviews with healthcare service employees. The anonymous survey was a self-administered online questionnaire, distributed to all 6121 employees at the health service via email, asking about research activity and engagement. Willing participants were also interviewed on their perceptions and experiences with research and capacity building.Results In all, 151 participants responded to the survey and 22 participated in interviews. Three-quarters of respondents reported actively participating in research over the past 6 years and several research outputs, such as publications, conference presentations and competitive grant funding, were displayed. Four concepts emerged from interview findings, namely collaborative partnerships, skilled mentorship, embedding research and organisational support, which represented the overall theme 'opportunities for a research-infused health service'.Conclusion Employees of the health service recognised the importance of research and had a range of research skills, knowledge and experience. They also identified several opportunities for building research capacity in this service.What is known about the topic? Building research capacity among healthcare professionals is important for enabling the conduct of high-quality research in healthcare institutions. However, building research capacity is complex and influenced by the uniqueness of organisational context. In order to successfully build research capacity among employees at any health service, current research activity, skills and experience, as well as staff perceptions around building research capacity in that

  12. [Communicative approach of Situational Strategic Planning at the local level: health and equity in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Heredia-Martínez, Henny Luz; Artmann, Elizabeth; Porto, Silvia Marta

    2010-06-01

    The article discusses the results of operationalizing Situational Strategic Planning adapted to the local level in health, considering the communicative approach and equity in a parish in Venezuela. Two innovative criteria were used: estimated health needs and analysis of the actors' potential for participation. The problems identified were compared to the corresponding article on rights in the Venezuelan Constitution. The study measured inequalities using health indicators associated with the selected problems; equity criteria were incorporated into the action proposals and communicative elements. Priority was assigned to the problem of "low case-resolving capacity in the health services network", and five critical points were selected for the action plan, which finally consisted of 6 operations and 21 actions. The article concludes that the combination of epidemiology and planning expands the situational explanation. Incorporation of the communicative approach and the equity dimension into Situational Strategic Planning allows empowering health management and helps decrease the gaps from inequality.

  13. Description of the MHS Health Level 7 Microbiology Laboratory for Public Health Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    database is used extensively by the EDC for a variety of tasks, including daily case finding of reportable diseases, identification of antibiotic...activities at the request of the DODGEIS. The HL7 data source includes records from anatomic pathology , chemistry, microbiology, pharmacy, and radiology...support include case findings of particular diseases (e.g., malaria, meningococcal meningitis, or influenza) and identification of antibiotic resistance

  14. State public health agency expenditures: categorizing and comparing to performance levels.

    PubMed

    Honoré, Peggy A; Schlechte, Tricia

    2007-01-01

    For optimal effectiveness, assessments of public health agency and system performance should include analysis to measure the amount of financial resources consumed to achieve performance levels. This pilot study was conducted to test a methodology in a state health department for comparing financial resources consumed to performance scores in each of the 10 Essential Public Health Services categories. An additional feature was to quantify the percentage of total agency expenditures utilized for administrative functions as well. The allocation of all fiscal year 2004 expenditures to the 10 Essential Public Health Services and administration categories was based on assessments of employee job functions and scope of services performed under agency contracts. Performance scores were obtained through a 2-month process of completing self-assessment surveys with system partners using the National Public Health Performance Standards Program Assessment Instrument. Investigators found no clear consistency between performance scores and agency expenditure levels. Two categories, essential service 5 (develop policies and plans) and essential service 10 (research), did have low performance and low expenditure levels. Overall though, categories with high performance scores consumed low percentages of agency expenditures and expenditure patterns were relatively high in categories with low performance scores. The study did quantify that the percentage of expenditures in the administration category was low compared to previous studies in other health departments. This knowledge was particularly useful for informing policymakers.

  15. The role of social participation in municipal-level health systems: the case of Palencia, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Ruano, Ana Lorena

    2013-01-01

    Background Social participation has been recognized as an important public health policy since the declaration of Alma-Ata presented it as one of the pillars of primary health care in 1978. Since then, there have been many adaptations to the original policy but participation in health is still seen as a means to make the health system more responsive to local health needs and as a way to bring the health sector and the community closer together. Objective To explore the role that social participation has in a municipal-level health system in Guatemala in order to inform future policies and programs. Design Documentary analysis was used to study the context of participation in Guatemala. To do this, written records and accounts of Guatemalan history during the 20th century were reviewed. The fieldwork was carried out over 8 months and three field visits were conducted between early January of 2009 and late March of 2010. A total of 38 in-depth interviews with regional health authorities, district health authorities, community representatives, and community health workers (CHWs) were conducted. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Guatemala's armed civil struggle was framed in the cold war and the fight against communism. Locally, the war was fed by the growing social, political, and ethnic inequalities that existed in the country. The process of reconstructing the country's social fabric started with the signing of the peace agreements of 1996, and continued with the passing of the 2002 legal framework designed to promote decentralization through social participation. Today, Guatemala is a post-war society that is trying to foster participation in a context full of challenges for the population and for the institutions that promote it. In the municipality of Palencia, there are three different spaces for participation in health: the municipal-level health commission, in community-level social development councils, and in the CHW program. Each of these

  16. The role of social participation in municipal-level health systems: the case of Palencia, Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Ruano, Ana Lorena

    2013-01-01

    Background Social participation has been recognized as an important public health policy since the declaration of Alma-Ata presented it as one of the pillars of primary health care in 1978. Since then, there have been many adaptations to the original policy but participation in health is still seen as a means to make the health system more responsive to local health needs and as a way to bring the health sector and the community closer together. Objective To explore the role that social participation has in a municipal-level health system in Guatemala in order to inform future policies and programs. Design Documentary analysis was used to study the context of participation in Guatemala. To do this, written records and accounts of Guatemalan history during the 20th century were reviewed. The fieldwork was carried out over 8 months and three field visits were conducted between early January of 2009 and late March of 2010. A total of 38 in-depth interviews with regional health authorities, district health authorities, community representatives, and community health workers (CHWs) were conducted. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Guatemala's armed civil struggle was framed in the cold war and the fight against communism. Locally, the war was fed by the growing social, political, and ethnic inequalities that existed in the country. The process of reconstructing the country's social fabric started with the signing of the peace agreements of 1996, and continued with the passing of the 2002 legal framework designed to promote decentralization through social participation. Today, Guatemala is a post-war society that is trying to foster participation in a context full of challenges for the population and for the institutions that promote it. In the municipality of Palencia, there are three different spaces for participation in health: the municipal-level health commission, in community-level social development councils, and in the CHW program. Each of these

  17. Access to eye health services among indigenous Australians: an area level analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This project is a community-level study of equity of access to eye health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods The project used data on eye health services from multiple sources including Medicare Australia, inpatient and outpatient data and the National Indigenous Eye Health Survey. The analysis focused on the extent to which access to eye health services varied at an area level according to the proportion of the population that was Indigenous (very low = 0-1.0%, low = 1.1-3.0%, low medium = 3.1-6.0%, high medium = 6.1-10.0%, high = 10.1-20.0%, very high = 20 + %). The analysis of health service utilisation also took into account age, remoteness and the Socioeconomic Indices for Areas (SEIFA). Results The rate of eye exams provided in areas with very high Indigenous populations was two-thirds of the rate of eye exams for areas with very low indigenous populations. The cataract surgery rates in areas with high medium to very high Indigenous populations were less than half that reference areas. In over a third of communities with very high Indigenous populations the cataract surgery rate fell below the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines compared to a cataract surgery rate of 3% in areas with very low Indigenous populations. Conclusions There remain serious disparities in access to eye health service in areas with high Indigenous populations. Addressing disparities requires a co-ordinated approach to improving Indigenous people’s access to eye health services. More extensive take-up of existing Medicare provisions is an important step in this process. Along with improving access to health services, community education concerning the importance of eye health and the effectiveness of treatment might reduce reluctance to seek help. PMID:22998612

  18. A dyadic analysis of relationships and health: does couple-level context condition partner effects?

    PubMed

    Barr, Ashley B; Simons, Ronald L

    2014-08-01

    Adding to the growing literature explicating the links between romantic relationships and health, this study examined how both couple-level characteristics, particularly union type (e.g., dating, cohabiting, or marriage) and interracial pairing, and interpersonal characteristics (e.g., partner strain and support), predicted young adults' physical and mental health. Using dyadic data from a sample of 249 young, primarily Black couples, we hypothesized and found support for the importance of couple-level context, partner behavior, and their interaction in predicting health. Interracial couples (all Black/non-Black pairings) reported worse health than monoracial Black couples. Union type, however, did not directly predict health but was a significant moderator of partner strain. That is, the negative association between partner strain and self-reported health was stronger for cohabiting and married couples versus their dating counterparts, suggesting that coresidence, more so than marital status, may be important for understanding partner effects on physical health. For psychological distress, however, partner support proved equally beneficial across union types.

  19. Idaho Senior Center Activities, Activity Participation Level, and Managers' Perceptions of Activity Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girvan, James T.; Harris, Frances

    A survey completed by managers of 77 senior centers in Idaho revealed that meals, blood pressure screening, and games and trips were the most successful activities offered. Alzheimer's support groups, library books for loan, and exercise classes were the least successful. Possible reasons for the success or failure of these activities were…

  20. Psychosocial Variables Related to Why Women are Less Active than Men and Related Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Elizabeth Skidmore; Sackett, Sarah Carson

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews psychosocial influences on women’s participation in physical activity as they differ from men and how associated activity differences impact women’s risk for a number of chronic diseases. This topic directly aligns with the mission of this special edition related to disparities in women’s health as the typically lower level of physical activity in females directly impacts their health. On average, females participate in physical activity at lower rates than their male counterparts. These lower rates of physical activity are directly related to both incidence of and outcomes from cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and gynecological cancers. The relationship between psychosocial factors that are understood to affect physical activity differs between men and women. Specifically, self-efficacy, social support, and motivation are empirically substantiated factors that found to impact physical activity participation among women differently than men. Understanding these relationships is integral to designing effective interventions to target physical activity participation in women so that the related health risks are adequately addressed. PMID:27398045

  1. Contrasts in active transport behaviour across four countries: How do they translate into public health benefits?

    PubMed Central

    Götschi, Thomas; Tainio, Marko; Maizlish, Neil; Schwanen, Tim; Goodman, Anna; Woodcock, James

    2015-01-01

    Objective Countries and regions vary substantially in transport related physical activity that people gain from walking and cycling and in how this varies by age and gender. This study aims to quantify the population health impacts of differences between four settings. Method The Integrated Transport and Health Model (ITHIM) was used to estimate health impacts from changes to physical activity that would arise if adults in urban areas in England and Wales adopted travel patterns of Switzerland, the Netherlands, and California. The model was parameterised with data from travel surveys from each setting and estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. Two types of scenarios were created, one in which the total travel time budget was assumed to be fixed and one where total travel times varied. Results Substantial population health benefits would accrue if people in England and Wales gained as much transport related physical activity as people in Switzerland or the Netherlands, whilst smaller but still considerable harms would occur if active travel fell to the level seen in California. The benefits from achieving the travel patterns of the high cycling Netherlands or high walking Switzerland were similar. Conclusion Differences between high income countries in how people travel have important implications for population health. PMID:25724106

  2. Corporate colonization of health activism? Irish health advocacy organizations' modes of engagement with pharmaceutical corporations.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, Orla

    2007-01-01

    This article is based on a study that aimed to shed light on the "cultures of action" of Irish health advocacy organizations, and particularly their modes of engagement with pharmaceutical corporations. Debates about what some interpret as the "corporate colonization" of health activism provide the backdrop for the analysis. The empirical dimension of the study involved a survey of 112 organizations and in-depth study of a small number of organizations that manifest diverse modes of engagement with the pharmaceutical industry. The varying modes of interaction are plotted along a continuum and characterized as corporatist, cautious cooperation, and confrontational. Evidence is presented of a strong and growing cultural tendency in Irish health advocacy organizations to frame pharmaceutical corporations as allies in their quests for better health. The analysis of four constitutive dimensions of organizations' cultures of action can reveal the legitimating logics underlying their diverging positions around pharmaceutical industry sponsorship. While the research shows that pharmaceutical corporations have largely succeeded in defining themselves as a philanthropic force and rightful players in Irish health activism, it cautions against a simplistic conclusion that this is evidence of corporate colonization.

  3. Health as a context for social and gender activism: female volunteer health workers in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hoodfar, Homa

    2010-01-01

    Having reversed its pronatalist policies in 1988, the Islamic Republic of Iran implemented one of the most successful family planning programs in the developing world. This achievement, particularly in urban centers, is largely attributable to a large women-led volunteer health worker program for low-income urban neighborhoods. Research in three cities demonstrates that this successful program has had a host of unintended consequences. In a context where citizen mobilization and activism are highly restricted, volunteers have seized this new state-sanctioned space and successfully negotiated many of the familial, cultural, and state restrictions on women. They have expanded their mandate from one focused on health activism into one of social, if not political, activism, highlighting the ways in which citizens blur the boundaries of state and civil society under restrictive political systems prevalent in many of the Middle Eastern societies.

  4. Parents' perceptions of health and physical activity needs of children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sayers Menear, Kristi

    2007-07-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome typically have low fitness levels and obesity despite data that indicate physiological gains from physical activity and exercise interventions. Low fitness levels and obesity in individuals with Down syndrome may be related to sedentary lifestyles, social and recreational opportunities, or low motivation to be physically active. These causal influences on the overall health of individuals with Down syndrome may be related to parental or caregiver support. Through this study, parents of children with Down syndrome from preschool to adolescent ages were interviewed about their perceptions of the health and physical activity needs of their children. Data from four focus groups indicated the following most salient themes: (1) all parents believed participation in physical activity has immediate and long-term positive health impacts on their child with Down syndrome, and most of the parents thought their child would benefit from being more physically active, (2) most parents observed that their child participated in physical activities primarily for social reasons, most notably to be with their peers with or without Down syndrome or to be with their sibling(s), and that without such motivation their child would choose sedentary activities, (3) parents of teenagers identified a need for their child to learn an individual sport to have sporting opportunities that do not require ability-matched teammates and opponents, and (4) parents recognised their need for help from physical activity specialists through either parent education regarding home-based physical activity programmes or an increase in appropriate community-based physical activity programmes for their child with Down syndrome. The interview data suggest future research should evaluate the outcomes of long-term individualised home-based physical activity interventions for children with Down syndrome. Additionally, educators, recreation specialists, and therapists should assist

  5. The influence of health literacy level on an educational intervention to improve glaucoma medication adherence

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Kelly W.; Ventura, Alice; Stinnett, Sandra S.; Enfiedjian, Abraham; Allingham, R. Rand; Lee, Paul P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test an educational intervention targeted to health literacy level with the goal of improving glaucoma medication adherence. Methods One hundred and twenty-seven veterans with glaucoma were randomized to glaucoma education or standard care. The intervention included a video scripted at a 4th, 7th, or 10th grade level, depending on the subject’s literacy level. After six months, the number of days without glaucoma medicine (DWM) according to pharmacy records for the intervention and control groups was compared. Results The number of DWM in the six months following enrollment was similar for control and intervention groups (intervention, n = 67, DWM = 63 ± 198; standard care, n = 60, DWM = 65 ± 198; p = 0.708). For each subgroup of literacy (adequate, marginal, inadequate), subjects in the intervention group experienced less mean DWM than subjects in the control group and the effect size (ES) increased as literacy decreased: adequate literacy, ES 0.069; marginal, ES 0.183, inadequate, ES 0.363. Decreasing health literacy skills were associated with decreasing self-reported satisfaction with care (slope = 0.017, SE = 0.005, p = 0.002). Conclusions Patients with decreased health literacy skills may benefit from educational efforts tailored to address their health literacy level and learning style. Practice implications Providers should consider health literacy skills when engaging in glaucoma education. PMID:22000272

  6. Developing supplemental activities for primary health care maternity services.

    PubMed

    Panitz, E

    1990-12-01

    Supplemental health care activities are described in the context of the augmented product. The potential benefits of supplemental services to recipients and provider are discussed. The author describes a study that was the basis for (re)developing a supplemental maternity service. The implementation of the results in terms of changes in the marketing mix of this supplemental program is discussed. The effects of the marketing mix changes on program participation are presented.

  7. Digital Health: Tracking Physiomes and Activity Using Wearable Biosensors Reveals Useful Health-Related Information

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Gao; Zhou, Wenyu; Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose, Sophia Miryam; Perelman, Dalia; Colbert, Elizabeth; Runge, Ryan; Rego, Shannon; Sonecha, Ria; Datta, Somalee; McLaughlin, Tracey; Snyder, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of portable biosensors allows frequent measurement of health-related physiology. We investigated the use of these devices to monitor human physiological changes during various activities and their role in managing health and diagnosing and analyzing disease. By recording over 250,000 daily measurements for up to 43 individuals, we found personalized circadian differences in physiological parameters, replicating previous physiological findings. Interestingly, we found striking changes in particular environments, such as airline flights (decreased peripheral capillary oxygen saturation [SpO2] and increased radiation exposure). These events are associated with physiological macro-phenotypes such as fatigue, providing a strong association between reduced pressure/oxygen and fatigue on high-altitude flights. Importantly, we combined biosensor information with frequent medical measurements and made two important observations: First, wearable devices were useful in identification of early signs of Lyme disease and inflammatory responses; we used this information to develop a personalized, activity-based normalization framework to identify abnormal physiological signals from longitudinal data for facile disease detection. Second, wearables distinguish physiological differences between insulin-sensitive and -resistant individuals. Overall, these results indicate that portable biosensors provide useful information for monitoring personal activities and physiology and are likely to play an important role in managing health and enabling affordable health care access to groups traditionally limited by socioeconomic class or remote geography. PMID:28081144

  8. Digital Health: Tracking Physiomes and Activity Using Wearable Biosensors Reveals Useful Health-Related Information.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Dunn, Jessilyn; Salins, Denis; Zhou, Gao; Zhou, Wenyu; Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose, Sophia Miryam; Perelman, Dalia; Colbert, Elizabeth; Runge, Ryan; Rego, Shannon; Sonecha, Ria; Datta, Somalee; McLaughlin, Tracey; Snyder, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of portable biosensors allows frequent measurement of health-related physiology. We investigated the use of these devices to monitor human physiological changes during various activities and their role in managing health and diagnosing and analyzing disease. By recording over 250,000 daily measurements for up to 43 individuals, we found personalized circadian differences in physiological parameters, replicating previous physiological findings. Interestingly, we found striking changes in particular environments, such as airline flights (decreased peripheral capillary oxygen saturation [SpO2] and increased radiation exposure). These events are associated with physiological macro-phenotypes such as fatigue, providing a strong association between reduced pressure/oxygen and fatigue on high-altitude flights. Importantly, we combined biosensor information with frequent medical measurements and made two important observations: First, wearable devices were useful in identification of early signs of Lyme disease and inflammatory responses; we used this information to develop a personalized, activity-based normalization framework to identify abnormal physiological signals from longitudinal data for facile disease detection. Second, wearables distinguish physiological differences between insulin-sensitive and -resistant individuals. Overall, these results indicate that portable biosensors provide useful information for monitoring personal activities and physiology and are likely to play an important role in managing health and enabling affordable health care access to groups traditionally limited by socioeconomic class or remote geography.

  9. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during and after closure

  10. Levels of physical activity and predictors of mortality in COPD*

    PubMed Central

    Nyssen, Samantha Maria; dos Santos, Júlia Gianjoppe; Barusso, Marina Sallum; de Oliveira, Antônio Delfino; Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires Di; Jamami, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE) index scores and its individual components between COPD patients with and without severe physical inactivity, as well as to correlate the number of steps/day with scores of physical activity questionnaires, age, and the BODE index (including its components). METHODS: We included 30 patients, who were evaluated for body composition, pulmonary function (FEV1), perception of dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council scale), and exercise capacity (six-minute walk distance [6MWD]). The patients also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), short version, and the modified Baecke questionnaire (mBQ). The level of physical activity was assessed by the number of steps/day (as determined by pedometer), using the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day to form two groups: no severe physical inactivity (SPI−) and severe physical inactivity (SPI+). We used the Mann-Whitney test or t-test, as well as Pearson's or Spearman's correlation tests, in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: In comparison with the SPI− group, the SPI+ group showed more advanced age, higher mBQ scores (leisure domain), lower 6MWD (in m and % of predicted), and lower IPAQ scores (metabolic equivalent-walk/week domain and total). The IPAQ scores showed weak correlations with steps/day (r = 0.399), age (r = −0.459), and 6MWD-in m (r = 0.446) and in % of predicted (r = 0.422). CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day was not sensitive enough to identify differences between the groups when compared with the predictors of mortality. The IPAQ, short version score correlated with steps/day. PMID:24473759

  11. Changes to coral health and metabolic activity under oxygen deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    On Hawaiian reefs, the fast-growing, invasive algae Gracilaria salicornia overgrows coral heads, restricting water flow and light, thereby smothering corals. Field data shows hypoxic conditions (dissolved oxygen (DO2) < 2 mg/L) occurring underneath algal mats at night, and concurrent bleaching and partial tissue loss of shaded corals. To analyze the impact of nighttime oxygen-deprivation on coral health, this study evaluated changes in coral metabolism through the exposure of corals to chronic hypoxic conditions and subsequent analyses of lactate, octopine, alanopine, and strombine dehydrogenase activities, critical enzymes employed through anaerobic respiration. Following treatments, lactate and octopine dehydrogenase activities were found to have no significant response in activities with treatment and time. However, corals subjected to chronic nighttime hypoxia were found to exhibit significant increases in alanopine dehydrogenase activity after three days of exposure and strombine dehydrogenase activity starting after one overnight exposure cycle. These findings provide new insights into coral metabolic shifts in extremely low-oxygen environments and point to ADH and SDH assays as tools for quantifying the impact of hypoxia on coral health. PMID:27114888

  12. Self-reported exertion levels on time/activity diaries: application to exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, M.; Terblanche, A.P.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1991-07-01

    Recent developments in air pollution analysis have focused on methods for collecting data on contaminant levels in the locations actually frequented by people, especially personal monitoring. While there is still much to understand about human exposures, the next advancements will be in the area of dose assessment. This paper discusses the results of a study designed to provide data for linking exposure to dose. Specifically, we used time/activity diaries to collect information on the exertion levels associated with the reported activities. As part of a community health study, 91 children between the ages of 9 and 11 kept diaries over a two-week summer-time period (July 1989) and during a two-week school-time period (September 1989). The diary was also administered for two days to 42 teenagers between the ages of 15 and 17. This paper describes our concerns about interpreting self-reported exertion levels, particularly with respect to the disparity between participant and researcher perception and coding. We then present the distribution of exertion levels associated with children's activities, highlighting seasonal, day-of-week, and age-group differences.

  13. Community level predictors of physical activity among women in the preconception period.

    PubMed

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Sun, Haichun; Flory, Sara B; DeBate, Rita; Daley, Ellen M; Thompson, Erika; Bleck, Jennifer; Merrell, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Although physical activity is a key behavior targeted during the preconception period given its significant impact on pregnancy/birth outcomes and psychological well-being, few women meet national guidelines. While intrapersonal factors influencing physical activity among this population have been studied, community factors remain unexplored. The objective of this study was to examine community level predictors of physical activity among preconception women. Data from Add Health were limited to women (Wave III; age 18-28; n = 7,596) and excluded respondents who were pregnant, physically disabled, and missing data. The outcome variable was ≥5 instances of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in 1 week. Community predictor variables included neighborhood-level structural and social determinants (e.g., socio-demographic composition; landscape diversity; urbanization; access to resources; crime; vehicle availability). Multilevel logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the odds of engaging in ≥5 instances of MVPA. Few women (26 %) reported ≥5 instances of MVPA in 1 week. Adjusted multilevel analysis revealed women in the preconception period were more likely to report high MVPA when living in communities with larger population densities (OR 1.34, 95 % CI 1.02-1.77) and median household income greater than $50,000 (OR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.06-1.66). Additionally, a significant inverse trend was found between high MVPA and proportion of the community without a high school diploma. Findings suggest that neighborhood composition may have an impact on preconception physical activity status. Implications include increased efforts targeting community conditions for facilitating physical activity; ultimately, improving health among women and subsequent offspring.

  14. Relation between self-reported physical activity level, fitness, and cardiometabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Minder, Camille Michael; Shaya, Gabriel E; Michos, Erin D; Keenan, Tanya E; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram; Carvalho, Jose A M; Conceição, Raquel D; Santos, Raul D; Blaha, Michael J

    2014-02-15

    Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with improved cardiovascular health and reduced all-cause mortality. The relation between self-reported physical activity, objective physical fitness, and the association of each with cardiometabolic risk has not been fully described. We studied 2,800 healthy Brazilian subjects referred for an employer-sponsored health screening. Physical activity level was determined as "low," "moderate," or "high" with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: Short Form (IPAQ-SF). Fitness was measured as METs achieved on a maximal, symptom-limited, treadmill stress test. Using multivariate linear regression analysis, we calculated age, gender, and smoking-adjusted correlation coefficients among IPAQ-SF, fitness, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Mean age of study participants was 43 ± 9 years; 81% were men, and 43% were highly active. Mean METs achieved was 12 ± 2. IPAQ-SF category and fitness were moderately correlated (r = 0.377). Compared with IPAQ-SF category, fitness was better correlated with cardiometabolic risk factors including anthropomorphic measurements, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, dyslipidemia, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hepatic steatosis (all p <0.01). Among these, anthropomorphic measurements, blood pressure, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hepatic steatosis had the largest discrepancies in correlation, whereas lipid factors had the least discrepant correlation. When IPAQ-SF and fitness were discordant, poor fitness drove associations with elevated cardiometabolic risk. In conclusion, self-reported physical activity level and directly measured fitness are moderately correlated, and the latter is more strongly associated with a protective cardiovascular risk profile.

  15. Loneliness in elderly individuals, level of dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and influential factors.

    PubMed

    Hacihasanoğlu, Rabia; Yildirim, Arzu; Karakurt, Papatya

    2012-01-01

    This study has been carried out to investigate the level of loneliness, determine the level of dependence in the ADL and influential factors in the elderly people. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 Family Healthcare Centers (FHC) located in central Erzincan, Turkey between March and June 2010. The data of the research was collected using a questionnaire that determined the descriptive and UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). Mean score of the UCLA-LS was determined as 51.59 ± 4.44. It was determined that 2% of the elderly ADL were completely dependent, 14.5% were semi-dependent. Factors such as being old, a widow/divorced, having a lower level of education and/or income, living alone, having a chronic disease, poor self-perceived health, lack of visits by relatives or acquaintances, dissatisfaction with the place of living, and being fully dependent while performing daily activities were determined as factors which increased the level of loneliness. Furthermore, factors such as being old, a female, a widow/divorced, living together with a daughter/son, having a chronic disease and poor self-perceived health were found to be influential in dependency. Elderly people who are alone and dependent in fulfilling their ADL should be monitored more closely.

  16. Minority Youth, Physical Activity, and Fitness Levels: Targeted Interventions Needed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane; Hall, Heather L.; Gutuskey, Lila

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a clear disparity in health in the United States such that African Americans and Hispanics are more likely to suffer from morbidity and mortality related to chronic disease than their Caucasian counterparts. Purpose: We will determine whether fourth- and fifth-grade students' measures of health-related fitness and physical…

  17. Toxic effects of pesticide mixtures at a molecular level: their relevance to human health.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Antonio F; Parrón, Tesifón; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Requena, Mar; Alarcón, Raquel; López-Guarnido, Olga

    2013-05-10

    Pesticides almost always occur in mixtures with other ones. The toxicological effects of low-dose pesticide mixtures on the human health are largely unknown, although there are growing concerns about their safety. The combined toxicological effects of two or more components of a pesticide mixture can take one of three forms: independent, dose addition or interaction. Not all mixtures of pesticides with similar chemical structures produce additive effects; thus, if they act on multiple sites their mixtures may produce different toxic effects. The additive approach also fails when evaluating mixtures that involve a secondary chemical that changes the toxicokinetics of the pesticide as a result of its increased activation or decreased detoxification, which is followed by an enhanced or reduced toxicity, respectively. This review addresses a number of toxicological interactions of pesticide mixtures at a molecular level. Examples of such interactions include the postulated mechanisms for the potentiation of pyrethroid, carbaryl and triazine herbicides toxicity by organophosphates; how the toxicity of some organophosphates can be potentiated by other organophosphates or by previous exposure to organochlorines; the synergism between pyrethroid and carbamate compounds and the antagonism between triazine herbicides and prochloraz. Particular interactions are also addressed, such as those of pesticides acting as endocrine disruptors, the cumulative toxicity of organophosphates and organochlorines resulting in estrogenic effects and the promotion of organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy.

  18. Health Level Seven (HL7): standard for healthcare electronic data transmissions.

    PubMed

    Hettinger, B J; Brazile, R P

    1994-01-01

    The nursing profession needs computer-formatted data that can be exchanged within and between agencies. The exchange of electronic data, both in the United States and in the international community, requires agreement on the format of the data elements to be exchanged. The Health Level Seven (HL7) standard is a proposed voluntary standard for healthcare applications that addresses the way information is exchanged electronically. This brief article will provide background information regarding the development and status of HL7 and its implications for nursing. From the clinical perspective, nurses follow standards of care developed by professional organizations. These standards facilitate clear communication among nurses, consumers, and members of other disciplines. Similarly, the electronic transmission and exchange of clinical information must have a standard to ensure that messages arrive and are decoded correctly. Many standards for electronic data already exist; financial transactions such as banking are familiar examples. The theme of the 1990 Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care (SCAMC), was Standards in Medical Informatics. Many pertinent papers and workshops were presented. However, references to electronic data standards are found primarily in conference proceedings and technical manuals. Thus, although activity is widespread, and events are rapidly moving in the healthcare industry, most of the information is not yet widely available. It seems timely, therefore, to provide background material to nurses in order for them to participate in the process.

  19. Effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health in servicemen.

    PubMed

    Song, Hong-Tao; Sun, Xin-Yang; Yang, Ting-Shu; Zhang, Li-Yi; Yang, Jia-Lin; Bai, Jing

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health and explore the correlations between them in servicemen. A total of 149 out of the 207 Chinese servicemen were randomly selected to go through 24hour sleep deprivation, leaving the rest (58) as the control group, before and after which their blood samples were drawn for cortisol measurement. Following the procedure, all the participants were administered the Military Personnel Mental Disorder Prediction Scale, taking the military norm as baseline. The results revealed that the post-deprivation serum cortisol level was positively correlated with the factor score of mania in the sleep deprivation group (rSp=0.415, p<0.001). Sleep deprivation could significantly increase serum cortisol level and may affect mental health in servicemen. The increase of serum cortisol level is significantly related to mania disorder during sleep deprivation.

  20. Organizational justice and mental health: a multi-level test of justice interactions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ronald; Abubakar, Amina; Arasa, Josephine Nyaboke

    2014-04-01

    We examine main and interaction effects of organizational justice at the individual and the organizational levels on general health in a Kenyan sample. We theoretically differentiate between two different interaction patterns of justice effects: buffering mechanisms based on trust versus intensifying explanations of justice interactions that involve psychological contract violations. Using a two-level hierarchical linear model with responses from 427 employees in 29 organizations, only interpersonal justice at level 1 demonstrated a significant main effect. Interactions between distributive and interpersonal justice at both the individual and the collective levels were found. The intensifying hypothesis was supported: the relationship between distributive justice and mental health problems was strongest when interpersonal justice was high. This contrasts with buffering patterns described in Western samples. We argue that justice interaction patterns shift depending on the economic conditions and sociocultural characteristics of employees studied.

  1. The relationships between urban parks, residents' physical activity, and mental health benefits: A case study from Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongxiao; Li, Feng; Li, Juanyong; Zhang, Yuyang

    2017-04-01

    The role of urban parks in improving public health has been analyzed in the context of urban design in developed countries, but has seldom been considered in developing countries such as China. Previous studies have found positive correlations between parks and residents' physical activity and mental health status. In this study, we conducted a questionnaire survey to investigate respondents' physical activity status and its relationship with urban parks. The impact of different activities engaged in during park use on positive mental health was examined. The average physical activity level of the sample was 92.7 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. Park users were more active in all forms of physical activity, except transport walking, than non-users. The presence of a park within 500 m from home and park use were significantly associated with total physical activity. Physical activity in parks significantly restored visitors' moods and energy levels, and interaction with nature brought mental health benefits in terms of relaxation and self-perceived confidence. Overall, this study found a positive correlation of urban parks with public physical activity and positive mental health benefits. However, further research is needed to improve the understanding of this relationship in the context of China.

  2. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  3. Effects of a Classroom-Based Physical Activity Program on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Tan Leng; Hannon, James; Webster, Collin Andrew; Podlog, Leslie William; Brusseau, Timothy; Newton, Maria

    2014-01-01

    High levels of physical inactivity are evident among many American children. To address this problem, providing physical activity (PA) during the school day within the CSPAP framework, is one strategy to increase children's PA. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a classroom-based PA program on children's PA. Two hundred…

  4. Alternative interpretations of statistics on health effects of low-level radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1983-11-01

    Four examples of the interpretation of statistics of data on low-level radiation are reviewed: (a) genetic effects of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, (b) cancer at Rocky Flats, (c) childhood leukemia and fallout in Utah, and (d) cancer among workers at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. Aggregation of data, adjustment for age, and other problems related to the determination of health effects of low-level radiation are discussed. Troublesome issues related to post hoc analysis are considered.

  5. Effect of Personalized System of Instruction on Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Class Time Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Steven L.; Hannon, James C.; Colquitt, Gavin; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Newton, Maria; Shaw, Janet

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, researchers have identified a general low level of health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge among secondary students that can effect levels of physical activity (PA). An instructional strategy that may increase HRF knowledge without decreasing PA is the personalized system of instruction (PSI). Two classes from a private urban…

  6. Youth-Physical Activity Towards Health: evidence and background to the development of the Y-PATH physical activity intervention for adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite known benefits of regular physical activity for health and well-being, many studies suggest that levels of physical activity in young people are low, and decline dramatically during adolescence. The purpose of the current research was to gather data on adolescent youth in order to inform the development of a targeted physical activity intervention. Methods Cross-sectional data on physical activity levels (using self report and accelerometry), psychological correlates of physical activity, anthropometic characteristics, and the fundamental movement skill proficiency of 256 youth (53% male, 12.40 ± 0.51 years) were collected. A subsample (n = 59) participated in focus group interviews to explore their perceptions of health and identify barriers and motivators to participation in physical activity. Results Findings indicate that the majority of youth (67%) were not accumulating the minimum 60 minutes of physical activity recommended daily for health, and that 99.5% did not achieve the fundamental movement skill proficiency expected for their age. Body mass index data showed that 25% of youth were classified as overweight or obese. Self-efficacy and physical activity attitude scores were significantly different (p < 0.05) between low, moderate and high active participants. Active and inactive youth reported differences in their perceived understanding of health and their barriers to physical activity participation, with active youth relating nutrition, exercise, energy and sports with the definition of ‘being healthy’, and inactive youth attributing primarily nutritional concepts to ‘being healthy’. Conclusions Data show a need for targeting low levels of physical activity in youth through addressing poor health related activity knowledge and low fundamental movement skill proficiency. The Y-PATH intervention was developed in accordance with the present study findings; details of the intervention format are presented. PMID

  7. Development and Application of Health-Based Screening Levels for Use in Water-Quality Assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toccalino, Patricia L.

    2007-01-01

    Health-Based Screening Levels (HBSLs) are non-enforceable water-quality benchmarks that were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and others. HBSLs supplement existing Federal drinking-water standards and guidelines, thereby providing a basis for a more comprehensive evaluation of contaminant-occurrence data in the context of human health. Since the original methodology used to calculate HBSLs for unregulated contaminants was published in 2003, revisions have been made to the HBSL methodology in order to reflect updates to relevant USEPA policies. These revisions allow for the use of the most recent, USEPA peer-reviewed, publicly available human-health toxicity information in the development of HBSLs. This report summarizes the revisions to the HBSL methodology for unregulated contaminants, and updates the guidance on the use of HBSLs for interpreting water-quality data in the context of human health.

  8. Data needs for policy research on state-level health insurance markets.

    PubMed

    Simon, Kosali

    2008-01-01

    Private and public health insurance provision in the United States operates against a backdrop of 50 different regulatory environments in addition to federal rules. Through creative use of available data, a large body of research has contributed to our understanding of public policy in state health insurance markets. This research plays an important role as recent trends suggest states are taking the lead in health care reform. However, several important questions have not been answered due to lack of data. This paper identifies some of these areas, and discusses how the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality could push the research agenda in state health insurance policy further by augmenting the market-level data available to researchers. As states consider new forms of regulation and assistance for their insurance markets, there is increased need for better warehousing and maintenance of policy databases.

  9. Decline of Ambient Air Pollution Levels and Improved Respiratory Health in Swiss Children

    PubMed Central

    Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Grize, Leticia; Gassner, Markus; Takken-Sahli, Kathy; Sennhauser, Felix H.; Neu, Urs; Schindler, Christian; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    The causality of observed associations between air pollution and respiratory health in children is still subject to debate. If reduced air pollution exposure resulted in improved respiratory health of children, this would argue in favor of a causal relation. We investigated whether a rather moderate decline of air pollution levels in the 1990s in Switzerland was associated with a reduction in respiratory symptoms and diseases in school children. In nine Swiss communities, 9,591 children participated in cross-sectional health assessments between 1992 and 2001. Their parents completed identical questionnaires on health status and covariates. We assigned to each child an estimate of regional particles with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 μg/m3 (PM10) and determined change in PM10 since the first survey. Adjusted for socioeconomic, health-related, and indoor factors, declining PM10 was associated in logistic regression models with declining prevalence of chronic cough [odds ratio (OR) per 10-μg/m3 decline = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54–0.79], bronchitis (OR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.55–0.80), common cold (OR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68–0.89), nocturnal dry cough (OR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60–0.83), and conjunctivitis symptoms (OR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70–0.95). Changes in prevalence of sneezing during pollen season, asthma, and hay fever were not associated with the PM10 reduction. Our findings show that the reduction of air pollution exposures contributes to improved respiratory health in children. No threshold of adverse effects of PM10 was apparent because we observed the beneficial effects for relatively small changes of rather moderate air pollution levels. Current air pollution levels in Switzerland still exceed limit values of the Swiss Clean Air Act; thus, children’s health can be improved further. PMID:16263523

  10. Decline of ambient air pollution levels and improved respiratory health in Swiss children.

    PubMed

    Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Grize, Leticia; Gassner, Markus; Takken-Sahli, Kathy; Sennhauser, Felix H; Neu, Urs; Schindler, Christian; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2005-11-01

    The causality of observed associations between air pollution and respiratory health in children is still subject to debate. If reduced air pollution exposure resulted in improved respiratory health of children, this would argue in favor of a causal relation. We investigated whether a rather moderate decline of air pollution levels in the 1990s in Switzerland was associated with a reduction in respiratory symptoms and diseases in school children. In nine Swiss communities, 9,591 children participated in cross-sectional health assessments between 1992 and 2001. Their parents completed identical questionnaires on health status and covariates. We assigned to each child an estimate of regional particles with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 microg/m3 (PM10) and determined change in PM10 since the first survey. Adjusted for socioeconomic, health-related, and indoor factors, declining PM10 was associated in logistic regression models with declining prevalence of chronic cough [odds ratio (OR) per 10-microg/m3 decline = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54-0.79], bronchitis (OR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.55-0.80), common cold (OR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68-0.89), nocturnal dry cough (OR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.83), and conjunctivitis symptoms (OR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95). Changes in prevalence of sneezing during pollen season, asthma, and hay fever were not associated with the PM10 reduction. Our findings show that the reduction of air pollution exposures contributes to improved respiratory health in children. No threshold of adverse effects of PM10 was apparent because we observed the beneficial effects for relatively small changes of rather moderate air pollution levels. Current air pollution levels in Switzerland still exceed limit values of the Swiss Clean Air Act; thus, children's health can be improved further.

  11. Motivation of human resources for health: a case study at rural district level in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Zinnen, Véronique; Paul, Elisabeth; Mwisongo, Aziza; Nyato, Daniel; Robert, Annie

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of studies explore the association between financial and non-financial incentives and the retention of health workers in developing countries. This study aims to contribute to empirical evidence on human resource for health motivation factors to assist policy makers in promoting effective and realistic interventions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four rural Tanzanian districts to explore staff stability and health workers' motivation. Data were collected using qualitative and quantitative techniques, covering all levels and types of health facilities. Stability of staff was found to be quite high. Public institutions remained very attractive with better job security, salary and retirement benefits. Satisfaction over working conditions was very low owing to inadequate working equipment, work overload, lack of services, difficult environment, favouritism and 'empty promotions'. Positive incentives mentioned were support for career development and supportive supervision. Attracting new staff in rural areas appeared to be more difficult than retaining staff in place. The study concluded that strategies to better motivate health personnel should focus on adequate remuneration, positive working and living environment and supportive management. However, by multiplying health facilities, the latest Tanzanian human resource for health plan could jeopardize current positive results.

  12. Organizational health and the achievement level of students in science at the secondary-level schools in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakkeer-Jaufar, Pakkeer Cadermohideen

    This study sought to identify those organizational health factors that might have overriding influence on the achievement level of students in science in Sri Lankan secondary schools. This study involved 752 students, 33 science teachers, and 10 principals from two different districts, Ampara and Colombo, in Sri Lanka. Ten Tamil medium, secondary level, public schools were selected to participate in this study. Data were collected using four types of instruments: a questionnaire for pupils; interview schedules for science teachers and principals; checklists for classroom/school facilities, science laboratory facilities, and science practicals; and a science achievement test. The analysis focused on the collective perceptions of students, science teachers, and principals. Regression and path analyses were used as major analysis techniques, and the qualitative data provided by science teachers and principals were considered for a crosschecking of the quantitative inferences. The researcher found teacher affiliation, academic emphasis, and instructional leadership of the principal, in descending order, were the overriding influential factors on the achievement level of students in science in Sri Lankan secondary schools. At the same time a similar descending order was found in their mean values and qualities. The researcher concluded that increasing the quality of the organizational health factors in Sri Lankan secondary schools would result in improved better achievement in science. The findings further indicate that instructional leadership of the principal had both direct and indirect effects on students' achievement in science when academic emphasis and teacher affiliation were taken into account. In addition, the resource support of the principal did not make any difference in students' science achievement and the findings stress the availability of the resources for individual students instead of assuming the general facilities of the school are available to all

  13. English Language and Skills Training for Entry-Level Health Care Jobs. Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Elma

    The guide describes a vocational English-as-a-Second-Language program for pre-employment training of Southeast Asians seeking work in entry-level health care jobs. The program was conducted in cooperation with a hospital in Massachusetts. The guide describes the program and its four instructional units in detail, and includes lesson plans,…

  14. A National Study of the Association between Food Environments and County-Level Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, Melissa; Brown, Cheryl; Dukas, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This national, county-level study examines the relationship between food availability and access, and health outcomes (mortality, diabetes, and obesity rates) in both metro and non-metro areas. Methods: This is a secondary, cross-sectional analysis using Food Environment Atlas and CDC data. Linear regression models estimate relationships…

  15. Multi-Level Partnerships Support a Comprehensive Faith-Based Health Promotion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardison-Moody, Annie; Dunn, Carolyn; Hall, David; Jones, Lorelei; Newkirk, Jimmy; Thomas, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role of multi-level partnerships in implementing Faithful Families Eating Smart and Moving More, a faith-based health promotion program that works with low-resource faith communities in North Carolina. This program incorporates a nine-lesson individual behavior change program in concert with policy and environmental…

  16. Impact of the Level of State Tax Code Progressivity on Children's Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granruth, Laura Brierton; Shields, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    This research study examines the impact of the level of state tax code progressivity on selected children's health outcomes. Specifically, it examines the degree to which a state's tax code ranking along the progressive-regressive continuum relates to percentage of low birthweight babies, infant and child mortality rates, and percentage of…

  17. Levels of empathy in undergraduate emergency health, nursing, and midwifery students: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Brett; Brown, Ted; Boyle, Malcolm; McKenna, Lisa; Palermo, Claire; Etherington, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This research examines the extent and nature of empathy among emergency health (paramedic), nursing, and midwifery students at one Australian university and investigates the longitudinal changes in empathy levels across the course of study. Methods First-, second-, and third-year students at Monash University completed the Jefferson Scale of Empathy–Health Professional (JSE-HP) in 2008, 2009, and 2010, and the resulting mean empathy scores were analyzed by course, year of course, year of study, age, and sex. Results Midwifery students were found to have higher empathy levels than nursing and emergency health students. Second- and third-year students scored higher than their counterparts in the first year. Empathy levels dipped in 2009 and rose in 2010. Students aged 26–30 years and 31–35 years recorded higher scores than their younger colleagues, and female students were found to be more empathic than their male counterparts. Conclusion The finding that empathy levels are relatively stable over the term of study contributes to the understanding of how empathy evolves over the course of study and offers insights into the importance of incorporating and promoting empathy in health care curricula. PMID:25246815

  18. 78 FR 54655 - Center for Devices and Radiological Health: Draft Standard Operating Procedure for Level 1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health: Draft Standard Operating Procedure for Level 1, Immediately in Effect Guidance Documents on Premarket Data Issues; Availability and Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; request...

  19. Implementing a Diversity-Orientated Online Graduate-Level Health Professions Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savard, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This case describes the strategies implemented in the development of an online Master's degree program in Health Professions Education (HPE) and an online short, Master's level diploma program. The strategies presented pertain to three of the main challenges identified: program cohesiveness, a multidisciplinary approach, and information technology…

  20. Development of Level of Institutionalization Scales for Health Promotion Programs [and] Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Robert M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Responses from 322 (71%) health promotion program administrators tested a level of institutionalization scale. Results support four factors for routinization of program in each subsystem (production, maintenance, support, management) and four on degree of program saturation in subsystems. Routinization correlated more highly with program…

  1. Physical activity and self-reported health status among adolescents: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Galán, I; Boix, R; Medrano, M J; Ramos, P; Rivera, F; Pastor-Barriuso, R; Moreno, C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the dose–response relationship between physical activity and health benefits among young people. Our objective was to analyse the association between the frequency of undertaking moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the self-reported health status of the adolescent population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting All regions of Spain. Participants Students aged 11–18 years participating in the Spanish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey 2006. A total of 375 schools and 21 188 students were selected. Main outcomes The frequency of undertaking MVPA was measured by a questionnaire, with the following four health indicators: self-rated health, health complaints, satisfaction with life and health-related quality of life. Linear and logistic regression models were used to analyse the association, adjusting for potential confounding variables and the modelling of the dose–response relationship. Results As the frequency of MVPA increased, the association with health benefits was stronger. A linear trend (p<0.05) was found for self-rated health and health complaints in males and females and for satisfaction with life among females; for health-related quality of life this relationship was quadratic for both sexes (p<0.05). For self-reported health and health complaints, the effect was found to be of greater magnitude in males than in females and, in all scales, the benefits were observed from the lowest frequencies of MVPA, especially in males. Conclusions A protective effect of MVPA was found in both sexes for the four health indicators studied, and this activity had a gradient effect. Among males, health benefits were detected from very low levels of physical activity and the magnitude of the relationship was greater than that for females. PMID:23676798

  2. Characteristics of Smokers from a National Sample Who Engaged in Any Physical Activity: Implications for Cardiovascular Health Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Freda; Lenhart, Clare M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tobacco is a major cause of cardiovascular disease, and current treatments lack long-term efficacy. Promoting physical activity may be a viable population-level approach to improving cardiovascular health among smokers. Purpose: To characterize smokers engaging in any physical activity based on demographics, quitting behaviors, health…

  3. Physical Activity, Dietary Habits and Overall Health in Overweight and Obese Children and Youth with Intellectual Disability or Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckson, Erica A.; Dickinson, Annette; Water, Tineke; Sands, Madeleine; Penman, Lara

    2013-01-01

    In children and youth with disability, the risk of obesity is higher and is associated with lower levels of physical activity, inappropriate eating behaviors, and chronic health conditions. We determined the effectiveness of a program in managing weight, through changes in physical activity and nutrition behaviors in overweight and obese New…

  4. Possible links between extreme levels of space weather changes and human health state in middle latitudes: direct and indirect indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaraly-Oghlu Babayev, Elchin

    The Sun is the main driver of space weather. The possibility that solar activity variations and related changes in the Earth's magnetosphere can affect human life and health has been debated for many decades. This problem is being studied extensively in the late 20th and early 21st centuries and it is still being contradictory in some cases. The relations between space weather changes and the human health have global implications, but they are especially significant for habitants living at high geomagnetic latitudes where the geomagnetic disturbances have larger amplitudes. Nevertheless, the relevant researches are also important for humans living at any geomagnetic latitudes with different levels of geomagnetic activity; recent researches show that weak geomagnetic disturbances can also have adverse effects. Unfortunately, limited comparison of results of investigations on possible effects to humans from geomagnetic activity exists between studies conducted in high, middle and low latitudes. Knowledge about the relationship between solar and geomagnetic activity and the human health would allow to get better prepared beforehand for any future geomagnetic event and its impacts anywhere. For these purposes there are conducted collaborative (jointly with scientists from Israel, Bulgaria, Russia and Belgium) and cross-disciplinary space weather studies in the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences for revealing possible effects of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray variability on certain technological, biological and ecological systems in different phases of solar cycle 23. This paper describes some recently obtained results of the complex (theoretical, experimental and statistical) studies of influence of the periodical and aperiodical changes of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray activities upon human cardio-health state as well as human physiological and psycho-emotional state. It also covers the conclusions of studies on influence of violent solar events and severe

  5. Targeting Reductions in Sitting Time to Increase Physical Activity and Improve Health.

    PubMed

    Keadle, Sarah K; Conroy, David E; Buman, Matthew P; Dunstan, David W; Matthews, Charles E

    2017-03-08

    New evidence suggests that reductions in sedentary behavior may increase physical activity and improve health. These findings point to new behavioral targets for intervention and new ways to think about intervening to increase overall physical activity in the population. This report provides a knowledge update reflecting the rapid accumulation of new evidence related to sedentary behavior and health among adults. Recent observational studies suggest that leveraging the time-inverse relationship between sedentary and active behaviors by replacing sitting with standing, light or moderate-intensity activity can have important health benefits, particularly among less active adults. Clinical studies are providing evidence of the probable physiologic mechanisms underlying these associations, as well as insights into the cardiometabolic impact of breaking up and reducing sedentary behavior. In contrast to the well-established behavioral theories that guide the development and dissemination of evidence-based interventions to increase moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA), much less is known about how to reduce sedentary time in order to increase daily activities. It has become clear that the environmental, social and individual level-determinants for sedentary time are distinct from those linked to the adoption and maintenance of MVPA. As a result, novel intervention strategies that focus on sitting and lower intensity activities by leveraging the surrounding environment (e.g., workplace, school, home) as well as individual-level cues and habits of sedentary behavior are being tested to increase the potency of interventions designed to increase overall physical activity. Herein we summarize the solutions-oriented research across the behavioral research framework, with a focus on highlighting areas of synergy across disciplines and identifying gaps for future research.

  6. The prioritization of environment, safety, and health activities

    SciTech Connect

    Otway, H.; Puckett, J.M.; von Winterfeldt, D.

    1991-09-01

    Federal facilities, including the national laboratories, must bring existing operations into compliance with environment, safety, and health (ES H) regulations while restoring sites of past operations to conform with today's more rigorous standards. The need for ES H resources is increasing while overall budgets are decreasing, and the resulting staffing and financial constraints often make it impossible to carry out all necessary activities simultaneously. This stimulated interest in formal methods to prioritize ES H activities. We describe the development of an approach called MAPP (Multi-Attribute Prioritization Process), which features expert judgment, user values, and intensive user participation in the system design process. We present results of its application to the prioritization of 41 ES H activities having a total cost of over $25 million. We conclude that the insights gained from user participation in the design process and the formal prioritization results are probably of comparable value. 19 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Spatialising the contentious politics of ADHD: networks and scalar strategies in health social movement activism.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Claire

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores the spatial dynamics of health social movement activism in the context of a specific condition, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Deploying qualitative research conducted with Irish ADHD organisations, it examines how place and space affect activist networks and the dilemmas that emerge when local 'mobilisations' converge at national and transnational levels. ADHD activism in Ireland has been predominantly localist in orientation, but certain organisations have shifted their activism to the European scale as a means of gaining further political and epistemic recognition for the condition. The paper suggests that health social movement studies would benefit from an engagement with the geographies of inter-scalar relations in analysing organisations׳ action repertoires.

  8. Activating Lay Health Influencers to Promote Tobacco Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Muramoto, Myra L.; Hall, John R.; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Aickin, Mikel; Connolly, Tim; Matthews, Eva; Campbell, Jean Z.; Lando, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effect of tobacco cessation brief-intervention (BI) training for lay “health influencers,” on knowledge, self-efficacy and the proportion of participants reporting BI delivery post-training. Methods Randomized, community-based study comparing In-person or Web-based training, with mailed materials. Results In-person and Web-training groups had significant post-training cessation knowledge and self-efficacy gains. All groups increased the proportion of individuals reporting BIs at follow-up, with no significant between-group differences. Irrespective of participants’ prior intervention experience, 80–86% reported BIs within the past 90 days; 71–79% reported ≥1 in the past 30. Conclusions Web and In-person training significantly increase health influencer cessation knowledge and self-efficacy. With minimal prompting and materials, even persons without BI experience can be activated to encourage tobacco cessation. PMID:24636035

  9. Active Commuting Behaviors in a Nordic Metropolitan Setting in Relation to Modality, Gender, and Health Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Stigell, Erik; Schantz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting between home and place of work or study is often cited as an interesting source of physical activity in a public health perspective. However, knowledge about these behaviors is meager. This was therefore studied in adult active commuters (n = 1872) in Greater Stockholm, Sweden, a Nordic metropolitan setting. They received questionnaires and individually adjusted maps to draw their normal commuting route. Three different modality groups were identified in men and women: single-mode cyclists and pedestrians (those who only cycle or walk, respectively) and dual-mode commuters (those who alternately walk or cycle). Some gender differences were observed in trip distances, frequencies, and velocities. A large majority of the commuting trip durations met the minimum health recommendation of at least 10-minute-long activity bouts. The median single-mode pedestrians and dual-mode commuters met or were close to the recommended weekly physical activity levels of at least 150 minutes most of the year, whereas the single-mode cyclists did so only during spring–mid-fall. A high total number of trips per year (range of medians: 231–389) adds to the value in a health perspective. To fully grasp active commuting behaviors in future studies, both walking and cycling should be assessed over different seasons and ideally over the whole year. PMID:26690193

  10. A Relationship Between Microbial Activity in Soils and Phosphate Levels in Tributaries to Lake Champlain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larose, R.; Lee, S.; Lane, T.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Champlain is a large natural freshwater lake. It forms the western boundary of Vermont and drains over half of the state. It is bordered by the state of New York on its western side and drains to the north into Quebec, Canada. Lake Champlain is the source of fresh drinking water for over quarter of a million people and provides for the livelihoods and recreational opportunities of many well beyond its borders. The health of this lake is important. During the summer month's algae blooms plague the lake. These unsightly growths, which affect other aquatic organisms, are the result of excess phosphate flowing into the lake from many sources. Examining whether there is a relationship between microbial activity in the soils bordering tributaries to Lake Champlain and phosphate levels in those tributaries sheds insight into the origins and paths by which phosphate moves into Lake Champlain. Understanding the how phosphate moves into the water system may assist in mitigation efforts.Total Phosphate levels and Total Suspended Solids were measured in second and third order streams in the Lake Champlain Basin over a three-year period. In addition microbial activity was measured within the toe, bank and upland riparian zone areas of these streams during the summer months. In general in areas showing greater microbial activity in the soil(s) there were increased levels of phosphate in the streams.

  11. Physical Activity and Fitness for Health and Longevity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paffenbarger, Ralph S., Jr.; Lee, I-Min

    1996-01-01

    Presents data from recent studies on exercise and fitness as they influence the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results show that individuals who have or adopt higher physical activity and fitness levels lower the risk of CVD, live longer, and improve their quality of life. (SM)

  12. Mental Health Levels and Incidence of Musculoskeletal Complaints among Speed Boat Crew Members

    PubMed Central

    Zigheimat, Farzaneh; Ebadi, Abbas; Rahmati Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Malakoti, Mohammad; Kheiri Tootkaleh, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    Background The occupational health is an important issue. In some jobs, the working conditions contribute to musculoskeletal complaints and the overall health of the individual is compromised. Musculoskeletal complaints have gained credence in the public as one of the most important problems in the field of occupational diseases. Physical and mental health of crew members with critical jobs and stressful environments must be considered as well. Objectives This study performed an assessment on levels of mental health and the correlation with the frequency of accompanying musculoskeletal complaints (such as neck, back and knee pain) of crew members of speed boats. Material and Methods 149 onboard crew members of speed boats were recruited in a descriptive-correlation study by nonrandom sampling using conducted GHQ12, NMQ and demographic questionnaires. Results Although 63.8% (95 people) had what is conventionally defined as normal mental health, 36.2% (54 cases) had an inherent mental health condition. Overall, 61.1% (91 cases) suffered from back pain, 60.4% (90 cases) complained of knee pain, and 40.3% (60 patients) complained of neck pain. The combination of knee and back pain (48.3%) were the most common complaints whereas the combination of neck and knee pain (31.5%) were the least frequent; 28.2% complained of pain in all three areas. Interestingly, there was correlation between the presence of musculoskeletal complaints and less than optimum mental health. Conclusions Due to the high number of musculoskeletal complaints and the compromised mental health conditions among one-third of the onboard crew members of speed boats, attention for maintaining and improving the health of these members must be considered. PMID:24350130

  13. Effects of curricular activity on students' situational motivation and physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students'situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve students in grades 7-9 participated in three activities (cardiovascular fitness, ultimate football, and Dance Dance Revolution [DDR]) in physical education. ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers were used to measure students' PA levels for three classes for each activity. Students also completed a Situational Motivation Scale (Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, 2000) at the end of each class. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that students spent significantly higher percentages of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in fitness and football classes than they did in DDR class. Students reported higher lM and IR toward fitness than DDR They also scored higher in IR toward fitness than football. In contrast, students displayed significantly lower AM toward fitness than football and DDR Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that IM was the only positive predictor for time in MVPA (p = .02), whereas AM was the negative predictor (p < .01). The findings are discussed in regard to the implications for educational practice.

  14. Millimeter-Wave Measurements of High Level and Low Level Activity Glass Melts

    SciTech Connect

    Woskov, Paul P.; Sundaram, S.K.; Daniel, William E., Jr.

    2006-06-01

    The primary objectives of the current research is to develop on-line sensors for characterizing molten glass in high-level and low-activity waste glass melters using millimeter-wave (MMW) technology and to use this technology to do novel research of melt dynamics. Existing and planned waste glass melters lack sophisticated diagnostics due to the hot, corrosive, and radioactive melter environments. Without process control diagnostics, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at Hanford operate by a feed forward process control scheme that relies on predictive models with large uncertainties. This scheme severely limits production throughput and waste loading. Also operations at DWPF have shown susceptibility to anomalies such as pouring, foaming, and combustion gas build up, which can seriously disrupt operations. Future waste chemistries will be even more challenging. The scientific goals of this project are to develop new reliable on-line monitoring capability for important glass process parameters such as temperature profiles, emissivity, density, viscosity, and other characteristics using the unique advantages of millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation that can be eventually implemented in the operating melters. Once successfully developed and implemented, significant cost savings would be realized in melter operations by increasing production through put, reduced storage volumes (through higher waste loading), and reduced risks (prevention or mitigation of anomalies).

  15. Are self-reported physical activity levels associated with perceived desirability of activity-friendly communities?

    PubMed

    Librett, John J; Yore, Michelle M; Schmid, Thomas L; Kohl, Harold W

    2007-09-01

    People living in activity-friendly communities (AFCs) are more active but the self-selection influence is unknown. From 4856 respondents we explored mediating variables with expressed desire to live in AFCs. Association with desire to live in AFCs included ages 18-24 years (odds ratio [OR]=1.9), African American (OR=1.9) or Hispanic (OR=1.5), and believing AFCs would support activity-based transportation (OR=2.4). Regular physical activity (PA) was marginally associated with desire to live in AFCs (OR=1.3). These findings suggest that PA may be a significant factor in communities of this style. Strategies for social marketing along with changes to the built environment to increase PA levels are discussed.

  16. Virome analysis of antiretroviral-treated HIV patients shows no correlation between T-cell activation and anelloviruses levels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Da Costa, Antonio Charlys; Bruhn, Roberta; Deeks, Steven G.; Delwart, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background Abnormally high levels of T-cell activation can persist in HIV-infected subjects despite effective anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and has been associated with negative health outcomes. The nature of the antigenic drivers or other causes of this residual T-cell activation remain uncertain. Anelloviruses are universally acquired soon after birth, resulting in persistent viremia, and considered part of the commensal human virome. Reduced immunocompetence results in increased anellovirus levels. Objectives To test whether increased levels of anelloviruses or other viruses in plasma are associated with higher levels of persistent T-cell activation during ART. Study design Two amplification methods combined with next generation sequencing were used to detect all viruses and estimate relative anellovirus levels in plasma from 19 adults on effective ART who exhibited a wide range of T-cell activation levels. Results Nucleic acids from HBV and HCV were detected in one patient each while pegivirus A (GBV-C) was found in three patients. Anellovirus DNA was detected in all patients with some individuals carrying up to eight different genotypes. Specific anellovirus genotypes or higher level of co-infections were not detected in subjects with higher levels of T-cell activation. No association was detected between relative plasma anellovirus DNA levels and the percentage of activated CD4 or CD8 T cells. Conclusions Human anelloviruses were detected in all HIV suppressed subjects, exhibited a wide range of viremia levels, and were genetically highly diverse. The level of persistent T-cell activation was not correlated with the level of viremia or genotypes present indicating that anellovirus antigens are unlikely to be a dominant source of antigens driving chronic T-cell activation. PMID:26479202

  17. Adolescent Sleep Duration, Variability, and Peak Levels of Achievement and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Fuligni, Andrew J; Arruda, Erin H; Krull, Jennifer L; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2017-01-27

    To inform public health recommendations for adolescent sleep, the amounts of sleep associated with the highest levels of academic achievement and mental health were examined. The degree to which daily variability in sleep duration represents an underappreciated but functionally significant sleep behavior also was tested. A total of 421 adolescents (Mage  = 15.03 years) with Mexican-American backgrounds reported nightly sleep times for 2 weeks; approximately 80% repeated the same protocol 1 year later. Multilevel modeling indicated that the amount of sleep associated with the lowest levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms was more than 1 hr greater than the amount associated with the highest levels of academic performance. Greater daily variability in sleep duration predicted greater symptomatology and mixed academic outcomes.

  18. The Desired Learning Outcomes of School-Based Nutrition/Physical Activity Health Education: A Health Literacy Constructed Delphi Survey of Finnish Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormshaw, Michael James; Kokko, Sami Petteri; Villberg, Jari; Kannas, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to utilise the collective opinion of a group of Finnish experts to identify the most important learning outcomes of secondary-level school-based health education, in the specific domains of physical activity and nutrition. Design/ Methodology/ Approach: The study uses a Delphi survey technique to collect the…

  19. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  20. Healthy Universities: current activity and future directions--findings and reflections from a national-level qualitative research study.

    PubMed

    Dooris, Mark; Doherty, Sharon

    2010-09-01

    This qualitative study used questionnaires to scope and explore 'healthy universities' activity taking place within English higher education institutions (HEIs). The findings revealed a wealth of health-related activity and confirmed growing interest in the healthy universities approach--reflecting an increasing recognition that investment for health within the sector will contribute not only to health targets but also to mainstream agendas such as staff and student recruitment, experience and retention; and institutional and societal productivity and sustainability. However, they also suggested that, while there is growing understanding of the need for a comprehensive whole system approach to improving health within higher education settings, there are a number of very real challenges--including a lack of rigorous evaluation, the difficulty of integrating health into a 'non-health' sector and the complexity of securing sustainable cultural change. Noting that health and well-being remain largely marginal to the core mission and organization of higher education, the article goes on to reflect on the wider implications for future research and policy at national and international levels. Within England, whereas there are Healthy Schools and Healthy Further Education Programmes, there is as yet no government-endorsed programme for universities. Similarly, at an international level, there has been no systematic investment in higher education mirroring the comprehensive and multifaceted Health Promoting Schools Programme. Key issues highlighted are: securing funding for evaluative research within and across HEIs to enable the development of a more robust evidence base for the approach; advocating for an English National Healthy Higher Education Programme that can help to build consistency across the entire spectrum of education; and exploring with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) the feasibility

  1. Past, Present, and Future of eHealth and mHealth Research to Improve Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Müller, Andre M; Short, Camille E; Hingle, Melanie; Nathan, Nicole; Williams, Susan L; Lopez, Michael L; Parekh, Sanjoti; Maher, Carol A

    2016-03-01

    Because physical inactivity and unhealthy diets are highly prevalent, there is a need for cost-effective interventions that can reach large populations. Electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) solutions have shown promising outcomes and have expanded rapidly in the past decade. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the evidence for the use of eHealth and mHealth in improving physical activity and nutrition behaviors in general and special populations. The role of theory in eHealth and mHealth interventions is addressed, as are methodological issues. Key recommendations for future research in the field of eHealth and mHealth are provided.

  2. Empathy levels among health professional students: a cross-sectional study at two universities in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Brett; Brown, Ted; McKenna, Lisa; Boyle, Malcolm J; Palermo, Claire; Nestel, Debra; Brightwell, Richard; McCall, Louise; Russo, Verity

    2014-01-01

    Background Empathy is paramount in the health care setting, optimizing communication and rapport with patients. Recent empirical evidence suggests that empathy is associated with improved clinical outcomes. Therefore, given the importance of empathy in the health care setting, gaining a better understanding of students’ attitudes and self-reported empathy is important. The objective of this study was to examine self-reported empathy levels of students enrolled in different health disciplines from two large Australian universities. Materials and methods A total of 1,111 students from two different universities enrolled in eight different health professions were administered the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy – Health Profession Students version, a 20-item 7-point Likert scale questionnaire to evaluate self-reported empathy levels. Results A total of 1,111 students participated in this study. The majority of participants were from Monash University (n=771), with 340 students from Edith Cowan University. No statistically significant differences were found between universities: Monash University (mean 110.1, standard deviation [SD] 11.8); Edith Cowan University (mean 109.2, SD 13.3, P=0.306). The mean female empathy score (mean 110.8, SD 11.7) was significantly higher than the mean male score (mean 105.3, SD 13.5; P<0.0001; d=0.44). Paramedic students had significantly lower empathy scores (mean 106.3, SD 12.73) than all other participants except nursing students (P<0.0001). Conclusion Results relating to sex are reflective of previous studies. There is some discrepancy in results relating to empathy and its incline/decline as students progress through a program. Further study is warranted to explore why there are variations in empathy levels in students of different health disciplines. PMID:24833947

  3. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis for national-level priority-setting in the health sector

    PubMed Central

    Hutubessy, Raymond; Chisholm, Dan; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres

    2003-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is potentially an important aid to public health decision-making but, with some notable exceptions, its use and impact at the level of individual countries is limited. A number of potential reasons may account for this, among them technical shortcomings associated with the generation of current economic evidence, political expediency, social preferences and systemic barriers to implementation. As a form of sectoral CEA, Generalized CEA sets out to overcome a number of these barriers to the appropriate use of cost-effectiveness information at the regional and country level. Its application via WHO-CHOICE provides a new economic evidence base, as well as underlying methodological developments, concerning the cost-effectiveness of a range of health interventions for leading causes of, and risk factors for, disease. The estimated sub-regional costs and effects of different interventions provided by WHO-CHOICE can readily be tailored to the specific context of individual countries, for example by adjustment to the quantity and unit prices of intervention inputs (costs) or the coverage, efficacy and adherence rates of interventions (effectiveness). The potential usefulness of this information for health policy and planning is in assessing if current intervention strategies represent an efficient use of scarce resources, and which of the potential additional interventions that are not yet implemented, or not implemented fully, should be given priority on the grounds of cost-effectiveness. Health policy-makers and programme managers can use results from WHO-CHOICE as a valuable input into the planning and prioritization of services at national level, as well as a starting point for additional analyses of the trade-off between the efficiency of interventions in producing health and their impact on other key outcomes such as reducing inequalities and improving the health of the poor. PMID:14687420

  4. Levels and potential health risk of heavy metals in marketed vegetables in Zhejiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Ping-Gu; Jiang, Xian-Gen

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyzed 5785 vegetables for concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni and Hg, and estimated the health risk to local consumers by deterministic (point estimates) approaches. Levels of elements varied in different vegetables. Average levels of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Hg and Pb were 0.013, 0.017, 0.057, 0.002, 0.094 and 0.034 mg/kg (fresh weight), respectively. The samples with 0.25% for Cd and 1.56% for Pb were exceeding the maximum allowable concentrations (MACs) set by the Chinese Health Ministry. No obvious regular geographical distribution for these metals in vegetables was found in areas of Zhejiang, China. The mean and 97.5 percentile levels of heavy metal and metalloid were used to present the mean and high exposure assessment. The health indices (HIs) were less than the threshold of 1 both in mean and high exposure assessment. It indicates that for the general people there is very low health risk to As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni and Hg by vegetable intake. PMID:26831758

  5. Levels and potential health risk of heavy metals in marketed vegetables in Zhejiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Ping-Gu; Jiang, Xian-Gen

    2016-02-01

    The present study analyzed 5785 vegetables for concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni and Hg, and estimated the health risk to local consumers by deterministic (point estimates) approaches. Levels of elements varied in different vegetables. Average levels of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Hg and Pb were 0.013, 0.017, 0.057, 0.002, 0.094 and 0.034 mg/kg (fresh weight), respectively. The samples with 0.25% for Cd and 1.56% for Pb were exceeding the maximum allowable concentrations (MACs) set by the Chinese Health Ministry. No obvious regular geographical distribution for these metals in vegetables was found in areas of Zhejiang, China. The mean and 97.5 percentile levels of heavy metal and metalloid were used to present the mean and high exposure assessment. The health indices (HIs) were less than the threshold of 1 both in mean and high exposure assessment. It indicates that for the general people there is very low health risk to As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni and Hg by vegetable intake.

  6. Postgraduation Activities: All Degree Levels in Pennsylvania, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donny, William F.

    The employment of graduates of all degree levels in Pennsylvania institutions of higher education was assessed in 1980, based on data for 48,162 graduates, or 54.3 percent of the graduates at all degree levels. Attention was directed to the proportions of graduates in each degree field and level: (1) employed in their fields of preparation, (2)…

  7. Stress hormone levels in a freshwater turtle from sites differing in human activity

    PubMed Central

    Polich, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone (CORT), commonly serve as a measure of stress levels in vertebrate populations. These hormones have been implicated in regulation of feeding behaviour, locomotor activity, body mass, lipid metabolism and other crucial behaviours and physiological processes. Thus, understanding how glucocorticoids fluctuate seasonally and in response to specific stressors can yield insight into organismal health and the overall health of populations. I compared circulating CORT concentrations between two similar populations of painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, which differed primarily in the level of exposure to human recreational activities. I measured basal CORT concentrations as well as the CORT stress response and did not find any substantive difference between the two populations. This similarity may indicate that painted turtles are not stressed by the presence of humans during the nesting season. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of CORT concentrations in freshwater reptiles, a group that is historically under-represented in studies of circulating hormone concentrations; specifically, studies that seek to use circulating concentrations of stress hormones, such as CORT, as a measure of the effect of human activities on wild populations. They also give insight into how these species as a whole may respond to human recreational activities during crucial life-history stages, such as the nesting season. Although there was no discernable difference between circulating CORT concentrations between the urban and rural populations studied, I did find a significant difference in circulating CORT concentrations between male and female C. picta. This important finding provides better understanding of the sex differences between male and female painted turtles and adds to our understanding of this species and other species of freshwater turtle. PMID:27293763

  8. Health Behavior Theory in Physical Activity Game Apps: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Victor BA; MacDonald, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity games developed for a mobile phone platform are becoming increasingly popular, yet little is known about their content or inclusion of health behavior theory (HBT). Objective The objective of our study was to quantify elements of HBT in physical activity games developed for mobile phones and to assess the relationship between theoretical constructs and various app features. Methods We conducted an analysis of exercise and physical activity game apps in the Apple App Store in the fall of 2014. A total of 52 apps were identified and rated for inclusion of health behavior theoretical constructs using an established theory-based rubric. Each app was coded for 100 theoretical items, containing 5 questions for 20 different constructs. Possible total theory scores ranged from 0 to 100. Descriptive statistics and Spearman correlations were used to describe the HBT score and association with selected app features, respectively. Results The average HBT score in the sample was 14.98 out of 100. One outlier, SuperBetter, scored higher than the other apps with a score of 76. Goal setting, self-monitoring, and self-reward were the most-reported constructs found in the sample. There was no association between either app price and theory score (P=.5074), or number of gamification elements and theory score (P=.5010). However, Superbetter, with the highest HBT score, was also the most expensive app. Conclusions There are few content analyses of serious games for health, but a comparison between these findings and previous content analyses of non-game health apps indicates that physical activity mobile phone games demonstrate higher levels of behavior theory. The most common theoretical constructs found in this sample are known to be efficacious elements in physical activity interventions. It is unclear, however, whether app designers consciously design physical activity mobile phone games with specific constructs in mind; it may be that games lend

  9. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  10. Impact of the 1980 BEIR-III report on low-level radiation risk assessment, radiation protection guides, and public health policy

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-06-01

    The author deals with the scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides, and this effect on evaluation of societal activities concerned with the health effects in human populations exposed to low-level radiation. Methodology is discussed for estimating risks of radio-induced cancer and genetically related ill-health in man, the sources of data, the dose-response models used, and the precision ascribed to the process. (PSB)

  11. Activity monitoring using a mHealth device and correlations with psychopathology in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seunghwan; Yeom, Chan-Woo; Shin, Cheolmin; Shin, Jae-Hyun; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Jung Uk; Lee, Young Ryeol

    2016-12-30

    There are few studies of mobile-Health (mHealth) device application with schizophrenic patients. We aimed to quantitatively assess patient's activity and the relationship between their physical activity and the severity of their psychopathologies. Then we attempted to identify the patients who required intervention and evaluated the feasibility of using the mHealth device. A total of 61 of the 76 available hospitalized patients with chronic schizophrenia who participated in the activity programs were enrolled. They wore a mHealth device for a week to assess their activity (steps/day). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was completed by the subjects. As a result, the positive subscale of the PANSS and the positive and negative factors of the PANSS 5-factor structure showed a predictive value for low levels of physical activity. The group of subjects with a high total PANSS score had a significantly lower level of physical activity than the other groups. In conclusion, physical activity showed a significant association with positive symptoms as well as negative symptoms. The mHealth device showed relatively good feasibility for schizophrenic patients. We should pay more attention to the activity of patients with high PANSS scores.

  12. Diet and physical activity for children's health: a qualitative study of Nepalese mothers’ perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Oli, Natalia; Vaidya, Abhinav; Subedi, Madhusudan; Eiben, Gabriele; Krettek, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Non-communicable diseases account for 50% of all deaths in Nepal and 25% result from cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies in Nepal indicate a high burden of behavioural cardiovascular risk factors, suggesting a low level of knowledge, attitude and practice/behaviour regarding cardiovascular health. The behavioural foundation for a healthy lifestyle begins in early childhood, when mothers play a key role in their children's lives. This qualitative study, conducted in a Nepalese peri-urban community, aimed to explore mothers’ perception of their children's diet and physical activity. Design We notated, tape-recorded and transcribed all data collected from six focus group discussions, and used qualitative content analysis for evaluation and interpretation. Setting The study was conducted in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site in the Bhaktapur district of Nepal. Participants Local health workers helped recruit 61 women with children aged 5–10 years. We distributed participants among six different groups according to educational status. Results Although participants understood the importance of healthy food, they misunderstood its composition, perceiving it as unappetising and appropriate only for sick people. Furthermore, participants did not prioritise their children's physical activities. Moreover, mothers believed they had limited control over their children's dietary habits and physical activity. Finally, they opined that health educational programmes would help mothers and recommended various intervention strategies to increase knowledge regarding a healthy lifestyle. Conclusions Our data reveal that mothers of young children in a peri-urban community of Nepal lack adequate and accurate understanding about the impact of a healthy diet and physical activity. Therefore, to prevent future cardiovascular disease and other non-communicable diseases among children, Nepal needs health education programmes to improve mothers

  13. A Survey of Physical Activity Levels of Certified Athletic Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuppett, Marchell; Latin, Richard W.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the physical activities of certified athletic trainers (ATCs), both at work and at leisure. Survey data indicated that those who worked in clinical versus school settings had the highest mean total activity score. Females scored significantly higher than males. The mean total index activity of the over-36-years-old group was…

  14. Health Impact of Elevated Levels of Lead Encountered in the Manufacture of Crystal Glass.

    PubMed

    Bilban, Marjan

    2015-12-01

    Lead is known to cause harmful effects in the haematopoietic, nervous, digestive, renal, and other organ systems, inhibiting a number of enzymes in the biosynthesis of haem, as well as other enzymes with haematological significance. Our study involved 151 employees involved with the cutting of crystal, i.e. leaded glass, who had been found using eco-monitoring to have been exposed to above normal levels of lead. Our bio-monitoring process followed the values of lead, delta-ALAD and EPP.The highest level of lead detected was 276 µg/L, the lowest level of delta-ALAD was 99 nkat/L), and the highest level of EPP was 14.2 nmol/gHb). We had found that contrary to expectations, lead levels were not correlated to haemoglobin levels, or to gender or age, but were instead based only on the post of the employee and their time spent working at the glassworks. The levels of haematopoiesis were directly proportional to the levels of lead, however, the correlation was not statistically significant or had perhaps been masked by the exposure due to the employee's post and gender. We had also found a significant correlation of lead levels to the levels of renal function. The study had indicated some health impacts of lead on the exposed glass workers, but also at least partly diverged from the results of previous studies, prompting us to continue our research.

  15. The impact of perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity on mental health among older adults.

    PubMed

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this study. Structural equation modeling using LISREL 8.71 was performed to assess the effects of stress, support, and physical activity on mental health. The findings indicate that perceived stress predicted higher levels of depression, social support predicted lower levels of loneliness and fatigue, and physical activity predicted lower levels of fatigue among older adults. Social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health, except depression. In conclusion, the relative impacts of perceived stress, social support, and physical activity on types of mental health (e.g., fatigue, loneliness, and depression) were different. Furthermore, stress had direct and indirect effects on each construct of mental health (e.g., fatigue, loneliness, and depression).

  16. Low-level exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: health effects and research needs.

    PubMed

    Repacholi, M H

    1998-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), and the German and Austrian Governments jointly sponsored an international seminar in November of 1996 on the biological effects of low-level radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. For purposes of this seminar, RF fields having frequencies only in the range of about 10 MHz to 300 GHz were considered. This is one of a series of scientific review seminars held under the International Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Project to identify any health hazards from EMF exposure. The scientific literature was reviewed during the seminar and expert working groups formed to provide a status report on possible health effects from exposure to low-level RF fields and identify gaps in knowledge requiring more research to improve health risk assessments. It was concluded that, although hazards from exposure to high-level (thermal) RF fields were established, no known health hazards were associated with exposure to RF sources emitting fields too low to cause a significant temperature rise in tissue. Biological effects from low-level RF exposure were identified needing replication and further study. These included in vitro studies of cell kinetics and proliferation effects, effects on genes, signal transduction effects and alterations in membrane structure and function, and biophysical and biochemical mechanisms for RF field effects. In vivo studies should focus on the potential for cancer promotion, co-promotion and progression, as well as possible synergistic, genotoxic, immunological, and carcinogenic effects associated with chronic low-level RF exposure. Research is needed to determine whether low-level RF exposure causes DNA damage or influences central nervous system function, melatonin synthesis, permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB), or reaction to neurotropic drugs. Reported RF-induced changes to eye structure and function should also be investigated

  17. Team-level flexibility, work-home spillover, and health behavior.

    PubMed

    Moen, Phyllis; Fan, Wen; Kelly, Erin L

    2013-05-01

    Drawing on two waves of survey data conducted six months apart in 2006, this study examined the impacts of a team-level flexibility initiative (ROWE--results only work environment) on changes in the work-home spillover and health behavior of employees at the Midwest headquarters of a large U.S. corporation. Using cluster analysis, we identified three distinct baseline spillover constellations: employees with high negative spillover, high positive spillover, and low overall spillover. Within-team spillover measures were highly intercorrelated, suggesting that work teams as well as individuals have identifiable patterns of spillover. Multilevel analyses showed ROWE reduced individual- and team-level negative work-home spillover but not positive work-home spillover or spillover from home-to-work. ROWE also promoted employees' health behaviors: increasing the odds of quitting smoking, decreasing smoking frequency, and promoting perceptions of adequate time for healthy meals. Trends suggest that ROWE also decreased the odds of excessive drinking and improved sleep adequacy and exercise frequency. Some health behavior effects were mediated via reduced individual-level negative work-home spillover (exercise frequency, adequate time for sleep) and reduced team-level negative work-home spillover (smoking frequency, exercise frequency, and adequate time for sleep). While we found no moderating effects of gender, ROWE especially improved the exercise frequency of singles and reduced the smoking frequency of employees with low overall spillover at baseline.

  18. Team-level flexibility, work–home spillover, and health behavior

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Phyllis; Fan, Wen; Kelly, Erin L.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on two waves of survey data conducted six months apart in 2006, this study examined the impacts of a team-level flexibility initiative (ROWE – Results Only Work Environment) on changes in the work-home spillover and health behavior of employees at the Midwest headquarters of a large US corporation. Using cluster analysis, we identified three distinct baseline spillover constellations: employees with high negative spillover, high positive spillover, and low overall spillover. Within-team spillover measures were highly intercorrelated, suggesting that work teams as well as individuals have identifiable patterns of spillover. Multilevel analyses showed ROWE reduced individual- and team-level negative work-home spillover but not positive work-home spillover or spillover from home-to-work. ROWE also promoted employees’ health behaviors: increasing the odds of quitting smoking, decreasing smoking frequency, and promoting perceptions of adequate time for healthy meals. Trends suggest that ROWE also decreased the odds of excessive drinking and improved sleep adequacy and exercise frequency. Some health behavior effects were mediated via reduced individual-level negative work-home spillover (exercise frequency, adequate time for sleep) and reduced team-level negative work-home spillover (smoking frequency, exercise frequency, and adequate time for sleep). While we found no moderating effects of gender, ROWE especially improved the exercise frequency of singles and reduced the smoking frequency of employees with low overall spillover at baseline. PMID:23517706

  19. Chill activation of compatible solute transporters in Corynebacterium glutamicum at the level of transport activity.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Nuran; Krämer, Reinhard; Morbach, Susanne

    2005-07-01

    The gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum harbors four osmoregulated secondary uptake systems for compatible solutes, BetP, EctP, LcoP, and ProP. When reconstituted in proteoliposomes, BetP was shown to sense hyperosmotic conditions via the increase in luminal K(+) and to respond by instant activation. To study further putative ways of stimulus perception and signal transduction, we have investigated the responses of EctP, LcoP, and BetP, all belonging to the betaine-carnitine-choline transporter family, to chill stress at the level of activity. When fully activated by hyperosmotic stress, they showed the expected increase of activity at increasing temperature. In the absence of osmotic stress, EctP was not activated by chill and LcoP to only a very low extent, whereas BetP was significantly stimulated at low temperature. BetP was maximally activated at 10 degrees C, reaching the same transport rate as that observed under hyperosmotic conditions at this temperature. A role of cytoplasmic K(+) in chill-dependent activation of BetP was ruled out, since (i) the cytoplasmic K(+) concentration did not change significantly at lower temperatures and (ii) a mutant BetP lacking the C-terminal 25 amino acids, which was previously shown to have lost the ability to be activated by luminal K(+), was fully competent in chill sensing. When heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, BetP did not respond to chill stress. This may indicate that the membrane in which BetP is inserted plays an important role in chill activation and thus in signal transduction by BetP, different from the previously established K(+)-mediated process.

  20. Physical activity counseling in primary care: Insights from public health and behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Shuval, Kerem; Leonard, Tammy; Drope, Jeffrey; Katz, David L; Patel, Alpa V; Maitin-Shepard, Melissa; Amir, On; Grinstein, Amir

    2017-02-15

    Physical inactivity has reached epidemic proportions in modern society. Abundant evidence points to a causal link between physical inactivity and increased risk for numerous noncommunicable diseases, such as some types of cancer and heart disease, as well as premature mortality. Yet, despite this overwhelming evidence, many individuals do not meet the recommended amount of physical activity required to achieve maximum health benefits. Because primary care physicians' advice is highly regarded, clinicians have the unique opportunity to play an important role in enabling patients to modify their behavior at the point of care with the goal of guiding patients to adopt and maintain an active lifestyle. In the current study, the authors evaluate pertinent literature from the fields of medicine/public health and economics/psychology to suggest a comprehensive approach to physical activity counseling at the primary care level. They first examine the public health approach to physical activity counseling, and then proceed to offer insights from behavioral economics, an emerging field that combines principles from psychology and economics. The application of key behavioral economics tools (eg, precommitment contracts, framing) to physical activity counseling in primary care is elaborated. CA Cancer J Clin 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  1. Effects of a Physical Education Intervention to Improve Student Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairclough, Stuart J.; Stratton, Gareth

    2006-01-01

    Background: School physical education is available to most young people and provides a structured context for physical activity participation. Regular physical activity during childhood can confer acute and long-term health benefits. From this health perspective one of the goals of physical education is for students to take part in appropriate…

  2. An elevated level of physical activity is associated with normal lipoprotein(a) levels in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Aparicio, Daniel; Rojas, Edward; Peñaranda, Lianny; Finol, Freddy; Acosta, Luis; Mengual, Edgardo; Rojas, Joselyn; Arráiz, Nailet; Toledo, Alexandra; Colmenares, Carlos; Urribarí, Jesica; Sanchez, Wireynis; Pineda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Dalia; Faria, Judith; Añez, Roberto; Cano, Raquel; Cano, Clímaco; Sorell, Luis; Velasco, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death worldwide. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in which concentrations are genetically regulated. Contradictory results have been published about physical activity influence on Lp(a) concentration. This research aimed to determine associations between different physical activity levels and Lp(a) concentration. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was made in 1340 randomly selected subjects (males = 598; females = 712) to whom a complete clinical history, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Lp(a) level determination were made. Statistical analysis was carried out to assess qualitative variables relationship by chi2 and differences between means by one-way analysis of variance considering a P value <0.05 as statistically significant. Results are shown as absolute frequencies, percentages, and mean +/- standard deviation according to case. Physical activity levels were ordinal classified as follows: low activity with 24.3% (n = 318), moderate activity with 35.0% (n = 458), and high physical activity with 40.8% (n = 534). Lp(a) concentration in the studied sample was 26.28 +/- 12.64 (IC: 25.59-26.96) mg/dL. Lp(a) concentration according to low, moderate, and high physical activity levels were 29.22 +/- 13.74, 26.27 +/- 12.91, and 24.53 +/- 11.35 mg/dL, respectively, observing statistically significant differences between low and moderate level (P = 0.004) and low and high level (P < 0.001). A strong association (chi2 = 9.771; P = 0.002) was observed among a high physical activity level and a normal concentration of Lp(a) (less than 30 mg/dL). A lifestyle characterized by high physical activity is associated with normal Lp(a) levels.

  3. Food protection activities of the Pan American Health Organization.

    PubMed

    1994-03-01

    One of the most widespread health problems in the Caribbean and Latin America is contaminated food and foodborne illness. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has been a major force in activities to strengthen food protection. The program within the regional Program of Technical Cooperation is administered by the Veterinary Public Health program and under the guidance of the Pan American Institute for Food protection and Zoonoses in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A food action plan for 1986-90 was established at the 1986 Pan American Sanitary Conference, and extended to cover 1991-95. Program activities during the 1990s covered cholera, epidemiologic surveillance, street food vendors, shellfish poisoning, meat, national programs, information systems, air catering, food irradiation, and tourism. The action plan for 1991-95 promoted greater political support and cooperation within and between related sectors and institutions, management, and education. The aims were to organize national integrated programs, to strengthen laboratory services, to strengthen inspection services, to establish epidemiologic surveillance systems, and to promote food protection through community participation. Program activities included the initiatives of the Veterinary Public Health Program in 1991 to distribute literature on the transmission of cholera by foods. Studies were conducted in Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru on food contamination. Microbiologists received training on standard methods for detecting Vibrio cholerae in foods. A working group of experts from 10 countries examined the issues and produced a guide for investigating the incidence of foodborne disease. PAHO has contributed to the formation of an Inter-American Network for Epidemiologic Surveillance of Foodborne Diseases. PAHO has worked to improve hygienic practices among street food vendors. Seminars on paralytic shellfish poisoning were conducted in 1990; the outcome was a network working to strengthen national

  4. Evaluation of the Physical Activity and Public Health Course for Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Brown, David R.; Pearce, Emily; Camplain, Ricky; Jernigan, Jan; Epping, Jacqueline; Shepard, Dennis M.; Dorn, Joan M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: From 1996 to 2013, a 6-day Physical Activity and Public Health Course for Practitioners has been offered yearly in the United States. An evaluation was conducted to assess the impact of the course on building public health capacity for physical activity and on shaping the physical activity and public health careers of fellows since taking…

  5. Spatial Relationship Quantification between Environmental, Socioeconomic and Health Data at Different Geographic Levels

    PubMed Central

    Saib, Mahdi-Salim; Caudeville, Julien; Carre, Florence; Ganry, Olivier; Trugeon, Alain; Cicolella, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Spatial health inequalities have often been analyzed in terms of socioeconomic and environmental factors. The present study aimed to evaluate spatial relationships between spatial data collected at different spatial scales. The approach was illustrated using health outcomes (mortality attributable to cancer) initially aggregated to the county level, district socioeconomic covariates, and exposure data modeled on a regular grid. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) was used to quantify spatial relationships. The strongest associations were found when low deprivation was associated with lower lip, oral cavity and pharynx cancer mortality and when low environmental pollution was associated with low pleural cancer mortality. However, applying this approach to other areas or to other causes of death or with other indicators requires continuous exploratory analysis to assess the role of the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) and downscaling the health data on the study of the relationship, which will allow decision-makers to develop interventions where they are most needed. PMID:24705362

  6. Financial strain is associated with increased oxidative stress levels: the Women's Health and Aging Studies.

    PubMed

    Palta, Priya; Szanton, Sarah L; Semba, Richard D; Thorpe, Roland J; Varadhan, Ravi; Fried, Linda P

    2015-01-01

    Elevated oxidative stress levels may be one mechanism